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Sample records for environment queensland australia

  1. Hydrochemistry, mineralogy and sulfur isotope geochemistry of acid mine drainage at the Mt. Morgan mine environment, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edraki, M.; Golding, S.D.; Baublys, K.A.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Mineralogical, hydrochemical and S isotope data were used to constrain hydrogeochemical processes that produce acid mine drainage from sulfidic waste at the historic Mount Morgan Au-Cu mine, and the factors controlling the concentration of SO 4 and environmentally hazardous metals in the nearby Dee River in Queensland, Australia. Some highly contaminated acid waters, with metal contents up to hundreds of orders of magnitude greater than the Australia-New Zealand environmental standards, by-pass the water management system at the site and drain into the adjacent Dee River. Mine drainage precipitates at Mt. Morgan were classified into 4 major groups and were identified as hydrous sulfates and hydroxides of Fe and Al with various contents of other metals. These minerals contain adsorbed or mineralogically bound metals that are released into the water system after rainfall events. Sulfate in open pit water and collection sumps generally has a narrow range of S isotope compositions (δ 34 S = 1.8-3.7%o) that is comparable to the orebody sulfides and makes S isotopes useful for tracing SO 4 back to its source. The higher δ 34 S values for No. 2 Mill Diesel sump may be attributed to a difference in the source. Dissolved SO 4 in the river above the mine influence and 20 km downstream show distinctive heavier isotope compositions (δ 34 S = 5.4-6.8%o). The Dee River downstream of the mine is enriched in 34 S (δ 34 S = 2.8-5.4%o) compared with mine drainage possibly as a result of bacterial SO 4 reduction in the weir pools, and in the water bodies within the river channel. The SO 4 and metals attenuate downstream by a combination of dilution with the receiving waters, SO 4 reduction, and the precipitation of Fe and Al sulfates and hydroxides. It is suggested here that in subtropical Queensland, with distinct wet and dry seasons, temporary reducing environments in the river play an important role in S isotope systematics

  2. Evaluation of implementation of a healthy food and drink supply strategy throughout the whole school environment in Queensland state schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, M; Lee, A; Bright, M; Turner, K; Edwards, R; Dawson, J; Miller, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of the Smart Choices healthy food and drink supply strategy for Queensland schools (Smart Choices) implementation across the whole school environment in state government primary and secondary schools in Queensland, Australia. Three concurrent surveys using different methods for each group of stakeholders that targeted all 1275 school Principals, all 1258 Parent and Citizens' Associations (P&Cs) and a random sample of 526 tuckshop convenors throughout Queensland. Nine hundred and seventy-three Principals, 598 P&Cs and 513 tuckshop convenors participated with response rates of 78%, 48% and 98%, respectively. Nearly all Principals (97%), P&Cs (99%) and tuckshop convenors (97%) reported that their school tuckshop had implemented Smart Choices. The majority of Principals and P&Cs reported implementation, respectively, in: school breakfast programs (98 and 92%); vending machine stock (94 and 83%); vending machine advertising (85 and 84%); school events (87 and 88%); school sporting events (81 and 80%); sponsorship and advertising (93 and 84%); fundraising events (80 and 84%); and sporting clubs (73 and 75%). Implementation in curriculum activities, classroom rewards and class parties was reported, respectively, by 97%, 86% and 75% of Principals. Respondents also reported very high levels of understanding of Smart Choices and engagement of the school community. The results demonstrated that food supply interventions to promote nutrition across all domains of the school environment can be implemented successfully.

  3. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shilu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years, ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research.

  4. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  5. An abattoir survey of equine dental abnormalities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkangsadarn, T; Wilson, G J; Greer, R M; Pollitt, C C; Bird, P S

    2015-06-01

    A cadaver study to estimate the prevalence of dental disorders in horses presented at an abattoir in Queensland, Australia. Cadaver heads at a Queensland abattoir were examined for the presence of dental abnormalities and categorised into age groups. The prevalence of abnormalities was analysed by binomial observation of observed proportion, Pearson's Chi-square test or Fisher's exact correlation test. Strength of association was evaluated using Cramer's V test. Heads from horses (n=400) estimated to be between 1 and 30 years of age were placed into four age groups. The most common abnormalities were sharp enamel points (55.3%) and hooks (43%). The highest frequency of dental diseases and abnormalities were in horses 11-15 years old (97.5%). Common abnormalities were found in all groups and the prevalence increased with age. This study suggests that all horses should have regular complete dental examinations to detect and treat dental disorders in order to limit more severe dental pathologies later in life. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 5. Doctor-artists in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-11-17

    The contributions of Australian doctors to the visual arts are being described in a series of six articles. Work from doctors in New South Wales and Victoria has been covered previously. Now activities in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory are presented.

  7. Leptospirosis following a major flood in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J K G; Young, M M; Wilson, K L; Craig, S B

    2013-03-01

    Throughout December 2010 and January 2011, Queensland experienced widespread flooding due to unusually protracted and heavy rainfalls. In mid-January 2011, four individuals from a small community in Central Queensland were hospitalized with leptospirosis. A further five cases were subsequently identified from around Central Queensland, bringing the total to nine. Microscopic agglutination testing found that serovar Arborea (Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea) was presumptively responsible for leptospirosis in seven of nine confirmed cases. Serovars Hardjo and Australis were identified in samples from two remaining cases. All cases had exposure to flood water. No single exposure source was identified. This is the first reported outbreak of leptospirosis in Central Queensland and the first report of leptospirosis cases associated with flood water inundation in Queensland. Public health authorities should continue to promote awareness of leptospirosis in flood-affected populations. Healthcare providers must maintain a high level of suspicion for leptospirosis during and after flood events.

  8. Tuberculosis in Far North Queensland, Australia: a retrospective clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Malcolm; Weston, Jana; Mullen, Annette; Knight, Trevor; Simpson, Graham

    2018-06-05

    Compared with global numbers, Australia has enjoyed relatively good tuberculosis control over the last thirty years with an annual incidence of 5.7 per 100,000 population. 1 Thanks to its unique geography and proximity to high-burden countries, such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), Far North Queensland (FNQ) has previously been shown to have higher rates of tuberculosis compared with both the state and national average. 2,3 AIMS: Document tuberculosis epidemiology in FNQ with comparison to two previous audits of the region. Retrospective clinical audit of all cases of tuberculosis notified to the Cairns Tuberculosis Control Unit between 2006 and 2016. 453 cases were identified, 374 with microbiological/histological confirmation. There were 312 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis; 155 extra-pulmonary; and 21 disseminated. Three-quarters (327/453) were identified in the overseas-born population. Of the remaining 126 cases, 40 were Torres Strait Islander and 19 Aboriginal Australians. Where drug susceptibility was known, two-thirds (247/368) were fully sensitive; 42 mono-resistant; 78 multidrug-resistant; and one extensively drug resistant. Rates of HIV co-infection were less than three percent (10/362). Tuberculosis remains a significant problem in FNQ. Case numbers have increased three-fold since the 1990s. Much of the increase comes from the overseas-born population. Although PNG accounts for the majority, the number of positive notifications amongst those born elsewhere abroad has increased five-fold since 2010. Tuberculosis amongst Aboriginal Australians has decreased following policy changes in response previous audits. Tuberculosis in Torres Strait residents, however, has increased from 12 cases (1993-2002) to 40 (2006-2016). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiotherapists' Beliefs About Whiplash-associated Disorder: A Comparison Between Singapore and Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze Siong; Pedler, Ashley; Vicenzino, Bill; Sterling, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Healthcare providers' beliefs may play a role in the outcome of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), a condition which is proposed to be culturally dependent. Clinical practice guidelines recommend an active approach for the management of WAD, which is often delivered by physiotherapists. However, there is no data on physiotherapists' whiplash beliefs. Our primary objective was to determine physiotherapists' beliefs from Queensland (Australia) and Singapore, two cultures with differing prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain and chronic WAD. A pen and paper survey of musculoskeletal physiotherapists practicing in Queensland and Singapore was conducted. Participants completed questionnaires consisting of patient vignettes and statements inquiring knowledge and attitudes towards WAD. Chi-square tests of significance were used to compare the responses of physiotherapists from both samples. Ninety-one (response rate 45%) Queensland-based and 94 (response rate 98%) Singapore-based physiotherapists participated in the study. The beliefs in the management strategies for the patient vignettes were generally consistent with practice guidelines. A higher proportion of Queensland-based physiotherapists expected permanent disabilities for the patient vignette depicting chronic WAD (Queensland: 55% Singapore: 28% Pearson chi-sq 18.76, p Queensland and Singapore were similar but there were specific differences. Physiotherapists' whiplash beliefs in Queensland and Singapore did not clearly reflect the difference in prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain or chronic WAD in Queensland and Singapore. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  11. Babies born before arrival to hospital and maternity unit closures in Queensland and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildea, Sue; McGhie, Alexandra C; Gao, Yu; Rumbold, Alice; Rolfe, Margaret

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests the closure of maternity units is associated with an increase in babies born before arrival (BBA). To explore the association between the number of maternity units in Australia and Queensland by birthing numbers, BBA rate and geographic remoteness of the health district where the mother lives. A retrospective study utilised routinely collected perinatal data (1992-2011). Pearson correlation tested the relationship between BBA rate and number of maternity units. Linear regression examined this association over time. During 1992-2011, the absolute numbers (N=22,814) of women having a BBA each year in Australia increased by 47% (N=836-1233); and 206% (n=140-429) in Queensland. This coincided with a 41% reduction in maternity units in Australia (N=623-368=18 per year) and a 28% reduction in Queensland (n=129-93). BBA rates increased significantly across Australia, r=0.837, n=20 years, pmaternity units in Australia, r=-0.804, n=19 years, pmaternity units over a 20-year period across Australia and Queensland is significantly associated with increased BBA rates. The distribution is not limited to rural and remote areas. Given the high risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with BBA, it is time to revisit the closure of units. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Herbicide contamination and the potential impact to seagrass meadows in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; Bengtson Nash, Susan; Eaglesham, Geoff; Müller, Jochen F; Duke, Norman C; Winderlich, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Low concentrations of herbicides (up to 70 ng l(-1)), chiefly diuron (up to 50 ng l(-1)) were detected in surface waters associated with inter-tidal seagrass meadows of Zostera muelleri in Hervey Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia. Diuron and atrazine (up to 1.1 ng g(-1) dry weight of sediment) were detected in the sediments of these seagrass meadows. Concentration of the herbicides diuron, simazine and atrazine increased in surface waters associated with seagrass meadows during moderate river flow events indicating herbicides were washed from the catchment to the marine environment. Maximum herbicide concentration (sum of eight herbicides) in the Mary River during a moderate river flow event was 4260 ng l(-1). No photosynthetic stress was detected in seagrass in this study during low river flow. However, with moderate river flow events, nearshore seagrasses are at risk of being exposed to concentrations of herbicides that are known to inhibit photosynthesis.

  13. Freshwater planarians from artesian springs in Queensland, Australia (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Grant, L.J.; Blair, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two new species of triclad flatworm are described from artesian springs in Queensland, Australia, viz. Dugesia artesiana Sluys and Grant, sp. nov. and Weissius capaciductus Sluys, gen. et sp. nov. Some historical biogeographic scenarios are discussed that may explain the occurrence of the new

  14. Paediatric tuberculosis in Queensland, Australia: overrepresentation of cross-border and Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnan, E J; Coulter, C; Simpson, G; Clark, J; Nourse, C

    2017-03-01

    Queensland, Australia. Understanding paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is important, as children with TB typically reflect recent community transmission. Children pose unique diagnostic challenges and are at risk of developing severe disseminated infection. To describe the epidemiology, presentation and outcomes of children with TB disease in Queensland. This is a retrospective case series of children diagnosed with TB aged 0-16 years notified in 2005-2014. Data collected in the Queensland Notifiable Conditions System were extracted and analysed. Of 127 children diagnosed with TB, 16 were Australian-born (including 12 Indigenous Queenslanders), 41 were overseas-born permanent and temporary residents and 70 were cross-border Papua New Guinea (PNG) children; 88 children had pulmonary disease (with/without other sites) and 39 had extra-pulmonary disease only, with lymph node TB the predominant extra-pulmonary site; 70.1% of children had laboratory confirmation; and 14 cross-border children had multidrug-resistant TB. Treatment outcomes among children residing in Australia were good (100% among Australian-born and 97.2% among permanent and temporary residents), but they were less favourable among PNG children diagnosed in the Torres Strait Protected Zone (76.6%). Queensland has unique challenges in TB control, with a high proportion of cross-border diagnoses and over-representation of Indigenous children. Vigilance is needed given the wide spectrum of clinical presentation, particularly in high-risk communities.

  15. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchithra Naish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  16. Reduced Incidence of Foot-Related Hospitalisation and Amputation amongst Persons with Diabetes in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Peter A.; O’Rourke, Sharon R.; Russell, Anthony W.; Derhy, Patrick H.; Kamp, Maarten C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in the incidence of foot-related hospitalisation and amputation amongst persons with diabetes in Queensland (Australia) between 2005 and 2010 that coincided with changes in state-wide ambulatory diabetic foot-related complication management. Methods All data from cases admitted for the principal reason of diabetes foot-related hospitalisation or amputation in Queensland from 2005–2010 were obtained from the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection dataset. Incidence rates for foot-related hospitalisation (admissions, bed days used) and amputation (total, minor, major) cases amongst persons with diabetes were calculated per 1,000 person-years with diabetes (diabetes population) and per 100,000 person-years (general population). Age-sex standardised incidence and age-sex adjusted Poisson regression models were also calculated for the general population. Results There were 4,443 amputations, 24,917 hospital admissions and 260,085 bed days used for diabetes foot-related complications in Queensland. Incidence per 1,000 person-years with diabetes decreased from 2005 to 2010: 43.0% for hospital admissions (36.6 to 20.9), 40.1% bed days (391 to 234), 40.0% total amputations (6.47 to 3.88), 45.0% major amputations (2.18 to 1.20), 37.5% minor amputations (4.29 to 2.68) (p Queensland over a recent six-year period. PMID:26098890

  17. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall), socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  18. CKD.QLD: establishment of a chronic kidney disease [CKD] registry in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuthurupalli, Sree K; Hoy, Wendy E; Healy, Helen G; Cameron, Anne; Fassett, Robert G

    2017-06-07

    Chronic kidney disease [CKD] is recognised as a global public health problem. Until recently, the majority of information informing on CKD has been generated from renal registries reporting on patients with end-stage kidney disease [ESKD] and on renal replacement therapy [RRT]. There has been a paucity of information on pre-dialysis CKD cohorts, and many issues related to these poorly described populations are unresolved. To this end, international organizations have called for CKD surveillance systems across all countries. In Australia, we have responded by developing the Chronic Kidney Disease in Queensland [CKD.QLD] with three main platforms consisting of CKD Registry, clinical trials and development of biobank. This registry which is the core component of CKD surveillance was conceptualized specifically for the pre-dialysis population in the public health system in Queensland, Australia. Recruitment started in May 2011, and to date the Registry has evolved as one of the largest CKD cohorts in the world with recruitment close to 7000 patients. The Registry has had many outcomes, including being the nidus for Australia's first National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC] CKD Centre of Research Excellence [CKD.CRE]. The Registry, with its linkage to Queensland Health datasets, is reporting, and is expected to continue generating, significant information on multiple aspects of CKD, its trajectory, management and patient outcomes. Intent of the CKD.CRE is to facilitate an expanded Registry network that has representation from health services, both public and private, across Australia.

  19. Comparative genomics identifies distinct lineages of S. Enteritidis from Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rikki M A; Hiley, Lester; Rathnayake, Irani U; Jennison, Amy V

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major cause of gastroenteritis and foodborne illness in Australia where notification rates in the state of Queensland are the highest in the country. S. Enteritidis is among the five most common serotypes reported in Queensland and it is a priority for epidemiological surveillance due to concerns regarding its emergence in Australia. Using whole genome sequencing, we have analysed the genomic epidemiology of 217 S. Enteritidis isolates from Queensland, and observed that they fall into three distinct clades, which we have differentiated as Clades A, B and C. Phage types and MLST sequence types differed between the clades and comparative genomic analysis has shown that each has a unique profile of prophage and genomic islands. Several of the phage regions present in the S. Enteritidis reference strain P125109 were absent in Clades A and C, and these clades also had difference in the presence of pathogenicity islands, containing complete SPI-6 and SPI-19 regions, while P125109 does not. Antimicrobial resistance markers were found in 39 isolates, all but one of which belonged to Clade B. Phylogenetic analysis of the Queensland isolates in the context of 170 international strains showed that Queensland Clade B isolates group together with the previously identified global clade, while the other two clades are distinct and appear largely restricted to Australia. Locally sourced environmental isolates included in this analysis all belonged to Clades A and C, which is consistent with the theory that these clades are a source of locally acquired infection, while Clade B isolates are mostly travel related.

  20. Pyrethroid Susceptibility Has Been Maintained in the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M; Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Harshman, Lawrence G; Frohn, Verena; Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2017-11-07

    Although pesticide resistance is common in insect vectors of human diseases, the evolution of resistance might be delayed if management practices are adopted that limit selection of resistance alleles. Outbreaks of dengue fever have occurred in Queensland, Australia, since the late 1800s, leading to ongoing attempts to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (L.). Since the 1990s, pyrethroid insecticides have been used for this purpose, but have been applied in a strategic manner with a variety of delivery methods including indoor residual spraying, lethal ovitraps, and use of insect growth regulators as larvicides. Separate selection experiments on mosquitoes from Queensland using Type I and Type II pyrethroids did not produce resistant lines of Ae. aegypti, and bioassays of field material from Queensland showed only weak tolerance in comparison with a susceptible line. There was no evidence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in Ae. aegypti from Queensland, in stark contrast to the situation in nearby southeast Asia. We suspect that careful management of pyrethroid insecticide use combined with surveillance and interception of exotic incursions has helped to maintain pyrethroid (and particularly kdr-based) susceptibility in Ae. aegypti in Australia. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Barmah Forest Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (χ2 = 7587, df = 7327,pQueensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430

  2. Epidemiologic patterns of Ross River virus disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001-December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Epidemiologic Patterns of Ross River Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; Toloo, Ghasem (Sam); Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001–December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. PMID:24799374

  4. Spatial analysis of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquess, John; Hu, Wenbiao; Nimmo, Graeme R; Clements, Archie C A

    2013-03-01

    To investigate and describe the relationship between indigenous Australian populations, residential aged care services, and community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) among patients admitted to public hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Ecological study. We used administrative healthcare data linked to microbiology results from patients with SAB admitted to Queensland public hospitals from 2005 through 2010 to identify community-onset infections. Data about indigenous Australian population and residential aged care services at the local government area level were obtained from the Queensland Office of Economic and Statistical Research. Associations between community-onset SAB and indigenous Australian population and residential aged care services were calculated using Poisson regression models in a Bayesian framework. Choropleth maps were used to describe the spatial patterns of SAB risk. We observed a 21% increase in relative risk (RR) of bacteremia with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA; RR, 1.21 [95% credible interval, 1.15-1.26]) and a 24% increase in RR with nonmultiresistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (nmMRSA; RR, 1.24 [95% credible interval, 1.13-1.34]) with a 10% increase in the indigenous Australian population proportion. There was no significant association between RR of SAB and the number of residential aged care services. Areas with the highest RR for nmMRSA and MSSA bacteremia were identified in the northern and western regions of Queensland. The RR of community-onset SAB varied spatially across Queensland. There was increased RR of community-onset SAB with nmMRSA and MSSA in areas of Queensland with increased indigenous population proportions. Additional research should be undertaken to understand other factors that increase the risk of infection due to this organism.

  5. Hazardous Alcohol Use in 2 Countries: A Comparison Between Alberta, Canada and Queensland, Australia

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    Diana C. Sanchez-Ramirez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This article aimed to compare alcohol consumption between the populations of Queensland in Australia and Alberta in Canada. Furthermore, the associations between greater alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics were explored in each population. Methods Data from 2500 participants of the 2013 Alberta Survey and the 2013 Queensland Social Survey were analyzed. Regression analyses were used to explore the associations between alcohol risk and socio-demographic characteristics. Results A higher rate of hazardous alcohol use was found in Queenslanders than in Albertans. In both Albertans and Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was associated with being between 18 and 24 years of age. Higher income, having no religion, living alone, and being born in Canada were also associated with alcohol risk in Albertans; while in Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was also associated with common-law marital status. In addition, hazardous alcohol use was lower among respondents with a non-Catholic or Protestant religious affiliation. Conclusions Younger age was associated with greater hazardous alcohol use in both populations. In addition, different socio-demographic factors were associated with hazardous alcohol use in each of the populations studied. Our results allowed us to identify the socio-demographic profiles associated with hazardous alcohol use in Alberta and Queensland. These profiles constitute valuable sources of information for local health authorities and policymakers when designing suitable preventive strategies targeting hazardous alcohol use. Overall, the present study highlights the importance of analyzing the socio-demographic factors associated with alcohol consumption in population-specific contexts.

  6. Households Willingness to Pay for the Emissions Reduction Policy, Queensland, Australia

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    Galina Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines households’ willingness to support the emissions reduction policy and their perceptions of climate change using an Internet survey of more than 1,000 households in Queensland, Australia. Respondents were asked for their willingness to pay (WTP to support the emissions reduction target proposed by the Australian Government by paying extra on their electricity bills. The results can be summarized in four key findings. First, respondents’ WTP to support the emissions reduction target is higher if they perceive that climate change will result in high loss of biodiversity. Second, respondents were willing to support a higher emissions target than proposed by the Australian Government. Third, there is a correlation between respondents WTP to support the emissions reduction and their beliefs about climate change, its effect on standards of living, the environment, and future generations. Fourth, as the data show a high rate of zero responses, common for the contingent valuation method (CVM used in the survey, the zero bids were further investigated using the non-parametric Turnbull model and the more recent spike model. The results showed that although there is some support for the emissions reduction policy, it is not sufficient for the policy to be successful.

  7. Cyclists' experiences of harassment from motorists: findings from a survey of cyclists in Queensland, Australia.

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    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cyclists’ experiences of harassment from motorists: findings from a survey of cyclists in Queensland, Australia

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    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Methods Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Results Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (<2 years) and less frequent cycling (<3 days/week) were associated with less likelihood of harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Conclusions Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. PMID:22001076

  9. Factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees in Queensland, Australia.

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    Ip, S W; Ko, H S; Applegate, K E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees. We distributed a 27-question written survey to all radiology registrars in Queensland. The questions investigated whether radiology was their first specialty choice, career satisfaction, ideal working conditions and attitudes regarding having children during the time of training. Forty-four of 51 surveys were returned (86% participation rate, 73% men, P = 0.048055) with 100% reporting a high job satisfaction; 28% of male registrars compared to 8% of female registrars did extra work outside of training to earn extra money (P = 0.000003), and 17% of female registrars took a leave of absence during their training, while no male registrar did (P = 0.087923). Only one female trainee worked part-time (P = 0.272727). In addition, 58% of female registrars planned a pregnancy (P = 0.731789) before completion of training; 83% of women versus 75% of men had no children (P = 0.329263). Only 5% of trainees agreed that it was easy to arrange part-time training, only 14% stated that it was easy to negotiate flexible work schedules and 7% agreed that it was easy to return to work after a period of absence. 'Time spent with immediate family' was rated the most important lifestyle factor, followed by 'work hours' and 'on-call duty'. The least important factors were 'being away from extended family', 'availability of part-time work' and whether 'work was in a rural location'. Overall job satisfaction is high among radiology trainees. Nevertheless, lifestyle factors, particularly those related to work time, are becoming more important for career decisions. This should be taken into account when designing and structuring radiology training to ensure that it is considered an attractive career choice.

  10. Natural exposure of horses to mosquito-borne flaviviruses in south-east Queensland, Australia.

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    Prow, Natalie A; Tan, Cindy S E; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-09-17

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2-4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNV(KUN)) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNV(KUN) and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic.

  11. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia).

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    Clough, Alan R; Bird, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions. An examination of legislation, regulations, explanatory notes, and published documents indicates this focus evolved across four phases since 2002. The first phase, from 2002 to 2004, saw 'restricted areas' with alcohol 'carriage limits' introduced, restricting the amounts and types of liquor permitted within some communities. The second phase (2002-2007) featured evaluations and reviews by the Queensland Government bringing recommendations for more stringent controls. Additionally, beyond the 'restricted areas', licenced premises situated within the 'catchments' of the targeted communities, mainly located in the nearby regional towns, became subject to 'minimising harm' provisions. These more stringent controls were implemented widely in the third phase (2008-2011) when: the operations of seven community-managed liquor outlets were terminated; the trading arrangements of two others were modified; Police powers to search and seize were increased; and 'attempting' to take liquor into a 'restricted area' also became an offence. Some communities have seen a reduction in alcohol-related harms that have been attributed to these alcohol control strategies. This commentary maps the recent regulatory history of Queensland's alcohol controls targeting discrete Indigenous communities highlighting their increasing focus on punitive measures to reduce access to alcohol. With AMPs in Queensland

  12. CKD.QLD: chronic kidney disease surveillance and research in Queensland, Australia

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    Venuthurupalli, Sree K.; Hoy, Wendy E.; Healy, Helen G.; Salisbury, Anne; Fassett, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a major public health problem in Australia with significant mortality, morbidity and economic burden. However, there is no comprehensive surveillance programme to collect, collate and analyse data on CKD in a systematic way. Methods We describe an initiative called CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD), which was established in 2009 to address this deficiency, and outline the processes and progress made to date. The foundation is a CKD Registry of all CKD patients attending public health renal services in Queensland, and patient recruitment and data capture have started. Results We have established through early work of CKD.QLD that there are over 11 500 CKD patients attending public renal services in Queensland, and these are the target population for our registry. Progress so far includes conducting two CKD clinic site surveys, consenting over 3000 patients into the registry and initiation of baseline data analysis of the first 600 patients enrolled at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) site. In addition, research studies in dietary intake and CKD outcomes and in models of care in CKD patient management are underway. Conclusions Through the CKD Registry, we will define the distribution of CKD patients referred to renal practices in the public system in Queensland by region, remoteness, age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. We will define the clinical characteristics of those patients, and the CKD associations, stages, co-morbidities and current management. We will follow the course and outcomes in individuals over time, as well as group trends over time. Through our activities and outcomes, we are aiming to provide a nidus for other states in Australia to join in a national CKD registry and network. PMID:23115138

  13. IMPLEMENTASI SISTER PROVINCE PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH DENGAN NEGARA BAGIAN QUEENSLAND AUSTRALIA DI BIDANG PERTANIAN

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    Reni Windiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalization on national context has insisted the central government to work together and share duties and rights with the local government in order to achieve the national interest.  In Indonesia, UU 32/2004 about local government provide the chance for them to become more active in foreign policy, such as doing the cooperation in sister province/sister city program. The Central Java Province had done many sister province/sister city program with some partners aboard, such as Fujian province (China, Chungchoeng buk-do province (South Korea and the Queensland province (Australia.  The cooperation cover many sectors such as agriculture, city and village development, transportation and tourism, industry, trade and infestation, education, science and technology, and other sectors that will be confer in advance. From all of the cooperation that have been done between Central Java Province and Queensland, the author, is interested to have research on farming, because central government has had many cows imported from Australia.  This research is become important because central java province is one of the major of national fresh meat distributors. This research is using a qualitative method, with descriptive type of research.  This research has three research questions: How effective is the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? What is the obstacle that holds the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? How is the prospect of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? This result of this research is to prove that the implementation of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sectors is not effective.  Some of the implementation variables of this program have not been fulfilled. Communication, financial resources and bureaucracy structure are some of the variables that have weakness on this program.  Act of

  14. Sources of Dengue Viruses Imported into Queensland, Australia, 2002–2010

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    Northill, Judith A.; Pyke, Alyssa T.

    2012-01-01

    To assess risk for importation of dengue virus (DENV) into Queensland, Australia, and sources of imported viruses, we sequenced the envelope region of DENV isolates from symptomatic patients with a history of travel during 2002–2010. The number of imported dengue cases greatly increased over the surveillance period, some of which were associated with domestic outbreaks. Patients reported traveling to (in order) Asia, Papua New Guinea, Pacific Island countries, and non–Asia-Pacific countries. By using phylogenetic methods, we assigned DENV isolates from returning residents and overseas visitors with viremia to a specific genotypic group. Genotypes circulating in Asia were extremely diverse. Genotyping and molecular clock analysis supported Asian origination of a strain that caused an outbreak of DENV-4 in Pacific Island countries during 2007–2009, and subsequently, in Innisfail, Australia, in 2009. Our findings indicate that Asia is a major source of DENVs that are imported into Australia, causing a risk for epidemics. PMID:23092682

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns of locally-acquired dengue transmission in northern Queensland, Australia, 1993-2012.

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    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993-2012. Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ(2) = 15.17, d.f.  = 1, pQueensland. Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, pQueensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  17. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

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    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  18. Incidence and survival for Merkel cell carcinoma in Queensland, Australia, 1993-2010.

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    Youlden, Danny R; Soyer, H Peter; Youl, Philippa H; Fritschi, Lin; Baade, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon but highly invasive form of skin cancer. The mechanisms that cause MCC are yet to be fully determined. To compare the incidence and survival rates of MCC in Queensland, Australia, known to be a high-risk area, with MCC incidence and survival elsewhere in the world. We also analyzed incidence trends and differences in survival by key demographic and clinical characteristics. Retrospective cohort study of population-based administrative data for MCC collected by the Queensland Cancer Registry and supplemented with detailed histopathologic data. Deidentified records were obtained of all Queensland residents diagnosed as having MCC during the period from 1993 to 2010. A subsample of histopathologic records were reviewed by a senior dermatopathologist to determine the potential for misclassification. A total of 879 eligible cases of MCC were included in the study. Incidence rates were directly age standardized to the 2000 United States Standard Population. Trends were examined using Joinpoint software with results expressed in terms of the annual percentage change. The period method was used to calculate 5-year relative survival, and adjusted hazard ratios were obtained from multivariate Poisson models. There were 340 cases of MCC diagnosed in Queensland between 2006 and 2010, corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.6 per 100,000 population. Men (2.5 per 100,000) had higher incidence than women (0.9 per 100,000), and rates peaked at 20.7 per 100,000 for persons 80 years or older. The overall incidence of MCC increased by an average of 2.6% per year from 1993 onwards. Relative survival was 41% after 5 years, with significantly better survival found for those younger than 70 years at diagnosis (56%-60%), those with tumors on the face or ears (51%), and those with stage I lesions (49%). Incidence rates for MCC in Queensland are at least double those of any that have been previously published elsewhere in the world. It is likely

  19. A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Michael P; Clements, Archie C A; Thomson, Rachel M

    2014-05-21

    The epidemiology of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been changing and the incidence has been increasing in some settings. The main route of transmission to humans is considered to be from the environment. We aimed to describe spatial clusters of cases of NTM infections and to identify associated climatic, environmental and socio-economic variables. NTM data were obtained from the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory for the period 2001-2011. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was constructed at the postcode level, with covariates including soil variables, maximum, mean and minimum rainfall and temperature, income (proportion of population earning Queensland region overlying the Surat sub-division of the Great Artesian Basin, as well as in the lower North Queensland Local Government Area known as the Whitsunday region. Our models estimated an expected increase of 21% per percentage increase of population earning Queensland, and a number of socio-ecological, economic and environmental factors were found to be associated with NTM infection risk.

  20. Feral pig populations are structured at fine spatial scales in tropical Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jobina; Hurwood, David; Dryden, Bart; Fuller, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Feral pigs occur throughout tropical far north Queensland, Australia and are a significant threat to biodiversity and World Heritage values, agriculture and are a vector of infectious diseases. One of the constraints on long-lasting, local eradication of feral pigs is the process of reinvasion into recently controlled areas. This study examined the population genetic structure of feral pigs in far north Queensland to identify the extent of movement and the scale at which demographically independent management units exist. Genetic analysis of 328 feral pigs from the Innisfail to Tully region of tropical Queensland was undertaken. Seven microsatellite loci were screened and Bayesian clustering methods used to infer population clusters. Sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA control region was examined to identify pig breed. Significant population structure was identified in the study area at a scale of 25 to 35 km, corresponding to three demographically independent management units (MUs). Distinct natural or anthropogenic barriers were not found, but environmental features such as topography and land use appear to influence patterns of gene flow. Despite the strong, overall pattern of structure, some feral pigs clearly exhibited ancestry from a MU outside of that from which they were sampled indicating isolated long distance dispersal or translocation events. Furthermore, our results suggest that gene flow is restricted among pigs of domestic Asian and European origin and non-random mating influences management unit boundaries. We conclude that the three MUs identified in this study should be considered as operational units for feral pig control in far north Queensland. Within a MU, coordinated and simultaneous control is required across farms, rainforest areas and National Park Estates to prevent recolonisation from adjacent localities.

  1. Spatial Patterns and Socioecological Drivers of Dengue Fever Transmission in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Understanding how socioecological factors affect the transmission of dengue fever (DF) may help to develop an early warning system of DF. Objectives: We examined the impact of socioecological factors on the transmission of DF and assessed potential predictors of locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases of DF in Queensland, Australia. Methods: We obtained data from Queensland Health on the numbers of notified DF cases by local government area (LGA) in Queensland for the period 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2005. Data on weather and the socioeconomic index were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the LGA level to quantify the relationship between DF and socioecological factors. Results: Our estimates suggest an increase in locally acquired DF of 6% [95% credible interval (CI): 2%, 11%] and 61% (95% CI: 2%, 241%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1°C increase in average monthly maximum temperature between 2002 and 2005, respectively. By contrast, overseas-acquired DF cases increased by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 3%) and by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 2%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1-unit increase in average socioeconomic index, respectively. Conclusions: Socioecological factors appear to influence the transmission of DF in Queensland, but the drivers of locally acquired and overseas-acquired DF may differ. DF risk is spatially clustered with different patterns for locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases. PMID:22015625

  2. Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis of Socio-Ecologic Drivers of Ross River Virus Transmission in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of socio-ecologic factors on the transmission of Ross River virus (RRV) infection and to identify areas prone to social and ecologic-driven epidemics in Queensland, Australia. We used a Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive model to quantify the relationship between monthly variation of RRV incidence and socio-ecologic factors and to determine spatiotemporal patterns. Our results show that the average increase in monthly RRV incidence was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.1–4.5%) and 2.0% (95% CrI: 1.6–2.3%) for a 1°C increase in monthly average maximum temperature and a 10 mm increase in monthly average rainfall, respectively. A significant spatiotemporal variation and interactive effect between temperature and rainfall on RRV incidence were found. No association between Socio-economic Index for Areas (SEIFA) and RRV was observed. The transmission of RRV in Queensland, Australia appeared to be primarily driven by ecologic variables rather than social factors. PMID:20810846

  3. Reduced Incidence of Foot-Related Hospitalisation and Amputation amongst Persons with Diabetes in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Lazzarini

    Full Text Available To determine trends in the incidence of foot-related hospitalisation and amputation amongst persons with diabetes in Queensland (Australia between 2005 and 2010 that coincided with changes in state-wide ambulatory diabetic foot-related complication management.All data from cases admitted for the principal reason of diabetes foot-related hospitalisation or amputation in Queensland from 2005-2010 were obtained from the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection dataset. Incidence rates for foot-related hospitalisation (admissions, bed days used and amputation (total, minor, major cases amongst persons with diabetes were calculated per 1,000 person-years with diabetes (diabetes population and per 100,000 person-years (general population. Age-sex standardised incidence and age-sex adjusted Poisson regression models were also calculated for the general population.There were 4,443 amputations, 24,917 hospital admissions and 260,085 bed days used for diabetes foot-related complications in Queensland. Incidence per 1,000 person-years with diabetes decreased from 2005 to 2010: 43.0% for hospital admissions (36.6 to 20.9, 40.1% bed days (391 to 234, 40.0% total amputations (6.47 to 3.88, 45.0% major amputations (2.18 to 1.20, 37.5% minor amputations (4.29 to 2.68 (p < 0.01 respectively. Age-sex standardised incidence per 100,000 person-years in the general population also decreased from 2005 to 2010: 23.3% hospital admissions (105.1 to 80.6, 19.5% bed days (1,122 to 903, 19.3% total amputations (18.57 to 14.99, 26.4% major amputations (6.26 to 4.61, 15.7% minor amputations (12.32 to 10.38 (p < 0.01 respectively. The age-sex adjusted incidence rates per calendar year decreased in the general population (rate ratio (95% CI; hospital admissions 0.949 (0.942-0.956, bed days 0.964 (0.962-0.966, total amputations 0.962 (0.946-0.979, major amputations 0.945 (0.917-0.974, minor amputations 0.970 (0.950-0.991 (p < 0.05 respectively.There were significant

  4. The emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea in Queensland, Australia, 2001 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Skelly, Chris; Dohnt, Michael; Smythe, Lee D

    2015-06-14

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease, with increasing frequency and severity of outbreaks, changing epidemiology of populations at risk, and the emergence of new serovars. Environmental drivers of disease transmission include flooding, urbanisation, poor sanitation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, and socioeconomic factors. In Queensland, human infection with Leptosira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea was first reported in 2001. This study aims to report the emergence of serovar Arborea in Queensland from 2001 to 2013, and investigate potential risk factors for infection and drivers of emergence. Data on laboratory-confirmed cases of human leptospirosis in Queensland were obtained from the enhanced surveillance system at the WHO/FAO/OIE Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis in Brisbane, Australia. The changing epidemiology of serovar Arborea from 2001 to 2003 was described with respect to case numbers, proportion of leptospirosis cases attributed to the serovar, and geographic distribution. Differences in risk factors for the most common serovars were compared. During this period, 1289 cases of leptospirosis were reported, including 233 cases attributed to serovar Arborea. Risk factors for infection include male gender (91 % of cases), occupation, and recreational exposure. Most common occupations recorded were banana workers (28.4 %), meat workers (7.2 %), dairy farmers (5.8 %), graziers/stockmen (5.5 %), 'other agricultural/rural workers' (16.4 %), and tourists or tourism operators (4.6 %). Time trend analysis showed that while non-Arborea cases decreased over the study period, Arborea cases increased by 3.4 cases per year. The proportion of annual cases attributed to Arborea peaked at 49 % in 2011 after unprecedented flooding in Queensland. Mapping of cases by residential location showed expansion of the geographic range of serovar Arborea, concentrating mostly around Brisbane, Cairns and Innisfail. Serovars

  5. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of avian influenza in wild aquatic birds in a biosecurity hotspot, North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Burgess, Graham William; Cheam, Ai Lee; Skerratt, Lee Francis

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds may introduce highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza from Southeast Asia into Australia via North Queensland, a key stopover along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, with severe consequences for trade and human health. A 3-year repeated cross sectional study on the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australian nomadic wild aquatic birds was conducted in this potential biosecurity hotspot using molecular and serological techniques. Avian influenza virus subtypes H6 and H9 were commonly present in the studied population. It is likely that one of the H6 viruses was newly introduced through migratory birds confirming the perceived biosecurity risk. The matrix gene of another H6 virus was similar to the Australian H7 subtypes, which suggests the reassortment of a previously introduced H6 and local viruses. Similarly, a H9 subtype had a matrix gene similar to that found in Asian H9 viruses suggesting reassortment of viruses originated from Australia and Asia. Whilst H5N1 was not found, the serological study demonstrated a constant circulation of the H5 subtype in the sampled birds. The odds of being reactive for avian influenza viral antibodies were 13.1(95% CI: 5.9-28.9) for Pacific Black Ducks over Plumed Whistling Ducks, highlighting that some species of waterfowl pose a greater biosecurity risk. Antibody titres were slightly higher during warm wet compared with warm dry weather. Routine surveillance programmes should be established to monitor the introduction of avian influenza viruses from Asia and the interactions of the introduced viruses with resident viruses in order to better detect emerging pathogens in aquatic birds of North Queensland. Surveillance should be targeted towards highly susceptible species such as the Pacific Black Duck and carried out during favourable environmental conditions for viral transmission such as the wet season in northern Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  8. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  9. Seasonal Differences in the Day-of-the-Week Pattern of Suicide in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chi-kin; De Leo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Various temporal patterns of suicide events, according to time of day, day of week, month and season, have been identified. However, whether different dimensions of time interact has not been investigated. Using suicide data from Queensland, Australia, this study aims to verify if there is an interaction effect between seasonal and day-of-the-week distribution. Computerized suicide data from the Queensland Suicide Register for those aged 15+ years were analyzed according to date of death, age, sex and geographic location for the period 1996–2007. To examine seasonal differences in day-of-the-week pattern of suicide, Poisson regressions were used. A total of 6,555 suicides were recorded over the whole study period. Regardless of the season, male residents of Brisbane had a significantly marked day-of-the-week pattern of suicide, with higher rates between Mondays and Thursdays. When seasonal differences were considered, male residents in Brisbane showed a Monday peak in summer and a wave-shape pattern with a peak on Thursday and a nadir on Saturdays in winter. Whilst males have distinctive peaks in terms of days of the week for summer and winter, females do not show similar patterns. PMID:23880724

  10. Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS for Monitoring Changes in Vegetation Phenology in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Bhandari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Time series of images are required to extract and separate information on vegetation change due to phenological cycles, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term trends. While images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM sensor have the spatial and spectral characteristics suited for mapping a range of vegetation structural and compositional properties, its 16-day revisit period combined with cloud cover problems and seasonally limited latitudinal range, limit the availability of images at intervals and durations suitable for time series analysis of vegetation in many parts of the world. Landsat Image Time Series (LITS is defined here as a sequence of Landsat TM images with observations from every 16 days for a five-year period, commencing on July 2003, for a Eucalyptus woodland area in Queensland, Australia. Synthetic Landsat TM images were created using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM algorithm for all dates when images were either unavailable or too cloudy. This was done using cloud-free scenes and a MODIS Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR product. The ability of the LITS to measure attributes of vegetation phenology was examined by: (1 assessing the accuracy of predicted image-derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC estimates using ground-measured values; and (2 comparing the LITS-generated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and MODIS NDVI (MOD13Q1 time series. The predicted image-derived FPC products (value ranges from 0 to 100% had an RMSE of 5.6. Comparison between vegetation phenology parameters estimated from LITS-generated NDVI and MODIS NDVI showed no significant difference in trend and less than 16 days (equal to the composite period of the MODIS data used difference in key seasonal parameters, including start and end of season in most of the cases. In comparison to similar published work, this paper tested the STARFM algorithm in a new (broadleaf forest environment and also

  11. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  12. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, Timothy D.; Halliday, Ian A.; Howley, Christina; Sinnamon, Vivian; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet–dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 μg L −1 and 0.1 μg g −1 , respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. δ 15 N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: ► Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. ► Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. ► Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. ► Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  15. Quality of warfarin control in atrial fibrillation patients in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, N; Badrick, T; Davey, A K; Anoopkumar-Dukie, S

    2016-08-01

    Warfarin is widely prescribed to decrease the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Due to patient variability in response, regular monitoring is required, and time in therapeutic range (TTR) used to indicate quality of warfarin control with a TTR>60% is recommended. Recently, an Australian Government review of anticoagulants identified the need to establish current warfarin control and determine the potential place of the newer oral anticoagulants. To determine warfarin control by a pathology practice in Queensland, Australia and identify factors influencing TTR. Retrospective data were collected from Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology, a major pathology practice offering a warfarin care programme in Australia. Patients enrolled in their programme as of September 2014 were included in the study. TTR was calculated using INR test results, and test dates using the Rosendaal method with mean patient TTR were used for analysis and comparison. Exclusions were target therapeutic range outside 2.0-3.0, less than two INR tests and programme treatment time of less than 30 days. The eligible 3692 AF patients had 73.6% of INR tests within the therapeutic range. The mean TTR was 81%, with 97% of patients above a TTR of 60%. TTR was not significantly influenced by age, gender or socioeconomic factors. The observed mean TTR of over 80% is superior to the minimum recommended threshold of 60%. The TTR achieved by the Queensland pathology practice demonstrates that dedicated warfarin programmes can produce high-quality warfarin care, ensuring the full benefit of warfarin for Australian patients. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Cost savings from a telemedicine model of care in northern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Darshit A; Monypenny, Richard; Olver, Ian; Sabesan, Sabe

    2013-09-16

    To conduct a cost analysis of a telemedicine model for cancer care (teleoncology) in northern Queensland, Australia, compared with the usual model of care from the perspective of the Townsville and other participating hospital and health services. Retrospective cost-savings analysis; and a one-way sensitivity analysis performed to test the robustness of findings in net savings. Records of all patients managed by means of teleoncology at the Townsville Cancer Centre (TCC) and its six rural satellite centres in northern Queensland, Australia between 1 March 2007 and 30 November 2011. Costs for set-up and staffing to manage the service, and savings from avoidance of travel expenses for specialist oncologists, patients and their escorts, and for aeromedical retrievals. There were 605 teleoncology consultations with 147 patients over 56 months, at a total cost of $442 276. The cost for project establishment was $36 000, equipment/maintenance was $143 271, and staff was $261 520. The estimated travel expense avoided was $762 394; this figure included the costs of travel for patients and escorts of $658 760, aeromedical retrievals of $52 400 and travel for specialists of $47 634, as well as an estimate of accommodation costs for a proportion of patients of $3600. This resulted in a net saving of $320 118. Costs would have to increase by 72% to negate the savings. The teleoncology model of care at the TCC resulted in net savings, mainly due to avoidance of travel costs. Such savings could be redirected to enhancing rural resources and service capabilities. This teleoncology model is applicable to geographically distant areas requiring lengthy travel.

  17. Comparison of oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell cancer incidence and trends in New Zealand and Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, J Mark; Youlden, Danny R; Chelimo, Carol; Ioannides, Sally J; Baade, Peter D

    2014-02-01

    Increases in the incidence of squamous cell oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have been reported from some countries, but have not been assessed in Australia or New Zealand. This study examines trends for squamous cell OPC and squamous cell oral cavity cancer (OCC) in two similarly sized populations, New Zealand and Queensland, Australia. Incidence data for 1982-2010 were obtained from the respective population-based cancer registries for squamous cell OPC and OCC, by subsite, sex, and age. Time trends and annual percentage changes (APCs) were assessed by joinpoint regression. The incidence rates of squamous cell OPC in males in New Zealand since 2005 and Queensland since 2006 have increased rapidly, with APCs of 11.9% and 10.6% respectively. The trends were greatest at ages 50-69 and followed more gradual increases previously. In females, rates increased by 2.1% per year in New Zealand from 1982, but by only 0.9% (not significant) in Queensland. In contrast, incidence rates for OCC decreased by 1.2% per year in males in Queensland since 1982, but remained stable for females in Queensland and for both sexes in New Zealand. Overall, incidence rates for both OCC and OPC were substantially higher in Queensland than in New Zealand. In males in both areas, OPC incidence is now higher than that of OCC. Incidence rates of squamous cell OPC have increased rapidly in men, while rates of OCC have been stable or reducing, showing distinct etiologies. This has both clinical and public health importance, including implications for the extension of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination to males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk

  19. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Rainfall Forecasting in Queensland, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John ABBOT; Jennifer MAROHASY

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the application of artificial intelligence to monthly and seasonal rainfall forecasting in Queensland,Australia,was assessed by inputting recognized climate indices,monthly historical rainfall data,and atmospheric temperatures into a prototype stand-alone,dynamic,recurrent,time-delay,artificial neural network.Outputs,as monthly rainfall forecasts 3 months in advance for the period 1993 to 2009,were compared with observed rainfall data using time-series plots,root mean squared error (RMSE),and Pearson correlation coefficients.A comparison of RMSE values with forecasts generated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA)-1.5 general circulation model (GCM) indicated that the prototype achieved a lower RMSE for 16 of the 17 sites compared.The application of artificial neural networks to rainfall forecasting was reviewed.The prototype design is considered preliminary,with potential for significant improvement such as inclusion of output from GCMs and experimentation with other input attributes.

  20. The relationship between climate change and the endangered rainforest shrub Triunia robusta (Proteaceae) endemic to southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu-Kimura, Yoko; Accad, Arnon; Shapcott, Alison

    2017-04-01

    Threatened species in rainforests may be vulnerable to climate change, because of their potentially narrow thermal tolerances, small population sizes and restricted distributions. This study modelled climate induced changes on the habitat distribution of the endangered rainforest plant Triunia robusta, endemic to southeast Queensland, Australia. Species distribution models were developed for eastern Australia at 250 m grids and southeast Queensland at 25 m grids using ground-truthed presence records and environmental predictor data. The species’ habitat distribution under the current climate was modelled, and the future potential habitat distributions were projected for the epochs 2030, 2050 and 2070. The eastern Australia model identified several spatially disjunct, broad habitat areas of coastal eastern Australia consistent with the current distribution of rainforests, and projected a southward and upslope contraction driven mainly by average temperatures exceeding current range limits. The southeast Queensland models suggest a dramatic upslope contraction toward locations where the majority of known populations are found. Populations located in the Sunshine Coast hinterland, consistent with past rainforest refugia, are likely to persist long-term. Upgrading the level of protection for less formal nature reserves containing viable populations is a high priority to better protect refugial T. robusta populations with respect to climate change.

  1. Understanding the geomorphology of macrochannel systems for flood risk management in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2016-04-01

    The year 2010-2011 was the wettest on record for the state of Queensland, Australia producing catastrophic floods. A tropical low pressure system in 2013 delivered further extreme flood events across South East Queensland (SEQ) which prompted state and local governments to conduct studies into flood magnitude and frequency in the region and catchment factors contributing to flood hazards. The floods in the region are strongly influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, but also modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) which leads to flood and drought dominated regimes and high hydrological variability. One geomorphic feature in particular exerted a significant control on the transmission speed, the magnitude of flood inundation and resultant landscape resilience. This feature was referred to as a 'macrochannel', a term used to describe a 'large-channel' which has bankfull recurrence intervals generally greater than 10 years. The macrochannels display non-linear downstream hydraulic geometry which leads to zones of flood expansion (when hydraulic geometry decreases) and zones of flood contraction (when hydraulic geometry increases). The pattern of contraction and expansion zones determines flood hazard zones. The floods caused significant wet flow bank mass failures that mobilised over 1,000,000 m3 of sediment in one subcatchment. Results suggest that the wetflow bank mass failures are a stage in a cyclical evolution process which maintains the macrochannel morphology, hence channel resilience to floods. Chronological investigations further show the macrochannels are laterally stable and identify periods of heightened flood activity over the past millennium and upper limits on flood magnitude. This paper elaborates on the results of the geomorphic investigations on Lockyer Creek in SEQ and how the results have alerted managers and policy makers to the different flood responses of these systems and how flood risk management plans can

  2. Using multiple lines of evidence to evaluate the hydrological response to deforestation of large catchments in the dry tropics of Queensland, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Arancibia, J.; van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Guerschmann, J.P.; Mulligan, M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; McVicar, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    We used daily rainfall and streamflow time series from two large catchments in the seasonal tropics of Queensland, Australia to investigate the hydrological impacts of woodland clearing. The Comet catchment (16,440km

  3. Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damin Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV.Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005. We analysed notification data for potential exposures occurring between 2009 and 2014. There were 1,515 potential exposures to ABLV notified in Queensland, with an average annual notification rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population per year. The majority of notified individuals (96% were potentially exposed to ABLV via bats, with a small number of cases potentially exposed via two ABLV infected horses and an ABLV infected human. The most common routes of potential exposure were through bat scratches (47% or bites (37%, with less common routes being mucous membrane/broken skin exposure to bat saliva/brain tissue (2.2%. Intentional handling of bats by the general public was the major cause of potential exposures (56% of notifications. Examples of these potential exposures included people attempting to rescue bats caught in barbed wire fences/fruit tree netting, or attempting to remove bats from a home. Following potential exposures, 1,399 cases (92% were recorded as having appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP as defined in national guidelines, with the remainder having documentation of refusal or incomplete PEP. Up to a quarter of notifications occurred after two days from the potential exposure, but with some delays being more than three weeks. Of 393 bats available for testing during the reporting period, 20 (5.1% had ABLV detected, including four species of megabats (all flying foxes and one species of microbats (yellow-bellied sheathtail bat.Public health strategies should address the

  4. Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009−2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Damin; Marquess, John; Donnan, Ellen; Harrower, Bruce; McCall, Bradley; Bennett, Sonya; Lambert, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. Methodology/Principal Findings Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005. We analysed notification data for potential exposures occurring between 2009 and 2014. There were 1,515 potential exposures to ABLV notified in Queensland, with an average annual notification rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population per year. The majority of notified individuals (96%) were potentially exposed to ABLV via bats, with a small number of cases potentially exposed via two ABLV infected horses and an ABLV infected human. The most common routes of potential exposure were through bat scratches (47%) or bites (37%), with less common routes being mucous membrane/broken skin exposure to bat saliva/brain tissue (2.2%). Intentional handling of bats by the general public was the major cause of potential exposures (56% of notifications). Examples of these potential exposures included people attempting to rescue bats caught in barbed wire fences/fruit tree netting, or attempting to remove bats from a home. Following potential exposures, 1,399 cases (92%) were recorded as having appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as defined in national guidelines, with the remainder having documentation of refusal or incomplete PEP. Up to a quarter of notifications occurred after two days from the potential exposure, but with some delays being more than three weeks. Of 393 bats available for testing during the reporting period, 20 (5.1%) had ABLV detected, including four species of megabats (all flying foxes) and one species of microbats (yellow-bellied sheathtail bat). Conclusions

  5. Effect of Weather Variability on Seasonal Influenza Among Different Age Groups in Queensland, Australia: A Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Mengersen, Kerrie; Milinovich, Gabriel; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-06-01

    The effects of weather variability on seasonal influenza among different age groups remain unclear. The comparative study aims to explore the differences in the associations between weather variability and seasonal influenza, and growth rates of seasonal influenza epidemics among different age groups in Queensland, Australia. Three Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive models were fitted at the postal area level to quantify the relationships between seasonal influenza and monthly minimum temperature (MIT), monthly vapor pressure, school calendar pattern, and Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage for 3 age groups (Weather variability appears to be more influential on seasonal influenza transmission in younger (0-14) age groups. The growth rates of influenza at postal area level were relatively small for older (≥65) age groups in Queensland, Australia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae from fluctuating brackish and sea water locations in South East QueenslandAustralia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thang eDuong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One challenge constraining the use of microalgae in the food and biofuels industry is growth and lipid accumulation. Microalgae with high growth characteristics are more likely to originate from the local environment. However, to be commercially effective, in addition to high growth microalgae must also have high lipid productivities and contain the desired fatty acids for their intended use. We isolated microalgae from intertidal locations in South East Queensland, Australia with adverse or fluctuating conditions, as these may harbor more opportunistic strains with high lipid accumulation potential. Screening was based on a standard protocol using growth rate and lipid accumulation as well as prioritizing fatty acid profiles suitable for biodiesel or nutraceuticals. Using these criteria, an initial selection of over 50 local microalgae strains from brackish and sea water was reduced to 16 strains considered suitable for further investigation. Among these 16 strains, the ones most likely to be effective for biodiesel feedstock were Nitzschia sp. CP3a, Tetraselmis sp. M8, Cymbella sp. CP2b and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c, reaching growth rates of up to 0.53 day-1 and lipid productivities of 5.62 µg mL-1day-1. Omega-3 fatty acids were found in some strains such as Nitzschia sp. CP2a, Nitzschia sp. CP3a and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c. These strains have potential for further research as commercial food supplements.

  7. An unusual mortality event in Johnstone River snapping turtles Elseya irwini (Johnstone) in Far North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, E; Freeman, A B; Elliott, E; Wirth, W; Mashkour, N; Scott, J

    2017-10-01

    An unusual mortality event in Johnstone River snapping turtles (Elseya irwini) in Far North Queensland, Australia, occurred during the summer months of December 2014 and January 2015. We report the data collected during the mortality event, including counts of sick and dead animals, clinical appearance and one necropsy. Moribund animals appeared lethargic with variable degrees of necrotising dermatitis. Postmortem investigation of one freshly dead animal revealed bacterial and fungal involvement in the skin lesions as well as multifocal fibrinous hepatitis and splenitis and necrotising enteritis with vascular thrombosis. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from liver, spleen and skin lesions. All samples tested negative for ranavirus, and water and soil testing for environmental contaminants were negative. All affected E. irwini either died or were euthanased and no other species of animals in the river were affected. Aeromonas hydrophila is ubiquitous in the freshwater environment and although it caused septicaemia in the one individual that was submitted for laboratory diagnosis, the primary aetiology of the outbreak may not have been identified. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Managing urban water crises: adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Head

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, I examine the quality of decision-making under conditions of rapidly evolving urban water crises, and the adaptive policy challenges of building regional resilience in response to both drought and flood. Like other regions of Australia, Southeast Queensland has been subject to substantial cycles of drought and flood. I draw on resilience literature concerning sustainability, together with governance literature on policy change, to explain the changing awareness of urban water crises and the strategic options available for addressing these crises in this case study. The problem of resilience thinking opens up a number of important questions about the efficacy and adaptability of the policy system. The case provides insights into the interplay between the ways in which problems are framed, the knowledge bases required for planning and decision-making, the collaborative governance processes required for managing complex and rapidly evolving issues, and the overall capacity for policy learning over time. Regional resilience was proclaimed as a policy goal by government, but the practices remained largely anchored in traditional technical frameworks. Centralized investment decisions and governance restructures provoked conflict between levels of government, undermining the capacity of stakeholders to create more consensual approaches to problem-solving and limiting the collective learning that could have emerged.

  9. Community Response and Engagement During Extreme Water Events in Saskatchewan, Canada and Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Dena W.; Sammel, Alison J.; Arbuthnott, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Technology alone cannot address the challenges of how societies, communities, and individuals understand water accessibility, water management, and water consumption, particularly under extreme conditions like floods and droughts. At the community level, people are increasingly aware challenges related to responses to and impacts of extreme water events. This research begins with an assessment of social and political capacities of communities in two Commonwealth jurisdictions, Queensland, Australia and Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to major flooding events. The research further reviews how such capacities impact community engagement to address and mitigate risks associated with extreme water events and provides evidence of key gaps in skills, understanding, and agency for addressing impacts at the community level. Secondary data were collected using template analysis to elucidate challenges associated with education (formal and informal), social and political capacity, community ability to respond appropriately, and formal government responses to extreme water events in these two jurisdictions. The results indicate that enhanced community engagement alongside elements of an empowerment model can provide avenues for identifying and addressing community vulnerability to negative impacts of flood and drought.

  10. Low prevalence of human papillomavirus in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Sarah; Jenkins, Glenn; Boros, Samuel; Whiteman, David C; Panizza, Benedict; Antonsson, Annika

    2017-09-01

    While human papillomavirus (HPV) is an accepted risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), its aetiological role in oral cavity SCC remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the HPV prevalence in an Australian population. DNA was extracted from 63 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour specimens histologically confirmed as SCC of the oral cavity, diagnosed during 2006-2012. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. HPV presence was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Positive samples were typed by sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess p16 INK4A , p53, pRB, Ki67, Cyclin D1 and p21 WAF1 expression. Five of the 63 tumours (8%) were positive for HPV DNA (three HPV-16 positive and two HPV-18 positive). Two tumours overexpressed p16 INK4A (3%) and one of these was also HPV positive. Overexpression of Cyclin D1 correlated significantly with tumour recurrence (P = 0.029) and death (P = 0.002). This study has identified a low prevalence of high-risk HPV in Queensland, Australia. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Microscopic and submicron components of atmospheric particulate matter during high asthma periods in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, M.; Rutherford, S.; Simpson, R. W.; Mitchell, C. A.; Yago, A.

    The study identifies the various components contributing to atmospheric particulate matter in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, during the period from the end of April and the months of July-August in 1992, covering the autumn period which is typically the period of high asthma incidence in Brisbane. Most particulate matter is Mucorales, and soil bacteria. The contribution from pollen and fungal spores has been evaluated and quantified. Fungal spores counts dominate the bioaerosol counts in the 2-10 μm range and are very high in Brisbane from the end of April through May to mid-June. However even at peak periods the total bioaerosol count only contributes of the order of 5-10% of the total particulate mass. The results show that Pm 10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter) and nephelometer readings do not indicate peak periods of allergenic bioaerosol readings (in fact there is a negative correlation) due to the low contribution of the bioaerosol count to the total and the different influences of wind speed. However the electron microscopy results show that this does not mean there are no synergies between aerosols from anthropogenic sources and bioaerosols. The cytoplasmic content of spores and pollen was often found to be adhered to motor vehicle emission material and crustal matter. The latter may therefore act as carriers for dispersed cytoplasmic allergenic material released from pollen and fungal spores.

  12. High levels of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembizki, Ella; Buckley, Cameron; Bletchly, Cheryl; Nimmo, Graeme R; Whiley, David M

    2017-10-01

    The macrolide azithromycin is recommended for treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection; however, M. genitalium strains possessing macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMMs) are increasingly being reported. Here, we used the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit, which provides simultaneous detection of M. genitalium and MRMMs, to assess MRMM carriage among M. genitalium infections in Queensland, Australia. Performance characteristics of the ResistancePlus MG kit for M. genitalium detection were compared to in-house PCR. Available M. genitalium PCR-positive (n=67) and negative (n=281) samples from the years 2011 to 2017 were tested using the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit. In total, 63.6 % M. genitalium-positive samples were indicated to harbour MRMMs. The ResistancePlus MG method provided sensitivity and specificity of 97 and 99.6 % respectively compared to in-house PCR for M. genitalium detection. Such high levels of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium raise further concerns over future use of azithromycin for treatment of M. genitalium infection.

  13. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

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    Roy George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs, brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant’s sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual.

  14. Outdoor workers and sun protection strategies: two case study examples in Queensland, Australia.

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    Sendall, Marguerite C; Stoneham, Melissa; Crane, Phil; Fleming, MaryLou; Janda, Monika; Tenkate, Thomas; Youl, Philippa; Kimlin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at risk of developing skin cancer because they are exposed to high levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation. The Outdoor Workers Sun Protection Project investigated sun protection strategies for high risk outdoor workers in rural and regional Australia. Fourteen workplaces (recruitment rate 37%) across four industries in rural and regional Queensland, Australia were recruited to the OWSPP. In 2011-2012, data were collected using pre- and post-intervention interviews and discussion groups. This article presents two workplaces as case study examples. The flat organisational structure of workplace 1 supported the implementation of the Sun Safety Action Plan (SSAP), whilst the hierarchical organisational nature of workplace 2 delayed implementation of the SSAP. Neither workplace had an existing sun protection policy but both workplaces adopted one. An effect related to the researchers' presence was seen in workplace 1 and to a lesser degree in workplace 2. Overt reciprocity was seen between management and workers in workplace 1 but this was not so evident in workplace 2. In both workplaces, the role of the workplace champion was pivotal to SSAP progression. These two case studies highlight a number of contextually bound workplace characteristics related to sun safety. These issues are (1) the structure of workplace, (2) policy, (3) an effect related to the researchers' presence, (4) the workplace champion and (5) reciprocity. There are several recommendations from this article. Workplace health promotion strategies for sun safety need to be contextualised to individual workplaces to take advantage of the strengths of the workplace and to build capacity.

  15. Slash X Honduras Caribbean pine hybrids: An overview of nursery production systems in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. G. Baxter

    2002-01-01

    The Queensland Department of Primary Industries (DPI) Forestry has a requirement to produce 4.5 million trees per year for its plantation production program. This stock is raised at DPI Forestry nurseries in the southeast and far north of Queensland. To improve the productivity of its plantation estate, DPI Forestry has invested significant resources in the development...

  16. Perspectives of resettled African refugees on accessing medicines and pharmacy services in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services among refugees in Queensland, Australia, from the perspectives of resettled African refugees. A generic qualitative approach was used in this study. Resettled African refugees were recruited via a purposive snowball sampling method. The researcher collected data from different African refugee communities, specifically those from Sudanese, Congolese and Somalian communities. Participants were invited by a community health leader to participate in the study; a community health leader is a trained member of the refugee community who acts as a 'health information conduit' between refugees and the health system. Invitations were done either face-to-face, telephonically or by email. The focus groups were digitally recorded in English and transcribed verbatim by the researcher. Transcripts were entered into NVIVO© 11 and the data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four focus groups were conducted between October and November 2014 in the city of Brisbane with African refugees, one with five Somali refugees, one with five Congolese refugees, one with three refugee community health leaders from South Sudan, Liberia and Eritrea and one with three refugee community health leaders from Uganda, Burundi and South Sudan. Eleven sub-themes emerged through the coding process, which resulted in four overarching themes: health system differences, navigating the Australian health system, communication barriers and health care-seeking behaviour. With regard to accessing medicines and pharmacy services, this study has shown that there is a gap between resettled refugees' expectations of health services and the reality of the Australian health system. Access barriers identified included language barriers, issues with the Translating and Interpreter Service, a lack of professional communication and cultural beliefs affecting health care-seeking behaviour. This exploratory study has

  17. Relapse to smoking following release from smoke-free correctional facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljević, Cheneal; de Andrade, Dominique; Coomber, Ross; Kinner, Stuart A

    2018-06-01

    Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia. A cross-sectional survey of 114 people at parole offices within two months of release from prison was used. The survey measured health, social, and criminological factors related to tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with reduced post-release smoking levels compared to pre-incarceration levels. 94% of participants relapsed to smoking within two months of release; 72% relapsed on the day of release. 62% of participants smoked significantly less per day after compared with before incarceration. Living with a partner (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.77, 95%CI 1.02-7.52), expressing support for smoke-free prison policies (OR 2.44, 95%CI 1.12-5.32), intending to remain abstinent post-release (OR 4.29, 95%CI 1.88-9.82), and intending to quit in the future (OR 3.88, 95%CI 1.66-9.07) were associated with reduced smoking post-release. Use of illicit drugs post-release was negatively associated with reduced smoking post-release (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.79). In multivariate analyses, pre-release intention to remain smoke-free was associated with reduced smoking post-release (AOR 2.69, 95%CI 1.01-7.14). Relapse to smoking after release from smoke-free prisons is common, but many who relapse smoke less than before incarceration, suggesting that smoke-free prison policies may reduce post-release tobacco smoking. There is a need for tailored, evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions for people recently released from prison. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of an invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus, on a pasture community in south east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Belgeri, Amalia; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2017-12-01

    Parthenium weed is a highly invasive alien species in more than 40 countries around the world. Along with severe negative effects on human and animal health and crop production, it also causes harm to ecosystem functioning by reducing the native plant species biodiversity. However, its impacts on native plant species, especially in pasture communities, are less known. Given parthenium weed causes substantial losses to Australian pastures' productivity, it is crucial to estimate its impact on pasture communities. This study evaluates the impact of parthenium weed upon species diversity in a pasture community at Kilcoy, south east Queensland, Australia. Sub-sites containing three levels of parthenium weed density (i.e. high, low and zero) were chosen to quantify the above- and below-ground plant community structure. Species richness, diversity and evenness were all found to be significantly reduced as the density of parthenium weed increased; an effect was evident even when parthenium weed was present at relatively low densities (i.e. two plants m -2 ). This trend was observed in the summer season as well as in winter season when this annual weed was absent from the above-ground plant community. This demonstrates the strong impact that parthenium weed has upon the community composition and functioning throughout the year. It also shows the long-term impact of parthenium weed on the soil seed bank where it had displaced several native species. So, management options used for parthenium weed should also consider the reduction of parthenium weed seed bank along with controlling its above-ground populations.

  19. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and paracetamol use in Queensland and in the whole of Australia

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    Tett Susan E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross national drug utilization studies can provide information about different influences on physician prescribing. This is important for medicines with issues around safety and quality of use, like non selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ns-NSAIDs and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors. To enable comparison of prescription medicine use across different jurisdictions with a range of population sizes, data first need to be compared within Australia to understand whether use in a smaller sub-population may be considered as representative of the total use within Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the utilization of non selective NSAID, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol between Queensland and Australia. Method Dispensing data were obtained for concession beneficiaries for Australia for ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol subsidized by the PBS over the period 1997–2003. The same data were purchased for Queensland. Data were converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day (World Health Organization anatomical therapeutic chemical classification, 2005. Results Total NSAID and paracetamol consumption were similar in Australia and Queensland. Ns-NSAID use decreased sharply with the introduction of COX-2 inhibitors (from approximately 80 to 40 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day. Paracetamol was constant (approximately 45 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day. COX-2 inhibitors consumption was initially higher in Queensland than in the whole of Australia. Conclusion Despite initial divergence in celecoxib use between Queensland and Australia, the use of ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol overall, in concession beneficiaries, was comparable in Australia and Queensland.

  20. A Community-Directed Integrated Strongyloides Control Program in Queensland, Australia

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    Adrian Miller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two phases of a community-directed intervention to address strongyloidiasis in the remote Aboriginal community of Woorabinda in central Queensland, Australia. The first phase provides the narrative of a community-driven ‘treat-and-test’ mass drug administration (MDA intervention that was co-designed by the Community Health Service and the community. The second phase is a description of the re-engagement of the community in order to disseminate the key factors for success in the previous MDA for Strongyloides stercoralis, as this information was not shared or captured in the first phase. During the first phase in 2004, there was a high prevalence of strongyloidiasis (12% faecal examination, 30% serology; n = 944 community members tested that resulted in increased morbidity and at least one death in the community. Between 2004–2005, the community worked in partnership with the Community Health Service to implement a S. stercoralis control program, where all of the residents were treated with oral ivermectin, and repeat doses were given for those with positive S. stercoralis serology. The community also developed their own health promotion campaign using locally-made resources targeting relevant environmental health problems and concerns. Ninety-two percent of the community residents participated in the program, and the prevalence of strongyloidiasis at the time of the ‘treat-and-test’ intervention was 16.6% [95% confidence interval 14.2–19.3]. The cure rate after two doses of ivermectin was 79.8%, based on pre-serology and post-serology tests. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of local Aboriginal leadership and governance and a high level of community involvement in this successful mass drug administration program to address S. stercoralis. The commitment required of these leaders was demanding, and involved intense work over a period of several months. Apart from controlling strongyloidiasis

  1. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

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    Janina Kaluza

    Full Text Available The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline.

  2. Surveillance of hospitalizations with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza infection in Queensland, Australia

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    Frances Birrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection in Queensland, Australia between 25 May and 3 October 2009 and to examine the relationship between timing of antiviral treatment and severity of illness.Method: Using data from the Queensland Health EpiLog information system, descriptive analysis and logistic regression modelling were used to describe and model factors which influence patient outcomes (death, admission to intensive care unit and/or special care unit. Data on patients admitted to hospital in Queensland with confirmed pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were included in this analysis.Results: 1236 patients with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were admitted to hospitals in Queensland during the study period. Of the total group: 15% were admitted to an intensive care unit or special care unit; 3% died; 34% were under the age of 18 years and 8% were 65 years of age or older; and 55% had at least one underlying medical condition. Among the 842 patients for whom data were available regarding the use of antiviral drugs, antiviral treatment was initiated in 737 (87.5% patients with treatment commencing at a median of one day (range 1–33 days after onset of illness. Admission to an intensive care unit or special care unit (ICU/SCU or death was significantly associated with increased age, lack of timeliness of antiviral treatment, chronic renal disease and morbid obesity.Discussion: Early antiviral treatment was significantly associated with lower likelihood of ICU/SCU admission or death. Early antiviral treatment for influenza cases may therefore have important public health implications.

  3. Using Microsimulation to Estimate the Future Health and Economic Costs of Salmonellosis under Climate Change in Central Queensland, Australia.

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    Stephen, Dimity Maree; Barnett, Adrian Gerard

    2017-12-11

    The incidence of salmonellosis, a costly foodborne disease, is rising in Australia. Salmonellosis increases during high temperatures and rainfall, and future incidence is likely to rise under climate change. Allocating funding to preventative strategies would be best informed by accurate estimates of salmonellosis costs under climate change and by knowing which population subgroups will be most affected. We used microsimulation models to estimate the health and economic costs of salmonellosis in Central Queensland under climate change between 2016 and 2036 to inform preventative strategies. We projected the entire population of Central Queensland to 2036 by simulating births, deaths, and migration, and salmonellosis and two resultant conditions, reactive arthritis and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. We estimated salmonellosis risks and costs under baseline conditions and under projected climate conditions for Queensland under the A1FI emissions scenario using composite projections from 6 global climate models (warm with reduced rainfall). We estimated the resulting costs based on direct medical expenditures combined with the value of lost quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) based on willingness-to-pay. Estimated costs of salmonellosis between 2016 and 2036 increased from 456.0 QALYs (95% CI: 440.3, 473.1) and AUD29,900,000 million (95% CI: AUD28,900,000, AUD31,600,000), assuming no climate change, to 485.9 QALYs (95% CI: 469.6, 503.5) and AUD31,900,000 (95% CI: AUD30,800,000, AUD33,000,000) under the climate change scenario. We applied a microsimulation approach to estimate the costs of salmonellosis and its sequelae in Queensland during 2016-2036 under baseline conditions and according to climate change projections. This novel application of microsimulation models demonstrates the models' potential utility to researchers for examining complex interactions between weather and disease to estimate future costs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1370.

  4. What makes community engagement effective?: Lessons from the Eliminate Dengue Program in Queensland Australia.

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    Pamela A Kolopack

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than 40% of the population is at risk from dengue and recent estimates suggest that up to 390 million dengue infections are acquired every year. The Eliminate Dengue (ED Program is investigating the use of Wolbachia-infected, transmission-compromised, mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission. Previous introductions of genetically-modified strategies for dengue vector control have generated controversy internationally by inadequately engaging host communities. Community Engagement (CE was a key component of the ED Program's initial open release trials in Queensland Australia. Their approach to CE was perceived as effective by the ED team's senior leadership, members of its CE team, and by its funders, but if and why this was the case was unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study of the ED Program's approach to CE to identify and critically examine its components, and to explain whether and how these efforts contributed to the support received by stakeholders.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants with a range of experiences and perspectives related to the ED Program's CE activities. Our analytic approach combined techniques of grounded theory and qualitative description. The ED Program's approach to CE reflected four foundational features: 1 enabling conditions; 2 leadership; 3 core commitments and guiding values; and 4 formative social science research. These foundations informed five key operational practices: 1 building the CE team; 2 integrating CE into management practices; 3 discerning the community of stakeholders; 4 establishing and maintaining a presence in the community; and 5 socializing the technology and research strategy. We also demonstrate how these practices contributed to stakeholders' willingness to support the trials.Our case study has identified, and explained the functional relationships among, the critical features of the ED Program's approach to CE. It has also

  5. Formulating a VET roadmap for the waste and recycling sector: A case study from Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G., E-mail: gudavis@cytanet.com.cy [Dr Georgina Davis, ABN 12 744 598 837, Banksia Beach, Brisbane, QLD 4507 (Australia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing qualifications do not meet the needs of the sector in Queensland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Businesses may not be best positioned to identify training needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Companies are developing training internally to meet their own specific needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smaller companies lack the resources to develop internal training are disadvantaged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is industry support for an entry-level, minimum industry qualification. - Abstract: Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an essential tool for providing waste management and recycling workers with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to beneficially influence their own employment and career development; and to also ensure productivity and safe working conditions within the organisations in which they are employed. Current training opportunities within Queensland for the sector are limited and not widely communicated or marketed; with other States, particularly Victoria and New South Wales, realising higher numbers of VET enrollments for waste management courses. This paper presents current VET opportunities and trends for the Queensland waste management sector. Results from a facilitated workshop to identify workforce requirements and future training needs organised by the Waste Contractors and Recyclers Association of Queensland (WCRAQ) are also presented and discussion follows on the future training needs of the industry within Queensland.

  6. Formulating a VET roadmap for the waste and recycling sector: A case study from Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Existing qualifications do not meet the needs of the sector in Queensland. ► Businesses may not be best positioned to identify training needs. ► Companies are developing training internally to meet their own specific needs. ► Smaller companies lack the resources to develop internal training are disadvantaged. ► There is industry support for an entry-level, minimum industry qualification. - Abstract: Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an essential tool for providing waste management and recycling workers with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to beneficially influence their own employment and career development; and to also ensure productivity and safe working conditions within the organisations in which they are employed. Current training opportunities within Queensland for the sector are limited and not widely communicated or marketed; with other States, particularly Victoria and New South Wales, realising higher numbers of VET enrollments for waste management courses. This paper presents current VET opportunities and trends for the Queensland waste management sector. Results from a facilitated workshop to identify workforce requirements and future training needs organised by the Waste Contractors and Recyclers Association of Queensland (WCRAQ) are also presented and discussion follows on the future training needs of the industry within Queensland.

  7. Universal access to ambulance does not increase overall demand for ambulance services in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Vivienne C; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Eeles, David; Ting, Joseph Y S; Aitken, Peter J; Fitzgerald, Gerard J

    2013-02-01

    To determine the impact of the introduction of universal access to ambulance services via the implementation of the Community Ambulance Cover (CAC) program in Queensland in 2003-04. The study involved a 10-year (2000-01 to 2009-10) retrospective analysis of routinely collected data reported by the Queensland Ambulance Service (QAS) and by the Council of Ambulance Authorities. The data were analysed for the impact of policy changes that resulted in universal access to ambulance services in Queensland. QAS is a statewide, publically funded ambulance service. In Queensland, ambulance utilisation rate (AUR) per 1000 persons grew by 41% over the decade or 3.9% per annum (10-year mean=149.8, 95% CI: 137.3-162.3). The AUR mean after CAC was significantly higher for urgent incidents than for non-urgent ones. However projection modelling demonstrates that URs after the introduction of CAC were significantly lower than the projected utilisation for the same period. The introduction of universal access under the Community Ambulance Cover program in Queensland has not had any significant independent long-term impact on demand overall. There has been a reduction in the long-term growth rate, which may have been contributed to by an 'appropriate use' public awareness program.

  8. Phylogenetic Variation of Chelonid Alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) in Populations of Green Turtles Chelonia mydas along the Queensland Coast, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, E; Nainu, F; Jones, K; Juntunen, K; Bell, I; Gaston, J; Scott, J; Trocini, S; Burgess, G W

    2017-09-01

    Sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a disease marked by the proliferation of benign but debilitating cutaneous and occasional visceral tumors, likely to be caused by chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). This study presents a phylogeny of ChHV5 strains found on the east coast of Queensland, Australia, and a validation for previously unused primers. Two different primer sets (gB-1534 and gB-813) were designed to target a region including part of the UL27 glycoprotein B (gB) gene and part of UL28 of ChHV5. Sequences obtained from FP tumors found on juvenile green turtles Chelonia mydas (Queensland, and Queensland clusters. The clusters reflect the collection sites on the east coast of Queensland with a definitive north-south trend. Received October 22, 2016; accepted May 7, 2017.

  9. Q fever in an endemic region of North Queensland, Australia: A 10 year review

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    Pirathaban Sivabalan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: In this endemic region of north Queensland, exposure to wildlife and seasonal rainfall may be substantial exposure factors for the development of Q fever. The region studied is a popular tourist destination. An understanding of risk factors involved can help practitioners who see residents or returned travelers from the region, with an undifferentiated fever.

  10. Suicides among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations in Australia: an analysis of the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Sexual orientation is seldom recorded at death in Australia, and to date there have been no studies on the relationship between those that have died by suicide and sexuality or minority gender identity in Australia. The aim of the present study is to determine whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex individuals who die by suicide constitute a unique subpopulation of those who die by suicide, when compared with non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex suicide deaths. The Queensland Suicide Register holds records of all suicides in Queensland since 1990. All cases from 2000 to 2009 (inclusive; a total of 5,966 cases) were checked for potential indicators of individuals' sexual orientation and gender identification. A total of 35 lesbian (n = 10), gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 2), and transgender (n = 1) suicide cases were identified. Three comparison cases of non-LGBT suicides for each LGBT suicide were then located, matched by age and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. It was significantly more likely that depression was mentioned in the cases of LGBT suicides than in non-LGBT cases. While 12.4% of the comparison group had been diagnosed with psychotic disorders, there were no such diagnoses among LGBT individuals. LGBT individuals experienced relationship problems more often, with relationship conflict also being more frequent than in non-LGBT cases. Despite its limitations, this study - the first of its kind in Australia - seems to indicate that LGBT people would require targeted approaches in mental and general health services. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Metals in agricultural produce associated with acid-mine drainage in Mount Morgan (Queensland, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Beckett, Victoria A; McCauley, Gaylene J Taylor; Duivenvoorden, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd < 1, Cu 11, Fe 106, Mn 52, Pb < 5, Zn 25 and S 3934; similar levels were found in lucerne hay (used as cattle feed) from two Dee fields. All lucerne and lucerne hay data were generally comparable with levels found in the lucerne reference fields, suggesting no AMD influence; the levels were within the US National Research Council (US NRC) guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake. Pasture grass (also cattle feed) from two fields in the Dee River floodplains gave mean concentrations (mg/kg dry) of Cd 0.14, Cu 12, Fe 313, Mn 111, Pb 1.4, Zn 86 and S 2450. All metal levels from the Dee and from reference sites were below the US NRC guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake; however, the average Cd, Cu and Fe levels in Dee samples were significantly greater than the corresponding levels in the pasture grass reference sites, suggesting AMD influence in the Dee samples. The average levels in the edible portions of mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and

  12. A population-based spatio-temporal analysis of Clostridium difficile infection in Queensland, Australia over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Robson, Jenny; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Yakob, Laith; McKenzie, Samantha J; Paterson, David L; Riley, Thomas V; Clements, Archie C A

    2014-11-01

    To identify the spatio-temporal patterns and environmental factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Queensland, Australia. Data from patients tested for CDI were collected from 392 postcodes across Queensland between May 2003 and December 2012. A binomial logistic regression model, with CDI status as the outcome, was built in a Bayesian framework, incorporating fixed effects for sex, age, source of the sample (healthcare facility or community), elevation, rainfall, land surface temperature, seasons of the year, time in months and spatially unstructured random effects at the postcode level. C. difficile was identified in 13.1% of the samples, the proportion significantly increased over the study period from 5.9% in 2003 to 18.8% in 2012. CDI peaked in summer (14.6%) and was at its lowest in autumn (10.1%). Other factors significantly associated with CDI included female sex (OR: 1.08; 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), community source samples (OR: 1.12; 95%CI: 1.05-1.20), and higher rainfall (OR: 1.09; 95%CI: 1.02-1.17). There was no significant spatial variation in CDI after accounting for the fixed effects in the model. There was an increasing annual trend in CDI in Queensland from 2003 to 2012. Peaks of CDI were found in summer (December-February), which is at odds with the current epidemiological pattern described for northern hemisphere countries. Epidemiologically plausible explanations for this disparity require further investigation. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating the stratigraphy and palaeoenvironments for a suite of newly discovered mid-Cretaceous vertebrate fossil-localities in the Winton Formation, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ryan T.; Roberts, Eric M.; Darlington, Vikie; Salisbury, Steven W.

    2017-08-01

    The Winton Formation of central Queensland is recognized as a quintessential source of mid-Cretaceous terrestrial faunas and floras in Australia. However, sedimentological investigations linking fossil assemblages and palaeoenvironments across this unit remain limited. The intent of this study was to interpret depositional environments and improve stratigraphic correlations between multiple fossil localities within the preserved Winton Formation in the Eromanga Basin, including Isisford, Lark Quarry, and Bladensburg National Park. Twenty-three facies and six repeated facies associations were documented, indicating a mosaic of marginal marine to inland alluvial depositional environments. These developed synchronously with the final regression of the Eromanga Seaway from central Australia during the late Albian-early Turonian. Investigations of regional- and local-scale structural features and outcrop, core and well analysis were combined with detrital zircon provenance signatures to help correlate stratigraphy and vertebrate faunas across the basin. Significant palaeoenvironmental differences exist between the lower and upper portions of the preserved Winton Formation, warranting informal subdivisions; a lower tidally influenced fluvial-deltaic member and an upper inland alluvial member. This work further demonstrates that the Isisford fauna is part of the lower member of the preserved Winton Formation; whereas, fossil localities around Winton, including Lark Quarry and Bladensburg National Park, are part of the upper member of the Winton Formation. These results permit a more meaningful framework for both regional and global comparisons of the Winton flora and fauna.

  14. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  15. The challenges of undergraduate mental health nursing education from the perspectives of heads of schools of nursing in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; McAllister, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of a skilled mental health nursing workforce is persistent and worsening. Research consistently demonstrates the inability of the comprehensive model of nursing education to meet nursing workforce needs in mental health. Introducing specialisation in mental health at undergraduate level has been suggested as a strategy to address this problem. Exploration of barriers to this educational approach is essential. The aim of this research is to examine with Queensland Heads of Schools of Nursing, the perceived barriers to a specialist mental health nursing stream within an undergraduate nursing programme. Qualitative exploratory methods, involving in-depth telephone interviews with Heads of Schools of Nursing in Queensland, Australia. Data were analysed thematically. Participants encountered a number of barriers revealed in five main themes: academic staffing; staff attitudes; funding and resource implications; industry support; entry points and articulation pathways. Barriers to the implementation of mental health nursing specialisation in undergraduate programmes are evident. While these barriers pose real threats, potential solutions are also evident. Most notably is the need for Schools of Nursing to become more co-operative in mounting mental health nursing specialisations in a smaller number of universities, where specialist expertise is identified. Quality mental health services rely on a sufficiently skilled and knowledgeable nursing workforce. To achieve this it is important to identify and implement the educational approach best suited to prepare nurses for practice in this field.

  16. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the repeatability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring gully topography: A case study from Aratula, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0

  18. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytolith assemblages from tropical rainforest soil tops (Queensland, Australia: validation of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytoliths are micrometric particles of amorphous silica that form inside or between the cells of higher plant tissues throughout the life of a plant. With plant decay, phytoliths are either incorporated into soils or exported to sediments via regional watersheds. Phytolith morphological assemblages are increasingly used as proxy of grassland diversity and tree cover density in inter-tropical areas. Here, we investigate whether, along altitudinal gradients in northeast Queensland (Australia, changes in the δ18O signature of soil top phytolith assemblages reflect changes in mean annual temperature (MAT and in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation, as predicted by equilibrium temperature coefficients previously published for silica. Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 16 phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE, using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP and MAT values at the sampled sites were calculated by the ANUCLIM software. δ18Oprecipitation estimates were calculated using the Bowen and Wilkinson (2002 model, slightly modified. An empirical temperature-dependant relationship was obtained: δ18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW = −0.4 (±0.2 t (°C + 46 (±3 (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.05; n = 12. Despite the various unknowns introduced when estimating δ18Oprecipitation values and the large uncertainties on δ18Owood phytolith values, the temperature coefficient (−0.4 ± 0.2‰ °C−1 is in the range of values previously obtained for natural quartz, fresh and sedimentary diatoms and harvested grass phytoliths (from −0.2 to −0.5‰ °C−1. The consistency supports the reliability of δ18Owood phytolith signatures for recording

  19. Building a Plant DNA Barcode Reference Library for a Diverse Tropical Flora: An Example from Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Costion

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A foundation for a DNA barcode reference library for the tropical plants of Australia is presented here. A total of 1572 DNA barcode sequences are compiled from 848 tropical Queensland species. The dataset represents 35% of the total flora of Queensland’s Wet Tropics Bioregion, 57% of its tree species and 28% of the shrub species. For approximately half of the sampled species, we investigated the occurrence of infraspecific molecular variation in DNA barcode loci rbcLa, matK, and the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer region across previously recognized biogeographic barriers. We found preliminary support for the notion that DNA barcode reference libraries can be used as a tool for inferring biogeographic patterns at regional scales. It is expected that this dataset will find applications in taxonomic, ecological, and applied conservation research.

  20. Incorporating palaeoclimate data into water security planning and decision making - a case study from southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiem, Anthony; Vance, Tessa; Tozer, Carly; Roberts, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Decision makers in the water sector need to deal with existing hydroclimatic variability and uncertainty about future changes to climate and catchment conditions. Identifying solutions for hydroclimatic risk adaptation strategies that are both optimal and robust in the presence of variability and uncertainty presents a difficult challenge. A major reason for this challenge is the fact that the instrumental record in Australia is short ( 60-130 years) and fails to encompass enough climate variability to allow the calculation of robust statistics around the baseline risk of extreme events (e.g. multi-year droughts, decadal periods with clustering of major flood events). This climate variability is documented pre-1900 in palaeoclimate records from sources such as corals, tree-rings, freshwater and marine sediments. Despite being remote from Queensland, a high resolution and highly correlated palaeoclimate record from the Law Dome ice cores in Antarctica (Vance et al. 2015) is also now available and has identified eight mega-droughts (lasting from 5-39 years) during 1000-2009 AD. Most importantly, the palaeoclimate information confirms that the post-1900 instrumental period (i.e. the period on which all water resources infrastructure, policy, operation rules and strategies is based) does not capture the full range of variability that has occurred. Other work also clearly shows that, out to 2050 at least, impacts associated with natural variability significantly exceed even the worst-case climate change scenarios (i.e. obtained from Global Climate Models run under the highest emission scenarios). This presentation will demonstrate how the Law Dome ice cores from Antarctica have been used to produce a highly accurate, 1000 year, annual and seasonal resolution, hydroclimate reconstruction (i.e. precipitation and streamflow) for the southeast Queensland region of Australia. We will then show how the palaeoclimate data has been incorporated into the South East Queensland

  1. On interception modelling of a lowland coastal rainforest in northern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2006-10-01

    SummaryRecent studies of the water balance of tropical rainforests in northern Queensland have revealed that large fractions of rainfall, up to 30%, are intercepted by the canopy and lost as evaporation. These loss rates are much higher than those reported for continental rainforests, for example, in the Amazon basin, where interception is around 9% of rainfall. Higher interception losses have been found in coastal and mountain rainforests and substantial advection of energy during rainfall is proposed to account for these results. This paper uses a process based model of interception to analyse the interception losses at Oliver Creek, a lowland coastal rainforest site in northern Queensland with a mean annual rainfall of 3952 mm. The observed interception loss of 25% of rainfall for the period August 2001 to January 2004 can be reproduced by the model with a suitable choice of the three key controlling variables, the canopy storage capacity, mean rainfall rate and mean wet canopy evaporation rate. Our analyses suggest that the canopy storage capacity of the Oliver Creek rainforest is between 3.0 and 3.5 mm, higher than reported for most other rainforests. Despite the high canopy capacity at our site, the interception losses can only be accounted for with energy advection during rainfall in the range 40-70% of the incident energy.

  2. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  3. The epidemiology of horse-related injuries for different horse exposures, activities, and age groups in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jacelle; Sathivelu, Maria; Tetsworth, Kevin; Pollard, Cliff; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The dangers associated with horse riding, a popular activity throughout Australia, are well documented; yet, few studies have comprehensively described injuries caused by horses to nonriders. This study aimed to facilitate targeted injury prevention strategies and appropriate trauma management by describing all horse-related injuries, for both riders and nonriders, in Queensland, and identifying those at greatest risk. Horse-related injury data from 2005 to 2009 were extracted from the Queensland Trauma Registry. Descriptive comparisons were undertaken for demographic, injury, and acute care characteristics between riders and nonriders, between pediatric and adult cases, and between sports/leisure and work injuries. The relative risk of surgery by sex and between riders and nonriders was assessed. More than 25% of injuries occurred in people not riding a horse. Nonriders sustained a significantly higher proportion of internal organ injuries, open wounds, as well as facial and pelvic/abdominal injuries. Females accounted for more than 80% of children who were injured while riding a horse. For adults, 25% were injured while working, and more than 66% of injured workers were male. Injuries most commonly occurred in regional areas. Surgery was most common among children, nonriders, and those with Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 1 to 8. The likelihood of surgery was 25% higher for nonriders (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.38%). Horse-related injuries are most prevalent in identifiable populations, particularly young female riders and adult males injured while working. Injuries inflicted by horses to nonriders contribute more than 27% of all horse-related injuries; however, most previous research has been limited to injured riders. Compared with riders, nonriders more frequently sustain internal, facial, and pelvic injuries; are male; and undergo surgery. The results of this study may be used to tailor prevention strategies and inform trauma management specific to the

  4. Differences in characteristics between suicide cases of farm managers compared to those of farm labourers in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautovska, Urska; McPhedran, Samara; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Farmers constitute an occupation group at a heightened suicide risk compared to the general population. To date, research has tried to explain this peculiarity by identifying suicide risk factors that are common to the whole of the farming population. There are, however, indications that risk factors may be different for different sub-populations of farmers, such as younger/older farmers or farm managers/farm labourers. This study compared the characteristics of suicides by farm managers and farm labourers, while controlling for the effect of age. A review of two datasets, the Queensland Suicide Register and the National Coroners Information System, was conducted in which a total of 78 cases of farm managers and 69 cases of farm labourers were identified as a suicide during 2000-2009, Queensland, Australia. The main outcome measures included various demographic characteristics, circumstances related to death, health and mental health variables, and history of stressful life events. The two groups differed in marital status, living arrangements, ethnicity, physical and mental illness, alcohol and drug abuse, contact with a health professional prior to death, and specific life events such as relationship breakdown and recent/pending unemployment. The majority of these differences were not statistically significant once age was accounted for. However, differences in psychiatric variables and experience of a recent/pending unemployment remained significant. This study contributes towards better understanding of suicide among farmers in different job positions, and highlights the need for tailored suicide prevention initiatives that consider a combination of age- and job-specific suicide risk and protective factors among farmers.

  5. Improving delivery of a health-promoting-environments program: experiences from Queensland Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, S

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the key components of a statewide multisite health-promoting-environments program. Contemporary health-promotion programs in settings such as schools, workplaces and hospitals use organisational development theory to address the health issues of the setting, including the physical environment, the organisational environment, and the specific health needs of the employees and consumers of the service. Program principles include management of each project by the participant organisation or site (for example, a school or workplace), using resources available within the organisation and the local community, voluntary participation, social justice and participant-based priority setting, and evaluation and monitoring. Adoption of these principles implies a shift in the role of the health worker from implementer to facilitator. Based on the experience of Queensland Health, it is proposed that the essential building blocks of the health-promoting-environments program are an intersectoral policy base, a model for action, training and resources, local facilitators, support from local organisations, a supportive network of sites, marketing of the program, and a state-based evaluation and monitoring system. The program in Queensland was able to develop a significant number of these components over the 1990-1996 period. In regard to evaluation, process measures can be built around the program components; however, further research is required for development of impact indicators and benchmarks on quality.

  6. New Mid-Cretaceous (Latest Albian) Dinosaurs from Winton, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocknull, Scott A.; White, Matt A.; Tischler, Travis R.; Cook, Alex G.; Calleja, Naomi D.; Sloan, Trish; Elliott, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Australia's dinosaurian fossil record is exceptionally poor compared to that of other similar-sized continents. Most taxa are known from fragmentary isolated remains with uncertain taxonomic and phylogenetic placement. A better understanding of the Australian dinosaurian record is crucial to understanding the global palaeobiogeography of dinosaurian groups, including groups previously considered to have had Gondwanan origins, such as the titanosaurs and carcharodontosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe three new dinosaurs from the late Early Cretaceous (latest Albian) Winton Formation of eastern Australia, including; Wintonotitan wattsi gen. et sp. nov., a basal titanosauriform; Diamantinasaurus matildae gen. et sp. nov., a derived lithostrotian titanosaur; and Australovenator wintonensis gen. et sp. nov., an allosauroid. We compare an isolated astragalus from the Early Cretaceous of southern Australia; formerly identified as Allosaurus sp., and conclude that it most-likely represents Australovenator sp. Conclusion/Significance The occurrence of Australovenator from the Aptian to latest Albian confirms the presence in Australia of allosauroids basal to the Carcharodontosauridae. These new taxa, along with the fragmentary remains of other taxa, indicate a diverse Early Cretaceous sauropod and theropod fauna in Australia, including plesiomorphic forms (e.g. Wintonotitan and Australovenator) and more derived forms (e.g. Diamantinasaurus). PMID:19584929

  7. New Mid-Cretaceous (latest Albian dinosaurs fromWinton, Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hocknull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Australia's dinosaurian fossil record is exceptionally poor compared to that of other similar-sized continents. Most taxa are known from fragmentary isolated remains with uncertain taxonomic and phylogenetic placement. A better understanding of the Australian dinosaurian record is crucial to understanding the global palaeobiogeography of dinosaurian groups, including groups previously considered to have had Gondwanan origins, such as the titanosaurs and carcharodontosaurids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe three new dinosaurs from the late Early Cretaceous (latest Albian Winton Formation of eastern Australia, including; Wintonotitan wattsi gen. et sp. nov., a basal titanosauriform; Diamantinasaurus matildae gen. et sp. nov., a derived lithostrotian titanosaur; and Australovenator wintonensis gen. et sp. nov., an allosauroid. We compare an isolated astragalus from the Early Cretaceous of southern Australia; formerly identified as Allosaurus sp., and conclude that it most-likely represents Australovenator sp. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The occurrence of Australovenator from the Aptian to latest Albian confirms the presence in Australia of allosauroids basal to the Carcharodontosauridae. These new taxa, along with the fragmentary remains of other taxa, indicate a diverse Early Cretaceous sauropod and theropod fauna in Australia, including plesiomorphic forms (e.g. Wintonotitan and Australovenator and more derived forms (e.g. Diamantinasaurus.

  8. Dwarfism and feeding behaviours in Oligo–Miocene crocodiles from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Instances of dwarfism in the fossil record are of interest to palaeontologists because they often provide insight into aspects of palaeoecology. Fossil species of Australian-Pacific mekosuchine genus Mekosuchus have been described as dwarf, primarily terrestrial crocodiles, in contrast with the nearly ubiquitous semi-aquatic habitus of extant crocodilians (Willis 1997. This hypothesis has been difficult to test because of limited knowledge of the cranial and postcranial skeleton of extinct taxa and the continuous nature of crocodilian growth. New crocodilian vertebral material from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, tentatively referred to Mekosuchus whitehunterensis Willis, 1997, displays morphological maturity indicative of adult snout-vent length little over a half-meter, proportionally smaller than extant dwarf taxa. Further, this material displays morphology that indicates a relatively large epaxial neck musculature for its body-size. These attributes suggest this dwarf mekosuchine employed unusual feeding behaviours. The ability to perform normal death-roll, de-fleshing behaviours would be limited in a mekosuchine of such small size. Given the powerful neck muscles and other anatomical features, it is more likely that this mekosuchine killed and/or dismembered its prey using a relatively forceful lifting and shaking of the head.

  9. Isotope studies on mechanisms of groundwater recharge to an alluvial aquifer in Gatton, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, J.K.; Morawska, L.

    1997-01-01

    Gatton is an important agricultural area for Queensland where about 40% of its vegetables needs are produced using groundwater as the main source. An alluvial Aquifer is located about 30m beneath the layers of alluvial sediments ranging from black soils of volcanic origin on top, layers of alluvial sands, clays and beds of sand and gravel. The leakage of creek flows has been considered to be the main source of recharge to this aquifer. A number of weirs have been built across the Lockyer and Laidley creeks to allow surface water to infiltrate through the beds when the creeks flow. Water levels in bores in a section located in the middle of the alluvial plain (Crowley Vale) have been declining for the last 20 years with little or no success in recharging from the creeks. Acute water shortages have been experienced in the Gatton area during the droughts of 1980-81, 1986-87 and 1994-97. Naturally occurring stable isotopes, 2 H, 18 0 and 13 C as well as radioisotopes 3 H and 14 C have been used to delineate sources of recharge and active recharge areas. Tritium tracing of soil moisture in the unsaturated soil was also used to determine direct infiltration rates

  10. Predictors of autopsy following stillbirth in Queensland, Australia: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Boyle, Frances M; Horey, Dell; Lourie, Rohan; Wilson, Patricia; Coory, Michael; Flenady, Vicki

    2017-02-01

    Accurate determination of causes of stillbirth is critical to effective prevention. Autopsy remains the gold standard investigation for stillbirth; however, with low autopsy rates many stillbirths are likely to be 'unexplored' rather than 'unexplained'. To determine factors associated with autopsy following stillbirth. Routinely collected population-based data on all singleton stillbirths of at least 400 g birthweight or 20 weeks gestation in Queensland between July 2000 and December 2011 were examined. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR, 99% CI) were calculated accounting for sociodemographic, pregnancy and medical factors. Of interest was initially unexplained stillbirth on the death certificate; analysis was stratified by gestational age group (autopsy performed. Initially unexplained stillbirth was associated with decreased odds of autopsy at late gestation (28-36 weeks, aOR 0.63 (99% CI 0.42-0.93); ≥37 weeks, aOR 0.53 (99% CI 0.35-0.81)) as was intrapartum stillbirth (autopsy following stillbirth. Pregnancy factors are associated with stillbirth autopsy. These findings have implications for development of appropriate information for parents and education of clinical staff. Further research is needed into factors influencing autopsy following stillbirth. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. The cumulative impacts of repeated heavy rainfall, flooding and altered water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, I R; Sommer, B; Zann, M; Zhao, J-X; Pandolfi, J M

    2015-07-15

    Terrestrial runoff and flooding have resulted in major impacts on coral communities worldwide, but we lack detailed understanding of flood plume conditions and their ecological effects. Over the course of repeated flooding between 2010 and 2013, we measured coral cover and water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. In 2013, salinity, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were altered for up to six months post-flooding. Submarine groundwater caused hypo-saline conditions for a further four months. Despite the greater magnitude of flooding in 2013, declines in coral abundance (∼28%) from these floods were lower than the 2011 flood (∼40%), which occurred immediately after a decade of severe drought. There was an overall cumulative decrease of coral by ∼56% from 2010 to 2013. Our study highlights the need for local scale monitoring and research to facilitate informed management and conservation of catchments and marine environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of ertapenem and antipseudomonal carbapenem usage and carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa among 12 hospitals in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, David A J; Morton, Anthony P; Playford, E Geoffrey

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between ertapenem and antipseudomonal carbapenem use and carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 12 hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Data on usage of ertapenem and other antipseudomonal carbapenems, measured in defined daily doses per 1000 occupied bed-days, were collated using statewide pharmacy dispensing and distribution software from January 2007 until June 2011. The prevalence of unique carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates derived from statewide laboratory information systems was collected for the same time period. Mixed-effects models were used to determine any relationship between ertapenem and antipseudomonal carbapenem usage and carbapenem resistance among P. aeruginosa isolates in the 12 hospitals analysed. No relationship between ertapenem usage and P. aeruginosa carbapenem resistance was observed. The introduction of ertapenem did not replace antipseudomonal carbapenem prescribing to any significant extent. However, an association between greater usage of antipseudomonal carbapenems and greater P. aeruginosa carbapenem resistance was demonstrated. It is likely that the only mechanism by which ertapenem can improve P. aeruginosa resistance patterns is by being used as a substitute for, rather than in addition to, antipseudomonal carbapenems.

  13. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  14. Comparison of groundwater recharge estimation techniques in an alluvial aquifer system with an intermittent/ephemeral stream (Queensland, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adam C.; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E.; Cendón, Dioni I.

    2017-09-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of the conceptual hydrogeological model for the estimation of groundwater recharge rates in an alluvial system interconnected with an ephemeral or intermittent stream in south-east Queensland, Australia. The losing/gaining condition of these streams is typically subject to temporal and spatial variability, and knowledge of these hydrological processes is critical for the interpretation of recharge estimates. Recharge rate estimates of 76-182 mm/year were determined using the water budget method. The water budget method provides useful broad approximations of recharge and discharge fluxes. The chloride mass balance (CMB) method and the tritium method were used on 17 and 13 sites respectively, yielding recharge rates of 1-43 mm/year (CMB) and 4-553 mm/year (tritium method). However, the conceptual hydrogeological model confirms that the results from the CMB method at some sites are not applicable in this setting because of overland flow and channel leakage. The tritium method was appropriate here and could be applied to other alluvial systems, provided that channel leakage and diffuse infiltration of rainfall can be accurately estimated. The water-table fluctuation (WTF) method was also applied to data from 16 bores; recharge estimates ranged from 0 to 721 mm/year. The WTF method was not suitable where bank storage processes occurred.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe A Chapman

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics.

  16. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative morphology of the egg cases of Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae) from southern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, C; Kyne, P M; Bennett, M B

    2013-07-01

    Descriptions of the egg cases of three catsharks, Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani, are provided from 65 egg cases obtained from fishing surveys carried out on the continental shelf of southern Queensland, Australia. Egg cases of A. analis, A. rubiginosus and F. boardmani have the same basic morphology; they are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened and yellow and brown-tan in colour. The shape of the posterior border in terms of horn length and tendril thickness is the specific characteristic discriminating these three catsharks: enclosed horns in F. boardmani, short horns and tendrils in A. rubiginosus and long, coiled tendrils in A. analis. A non-parametric statistical approach was used as an exploratory tool for egg case identification in which six proportional measurements were sufficient to discriminate between species. Three egg cases of F. boardmani were recovered from the stomachs of three A. rubiginosus, which provided the first evidence of catshark-catshark predator-prey interaction. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Management of the slowly emerging zoonosis, Hendra virus, by private veterinarians in Queensland, Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Diana H; Kelly, Jenny; Buttner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine; Speare, Rick

    2014-09-17

    Veterinary infection control for the management of Hendra virus (HeV), an emerging zoonosis in Australia, remained suboptimal until 2010 despite 71.4% (5/7) of humans infected with HeV being veterinary personnel or assisting a veterinarian, three of whom died before 2009. The aim of this study was to identify the perceived barriers to veterinary infection control and HeV management in private veterinary practice in Queensland, where the majority of HeV outbreaks have occurred in Australia. Most participants agreed that a number of key factors had contributed to the slow uptake of adequate infection control measures for the management of HeV amongst private veterinarians: a work culture characterised by suboptimal infection control standards and misconceptions about zoonotic risks; a lack of leadership and support from government authorities; the difficulties of managing biosecurity and public health issues from a private workforce perspective; and the slow pattern of emergence of HeV. By 2010, some infection control and HeV management changes had been implemented. Participants interviewed agreed that further improvements remained necessary; but also cautioned that this was a complex process which would require time. Private veterinarians and government authorities prior to 2009 were unprepared to handle new slowly emerging zoonoses, which may explain their mismanagement of HeV. Slowly emerging zoonoses may be of low public health significance but of high significance for specialised groups such as veterinarians. Private veterinarians, who are expected to fulfil an active biosecurity and public health role in the frontline management of such emerging zoonoses, need government agencies to better recognise their contribution, to consult with the veterinary profession when devising guidelines for the management of zoonoses and to provide them with greater leadership and support. We propose that specific infection control guidelines for the management of slowly emerging

  19. Random breath testing in Queensland and Western Australia: examination of how the random breath testing rate influences alcohol related traffic crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Jason; Mazerolle, Lorraine; King, Mark; Bates, Lyndel; Bennett, Sarah; Devaney, Madonna

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore the relationship between monthly random breath testing (RBT) rates (per 1000 licensed drivers) and alcohol-related traffic crash (ARTC) rates over time, across two Australian states: Queensland and Western Australia. We analyse the RBT, ARTC and licensed driver rates across 12 years; however, due to administrative restrictions, we model ARTC rates against RBT rates for the period July 2004 to June 2009. The Queensland data reveals that the monthly ARTC rate is almost flat over the five year period. Based on the results of the analysis, an average of 5.5 ARTCs per 100,000 licensed drivers are observed across the study period. For the same period, the monthly rate of RBTs per 1000 licensed drivers is observed to be decreasing across the study with the results of the analysis revealing no significant variations in the data. The comparison between Western Australia and Queensland shows that Queensland's ARTC monthly percent change (MPC) is 0.014 compared to the MPC of 0.47 for Western Australia. While Queensland maintains a relatively flat ARTC rate, the ARTC rate in Western Australia is increasing. Our analysis reveals an inverse relationship between ARTC RBT rates, that for every 10% increase in the percentage of RBTs to licensed driver there is a 0.15 decrease in the rate of ARTCs per 100,000 licenced drivers. Moreover, in Western Australia, if the 2011 ratio of 1:2 (RBTs to annual number of licensed drivers) were to double to a ratio of 1:1, we estimate the number of monthly ARTCs would reduce by approximately 15. Based on these findings we believe that as the number of RBTs conducted increases the number of drivers willing to risk being detected for drinking driving decreases, because the perceived risk of being detected is considered greater. This is turn results in the number of ARTCs diminishing. The results of this study provide an important evidence base for policy decisions for RBT operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Kemp, Robert; Ward, James; Henderson, Suzanna; Williams, Sidney; Dev, Abhilash; Najman, Jake M

    2016-09-01

    Despite over-representation of Indigenous Australians in sentinel studies of injecting drug use, little is known about relevant patterns of drug use and dependence. This study compares drug dependence and possible contributing factors in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who inject drugs. Respondent-driven sampling was used in major cities and 'peer recruitment' in regional towns of Queensland to obtain a community sample of Indigenous (n = 282) and non-Indigenous (n = 267) injectors. Data are cross sectional. Multinomial models were developed for each group to examine types of dependence on injected drugs (no dependence, methamphetamine-dependent only, opioid-dependent only, dependent on methamphetamine and opioids). Around one-fifth of Indigenous and non-Indigenous injectors were dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids in the previous 12 months. Psychological distress was associated with dual dependence on these drugs for Indigenous [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 4.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08-11.34] and non-Indigenous (ARR 4.14, 95% CI 1.59-10.78) participants. Unemployment (ARR 8.98, 95% CI 2.25-35.82) and repeated (> once) incarceration as an adult (ARR 3.78, 95% CI 1.43-9.97) were associated with dual dependence for Indigenous participants only. Indigenous participants had high rates of alcohol dependence, except for those dependent on opioids only. The drug dependence patterns of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs were similar, including the proportions dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids. However, for Indigenous injectors, there was a stronger association between drug dependence and contextual factors such as unemployment and incarceration. Expansion of treatment options and community-level programs may be required. [Smirnov A, Kemp R, Ward J, Henderson S, Williams S, Dev A, Najman J M. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who

  1. Palaeomagnetism of the Early Permian Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex and Tuckers Igneous Complex, North Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. A.; Lackie, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    This study provides reliable, precisely defined and well-dated Early Permian (286 +/- 6 Ma) palaeomagnetic poles for Australia from the Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex (MLIC) and the Tuckers Igneous Complex (TIC). Both complexes are associated with prominent negative magnetic anomalies, indicating the presence of rocks carrying stable remanence of reverse polarity, with a Koenigsberger ratio greater than unity. The characteristic remanence carried by the intrusive phases and by locally remagnetized, contact-metamorphosed host rocks is always of reverse polarity, consistent with acquisition during the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) Reverse Superchron. The corresponding palaeopoles confirm that Australia occupied high latitudes in the Early Permian. The pole positions are: MLIC: lat. = 43.2 °S, long. = 137.3 °E dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.4° Q= 6; TIC: lat. = 47.5 °S, long. = 143.0 °E, dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.6° Q= 6. Permian palaeomagnetic overprinting is detectable at considerable distances from the MLIC (2-3 km), well beyond the zone of visible alteration. The primary nature of the Early Permian palaeomagnetic signature is established by full baked contact/aureole tests at both localities. Other new data from Australia are consistent with the poles reported here. Comparison of the Australian, African and South American Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) suggests that mean Permian and Triassic poles from West Gondwana, particularly from South America, are biased by remagnetization in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and that the Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic APWP for Gondwana is best defined by Australian data. The Australian APWP exhibits substantial movement through the Mesozoic. Provided only that the time-averaged palaeofield was zonal, the Early Triassic palaeomagnetic data from Australia provide an important palaeogeographic constraint that the south geographic pole was within, or very close to, SE Australia around 240 Ma. The new Early Permian poles are apparently more consistent

  2. Population attributable risk of modifiable risk factors associated with invasive breast cancer in women aged 45-69 years in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Louise F; Page, Andrew N; Dunn, Nathan A M; Pandeya, Nirmala; Protani, Melinda M; Taylor, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    To quantify the population attributable risk of key modifiable risk factors associated with breast cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for high body mass index (BMI), use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity were calculated, using prevalence data from a representative survey of women attending mammographic screening at BreastScreen Queensland in 2008 and relative risk estimates sourced from published literature. Attributable cancers were calculated using 'underlying' breast cancer incidence data for 2008 based on Poisson regression models, adjusting for the inflation of incidence due to the effects of mammographic screening. Attributable burden of breast cancer due to high body mass index (BMI), use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity. In Queensland women aged 45-69 years, an estimated 12.1% (95% CI: 11.6-12.5%) of invasive breast cancers were attributable to high BMI in post-menopausal women who have never used HRT; 2.8% (95% CI: 2.7-2.9%) to alcohol consumption; 7.6% (95% CI: 7.4-7.9%) to inadequate physical activity in post-menopausal women and 6.2% (95% CI: 5.5-7.0%) to current use of HRT after stratification by BMI and type of HRT used. Combined, just over one quarter (26.0%; 95% CI: 25.4-26.6%) of all invasive breast cancers in Queensland women aged 45-69 years in 2008 were attributable to these modifiable risk factors. There is benefit in targeting prevention strategies to modify lifestyle behaviours around BMI, physical activity, HRT use and alcohol consumption, as a reduction in these risk factors could decrease invasive breast cancer incidence in the Queensland population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Return to Black Mountain palaeomagnetic reassessment of the Chatsworth and Ninmaroo formations, western Queensland, Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K L; Lackie, M A; Schmidt, P W; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2003.02164.x

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic results from late Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician carbonate sequences sampled at Black Mountain (Mt Unbunmaroo), Mt Datson and near Chatsworth Station (southeastern Georgina Basin) are presented. A palaeomagnetic reassessment of these carbonates was designed in an effort to constrain regional magnetization ages as results from an earlier study, conducted at Mt Unbunmaroo, play a pivotal role in a proposed Cambrian inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW) event. Remanent magnetizations within these carbonates were found to be variably developed with most specimens displaying two of the five isolated components. Component PF, for which goethite is the identified remanence carrier, is thought to reflect a chemical remanent magnetization of recent origin. Component TR, held by haematite, has a palaeomagnetic pole consistent with the Tertiary segment of Australia's apparent polar wander path (APWP) and most probably was acquired as a consequence of prolonged weathering during this period. The...

  4. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater in Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herngren, Lars; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Mostert, Maria M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wash-off in urban stormwater in Gold Coast, Australia. Runoff samples collected from residential, industrial and commercial sites were separated into a dissolved fraction ( 150 μm). Patterns in the distribution of PAHs in the fractions were investigated using Principal Component Analysis. Regardless of the land use and particle size fraction characteristics, the presence of organic carbon plays a dominant role in the distribution of PAHs. The PAHs concentrations were also found to decrease with rainfall duration. Generally, the 1- and 2-year average recurrence interval rainfall events were associated with the majority of the PAHs and the wash-off was a source limiting process. In the context of stormwater quality mitigation, targeting the initial part of the rainfall event is the most effective treatment strategy. The implications of the study results for urban stormwater quality management are also discussed. - The presence of organic carbon on impervious surfaces and rainfall duration plays a dominant role in the distribution of PAHs in urban stormwater.

  5. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater in Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herngren, Lars; Goonetilleke, Ashantha [School of Urban Development, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane QLD 4001 (Australia); Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.a [Chemistry Discipline, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane QLD 4001 (Australia); Mostert, Maria M.M. [Chemistry Discipline, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2010-09-15

    This paper reports the distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wash-off in urban stormwater in Gold Coast, Australia. Runoff samples collected from residential, industrial and commercial sites were separated into a dissolved fraction (<0.45 {mu}m), and three particulate fractions (0.45-75 {mu}m, 75-150 {mu}m and >150 {mu}m). Patterns in the distribution of PAHs in the fractions were investigated using Principal Component Analysis. Regardless of the land use and particle size fraction characteristics, the presence of organic carbon plays a dominant role in the distribution of PAHs. The PAHs concentrations were also found to decrease with rainfall duration. Generally, the 1- and 2-year average recurrence interval rainfall events were associated with the majority of the PAHs and the wash-off was a source limiting process. In the context of stormwater quality mitigation, targeting the initial part of the rainfall event is the most effective treatment strategy. The implications of the study results for urban stormwater quality management are also discussed. - The presence of organic carbon on impervious surfaces and rainfall duration plays a dominant role in the distribution of PAHs in urban stormwater.

  6. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fish Distribution in Far Western Queensland, Australia: The Importance of Habitat, Connectivity and Natural Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kerezsy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The endorheic Lake Eyre Basin drains 1.2 million square kilometres of arid central Australia, yet provides habitat for only 30 species of freshwater fish due to the scarcity of water and extreme climate. The majority are hardy riverine species that are adapted to the unpredictable flow regimes, and capable of massive population booms following heavy rainfall and the restoration of connectivity between isolated waterholes. The remainder are endemic specialists from isolated springs with very restricted ranges, and many are listed under relevant state and national endangered species legislation and also by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. For these spring communities, which are sustained by water from the Great Artesian Basin, survival is contingent on suitable habitat persisting alongside extractive mining, agriculture and the imposition of alien species. For the riverine species, which frequently undertake long migrations into ephemeral systems, preservation of the natural flow regime is paramount, as this reinstates riverine connectivity. In this study, fish were sampled from the Bulloo River in the east to the Mulligan River in the west, along a temporal timeframe and using a standard set of sampling gears. Fish presence was influenced by factors such as natural catchment divides, sampling time, ephemerality and the occurrence of connection flows and flooding. Despite the comparatively low diversity of species, the aquatic systems of this isolated region remain in good ecological condition, and as such they offer excellent opportunities to investigate the ecology of arid water systems. However, the presence of both endangered species (in the springs and invasive and translocated species more widely indicates that active protection and management of this unique area is essential to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.

  8. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species.

  9. Annual net primary productivity of a cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crust in the Gulf Savannah, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Burkhard; Williams, Wendy J.; Reichenberger, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are a common element of the Queensland (Australia) dry savannah ecosystem and are composed of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. Here we report how the CO2 gas exchange of the cyanobacteria-dominated biocrust type from Boodjamulla National Park in the north Queensland Gulf Savannah responds to the pronounced climatic seasonality and on their quality as a carbon sink using a semi-automatic cuvette system. The dominant cyanobacteria are the filamentous species Symplocastrum purpurascens together with Scytonema sp. Metabolic activity was recorded between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011, during which CO2 exchange was only evident from November 2010 until mid-April 2011, representative of 23.6 % of the 1-year recording period. In November at the onset of the wet season, the first month (November) and the last month (April) of activity had pronounced respiratory loss of CO2. The metabolic active period accounted for 25 % of the wet season and of that period 48.6 % was net photosynthesis (NP) and 51.4 % dark respiration (DR). During the time of NP, net photosynthetic uptake of CO2 during daylight hours was reduced by 32.6 % due to water supersaturation. In total, the biocrust fixed 229.09 mmol CO2 m-2 yr-1, corresponding to an annual carbon gain of 2.75 g m-2 yr-1. Due to malfunction of the automatic cuvette system, data from September and October 2010 together with some days in November and December 2010 could not be analysed for NP and DR. Based on climatic and gas exchange data from November 2010, an estimated loss of 88 mmol CO2 m-2 was found for the 2 months, resulting in corrected annual rates of 143.1 mmol CO2 m-2 yr-1, equivalent to a carbon gain of 1.7 g m-2 yr-1. The bulk of the net photosynthetic activity occurred above a relative humidity of 42 %, indicating a suitable climatic combination of temperature, water availability and light intensity well above 200 µmol photons m-2 s-1

  10. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  11. A multi-omics based ecological analysis of coastal marine sediments from Gladstone, in Australia's Central Queensland, and Heron Island, a nearby fringing platform reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, D J; Crosswell, J; Karpe, A V; Ahmed, W; Williams, M; Morrison, P D; Metcalfe, S; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Palombo, E A; Steven, A D L

    2017-12-31

    The impact of anthropogenic factors arising from point and non-point pollution sources at a multi commodity marine port and its surrounding ecosystems were studied using sediment samples collected from a number of onshore (Gladstone Harbour and Facing Island) and offshore (Heron Island and Fitzroy Reefs) sites in Australia's Central Queensland. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals, organic carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), emerging chemicals of concern (ECC) and sterols. Similarly, the biological and biochemical interaction between the reef and its environment was analyzed by the multi-omic tools of next-generation sequencing characterization of the bacterial community and microbial community metabolic profiling. Overall, the trace elements were observed at the lower end of the Australian environmental guideline values at the offshore sites, while higher values were observed for the onshore locations Nickel and copper were observed above the high trigger value threshold at the onshore sites. The levels of PAH were below limits of detection across all sites. However, some of the ECC and sterols were observed at higher concentrations at both onshore and offshore locations, notably, the cholesterol family sterols and 17α-ethynylestradiol. Multi-omic analyses also indicated possible thermal and photo irradiation stressors on the bacterial communities at all the tested sites. The observed populations of γ-proteobacteria were found in combination with an increased pool of fatty acids that indicate fatty acid synthesis and utilisation of the intermediates of the shikimate pathways. This study demonstrates the value of applying a multi-omics approach for ecological assessments, in which a more detailed assessment of physical and chemical contaminants and their impact on the community bacterial biome is obtained. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Melville

    Full Text Available Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora, which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1 revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  13. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  14. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Linn B; Tong, Shilu; Aird, Rosemary; McRae, David

    2010-07-28

    There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15) involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems), and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco-environmental health vulnerability, including literature

  15. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McRae David

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Methods Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15 involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. Results The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems, and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco

  16. Which mothers receive a post partum home visit in Queensland, Australia? A cross-sectional retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Wendy; Miller, Yvette

    2015-06-01

    Although home visiting in the early post partum period appears to have increased, there are limited data defining which women receive a visit and none that include Queensland. We aimed to investigate patterns of post partum home visiting in the public and private sectors in Queensland. Data were collected via a retrospective cross-sectional survey of women birthing in Queensland between 1 February and 31 May 2010 at 4 months post partum (n = 6948). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between receiving a home visit and sociodemographic, clinical and hospital variables. Analyses were stratified by public and private birthing sector because of significant differences between sectors. Public sector women were more likely to receive a visit from a nurse or midwife (from the hospital or child health sector) within 10 days of hospital discharge (67.2%) than private sector women (7.2%). Length of hospital stay was associated with home visiting in both sectors. Some vulnerable subpopulations in both sectors were more likely to be visited, whereas others were not. Home visiting in Queensland varies markedly between the public and private sector and is less common in some vulnerable populations. Further consideration to improving the equity of community post partum care in Queensland is needed.

  17. Indigenous Respiratory Outreach Care: the first 18 months of a specialist respiratory outreach service to rural and remote Indigenous communities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Linda G; Chang, Anne B; Fong, Kwun; Jackson, Rebecca; Bishop, Penny; Dent, Annette; Hill, Deb C; Vincent, Stephen; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Indigenous Australians. However, there are limited approaches to specialist respiratory care in rural and remote communities that are culturally appropriate. A specialist Indigenous Respiratory Outreach Care (IROC) program, developed to address this gap, is described. The aim of the present study was to implement, pilot and evaluate multidisciplinary specialist respiratory outreach medical teams in rural and remote Indigenous communities in Queensland, Australia. Sites were identified based on a perception of unmet need, burden of respiratory disease and/or capacity to use the clinical service and capacity building for support offered. IROC commenced in March 2011 and, to date, has been implemented in 13 communities servicing a population of approximately 43000 Indigenous people. Clinical service delivery has been possible through community engagement and capacity building initiatives directed by community protocols. IROC is a culturally sensitive and sustainable model for adult and paediatric specialist outreach respiratory services that may be transferrable to Indigenous communities across Queensland and Australia.

  18. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (<1% biocrust). Duplicate 0.25 m2 quadrats of each land cover type were selected contiguous with a 100 m transect across the slope. The quadrats were analysed as five micro-transects with each row consisting of five sub-cells. Stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling indices were

  19. Volcanic-plutonic connections and metal fertility of highly evolved magma systems: A case study from the Herberton Sn-W-Mo Mineral Field, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Chang, Zhaoshan; Clarke, Gavin

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the connection between the highly evolved intrusive and extrusive systems is essential to explore the evolution of high silicic magma systems, which plays an important role in discussions of planetary differentiation, the growth of continents, crustal evolution, and the formation of highly evolved magma associated Sn-W-Mo mineral systems. To discern differences between "fertile" and "non-fertile" igneous rocks associated with Sn-W-Mo mineralization and reveal the genetic links between coeval intrusive and extrusive rocks, we integrate whole rock geochemistry, geochronology and Hf isotope signatures of igneous zircons from contemporaneous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the world-class Herberton Mineral Field of Queensland, Australia. The 310-300 Ma intrusive rocks and associated intra-plutonic W-Mo mineralization formed from relatively oxidized magmas after moderate degrees of crystal fractionation. The geochemical and isotopic features of the coeval volcanic succession are best reconciled utilizing the widely-accepted volcanic-plutonic connection model, whereby the volcanic rocks represent fractionated derivatives of the intrusive rocks. Older intrusions emplaced at 335-315 Ma formed from relatively low fO2 magmas that fractionated extensively to produce highly evolved granites that host Sn mineralization. Coeval volcanic rocks of this suite are compositionally less evolved than the intrusive rocks, thereby requiring a different model to link these plutonic-volcanic sequences. In this case, we propose that the most fractionated magmas were not lost to volcanism, but instead were effectively retained at the plutonic level, which allowed further localized build-up of volatiles and lithophile metals in the plutonic environment. This disconnection to the volcanism and degassing may be a crucial step for forming granite-hosted Sn mineralization. The transition between these two igneous regimes in Herberton region over a ∼30 m.y. period is attributed to

  20. Does mosquito control have an effect on mosquito-borne disease? The case of Ross River virus disease and mosquito management in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomerini, Deanna M; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil

    2011-03-01

    We examined the relationship between types of mosquito control programs and the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease in Queensland, Australia. Mosquito control information was collected through a survey of the responsible agencies (local governments), and RRV disease notification data were provided by the Queensland state health authority. The study developed a typology of mosquito control programs, based on the approaches used. Based on the analysis of data on RRV disease rates between mosquito control types within 4 climatic regions, each region had different combinations of mosquito control strategies in their programs; there were also general similarities in the relationship between program types and RRV rates between the regions. The long-term RRV disease rates were lower in areas where the mosquito control program included pre-emptive (rather than reactive) surveillance based on an extensive (rather than incomplete) knowledge of mosquito habitats, and where treatment of both saltwater and freshwater habitats (compared to only saltwater habitats, in coastal areas) occurred. The data indicate that mosquito control is an effective public health intervention to reduce mosquito-borne disease; hence, climate change adaptation strategies should ensure that adequate resources are available for effective vector control so as to manage the risk of mosquito-borne diseases.

  1. 'Sly grog' and 'homebrew': a qualitative examination of illicit alcohol and some of its impacts on Indigenous communities with alcohol restrictions in regional and remote Queensland (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Michelle S; Robertson, Jan; Towle, Simon; Doran, Chris M; McDermott, Robyn; Miller, Adrian; Margolis, Stephen; Ypinazar, Valmae; Clough, Alan R

    2017-08-01

    Indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia) have been subject to Alcohol Management Plans since 2002/03, with significant penalties for breaching restrictions. 'Sly grog' and 'homebrew' provide access to alcohol despite restrictions. This paper describes how this alcohol is made available and the risks and impacts involved. In affected towns and communities across a large area of rural and remote Queensland, interviews and focus groups documented experiences and views of 255 long-standing community members and service providers. Using an inductive framework, transcribed interviews were analysed to identify supply mechanisms, community and service provider responses and impacts experienced. 'Homebrew' was reportedly manufactured in just a few localities, in locally-specific forms bringing locally-specific harms. However, 'sly grog' sourced from licensed premises located long distances from communities, is a widespread concern across the region. 'Sly grog' sellers circumvent retailers' takeaway liquor license conditions, stockpile alcohol outside restricted areas, send hoax messages to divert enforcement and take extraordinary risks to avoid apprehension. Police face significant challenges to enforce restrictions. On-selling of 'sly grog' appears more common in remote communities with total prohibition. Despite different motives for involvement in an illicit trade 'sly grog' consumers and sellers receive similar penalties. There is a need for: (a) a more sophisticated regional approach to managing takeaway alcohol sales from licensed suppliers, (b) targeted penalties for 'sly grog' sellers that reflect its significant community impact, (c) strategies to reduce the demand for alcohol and (d) research to assess the effects of these strategies in reducing harms.

  2. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K; Cameron, Cate M; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The majority of Australia's coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995-2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of "low", "medium", "high", and "intense" activity compared to a period of "very low" activity, adjusting for covariates. "All-cause" hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for "Blood/immune" conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for "Circulatory" conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows.

  3. New species of Drymopsalta Heath Cicadas (Cicadidae: Cicadettinae: Cicadettini) from Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia, with overview of genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, A; Popple, L W

    2013-01-01

    Three new species are described in the genus Drymopsalta Ewart, previously known only from D. crepitum Ewart and D. daemeli Distant. The three new species occur in Southern Queensland and Northern Territory. D. wallumi sp. nov. occurs along coastal S.E. Queensland, whereas D. hobsoni sp. nov. is restricted to the Bringalily State Forest, near Inglewood, southern inland Queensland. D. acrotela sp. nov. is found in the Litchfield National Park and other locations near Jabaluka, Cahills Crossing, E. Alligator River and Nourlangie, all across the northern Northern Territory. D. crepitum occurs on the Cape York Peninsular extending into the southern Gulf, while D. daemeli occurs in two localised regions in central coastal N.S.W. Each of the species inhabits heath vegetation, often spilling-over into adjacent tree foliage. The species of Drymopsalta are small and inconspicuous cicadas (cicadas. Two additional song variants are described, a more unstructured chirping song without intervening single ticks observed in each of the species except D. crepitum, and periodic extended buzzing echemes emitted within the calling songs (excepting the D. wallumi song).

  4. The geographical co-distribution and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Hu, W; Tong, S

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal patterns, geographical co-distribution, and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the impacts of socio-ecological factors on both childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea at a postal area level. A distinct seasonality of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea was found. Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea were mainly distributed in the northwest of Queensland. Mount Isa city was the high-risk cluster where childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea co-distributed. Emergency department visits (EDVs) for pneumonia increased by 3% per 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall in wet seasons. By comparison, a 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall may cause an increase of 4% in EDVs for diarrhoea. Monthly average temperature was negatively associated with EDVs for childhood diarrhoea in wet seasons. Low socioeconomic index for areas (SEIFA) was associated with high EDVs for childhood pneumonia. Future pneumonia and diarrhoea prevention and control measures in Queensland should focus more on Mount Isa.

  5. An analysis of child deaths by suicide in Queensland Australia, 2004-2012. What are we missing from a preventative health services perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Oprescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article analyses case descriptions of child suicides from 2004 to 2012 toinform future policy and practice. Methods: Quantitative data and case descriptions for 159 child suicides (under 18 years in Queensland, Australia, were analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively using automated content analyzis (Leximancer. Results: More than three quarters of child suicides involved hanging and 81% of suicides occurred in the family home. Less than 20% of the deceased left a note, however there was evidence of planning in 54% of cases. Most common triggering events were family conflicts. Conclusions: Effective suicide prevention interventions require a comprehensive understanding of risk factors. Quality of case descriptions varied widely, which can hamper injury prevention efforts through an incomplete understanding of characteristics of, and important factors in child suicide. Additional attention and resources dedicated to this public health issue could enhance the development and implementation of effective intervention strategies targeting child and adolescent suicide.

  6. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  8. Queensland 2010-2011: A Summer of Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    "I love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror, The wide brown land for me." (Dorothea Mackellar OBE, 1885-1968). This second stanza from Mackellar's famous poem "My Country", beautifully sums up the Australian environment. In late 2010-early 2011, the "droughts and flooding rains" were the perfect terms to describe the climatic variability and the resulting flooding impacts experienced in many parts of Queensland under an enhanced La Niña as part of the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) climate pattern, with over 75% of Queensland being declared a disaster zone. This contrasts with the severe drought that had gripped many parts of Australia over the previous 8 years which saw water storage levels plummet, and resulted in 35% of Queensland being 'drought declared' as at April 2010. On the Darling Downs in southern Queensland, over 100,000 ha of land was inundated by the Condamine River due to flooding in early 2011. The river which is generally rule throughout mainland Australia. The Queensland floods highlight the pressing and urgent need for an accurate and more intensive network of river gauging and sediment monitoring. In a country of "droughts and flooding rains" and in the face of climate change, this need is now imperative.

  9. Characteristics of utility cyclists in Queensland, Australia: an examination of the associations between individual, social, and environmental factors and utility cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlqvist, Shannon L; Heesch, Kristiann C

    2012-08-01

    Initiatives to promote utility cycling in countries like Australia and the US, which have low rates of utility cycling, may be more effective if they first target recreational cyclists. This study aimed to describe patterns of utility cycling and examine its correlates, among cyclists in Queensland, Australia. An online survey was administered to adult members of a state-based cycling community and advocacy group (n=1813). The survey asked about demographic characteristics and cycling behavior, motivators and constraints. Utility cycling patterns were described, and logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between utility cycling and other variables. Forty-seven percent of respondents reported utility cycling: most did so to commute (86%). Most journeys (83%) were >5 km. Being male, younger, employed full-time, or university-educated increased the likelihood of utility cycling (P<.05). Perceiving cycling to be a cheap or a convenient form of transport was associated with utility cycling (P<.05). The moderate rate of utility cycling among recreational cyclists highlights a potential to promote utility cycling among this group. To increase utility cycling, strategies should target female and older recreational cyclists and focus on making cycling a cheap and convenient mode of transport.

  10. Implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for staff and visitors in government-owned health facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jane; Lee, Amanda; Obersky, Natalie; Edwards, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of energy-dense, nutrient-poor choices in all food supply areas including food outlets, staff dining rooms, vending machines, tea trolleys, coffee carts, leased premises, catering, fundraising, promotion and advertising. An online survey targeted 278 facility managers to collect self-reported quantitative and qualitative data. Telephone interviews were sought concurrently with the twenty-five A Better Choice district contact officers to gather qualitative information. Public sector-owned and -operated health facilities in Queensland, Australia. One hundred and thirty-four facility managers and twenty-four district contact officers participated with response rates of 48.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Of facility managers, 78.4% reported implementation of more than half of the A Better Choice requirements including 24.6% who reported full strategy implementation. Reported implementation was highest in food outlets, staff dining rooms, tea trolleys, coffee carts, internal catering and drink vending machines. Reported implementation was more problematic in snack vending machines, external catering, leased premises and fundraising. Despite methodological challenges, the study suggests that policy approaches to improve the food and drink supply can be implemented successfully in public-sector health facilities, although results can be limited in some areas. A Better Choice may provide a model for improving food supply in other health and workplace settings.

  11. Using GeoEye-1 Imagery for Multi-Temporal Object-Based Detection of Canegrub Damage in Sugarcane Fields in Queensland, Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper

    2017-12-18

    The greyback canegrub (Dermolepida albohirtum) is the main pest of sugarcane crops in all cane-growing regions between Mossman (16.5°S) and Sarina (21.5°S) in Queensland, Australia. In previous years, high infestations have cost the industry up to $40 million. However, identifying damage in the field is difficult due to the often impenetrable nature of the sugarcane crop. Satellite imagery offers a feasible means of achieving this by examining the visual characteristics of stool tipping, changed leaf color, and exposure of soil in damaged areas. The objective of this study was to use geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) and high-spatial resolution GeoEye-1 satellite imagery for three years to map canegrub damage and develop two mapping approaches suitable for risk mapping. The GEOBIA mapping approach for canegrub damage detection was evaluated over three selected study sites in Queensland, covering a total of 254 km2 and included five main steps developed in the eCognition Developer software. These included: (1) initial segmentation of sugarcane block boundaries; (2) classification and subsequent omission of fallow/harvested fields, tracks, and other non-sugarcane features within the block boundaries; (3) identification of likely canegrub-damaged areas with low NDVI values and high levels of image texture within each block; (4) the further refining of canegrub damaged areas to low, medium, and high likelihood; and (5) risk classification. The validation based on field observations of canegrub damage at the time of the satellite image capture yielded producer’s accuracies between 75% and 98.7%, depending on the study site. Error of commission occurred in some cases due to sprawling, drainage issues, wind, weed, and pig damage. The two developed risk mapping approaches were based on the results of the canegrub damage detection. This research will improve decision making by growers affected by canegrub damage.

  12. Epidemiology of Infectious Disease-Related Death After Release from Prison, Washington State, United States, and Queensland, Australia: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Blatchford, Patrick J; Forsyth, Simon J; Stern, Marc F; Kinner, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    People in prison may be at high risk for infectious diseases and have an elevated risk of death immediately after release compared with later; their risk of death is elevated for at least a decade after release. We compared rates, characteristics, and prison-related risk factors for infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prisons in Queensland, Australia, and Washington State, United States, regions with analogous available data. We analyzed data from retrospective cohort studies of people released from prison in Queensland (1997-2007, n=37,180) and Washington State (1999-2009, n=76,208) and linked identifiers from each cohort to its respective national death index. We estimated infectious disease-related mortality rates (deaths per person-years in community) and examined associations using Cox proportional hazard models. The most frequent infectious disease-related underlying cause of death after release from prison was pneumonia (43%, 23/54 deaths) in the Australian cohort and viral hepatitis (40%, 69/171 deaths) in the U.S. cohort. The infectious disease-related mortality rate was significantly higher in the U.S. cohort than in the Australian cohort (51.2 vs. 26.5 deaths per 100,000 person-years; incidence rate ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.42, 2.62). In both cohorts, increasing age was strongly associated with mortality from infectious diseases. Differences in the epidemiology of infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prison may reflect differences in patterns of community health service delivery in each region. These findings highlight the importance of preventing and treating hepatitis C and other infectious diseases during the transition from prison to the community.

  13. A prospective comparison of times to presentation and treatment of regional and remote head and neck patients in North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J Y-A; Otty, Z A; Vangaveti, V N; Buttner, P; Varma, S C; Joshi, A J; Kelly, J; Collins, M; Sabesan, S S

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine differences between outer regional (OR) and remote/very remote (RVR) patients in northern Queensland, Australia in the times taken to receive various aspects of head and neck cancer management. Our study prospectively recruited head and neck cancer patients presenting to three North Queensland regional hospitals from January 2009 to January 2011. Data on demographic and cancer-specific details, comorbidities and timing of presentation to various services, were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included two questions in relation to possible reason for delays to health services. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the effects of various demographic characteristics on time delays. Survival and disease recurrence data were analysed in 2014. One hundred and fifty-eight patients participated. RVR patients had significantly longer median times between diagnosis and first treatment compared with OR patients (P = 0.015). Indigenous patients had significant delays from diagnosis to first treatment (P = 0.013) and visit to first specialist and treatment (P = 0.031) compared to non-Indigenous patients. Longer median times between symptoms and first treatment was associated with low income (P = 0.03) and lower education level (P = 0.04). Disease recurrence was higher for RVR patients compared with OR patients (P = 0.04), without significant differences in overall survival. Possible reasons for delays included patient and professional factors. Significant delays in various aspects of head and neck cancer management were associated with remoteness, Indigenous and socioeconomic status. While patient and professional factors could be addressed at local levels, sustainable improvement in outcomes requires a state and national level approach. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Adoption of Online Purchasing Methods in Communities and its Socio-Economic Implications in Regional Central Queensland, Australia

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    W. J. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the general trends of online purchasing in Central Queensland (CQ communities during 1999-2002 and identifies the socio-economic factors affecting online purchasing activities. The Online Purchasing Indicator, defined as a combination of percentages of online purchasers and of regular purchasers (>one item/month within a group, is applied to compare these activities between these two groups. The study identifies that four factors, namely ‘personal attributes’, ‘knowledge’, ‘trust’ and ‘need’ may play important roles in online purchasing decisions. The research found that regional economic bleeding associated with low local adoption failing to provide justification for local business to adopt electronic purchasing support has not yet reached significant levels.

  15. The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedloff, Adam C.; Wilson, John C.; Engeman, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    The influences of wildfire through population dynamics and life history for two species of small mammals in a south-east Queensland heathland on Bribie Island are presented. Trapping results provided information on breeding, immigration and movement of Melomys burtoni (Grassland melomys) and Rattus lutreolus (Swamp rat). We first investigated and optimized the design of trapping methodology for producing mark-recapture population estimates to compare two adjacent populations, one of which was subjected to an extensive wildfire during the two year study. We consider how well rodents survive wildfire and whether the immediate impacts of fire or altered habitat have the greatest impact on each species. We found the R. lutreolus population was far more influenced by the fire than the M. burtoni population both immediately after the fire and over 18 months of vegetation recovery.

  16. Cancer screening education: can it change knowledge and attitudes among culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Queensland, Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton, Katherine; Gallegos, Danielle; Ashley, Ella; Do, Hong; Voloschenko, Anna; Fleming, MaryLou; Ramsey, Rebecca; Gould, Trish

    2016-06-29

    Issue addressed: Screening for cancer of the cervix, breast and bowel can reduce morbidity and mortality. Low participation rates in cancer screening have been identified among migrant communities internationally. Attempting to improve low rates of cancer screening, the Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland developed a pilot Cancer Screening Education Program for breast, bowel and cervical cancer. This study determines the impact of education sessions on knowledge, attitudes and intentions to participate in screening for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities living in Brisbane, Queensland. Methods: Seven CALD groups (Arabic-speaking, Bosnian, South Asian (including Indian and Bhutanese), Samoan and Pacific Island, Spanish-speaking, Sudanese and Vietnamese) participated in a culturally-tailored cancer screening education pilot program that was developed using the Health Belief Model. A pre- and post-education evaluation session measured changes in knowledge, attitudes and intention related to breast, bowel and cervical cancer and screening. The evaluation focussed on perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness and the target population's beliefs about reducing risk by cancer screening. Results: There were 159 participants in the three cancer screening education sessions. Overall participants' knowledge increased, some attitudes toward participation in cancer screening became more positive and intent to participate in future screening increased (n=146). Conclusion: These results indicate the importance of developing screening approaches that address the barriers to participation among CALD communities and that a culturally-tailored education program is effective in improving knowledge, attitudes about and intentions to participate in cancer screening. So what?: It is important that culturally-tailored programs are developed in conjunction with communities to improve health outcomes.

  17. Exhumation History of the North Queensland Segment of Australia's Elevated Passive Margin Escarpment as Revealed by (U-Th)/He Analysis of Apatite and Zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, L. D.; Glass, J.; Flowers, R. M.; Metcalf, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Australia's east coast constitutes an elevated passive continental margin that developed in response to Cretaceous-Paleogene rifting during opening of the Tasman and Coral seas. Typical of elevated passive margins around the world, Australia's east coast consists of a high plateau bounded by an abrupt escarpment, known as the Great Escarpment. We employed the apatite (AHe) and zircon (ZHe) (U-Th)/He low temperature thermochronometers to explore the exhumation history of the North Queensland segment of the Great Escarpment. Our 1500m vertical transect was conducted up the southeast flank of Mount Bartle Frere, which exposes the Bartle Frere pluton of the ca. 280 Ma Bellenden Ker Batholith. A previous apatite fission track (AFT) study determined that an outcrop of the Bartle Frere pluton at Josephine Falls, which constitutes the base of our transect, cooled through 110 °C at 142.3 ±9.9Ma. Our preliminary ZHe analysis of the same outcrop reveals that it passed through 180 °C at ca. 155 Ma. These data point to an episode of relatively rapid exhumation during the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous, which brought the Bartle Frere pluton from approximately 6 km burial depth to 3.5 km depth (assuming a 30 °C/km geothermal gradient). Samples throughout our entire transect yield AHe dates that range between 72Ma and 182Ma, with no apparent elevation-date relationship. These data suggest that the pluton cooled below 65 °C during the Cretaceous, indicating unroofing to less than 2 km depth by that time. The data scatter makes it difficult to resolve the details of this Cretaceous cooling episode. However, the fact that we obtain Cretaceous AHe dates across the entire 1500 m height of the transect suggests that the Great Escarpment in North Queensland has existed at approximately its current location and height since at least the Late Cretaceous. The Cretaceous age for this segment of the Great Escarpment is similar to the age determined by other AHe workers for the

  18. Relationships between dental personnel and non-dental primary health care providers in rural and remote Queensland, Australia: dental perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jackie; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Len; Barnett, Tony

    2017-06-19

    Collaboration between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers has the potential to improve oral health care for people in rural and remote communities, where access to oral health services is limited. However, there is limited research on collaboration between these professional disciplines. The purpose of this paper was to explore the relationships between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers from rural and remote areas of Queensland and to identify strategies that could improve collaboration between these disciplines from the perspective of dental participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between 2013 and 2015 with visiting, local and regional dental practitioners (n = 12) who had provided dental services to patients from eight rural and remote Queensland communities that did not have a resident dentist. Participants were purposely recruited through a snow ball sampling technique. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis with the assistance of QSR Nvivo v.10. Four major themes emerged from the data: (1) Communication between dental practitioners and rural primary care providers; (2) Relationships between dental and primary care providers; (3) Maintenance of professional dualism; (4) Strategies to improve interprofessional relationships (with subthemes: face to face meetings; utilisation of technology; oral health training for primary care providers; and having a community based oral health contact person). Participants observed that there was a lack of communication between the dental providers who saw patients from these rural communities and the primary care providers who worked in each community. This was attributed to poor communication, the high turnover of staff and the siloed behaviours of some practitioners. Visiting dental practitioners were likely to have stronger professional relationships with hospital nursing, administrative and allied health care staff who were often long term

  19. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-02-01

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997-2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of ‘dead on arrival’, ‘euthanized’, or ‘released’ for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas.

  20. The Genus Diporochaeta (Oligochaeta Megascolecidae) in Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamieson, B.G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Perionychella is reassigned to Diporochaeta as a junior synonym. 9 new species are added to the 8 previously known Queensland species of Diporochaeta, all of which are redescribed, bringing the generic total for Australia to 77 named species. Distribution of the genus is disjunct, the Queensland

  1. Global benchmarking of medical student learning outcomes? Implementation and pilot results of the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Sciences Exam at The University of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Schafer, Jennifer; Hewett, David; Eley, Diann; Swanson, Dave

    2014-01-01

    To report pilot results for international benchmarking of learning outcomes among 426 final year medical students at the University of Queensland (UQ), Australia. Students took the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Sciences Exam (CSE) developed by the National Board of Medical Examiners, USA, as a required formative assessment. IFOM CSE comprises 160 multiple-choice questions in medicine, surgery, obstetrics, paediatrics and mental health, taken over 4.5 hours. Significant implementation issues; IFOM scores and benchmarking with International Comparison Group (ICG) scores and United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores; and correlation with UQ medical degree cumulative grade point average (GPA). Implementation as an online exam, under university-mandated conditions was successful. Mean IFOM score was 531.3 (maximum 779-minimum 200). The UQ cohort performed better (31% scored below 500) than the ICG (55% below 500). However 49% of the UQ cohort did not meet the USMLE Step 2 CK minimum score. Correlation between IFOM scores and UQ cumulative GPA was reasonable at 0.552 (p benchmarking is feasible and provides a variety of useful benchmarking opportunities.

  2. Political Challenges in Complex Place-Based Health Promotion Partnerships: Lessons From an Exploratory Case Study in a Disadvantaged Area of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Letitia; Rowe Minniss, Fiona; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Settings-based health promotion involving multiple strategies and partners is complex, especially in disadvantaged areas. Partnership development and organizational integration are examined in the literature; however, there is more to learn from the examination of practice stakeholders' experience of intersectoral partnership processes. This case study examines stakeholder experiences of challenges in new partnership work in the context of a culturally diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged region in Queensland, Australia. Health promotion staff and community representatives participated in interviews and focus groups, and the thematic analysis included observations and documentary analyses. Our findings highlight the retrogressive influence of broader system dynamics, including policy reform and funding changes, upon partnership working. Partnership enablers are disrupted by external political influences and the internal politics (individual and organizational) of health promotion practice. We point to the need for organization level commitment to a consistent agreed vision specifically accounting for place, as a cornerstone of intersectoral health promotion partnership resilience. If organizations from diverse sectors can embed a vision for health that accounts for place, complex health promotion initiatives may be less vulnerable to broader system reforms, and health in all policy approaches more readily sustained.

  3. Geographical Inequalities in Surgical Treatment for Localized Female Breast Cancer, Queensland, Australia 1997–2011: Improvements over Time but Inequalities Remain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Baade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of breast conserving surgery (BCS for early stage breast cancer varies by where women live. We investigate whether these geographical patterns have changed over time using population-based data linkage between cancer registry records and hospital inpatient episodes. The study cohort consisted of 11,631 women aged 20 years and over diagnosed with a single primary invasive localised breast cancer between 1997 and 2011 in Queensland, Australia who underwent either BCS (n = 9223, 79% or mastectomy (n = 2408, 21%. After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical factors, compared to women living in very high accessibility areas, women in high (Odds Ratio (OR 0.58 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.49, 0.69, low (OR 0.47 (0.41, 0.54 and very low (OR 0.44 (0.34, 0.56 accessibility areas had lower odds of having BCS, while  the odds for women from middle (OR 0.81 (0.69, 0.94 and most disadvantaged (OR 0.87 (0.71, 0.98 areas was significantly lower than women living in affluent areas. The association between accessibility and the type of surgery reduced over time (interaction p = 0.028 but not for area disadvantage (interaction p = 0.209. In making informed decisions about surgical treatment, it is crucial that any geographical-related barriers to implementing their preferred treatment are minimised.

  4. Development of a catchment/landscape erosion prediction model (MINErosion 4) for post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ashraf; Yu, Bofu; Ghadiri, Hossain; Carroll, Chris; So, Hwat-Bing

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is approximately 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a hillslope erosion model MINErosion 3 (this conference) was developed to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. This model was useful to determine the design parameters for the construction of a suitable post-mining landscape that meets the required erosion criteria. However, the mining

  5. The prevalence, organ distribution and fertility of cystic echinoccosis in feral pigs in tropical North Queensland, Australia

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    D. Lidetu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to study the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus hydatidosis in feral pigs (Sus domesticus in the Charters Towers region of tropical North Queensland. Data were collected from a total of 238 carcasses, which were hunted and shot in the Burdekin River catchment area. Organs of the abdominal, thoracic, and pelvic cavities were examined for the presence of hydatid cysts. In the laboratory, cysts and hydatid cyst fluids were examined under a stereoscopic binoc ular microscope and a compound microscope. An overall prevalence of E. granulosus hydatid cysts in feral pigs was found to be 31.1%. There was no significant difference in either sex or age between infected and non-infected feral pigs. The predilection sites of cysts were livers (23% and lungs (62%, with more cysts in lungs (252 than livers (48. The ratio of livers to lungs infected with fertile cysts was 1:4 compared to 1:8 sterile cysts. The overall fertility of cysts was 70.1%. The percentage of fertile cysts in liver and lung was 79.2% and 68.7%, respectively. The diameter of fertile cysts ranged from 15 to over 60 mm. There was no significant difference in size between fertile and non-fertile cysts in lungs. The high prevalence rate and fertility of cysts in feral pigs confirm that feral pigs can take part in the sylvatic cycle of the parasite in the region. The public health significance of this observation is potentially very important.

  6. An Approach to Mapping Forest Growth Stages in Queensland, Australia through Integration of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carreiras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst extensive clearance of forests in the eastern Australian Brigalow Belt Bioregion (BBB has occurred since European settlement, appropriate management of those that are regenerating can facilitate restoration of biomass (carbon and biodiversity to levels typical of relatively undisturbed or remnant formations. However, maps of forests are different stages of regeneration are needed to facilitate restoration planning, including prevention of further re-clearing. Focusing on the Tara Downs subregion of the BBB and on forests with brigalow (Acacia harpophylla as a component, this research establishes a method for differentiating and mapping early, intermediate and remnant growth stages from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased-Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR Fine Beam Dual (FBD L-band HH- and HV-polarisation backscatter and Landsat-derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC. Using inventory data collected from 74 plots, located in the Tara Downs subregion, forests were assigned to one of three regrowth stages based on their height and cover relative to that of undisturbed stands. The image data were then segmented into objects with each assigned to a growth stage by comparing the distributions of L-band HV and HH polarisation backscatter and FPC to that of reference distributions using a z-test. Comparison with independent assessments of growth stage, based on time-series analysis of aerial photography and SPOT images, established an overall accuracy of > 70%, with this increasing to 90% when intermediate regrowth was excluded and only early-stage regrowth and remnant classes were considered. The proposed method can be adapted to respond to amendments to user-definitions of growth stage and, as regional mosaics of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat FPC are available for Queensland, has application across the state.

  7. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  8. Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Vaughan, Lisa; Fa'avale, Nicola; De Silva Weliange, Shreenika; Manu-Sione, Inez; Schubert, Lisa

    2017-01-13

    Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. The intervention was delivered to children aged 6-19 years (N = 375) in schools by multicultural health workers. Class activities focused on one message each term related to healthy eating and physical activity using methods such as cooking sessions and cultural dance. The evaluation approach was a quantitative uncontrolled pre-post design. Data were collected each term pre- and post-intervention using a short questionnaire. There were significant increases in knowledge of correct servings of fruit and vegetables, knowledge of sugar and caffeine content of common sugar-sweetened drinks, recognition of the consequences of marketing and upsizing, and the importance of controlling portion size (all P well as the importance of physical activity for preventing heart disease (P emphasis on reducing intake of junk food may be beneficial. The study has shown that the Good Start Program was effective in engaging children from Maori and Pacific Island backgrounds and in improving knowledge, and some attitudes and practices, related to healthy eating and physical activity. The evaluation contributes valuable information about components and impacts of this type of intervention, and considerations relevant to this population in order to successfully change behaviours and reduce the burden of chronic disease.

  9. A Survey of Zoonotic Pathogens Carried by Non-Indigenous Rodents at the Interface of the Wet Tropics of North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, S; Picard, J; Duffy, R; Constantinoiu, C; Gummow, B

    2017-02-01

    In 1964, Brucella was isolated from rodents trapped in Wooroonooran National Park (WNP), in Northern Queensland, Australia. Genotyping of bacterial isolates in 2008 determined that they were a novel Brucella species. This study attempted to reisolate this species of Brucella from rodents living in the boundary area adjacent to WNP and to establish which endo- and ecto-parasites and bacterial agents were being carried by non-indigenous rodents at this interface. Seventy non-indigenous rodents were trapped [Mus musculus (52), Rattus rattus (17) and Rattus norvegicus (1)], euthanized and sampled on four properties adjacent to the WNP in July 2012. Organ pools were screened by culture for Salmonella, Leptospira and Brucella species, real-time PCR for Coxiella burnetii and conventional PCR for Leptospira. Collected ecto- and endo-parasites were identified using morphological criteria. The percentage of rodents carrying pathogens were Leptospira (40%), Salmonella choleraesuis ssp. arizonae (14.29%), ectoparasites (21.42%) and endoparasites (87%). Brucella and C. burnetii were not identified, and it was concluded that their prevalences were below 12%. Two rodent-specific helminthic species, namely Syphacia obvelata (2.86%) and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (85.71%), were identified. The most prevalent ectoparasites belonged to Laelaps spp. (41.17%) followed by Polyplax spp. (23.53%), Hoplopleura spp. (17.65%), Ixodes holocyclus (17.64%) and Stephanocircus harrisoni (5.88%), respectively. These ectoparasites, except S. harrisoni, are known to transmit zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. from rat to rat and could be transmitted to humans by other arthropods that bite humans. The high prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira species is of significant public health concern. This is the first known study of zoonotic agents carried by non-indigenous rodents living in the Australian wet-tropical forest interface. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Patterns of specificity and diversity in species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 (Cestoda: Phyllobothriidae) in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, with the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Bennett, Michael B; Miller, Terrence L; Cribb, Thomas H

    2017-11-01

    A survey of tapeworms of galeomorph sharks from Moreton Bay (Queensland, Australia) identified a complex of species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 infecting 11 carcharhiniform and two orectolobiform species. Combined morphological and multi-locus molecular analyses (based on the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and partial mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes) revealed the presence of 12 species of Paraorygmatobothrium; four species (Paraorygmatobothrium christopheri n. sp., P. harti n. sp., P. sinclairtaylori n. sp. and P. ullmanni n. sp.) are considered to be new to science and are formally described, four represent known species, and four lack sufficient morphological data to allow definitive identification. In contrast to previous records for the genus, four of the species found in this study exhibited low host specificity [P. orectolobi (Butler, 1987) Ruhnke, 2011, P. sinclairtaylori, P. ullmanni and Paraorygmatobothrium sp. 3], three stenoxenic species were each found in two closely-related sharks (P. orectolobi, P. ullmanni and Paraorygmatobothrium sp. 3) and one euryxenic species was found in five species from two shark families (P. sinclairtaylori). One species was found to exhibit mild morphologically plasticity (P. orectolobi), with size range being associated with different shark species. Conversely, collections of almost morphologically indistinguishable specimens from single shark species were found to represent multiple species of Paraorygmatobothrium. The findings of this study indicate that the description of species of this genus on the basis of morphological data alone is problematic and that the inclusion of multi-locus molecular data is essential for future work on Paraorygmatobothrium. Host specificity, morphology and phylogenetic relatedness of species of Paraorygmatobothrium are explored.

  11. Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia: Study Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Nabil Ezz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children’s health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW (to assess airway function, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation, blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels (to measure systemic inflammation. A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study.

  12. Eucalyptus pollen allergy and asthma in children: a cross-sectional study in South-East Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jane E M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree) pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma. Males (n = 180) and females (n = 200) aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic), some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range) near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species). Skin prick test (SPT) responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and 'asthma' (n = 97) versus 'healthy' status (n = 107) groups, were compared. SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter) indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7) compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018), Eucalyptus (p = .046) and cockroach (p = .047) allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm) were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher's Exact Test (α .05). For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm) was greatest for 'dust mite' (30.9%-46%), 'cockroach' (18.1% -35%) and 'Bermuda grass' (10.6%-19.4%). The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas. Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be appropriate. The findings pose validity questions regarding the use of some

  13. Using GeoEye-1 Imagery for Multi-Temporal Object-Based Detection of Canegrub Damage in Sugarcane Fields in Queensland, Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper; Sallam, Nader; Robson, Andrew; Samson, Peter; Chandler, Keith; Derby, Lisa; Eaton, Allen; Jennings, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    mapping approaches suitable for risk mapping. The GEOBIA mapping approach for canegrub damage detection was evaluated over three selected study sites in Queensland, covering a total of 254 km2 and included five main steps developed in the e

  14. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-11-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. Prescribed burning can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined in four replicate plots which were burned during the combustion and in another four adjacent unburned plots located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 d-1. Prescribed burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates in the burned plots measured in August 2014. In the following 3 months, the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to the pre-burning level. Mean CO2 emission from the forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 d-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned plots in both August and November 2014. The CO2 emissions showed more seasonal variations, rather than the effects of prescribed burning. The N2O emission in the plots was quite low, and no significant impact of prescribed burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial

  15. Eucalyptus pollen allergy and asthma in children: a cross-sectional study in South-East Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E M Gibbs

    Full Text Available To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma.Males (n = 180 and females (n = 200 aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic, some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species. Skin prick test (SPT responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and 'asthma' (n = 97 versus 'healthy' status (n = 107 groups, were compared.SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7 compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018, Eucalyptus (p = .046 and cockroach (p = .047 allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher's Exact Test (α .05. For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm was greatest for 'dust mite' (30.9%-46%, 'cockroach' (18.1% -35% and 'Bermuda grass' (10.6%-19.4%.The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas.Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be appropriate. The findings pose validity questions regarding the use of some commercial

  16. Trends in the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia from 2000 to 2013: what is the impact of an increase in invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sai Cheong, J; Smith, H; Heney, C; Robson, J; Schlebusch, S; Fu, J; Nourse, C

    2015-10-01

    Following the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), cases of invasive encapsulated Hib disease have decreased markedly. This study aimed to examine subsequent epidemiological trends in invasive H. influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia and in particular, assess the clinical impact and public health implications of invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from July 2000 to June 2013. Databases of major laboratories in Queensland including Queensland Forensic and Scientific Services (jurisdictional referral laboratory for isolate typing) were examined to identify cases. Demographic, infection site, Indigenous status, serotype, and mortality data were collected. In total, 737 invasive isolates were identified, of which 586 (79·5%) were serotyped. Hib, NTHi and encapsulated non-b strains, respectively, constituted 12·1%, 69·1% and 18·8% of isolates. The predominant encapsulated non-b strains were f (45·5%) and a (27·3%) serotypes. Of isolates causing meningitis, 48·9% were NTHi, 14·9% Hib, 14·9% Hie, 10·6% Hif, 6·4% Hia and 4·3% were untyped. During the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of invasive NTHi disease (P = 0·007) with seasonal peaks in winter and spring (P 0·001) and Hib (P = 0·039) than non-Indigenous patients. In Queensland, invasive H. influenzae disease is now predominantly encountered in adults and most commonly caused by NTHi strains with demonstrated pathogenicity extending to otherwise young or immunocompetent individuals. Routine public health notification of these strains is recommended and recent available immunization options should be considered.

  17. Assessment of groundwater–surface water interaction using long-term hydrochemical data and isotope hydrology: Headwaters of the Condamine River, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jorge L., E-mail: jlmarti@ig.com.br [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Raiber, Matthias [CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Brisbane (Australia); Cox, Malcolm E. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    A spatial analysis of hydrochemical data of groundwater and surface water was undertaken to identify groundwater-surface water connectivity in the headwaters of the Condamine River catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. An assessment of long-term hydrochemical and water level data supplemented by stable- and radioisotope measurements following a prolonged dry period dominated by baseflow, helped in determining patterns of interaction in different tributaries of the upper Condamine catchment. A conceptual hydrological model representing the major hydrochemical processes and their implications for stream-aquifer connectivity was developed and tested using multiple lines of evidence. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis highlight that there are two main regions with distinct hydrochemical facies (salinity, alkalinity, and predominant ions) in surface water. Geomorphology, geology, anthropogenic and climate influence were identified as the most relevant controlling factors of the spatial variability in water quality. Stable isotope data confirmed a clear evaporation trend in almost all surface water samples during baseflow conditions. Two water types can be identified and separated by the degree of evaporation and the proximity of one group to the local meteoric water line. The results confirm the discharge of groundwater from aquifers recharged by rainfall and located upstream of the surface water sampling sites. Overall, {sup 222}Rn data show a trend of increased activity in surface water towards the upstream portions of these tributaries, validating the use of this tracer to estimate groundwater input to the local creeks. The proportion of groundwater contribution to stream flow calculated by {sup 222}Rn and chloride mass balance is in agreement, and ranges between 20–70% in tributaries in the northern areas, and between 8–50% in the upper reaches of the main river channel. This study shows the efficacy of an integrated approach combining long

  18. Assessment of groundwater–surface water interaction using long-term hydrochemical data and isotope hydrology: Headwaters of the Condamine River, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jorge L.; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    A spatial analysis of hydrochemical data of groundwater and surface water was undertaken to identify groundwater-surface water connectivity in the headwaters of the Condamine River catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. An assessment of long-term hydrochemical and water level data supplemented by stable- and radioisotope measurements following a prolonged dry period dominated by baseflow, helped in determining patterns of interaction in different tributaries of the upper Condamine catchment. A conceptual hydrological model representing the major hydrochemical processes and their implications for stream-aquifer connectivity was developed and tested using multiple lines of evidence. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis highlight that there are two main regions with distinct hydrochemical facies (salinity, alkalinity, and predominant ions) in surface water. Geomorphology, geology, anthropogenic and climate influence were identified as the most relevant controlling factors of the spatial variability in water quality. Stable isotope data confirmed a clear evaporation trend in almost all surface water samples during baseflow conditions. Two water types can be identified and separated by the degree of evaporation and the proximity of one group to the local meteoric water line. The results confirm the discharge of groundwater from aquifers recharged by rainfall and located upstream of the surface water sampling sites. Overall, 222 Rn data show a trend of increased activity in surface water towards the upstream portions of these tributaries, validating the use of this tracer to estimate groundwater input to the local creeks. The proportion of groundwater contribution to stream flow calculated by 222 Rn and chloride mass balance is in agreement, and ranges between 20–70% in tributaries in the northern areas, and between 8–50% in the upper reaches of the main river channel. This study shows the efficacy of an integrated approach combining long

  19. Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mihrshahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. Methods The intervention was delivered to children aged 6–19 years (N = 375 in schools by multicultural health workers. Class activities focused on one message each term related to healthy eating and physical activity using methods such as cooking sessions and cultural dance. The evaluation approach was a quantitative uncontrolled pre-post design. Data were collected each term pre- and post-intervention using a short questionnaire. Results There were significant increases in knowledge of correct servings of fruit and vegetables, knowledge of sugar and caffeine content of common sugar-sweetened drinks, recognition of the consequences of marketing and upsizing, and the importance of controlling portion size (all P < 0.05. There was also increases in knowledge of physical activity recommendations (P < 0.001, as well as the importance of physical activity for preventing heart disease (P < 0.001 and improving self-esteem (P < 0.001. In terms of attitudes, there were significant improvements in some attitudes to vegetables (P = 0.02, and sugar-sweetened drinks (P < 0.05. In terms of practices and behaviours, although the reported intake of vegetables increased significantly (P < 0.001, the proportion of children eating discretionary foods regularly did not change significantly, suggesting that modifying the program with an increased emphasis on reducing intake of junk food may be beneficial. Conclusion The study has shown that the Good

  20. Management of the coastal biophysical environment in tropical Queensland under conditions of heavy developmental pressure: the case of tourist resorts and acid sulphate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Erfurt-Haupt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La côte tropicale du Queensland est confrontée à un accroissement rapide de la population. Les fortes pressions anthropiques pèsent sur le milieu biophysique, qui comprend notamment a plus grande île de sable du monde, un site classé Patrimoine de l’Humanité, Port Hinchinbrook et Fraser Island.  Malgré l’existence d’une législation nationale orientée vers la préservation de l’environnement, il est manifeste que peu d’attention est accordée aux effets à long terme des sites touristiques et du développement de l’urbanisation sur ces franges côtières sensibles. L’aspect massif des flux de visiteurs et leurs impacts sur le milieu naturel a été identifié comme un sujet d’inquiétude particulier dans certaines régions. La connaissance des impacts sur la géomorphologie côtière souterraine est très réduite et les choix de développement sont souvent faits dans l’ignorance ou au mépris de la présence répandue de terrains de sulfate d’acide dans ce milieu côtier. Des sols réactifs comme ceux-là peuvent affecter, et affectent, grandement les résultats géophysiques d’un développement lorsqu’ils sont connus. Des études de cas sur le problème des sols de sulfate d’acide suggèrent qu’une partie de la solution pour le gouvernement de l’Etat du Queensland est d’imposer des normes obligatoires pour le développement du tourisme dans la zone côtière.The tropical coast of Queensland, Australia is experiencing rapid population and tourism growth. Heavy development pressure is being placed on the biophysical environment, which includes the largest sand island in the world (World Heritage listed, Fraser Island. Despite the existence of State planning legislation oriented towards environmental sustainability, it is apparent that little, if any, regard is being paid to the long-term effects of resort and canal-estate development on the underlying biophysical environment of the coast and islands.

  1. Five new species of grass cicadas in the genus Graminitigrina (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae: Cicadettini) from Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia: comparative morphology, songs, behaviour and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, A; Popple, L W; Hill, K B R

    2017-02-07

    Five new species of small grass cicadas belonging to the genus Graminitigrina Ewart and Marques are described, together with detailed analyses of their calling songs. Four species occur in Queensland, G. aurora n. sp. from eastern central Queensland near Fairbairn Dam; G. flindensis n. sp. from central Queensland between Hughenden northwards for at least 108 km; G. einasleighi n. sp. from near The Lynd, Einasleigh River, northeastern Queensland; G. selwynensis n. sp. from the Selwyn Range, northwestern Queensland, at locations about 40 km east of Mount Isa and 25 km southwest of Cloncurry, this latter here transferred from G. bowensis Ewart and Marques; G. uluruensis n. sp. from Uluru and the Olgas in southwestern Northern Territory, extending northwards through Tennant Creek and apparently further north to near Larrimah, a linear distance of approximately 1190 km. These new species bring the known Graminitigrina species to ten, all superficially similar in colour and morphology. A key to male specimens is provided for the 10 species. Additional distribution records and additional aural song recordings are presented for G. bowensis, these requiring the transfer of populations previously identified as G. bowensis from Croydon and Georgetown, northern Gulf region, to G. karumbae Ewart and Marques. Detailed comparative analyses, including NMDS analyses, of the songs of all 10 species are provided, which show that the song parameters are appropriate to distinguish the species, although some partial overlap is noted in the waveform plots between the songs of G. uluruensis n. sp. and G. flindensis n. sp. Regional variations of song parameters are noted in the calling songs of most of the species described.

  2. Quantifying denitrification losses from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia - use of the 15N gas flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Johannes; Scheer, Clemens; Warner, Daniel; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification remains a major uncertainty in estimating N losses from soils, the magnitude of N2 losses and related N2:N2O ratios from soils are largely unknown due to difficulties measuring N2 against a high atmospheric background. In order to address this lack of data, this study investigated the influence of different soil moisture contents on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia using the 15N gas flux method. Intact soil cores were incubated over 14 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS). Gas samples were taken up to six times per day after application of 15N labelled nitrate, equivalent to 50 kg N ha-1 and analysed for N2 and N2O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fluxes were calculated assuming non-random 15N distribution in the headspace according to Mulvaney and Kurtz (1984) using the labelled pool of nitrate estimated from N2O measurements (Stevens and Laughlin 2001). The main product of denitrification in both treatments was N2. N2 emissions exceeded N2O emissions by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.3 at 80% WFPS and a factor of 3 ± 0.8 at 100% WFPS. The total amount of N-N2 lost over the incubation period was 13.5±1.0 kg N ha-1 at 80% WFPS and 21.8±1.8 kg ha-1 at 100% WFPS respectively. Over the entire incubation period, N2 emissions remained elevated at 100% WFPS, showing high variation between soil cores, while related N2O emissions decreased. At 80% WFPS, N2 emissions increased constantly over time showing significantly higher values after day five. At the same time, N2O fluxes declined. Consequently, N2:N2O ratios rose over the incubation period in both treatments. Overall denitrification rates and related N2:N2O ratios were higher at 100% WFPS compared to 80% WFPS, confirming WFPS as a major driver of

  3. Hydrology and Soil Erosion in Tropical Rainforests and Pasture Lands on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia - a rainfall simulator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne, Joanne; Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    The Barron and Johnstone Rivers rise in the basaltic Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia, and flow into the Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Natural rainforest in this region was cleared for settlement in the early 20th century. Rapid decline in soil fertility during the 1940's and 50's forced landholders to turn to pasture based industries from row crop agriculture. Since then, these pasture based industries have intensified. The intensified land use has been linked to increases in sediment and nutrient levels in terrestrial runoff and identified as a major environmental threat to the GBRWHA, which has raised alarm for the tourist industry and resource managers. Studies linking land-use to pollutant discharge are often based on measurements and modelling of end of catchment measurements of water quality. Whilst such measurements can be a reasonable indicator of the effects of land use on pollutant discharge to waterways, they are often a gross assessment. This project used rainfall simulations to investigate the relationship between land use and management with sources and sinks of runoff and soil erosion within the Barron and Johnstone Rivers catchments. Rainfall simulations were conducted and pollutant loads measured in natural rainforest, as well as dairy and beef farming systems. The dairy farming systems included an effluent fed pasture, a high mineral fertilizer and supplementary irrigation farm, and a rainfed organic pasture that relied on tropical legumes and introduced grasses and returned organic material to the soil. One of the beef farming systems used a 7-10 day rotation with a low fertilizer regime (kikuyu mostly), while the other, used a long period- two paddock-rotation with no fertiliser and paspalum pastures. The rainforests were generally small isolated enclaves with a well developed shrub layer (1-3 m), and a presence of scattered, deciduous trees. Simulations were carried out on sites which were

  4. Sole Fighter Mentality: Stakeholder Agency in CLIL Programmes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an insight into content and language integrated learning (CLIL) practices in the Australian state of Queensland. The article comprises four main sections. The first section outlines the context of CLIL in Australia and Queensland; there follows a brief review of the literature on stakeholders in CLIL programmes, such as…

  5. Cervical cancer in women under 25 years of age in Queensland, Australia: To what extent is the diagnosis made by screening cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Edwina L; Sanday, Karen; Budd, Alison; Hammond, Ian G; Nicklin, James

    2017-08-01

    The current Australian National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP) involves biennial, cytology-based screening of women from the age of 18 years. From December, 2017 this will change to a five-yearly human papilloma virus-based screening commencing at age 25. There is some concern that the new program may delay the opportunistic detection of cervical cancers in women under 25 years. (1) To review all cases of invasive cervical cancer in Queensland women under the age of 25 over the last 28 years. (2) To determine symptoms and screening history prior to diagnosis. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken at the Queensland Centre for Gynaecological Cancer (QCGC) and the Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR) of all women aged between 13 and 25 years diagnosed with cervical cancer in Queensland between 1984 and 2012. Demographic data and symptoms prior to diagnosis were extracted from the QCGC and QCR databases. A total of 56 women aged 13-25, were diagnosed with cervical cancer and treated at the QCGC between 1984 and 2012. The commonest reason for the diagnosis of cancer was investigation of abnormal symptoms (n = 22, 39%) rather than routine Pap smear abnormalities (n = 15, 26%). Consistent with the world literature, there is a very low incidence of cervical cancer in women under 25 years of age, irrespective of the age of commencement of screening, or the screening interval. Our study lends some support to the proposed commencement age of 25 years in the new NCSP. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  7. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. CLIL in Queensland: The Evolution of "Immersion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Queensland second language immersion programs have been in existence for three decades, and are part of a growing number of additive bilingual education programs in Australia. Most prominently, many new Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programs have been established particularly in Victoria over the past few years. This focus on…

  9. Habitat features influence catch rates of near-shore bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) in the Queensland Shark Control Program, Australia 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Jodie A.; Lambert, Gwladys I.; Sumpton, Wayne D.; Mayer, David G.; Werry, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding shark habitat use is vital for informing better ecological management of coastal areas and shark populations. The Queensland Shark Control Program (QSCP) operates over ∼1800 km of Queensland coastline. Between 1996 and 2012, catch, total length and sex were recorded from most of the 1992 bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) caught on drum lines and gill-nets as part of the QSCP (sex and length was not successfully recorded for all individuals). Gear was set at multiple sites within ten locations. Analysis of monthly catch data resulted in a zero-inflated dataset for the 17 years of records. Five models were trialled for suitability of standardising the bull shark catch per unit effort (CPUE) using available habitat and environmental data. Three separate models for presence-absence and presence-only were run and outputs combined using a delta-lognormal framework for generalized linear and generalized additive models. The delta-lognormal generalized linear model approach resulted in best fit to explain patterns in CPUE. Greater CPUE occurred on drum lines, and greater numbers of bull sharks were caught on both gear types in summer months, with tropical sites, and sites with greater adjacent wetland habitats catching consistently more bull sharks compared to sub-tropical sites. The CPUE data did not support a hypothesis of population decline indicative of coastal overfishing. However, the total length of sharks declined slightly through time for those caught in the tropics; subtropical catches were dominated by females and a large proportion of all bull sharks caught were smaller than the size-at-maturity reported for this species. These factors suggest that growth and sex overfishing of Queensland bull shark populations may be occurring but are not yet detectable in the available data. The data highlight available coastal wetlands, river size, length of coastline and distance to the 50 m depth contour are important for consideration in future whole of

  10. The Reconstruction Potential of a 350 year-long, Mid-Elevation Proxy for PDSI in a Tree-Ring Record from Tropical North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, N. B.; Duffy, R.; Balanzategui, D.; Baker, P. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    In far northern Queensland (FNQ) there are only sporadic coral and speleothem precipitation proxy records, and only one annually resolved, terrestrial record of rainfall that predates 1850 CE. Black kauri pine, Agathis atropurpurea, is a large conifer present in isolated stands near 1000 masl in the wet tropical dividing range of FNQ. Little is known about its phenology or responses to climate, although its presence near the elevational limit of the dividing range may hinder its ability to respond to increased temperature or decreased precipitation through elevational migration. We hypothesize that in this energy-limited forest, increased (decreased) solar radiation leads to increased (decreased) ring widths, and higher (lower) evapotranspiration rates produce increases (decreases) in the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the a-cellulose component of wood. To test this hypothesis, we collected over 60 cores from 21 large (dbh = 56 to 186 cm) A. atropurpurea trees from Spurgeon Peak National Park. The resulting tree-ring chronology extends from 2013 to 1438 CE and shows high average mean sensitivity (0.642) although expressed population signal drops off at 1650 CE as sample depth decreases. Comparison of the most recent 100 years of ring widths and direct climate observations show a significant positive relationship (r2 = 0.4, p < 0.01) to PDSI in December through March, coinciding with the austral rainy season associated with onset of the northern Australian Monsoon. Annualized δ18Oxygen (a-cellulose) maxima for 1983-2013 show strong and significant spatial positive relationships to Tmax and Pacific seasurface temperatures. Work to refine the interpretation of the data is onoing, but the resulting dataset may enable extension of the terrestrial climate record of north Queensland two centuries beyond current tree-ring proxies and historical observations.

  11. A comparison of vegetation development on coarse coal reject and replaced topsoil on an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, D.R.; Grigg, A.H.; Bowen, D.; Orr, M.S.; Bell, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    In 1988, the University of Queensland commenced a research program at Curragh coal mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland to examine factors that would encourage the growth of a cover crop sufficient t control soil erosion, but not so competitive as to hinder the establishment of native species. Weed and grass growth from the soil seed store in replaced topsoil often has a negative impact on the establishment and survival of sown native tree and shrub species. In contrast, good establishment has been achieved using a surface mulch of coarse coal reject. Longer term data confirm the beneficial effect of coarse coal reject, with approximately 4,500 trees/ha on coarse reject after 10 years compared to 300 trees/ha on replaced topsoil. The difference is attributed largely to the competitive effects of the dense ground cover on topsoil at initial establishment. However, there are two potential problems for the long-term sustainability of communities on coarse coal reject. Firstly, reject is very low in nutrients and microbial biomass, limiting the satisfactory development of nutrient cycling. Secondly, it is often saline and will be likely to continue to generate salt with weathering, raising concerns over the success of secondary recruitment. It is concluded that coarse coal reject can play a role in successful tree and shrub establishment and hence in increasing the diversity of post-mining ecosystems. However, careful management is required to avoid the use of saline materials, and strategies need to be explored to increase its biological activity

  12. Uranium exploration in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Hawkins, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of exploration which recommenced in 1966 Australia's uranium reserves increased from 6,200 tonnes in 1967 to 227,000 tonnes uranium by June 1976. Most discoveries in the early 1950's were made by prospectors. The increase in reserves during the past decade is the result of exploration by companies utilising improved technology in areas selected as geologically favourable. These reserves were established at relatively low cost. In the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province the ''vein'' type deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek contain 17% of the world's reserves. Most of these discoveries resulted from the investigation of airborne radiometric anomalies but cover over the prospective host rocks will necessitate the future use of costlier and more indirect exploration techniques. There was exploration for sandstone type uranium deposits in most of Australia's sedimentary basins. The greatest success was achieved in the Lake Frome Basin in South Australia. Other deposits were found in the Ngalia and Amadeus Basins in Central Australia and in the Westmoreland area, N.W. Queensland. A major uranium deposit was found in an unusual environment at Yeelirrie, Western Australia where carnotite occurs in a caliche and clay host which fills a shallow, ancient drainage channel. Although caliche occurrences are relatively widespread on the Precambrian shield no other economic deposit has been found. Recent discoveries in the Georgetown area of Queensland indicate the presence of another uranium province but it is too early to assess its potential. The ore occurs in clastic sediments at the base of a volcanic sequence overlying a Precambrian basement. Several companies which have established large uranium reserves have a number of additional attractive prospects. Exploration activity in Australia in 1975 was at a lower level than in previous years, but the potential for discovering further deposits is considered to be high

  13. Drowning Mortality and Morbidity Rates in Children and Adolescents 0-19yrs: A Population-Based Study in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Belinda A.; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C.; Nixon, James W.; Kimble, Roy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To redress the lack of Queensland population incidence mortality and morbidity data associated with drowning in those aged 0-19yrs, and to understand survival and patient care. Design, Setting and Participants Retrospective population-based study used data linkage to capture both fatal and non-fatal drowning cases (N = 1299) among children aged 0-19years in Queensland, from 2002-2008 inclusive. Patient data were accessed from pre-hospital, emergency department, hospital admission and death data, and linked manually to collate data across the continuum of care. Main Outcome Measures Incidence rates were calculated separately by age group and gender for events resulting in death, hospital admission, and non-admission. Trends over time were analysed. Results Drowning death to survival ratio was 1:10, and two out of three of those who survived were admitted to hospital. Incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal drowning increased over time, primarily due to an increase in non-fatal drowning. There were non-significant reductions in fatal and admission rates. Rates for non-fatal drowning that did not result in hospitalisation more than doubled over the seven years. Children aged 5-9yrs and 10-14yrs incurred the lowest incidence rates 6.38 and 4.62 (expressed as per 100,000), and the highest rates were among children aged 0-4yrs (all drowning events 43.90; fatal 4.04; non-fatal 39.85–comprising admission 26.69 and non-admission 13.16). Males were over-represented in all age groups except 10-14yrs. Total male drowning events increased 44% over the seven years (P<0.001). Conclusion This state-wide data collection has revealed previously unknown incidence and survival ratios. Increased trends in drowning survival rates may be viewed as both positive and challenging for drowning prevention and the health system. Males are over-represented, and although infants and toddlers did not have increased fatality rates, they had the greatest drowning burden demonstrating

  14. Conserving forest biodiversity across multiple land ownerships: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan and the Southeast Queensland Regional Forests Agreement (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. McAlpine; T.A. Spies; P. Norman; A. Peterson

    2007-01-01

    As the area of the world's forests shrinks, the management of production forests is becoming increasingly paramount for biodiversity conservation. In the United States and Australia, public debate and controversy about the management of production forests during the later decades of the 20th century resulted in governments adopting sweeping top-down changes to...

  15. A cost-minimisation analysis comparing photoselective vaporisation (PVP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the management of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Crosland, Paul; Hewson, Kaye; Narula, Rajan; Nathan, Timothy R; Campbell, Peter A; Keller, Andrew; Scuffham, Paul A

    2014-03-01

    To compare the costs of photoselective vaporisation (PVP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for management of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from the perspective of a Queensland public hospital provider. A decision-analytic model was used to compare the costs of PVP and TURP. Cost inputs were sourced from an audit of patients undergoing PVP or TURP across three hospitals. The probability of re-intervention was obtained from secondary literature sources. Probabilistic and multi-way sensitivity analyses were used to account for uncertainty and test the impact of varying key assumptions. In the base case analysis, which included equipment, training and re-intervention costs, PVP was AU$ 739 (95% credible interval [CrI] -12 187 to 14 516) more costly per patient than TURP. The estimate was most sensitive to changes in procedural costs, fibre costs and the probability of re-intervention. Sensitivity analyses based on data from the most favourable site or excluding equipment and training costs reduced the point estimate to favour PVP (incremental cost AU$ -684, 95% CrI -8319 to 5796 and AU$ -100, 95% CrI -13 026 to 13 678, respectively). However, CrIs were wide for all analyses. In this cost minimisation analysis, there was no significant cost difference between PVP and TURP, after accounting for equipment, training and re-intervention costs. However, PVP was associated with a shorter length of stay and lower procedural costs during audit, indicating PVP potentially provides comparatively good value for money once the technology is established. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  16. Long-term frequent prescribed fire decreases surface soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a wet sclerophyll forest of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaddas, Bushra; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Lewis, Tom; Wild, Clyde; Chen, Chengrong

    2015-12-01

    Prescribed fire is one of the most widely-used management tools for reducing fuel loads in managed forests. However the long-term effects of repeated prescribed fires on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate how different fire frequency regimes influence C and N pools in the surface soils (0-10 cm). A prescribed fire field experiment in a wet sclerophyll forest established in 1972 in southeast Queensland was used in this study. The fire frequency regimes included long unburnt (NB), burnt every 2 years (2yrB) and burnt every 4 years (4yrB), with four replications. Compared with the NB treatment, the 2yrB treatment lowered soil total C by 44%, total N by 54%, HCl hydrolysable C and N by 48% and 59%, KMnO4 oxidizable C by 81%, microbial biomass C and N by 42% and 33%, cumulative CO2-C by 28%, NaOCl-non-oxidizable C and N by 41% and 51%, and charcoal-C by 17%, respectively. The 4yrB and NB treatments showed no significant differences for these soil C and N pools. All soil labile, biologically active and recalcitrant and total C and N pools were correlated positively with each other and with soil moisture content, but negatively correlated with soil pH. The C:N ratios of different C and N pools were greater in the burned treatments than in the NB treatments. This study has highlighted that the prescribed burning at four year interval is a more sustainable management practice for this subtropical forest ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Geomorphic effects, flood power, and channel competence of a catastrophic flood in confined and unconfined reaches of the upper Lockyer valley, southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2013-09-01

    Flooding is a persistent natural hazard, and even modest changes in future climate are believed to lead to large increases in flood magnitude. Previous studies of extreme floods have reported a range of geomorphic responses from negligible change to catastrophic channel change. This paper provides an assessment of the geomorphic effects of a rare, high magnitude event that occurred in the Lockyer valley, southeast Queensland in January 2011. The average return interval of the resulting flood was ~ 2000 years in the upper catchment and decreased to ~ 30 years downstream. A multitemporal LiDAR-derived DEM of Difference (DoD) is used to quantify morphological change in two study reaches with contrasting valley settings (confined and unconfined). Differences in geomorphic response between reaches are examined in the context of changes in flood power, channel competence and degree of valley confinement using a combination of one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) hydraulic modelling. Flood power peaked at 9800 W m- 2 along the confined reach and was 2-3 times lower along the unconfined reach. Results from the DoD confirm that the confined reach was net erosional, exporting ~ 287,000 m3 of sediment whilst the unconfined reach was net depositional gaining ~ 209,000 m3 of sediment, 70% of the amount exported from the upstream, confined reach. The major sources of eroded sediment in the confined reach were within channel benches and macrochannel banks resulting in a significant increase of channel width. In the unconfined reach, the benches and floodplains were the major loci for deposition, whilst the inner channel exhibited minor width increases. The presence of high stream power values, and resultant high erosion rates, within the confined reach is a function of the higher energy gradient of the steeper channel that is associated with knickpoint development. Dramatic differences in geomorphic responses were observed between the two adjacent reaches of

  18. The use of multi temporal LiDAR to assess basin-scale erosion and deposition following the catastrophic January 2011 Lockyer flood, SE Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Jacky; Todd, Peter; Thompson, Chris; Watson, Fiona; Denham, Robert; Khanal, Giri

    2013-02-01

    Advances in remote sensing and digital terrain processing now allow for a sophisticated analysis of spatial and temporal changes in erosion and deposition. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can now be constructed and differenced to produce DEMs of Difference (DoD), which are used to assess net landscape change for morphological budgeting. To date this has been most effectively achieved in gravel-bed rivers over relatively small spatial scales. If the full potential of the technology is to be realised, additional studies are required at larger scales and across a wider range of geomorphic features. This study presents an assessment of the basin-scale spatial patterns of erosion, deposition, and net morphological change that resulted from a catastrophic flood event in the Lockyer Creek catchment of SE Queensland (SEQ) in January 2011. Multitemporal Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) DEMs were used to construct a DoD that was then combined with a one-dimensional flow hydraulic model HEC-RAS to delineate five major geomorphic landforms, including inner-channel area, within-channel benches, macrochannel banks, and floodplain. The LiDAR uncertainties were quantified and applied together with a probabilistic representation of uncertainty thresholded at a conservative 95% confidence interval. The elevation change distribution (ECD) for the 100-km2 study area indicates a magnitude of elevation change spanning almost 10 m but the mean elevation change of 0.04 m confirms that a large part of the landscape was characterised by relatively low magnitude changes over a large spatial area. Mean elevation changes varied by geomorphic feature and only two, the within-channel benches and macrochannel banks, were net erosional with an estimated combined loss of 1,815,149 m3 of sediment. The floodplain was the zone of major net deposition but mean elevation changes approached the defined critical limit of uncertainty. Areal and volumetric ECDs for this extreme event provide a

  19. Tebuthiuron Movement via Leaching and Runoff from Grazed Vertisol and Alfisol Soils in the Brigalow Belt Bioregion of Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Craig M; Elledge, Amanda E

    2016-05-25

    Tebuthiuron is one of five priority herbicides identified as a water pollutant entering the Great Barrier Reef. A review of tebuthiuron research in Australia found 13 papers, 6 of which focused on water quality at the basin scale (>10,000 km(2)) with little focus on process understanding. This study examined the movement of tebuthiuron in soil and runoff at the plot (1.7 m(2)) and small catchment (12.7 ha) scales. The greatest concentration and mass in soil occurred from 0 to 0.05 m depth 30-57 days after application. Concentrations at all depths tended to decrease after 55-104 days. Runoff at the small catchment scale contained high concentrations of tebuthiuron (average = 103 μg/L) 100 days after application, being 0.05% of the amount applied. Tebuthiuron concentrations in runoff declined over time with the majority of the chemical in the dissolved phase.

  20. Human-environment interactions in arid Australia: a geoarchaeological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Patricia C.; Holdaway, Simon J.; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional approach to assessing the archaeological record in semi-arid regions of many parts of the world involves extensive survey of surface deposits thought to indicate the use of space by past peoples. However, such interpretations require a detailed understanding not only of how these deposits formed but also why they have survived. In summarizing more than a decade of research in western New South Wales, Australia, we argue that over much of semi-arid and arid Australia, archaeological ‘sites' are, in fact, accretion phenomena (or ‘palimpsests') that are not easily interpreted as the outcome of short-term behavioural events. Moreover, while the desert landscapes may appear to be unchanging, there is considerable variability in landsurface age, and hence the ‘availability' of archaeological surfaces. It cannot be assumed that stone artefact deposits, for example, from a similar location are of a similar age. To make behavioural inferences from these records, an approach is needed based on a geoarchaeological assessment of landscape potential, analyses able to detect human responses to environmental change, and analyses of artefacts that emphasise mobility rather than static settlement patterns. Landscape, paleoenvironmental and artifact assemblage data from our field area will be presented that demonstrates episodic occupation by highly mobile groups of people, most likely reacting to environmental changes and resource availability.

  1. Learning Not Borrowing from the Queensland Education System: Lessons on Curricular, Pedagogical and Assessment Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…

  2. Australia State of the Environment 2011--A Resource for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsack, Peter; Shepherd, Lee-Anne; Bartlett, Anni

    2013-01-01

    Australia State of the Environment 2011 (SoE 2011) is a comprehensive review of the Australian environment, providing an independent and authoritative snapshot of the state of our continent. The report presents relevant and useful information to the public and decision makers to improve understanding of environmental issues and support better…

  3. Using environmental tracer data to identify deep-aquifer, long-term flow patterns and recharge distributions in the Surat Basin, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, A. J.; Suckow, A. O.; Morris, R.; Raiber, M.; Prommer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The calibration of regional groundwater flow models, including those investigating coal-seam gas (CSG) impacts in the Surat Basin, Australia, are not typically constrained using environmental tracers, although the use of such data can potentially provide significant reductions in predictive uncertainties. These additional sources of information can also improve the conceptualisation of flow systems and the quantification of groundwater fluxes. In this study, new multi-tracer data (14C, 39Ar, 81Kr, and 36Cl) were collected for the eastern recharge areas of the basin and within the deeper Hutton and Precipice Sandstone formations to complement existing environmental tracer data. These data were used to better understand the recharge mechanisms, recharge rates and the hydraulic properties associated with deep aquifer systems in the Surat Basin. Together with newly acquired pressure data documenting the response to the large-scale reinjection of highly treated CSG co-produced water, the environmental tracer data helped to improve the conceptualisation of the aquifer system, forming the basis for a more robust quantification of the long-term impacts of CSG-related activities. An existing regional scale MODFLOW-USG groundwater flow model of the area was used as the basis for our analysis of existing and new observation data. A variety of surrogate modelling approaches were used to develop simplified models that focussed on the flow and transport behaviour of the deep aquifer systems. These surrogate models were able to represent sub-system behaviour in terms of flow, multi-environmental tracer transport and the observed large-scale hydrogeochemical patterns. The incorporation of the environmental tracer data into the modelling framework provide an improved understanding of the flow regimes of the deeper aquifer systems as well as valuable information on how to reduce uncertainties in hydraulic properties where there is little or no historical observations of hydraulic

  4. Root caries: a survey of Queensland dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, B J; Ford, P J

    2013-08-01

    Root caries stands to be a significant burden for Australia's ageing population. The objective of this study was to describe Queensland dental practitioners' perceptions of root caries prevalence, presentation and predisposing factors as well as diagnosis and recording practices. Using the Queensland Dental Board register, all 2,515 dentists and dental specialists practising in Queensland were invited to participate in a questionnaire-based postal survey. Of the 660 responses received, 638 were included for final analysis. Use of diagnostic measures such as surface elasticity and contour were reported frequently. A majority of respondents (77%) reported not recording root caries in a way that could be distinguished from coronal caries. Dietary analysis was the most commonly reported adjunctive aid for risk assessment. Recommendations for use of remineralizing agents were frequently reported (home use 90%; in office use 71%). Salivary impairment was reported to be an important risk factor for root caries by 93% of respondents, but only 18% reported performing salivary analysis. A large proportion of respondents (32%) considered patients with diabetes to be of low or no risk of root caries. While the Queensland dental practitioners who participated in this survey demonstrated an awareness of root caries and its predisposing factors, clinical risk assessment particularly for patients with diabetes should be further examined. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. The top eight issues Queensland Australia's aged-care nurses and assistants-in-nursing worried about outside their workplace: a qualitative snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony; Hegney, Desley; Parker, Deborah; Eley, Robert M; Dickie, Robyn

    2011-10-01

    The attainment of a work-life balance is an important issue for recruitment, retention and workforce planning. This paper aims to report on the free text data provided by the aged-care sector nurses around perceptions of important work-life issues. Data were written responses of aged-care nurses to the open-ended request at the end of a survey, which asked them to list up to five political/social/environmental issues concerning them outside of their work. For aged-care nurses, when asked to list political/social/environmental issues they were concerned about outside of work in late 2007, there emerged considered issues around work and life. Among the top eight themes there is an intriguing balance between the themes work, industrial relations, aged care/elder care and health-care services compared with the themes environment, water, societal values and housing. Qualitative insights into the political/social/environmental issues aged-care nurses are concerned about outside of your work suggest their desire for a labour/life or work/life harmony. Aged-care nurses place an equal importance on the nature of labour and the basics of life. The findings provide information for aged-care sector managers and workforce planners on areas in need of consideration to recruit and retain a workforce within aged care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. A narrative account of implementation lessons learnt from the dissemination of an up-scaled state-wide child obesity management program in Australia: PEACH™ (Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health) Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croyden, Debbie L; Vidgen, Helen A; Esdaile, Emma; Hernandez, Emely; Magarey, Anthea; Moores, Carly J; Daniels, Lynne

    2018-03-13

    PEACH™QLD translated the PEACH™ Program, designed to manage overweight/obesity in primary school-aged children, from efficacious RCT and small scale community trial to a larger state-wide program. This paper describes the lessons learnt when upscaling to universal health coverage. The 6-month, family-focussed program was delivered in Queensland, Australia from 2013 to 2016. Its implementation was planned by researchers who developed the program and conducted the RCT, and experienced project managers and practitioners across the health continuum. The intervention targeted parents as the agents of change and was delivered via parent-only group sessions. Concurrently, children attended fun, non-competitive activity sessions. Sessions were delivered by facilitators who received standardised training and were employed by a range of service providers. Participants were referred by health professionals or self-referred in response to extensive promotion and marketing. A pilot phase and a quality improvement framework were planned to respond to emerging challenges. Implementation challenges included engagement of the health system; participant recruitment; and engagement. A total of 1513 children (1216 families) enrolled, with 1122 children (919 families) in the face-to-face program (105 groups in 50 unique venues) and 391 children (297 families) in PEACH™ Online. Self-referral generated 68% of enrolments. Unexpected, concurrent and, far-reaching public health system changes contributed to poor program uptake by the sector (only 56 [53%] groups delivered by publicly-funded health organisations) requiring substantial modification of the original implementation plan. Process evaluation during the pilot phase and an ongoing quality improvement framework informed program adaptations that included changing from fortnightly to weekly sessions aligned with school terms, revision of parent materials, modification of eligibility criteria to include healthy weight children and

  7. Careers in the Environment in Australia: Surveying Environmental Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Lane, Ruth; Ribon-Tobon, Leonardo; May, Charley

    2007-01-01

    Internationally, commentators have identified a growing demand for environmental expertise. Matching this has been an expansion in the range of environmental careers available to workers: from environment protection and bio-physical areas, to local government operations, environmental auditing, assessment, and management. However, in Australia…

  8. Media, Tourism, Environment, and Cultural Issues in Australia: A Case Study of a Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study abroad program developed by a U.S. journalism school and cosponsored by a college of agriculture and natural resources interweaves the themes of mass media, tourism, environment, and cultural issues in Australia. This article traces the development and evolution of the faculty-led program and discusses its curriculum,…

  9. A Cross-National Study of Secondary Science Classroom Environments in Australia and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Adolphe, F. S. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of classroom environments in Australia and Indonesia. A modified version of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was used simultaneously in these two countries to: 1) cross validate the modified WIHIC; 2) investigate differences between countries and sexes in perceptions of…

  10. Political and social divisions over climate change among young Queenslanders

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Tranter; Zlatko Skrbis

    2014-01-01

    A large survey of young people in Queensland, Australia, indicates that the majority believe that climate change is occurring, that the planet is warming because of greenhouse gas emissions, and that anthropogenic global warming poses a serious risk to Australia. Parental education has an important influence upon the development of environmental attitudes among young people, with the children of tertiary-educated parents much more likely than others to be concerned about planetary warming. A ...

  11. Introducing ORACLE: Library Processing in a Multi-User Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queensland Library Board, Brisbane (Australia).

    Currently being developed by the State Library of Queensland, Australia, ORACLE (On-Line Retrieval of Acquisitions, Cataloguing, and Circulation Details for Library Enquiries) is a computerized library system designed to provide rapid processing of library materials in a multi-user environment. It is based on the Australian MARC format and fully…

  12. Prevalence and determinants of sunburn in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carla; Kvaskoff, Marina; DiSipio, Tracey; Youlden, Danny; Whiteman, David; Eakin, Elizabeth; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne; Fritschi, Lyn

    2009-08-01

    Australia records the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. In response to this, public education campaigns have incorporated messages about reducing sun exposure and avoiding sunburn. This study sought to describe the prevalence of and factors associated with sunburn in Queensland residents. The Queensland Cancer Risk Study was a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 9,298 respondents conducted via computer-assisted telephone interview during 2004. Sunburn prevalence and its association with socio-demographics and skin cancer risk variables were examined. More than two-thirds (70.4%) of respondents reported at least one episode of sunburn in the past 12 months, and one in 10 respondents reported at least one episode of severe sunburn in the past 12 months. Experiences of sunburn on two or more occasions were reported more frequently by males than females (57.6% versus 46.5%, psunburn were strongly associated with being male (OR=2.20 95%CI 1.84-2.63) and being aged 20 to 39 years compared to 60 to 75 years (OR=9.79, 95%CI=7.66-12.50). Sunburn remains highly prevalent among Queensland residents particularly among men and in the younger age groups.

  13. Work and personal well-being of nurses in Queensland: Does rurality make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Eley, Robert; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Francis, Karen

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to ascertain if differences exist in the perception of the professional practice environment and personal well-being of nurses across different geographical areas in Queensland. This paper was performed on a prospective, self-report cross-sectional on-line survey. The study was conducted among the nurses employed in public and private health care settings: acute hospitals, community health and aged care in Queensland, Australia. Participants of this study were 1608 registered and enrolled nurses and assistants in nursing, current members of the Queensland Nurses Union in 2013 and who provided a workplace postcode. One thousand eight of these participants worked in major cities, while 382 in rural locations and 238 in remote areas. None. Scores of well-being as determined by the following scales: the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and of the Professional Practice Environment using the Practice Environment Scale - Nursing Work Index Revised. Nurses employed in major cities perceived 'nursing foundations for quality care' more favourably than those from other settings. Remote area nurses had lower levels of secondary traumatic stress than nurses in major cities and rural areas. There was no difference between nurses across their geographical locations for stress, anxiety, depression, compassion satisfaction, burnout, resilience and the four other measures of the Practice Environment Scale. The study findings provide new data suggesting that, with the exception of secondary traumatic stress, the personal well-being of nurses does not differ across geographical settings. Similarly, with the exception of the subscale of 'nursing foundations for quality care' there was no difference in perceptions of the professional practice environment. As secondary traumatic stress is associated with burnout, this finding needs to be investigated further. © 2015 National Rural

  14. Understanding the Macro-context of Teaching Environmental Education: A Case Study from Queensland, 1989-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fien, John

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes and critiques the sociocultural and educational features that comprise the macrocontext for teaching environmental education in Queensland, Australia. Concepts outlined in the analysis include the global context of teaching environmental education; the political, economic, and social context of Queensland; the national party; the…

  15. Analysing contractual environments: lessons from Indigenous health in Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Josée; Boulton, Amohia; Dwyer, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Contracting in health care is a mechanism used by the governments of Canada, Australia and New Zealand to improve the participation of marginalized populations in primary health care and improve responsiveness to local needs. As a result, complex contractual environments have emerged. The literature on contracting in health has tended to focus on the pros and cons of classical versus relational contracts from the funder's perspective. This article proposes an analytical framework to explore the strengths and weaknesses of contractual environments that depend on a number of classical contracts, a single relational contract or a mix of the two. Examples from indigenous contracting environments are used to inform the elaboration of the framework. Results show that contractual environments that rely on a multiplicity of specific contracts are administratively onerous, while constraining opportunities for local responsiveness. Contractual environments dominated by a single relational contract produce a more flexible and administratively streamlined system.

  16. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  17. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail-tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change.

  18. Queensland Museum Online Learning Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates three online educational resources on the Queensland Museum website in terms of their use of ICTs in science education; how they relate to the Queensland Middle School Science Curriculum and the Senior Biology, Marine Studies, Science 21 syllabuses; their visual appeal and level of student engagement; the appropriateness of…

  19. New Zealand and Australia wind energy in a non subsidised market environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieshout, P. van [DesignPower New Zealand Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)

    1996-12-31

    Significant preliminary work has been undertaken by New Zealand and Australian Power/Generation Companies regarding Wind Power. Turbines are installed in Australia and New Zealand to test the wind and the technical applicability in the Australian wind diesel and the New Zealand high wind speed environment. Projects in Esperance, Thursday Island and King Island illustrate hybrid wind diesel applications. A single Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) has been successfully operated in New Zealand for the last 3 years. A new 3.5 MW wind farm is operational and Resource Consent has been granted for a 65 MW wind farm in New Zealand. Design Power is very proud to be involved in many of the New Zealand and Australian projects. It is obvious that wind power is just starting here, however the start has been promising and it is expected that wind power is here to stay. This paper will address some of the issues associated with wind power in New Zealand and Australia, particularly those that are different from Europe and America. It shows the opportunities and challenges regarding the operation of WTGs in these countries. It addresses the non subsidized electrical pricing structure and the influence of the economically necessary high wind speeds or diesel systems on the choice of technology, particularly the control algorithm of WTGs and the subsystems. It reviews several of the issues associated with predicting the amount of energy that a WTG can generate, again taking into account the high wind speed control algorithms. It further addresses the issue of embedded generation and the influence that a wind farm might have on the electrical network. It continues to address issues associated with wind diesel systems. The paper concludes that wind power will be viable in the near future both in New Zealand and Australia, but also that care should be taken with data analysis and hardware choices during the next phase of implementation of wind power in New Zealand and Australia. 7 figs.

  20. Identifying efficiency trends for Queensland broad-acre beef enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Daniel; Rolfe, John

    2010-01-01

    Productivity and efficiency improvements in agriculture have recently been targeted as Federal Government priorities in Australia. This research examined a dataset of 116 broad-acre beef enterprises from Queensland who participated in a program, Profit Probe, developed to improve management and profitability of enterprises. The aim of this research was to identify the sources, if any, of productivity growth for this sample of enterprises. Two potential sources of productivity growth were iden...

  1. Queensland's mining industry vital to state and national economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, B

    1987-04-01

    Queensland's multi-billion dollar mining industry, and the industries it supports, continues to play a vital role in the economy of the State and the nation. According to Australian Bureau of Statistics figures, Queenland produces nearly half of the black coal mined in Australia, 70% of the copper, 54% of the silver, 42% of the lead, 31% of the zinc, 40% of the tungsten, 25% of the bauxite and tin, 46% of the rutile, and 9% of the gold.

  2. Migration, Acculturation and Environment: Determinants of Obesity among Iranian Migrants in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Maryam; Sønderlund, Anders Larrabee; Mellor, David; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-01

    While migration from low- to high-income countries is typically associated with weight gain, the obesity risks of migration from middle-income countries are less certain. In addition to changes in behaviours and cultural orientation upon migration, analyses of changes in environments are needed to explain post-migration risks for obesity. The present study examines the interaction between obesity-related environmental factors and the pattern of migrant acculturation in a sample of 152 Iranian immigrants in Victoria, Australia. Weight measurements, demographics, physical activity levels and diet habits were also surveyed. The pattern of acculturation (relative integration, assimilation, separation or marginalization) was not related to body mass index, diet, or physical activity behaviours. Three relevant aspects of participants’ perception of the Australian environment (physically active environments, social pressure to be fit, unhealthy food environments) varied considerably by demographic characteristics, but only one (physically active environments) was related to a pattern of acculturation (assimilation). Overall, this research highlighted a number of key relationships between acculturation and obesity-related environments and behaviours for our study sample. Theoretical models on migration, culture and obesity need to include environmental factors. PMID:25648171

  3. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Only photographic prints and negative films of day-visible, day-IR and night-IR imagery were received. For northwest Queensland, only five day-visible and day-IR frames of acceptable quality were received. A master-grid was established over these frames within which selected grid sections are being enlarged photographically for the identification of stream courses and geological features permitting an interpretation of the imagery relative to ground truth information. The imagery is also being scanned and digitized using a Joyce-Loebl microdensitometer for classification purposes. For areas for which good quality HCMM imagery is available, valuable information is obtained on ephemeral and seasonal drainage systems. The day-IR cover is particularly helpful.

  4. Health behaviour and the school environment in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, L; Rissel, C; Donnelly, N; Bauman, A

    1999-09-01

    The relationship between the school environment and health has infrequently been examined. This study sought to examine the association between school students' perceptions of their school environment, teachers' and peers' support and their health behaviours. A cross sectional descriptive survey by supervised self-administration was conducted in 1996 based on the international WHO collaborative survey of school children's health and lifestyle (the HBSC Study) and extended in an Australian setting. Randomly sampled primary and secondary schools from Catholic, Independent and Government education sectors throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were invited to participate. The final sample included 3918 school students attending Year 6 (primary school), Year 8 and Year 10 (high school) from 115 schools. The main outcome measures were self-reported health status and 7 health behaviours (tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, dental hygiene, nutritional intake, seat belt and bicycle helmet use). Independent variables included student perceptions of the school environment, perceptions of teachers' and peers' support. Girls, Year 6 students and students who have less than $19 a week to spend were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions towards their school environment, teacher(s) and peers. Students who had positive perceptions regarding their school environment and perceived their teachers as supportive were significantly more likely to engage in health promoting behaviours adjusting for age, sex and average weekly pocket money. A supportive peer environment was not associated with positive health behaviour. Health promotion practitioners need to consider the impact of the school environment on health behaviours of school students. In particular, practitioners should consider intervention models that improve the school environment as a key strategy within a health promoting school.

  5. Oilfield development and protection of natural resources within the tropical marine environment of the Rowley shelf, northwest Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeProvost, M.I.; Gordon, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years a number of oilfields have been developed in tropical waters of the Rowley Shelf, north-west Australia. Along with Bass Strait and the Timor Sea, this region is the focus for Australia's current oil exploration and production. It supports major coral and mangrove habitats and fishing grounds sensitive to the effects of oil pollution. This paper provides a synthesis of the Rowley Shelf marine environment and reviews procedures protecting the marine resources of the region from the effects of oil spills. Recent government and industry initiatives for improving the protection of the environment are outlined and discussed on the basis of the improved understanding of the marine resources and experience being gained in oil spill contingency planning. The tropical habitats of the Rowley Shelf occur within the Indo-Pacific Zoogeographic Region, therefore experience gained in Western Australia is applicable to similar environments in the South East Asian region

  6. Queensland's proposed surrogacy legislation: an opportunity for national reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammy

    2010-02-01

    Surrogacy has existed since Biblical times when Hagar, the maidservant of the infertile Sarah, acted as a surrogate to bear Sarah and her husband, Abraham, a son. Despite the longevity of the practice of surrogacy, modern society has been reluctant to embrace surrogacy arrangements due to the ethical and sometimes practical debates they spark. This reluctance is evidenced by the general lack of legislative support for surrogacy arrangements in Australia and worldwide. In 2009 it was announced that Queensland will decriminalise altruistic surrogacy. While this decision is a step towards bringing Queensland in line with other Australian jurisdictions, it also has the potential to open up a Pandora's Box of legal and ethical issues. This article provides a snapshot of the anticipated new Queensland surrogacy legislation together with a brief overview of the regulation of surrogacy in all Australian jurisdictions. Recommendations are made as to whether there is a need for further reform of surrogacy regulation in certain Australian jurisdictions and if so, whether the proposed Queensland legislation constitutes an appropriate model on which to base such reform.

  7. Nursing workloads: the results of a study of Queensland Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Plank, Ashley; Parker, Victoria

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports the findings of a survey undertaken in Queensland, Australia in October 2001. The participants were registered and enrolled nurses and assistants in nursing who were members of the industrial body - the Queensland Nursing Union (QNU), and who were in paid employment in nursing in Queensland. Participants were selected by random sampling from each of the three major employment groups - the aged care, public and private acute sectors. Of the 2800 invited participants, 1477 responded resulting in an overall response rate of 53%. The findings indicate that over 50% of nurses in the aged-care sector, 32% of nurses in the public and 30% of nurses in the private acute sector experience difficulties in meeting patient needs because of insufficient staffing levels. The nurses in this study also believed that there was poor skills-mix, mostly caused by lack of funding, too few experienced staff or too many inexperienced staff. Many nurses in this study expressed their anger and frustration about their inability to complete their work to their professional satisfaction in the paid time available. Further, many nurses also expressed the view that because of this inability they were planning to leave the nursing profession. These findings are consistent with other research into the nursing workforce both within Australia and internationally.

  8. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  9. Mapping Homophobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael Gaston; Flood, Michael; Flood, C.; Hamilton, Clive

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the Australian population believe that 'homosexuality is immoral', and this belief is spread in distinct ways across the nation. Using data from a survey of nearly 25,000 Australians, we can 'map' homophobia in Australia. Homophobic attitudes are worst in country areas of Queensland and Tasmania. Men are far more likely than women to feel that homosexuality does not have moral legitimacy, and this gender gap in attitudes persists across age, socioeconomic, educational, and region...

  10. Impacts on the biophysical economy and environment of a transition to 100% renewable electricity in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Graham M.; Elliston, Ben; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts on the biophysical economy, employment and environment of a transition scenario to an energy-efficient, 100% renewable electricity (RE) system by 2060, based on wind, solar and biomass technologies, and an introduction of electric vehicles. We employ a CSIRO process-based model of the physical activity of Australia’s economy and environmental resources, the Australian Stocks and Flows Framework. The RE systems are assumed to be manufactured in Australia to identify possible employment benefits. In comparison with the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, on a national scale, the RE scenario has much lower economy-wide net emissions, remaining below contemporary levels and becoming zero in the electricity sector by 2060. Compared with BAU, the RE scenario also has significantly lower industrial water use, somewhat higher materials use, slightly lower unemployment, lower net foreign debt (relative to a GDP proxy) and, resulting from the growth in electric vehicles, reduced oil imports. The GDP per capita growth, based on the physical stocks of capital and labour, is virtually the same in both scenarios. Hence, from the viewpoint of the biophysical economy, there are no major barriers to implementing policies to facilitate the transition to a 100% renewable electricity system for Australia. - Highlights: ► Simulation of a 100% renewable electricity (RE) system in a process-based model. ► The RE scenario achieves zero GHG emissions in the electricity sector by 2060. ► Consumption of secondary materials is higher and more variable in the RE scenario. ► The RE scenario has lower water use, unemployment, foreign debt and oil imports

  11. Accessing Queensland's soil information - an open data revolution!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kelly; O'Brien, Lauren; Brough, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Queensland government is the custodian of soil and land resource information with an estimated value of 75 million. The Soil and Land Information (SALI) system houses this data from over 600 distinct studies with some 96,000 soil observations dating back to the 1940s. This data is now not only used by government but by universities, councils, landowners, consultants and schools. Providing this information to the public in an easy and accessible way, with a focus towards online delivery is crucial. Previous issues with distribution of online soils information in Queensland have stemmed not only from limits to technology but also, changing departmental structures and multiple websites. The department which manages soils information in Queensland has undergone nine name changes in the last 12 years due to Machinery of Government (MoG) restructures. This constantly changing web presence and branding is as confusing for people sourcing soils information as it is for those providing it. The Queensland government has now moved to a whole of government online environment. This is a single website with no reference to the convoluted structures within government or department names. The aim is to prevent impacts from future MoG changes on the provision of data and information to the public. Queensland government soils now has a single dedicated website (qld.gov.au/environment/land/soil) which has allowed us to start to build a repository for soils information and is a single portal for people to access soils data. It has been demonstrated that this consistent approach to websites improves trust and confidence of users [1] and from this, confidence in using Queensland soils information and data and ultimately better land management decisions.

  12. Unlocking Minds: From Retribution to Rehabilitation. A Review of Prisoner Education in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Eileen M.

    The content and quality of prisoner education in Queensland, Australia, was reviewed. The review focused on the following topics: prisoners' rights and responsibilities in general and their rights to rehabilitation and education in particular; the structural, organizational, and attitudinal barriers to correctional education; available and needed…

  13. Hard Times, Expedient Measures: Women Teachers in Queensland Rural Schools, 1920-50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadmore, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Examines women teachers who taught in one-teacher schools in Queensland, Australia, from 1920-50. Discusses the research and provides a historical context. Focuses on topics such as teaching as a career, women teachers and marriage, unequal pay, and living conditions of women teachers. (CMK)

  14. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  15. Insights into the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Challenges for Implementing Technology Education: Case Studies of Queensland Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Glenn; Houguet, Belinda

    2009-01-01

    This study, embedded within the "Researching School Change in Technology Education" (RSCTE) project in Queensland, Australia, aimed to gain insights into the intrinsic and extrinsic challenges experienced by teachers during the implementation of technology education within primary school settings. The official publication and launch of…

  16. The Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations (Q-MEGA). Study design, baseline characteristics, and repeatability of phenotype and sun exposure measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Hughes, Maria Celia; Kvaskoff, Marina; Siskind, Victor; Shekar, Sri; Aitken, Joanne F.; Green, Adele C.; Duffy, David L.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whiteman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a major health issue in Queensland, Australia which has the world’s highest incidence. Recent molecular and epidemiologic studies suggest that CMM arises through multiple etiological pathways involving gene-environment interactions. Understanding the potential mechanisms leading to CMM requires larger studies than those previously conducted. This article describes the design and baseline characteristics of Q-MEGA, the Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations, which followed-up four population-based samples of CMM patients in Queensland, including children, adolescents, men aged over 50, and a large sample of adult cases and their families, including twins. Q-MEGA aims to investigate the roles of genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction, in the etiology of melanoma. 3,471 participants took part in the follow-up study and were administered a computer-assisted telephone interview in 2002–2005. Updated data on environmental and phenotypic risk factors, and 2,777 blood samples were collected from interviewed participants as well as a subset of relatives. This study provides a large and well-described population-based sample of CMM cases with follow-up data. Characteristics of the cases and repeatability of sun exposure and phenotype measures between the baseline and the follow-up surveys, from six to 17 years later, are also described. PMID:18361720

  17. A Visual Profile of Queensland Indigenous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of refractive error, binocular vision, and other visual conditions in Australian Indigenous children. This is important given the association of these visual conditions with reduced reading performance in the wider population, which may also contribute to the suboptimal reading performance reported in this population. The aim of this study was to develop a visual profile of Queensland Indigenous children. Vision testing was performed on 595 primary schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia. Vision parameters measured included visual acuity, refractive error, color vision, nearpoint of convergence, horizontal heterophoria, fusional vergence range, accommodative facility, AC/A ratio, visual motor integration, and rapid automatized naming. Near heterophoria, nearpoint of convergence, and near fusional vergence range were used to classify convergence insufficiency (CI). Although refractive error (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p = 0.04) and strabismus (Indigenous, 0%; non-Indigenous, 3%; p = 0.03) were significantly less common in Indigenous children, CI was twice as prevalent (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 5%; p = 0.04). Reduced visual information processing skills were more common in Indigenous children (reduced visual motor integration [Indigenous, 28%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p < 0.01] and slower rapid automatized naming [Indigenous, 67%; non-Indigenous, 59%; p = 0.04]). The prevalence of visual impairment (reduced visual acuity) and color vision deficiency was similar between groups. Indigenous children have less refractive error and strabismus than their non-Indigenous peers. However, CI and reduced visual information processing skills were more common in this group. Given that vision screenings primarily target visual acuity assessment and strabismus detection, this is an important finding as many Indigenous children with CI and reduced visual information processing may be missed. Emphasis should be placed on identifying

  18. The heat is on: Australia's greenhouse future. Report to the Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Art References Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    On 11 August 1999, the Senate referred matters pertaining to global warming to the Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Art References Committee for inquiring. The Committee is reporting on the progress and adequacy of Australian policies to reduce global warming, in light of Australia's commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also critically evaluates the effectiveness Australian Government programs and policies, both state and Federal, in particular those aiming to provide for the development of emerging renewable energies, energy efficiency industries and the more efficient use of energy sources and the extent to which the Government's relations with industry under the Greenhouse Challenge Program are accountable and transparent. Projected effect of climate change on Australia's ecosystems and the potential introduction of national system of emissions trading within Australia are also examined

  19. An assessment of radioactivity in the environs of a titanium dioxide plant at Bunbury, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Williams, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    A study of radioactivity levels in environmental samples collected from the environs of a ttanium dioxide plant at Bunbury in Western Australia is described. Radioactivity levels were determined in samples of sediment, water, algae and seafood (crabs and mussels) from the Leschenault Inlet, close to the site at which the plant's liquid effluent is disposed, and from other areas along the south-west coast. Samples of town drinking water were also analysed. Radioactivity levels in the ilmenite feed and effluent of the plant are approximately half those observed in an earlier study. There is evidence for an enhancement of radionuclide concentrations in sediment from Leschenault Inlet originating from the plant effluent. Despite this effect, radioactivity levels in the sediment of the Inlet are no greater than those that occur at certain other locations along the south-west coast. The investigation of radioactivity levels in water, algae and seafood indicates that the only significant transfer of radionuclides from the sediment is the bioaccumulation of radium in algae. There is effectively no risk to the health of members of the public who consume crab flesh or mussels from Leschenault Inlet

  20. Comparing the coding of complications in Queensland and Victorian admitted patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jude L; Cheng, Diana; Jackson, Terri J

    2011-08-01

    To examine differences between Queensland and Victorian coding of hospital-acquired conditions and suggest ways to improve the usefulness of these data in the monitoring of patient safety events. Secondary analysis of admitted patient episode data collected in Queensland and Victoria. Comparison of depth of coding, and patterns in the coding of ten commonly coded complications of five elective procedures. Comparison of the mean complication codes assigned per episode revealed Victoria assigns more valid codes than Queensland for all procedures, with the difference between the states being significantly different in all cases. The proportion of the codes flagged as complications was consistently lower for Queensland when comparing 10 common complications for each of the five selected elective procedures. The estimated complication rates for the five procedures showed Victoria to have an apparently higher complication rate than Queensland for 35 of the 50 complications examined. Our findings demonstrate that the coding of complications is more comprehensive in Victoria than in Queensland. It is known that inconsistencies exist between states in routine hospital data quality. Comparative use of patient safety indicators should be viewed with caution until standards are improved across Australia. More exploration of data quality issues is needed to identify areas for improvement.

  1. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  2. The new gamma sterilisation and decontamination plant, Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.; Robotham, R.

    2003-01-01

    Steritech Pty Ltd operates the only three industrial gamma sterilisation and decontamination plants in Australia. A plant in Dandenong Victoria has operated since 1971 and a second in Wetherill Park from 1985. In August 2003, a third facility started commercial operation in Narangba, 40km north of Brisbane. Each plant represents a generational change in operating features, although the basic design of the irradiation room, storage pool and shielding remains substantially the same. This paper discusses some of the key design features of the Queensland plant, the complex approval and licensing process and some of the complications caused by perceived terrorist threats

  3. Nano, Queensland and cryo-electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowall, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In a recent review the authors, Wolfgang Baumeister and Alasdair Steven wrote, '....there is immense opportunity for Cryo-EM, especially as boosted by merging crystallographic structures of individual subunits into moderate resolution Cryo-EM density maps of whole complexes. Electron tomography has now advanced to the point where it is a realistic goal to glimpse molecular machines operating inside cells....' This statement gives testament to the advances made over the past 25 years by many labs around the world to the area of microscopy referred to as Cryo-EM and related 3-D computing technologies. Australian scientific societies have been eager followers of this progress and heard first hand of the new developments in the field at the 1984 ACEM-8 (2). Since those early days the ACEM and other Australian/NZ societies have sponsored numerous researchers and workshops in the field of Cryo-EM to their conferences, Helin Sabil, Wah Chiu, Ron Milligan, Richard Henderson and Werner Kuhlbrandt to name only a few. These visits have stimulated a desire from Australian/NZ researchers to establish collaborations and access to prominent labs in the USA and Europe, where the means and knowledge to provide Cryo EM and 3D reconstruction technology for studying macromolecular complexes is well established. However, Australia has not been backward in seeking to provide its home research community with access to a base in biological molecular microscopy and electron crystallography technology. Since the last ACEM we have seen the emergence of a number of crucial factors, which will make the establishment of a national research facility in this field an operational reality in early 2003. Well publicized is the development of Australia's newest and perhaps most unique research institute, the institute for Molecular Bioscience (IMB) to open at the University of Queensland (UQ) in 2002. The IMB will be the platform for a new research group in advanced computational 3D

  4. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  5. Conservative therapy of breast cancer in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Marie-Frances; Allison, Roger; Tripcony, Lee

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery has been an accepted alternative to mastectomy in Europe and North America for many years. In Australia, however, the history of breast conservation for early invasive breast cancer is much shorter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of breast conservation in a state-wide Australian radiotherapy service. Methods and Materials: Between January 1982 and December 1989, 512 patients were treated with primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. This analysis is based on a review of these patients, all of whom had Stage I or II breast cancer. Results: With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of overall survival was 84% and disease-free survival was 80%. There have been 22 isolated local recurrences in the breast. The time to an isolated breast recurrence ranged from 12 to 83 months (median, 26 months). The 5-year actuarial rate of an isolated breast recurrence was 4%. The recurrence rate was higher for patients with involved margins (15% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Local recurrence was also more likely in the presence of extensive ductal carcinoma insitu (DCIS), as opposed to no extensive DCIS (10% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results affirm that primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery in Queensland, has been given with a low rate of local recurrence, comparable to that obtained in other centers

  6. Conservative therapy of breast cancer in Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Marie-Frances; Allison, Roger; Tripcony, Lee

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery has been an accepted alternative to mastectomy in Europe and North America for many years. In Australia, however, the history of breast conservation for early invasive breast cancer is much shorter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of breast conservation in a state-wide Australian radiotherapy service. Methods and Materials: Between January 1982 and December 1989, 512 patients were treated with primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. This analysis is based on a review of these patients, all of whom had Stage I or II breast cancer. Results: With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of overall survival was 84% and disease-free survival was 80%. There have been 22 isolated local recurrences in the breast. The time to an isolated breast recurrence ranged from 12 to 83 months (median, 26 months). The 5-year actuarial rate of an isolated breast recurrence was 4%. The recurrence rate was higher for patients with involved margins (15% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Local recurrence was also more likely in the presence of extensive ductal carcinoma insitu (DCIS), as opposed to no extensive DCIS (10% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results affirm that primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery in Queensland, has been given with a low rate of local recurrence, comparable to that obtained in other centers.

  7. When chronic conditions become emergencies - a report from regional Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, Linton R; Thompson, Fintan; Dey, Arindam; Mills, Jane; Watt, Kerrianne; McDermott, Robyn

    2016-12-01

    To describe chronic conditions and injuries as a proportion of total emergency presentations to a large public hospital in regional Queensland, and to investigate differences in presentation rates associated with Indigenous status. Cross-sectional analysis using Emergency Department Information System data between 1 July 2012 and 30 June 2014. Regional Queensland, Australia. A total of 95 238 emergency presentations were generated by 50 083 local residents living in the 10 statistical local areas (SLAs) immediately around the hospital. Emergency presentations for chronic conditions and injuries identified from discharge ICD-10-AM principal diagnosis. Age-standardised presentation rates were calculated using the Australian 2001 reference population. Approximately half of all presentations were for chronic conditions (20.2%) and injuries (28.8%). Two-thirds of all chronic condition presentations were for mental and behavioural disorders (34.6%) and circulatory diseases (33.2%). Head injuries accounted for the highest proportion of injuries (18.9%). Age-standardised rates for major diagnostic groups were consistently higher for Indigenous residents, whose presentations were lower in mean age (95% CI) by 7.7 (7.3-8.1) years, 23% less likely to be potentially avoidable GP-type presentations [RR (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.75-0.80)], 30% more likely to arrive by ambulance [1.31 (1.28-1.33)] and 11% more likely to require hospital admission [1.11 (1.08-1.13)]. Opportunities exist to enhance current coordinated hospital avoidance and primary health services in regional Queensland targeting common mental and circulatory disorders, especially for Indigenous Australians. © 2016 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  8. Evaluation of AMSR-E derived soil moisture over Australia, /Remote Sensing of Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, C.S.; Walker, J.P.; Steinle, P.J.; De Jeu, R.A.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture over Australia, derived from the passive microwave Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument. Soil moisture fields generated by the AMSR-E soil moisture retrieval algorithm developed at the Vrije

  9. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  10. Rainfall declines over Queensland from 1951-2007 and links to the Subtropical Ridge and the SAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, D A; Ribbe, J

    2010-01-01

    Much of southern and eastern Australia including Queensland have experienced rainfall declines over recent decades affecting agricultural production and accelerating water infrastructure development. Rainfall declines from southern Australia have now been directly related to changes in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the subtropical ridge. In southern and coastal Queensland, the rainfall declines have occurred mostly in the austral summer and autumn. Observations from this region reveal the rainfall decline is correlated to an increase in the mean sea level pressure (MSLP) at many stations. The largest increases in MSLP are over southeast Queensland and coastal regions, where some of the largest rainfall declines occur. This study indicates the subtropical ridge as one of the main factors in the rainfall decline over this region. SAM is also likely to be important, although its seasonal influence, apart from winter, is harder to determine.

  11. Australia's energy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria

  12. Quantifying Queensland patients with cancer health service usage and costs: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily; Topp, Stephanie M; Larkins, Sarah; Sabesan, Sabe; Bates, Nicole

    2017-01-24

    The overall mortality rate for cancer has declined in Australia. However, socioeconomic inequalities exist and the out-of-pocket costs incurred by patients in Australia are high compared with some European countries. There is currently no readily available data set to provide a systematic means of measuring the out-of-pocket costs incurred by patients with cancer within Australia. The primary aim of the project is to quantify the direct out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure of individuals in the state of Queensland, who are diagnosed with cancer. This project will build Australia's first model (called CancerCostMod) of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure of patients with cancer using administrative data from Queensland Cancer Registry, for all individuals diagnosed with any cancer in Queensland between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, linked to their Admitted Patient Data Collection, Emergency Department Information System, Medicare Benefits Schedule and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme records from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2015. No identifiable information will be provided to the authors. The project will use a combination of linear and logistic regression modelling, Cox proportional hazards modelling and machine learning to identify differences in survival, total health system expenditure, total out-of-pocket expenditure and high out-of-pocket cost patients, adjusting for demographic and clinical confounders, and income group, Indigenous status and geographic location. Results will be analysed separately for different types of cancer. Human Research Ethics approval has been obtained from the Townsville Hospital and Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/16/QTHS/110) and James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (H6678). Permission to waive consent has been sought from Queensland Health under the Public Health Act 2005. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Pathogenicity of Salmonella Strains Isolated from Egg Shells and the Layer Farm Environment in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Andrea R.; Davos, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the egg industry is periodically implicated during outbreaks of Salmonella food poisoning. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and other nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., in particular, are a major concern for Australian public health. Several definitive types of Salmonella Typhimurium strains, but primarily Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 (DT9), have been frequently reported during egg-related food poisoning outbreaks in Australia. The aim of the present study was to generate a pathogenicity profile of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates obtained from Australian egg farms. To achieve this, we assessed the capacity of Salmonella isolates to cause gastrointestinal disease using both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Data from in vitro experiments demonstrated that the invasion capacity of Salmonella serovars cultured to stationary phase (liquid phase) in LB medium was between 90- and 300-fold higher than bacterial suspensions in normal saline (cultured in solid phase). During the in vivo infection trial, clinical signs of infection and mortality were observed only for mice infected with either 103 or 105 CFU of S. Typhimurium DT9. No mortality was observed for mice infected with Salmonella serovars with medium or low invasive capacity in Caco-2 cells. Pathogenicity gene profiles were also generated for all serovars included in this study. The majority of serovars tested were positive for selected virulence genes. No relationship between the presence or absence of virulence genes by PCR and either in vitro invasive capacity or in vivo pathogenicity was detected. Our data expand the knowledge of strain-to-strain variation in the pathogenicity of Australian egg industry-related Salmonella spp. PMID:25362057

  14. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  15. Content analysis to locate assistive technology in Queensland's motor injury insurance rehabilitation legislation and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Emily J

    2018-06-08

    Reforms to Australia's disability and rehabilitation sectors have espoused the potential of assistive technology as an enabler. As new insurance systems are being developed it is timely to examine the structure of existing systems. This exploratory study examined the policies guiding assistive technology provision in the motor accident insurance sector of one Australian state. Policy documents were analyzed iteratively with set of qualitative questions to understand the intent and interpretation of policies guiding assistive technology provision. Content analysis identified relevant sections and meaningful terminology, and context analysis explored the dominant perspectives informing policy. The concepts and language of assistive technology are not part of the policy frameworks guiding rehabilitation practice in Queensland's motor accident insurance sector. The definition of rehabilitation in the legislation is consistent contemporary international interpretations that focus on optimizing functioning in interaction with the environment. However, the supporting documents are focused on recovery from injuries where decisions are guided by clinical need and affordability. The policies frame rehabilitation in a medical model that assistive technology provision from the rehabilitation plan. The legislative framework provides opportunities to develop and improve assistive technology provision as part of an integrated approach to rehabilitation.

  16. Queensland coal sets new records in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Coffey, D.; Abbott, E.

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the Queensland coal industry consolidated on record expansion in the export market over the past two years and again, increased its sales to overseas customers. New sales records were set in both the export and domestic markets. Unprecedented international demand for Queensland metallurgical coals coupled with improved prices and a favourable A$-US$ exchange rate created strong market conditions for the Queensland coal export industry, boosting confidence for further expansion and new developments. Australian coal exports in 2001 amounted to 194 Mt and are forecast to reach 275 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) in 2020. The Queensland coal industry is poised to capture a significant share of this market growth. Queensland's large inventory of identified coal, currently estimated at more than 37 billion tonnes (raw coal m situ), is adequate to sustain the industry for many years and allow new opencut and underground mines to develop according to future market demand. Recent coal exploration successes are expected to add significant tonnage to the inventory (Coxhead, Smith and Coffey, 2002). Most of the coal exported from Queensland is mined in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland and additional tonnage of Walloon coal is exported by mines in the Moreton Basin and Surat Basin in south-east Queensland. The Walloon Coal Measures and its equivalents contain large resources of undeveloped opencut, high volatile, clean-burning thermal coal. The environmental advantages in the utilisation of these coals are now recognised and strong growth in production is expected in the near future for supply to both the domestic and export markets. Establishment of new rail transport and civil infrastructure will however, be required to support the development of large scale mining operations in this region

  17. Australia's proactive approach to radiation protection of the environment: how integrated is it with radiation protection of humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, G A; Grzechnik, M; Tinker, R; Larsson, C M

    2018-01-01

    Australia's regulatory framework has evolved over the past decade from the assumption that protection of humans implies protection of the environment to the situation now where radiological impacts on non-human species (wildlife) are considered in their own right. In an Australian context, there was a recognised need for specific national guidance on protection of non-human species, for which the uranium mining industry provides the major backdrop. National guidance supported by publications of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (Radiation Protection Series) provides clear and consistent advice to operators and regulators on protection of non-human species, including advice on specific assessment methods and models, and how these might be applied in an Australian context. These approaches and the supporting assessment tools provide a mechanism for industry to assess and demonstrate compliance with the environmental protection objectives of relevant legislation, and to meet stakeholder expectations that radiological protection of the environment is taken into consideration in accordance with international best practice. Experiences from the past 5-10 years, and examples of where the approach to radiation protection of the environment has been well integrated or presented some challenges will be discussed. Future challenges in addressing protection of the environment in existing exposure situations will also be discussed.

  18. Environment characterization as an aid to wheat improvement: interpreting genotype-environment interactions by modelling water-deficit patterns in North-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, K; Cooper, M; Hammer, G L; Mathews, K L; Dreccer, M F; Chapman, S C

    2011-03-01

    Genotype-environment interactions (GEI) limit genetic gain for complex traits such as tolerance to drought. Characterization of the crop environment is an important step in understanding GEI. A modelling approach is proposed here to characterize broadly (large geographic area, long-term period) and locally (field experiment) drought-related environmental stresses, which enables breeders to analyse their experimental trials with regard to the broad population of environments that they target. Water-deficit patterns experienced by wheat crops were determined for drought-prone north-eastern Australia, using the APSIM crop model to account for the interactions of crops with their environment (e.g. feedback of plant growth on water depletion). Simulations based on more than 100 years of historical climate data were conducted for representative locations, soils, and management systems, for a check cultivar, Hartog. The three main environment types identified differed in their patterns of simulated water stress around flowering and during grain-filling. Over the entire region, the terminal drought-stress pattern was most common (50% of production environments) followed by a flowering stress (24%), although the frequencies of occurrence of the three types varied greatly across regions, years, and management. This environment classification was applied to 16 trials relevant to late stages testing of a breeding programme. The incorporation of the independently-determined environment types in a statistical analysis assisted interpretation of the GEI for yield among the 18 representative genotypes by reducing the relative effect of GEI compared with genotypic variance, and helped to identify opportunities to improve breeding and germplasm-testing strategies for this region.

  19. Water sources accessed by arid zone riparian trees in highly saline environments, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Justin F; Payne, Emily; Woodrow, Ian E; Irvine, Elizabeth C; Western, Andrew W; Leaney, Fred W

    2008-05-01

    The flow regimes of arid zone rivers are often highly variable, and shallow groundwater in the alluvial aquifers can be very saline, thus constraining the availability and quality of the major water sources available to riparian trees-soil water, shallow groundwater and stream water. We have identified water sources and strategies used by riparian trees in more highly saline and arid conditions than previously studied for riparian trees of arid zone rivers. Our research focused on the riparian species Eucalyptus coolabah, one of the major riparian trees of ephemeral arid zone rivers in Australia. The water sources available to this riparian tree were examined using delta(18)O isotope data from xylem, soil water, groundwater and surface water. Additionally, soil chloride and matric potential data were used to infer zones of water availability for root uptake. Despite the saline conditions, the trees used a mixture of soil water and groundwater sources, but they did not use surface water directly. The study identified three strategies used to cope with typically high groundwater and soil water salinities. Firstly, the trees preferentially grow in zones of most frequent flushing by infiltrating streamflow, such as the bank-tops of channels. Secondly, the trees limit water use by having low transpiration rates. Thirdly, the trees are able to extract water at very low osmotic potentials, with water uptake continuing at chloride concentrations of at least 20,000-30,000 mg L(-1).

  20. Impact of pay for performance on access at first dialysis in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsager, Jennie; Krishnasamy, Rathika; Gray, Nicholas A

    2018-05-01

    Commencement of haemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG) is associated with improved survival compared with commencement with a central venous catheter. In 2011-2012, Queensland Health made incentive payments to renal units for early referred patients who commenced peritoneal dialysis (PD), or haemodialysis with an AVF/AVG. The aim of this study was to determine if pay for performance improved clinical care. All patients who commenced dialysis in Australia between 2009 and 2014 and were registered with the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA) were included. A multivariable regression model was used to compare rates of commencing dialysis with a PD catheter or permanent AVF/AVG during the pay-for-performance period (2011-2012) with periods prior (2009-2010) and after (2013-2014). A total of 10 858 early referred patients commenced dialysis during the study period, including 2058 in Queensland. In Queensland, PD as first modality increased with time (P pay-for-performance period as reference, the odds ratio for commencement with PD or haemodialysis with an AVF/AVG in Queensland was 1.02 (95% CI 0.81-1.29) in 2009-2010 and 1.28 (95% CI 1.01-1.61) in 2013-2014. There was no change for the rest of Australia (0.97 95% CI 0.87-1.09 in 2009-2010 and 1.00 95% CI 0.90-1.11 in 2013-14). Pay for performance did not improve rates of commencement of dialysis with PD or an AVF/AVG during the payment period. A lag effect on clinical care may explain the improvement in later years. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  1. Survey of rabies vaccination status of Queensland veterinarians and veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, D; Foyle, L; Cobbold, R; Speare, R

    2018-05-01

    To determine the rabies vaccination status of Queensland veterinarians and veterinary students and their perception of zoonotic risk from Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys. Questionnaires were sent by post in 2011 to veterinary surgeons registered in Queensland, to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University via SurveyMonkey® in 2013 and to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University and University of Queensland via SurveyMonkey® in 2014. The response rate for registered veterinarians was 33.5% and for veterinary students 33.3% and 30% in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Of the 466 registered veterinary surgeons, 147 (31.5%) had been vaccinated, with 72 (15.5%) currently vaccinated. For veterinary students the rabies vaccination rate was 20.0% (4/20) and 13.0% (6/46) in the 2013 and 2014 surveys, respectively. More than 95% of veterinary students had received the mandatory Q fever vaccine. Both veterinarians and students regarded bats and horses as high-risk species for zoonoses. Queensland veterinarians and veterinary students have low levels of protection against ABLV. Although incidents of ABLV spilling over from a bat to a domestic mammal are likely to remain rare, they pose a significant human health and occupational risk given the outcome of infection in humans is high consequence. Principals of veterinary practices and veterinary authorities in Australia should implement a policy of rabies vaccination for clinical staff and veterinary students. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Ontogeny of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis in a modern Queensland, Australian population using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottering, Nicolene; MacGregor, Donna M; Alston, Clair L; Gregory, Laura S

    2015-05-01

    Due to disparity regarding the age at which skeletal maturation of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis occurs in forensic and biological literature, this study provides recalibrated multislice computed tomography (MSCT) age standards for the Australian (Queensland) population, using a Bayesian statistical approach. The sample comprises retrospective cranial/cervical MSCT scans obtained from 448 males and 416 females aged birth to 20 years from the Skeletal Biology and Forensic Anthropology Research Osteological Database. Fusion status of the synchondrosis was scored using a modified six-stage scoring tier on an MSCT platform, with negligible observer error (κ = 0.911 ± 0.04, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.994). Bayesian transition analysis indicates that females are most likely to transition to complete fusion at 13.1 years and males at 15.6 years. Posterior densities were derived for each morphological stage, with complete fusion of the synchondrosis attained in all Queensland males over 16.3 years of age and females aged 13.8 years and older. The results demonstrate significant sexual dimorphism in synchondrosis fusion and are suggestive of intrapopulation variation between major geographic regions in Australia. This study contributes to the growing repository of contemporary anthropological standards calibrated for the Queensland milieu to improve the efficacy of the coronial process for medicolegal death investigation. As a stand-alone age indicator, the basicranial synchondrosis may be consulted as an exclusion criterion when determining the age of majority that constitutes 17 years in Queensland forensic practice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Designing new collaborative learning spaces in clinical environments: experiences from a children's hospital in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Jamieson, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Hospitals are complex places that provide a rich learning environment for students, staff, patients and their families, professional groups and the community. The "new" Royal Children's Hospital opened in late 2011. Its mission is focused on improving health and well-being of children and adolescents through leadership in healthcare, research and education. Addressing the need to create "responsive learning environments" aligned with the shift to student-centred pedagogy, two distinct learning environments were developed within the new Royal Children's Hospital; (i) a dedicated education precinct providing a suite of physical environments to promote a more active, collaborative and social learning experience for education and training programs conducted on the Royal Children's Hospital campus and (ii) a suite of learning spaces embedded within clinical areas so that learning becomes an integral part of the daily activities of this busy Hospital environment. The aim of this article is to present the overarching educational principles that lead the design of these learning spaces and describe the opportunities and obstacles encountered in the development of collaborative learning spaces within a large hospital development.

  4. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  5. RadCon: Parameter report focusing on Tropical and Subtropical environments in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domel, R.U.; Crawford, J; Harris, F.; Twining, J.

    2000-09-01

    Models to simulate the transfer of radionuclides through air, water and terrestrial ecosystems have been developed and used regularly over the last 20 years. RadCon was developed as a simple model to assess the radiological consequences, as dose, to humans of short-term depositions of radionuclides. Internal exposure via inhalation and ingestion are included in this model as well as external exposure from the passing cloud (cloud shine) and from radioactivity deposited on the ground (ground shine).Initially, the RadCon model will deal with the Australian and South East Asian region but flexibility has been incorporated into the design to allow application in other regions. In a manner similar to a geographic information system, the display of input and output data allows quick access to the results, both numerically and graphically. Coloured concentration gradients, stepping through time, are superimposed on the area of interest to present atmospheric and ground concentrations of the radionuclides and, after the calculations, human dose. The model has portability across computer platforms.This report summarises the parameters and some of the transfer factors underlying the calculations. While the focus was on the tropical and subtropical regions in Australia, for many parameters the values may only have been available for temperate regions, in which case this has been used as the default value. The parameter flexibility is a major aspect of this model and a report to describe the editor has been written (Crawford and Domel, ANSTO/M-129). The aim of this document is to chronologically expand on the formulae and parameter tables presented in the Technical Guide (Crawford et al., ANSTO/E-744, May 2000). The two documents should be read together with the Technical Guide presenting the mathematical computations and this report presenting some of the input values used to calculate the end-point results from the computations. A User Guide to assist in the implementation

  6. Simulation of water-limited growth of the forage shrub saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.) in a low-rainfall environment of southern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Smith, A.P.; Robertson, M.J.; Whitbread, A.; Huth, N.I.; Davoren, W.; Emms, J.; Llewellyn, R.

    2014-01-01

    Old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.) is a useful forage shrub for livestock in the low-rainfall areas of the world, and particularly in Australia. In these semi-arid and arid environments, saltbush is valuable for increasing the production from otherwise marginal areas of the farm and

  7. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) From Queensland Are Genetically Distinct From 2 Populations in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Murray, Neil D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graves, Jennifer A M; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2016-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) suffered population declines and local extirpation due to hunting in the early 20th century, especially in southern Australia. Koalas were subsequently reintroduced to the Brisbane Ranges (BR) and Stony Rises (SR) by translocating individuals from a population on French Island descended from a small number of founders. To examine genetic diversity and north-south differentiation, we genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 46 wild koalas from the BR and SR, and 27 Queensland koalas kept at the US zoos. The Queensland koalas displayed much higher heterozygosity (H O = 0.73) than the 2 southern Australian koala populations examined: H O = 0.49 in the BR, whereas H O = 0.41 in the SR. This is consistent with the historical accounts of bottlenecks and founder events affecting the southern populations and contrasts with reports of high genetic diversity in some southern populations. The 2 southern Australian koala populations were genetically similar (F ST = 0.018, P = 0.052). By contrast, northern and southern Australian koalas were highly differentiated (F ST = 0.27, P < 0.001), thereby suggesting that geographic structuring should be considered in the conservation management of koalas. Sequencing of 648bp of the mtDNA control region in Queensland koalas found 8 distinct haplotypes, one of which had not been previously detected among koalas. Queensland koalas displayed high mitochondrial haplotype diversity (H = 0.753) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0072), indicating along with the microsatellite data that North American zoos have maintained high levels of genetic diversity among their Queensland koalas. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Natural gas and electricity generation in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this article is on electricity generation in Queensland. Black coal accounted for 97 percent, while natural gas made up only 1 percent of the fuel used in thermal power generation in 1997-98. The share of natural gas in thermal electricity generation is expected to rise to 21 percent by 2014-2015, because of the emphasis on natural gas in Queensland's new energy policy. Since 1973-1974, Queensland has led the way in electricity consumption, with an average annual growth rate of 6.8 percent but the average thermal efficiency has fallen from 38.0 percent in 1991-1992, to 36.6 percent in 1997-1998

  9. Western environment/lifestyle is associated with increased genome methylation and decreased gene expression in Chinese immigrants living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guicheng; Wang, Kui; Schultz, Ennee; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Annamalay, Alicia; Laing, Ingrid A; Hales, Belinda J; Goldblatt, Jack; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Several human diseases and conditions are disproportionally distributed in the world with a significant "Western-developed" vs. "Eastern-developing" gradient. We compared genome-wide DNA methylation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 25 newly arrived Chinese immigrants living in a Western environment for less than 6 months ("Newly arrived") with 23 Chinese immigrants living in the Western environment for more than two years ("Long-term") with a mean of 8.7 years, using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In a sub-group of both subject groups (n = 12 each) we also investigated genome-wide gene expression using a Human HT-12 v4 expression beadChip. There were 62.5% probes among the total number of 382,250 valid CpG sites with greater mean Beta (β) in "Long-term" than in "Newly arrived". In the regions of CpG islands and gene promoters, compared with the CpG sites in all other regions, lower percentages of CpG sites with mean methylation levels in "Long-term" greater than "Newly arrived" were observed, but still >50%. The increase of methylation was associated with a general decrease of gene expression in Chinese immigrants living in the Western environment for a longer period of time. After adjusting for age, gender and other confounding factors the findings remained. Chinese immigrants living in Australia for a longer period of time have increased overall genome methylation and decreased overall gene expression compared with newly arrived immigrants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Queensland Coal Board. 38th annual review 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a review of the coal industry in Queensland which includes coal production by districts; production trends; employment; fatal accidents; coal exports and consumption. It also includes coal export facilities - ports and railways; Queensland coal resources; coal research; mine and company information and statistics of the Queensland industry.

  11. Exploring obesogenic environments: the design and development of the migrant obesogenic perception of the environment questionnaire (MOPE-Q) using a sample of Iranian migrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Maryam; Sønderlund, Anders Larrabee; Mellor, David; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-06-06

    factors linked to obesity behaviour between home (Iran) and host (Australia) countries have been incorporated into the MOPE-Q instrument which has shown good psychometric properties. The MOPE-Q can be adapted and applied to other environments and populations to help explain changes in diet, physical activity patterns and body weight in migrant groups as they acculturate.

  12. Antimicrobial stewardship activities: a survey of Queensland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, Minyon L; Hall, Lisa; Davis, Louise; Allen, Michelle; Roberts, Jason A; Unwin, Sean; McIntosh, Kylie A; Thursky, Karin; Buising, Kirsty; Paterson, David L

    2014-11-01

    In 2011, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) recommended that all hospitals in Australia must have an Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) program by 2013. Nevertheless, little is known about current AMS activities. This study aimed to determine the AMS activities currently undertaken, and to identify gaps, barriers to implementation and opportunities for improvement in Queensland hospitals. The AMS activities of 26 facilities from 15 hospital and health services in Queensland were surveyed during June 2012 to address strategies for effective AMS: implementing clinical guidelines, formulary restriction, reviewing antimicrobial prescribing, auditing antimicrobial use and selective reporting of susceptibility results. The response rate was 62%. Nineteen percent had an AMS team (a dedicated multidisciplinary team consisting of a medically trained staff member and a pharmacist). All facilities had access to an electronic version of Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, with a further 50% developing local guidelines for antimicrobials. One-third of facilities had additional restrictions. Eighty-eight percent had advice for restricted antimicrobials from in-house infectious disease physicians or clinical microbiologists. Antimicrobials were monitored with feedback given to prescribers at point of care by 76% of facilities. Deficiencies reported as barriers to establishing AMS programs included: pharmacy resources, financial support by hospital management, and training and education in antimicrobial use. Several areas for improvement were identified: reviewing antimicrobial prescribing with feedback to the prescriber, auditing, and training and education in antimicrobial use. There also appears to be a lack of resources to support AMS programs in some facilities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The ACSQHC has recommended that all hospitals implement an AMS program by 2013 as a requirement of Standard 3 (Preventing and Controlling Healthcare

  13. Using Videoconferencing To Deliver a Health Education Program to Women Health Consumers in Rural and Remote Queensland: An Early Attempt and Future Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Kathryn; McClelland, Linda

    2002-01-01

    A seminar on menopausal health was presented to a live audience and remote audiences at 10 sites in rural Queensland (Australia) via videoconferencing. Questionnaires completed by 128 audience members indicated positive reception of the content and delivery method. Similar replies from live and remote audience members indicated that the…

  14. Epidemiology of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis in Queensland adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Dev; Nath, Karthik; Reyaldeen, Reza; Sivasuthan, Goutham; John, George T; Francis, Leo; Rajmokan, Mohana; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data pertaining to the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN) in Australia. This retrospective study aims to review the data from all adult native renal biopsies performed in the state of Queensland from 2002 to 2011--comparing results with centres from across the world. Pathology reports of 3697 adult native kidney biopsies were reviewed, of which 2048 had GN diagnoses. Age, gender, clinical indication and histopathology findings were compared. The average age at biopsy was 48 ± 17 years. Male preponderance was noted overall (∼60%), with lupus nephritis being the only individual GN with female predilection. The average rate of biopsy was 12.04 per hundred thousand people per year (php/yr). Nephrotic and nephritic syndromes comprised approximately 75% of all clinical indications that lead to GN diagnoses. IgA nephropathy (1.41 php/yr) was the most common primary GN followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (1.02 php/yr) and crescentic GN (0.73 php/yr). Diabetic nephropathy (0.84 php/yr), lupus nephritis (0.69 php/yr) and amyloidosis (0.19 php/yr) were the most commonly identified secondary GN. IgA nephropathy is the predominant primary GN in Queensland, and nephrotic syndrome the most common indication for a renal biopsy. While crescentic GN incidence has significantly increased with time, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis incidence has not shown any trend. Incidence of GN overall appears to increase with age. The annual rate of biopsy in this study appears lower than previously published in an Australian population. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Queensland Energy Advisory Council 1984 annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Council consists of senior officials of Government Departments involved with various aspects of assessment, production, distribution and utilisation of energy resources. Noted in the annual review are functions of QEAC; activities; overview of Queensland's energy position; non renewable resources; coal; electricity; crude oil; natural gas; PGL; oil shale; uranium; renewable resources; solar energy; wind energy and biomass.

  16. Library Research Support in Queensland: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joanna; Nolan-Brown, Therese; Loria, Pat; Bradbury, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    University libraries worldwide are reconceptualising the ways in which they support the research agenda in their respective institutions. This paper is based on a survey completed by member libraries of the Queensland University Libraries Office of Cooperation (QULOC), the findings of which may be informative for other university libraries. After…

  17. The discovery and development of uranium in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    The history of the discovery of Australia's uranium deposits is reviewed. The exploration can be conveniently divided into three periods - pre-1944, when the only significant discoveries were made by prospectors in South Australia at Radium Hill and Mount Painter; 1944-1960 and post-1967. The second period saw uranium discoveries in the Northern Territory and Queensland, most of which were made by prospectors using hand-held geiger counters and rewarded by the Australian Government. Since 1967 new deposits have been found in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia by companies using maps, airborne radiometric surveys and sophisticated equipment. The step from the discovery of Mary Kathleen by prospectors to finding Roxby Downs by a combination of geophysical methods, geological concepts and deep drilling was a very big one

  18. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Sally; Modi, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity of this condition.

  19. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Barkla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity of this condition.

  20. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Barkla; Sunny Modi

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity ...

  1. Patterns and perceptions of physical activity and sedentary time in male transport drivers working in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; Bush, Robert A; Brown, Wendy J

    2014-08-01

    To objectively measure physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time, and explore perceptions of workplace PA opportunities in regional male transport workers. A multi-method study involving 28 drivers (52.4±9.69 years) working at a bus company in South-East Queensland, Australia. PA was measured using accelerometers (n=23) to determine the proportion of time spent in sedentary (organisational barriers (shift work and irregular driving routines), tended to preclude some drivers from engaging with these opportunities. Findings contest the notion that a sedentary occupation such as driving necessitates an inactive work environment. This research informs ongoing intervention efforts to target inactive drivers who are struggling to take advantage of existing workplace-related PA opportunities. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Colletotrichum species associated with chili anthracnose in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Silva, D. D.; Ades, P. K.; Crous, P. W.; Taylor, P. W J

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were determined for 45 Colletotrichum isolates causing anthracnose disease of chili in Queensland, Australia. Initial screening based on morphology, ITS and TUB2 genes resulted in a subset of 21 isolates being chosen for further taxonomic study. Isolates in the C. acutatum

  3. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1975-01-01

    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  4. Uranium mining in Australia: dreams--and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    By the early 1980's if the current mining projects described are allowed to go on stream, Australia will be able to produce at least 10 900 tons of U$sub 3$O$sub 8$ annually from ores whose grade ranges from a low of 0.150% to a high of 2.300%. The Jabiluka Project of uranium mining is described, and plans for other mines are discussed in Queensland, South and Western Australia. 2 refs

  5. Partners in ecocide: Australia's complicity in the uranium cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972 uranium producers from France, South Africa, Australia, Great Britain and Canada organized an international cartel to control the production and sale of uranium. The complicity of Australia in the manipulation of the market by and on behalf of C.R.A., Mary Kathleen Uranium, Pancontinental and Queensland Mines is discussed. The roles of both governments and companies and the antitrust implications of the cartel are considered

  6. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus in Southeast Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Burton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH, Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH, Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA, and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis; (b case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c the majority (66.5% of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  7. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-09-15

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  8. Value of mental health first aid training of advisory and extension agents in supporting farmers in rural Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, D; Gorman, D; Eley, R; Coutts, J

    2010-01-01

    This study was a pilot project responding to the increasing levels of stress, depression and other mental health issues in Australian rural areas resulting from prolonged drought and a changing economic and social environment. Thirty-two Advisory and Extension Agents (AEAs) attended a training course held in 2007 and 2008 in Queensland, Australia. A year after the training, data was collected to determine its value. Interviews were conducted with course participants and their supervisors and focus groups were held with stakeholders (farmers, agency staff and health professionals). The findings show that Mental Health First Aid training improved the participants' confidence level and their knowledge of mental health issues and increased their empathy toward persons with mental health problems. Furthermore, providing training on mental health issues to AEAs was perceived by stakeholders to be beneficial to both farmers and AEAs. This study demonstrated that stakeholders and course participants see this type of training as very much needed and highly beneficial. Further, providing training in mental health issues to rural service providers can be very beneficial to their farmer clients and their social network.

  9. Fiscal 1999 international engineer exchange project (Coal mining technology field). Overseas workshop (Australia); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Goshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the technology exchange with Australian coal mining engineers, the technical levels and needs on coal production, safety and environment in Australia, and the FS result on transfer of Japanese technologies, engineer exchange and joint research in a coal mining technology field. The overseas workshop (Australia) was held on Nov. 9, 1999 (Tues.) in Brisbane, Queensland. The Australia-Japan Technology Exchange Workshop on coal resources and coal mining technology includes 5 sessions (keynote address, trends and issues of coal resource development, coal resources and production technology, coal resources and safety technology, coal resources and environmental problems), and the open forum discussion on innovative technologies for coal mining. 6 Japanese specialists and 11 Australian specialists read papers. After the workshop, the participants visited Liddell Mine in New South Wales to master natural conditions, and production and safety technology levels of Australian coal mines, and to exchange various information with Australian coal mining engineers. (NEDO)

  10. The influence of deprivation on suicide mortality in urban and rural Queensland: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chi-kin; Snider, Anne-Marie; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    A trend of higher suicide rates in rural and remote areas as well as areas with low socioeconomic status has been shown in previous research. Little is known whether the influence of social deprivation on suicide differs between urban and rural areas. This investigation aims to examine how social deprivation influences suicide mortality and to identify which related factors of deprivation have a higher potential to reduce suicide risk in urban and rural Queensland, Australia. Suicide data from 2004 to 2008 were obtained from the Queensland Suicide Register. Age-standardized suicide rates (15+ years) and rate ratios, with a 95% confidence interval, for 38 Statistical Subdivisions (SSDs) in Queensland were calculated. The influence of deprivation-related variables on suicide and their rural-urban difference were modelled by log-linear regression analyses through backward elimination. Among the 38 SSDs in Queensland, eight had a higher suicide risk while eleven had a lower rate. Working-age males (15-59 years) had the most pronounced geographic variation in suicide rate. In urban areas, suicide rates were positively associated with tenant households in public housing, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the unemployment rate and median individual income, but inversely correlated with younger age and households with no internet access. In rural areas, only tenant households in public housing and households with no internet access heightened the risk of suicide, while a negative association was found for younger and older persons, low-skilled workers or labourers, and families with low income and no cars. The extent to which social deprivation contributes to suicide mortality varies considerably between rural and urban areas.

  11. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Jaylene Flint; Mark Flint; Colin James Limpus; Paul Mills

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-...

  12. Not sending the message: A low prevalence of strength-based exercise participation in rural and regional Central Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbo, Vincent J; Czerepusko, James B; Tucker, Patrick S; Kingsley, Michael I; Moon, Jordan R; Young, Kaelin; Scanlan, Aaron T

    2015-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of current strength-based exercise in rural and regional populations of Central Queensland. The secondary aim was to examine the proportion of residents from various demographic groups who currently partake in strength-based exercise to allow for targeted strength training campaigns. A cross-sectional, survey-based experimental design was followed. Rural and regional Australia. Rural and regional community-dwelling individuals living in Central Queensland and aged 18 years and older. Survey data was collected in October and November 2010 as part of the Central Queensland University Social Survey. Strength-based exercise participation, gender, age, income, years of education, self-reported physical activity and perception of health. Participation in strength-based exercise was 13.2%. Women were less likely to partake in strength-based exercise than male, and ≥55 year old adults were less likely to partake in strength-based exercise than 18-34 year old adults. Participation in strength-based exercise was found to increase with years of education, self-reported physical activity and self-rated health. The prevalence of adults in rural and regional Central Queensland engaging in strength-based exercise is low. Exercise physiologists, clinicians and government officials must work together to ensure that this form of exercise is acknowledged as a vital component of health in rural and regional areas. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Geographic variation in the intended choice of adjuvant treatments for women diagnosed with screen-detected breast cancer in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jeff Ching-Fu; Cramb, Susanna M; McGree, James M; Dunn, Nathan A M; Baade, Peter D; Mengersen, Kerrie L

    2015-12-02

    Although early diagnosis and improved treatment can reduce breast cancer mortality, there still appears to be a geographic differential in patient outcomes. This study aims to determine and quantify spatial inequalities in intended adjuvant (radio-, chemo- and hormonal) therapy usage among women with screen-detected breast cancer in Queensland, Australia. Linked population-based datasets from BreastScreen Queensland and the Queensland Cancer Registry during 1997-2008 for women aged 40-89 years were used. We adopted a Bayesian shared spatial component model to evaluate the relative intended use of each adjuvant therapy across 478 areas as well as common spatial patterns between treatments. Women living closer to a cancer treatment facility were more likely to intend to use adjuvant therapy. This was particularly marked for radiotherapy when travel time to the closest radiation facility was 4 + h (OR =0.41, 95 % CrI: [0.23, 0.74]) compared to Queensland. Moreover, the presence of residual shared spatial effects indicates that there are other unmeasured geographical barriers influencing women's treatment choices. This highlights the need to identify the additional barriers that impact on treatment intentions among women diagnosed with screen-detected breast cancer, particularly for those women living further away from cancer treatment centers.

  14. Haemangiopericytoma - Queensland Radium Institute experience and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, V.A.; Roberts, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics, management, relapse patterns and survival of 17 patients with haemangiopericytoma treated at the Queensland Radium Institute, Australia from 1962 to 1989 are reported. Twelve patients were referred at the time of first diagnosis and were treated with curative intent. Three patients were treated with palliative intent when referred following initial diagnosis, and the remaining two patients were referred at the time of relapse. Disease was metastatic at presentation in 4 patients. Radiotherapy was used as a component of primary treatment of disease in 11 patients, in both patients referred for management of local relapse of haemangiopericytoma, and for palliation of metastatic disease. One patient received chemotherapy as part of initial treatment. Nine patients have died with survival from first treatment ranging from 3 to 139 months. All 8 surviving patients remain free of disease at 6 to 94 months from first treatment. It is concluded that haemangiopericytoma has an unpredictable clinical course, and may be indolent in some patients thus validating intensive local therapy and that there is no apparent benefit from incorporating chemotherapy in the primary management of haemangiopericytoma, although it may provide worth-while palliation in selected patients. Surgery combined with pre-or post-operative radiotherapy is recommended. 30 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Current ecological research towards completion criteria in Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, A.; Mulligan, D.; Bellairs, S.; Harwood, M. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1998-12-31

    There is a growing recognition of the need for criteria to determine when rehabilitation is successful or complete. Moreover, with the current emphasis on sustainability, criteria need to embrace a range of ecological attributes which in turn require an understanding of the ecosystems being created. This paper describes current research by the Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation on ecosystem development at a number of operations throughout Queensland in the a bauxite, heavy mineral sands, gold and coal mining sectors. Case studies are presented which cover a number of ecological processes including nutrient cycling, vegetation succession and seedling recruitment. They are based in a range of different environments and encompass several different proposed end land uses. The paper demonstrates the utility of an hierarchical approach in assessing rehabilitation success, and that different elements within the hierarchy have differing levels of importance depending on specific minesite conditions. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  16. An Analysis of the Environment as a Means of Assessing Training Needs in the Insurance Industry in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tom; Jackling, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    In the five years leading up to 2002 there were many significant changes in the insurance industry in Australia that brought about a range of training needs. These training needs arose from matters as diverse as mergers, increased competition, corporate failures, and legislative changes. This study includes findings from a survey of the insurance…

  17. Physical activity trends in Queensland (2002 to 2008): are women becoming more active than men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Duncan, Mitch J; Caperchione, Cristina; Hanley, Christine; Mummery, W Kerry

    2010-06-01

    Regular monitoring of population levels of physical activity is an effective way to assess change over time towards meeting public health recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine physical activity trends in Central Queensland over the period 2002 to 2008. Data was obtained from the Central Queensland Social Survey (CQSS) conducted annually from 2002 to 2008. A total sample of 8,936 adults aged 18 and over participated in seven cross-sectional surveys. Physical activity was measured using the Active Australia Questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was used to examine trends in sufficient physical activity. Averaged over all survey years 46.5% of study participants met national physical activity guidelines. A small significant upward trend was found for meeting physical activity recommendations across all years (OR=1.03; 95%CI=1.01-1.05), indicating that the odds of meeting the guidelines increased by an average of 3% per year from 2002 to 2008. Slightly more men than women met the activity guidelines (ns); however a significant positive trend in achieving sufficient activity levels was present in women only (4%). Although an increasing trend for sufficient physical activity was observed, overall physical activity levels in Central Queensland remain suboptimal and more efforts to increase physical activity are needed. The gender differences in physical activity trends indicate that men and women might need to be targeted differently in health promotion messages. The continuous monitoring of population levels of physical activity in Australia, which allow both state specific and international comparisons, is needed.

  18. Perceived Safety, Quality and Cultural Competency of Maternity Care for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Women in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Sarah; Miller, Yvette D

    2016-03-01

    Various policies, plans and initiatives have been implemented to provide safe, quality and culturally competent care to patients within Queensland's health care system. A series of models of maternity care are available in Queensland that range from standard public care to private midwifery care. The current study aimed to determine whether identifying as culturally or linguistically diverse (CALD) was associated with the perceived safety, quality and cultural competency of maternity care from a consumer perspective, and to identify specific needs and preferences of CALD maternity care consumers. Secondary analysis of data collected in the Having a Baby in Queensland Survey 2012 was used to compare the experiences of 655 CALD women to those of 4049 non-CALD women in Queensland, Australia, across three stages of maternity care: pregnancy, labour and birth, and after birth. After adjustment for model of maternity care received and socio-demographic characteristics, CALD women were significantly more likely than non-CALD women to experience suboptimal staff technical competence in pregnancy, overall perceived safety in pregnancy and labour/birth, and interpersonal sensitivity in pregnancy and labour/birth. Approximately 50 % of CALD women did not have the choice to use a translator or interpreter, or the gender of their care provider, during labour and birth. Thirteen themes of preferences and needs of CALD maternity care consumers based on ethnicity, cultural beliefs, or traditions were identified; however, these were rarely met. Findings imply that CALD women in Queensland experience disadvantageous maternity care with regards to perceived staff technical competence, safety, and interpersonal sensitivity, and receive care that lacks cultural competence. Improved access to support persons, continuity and choice of carer, and staff availability and training is recommended.

  19. Queensland Mines plant trials with Caro's acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.C.; Fulton, E.J.; Vautier, F.E.; Waters, D.J.; Ring, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory leach tests have been carried out to compare the effectiveness of Caro's acid (permonosulphuric acid) as an alternative oxidant to pyrolusite in the leaching of uranium ores. Results demonstrated that Caro's acid reduced acid consumption in leaching and the time required for neutralisation of tailings liquor. The uranium extraction was unaffected by choice of oxidant. A plant trial confirmed that significant savings in acid and lime usage can be achieved under plant conditions. Plant operations also demonstrated that Caro's acid has a number of significant operating advantages over pyrolusite. Queensland Mines Ltd. have recently decided to convert their leaching process from pyrolusite to Caro's acid

  20. Faecal incontinence in rural and regional northern Queensland community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lynne M; Nowak, Madeleine J; Ho, Yikhong

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, faecal incontinence, the involuntary loss of liquid or solid stool with or without a person's awareness, has been reported in 8% of the South Australian and 11% of the urban New South Wales community-dwelling populations. Studies conducted in 2004 and 2005 reported faecal incontinence in more than 20% of colorectal and urogynaecological clinic patients at Townsville Hospital (a referral centre serving rural North Queensland). This prompted concern regarding the level of faecal incontinence in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of faecal incontinence in the North and Far North Queensland urban and rural communities. The sample size was based on the New South Wales postal surveys (11% prevalence). Higher rates were expected in North/Far North Queensland, so prevalence there was estimated at 12.1% (confidence interval ± 2%, ie the true level to be between 10.1% and 14.1%). The sample for each of the Townsville, Cairns (in Far North Queensland) and rural/remote settings was calculated at 1022. The database for the present study was compiled using a systematic randomised process selecting two private names from each column on each page of the Cairns and Townsville White Pages® (Cairns: 1112 urban, 481 rural, 226 remote; Townsville: 1049 urban, 432 rural, 320 remote). The questionnaire covered personal demographics, health/risk factors, bowel habits, nutrition (fibre and fluid intake) and physical activity. Faecal incontinence was defined as accidental leakage of solid or liquid stool in the past 12 months that was not caused by a virus, medication or contaminated food. To improve the response rate a participation incentive of a chance to win a $250 voucher or one of ten $50 vouchers was offered in the initial mail-out. The initial survey was mailed out in July 2007; two follow-up surveys were mailed out to non-responders in September 2007 and January 2008. One hundred randomly selected non-responders were telephoned in

  1. Exploring the determinants of health and wellbeing in communities living in proximity to coal seam gas developments in regional Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Fiona; McDermott, Liane; Tynan, Anna; Gericke, Christian A

    2017-08-03

    There is some concern that coal seam gas mining may affect health and wellbeing through changes in social determinants such as living and working conditions, local economy and the environment. The onward impact of these conditions on health and wellbeing is often not monitored to the same degree as direct environmental health impacts in the mining context, but merits attention. This study reports on the findings from a recurrent theme that emerged from analysis of the qualitative component of a comprehensive Health Needs Assessment (HNA) conducted in regional Queensland: that health and wellbeing of communities was reportedly affected by nearby coal seam gas (CSG) development beyond direct environmental impacts. Qualitative analysis was initially completed using the Framework Method to explore key themes from 11 focus group discussions, 19 in-depth interviews, and 45 key informant interviews with health and wellbeing service providers and community members. A key theme emerged from the analysis that forms the basis of this paper. This study is part of a larger comprehensive HNA involving qualitative and quantitative data collection to explore the health and wellbeing needs of three communities living in proximity to CSG development in regional Queensland, Australia. Communities faced social, economic and environmental impacts from the rapid growth of CSG development, which were perceived to have direct and indirect effects on individual lifestyle factors such as alcohol and drug abuse, family relationships, social capital and mental health; and community-level factors including social connectedness, civic engagement and trust. Outer regional communities discussed the effects of mining activity on the fabric of their town and community, whereas the inner regional community that had a longer history of industrial activity discussed the impacts on families and individual health and wellbeing. The findings from this study may inform future health service planning in

  2. Exploring the determinants of health and wellbeing in communities living in proximity to coal seam gas developments in regional Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Mactaggart

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some concern that coal seam gas mining may affect health and wellbeing through changes in social determinants such as living and working conditions, local economy and the environment. The onward impact of these conditions on health and wellbeing is often not monitored to the same degree as direct environmental health impacts in the mining context, but merits attention. This study reports on the findings from a recurrent theme that emerged from analysis of the qualitative component of a comprehensive Health Needs Assessment (HNA conducted in regional Queensland: that health and wellbeing of communities was reportedly affected by nearby coal seam gas (CSG development beyond direct environmental impacts. Methods Qualitative analysis was initially completed using the Framework Method to explore key themes from 11 focus group discussions, 19 in-depth interviews, and 45 key informant interviews with health and wellbeing service providers and community members. A key theme emerged from the analysis that forms the basis of this paper. This study is part of a larger comprehensive HNA involving qualitative and quantitative data collection to explore the health and wellbeing needs of three communities living in proximity to CSG development in regional Queensland, Australia. Results Communities faced social, economic and environmental impacts from the rapid growth of CSG development, which were perceived to have direct and indirect effects on individual lifestyle factors such as alcohol and drug abuse, family relationships, social capital and mental health; and community-level factors including social connectedness, civic engagement and trust. Conclusions Outer regional communities discussed the effects of mining activity on the fabric of their town and community, whereas the inner regional community that had a longer history of industrial activity discussed the impacts on families and individual health and wellbeing. The

  3. 2010-2011 Queensland floods: using Haddon's Matrix to define and categorise public safety strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yu-Li; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    The 2010-2011 Queensland floods resulted in the most deaths from a single flood event in Australia since 1916. This article analyses the information on these deaths for comparison with those from previous floods in modern Australia in an attempt to identify factors that have contributed to those deaths. Haddon's Matrix, originally designed for prevention of road trauma, offers a framework for understanding the interplay between contributing factors and helps facilitate a clearer understanding of the varied strategies required to ensure people's safety for particular flood types. Public reports and flood relevant literature were searched using key words 'flood', 'fatality', 'mortality', 'death', 'injury' and 'victim' through Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Data relating to reported deaths during the 2010-2011 Queensland floods, and relevant data of previous Australian flood fatality (1997-2009) were collected from these available sources. These sources were also used to identify contributing factors. There were 33 deaths directly attributed to the event, of which 54.5% were swept away in a flash flood on 10 January 2011. A further 15.1% of fatalities were caused by inappropriate behaviours. This is different to floods in modern Australia where over 90% of deaths are related to the choices made by individuals. There is no single reason why people drown in floods, but rather a complex interplay of factors. The present study and its integration of research findings and conceptual frameworks might assist governments and communities to develop policies and strategies to prevent flood injury and fatalities. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  4. Pollutant concentrations in road runoff: Southeast Queensland case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapper, D.; Tomlinson, R.; Williams, P.

    2000-04-01

    This paper discusses the results of research into the pollutants in runoff from road pavement surfaces following natural rainfall events. Road runoff water quality was monitored at 21 sites centering around Brisbane, in southeast Queensland, Australia. The sites were selected according to traffic volumes, surrounding land use, pavement surface type, ease of access, and commercial vehicle percentage. Bridge sites were chosen for convenience of sample collection and minimized infrastructure modification. First flush grab samplers were permanently installed at each site to collect the first 20 L of runoff from one of the bridge drainage scuppers. The runoff samples were tested for a number of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, and other physical characteristics. The observed results fall within the ranges of concentrations reported internationally and nationally but do not typically follow the 30,000 average annual daily traffic results reported in the United States. Traffic volumes have not been found to be the best indicator of road runoff pollutant concentrations. Interevent duration has been found to be a statistically significant factor for pollutant concentrations. Sites incorporating exit lanes have recorded higher concentrations of acid-extractable copper and zinc, tending to support the hypothesis that brake pad and tire wear caused by rapid deceleration contributes to the concentrations of these metals in road runoff. Laser particle sizing has shown that a significant proportion of the sediment found in the runoff is <100 {micro}m. However, these particulates do settle in water within 24 h, under laboratory conditions. This may be due to the presence of heavy metals.

  5. Vision Problems and Reduced Reading Outcomes in Queensland Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-03-01

    To assess the relationship between vision and reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren to determine whether vision problems are associated with lower reading outcomes in these populations. Vision testing and reading assessments were performed on 508 Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia divided into two age groups: Grades 1 and 2 (6-7 years of age) and Grades 6 and 7 (12-13 years of age). Vision parameters measured included cycloplegic refraction, near point of convergence, heterophoria, fusional vergence range, rapid automatized naming, and visual motor integration. The following vision conditions were then classified based on the vision findings: uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration. Reading accuracy and reading comprehension were measured with the Neale reading test. The effect of uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration on reading accuracy and reading comprehension were investigated with ANCOVAs. The ANCOVAs explained a significant proportion of variance in both reading accuracy and reading comprehension scores in both age groups, with 40% of the variation in reading accuracy and 33% of the variation in reading comprehension explained in the younger age group, and 27% and 10% of the variation in reading accuracy and reading comprehension, respectively, in the older age group. The vision parameters of visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming were significant predictors in all ANCOVAs (P reading results were explained by reduced visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming results. Both reduced rapid automatized naming and visual motor integration were associated with poorer reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. This is an important finding given the recent emphasis placed on Indigenous children

  6. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-06-01

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suicide in older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults using the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu Wen; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Globally, suicide rates increase with age, being highest in older adults. This study analyzed differences in suicides in older adults (65 years and over) compared to middle-aged adults (35-64 years) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012. The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated by gender and age group, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were examined. In Queensland, the average annual rate of suicides for older adults was 15.27 per 100,000 persons compared to 18.77 in middle-aged adults in 2000-2012. There were no significant changes in time trends for older adults in 2002-2012. Suicide methods differed between gender and age groups. Older adults who died by suicide were more likely to be male, widowed, living alone or in a nursing home, and out of the work force. The prevalence of untreated psychiatric conditions, diagnosed psychiatric disorders, and consultations with a mental health professional three months prior to death was lower in older adults than middle-aged adults. Somatic illness, bereavement, and attention to suicide in the media were more common among older adults than middle-age adults. Older females were particularly more likely to pay attention to suicide in the media. Our findings show older adults who died by suicide were more likely to experience somatic illnesses, bereavement, and pay attention to suicide in the media compared to middle aged. Preventing suicide in older adults would therefore require holistic and comprehensive approaches.

  8. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylene Flint

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59% of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39% turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental

  9. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Jaylene; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  10. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  11. A Survey of Intestinal Parasites of Domestic Dogs in Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gillespie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia has a very high rate of dog ownership, which in some circumstances may lead to exposure to zoonotic parasitic diseases from those companion animals. Domestic dog faecal samples (n = 300 were collected from public spaces and private property in the greater Rockhampton (Central Queensland region and tested for intestinal helminths and protozoa by direct microscopy, two flotation methods and a modified acid-fast stain for cryptosporidia. Intestinal parasites detected included hookworms (25%, Cystoisospora ohioensis complex (9%, Blastocystis hominis (3%, Giardia duodenalis (3%, Spirometra erinacei (1% and Toxocara canis (1%, Sarcocystis spp. (2%, Cryptosporidium spp. (2% and Cystoisospora canis (1%. One infection each with Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum and a protozoa belonging to the Entamoeba histolytica complex were identified. Sheather’s sucrose centrifugal flotation was more sensitive than saturated salt passive flotation, but no single test detected all cases of parasitic infection identified. The test methodologies employed are poor at recovering larva of Strongyloides stercoralis, Aleurostrongylus abstrussis and eggs of cestodes such as Echinococcus granulosis, so the potential presence of these parasites in Central Queensland domestic dogs cannot be excluded by this survey alone.

  12. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: a reappraisal in Queensland with special reference to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J; Kerr, R; Hicks, M; Nixon, P F

    The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome occurs most frequently in alcoholic patients when they become thiamin deficient. First admissions to psychiatric units with the chronic component of this syndrome, Korsakoff's psychosis, peaked in Queensland in 1975-1976. The fall in hospital admission rates since this time could relate to a decline in per-capita alcohol consumption in Australia, or to more awareness of the thiamin needs of drinkers. Alternatively, the improvement may be illusory: although many cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy are being diagnosed, many of these patients are not receiving psychiatric assessment and treatment, perhaps because admission to psychiatric hospital beds is more difficult than it was formerly. Patients who are diagnosed as having Korsakoff's psychosis fare badly in the community, and have a greatly increased mortality rate than do such patients in hospital. Optimal care for such patients is necessarily costly of medical resources. Of available preventive measures, evidence is presented to support the fortification of beer with thiamin and the provision of community educational programmes. The fortification of flour with thiamin may have little impact on the thiamin-deficiency syndromes that arise in problem drinkers in Queensland.

  13. 76 FR 56730 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Australia; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0088] Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Australia... additional areas as pest- free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) or Queensland fruit fly... in our regulations for recognition as pest-free areas. We are making that determination, as well as...

  14. The Incidence of Clueing in Multiple Choice Testbank Questions in Accounting: Some Evidence from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbett, Nicole L.; Wheldon, Brett J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 Central Queensland University (CQU) in Australia banned the use of multiple choice questions (MCQs) as an assessment tool. One of the reasons given for this decision was that MCQs provide an opportunity for students to "pass" by merely guessing their answers. The mathematical likelihood of a student passing by guessing alone can…

  15. The Secondary School Principal in Australia and New Zealand: An Investigation of Changing Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa; Billot, Jennie

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the roles and workloads of secondary school principals from Queenslands, Australia, and New Zealand. Finds, for example, that pressure in the role and hours worked per week had increased compared with previous years. Overall principals were highly satisfied with their roles. Provides discussion of skills and competencies required of…

  16. Coal seam has boom - powering North Queensland industrial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    Reduced operating costs, lower greenhouse gas emissions and security of supply are being cited by North Queensland industry leaders as the reasons for investing more than A$550 million to expand operations and convert to coal seam gas as their preferred fuel source. The article, by Enertrade, reports that just a few months after commissioning its North Queensland Gas Pipeline to transport coal seam gas from Moranbah to Townsville, Enertrade has signed contracts that will see combined cycle gas-fired baseload electricity generated in Townsville and the Queensland Nickel Refinery, and Xstrata Copper Refinery switch from liquid fuels to gas. The development has been driven by state government policy that 13% of Queensland's electricity be sourced from gas-fired power generation from 1 January 2005. Further information is available from Enertrade on Tel +617 3331 9929. 2 photos.

  17. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-17

    Apr 17, 2015 ... Centre for Tropical Water and Aquatic Ecosystem Research, James Cook University, Queensland, ... marily in the grey literature sponsored by the fishing indus- ..... age treatment plants were upgraded and urban and agri-.

  18. Understanding groundwater dynamics on barrier islands using geochronological data: An example from North Stradbroke Island, South-east Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Newborn, Dean; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater lenses underneath barrier islands are dynamic systems affected by changing sea levels and groundwater use. They are vulnerable to contamination and over-abstraction. Residence times of fresh groundwater in barrier islands are poorly understood and have mostly been assessed by modelling approaches and estimates without fundamental validation with geochronological data. Assessing residence time and recharge rates will improve significantly our understanding of hydrological processes of coastal environments that will in turn allow us to make informed decisions on groundwater use and environmental protection. This project focused on groundwater recharge rates and residence times of the fresh water aquifer system of North Stradbroke Island, south-east Queensland, Australia. Groundwater bores, wetlands and submarine groundwater discharge points in the tidal areas (wonky holes) were sampled along a transect across the island and were analysed for major ion chemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C) in combination with 3H and 14C analysis. Calculated 3H using a 95% exponential-piston flow model and 14C ages range from 12 to >100 years and modern to 3770 years, respectively, indicating a highly heterogeneous aquifer system with mixing from low and high conductive areas. The major ion chemistry in combination with stable and radiogenic isotopes suggests that a significant groundwater component derives from the fractured rock basement and older sedimentary formations underlying the sand dunes of the island. The results help refining the conceptual and numerical groundwater flow model for North Stradbroke island in this particular case but also demonstrate the possible complexity of barrier island hydrogeology.

  19. Towards Distributed Citizen Participation: Lessons from WikiLeaks and the Queensland Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bruns

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the rapid and ad hoc development and interactions of participative citizen communities during acute events, using the examples of the 2011 floods in Queensland, Australia, and the global controversy surrounding Wikileaks and its spokesman, Julian Assange. The self-organising community responses to such events which can be observed in these cases bypass or leapfrog, at least temporarily, most organisational or administrative hurdles which may otherwise frustrate the establishment of online communities; they fast-track the processes of community development and structuration. By understanding them as a form of rapid prototyping, e-democracy initiatives can draw important lessons from observing the community activities around such acute events.

  20. Solar UVR exposures of three groups of outdoor workers on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.P.; Roy, C.R.; Toomey, S.; MacLennan, R.; Watson, M.

    1995-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of three groups of outdoor workers, physical education (PE) teachers, ground staff/gardeners and lifeguards were measured using UVR-sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges. The exposures all took place on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland over 5 consecutive weekdays in November 1992. For the three groups, the shoulder badges received greater UVR exposures than the chest badges, in agreement with previous studies. The PE teachers received the highest UVR exposures while the lifeguards received the least. One of the 5 days of the study was overcast with some rain showers and UVR doses for this day for all groups was significantly lower than on the other 4 days, however the ratio of exposure to ambient remained relatively constant. All groups had measured UVR exposures in excess of occupational guidelines, indicating that protective measures, including education and behaviour modification, which are becoming much more common in occupational situations in Australia, are both timely and necessary. (author)

  1. The effects of built environment attributes on physical activity-related health and health care costs outcomes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Herrera, Ana Maria Mantilla; Veerman, J Lennert

    2016-11-01

    Attributes of the built environment can positively influence physical activity of urban populations, which results in health and economic benefits. In this study, we derived scenarios from the literature for the association built environment-physical activity and used a mathematical model to translate improvements in physical activity to health-adjusted life years and health care costs. We modelled 28 scenarios representing a diverse range of built environment attributes including density, diversity of land use, availability of destinations, distance to transit, design and neighbourhood walkability. Our results indicated potential health gains in 24 of the 28 modelled built environment attributes. Health care cost savings due to prevented physical activity-related diseases ranged between A$1300 to A$105,355 per 100,000 adults per year. On the other hand, additional health care costs of prolonged life years attributable to improvements in physical activity were nearly 50% higher than the estimated health care costs savings. Our results give an indication of the potential health benefits of investing in physical activity-friendly built environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Availability, spatial accessibility, utilisation and the role of telehealth for multi-disciplinary paediatric cerebral palsy services in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirippulige, Sisira; Reyno, John; Armfield, Nigel R; Bambling, Matthew; Lloyd, Owen; McNevin, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methods of current delivery of health care services to cerebral palsy (CP) patients in Queensland, Australia. The study also examines the current use of telehealth by clinicians and their perceptions about telehealth use. Patient records during July 2013-July 2014 were accessed from the Queensland Paediatric Rehabilitation Service (QPRS) to collect information relating to the service delivery for CP patients. Analysis was carried out to examine the patient locations and travel distances using ArcMap geoprocessing software. In addition, 13 face-to-face semi structured interviews were conducted with clinicians from the QPRS and the Cerebral Palsy Health Service (CPHS) to understand the perceptions of clinicians relating to the current level of health care delivery. We also examined the clinicians' current use of telehealth and their opinions about this method. Records of 329 paediatric CP patients were accessed and reviewed. The majority of patients (96%, n = 307) who attended the clinics at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH), Brisbane, were from remote, rural or regional areas of Queensland. Only 4% of patients (n = 13) were from major cities. During 12 months, patients had attended nine outreach programmes that were conducted by the QPRS and CPHS. The study found that non-local patients were required to travel an average distance of 836 km to access QPRS and CPHS services in Brisbane. The average distance for receiving a consultation at an outreach clinic was 173 km. Clinicians perceived that access to health care services to CP patients in Queensland is inadequate. Nearly all clinicians interviewed had some experience in using telehealth. They had high satisfaction levels with the method. Traditional methods of delivering services to CP patients do not meet their needs. Clinicians have found telehealth is a feasible and satisfactory delivery method. However, the use of telehealth is still limited. © The

  4. Management of waste from uranium mining and milling in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.; Levins, D.; Ring, B.; Zuk, W.

    1997-01-01

    Australia has a long history of uranium mining. Most of the early production came from Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory and Mary Kathleen in Queensland. The second generation of uranium mines (Ranger, Nabarlek and Olympic Dam) came on line in the 1970s and 1980s at a time of increased environmental awareness and public scrutiny. The waste management practices at these mines are in accordance with best practicable technology for the uranium mining industry. This paper describes Australia's experience in managing the front end of the fuel cycle; uranium mining and ore processing. (orig.)

  5. Radiation therapists' and radiation oncology medical physicists' perceptions of work and the working environment in Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkett, G K B; McKay, J; Hegney, D G; Breen, Lauren J; Berg, M; Ebert, M A; Davis, M; Kearvell, R

    2017-09-01

    Workforce recruitment and retention are issues in radiation oncology. The working environment is likely to have an impact on retention; however, there is a lack of research in this area. The objectives of this study were to: investigate radiation therapists' (RTs) and radiation oncology medical physicists' (ROMPs) perceptions of work and the working environment; and determine the factors that influence the ability of RTs and ROMPs to undertake their work and how these factors affect recruitment and retention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was used. Twenty-eight RTs and 21 ROMPs participated. The overarching themes were delivering care, support in work, working conditions and lifestyle. The overarching themes were mostly consistent across both groups; however, the exemplars reflected the different roles and perspectives of RTs and ROMPs. Participants described the importance they placed on treating patients and improving their lives. Working conditions were sometimes difficult with participants reporting pressure at work, large workloads and longer hours and overtime. Insufficient staff numbers impacted on the effectiveness of staff, the working environment and intentions to stay. Staff satisfaction is likely to be improved if changes are made to the working environment. We make recommendations that may assist departments to support RTs and ROMPs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  7. Generalised pollination systems for three invasive milkweeds in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M; Johnson, S D

    2013-05-01

    Because most plants require pollinator visits for seed production, the ability of an introduced plant species to establish pollinator relationships in a new ecosystem may have a central role in determining its success or failure as an invader. We investigated the pollination ecology of three milkweed species - Asclepias curassavica, Gomphocarpus fruticosus and G. physocarpus - in their invaded range in southeast Queensland, Australia. The complex floral morphology of milkweeds has often been interpreted as a general trend towards specialised pollination requirements. Based on this interpretation, invasion by milkweeds contradicts the expectation than plant species with specialised pollination systems are less likely to become invasive that those with more generalised pollination requirements. However, observations of flower visitors in natural populations of the three study species revealed that their pollination systems are essentially specialised at the taxonomic level of the order, but generalised at the species level. Specifically, pollinators of the two Gomphocarpus species included various species of Hymenoptera (particularly vespid wasps), while pollinators of A. curassavica were primarily Lepidoptera (particularly nymphalid butterflies). Pollinators of all three species are rewarded with copious amounts of highly concentrated nectar. It is likely that successful invasion by these three milkweed species is attributable, at least in part, to their generalised pollinator requirements. The results of this study are discussed in terms of how data from the native range may be useful in predicting pollination success of species in a new environment. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Diagnostic and treatment pathways for men with prostate cancer in Queensland: investigating spatial and demographic inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baade Peter D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of diagnosis and management for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland, Australia, have not yet been systematically documented and so assumptions of equity are untested. This longitudinal study investigates the association between prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment outcomes and key area-level characteristics and individual-level demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods/Design A total of 1064 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between February 2005 and July 2007 were recruited through hospital-based urology outpatient clinics and private practices in the centres of Brisbane, Townsville and Mackay (82% of those referred. Additional clinical and diagnostic information for all 6609 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland during the study period was obtained via the population-based Queensland Cancer Registry. Respondent data are collected using telephone and self-administered questionnaires at pre-treatment and at 2 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, 36 months, 48 months and 60 months post-treatment. Assessments include demographics, medical history, patterns of care, disease and treatment characteristics together with outcomes associated with prostate cancer, as well as information about quality of life and psychological adjustment. Complementary detailed treatment information is abstracted from participants' medical records held in hospitals and private treatment facilities and collated with health service utilisation data obtained from Medicare Australia. Information about the characteristics of geographical areas is being obtained from data custodians such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Geo-coding and spatial technology will be used to calculate road travel distances from patients' residences to treatment centres. Analyses will be conducted using standard statistical methods along with multilevel regression models including individual and area-level components

  9. The Role of Trust in Business-to-Business E-Commerce Collaboration in a Unique Environment in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Pollard; Amanda Diggles

    2006-01-01

    This research explores interorganisational collaboration in business-to-business e-commerce, and the factors that influence its development in a unique Australian environment. Using a qualitative case study approach, seven informants from four Tasmanian organisations were interviewed. The data confirmed trust was an important prerequisite for the establishment and development of both electronic and traditional interorganisational relationships. Collaborative relations such as communication an...

  10. Efficacy of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against Queensland fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.; Wills, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of Queensland fruit fly, Dacus tryoni, eggs, and larvae with a dose of 75 Gy of radiation prevents the emergence of adult flies, although many insects develop to the pupal stage. This has been demonstrated with large numbers of insects present in oranges and avocados, two entirely different fruit types. The aim of such a commodity treatment should be to prevent the establishment of an insect pest in a new environment. This low-dose treatment should, therefore find acceptance with quarantine authorities, since the nonemergence of adult files effectively breaks the life cycle of the insect. This paper provides details of the experimental approach and the results of these efficacy studies

  11. Balancing energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the energy policy statement presented by the Queensland Minister for Minerals and Energy for the 'Great Energy Debate' in Brisbane. The Queensland Government is committed to achieving a responsible balance between protecting the environment and meeting community expectations. A broad and integrated framework is under development for guiding energy policies consistent with the market enhancement approach. Some of the recent initiatives and the expected outcome are highlighted

  12. Educational renewal of physician training in Australia and New Zealand: Multiple educational innovations in a complex environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udemans, Rebecca; Stokes, Marie-Louise; Rigby, Louise; Khanna, Priya; Christiansen, Jonathan

    2018-03-21

    The Royal Australasian College of Physicians is renewing its specialty training programs and shifting towards competency-based medical education. Our aim is to improve the quality and rigor of training and graduate outcomes, and promote high standards of physician practice to serve the health of patients, families, and communities in a changing healthcare environment. We are progressing holistic change and multiple educational innovations in a complex environment. Numerous stakeholders, a disparate training landscape and a largely volunteer supervisor workforce pose challenges in supporting effective implementation. This paper describes our progress and experience with three key components of our education renewal program: curricular renewal, a new selection process and faculty development. It offers reflections on the practical challenges, lessons learned and factors critical for success. Our experience highlights opportunities for training organizations to maximize their influence over workplace training experiences and outcomes by taking a systems approach to the design, delivery and evaluation of the components of education renewal. We found that design, development and delivery of our multiple educational innovations have benefited from co-design approaches, progressive and concurrent development, continual exploration of new strategies, and implementation as soon as viable with a commitment to iterative improvements over time.

  13. Information from geology: Implications for soil formation and rehabilitation in the post coal mining environment, Bowen Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, A.V.; Esterle, J.; McLennan, T.P.T.

    1995-01-01

    The coal mining industry is likely to disturb as much as 60,000 ha of the Bowen Basin up to the year 2000. While comprising only a small proportion of the approximately 32,000 km 2 of the Bowen Basin, this considerable area will eventually need to be rehabilitated by creating appropriate land forms with a stabilizing and self-sustaining cover of vegetation. The job of restoring the disturbed area will fall to the practitioners of rehabilitation science. This paper briefly outlines the actual and potential significance of geological information to rehabilitation practice in the open-cut coal mining industry of the Bowen Basin. It focuses particularly on the problems of soil formation and the consequent limitations to ecosystem development due to the nature of the overburden materials and the environment. Lastly, it describes some of the distinctive features of the mine-soils of the area. Geological information can assist in the identification, classification, description and behaviour of post-mining materials. Potential inputs are not restricted to these and there is scope for wider inputs to management of the mining environment although the interface with biology requires further development. (author). 4 figs., 31 refs

  14. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses caused by "marmionii" strain of Rickettsia honei, Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nathan B; Stenos, John; Graves, Stephen R; Faa, Antony G; Cox, G Erika; Dyer, John R; Boutlis, Craig S; Lane, Amanda M; Shaw, Matthew D; Robson, Jennifer; Nissen, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    Australia has 4 rickettsial diseases: murine typhus, Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever, and scrub typhus. We describe 7 cases of a rickettsiosis with an acute onset and symptoms of fever (100%), headache (71%), arthralgia (43%), myalgia (43%), cough (43%), maculopapular/petechial rash (43%), nausea (29%), pharyngitis (29%), lymphadenopathy (29%), and eschar (29%). Cases were most prevalent in autumn and from eastern Australia, including Queensland, Tasmania, and South Australia. One patient had a history of tick bite (Haemaphysalis novaeguineae). An isolate shared 99.2%, 99.8%, 99.8%, 99.9%, and 100% homology with the 17 kDa, ompA, gltA, 16S rRNA, and Sca4 genes, respectively, of Rickettsia honei. This Australian rickettsiosis has similar symptoms to Flinders Island spotted fever, and the strain is genetically related to R. honei. It has been designated the "marmionii" strain of R. honei, in honor of Australian physician and scientist Barrie Marmion.

  15. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  16. Nurses' use of mobile devices to access information in health care environments in australia: a survey of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth; Allen, Penny

    2014-12-10

    The growth of digital technology has created challenges for safe and appropriate use of mobile or portable devices during work-integrated learning (WIL) in health care environments. Personal and professional use of technology has outpaced the development of policy or codes of practice for guiding its use at the workplace. There is a perceived risk that portable devices may distract from provision of patient or client care if used by health professionals or students during employment or WIL. This study aimed to identify differences in behavior of undergraduate nurses in accessing information, using a portable or mobile device, when undertaking WIL compared to other non-work situations. A validated online survey was administered to students while on placement in a range of health care settings in two Australian states. There were 84 respondents, with 56% (n=47) reporting access to a mobile or portable device. Differences in use of a mobile device away from, compared with during WIL, were observed for non-work related activities such as messaging (PStudents continued to access nursing, medical, professional development, and study-related information away from the workplace. Undergraduate nurses limit their access to non-work or non-patient centered information while undertaking WIL. Work-related mobile learning is being undertaken, in situ, by the next generation of nurses who expect easy access to mobile or portable devices at the workplace, to ensure safe and competent care is delivered to their patients.

  17. The Diurnal Cycle of the Boundary Layer, Convection, Clouds, and Surface Radiation in a Coastal Monsoon Environment (Darwin Australia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Peter T.; Long, Charles N.; Protat, Alain

    2012-08-01

    The diurnal variation of convection and associated cloud and radiative properties remains a significant issue in global NWP and climate models. This study analyzes observed diurnal variability of convection in a coastal monsoonal environment examining the interaction of convective rain clouds, their associated cloud properties, and the impact on the surface radiation and corresponding boundary layer structure during periods where convection is suppressed or active on the large scale. The analysis uses data from the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) as well as routine measurements from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Both active monsoonal and large-scale suppressed (buildup and break) conditions are examined and demonstrate that the diurnal variation of rainfall is much larger during the break periods and the spatial distribution of rainfall is very different between the monsoon and break regimes. During the active monsoon the total net radiative input to the surface is decreased by more than 3 times the amount than during the break regime - this total radiative cloud forcing is found to be dominated by the shortwave (SW) cloud effects because of the much larger optical thicknesses and persistence of long-lasting anvils and cirrus cloud decks associated with the monsoon regime. These differences in monsoon versus break surface radiative energy contribute to low-level air temperature differences in the boundary layer over the land surfaces.

  18. Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia: an airborne survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Junkermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP in the atmosphere may have significant impacts on the regional water and radiation budgets through secondary effects on cloud microphysics. Yet, as these particles are invisible for current remote sensing techniques, knowledge about their three-dimensional distribution, source strengths and budgets is limited. Building on a 40-yr-old Australia-wide airborne survey which provides a reference case study of aerosol sources and budgets, this study presents results from a new airborne survey over Eastern Australia, northern New South Wales and Queensland. Observations identified apparent changes in the number and distribution of major anthropogenic aerosol sources since the early 1970s, which might relate to the simultaneously observed changes in rainfall patterns over eastern Queensland. Coal-fired power stations in the inland areas between Brisbane and Rockhampton were clearly identified as the major sources for ultrafine particulate matter. Sugar mills, smelters and shipping along the coast close to the Ports of Townsville and Rockhampton were comparable minor sources. Airborne Lagrangian plume studies were applied to investigate source strength and ageing properties within power station plumes. Significant changes observed, compared to the measurements in the 1970s, included a significant increase in the number concentration of UFP related to coal-fired power station emissions in the sparsely populated Queensland hinterland coincident with the area with the most pronounced reduction in rainfall.

  19. Sense of place as a determinant of people's attitudes towards the environment: implications for natural resources management and planning in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Silva; De Freitas, Debora M; Hicks, Christina C

    2013-03-15

    Integrating people's values and perceptions into planning is essential for the successful management of natural resources. However, successful implementation of natural resources management decisions on the ground is a complex task, which requires a comprehensive understanding of a system's social and ecological linkages. This paper investigates the relationship between sense of place and people's attitudes towards their natural environment. Sense of place contributes towards shaping peoples' beliefs, values and commitments. Here, we set out to explore how these theoretical contributions can be operationalized for natural resources management planning in the Great Barrier Reef region of Australia. We hypothesise that the region's diverse range of natural resources, conservation values and management pressures might be reflected in people's attachment to place. To tests this proposition, variables capturing socio-demographics, personal wellbeing and a potential for sense of place were collected via mail-out survey of 372 residents of the region, and tested for relationships using multivariate regression and redundancy orientation analyses. Results indicate that place of residence within the region, involvement in community activities, country of birth and the length of time respondents lived in the region are important determinants of the values assigned to factors related to the natural environment. This type of information is readily available from National Census and thus could be incorporated into the planning of community engagement strategies early in the natural resources management planning process. A better understanding of the characteristics that allow sense of place meanings to develop can facilitate a better understanding of people's perceptions towards environmental and biodiversity issues. We suggest that the insights gained from this study can benefit environmental decision making and planning in the Great Barrier Reef region; and that sense of place

  20. Sexual health knowledge and behaviour of young Sudanese Queenslanders: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Judith; Mitchell, Marion; Stewart, Donald; Debattista, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Background Forced migration is associated with sexual vulnerability. However, little is known about the sexual health literacy and needs of refugee-background youth post resettlement. Conducted in partnership with the Queensland Sudanese community, this study used a cross-sectional survey to explore the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a convenience sample of 16- to 24-year-old Sudanese-background youth in Australia (n=229). Sexually transmissible infection (STI) and HIV knowledge scores were generally low, although they were found to significantly improve the longer participants had lived in Australia (Pbehaviour score suggests generally low levels of risk-taking behaviour. However, of the 140 sexually active participants, 3.1% reported a STI diagnosis, 9.0% reported sex leading to a pregnancy and 33.1% reported they had experienced unwanted sex. Participants also reported engaging in behaviours such as anal sex (33%) and sharing injecting drug equipment. Patterns of sexual behaviour among this predominately refugee-background group are not dissimilar to those of other young Australians. Nonetheless, the self-reported patterns of risk behaviour combined with the low and inaccurate levels of sexual health knowledge suggest this group of young people remain sexually vulnerable, particularly early within their resettlement experience. Culturally and contextually informed sexual health interventions are needed early within the resettlement experience.

  1. Preventing Australian bat lyssavirus: community knowledge and risk perception of bats in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; El Saadi, Debra; McCall, Bradley J

    2014-04-01

    Ongoing potential exposure of members of the public to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in South East Queensland, Australia, prompted investigation of community knowledge, risk perception, and intention to handle bats to inform future prevention efforts. After pilot testing, a computer-assisted telephone survey of a representative sample of 700 adults without previous potential exposure to ABLV was undertaken in the defined geographic region. Twenty-four percent of eligible contacted individuals participated. Basic knowledge of bats and ABLV was generally high, with 65% of participants answering nine or more of 12 knowledge questions correctly. The perceived risk that bats pose to human health was also high, with 93% indicating some degree of risk. Although 88% of participants indicated they would handle bats in one or more of the scripted situations, overall intention to handle bats was low, with 59% indicating they would handle a bat in four or less of the 12 scenarios. Younger males with lower risk perception of bats most frequently indicated intention to handle bats in varying situations. Knowledge score was not associated with intention to handle bats on multivariate modeling. Future public health prevention efforts, both in Australia and overseas, should focus further on conveying the risk to humans and to bats when nontrained, nonvaccinated people attempt to handle bats rather than attempting to purely convey knowledge about bats and ABLV or rabies. Suitable alternative measures to handling should be included. Younger adult males are a particular target group for prevention efforts.

  2. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  3. Women in medical physics: a preliminary analysis of workforce and research participation in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, S B; Kairn, T

    2016-06-01

    Although the participation of women within the science, technology, engineering and mathematics workforces has been widely discussed over recent decades, the recording and analysis of data pertaining to the gender balance of medical physicists in Australia and New Zealand remains rare. This study aimed to provide a baseline for evaluating future changes in workforce demographics by quantifying the current level of representation of women in the Australasian medical physics workforce and providing an indication of the relative contribution made by those women to the local research environment. The 2015 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) member directory and list of chief physicists at ACPSEM-accredited radiation oncology and diagnostic imaging training centres were interrogated to identify the gender balance of medical physicists working in Australia and New Zealand. A specific investigation of the employment levels of all medical physicists in Queensland was undertaken to provide an example of the gender balance at different levels of seniority in one large Australian state. Lists of authors of medical physics presentations at ACPSEM annual conferences and authors of publications in the ACPSEM's official journal, were used to provide an indication of the gender balance in published research within Australia and New Zealand. The results of this study showed that women currently constitute approximately 28 % of the medical physics workforce in Australia and New Zealand, distributed disproportionally in junior roles; there is a decrease in female participation in the field with increasing levels of seniority, which is particularly apparent in the stratified data obtained for the Queensland workforce. Comparisons with older data suggest that this situation has changed little since 2008. Examination of ACPSEM conference presentations suggested that there are similar disparities between the gender-balance of proffered and

  4. Rural Rides in Queensland: Travels with Novice Teaching Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon; Stevens, Elizabeth; Wildy, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article is concerned with the nature of novice teaching principals' interactions in Queensland rural communities. Stories selected from case accounts are used to provide insights into the teaching principals' interrelationship with the community. The article concludes with a discussion of some implications for practice suggested by these…

  5. Radiation oncology medical physics education and training in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.P.; Thomas, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The training education and accreditation program (TEAP) for radiation oncology commenced formally in Queensland in 2008 with an initial intake of nine registrars. In 2011 there are 17 registrars across four ACPSEM accredited Queensland Health departments (Mater Radiation Oncology Centre, Princess Alexandria Hospital, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Townsville Hospital). The Queensland Statewide Cancer Services Plan 2008-2017 outlines significant expansion to oncology services including increases in total number of treatment machines from 14 (2007) to 29-31 (2017) across existing and new clinical departments. A direct implication of this will be the number of qualified ROMPs needed to maintain and develop medical physics services. This presentation will outline ongoing work in the ROMP education and Training portfolio to develop, facilitate and provide training activities for ROMPs undertaking TEAP in the Queensland public system. Initiatives such as Department of Health and Aging scholarships for medical physics students, and the educational challenges associated with competency attainment will also be discussed in greater detail.

  6. Leading or Managing? Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance, in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Ray; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Iyer, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Education reform aimed at achieving improved student learning is a demanding challenge for leaders and managers at all levels of education across the globe. In 2010, the position of Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance (ARD-SP), was established to positively impact upon student learning across public schools in Queensland,…

  7. A population analysis of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Frommer, Marianne; Robson, Merryl; Sved, John

    2000-01-01

    Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), the Queensland fruit fly or Q-fly, is the most economically important horticultural pest in Australia, infesting almost every commercial vegetable and fruit crop (Drew 1989). It is well established as a serious pest all along the east coast of Australia, as far south as the east Gippsland area of Victoria (Drew 1989). B. tryoni has the potential to spread across Australia to South Australia, Victoria and the tropical regions of the Northern Territory (Meats 1989) and flies classified as B. tryoni have been identified in the Northern Territory (Osborne et al. 1997). Winter breeding of B. tryoni is believed to occur only in the northern half of the range, although winged adults are usually sufficiently hardy to survive the southern winter without reproducing (Meats 1989). The number of generations per year is also a function of temperature, ranging from about eight in northern Queensland to about three in the Sydney region (Fletcher 1989). In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of outbreaks in horticulturally important areas, inland in the southeast of the continent, where irrigation systems have been in use (Bateman 1991). Small-scale outbreaks occur in Adelaide (Maelzer 1990), and a more substantial outbreak was eradicated from Perth (Fisher 1996). These outbreaks mean the suspension of fruit fly free status with severe financial implications for the regions affected. To assist with the control of outbreaks within the fly-free zones and to facilitate area-wide management programmes in the endemic areas, it would be useful to have molecular genetic markers capable of identifying population structure. Population analysis requires markers which are capable of easy and repeatable scoring and which are as polymorphic as possible. Microsatellites are now widely regarded as the most useful molecular markers available for genetic typing of individuals for kinship or larger-scale population studies (Bruford and Wayne 1993

  8. Australia: Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Bureau of Census and Statistics reported on 27 August 1979 that Australia's total population was 14,376,400 at the end of the first quarter of 1979. Net immigration gain during the same period was 12,700. Natural increase was 32,100--births were 57,100 and deaths were 25,000. In January 1979, Australia introduced a new immigration scheme to improve methods of selecting immigrants. Points are awarded on the basis of personal qualities and employability; an applicant must score 60 out of 100. This scheme supersedes the earlier system under which immigrants were selected on the family reunion criterion and employability. Migrants from Britain and Ireland made up the bulk of the new comers, but their proportion has dropped from 50% in the mid-1960s to 30% in early 1979. In contrast, Asian immigrants have risen from 2% to 22% over the same period. Asian immigration began in the mid-1960s with the relaxation of the "White Australia" policy which barred non-European migrants, and increased when the ban was abolished by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in 1973.

  9. Effectiveness of bevacizumab and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer across selected public hospitals in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Suzannah J; McKavanagh, Daniel; Burge, Matthew E; McPherson, Ian; Walpole, Euan; Hollingworth, Samantha A

    2017-10-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer has a large burden of disease in Australia. Medical therapy is fundamental to extending survival and improving quality of life. The benefits of two costly medicines, bevacizumab and cetuximab, used in Australia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to retrospectively examine the use of these two medicines in metastatic colorectal cancer across five public hospitals in south east Queensland and to compare clinical outcomes to those of published clinical trials. We extracted data from the chemotherapy prescribing database for patients planned for bevacizumab or cetuximab therapy between 2009 and 2013. Median overall survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. There were 490 bevacizumab-containing protocols planned and 292 patients received at least one dose of bevacizumab. Median overall survival was 17.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.4-19.3). Of 208 planned cetuximab-containing protocols, 134 patients received at least one dose of cetuximab. Median overall survival was 9.1 months (95% CI, 7.6-12.0). Thirty-day mortality rates from date of first dose were 0.7% for bevacizumab and 7.5% for cetuximab. Overall survival of patients receiving bevacizumab and cetuximab was consistent with clinical trials, providing some assurance that benefits seen in trials are observed in usual practice. This study provides a methodology of using routinely collected health data for clinical monitoring and research. Because of the high cost of these medicines and the lack of toxicity data in this study, further analysis in the postmarketing setting should be explored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Miocene weathering environments in Western Australia-Inferences from the abundance and 13C/12C of Fe(CO3)OH in CID goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Tyler O.; Yapp, Crayton J.

    2018-04-01

    The channel iron deposits (CID) of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia are dominated by pedogenic goethite/hematite-rich ooids and pisoids that were transported to, and deposited in, the meandering channels of Miocene rivers. Information about the Miocene weathering environments that produced the Fe(III) oxides is archived in the mole fraction (X) and δ13C of the Fe(CO3)OH component in solid solution in oolitic CID goethite (α-FeOOH). Values of X and δ13C were measured for 12 oolitic goethite samples from different depths in two cores drilled in CID of the Robe Formation of Mesa J. The weighted-average plateau values of X ranged from 0.0098 to 0.0334, which suggest ambient CO2 concentrations that ranged from ∼50,000 ppm V to perhaps as much as ∼200,000 ppm V at the time of goethite crystallization. In a vadose zone characterized by in situ production of CO2 with steady-state Fickian diffusive transport of the gas, such concentrations would correspond to modeled soil respiration rates (Q) ranging from about 10 to 30 mmol/m2/h. Values for Q of about 10 mmol/m2/h are reported for soils in modern tropical forests with MAP ≥ ∼2000 mm. However, model-derived values of Q that exceed 15 mmol/m2/h are larger than observed in modern systems. This could indicate that some of the CID goethites crystallized in conditions that were phreatic or near phreatic rather than vadose. The δ13C values of the Fe(CO3)OH component in these 12 CID samples ranged from -24.0‰ to -22.3‰, which are among the most negative measured to date. If they reflect steady-state diffusive transport of CO2 in vadose environments, the soil CO2 would have been derived from a source with δ13C values that ranged from ∼-31‰ to -29‰. If, on the other hand, the goethites crystallized in a nearly phreatic environment that was moderately acidic, the inferred δ13C of the ancient CO2 source would have been about -27.6‰ to -25.8‰. In either case, the δ13C values point to in situ

  11. Indigenous perspectives on active living in remote Australia: a qualitative exploration of the socio-cultural link between health, the environment and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon L; Chenhall, Richard D; Brimblecombe, Julie K

    2013-05-15

    The burden of chronic disease in Indigenous Australia is more than double that of non-Indigenous populations and even higher in remote Northern Territory (NT) communities. Sufficient levels of physical activity are known to reduce the risk of chronic disease and improve the health of those already suffering from chronic disease. It has been identified that effective promotion of physical activity in Indigenous settings requires the diverse cultural perspectives and participation of Indigenous people. However, Indigenous concepts of physical activity are not represented in the public health literature and examples of Indigenous involvement in physical activity promotion are scarce. This study aimed to explore and describe local perspectives, experiences and meanings of physical activity in two remote NT Indigenous communities. Qualitative research methods guided by ethnographic and participatory action research principles were used. Semi-structured interviews conducted with 23 purposively selected community members were the main source of data, augmented by five commissioned paintings by community-based artists and observations recorded in a journal by the first author. The findings reveal that in this cultural context the meaning of physical activity is embedded in socially significant and economically necessary physical engagement with the environment. Participants described physical activities associated with Indigenous natural and cultural resource management, customary spaces, seasonal timing and traditional education as creating and protecting health. These activities were viewed not only as culturally appropriate physical activities that contribute to health but as legitimate, physically active forms of social organisation, education and employment that help to build and maintain relationships, wealth, resources and the environment. This different construction of physical activity in remote Indigenous communities highlights the importance of involving

  12. New developments on the uranium sector in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graul, H.; Hilger, W.

    1978-01-01

    Australia is one of the richest countries as far as uranium is concerned. The Jabiluka deposit alone is considered to be the largest single uranium deposit of the Western world. The overall known assured uranium reserves in Australia amount to 465.000 tons U 3 O 8 at cost ranges between 15 and 30 US Dollar per pound U 3 O 8 , i.e. approximately 21% of the known world reserves. Most of the Australien uranium ore is of relatively high grade and nearly all of it could be mined from open pit. At this stage Mary Kathleen in Queensland is the only producing uranium mine in Australia. The actual political attitude of the Australian government prevents the Australian uranium industry from beeing further developed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  13. Australia`s uranium opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, K.

    1996-12-31

    The book is a personal account by an insider who was deeply involved in the rise and fall of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC), and in particular in its efforts to bring Australia into the nuclear age. It reveals the thinking behind the Commission`s research programmes and major projects, such as the centrifuge enrichment program and Jervis Bay Nuclear Power project. It shows how politics, politicians and sensational journalism had disastrous effects on the AAEC, its programmes and aspirations. ills.

  14. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 3. Australian bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P R; Jansen, C C; Graham, G C; Smith, I L; Craig, S B

    2010-12-01

    Since its discovery in a juvenile black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) in 1996, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has become the cause of a potentially important emerging disease for health authorities in Australia, with two human deaths (one in 1996 and one in 1998) attributed to the virus in the north-eastern state of Queensland. In Australia, the virus has been isolated from all four species of flying fox found on the mainland (i.e. P. alecto, P. scapulatus, P. poliocephalus and P. conspicillatus) as well as a single species of insectivorous bat (Saccolaimus flaviventris). Australian bat lyssavirus belongs to the Lyssavirus genus and is closely related, genetically, to the type strain of Rabies virus (RABV). Clinically, patients infected with ABLV have displayed the 'classical' symptoms of rabies and a similar disease course. This similarity has led to the belief that the infection and dissemination of ABLV in the body follows the same pathways as those followed by RABV. Following the two ABLV-related deaths in Queensland, protocols based on the World Health Organization's guidelines for RABV prophylaxis were implemented and, presumably in consequence, no human infection with ABLV has been recorded since 1998. ABLV will, however, probably always have an important part to play in the health of Australians as the density of the human population in Australia and, consequently, the level of interaction between humans and flying foxes increase.

  15. Objectives and results of barley breeding in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparrow, D.H.B.

    1990-01-01

    An important current development in Australian barley improvement is the release of semi-dwarf cultivars. These are derived from Abed Deba, Triumph or Aapo which are believed to have an allelic series of mutant genes. A common problem with these genes is their association with relatively late maturity and small grain, limiting current cultivars to rainfall areas above 450mm per annum. The first release 'Skiff' (S.A., N.S.W. 1988) is to be followed by selections from 'Forrest' x 'Aapo' in Western Australia and 'Grimmett' x 'Triumph' in Queensland, whilst 'Triumph' is already being grown in Tasmania. (author)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging - first human images in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddeley, H.; Doddrell, D.M.; Brooks, W.M.; Field, J.; Irving, M.; Williams, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the demonstration of internal human anatomy and in the diagnosis of disease, has the major advantages that the technique is non-invasive, does not require the use of ionizing radiation and that it can demonstrate neurological and cardiovascular lesions that cannot be diagnosed easily by other imaging methods. The first magnetic resonance images of humans were obtained in Australia in October 1985 on the research instrument of the Queensland Medical Magnetic Resonance Research Centre, which is based at the Mater Hospital in Brisbane

  17. Frequency of sunburn in Queensland adults: still a burning issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adèle C; Marquart, Louise; Clemens, Susan L; Harper, Catherine M; O'Rourke, Peter K

    2013-05-06

    To assess the current frequency of sunburn, a preventable risk factor for skin cancer, among Queensland adults. Cross-sectional population-based surveys of 16 473 residents aged ≥ 18 2013s across Queensland in 2009 and 2010. Proportion of the adult population reporting sunburn (skin reddening lasting 12 hours or more) during the previous weekend, by age, sex and other risk factors. One in eight men and one in 12 women in Queensland reported being sunburnt on the previous weekend. Age up to 65 2013s was the strongest predictor of sunburn: eg, people aged 18-24 2013s were seven times more likely (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.35; 95% CI, 5.09-10.62) and those aged 35-44 2013s were five times more likely (adjusted OR, 5.22) to report sunburn compared with those aged ≥ 65 2013s. Not having a tertiary education and being in the workforce were also significantly associated with sunburn. Those who had undertaken any physical activity the previous week were more likely to be sunburnt than those who were physically inactive. Sunburn was significantly less likely among people who generally took sun-protective measures in summer. Sunburn was not related to location of residence, socioeconomic disadvantage, skin colour, body weight or current smoking status. Sunburn remains a public health problem among Queensland residents, especially those under 45 2013s of age. Sun-safe habits reduce sunburn risk, but advice must be integrated with health promotion messages regarding physical activity to reduce the skin cancer burden while maintaining active wellbeing.

  18. "You Are My Sunshine My Only Sunshine": Current Music Activities in Kindergarten Classrooms in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvis, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Music in early years classrooms is an important learning area for young children. Young children need access to hear different genres of music, learn a variety of repertoire, engage in composing and play musical instruments. With the changing reform agenda in early childhood education however, little is known about the way music is positioned in…

  19. Further studies on tritium tracing of soil moisture for rainwater infiltration measurements in Gatton, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Further to preliminary results presented at the last SPERA 96 conference in Darwin, final results based on two years of measurements are summarised here. The tritium tracer was injected in April 1995 at 10 sites scattered in Gatton experimental area (70 km 2 ) and first sampled in April 1996. The second soil sampling was carried out in May 1997, after a major flood event that took place in May 1996. The sites were named as G 1-10 and the site G-8 was located in Forest Hill to the south of the study area. The vertical tracer distribution was essentially Gaussian in shape indicating piston-type moisture movement. Within the study area the tracer peak movement during 1995-97 was 5-30 cm from the initial depth of injection at 70 cm. The total infiltration ranged from 21-177 mm within two years. The site G 8 located in Forest Hill showed 201 mm of infiltration, with a skewed tracer distribution. The errors of measurement are large due to limitation in depth resolution (10 cm and 5 cm in 1996 and 1997 respectively), rendering the lower infiltration value insignificant. Yet, very small tracer movement in two years clearly indicated the problem of poor recharge through top soil layers to the alluvial aquifer. There are however other sources of recharge from creeks and sandstone outcrops as identified using stable isotopes. The Crowley Vale irrigation area (7 km 2 ) has already exhausted its groundwater by the middle of 1997, having little or no impact after the major flood in May 1996

  20. Spatio-temporal changes in river bank mass failures in the Lockyer Valley, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky; Grove, James; Khanal, Giri

    2013-06-01

    Wet-flow river bank failure processes are poorly understood relative to the more commonly studied processes of fluvial entrainment and gravity-induced mass failures. Using high resolution topographic data (LiDAR) and near coincident aerial photography, this study documents the downstream distribution of river bank mass failures which occurred as a result of a catastrophic flood in the Lockyer Valley in January 2011. In addition, this distribution is compared with wet flow mass failure features from previous large floods. The downstream analysis of these two temporal data sets indicated that they occur across a range of river lengths, catchment areas, bank heights and angles and do not appear to be scale-dependent or spatially restricted to certain downstream zones. The downstream trends of each bank failure distribution show limited spatial overlap with only 17% of wet flows common to both distributions. The modification of these features during the catastrophic flood of January 2011 also indicated that such features tend to form at some 'optimum' shape and show limited evidence of subsequent enlargement even when flow and energy conditions within the banks and channel were high. Elevation changes indicate that such features show evidence for infilling during subsequent floods. The preservation of these features in the landscape for a period of at least 150 years suggests that the seepage processes dominant in their initial formation appear to have limited role in their continuing enlargement over time. No evidence of gully extension or headwall retreat is evident. It is estimated that at least 12 inundation events would be required to fill these failures based on the average net elevation change recorded for the 2011 event. Existing conceptual models of downstream bank erosion process zones may need to consider a wider array of mass failure processes to accommodate for wet flow failures.

  1. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Reconstruction of sustainable ecosystems on mined lands in the subtropics and tropics of Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, D.; Grigg, A.; Harwood, M. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1999-07-01

    An overview is presented of results from trial sites of ecosystems that have been established across a range of climatic regimes and a wide variety of soils, tailings, and waste rock materials. The project sites described are four types of open-cut mining operations: the Kidson gold mine, bauxite mines at Weipa, coal mines in the Bowen Basin, and heavy mineral sand mining at North Stradbroke Island. Case studies are presented covering several biological processes, including nutrient cycling, vegetation succession, and seedling recruitment. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Multi-resolution time series imagery for forest disturbance and regrowth monitoring in Queensland, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.; Lucas, R.; Bunting, P.; Verbesselt, J.; Armston, J.

    2015-01-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provide unprecedented opportunities to monitor and detect forest disturbance and loss. To demonstrate this potential, a 12-year time series (2000 to 2011) with an 8-day interval of a 30 m spatial resolution data was generated by the use of

  4. The strange case of Laetesia raveni n. sp., a green linyphiid spider from Eastern Australia with a preference for thorny plants (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Laetesia raveni n. sp. (Araneae, Linyphiidae), is described based on specimens collected in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). This new linyphiid species is of bright green colour, and it seems to have a preference to build its webs almost exclusively on two plant species, namely Calamus...

  5. Deterioration of flood affected Queensland roads – An investigative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Sultana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the impact of recent flooding events on the structural and surface condition (such as roughness and rutting of the pavements of the Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland, and the Brisbane City Council. The paper also reviewed the major flooding and cyclone events that occurred in the last six years in Queensland. Generally, a rapid increase in deterioration of the structural and surface conditions such as roughness and rutting was observed in pavements after the flood as a result of the inundation. An increasing need for road rehabilitation was also observed after the recent flooding events from 2010 to 2015 in Queensland. Assessing the rapid deterioration of the structural and surface condition of the flood affected pavements is a prerequisite for the accurate prediction of pavement performance, a better decision making process and the management of these roads. Although this paper did not include any model for roughness and rutting, deterioration models for roughness and rutting of flood affected pavements are currently being developed as a part of the future scope of this research. Keywords: Pavement deterioration, Flooding, Structural and surface condition

  6. Harvesting Australia's mineral wealth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Anderson Strathclyde plc is becoming increasingly involved in supplying equipment for the coal industry in Australia. It now has 2 subsidiary companies based in Australia: Anderson Strathclyde Australia and A B Rea.

  7. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  8. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  9. Suicides in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: analysis of Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Home Internet Usage Patterns in Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal J. Taylor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Governments and other policy makers are concerned with the gap in home Internet usage between people from metropolitan and rural areas. A survey conducted in Central Queensland, Australia examined differences in home Internet usage patterns between young and old, male and female, people in urban and rural areas, married and unmarried, well-educated and less educated, rich and poor, and employed and unemployed and found significant differences. These results highlight areas for further research and provide a basis for government agencies and industries to consider these associations in future policy formulation for regional development using ICT. The research suggested that further research should be conducted to monitor consuming behaviors of the youngest age group in Internet use for entertainment and information search in order to detect possible Internet overuse or addiction. In addition, further research should be conducted to find out what people search for on the Internet, and if for employment opportunities, financial incentives are suggested for the unemployed people.

  11. Prenatal maternal stress shapes children's theory of mind: the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, G; Kildea, S; Elgbeili, G; Laplante, D P; Cobham, V; King, S

    2017-08-01

    Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined. In this study we utilized a sudden onset flood that occurred in Queensland, Australia in 2011 to examine whether disaster-related prenatal maternal stress predicts child theory of mind and whether sex of the child or timing of the stressor in pregnancy moderates these effects. Higher levels of flood-related maternal subjective stress, but not objective hardship, predicted worse theory of mind at 30 months (n=130). Further, maternal cognitive appraisal of the flood moderated the effects of stress in pregnancy on girls' theory of mind performance but not boys'. These results illuminate how stress in pregnancy can shape child development and the findings are discussed in relation to biological mechanisms in pregnancy and stress theory.

  12. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Ferris, Jason; Coomber, Kerri; Zahnow, Renee; Carah, Nicholas; Jiang, Heng; Kypri, Kypros; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Clough, Alan; Livingston, Michael; de Andrade, Dominique; Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah; Curtis, Ashlee; Mayshak, Richelle; Droste, Nicolas; Lloyd, Belinda; Matthews, Sharon; Taylor, Nicholas; Crane, Meredythe; Thorn, Michael; Najman, Jake

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs). Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data). Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  13. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  14. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Miller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs. Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. Methods The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data. Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. Discussion The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  15. Breast cancer risk among female employees of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitas, Freddy; O'Connell, Dianne L; van Kemenade, Cathelijne H; Short And, Mark W; Zhao, Kun

    2010-06-07

    To determine whether there is an excess risk of breast cancer among female employees of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), especially outside Queensland, compared with women in the general populations of the states and territories. We used an occupational cohort design. Information from ABC staff records was linked with data from state and territory cancer registries to identify female employees of the ABC with an incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Data linkage was complemented by a self-report method. We included a cohort of ABC female employees who had developed breast cancer at any time between 1994 and 2005, during their employment or after cessation of employment with the ABC. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated as the number of women at the ABC observed with breast cancer divided by the expected number based on population rates in each state and territory. Tests for heterogeneity were performed to examine the variation of breast cancer risk between states and territories. Out of 5969 women who were permanently employed either part-time or full-time at the ABC between 1994 and 2005, 48 eligible women with breast cancer were identified. An excess risk of breast cancer among ABC female employees in Queensland (identified in an earlier study) was reconfirmed. No excess risk of breast cancer was observed among ABC staff diagnosed in states outside Queensland (SIR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.72-1.38]), or in Australia as a whole (including Queensland) (SIR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.83-1.49]). There was no significant heterogeneity in breast cancer risk among states and territories once Queensland was excluded from the analysis (P = 0.39). No statistically significant excess risk of breast cancer in ABC female employees was found across the Australian states and territories as a whole compared with their respective population incidences. A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was found among ABC female employees in

  16. A panel data analysis of the determinants of oil consumption: The case of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Wong, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil consumption for a panel consisting of six Australian States and one territory, namely Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia, and the Northern territory, for the period 1985-2006. We find that oil consumption, oil prices and income are panel cointegrated. We estimate long-run elasticities and find that oil prices have had a statistically insignificant impact on oil consumption, while income has had a statistically significant positive effect on oil consumption. (author)

  17. Contributors to young drivers' driving styles - A comparison between Israel and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvirsky, Vera; Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Greenbury, Timothy J; Prato, Carlo G

    2017-12-01

    Among the numerous factors that contribute to young novice drivers' driving styles, personality characteristics, sociodemographic variables, family atmosphere, and friends' norms are known to have an important impact. However, cross-cultural comparisons are relatively rare in the safety literature concerning young drivers. This study aimed at comparing young drivers from Israel and Queensland (Australia) and examining the contribution of personality, sociodemographic, family and friends' aspects to their driving styles (reckless and careless; hostile and angry; anxious; patient and careful). More specifically, this study examined the associations between young drivers' driving style and their perceptions of separation-individuation, the family climate for road safety, and the safe driving climate among friends. We also examined sociodemographic and driving history variables such as gender, the marital status of parents, and personal exposure to traffic crashes. The study consisted of two samples of male and female young drivers (age 17-22) from Israel (n=160) and Queensland (n=160), who completed a set of valid and reliable self-report questionnaires. Findings indicate that in general, maladaptive driving styles are associated with lower family tendency to engage in promoting road safety, higher pressure and costs of driving with peers, and unhealthier separation-individuation aspects. The opposite is observed for the patient and careful driving style that relates to higher engagement of the family in road safety, lower pressure from friends, and healthier separation-individuation. Some differences were found regarding specific styles between the two samples. In addition, women scored lower than men in the reckless and careless style, and higher (in the Israeli sample) in the anxious as well as the patient and careful styles. Overall, similarities in the associations between the study variables in the samples exceed the differences, and the importance of examining

  18. The BeUpstanding ProgramTM: Scaling up the Stand Up Australia Workplace Intervention for Translation into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve N Healy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context and purpose: Too much sitting is now recognised as a common risk factor for several health outcomes, with the workplace identified as a key setting in which to address prolonged sitting time. The Stand Up Australia intervention was designed to reduce prolonged sitting in the workplace by addressing influences at multiple-levels, including the organisation, the environment, and the individual. Intervention success has been achieved within the context of randomised controlled trials, where research staff deliver several of the key intervention components. This study describes the initial step in the multi-phase process of scaling up the Stand Up Australia intervention for workplace translation. Methods: A research-government partnership was critical in funding and informing the prototype for the scaled up BeUpstanding programTM. Evidence, protocols and materials from Stand Up Australia were adapted in collaboration with funding partner Workplace Health and Safety Queensland to ensure consistency and compatibility with existing government frameworks and resources. In recognition of the key role of workplace champions in facilitating workplace health promotion programs, the BeUpstanding programTM is designed to be delivered through a stand-alone, free, website-based toolkit using a 'train the champion' approach. Key findings and significance: The BeUpstanding programTM was influenced by the increasing recognition of prolonged sitting as an emerging health issue as well as industry demand. The research-government partnership was critical in informing and resourcing the development of the scaled-up program.

  19. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  20. The Use of Mathematical Investigations in a Queensland Primary School and Implications for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Margaret; Clark, Darren; Carey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of Ways of Working in 2008, Queensland teachers received professional development on using investigations to teach mathematics. This case study explores the extent to which teachers in one Queensland Primary School use this pedagogy. To determine teachers' beliefs and teaching approaches, a five point Likert scale…

  1. Queensland Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment: The Impact of Policy Priorities on Teacher Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gavin T. L.; Lake, Robert; Matters, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    The conceptions Queensland teachers have about assessment purposes were surveyed in 2003 with an abridged version of the Teacher Conceptions of Assessment Inventory. Multi-group analysis found that a model with four factors, somewhat different in structure to previous studies, was statistically different between Queensland primary and (lower)…

  2. Queensland Energy Advisory Council's, annual review and energy statistics, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Queensland Energy Advisory Council (QEAC) role covers all forms of energy including renewable, non-renewable, commercialised and non-commercialised energy forms or proposals. While coal developments and electricity matters are discussed and monitored at meetings, the Mines Department and the State Electricity Commission, respectively, retain responsibility for most aspects in these energy sectors. In such cases QEAC's expertise and role is limited and is advisory. In other areas such as energy conservation, management of liquid fuel emergencies, natural gas supply and demand, solar energy, coal conversion, and ethanol production, QEAC made a significant contribution to policy development in 1981/82.

  3. Environmental review of the Mary Kathleen uranium minesite, Northwest Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costelloe, M.T.; Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Mary Kathleen uranium deposit, in northwest Queensland, was discovered in 1954 and mined in 19561963 and 1976-1982. Rehabilitation of the site was completed in 1985 and the work won an award for environmental excellence. In 1999 gamma-ray data, plus stream sediment, soil, rock chip, mineral efflorescence, vegetation and water samples were collected from selected sites to assist in the examination of the current environmental status of the rehabilitated area. This paper presents preliminary results and interpretations. In the Mark Kathleen open pit, skarn type U-Th-REE mineralisation is hosted in amphibolite grade metamorphosed calc-silicate, mafic to intermediate igneous and sedimentary rocks. Remnant ore zones are composed of medium to coarse grained garnet and clinopyroxene, with accessory allanite, plagioclase, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and uraninite. Later retrograde alteration to chlorite, calcite, sericite, epidote and scapolite occurs. Fine grained uraninite is enclosed in allanite, and is partly replaced by metamict products nd traces of galena. Elevated gamma-ray readings in the open pit correspond to exposed ore lenses, the former haul road and abandoned ore stockpiles (up to 16 mSv/year). Surficial oxidation of ore and adjacent sulphide-bearing calc-silicate rocks has led to contemporary precipitation of yellow, orange, green and white mineral efflorescences on the pit walls. Wallrock oxidation of reactive sulphides (mainly pyrrhotite breakdown) produces acidic solutions, however, buffering reactions of these fluids with gangue calc-silicates and carbonate phases prevent low pH conditions from developing. The open pit lake is approximately 40m deep and contains saline (0.15%) surface waters which are Ca-, SO 4 -rich with elevated Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Zn at a pH of 6.11. Waste rock piles are up to 30m thick and have been covered by a thin veneer of benign waste. However, there are high radiation levels on several waste rock piles (up to 20

  4. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-02-12

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. A linked data set of women aged 20-69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999-2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997-2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995-2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20-69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. There were 28,872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76,831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1,372,823 women (PSR n=1,374,401; QCR n=1955), and 5,062,118 records. Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study highlights the need to include Indigenous status on Pap smear request and report forms in any

  5. Dua sakit (double sick): trauma and the settlement experiences of West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Kareth, Moses

    2009-08-01

    There is mounting evidence of systematic abuses, including torture, rape and extrajudicial killings directed against independence activists as well as the civilian population in Indonesian occupied West Papua. Refugees from West Papua have sought safety in neighbouring Australia, experiencing hazardous journeys during their flight. We report early observations from a mental health study among West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland, Australia. The project includes qualitative methods aimed at gathering histories of trauma and human rights violations as well as standard mental health assessments and indices of acculturation and resettlement stresses. We consider the emerging data from the vantage point of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma model that identifies five psychosocial domains that require repair following exposure to gross human rights violations and refugee trauma. The model emphasizes the inter-relatedness of key challenges, the compounding of adversity, and the bivalent effects of complex experiences, with both positive and negative elements shaping the adaptive trajectory of displaced persons. Refugee groups have their own approaches to conceptualizing the complexity of their problems, with the term dua sakit representing the expression used by West Papuans to identify the multiple challenges they face. The study highlights the importance of assessing each refugee group within its unique social and cultural context, taking into account such diverse factors as geographical location, employment, and ongoing conflict in the homeland in designing appropriate interventions.

  6. Impact of Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) on Myrtaceae-rich wet sclerophyll forests in south east Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Geoff; Taylor, Tamara; Entwistle, Peter; Guymer, Gordon; Giblin, Fiona; Carnegie, Angus

    2017-01-01

    In April 2010, Austropuccinia psidii (formerly Puccinia psidii) was detected for the first time in Australia on the central coast of New South Wales. The fungus spread rapidly along the east coast and can now be found infecting vegetation in a range of native forest ecosystems with disease impacts ranging from minor leaf spots to severe shoot and stem blight and tree dieback. Localised extinction of some plant species has been recorded. In 2014, the impact of A. psidii was observed for the first time in a wet sclerophyll site with a rainforest understory, dominated by species of Myrtaceae, in Tallebudgera Valley, south east Queensland, Australia. This study aimed to determine the impact of A. psidii on individual species and species composition. Here we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence on the significant impact A. psidii has in native ecosystems, on a broader range of species than previously reported. Archirhodomyrtus beckleri, Decaspermum humile, Gossia hillii and Rhodamnia maideniana are in serious decline, with significant increases in tree mortality over the period of our study. This research further highlights the potential of this invasive pathogen to negatively impact native ecosystems and biodiversity.

  7. Reliability and utility of citizen science reef monitoring data collected by Reef Check Australia, 2002-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Terence; Roelfsema, Chris; Harvey, Andrew; Schuller, Laura; Hill, Jocelyn; Schläppy, Marie-Lise; Lea, Alexandra; Bauer-Civiello, Anne; Loder, Jennifer

    2017-04-15

    Reef Check Australia (RCA) has collected data on benthic composition and cover at >70 sites along >1000km of Australia's Queensland coast from 2002 to 2015. This paper quantifies the accuracy, precision and power of RCA benthic composition data, to guide its application and interpretation. A simulation study established that the inherent accuracy of the Reef Check point sampling protocol is high (<±7% error absolute), in the range of estimates of benthic cover from 1% to 50%. A field study at three reef sites indicated that, despite minor observer- and deployment-related biases, the protocol does reliably document moderate ecological changes in coral communities. The error analyses were then used to guide the interpretation of inter-annual variability and long term trends at three study sites in RCA's major 2002-2015 data series for the Queensland coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Queensland Youth Cancer Service: A Partnership Model to Facilitate Access to Quality Care for Young People Diagnosed with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Natalie K; Henney, Roslyn; Walker, Rick; Walpole, Euan; Kennedy, Glen; Nicholls, Wayne; Pinkerton, Ross

    2018-06-01

    Global recognition of the need to improve outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer has led to the development of specific oncology programs and services. In Australia, Youth Cancer Services (YCS) are now established across the country. While each service has been shaped by nationally agreed principles, program development has been influenced by local policy and geographic differences. Queensland is a vast state with a widely dispersed population; coordination of cancer services for young people across this landscape presents unique challenges. The Queensland YCS (QYCS) work in a consultative partnership model with primary treating teams, across both pediatric and adult tertiary cancer services. Understanding how cancer services approach challenges and service development can provide guidance for other developing services. In this article, we describe the goals and development of QYCS and review the outcomes achieved in the service to date. We reviewed referral data and retrieved statewide clinical activity from the web-based data system. We compared these data with cancer registry data to identify disparities and areas for service development. While the service has achieved notable outcomes, challenges remain. These include recruitment of appropriately skilled and trained health professionals for this newly developing area of oncology. In addition, there is an ongoing need to advocate for this relatively small patient group, and to promote awareness and understanding of the need for AYA-specific services. With the dispersed population and concentration of services in metropolitan Brisbane, identifying and testing new innovative models, including telehealth, to reach all AYA diagnosed with cancer regardless of location of care are priorities.

  9. Monitoring gully change: A comparison of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning using a case study from Aratula, Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas R.; Armston, John D.; Muir, Jasmine; Stiller, Issac

    2017-04-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technologies capture spatially detailed estimates of surface topography and when collected multi-temporally can be used to assess geomorphic change. The sensitivity and repeatability of ALS measurements to characterise geomorphic change in topographically complex environments such as gullies; however, remains an area lacking quantitative research. In this study, we captured coincident ALS and TLS datasets to assess their ability and synergies to detect geomorphic change for a gully located in Aratula, southeast Queensland, Australia. We initially used the higher spatial density and ranging accuracy of TLS to provide an assessment of the Digital Elevation Models (DEM) derived from ALS within a gully environment. Results indicated mean residual errors of 0.13 and 0.09 m along with standard deviation (SD) of residual errors of 0.20 and 0.16 m using pixel sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 m, respectively. The positive mean residual errors confirm that TLS data consistently detected deeper sections of the gully than ALS. We also compared the repeatability of ALS and TLS for characterising gully morphology. This indicated that the sensitivity to detect change using ALS is substantially lower than TLS, as expected, and that the ALS survey characteristics influence the ability to detect change. Notably, we found that using one ALS transect (mean density of 5 points / m2) as opposed to three transects increased the SD of residual error by approximately 30%. The supplied classification of ALS ground points was also demonstrated to misclassify gully features as non-ground, with minimum elevation filtering found to provide a more accurate DEM of the gully. The number and placement of terrestrial laser scans were also found to influence the derived DEMs. Furthermore, we applied change detection using two ALS data captures over a four year period and four TLS field surveys over an eight month period. This demonstrated that

  10. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  11. Research capacity and culture in podiatry: early observations within Queensland Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research is a major driver of health care improvement and evidence-based practice is becoming the foundation of health care delivery. For health professions to develop within emerging models of health care delivery, it would seem imperative to develop and monitor the research capacity and evidence-based literacy of the health care workforce. This observational paper aims to report the research capacity levels of statewide populations of public-sector podiatrists at two different time points twelve-months apart. Methods The Research Capacity & Culture (RCC) survey was electronically distributed to all Queensland Health (Australia) employed podiatrists in January 2011 (n = 58) and January 2012 (n = 60). The RCC is a validated tool designed to measure indicators of research skill in health professionals. Participants rate skill levels against each individual, team and organisation statement on a 10-point scale (one = lowest, ten = highest). Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to determine any differences between the results of the two survey samples. A minimum significance of p  6). Whereas, most reported their organisation’s skills to perform and support research at much higher levels (Median > 6). The 2012 survey respondents reported significantly higher skill ratings compared to the 2011 survey in individuals’ ability to secure research funding, submit ethics applications, and provide research advice, plus, in their organisation’s skills to support, fund, monitor, mentor and engage universities to partner their research (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study appears to report the research capacity levels of the largest populations of podiatrists published. The 2011 survey findings indicate podiatrists have similarly low research capacity skill levels to those reported in the allied health literature. The 2012 survey, compared to the 2011 survey, suggests podiatrists perceived higher skills and support to initiate

  12. Factors affecting numbers of Culicoides in truck traps in coastal Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, D S; Edwards, P B; Barnes, A

    1998-10-01

    Truck trap collections of Ceratopogonidae were made over a period of 27 months (November 1973-February 1976) at Tingalpa Creek, in southeast Queensland, Australia. Six collections were made on each of 95 days, giving 570 observations and a total of 29,378 Culicoides. Two collections were made before, one at, and three after sunset. Separate analyses were made of the catches of thirteen entities: male and female C. austropalpalis, C. brevitarsis, C. marksi, C. marmoratus and C. victoriae, female C. henryi and C. longior, and total C. bundyensis. Catches were dominated by C. brevitarsis (35.2%) and C. marmoratus (32.3%) and, with C. victoriae, were taken on almost every collecting day over all seasons. Sex ratios (M:F) varied from 0:100 for C. longior to 130:100 for C. marksi. Collections of all entities, except female C. henryi, were greatest (50-70% of the daily catch) at sunset. In winter there was substantial activity in the hour before sunset. Time of day was the most important variable, accounting for 15-45% of the observed variation. Between-day differences were significant for all except C. austropalpalis, C. victoriae and male C. marksi. Culicoides brevitarsis, C. bundyensis and C. longior had highly significant annual cycles, C. victoriae and female C. austropalpalis had significant lunar cycles, and C. longior had a significant tidal cycle. Logarithms of catches of female C. austropalpalis, C. brevitarsis, C. henryi, C. marmoratus, and female and male C. victoriae were inversely related to linear wind speed. Log catches of female C. austropalpalis, C. brevitarsis, C. marmoratus and C. victoriae, and male C. marksi and C. victoriae were positively related to temperature (quadratic).

  13. Australian private midwives with hospital visiting rights in Queensland: Structures and processes impacting clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, J; Brittain, H; Gamble, J

    2017-12-01

    Reporting the outcomes for women and newborns accessing private midwives with visiting rights in Australia is important, especially since this data cannot currently be disaggregated from routinely collected perinatal data. 1) Evaluate the outcomes of women and newborns cared for by midwives with visiting access at one Queensland facility and 2) explore private midwives views about the structures and processes contributing to clinical outcomes. Mixed methods. An audit of the 'all risk' 529 women receiving private midwifery care. Data were compared with national core maternity variables using Chi square statistics. Telephone interviews were conducted with six private midwives and data analysed using thematic analysis. Compared to national data, women with a private midwife were significantly more likely to be having a first baby (49.5% vs 43.6% p=0.007), to commence labour spontaneously (84.7% vs 52.7%, p<0.001), experience a spontaneous vaginal birth (79% vs 54%, p<0.001) and not require pharmacological pain relief (52.9% vs 23.1%, p<0.001). The caesarean section rate was significantly lower than the national rate (13% vs 32.8%, p<0.001). In addition fewer babies required admission to the Newborn Care Unit (5.1% vs 16%, p<0.001). Midwives were proud of their achievements. Continuity of care was considered fundamental to achieving quality outcomes. Midwives valued the governance processes embedded around the model. Private midwives with access to the public system is safe. Ensuring national data collection accurately captures outcomes relative to model of care in both the public and private sector should be prioritised. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Forestry and fiber crop production in the higher rainfall areas of tropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, I.M.; Volck, H.E.; Cameron, D.M.; Thomson, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the nearly 1 million square km of higher rainfall area shows that less than 4% has potential for arable agriculture or commercial forestry. Except for rain forest on the eastern Queensland coast (now largely protected), native forest has little potential for timber or pulp. Plantations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis offer the best potential for forest production in Queensland and Northern Territory. The most promising agricultural fiber crops for paper pulp are bagasse, which could be upgraded by mixing with pine mill wastes, and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus). The freight costs involved in a forestry and fiber project in northern Australia are analyzed and the possibility of some local processing is considered. (Refs. 33).

  15. The impact of fresh produce specifications on the Australian food and nutrition system: a case study of the north Queensland banana industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy; Gallegos, Danielle; Hundloe, Tor

    2011-08-01

    To use the north Queensland banana industry as a case study to examine the extent to which cosmetic standards set by retailers influence the amount of edible waste generated on-farm and the effect of this on the sustainability of the Australian food and nutrition system. Waste audits were performed on-farm at a banana packing shed to quantify the amount of fruit discarded due to cosmetic imperfections. These data, together with production records provided by the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries and interviews with growers, were used to inform a nutritional analysis, a life cycle assessment and an economic analysis to quantify nutritional, environmental and economic impacts. North Queensland, Australia Banana farms and packing shed.ResultBetween 10 and 30 % of the north Queensland banana crop is discarded on-farm. Of this, 78 % was found to be due to cosmetic imperfections, which equates to an industry total of 37 000 tonnes per annum. This waste represents a loss of 137 billion kilojoules with accompanying macro- and micronutrients. The life cycle assessment indicated that approximately 16 300 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions, 11·2 gigalitres of virtual water as well as other natural resources are embodied in the waste. There is an industry-wide, economic loss of approximately $AU 26·9 million per annum. The majority of on-farm banana waste is caused by arbitrary cosmetic standards set by retailers, resulting in significant nutritional, environmental and economic losses. Public health nutritionists have a role to play across the entire food chain to minimize the impacts of waste on the food system.

  16. Polycyclic selection system for the tropical rainforests of northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen T. Dale; Grahame B. Applegate

    1992-01-01

    The polycyclic selection logging system developed and practiced for many years in the tropical rainforests of north Queensland has been successful in integrating timber production with the protection of conservation values. The system has been used by the Queensland Forest Service to manage north Queensland rainforests. The Queensland system has considerable potential...

  17. Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

  18. Natural radioactivity in the production of titanium dioxide pigment: a study of the Laporte Plant and environment behaviour of radionuclides at Bunbury, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Statham, J.R.; Williams, G.A.

    1981-10-01

    A study of radioactivity levels in samples collected at a titanium dioxide plant at Bunbury in Western Australia is described. The radioactivities of the principal radionuclides present in the ilmenite feed ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 228 Th) are followed throughout the pigment production process. It is found that approximately 67 MBq/day of activity due to each of 228 Ra and 228 Th enters the plant (equivalent to 17.8 kg of thorium), and approximately 14 MBq/day of activity due to 226 Ra. Essentially all of this radioactivity leaves the plant in the form of acidic effluent, which is pumped to disposal lagoons and allowed to neutralise and drain away. A preliminary study of possible environmental effects of radioactivity in the effluent is presented. It was established that in the presence of high sulphate ion concentrations in both the plant feed liquor and the effluent, thorium remains in solution whereas radium, which forms an insoluble sulphate compound, tends to coprecipitate and is found in solid residues throughout the process

  19. Exploring the Rookwood volcanics at Gogango, Central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne radiometric surveys measure the potassium, thorium and uranium concentrations in the topmost 20-30cm of the earth. These datasets are now routinely used for geological interpretations and for defining exploration targets. The survey results are commonly presented as colour composite images of potassium-thorium-uranium distribution, and large copies of these colourful posters are commonplace on the walls of geological offices. However, in many cases, the data are not interpreted to their full potential. Further options exist for their evaluation. including determining potassium-thorium trends and the distribution of residuals across a prospective geological unit. This study of radiometric data over the Rookwood Volcanics near Gogango in central Queensland has detected areas of radio-element concentration and depletion. Comparison with known mineral occurrences suggests that some of these areas may be associated with copper mineralisation

  20. Queensland nursing staffs' perceptions of the preparation for practice of registered and enrolled nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Eley, Robert; Francis, Karen

    2013-10-01

    In Australia, unlike other countries, programmes which lead to registration as a registered or enrolled nurse (called "entry to practice" programmes) are carried out solely in the tertiary sector. In Australian nursing and the wider community, there continues to be a debate over the place of preparation and the "work readiness" of graduates. Despite several opinion papers on the preparation of registered nurses, there is a dearth of published research on the perceptions of the clinical nursing workforce on the suitability of the current preparation for practice models. Data were collected from approximately 3000 nurses in Queensland, Australia in 2007 and 2010. The aim of these studies was to ascertain issues around nursing work. This paper reports on qualitative data that were collected as part of that larger survey. Specifically this paper provides the thematic analysis of one open-ended question: "what are the five key issues and strategies that you see could improve nursing and nursing work?" as it was apparent when we undertook thematic analysis of this question that there was a major theme around the preparation of nurses for the nursing workforce. We therefore carried out a more detailed thematic analysis around this major theme. The major sub-themes that we identified from comments on the preparation of the nursing workforce were: perceptions of lack of clinical exposure and the need to increase the amount of clinical hours; the design of the curriculum, the place of preparation (solely within industry or a great focus on industry), financial consideration (students to be paid for their work); and in 2007 only, the need for students to have better time management. The findings suggest that a majority of respondents believed there should be changes to the entry to practice preparation for nurses. The major focus of these comments was the perception of insufficient clinical experience and inappropriate curriculum content. Thus, graduates are not "work ready

  1. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  2. Workforce issues in nursing in Queensland: 2001 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Eley, Robert; Plank, Ashley; Buikstra, Elizabeth; Parker, Victoria

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the factors having an impact upon nursing work and to use the results to inform strategic planning of the Queensland Nurses Union. In 2001 and 2004, a study was undertaken to gather data on the level of satisfaction of nurses with their working life. This paper reports the 2004 results on workload, skill mix, remuneration and morale. Where applicable, the results are compared with 2001 data. A questionnaire was mailed to 3000 Assistants-in-Nursing, Enrolled and Registered Nurses in October 2004. All participants were members of the Queensland Nurses Union. The results are reported in three sectors - public, private and aged care. A total of 1349 nurses responded to the survey, a response rate of 45%. Nurses in the 2004 study believed: their workload was heavy; their skills and experience poorly rewarded; work stress was high; morale was perceived to be poor and, similar to 2001, deteriorating; the skill mix was often inadequate; and the majority of nurses were unable to complete their work in the time available. Nursing morale was found to be associated with autonomy, workplace equipment, workplace safety, teamwork, work stress, the physical demand of nursing work, workload, rewards for skills and experience, career prospects, status of nursing and remuneration. Overall the findings of the study are consistent with those determined by the 2001 survey. The findings of this study indicate the importance of factors such as workplace autonomy, teamwork, the levels of workplace stress, workload and remuneration on nursing morale. The data also indicate that workplace safety and workplace morale are linked. These findings provide information for policy makers and nurse managers on areas that need to be addressed to retain nurses within aged care, acute hospital and community nursing.

  3. Oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate concretions from the lower Cretaceous of Victoria, Australia: Implications for the evolution of meteoric waters on the Australian continent in a paleopolar environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic data from carbonate cements in concretions have been used to infer the isotopic composition of meteoric fluids present at the time of concretion growth in terrestrial sediments that were deposited within the early Cretaceous South Polar Circle at 75-80 0 S. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions have been determined on over 135 samples of carbonate from 45 concretions taken from 24 localities (Aptian-Albian in age) in the terrestrial sedimentary basins associated with the Otway and Strzelecki groups, southeastern Australia. The carbonate cements include calcite having -26.4≤δ 13 C≤19.6 and 3.6≤δ 18 O≤29.6 or siderite having 17.6≤δ 18 O≤30.8. Calcite-cemented concretions are more abundant and are interpreted to represent early near-surface cementation events on the basis of textural evidence such as high (>30%) porosities at the time of cementation and mineralogical evidence such as the preferential preservation within concretions of labile detrital grains including plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole. The oxygen isotopic data indicate that meteoric fluids with very low δ 18 O, certainly less than -15per mille and probably on the order of -20per mille, were involved in the precipitation of the early calcites. The extremely low δ 18 O values of the fluids involved in the early diagenesis of both the Otway and Strzelecki groups suggest that the catchment area of the river system that carried sediments to these basins had a cold high-latitude climate (with mean annual temperatures less than 5 0 C and quite possibly below freezing). By analogy with the relationship between modern 18 O distribution of meteoric fluids and climate, these new data suggest that the early Cretaceous polar regions may not have been ice-free. (orig.)

  4. Use of telehealth to treat and manage chronic viral hepatitis in regional Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kandice; Clark, Paul; Valery, Patricia C; McPhail, Steven M; Bradshaw, Candise; Day, Melany; Smith, Anthony C

    2016-12-01

    For regional and rural Queenslanders, chronic viral hepatitis treatment is a major unmet health need, with restricted access to specialists outside of tertiary, largely metropolitan hospitals. To increase treatment of chronic viral hepatitis in regional Queensland, a team-based telehealth model was expanded. This expansion embedded an initial nursing consultation prior to specialist telehealth consultation. We conducted a retrospective audit of the introduction and expansion of hepatology telehealth services. Activity from July 2014-June 2015 (pre-expansion) was compared with July 2015- June 2016 (post-expansion). Interviews were conducted with key staff to determine factors contributing to success of the service and identify ongoing challenges to the service model. A greater than four-fold increase in clinical consultation was observed (131 telehealth consultations pre-expansion vs 572 post-expansion; p Queensland. It may serve as a model to further expand telehealth management of chronic disease for regional Queenslanders. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Controlling firearms use in Australia: has the 1996 gun law reform produced the decrease in rates of suicide with this method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieve, Helen; Barnes, Michael; De Leo, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Observed reductions in firearm suicides in Australia have been linked to the 1997 national firearms agreement (NFA) introduced following the 1996 Port Arthur massacre. The NFA placed strong access restrictions on firearms. To assess the impact of legislative restrictions on the incidence of firearm suicide in Queensland and explore alternative or contributory factors behind observed declines. The Queensland suicide register (QSR) provided detailed information on all male suicides in Queensland (1990-2004), with additional data for Australia (1968-2004) accessed from other official sources. Trends in suicide rates pre/post NFA, and in method selection, were assessed using negative binomial regressions. Changing method selection patterns were examined using a cohort analysis of 5 years of age classes for Australian males. The observed reduction in firearms suicides was initiated prior to the 1997 introduction of the NFA in Queensland and Australia, with a clear decline observed in Australian figures from 1988. No significant difference was found in the rate pre/post the introduction of the NFA in Queensland; however, a significant difference was found for Australian data, the quality of which is noticeably less satisfactory. A marked age-difference in method choice was observed through a cohort analysis demonstrating both time and age influences. Within sequential birth cohorts, rates of firearms suicides decreased in younger males but increased in hanging suicides; this trend was far less marked in older males. The implemented restrictions may not be responsible for the observed reductions in firearms suicide. Data suggest that a change in social and cultural attitudes could have contributed to the shift in method preference.

  6. A potential Human Rights Act in Queensland and inclusion of the right to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolan, Claire E; Herron, Lisa; Carney, Anna; Fritz, Eva M; James, Judy; Margetts, Miranda

    2018-04-01

    To identify the level of public support for a Human Rights Act for Queensland (HRAQ) and for inclusion of the right to health by participants in a public inquiry process. We reviewed the 492 written submissions to the Legal Affairs and Community Safety Committee's Inquiry into a potential HRAQ and the transcripts documenting the public hearings held by the Committee in 2016. A total of 465 written submissions were analysed; 419 (90%) were for a HRAQ. More than 80% of the 'for' submissions advocated the right to health's inclusion. At the seven public hearings, 72 persons made verbal submissions and most supported a HRAQ. Five major themes were identified in our synthesis of the public hearing transcripts. Three related specifically to health and human rights: 1) the need to consider the holistic health and human rights of Indigenous Queenslanders and Indigenous Queensland communities; 2) instilling a human rights culture in Queensland; and 3) access to health care and the underlying determinants of health. The other two themes related to the conduct of the Inquiry: 4) the importance of community participation in developing a HRAQ; and 5) concerns about the public consultation processes. This study found strong support in the majority of submissions for the Queensland Parliament to draft and enact a HRAQ, and for the inclusion of the right to health in such legislation. Implications for public health: The Queensland Parliament's enactment of a HRAQ that expressly included the right to health would increase the accountability and transparency of government health (and related) decision making and resource allocation, and would better identify and address health inequities across the state. This Act is imperative for improving the health and wellbeing of all Queenslanders, particularly rural and remote and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Queenslanders. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. The potential use of ionising energy treatment in Queensland's horticultural industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.; Sheehy, P.T.; Muirhead, I.F.; Brown, B.I.; Hassall, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    The potential application of ionising energy treatment technology in Queensland falls into three categories: insect disinfestation, disease control and quality improvement. The technology fulfils the requirements of a disinfestation treatment against Queensland fruit fly and other pests of quarantine importance in respect to efficacy, absence of phytotoxicity, absence of residues and, on technical considerations would be an ideal replacement for the fumigant EDB. The report examines the purposes of ionising energy treatment, economic and marketing aspects and research needs

  8. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    d) run the assembled configuration in a cloud computing environment, or download the assembled configuration and packaged data to run on any other system of the user's choice. MARVL is now being applied in a number of case studies around Australia ranging in scale from locally confined estuaries to the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand. In time we expect the range of models offered will include biogeochemical models.

  9. Integrating a pharmacist into the general practice environment: opinions of pharmacist’s, general practitioner’s, health care consumer’s, and practice manager’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Christopher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacists are viewed as highly trained yet underutilised and there is growing support to extend the role of the pharmacist within the primary health care sector. The integration of a pharmacist into a general practice medical centre is not a new concept however is a novel approach in Australia and evidence supporting this role is currently limited. This study aimed to describe the opinions of local stakeholders in South-East Queensland on the integration of a pharmacist into the Australian general practice environment. Methods A sample of general practitioners, health care consumers, pharmacists and practice managers in South-East Queensland were invited to participate in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. Seeding questions common to all sessions were used to facilitate discussion. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Leximancer software was used to qualitatively analyse responses. Results A total of 58 participants took part in five focus groups and eighteen semi-structured interviews. Concepts relating to six themes based on the seeding questions were identified. These included positively viewed roles such as medication reviews and prescribing, negatively viewed roles such as dispensing and diagnosing, barriers to pharmacist integration such as medical culture and remuneration, facilitators to pharmacist integration such as remuneration and training, benefits of integration such as access to the patient’s medical file, and potential funding models. Conclusions These findings and future research may aid the development of a new model of integrated primary health care services involving pharmacist practitioners.

  10. Monitoring Australia's Northern Coastline in Advance of Signs from Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzechnik, Marcus P.; Bokor, Ilonka; Urban, David A.; Carpenter, Julia G.; Hirth, Gillian A. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Road, Yallambie, Victoria, 3084 (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Australia has the third largest marine estate of any nation in the world, with a total area of 3.1 million square kilometres of ocean managed primarily for biodiversity conservation as marine reserves. Regular offshore radiological monitoring of the entire Australian coastline is impractical because of its size, however several projects currently under way at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to target areas where background monitoring of caesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) could be useful. Of particular interest to ARPANSA and the Australian Public are; - Radiological discharges due to the Japanese nuclear accident, 2011, and their potential effects on Australian seas and aquatic wildlife. - Visits to Australia from Nuclear Powered Warships (NPWs). Significant oceanic discharges from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (in excess of 3.6 PBq {sup 137}Cs) are expected to be dispersed over a number of years. For long term global dispersion, a transit time of about 5 years (i.e. arrival in 2016) has been estimated for radioactive material to reach the northern coast of Western Australia, and about 10 to 15 years to reach the eastern coast of Queensland. It is expected that radioactive material from the Japan accident will have been diluted to such a degree that it will be difficult to detect in Australian waters, however there is limited information on current caesium levels in water and biota to use as a background (or baseline) level. This is also the case for the Australian Ports where NPWs have permission to berth. This paper will describe several projects currently underway at ARPANSA aimed at determining background caesium levels in seawater and aquatic wildlife, as well as detailing future monitoring programmes intended to gather information to demonstrate the protection of the Australian public and aquatic environment. Background levels of caesium that have been collated since the project began in 2012 will also

  11. Predictable pollution: an assessment of weather balloons and associated impacts on the marine environment--an example for the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Owen R; Hamann, Mark; Smith, Walter; Taylor, Heidi

    2014-02-15

    Efforts to curb pollution in the marine environment are covered by national and international legislation, yet weather balloons are released into the environment with no salvage agenda. Here, we assess impacts associated with weather balloons in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). We use modeling to assess the probability of ocean endpoints for released weather balloons and predict pathways post-release. In addition, we use 21 months of data from beach cleanup events to validate our results and assess the abundance and frequency of weather balloon fragments in the GBRWHA. We found between 65% and 70% of balloons land in the ocean and ocean currents largely determine final endpoints. Beach cleanup data revealed 2460 weather balloon fragments were recovered from 24 sites within the GBRWHA. This is the first attempt to quantify this problem and these data will add support to a much-needed mitigation strategy for weather balloon waste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flinders Island Spotted Fever Rickettsioses Caused by “marmionii” Strain of Rickettsia honei, Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nathan B.; Graves, Stephen R.; Faa, Antony G.; Cox, G. Erika; Dyer, John R.; Boutlis, Craig S.; Lane, Amanda M.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Robson, Jennifer; Nissen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Australia has 4 rickettsial diseases: murine typhus, Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever, and scrub typhus. We describe 7 cases of a rickettsiosis, with an acute onset and symptoms of fever (100%), headache (71%), arthralgia (43%), myalgia (43%), cough (43%), maculopapular/petechial rash (43%), nausea (29%), pharyngitis (29%), lymphadenopathy (29%), and eschar (29%). Cases were most prevalent in autumn and from eastern Australia, including Queensland, Tasmania, and South Australia. One patient had a history of tick bite (Haemaphysalis novaeguineae). An isolate shared 99.2%, 99.8%, 99.8%, 99.9%, and 100% homology with the 17 kDa, ompA, gltA, 16S rRNA, and Sca4 genes, respectively, of Rickettsia honei. This Australian rickettsiosis has similar symptoms to Flinders Island spotted fever, and the strain is genetically related to R. honei. It has been designated the “marmionii” strain of R. honei, in honor of Australian physician and scientist Barrie Marmion. PMID:17553271

  13. Energy in Australia 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas-Cubria, C.; Schultz, A.; Petchey, R.; Beaini, F.; New, R.

    2011-04-01

    Securing access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is one of the great challenges facing governments around the world. The Australian Government is committed to ensuring the security of Australia's domestic energy systems as a fundamental part of Australia's social and economic prosperity. Energy in Australia 2011 is a key reference for anyone with an interest in Australian energy issues. It provides a detailed overview of energy in Australia from production to consumption, and serves as a useful resource to inform industry, government and the community.

  14. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  15. Who Leaves Suicide Notes? An Exploration of Victim Characteristics and Suicide Method of Completed Suicides in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Belinda; Bond, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Wilson, Moira; White, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to address the question: are those who leave suicide notes representative of the larger population of those who commit suicide? The method involves an analysis of a full population of suicides by residents of Queensland, Australia for the full year of 2004, with the information drawn from Coronial files. Our overall results suggest that, and in support of previous research, the population who leaves suicide notes are remarkably similar to those who do not. Differences are identified in four areas: first, and in contrast to prior research, females are less likely to leave a suicide note; second, and in support of previous research, Aboriginal Australians are less likely to leave suicide notes; third, and in support of some previous research, those who use gas as a method of suicide are more likely to leave notes, while those who use a vehicle or a train are less likely to leave notes; finally, our findings lend support to research which finds that those with a diagnosed mental illness are less likely to leave notes. The discussion addresses some of the reasons these disparities may have occurred, and continues the debate over the degree to which suicide notes give insight into the larger suicide population.

  16. Geographic remoteness, area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and inequalities in colorectal cancer survival in Queensland: a multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To explore the impact of geographical remoteness and area-level socioeconomic disadvantage on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods Multilevel logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations were used to analyze geographical variations in five-year all-cause and CRC-specific survival across 478 regions in Queensland Australia for 22,727 CRC cases aged 20–84 years diagnosed from 1997–2007. Results Area-level disadvantage and geographic remoteness were independently associated with CRC survival. After full multivariate adjustment (both levels), patients from remote (odds Ratio [OR]: 1.24, 95%CrI: 1.07-1.42) and more disadvantaged quintiles (OR = 1.12, 1.15, 1.20, 1.23 for Quintiles 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively) had lower CRC-specific survival than major cities and least disadvantaged areas. Similar associations were found for all-cause survival. Area disadvantage accounted for a substantial amount of the all-cause variation between areas. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the area-level inequalities in survival of colorectal cancer patients cannot be explained by the measured individual-level characteristics of the patients or their cancer and remain after adjusting for cancer stage. Further research is urgently needed to clarify the factors that underlie the survival differences, including the importance of geographical differences in clinical management of CRC. PMID:24152961

  17. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  18. Collaboration: the Key to Establishing Community Networks in Regional Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal Taylor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promise of community involvement, cohesion and empowerment offered by local community networks (CN using Internet Technologies, few communities in regional Australia have been able to demonstrate sustainable and vibrant CN which demonstrate increased social, cultural or self-reliance capital. The Faculty of Informatics and Communication at Central Queensland University (CQU and a local council have established a formal alliance to establish the COIN (Community Informatics projects to research issues around this topic. This paper presents the initial findings from this work and draws conclusions for possible comparison with other international experience. The research focuses attention on community understanding and cohesion, local government priorities in a community with relatively low diffusion of the Internet and the competing demands in a regional university between traditional service provision in an increasingly competitive market and the needs of establishing outreach research for altruistic, industry establishment and commercial rationale.

  19. Compensated transnational surrogacy in Australia: time for a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Ainsley J

    2016-01-18

    Commercial or compensated surrogacy involves providing payment for a woman to gestate a fetus to term and then hand over the child to commissioning parent(s). Compensated surrogacy is currently restricted by law or regulation in all Australian states and territories. New South Wales, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory also restrict commissioning transnational compensated surrogacy, although there is evidence that this is not acting as a deterrent. Ethical issues arising in transnational compensated surrogacy include concerns relating to exploitation, commodification and welfare. The current status quo is unsatisfactory on legal, ethical and practical grounds. It is time to openly debate how Australia should balance the desire for childbearing through surrogacy with the limited domestic availability of women willing to act as surrogates.

  20. Economic feasibility of fruit and vegetable irradiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, B.B.; Wiblin, B.

    1983-01-01

    The cost of treatment of fruit and vegetables in an Ionising Radiation Treatment (IRT) facility can be quite low. However, other circumstances mitigate against its overall economic feasibility. Research has determined that irradiation treatments are technically successful in three general areas. These are: prevention of fungal wastage in strawberries, prevention of sprouting in potatoes and onions, and disinfestation of fruit and vegetables from insect pests. The strawberry industry in Australia is very small and marketing of the crop will continue regardless of the availability of an IRT facility. On the other hand the potato industry is large but does not see sprouting as a marketing problem. The third area is disinfestation against Queensland fruit fly for interstate and export markets. Recent changes in Victorian quarantine legislation give a much greater number of alternatives for produce going into that State

  1. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of 131I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliscek Carolan, Jessica; Hughes, Catherine E.; Hoffmann, Emmy L.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. 131 I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, 131 I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from 131 I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing 131 I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively.

  2. The emerging role of Australia in using adaptive management for developing built environment and sustainable architecture innovations as a contribution to stabilising the planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baverstock, Garry [Murdoch Univ., Western Australia (AU). RISE (Research Inst. for Sustainable Energy); Parker, Ian

    2008-07-01

    The built environment is severely affecting the Earth's ecology. If we continue to pursue our immediate comfort and interests, we will consign future generations to a world that we would not want to live in. CO{sub 2} levels are still rising. The last time CO{sub 2} reached current levels (Eocene), sea levels were 30-100m above present. Temperatures and sea levels are rising. Storms are increasing in frequency and intensity. To move forward effectively we must have a credible process that explores all options that reduce greenhouse emissions. A transparent systemic learning process, total accounting and adaptive model based scenario building are needed to guide reduction of built form impact on Global warming. (orig.)

  3. Planning estimates for the provision of core mental health services in Queensland 2007 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Meredith G; Buckingham, William J; Pirkis, Jane; Groves, Aaron; Whiteford, Harvey

    2012-10-01

    To derive planning estimates for the provision of public mental health services in Queensland 2007-2017. We used a five-step approach that involved: (i) estimating the prevalence and severity of mental disorders in Queensland, and the number of people at each level of severity treated by health services; (ii) benchmarking the level and mix of specialised mental health services in Queensland against national data; (iii) examining 5-year trends in Queensland public sector mental health service utilisation; (iv) reviewing Australian and international planning benchmarks; and (v) setting resource targets based on the results of the preceding four steps. Best available evidence was used where possible, supplemented by value judgements as required. Recommended resource targets for inpatient service were: 20 acute beds per 100,000 population, consistent with national average service provision but 13% above Queensland provision in 2005; and 10 non-acute beds per 100,000, 65% below Queensland levels in 2005. Growth in service provision was recommended for all other components. Adult residential rehabilitation service targets were 10 clinical 24-hour staffed beds per 100,000, and 18 non-clinical beds per 100,000. Supported accommodation targets were 35 beds per 100,000 in supervised hostels and 35 places per 100,000 in supported public housing. A direct care clinical workforce of 70 FTE per 100,000 for ambulatory care services was recommended. Fifteen per cent of total mental health funding was recommended for community support services provided by non-government organisations. The recommended targets pointed to specific areas for priority in Queensland, notably the need for additional acute inpatient services for older persons and expansion of clinical ambulatory care, residential rehabilitation and supported accommodation services. The development of nationally agreed planning targets for public mental health services and the mental health community support sector were

  4. New species of Asphalidesmus Silvestri, 1910 from Australia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Dalodesmidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesibov, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Asphalidesmus allynensis sp. n. and Asphalidesmus dorrigensis sp. n. are described from New South Wales, Asphalidesmus otwayensis sp. n. from Victoria, and Asphalidesmus bellendenkerensis sp. n., Asphalidesmus carbinensis sp. n., Asphalidesmus magnus sp. n. and Asphalidesmus minor sp. n. from Queensland. The previously endemic Tasmanian genus Asphalidesmus Silvestri, 1910 is now known from 16°S to 43°S in eastern Australia, a north-south range of ca 3000 km. Asphalidesmus spp. throughout this range are very similar in overall appearance. Three of the new species are able to coil in a tight spiral. PMID:21594078

  5. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsha Yap

    Full Text Available Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  6. Regional Queensland Parents' Views of Science Education: Some Unexpected Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    Low post-compulsory science enrolments for secondary students have been a growing concern across the Western world. Research has examined factors relating to science curricula and students' attitudes about science, but parental views of science education remain largely unexplored in Australia. Because parents have a strong role in shaping their…

  7. Community Music in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  8. Assessing the threat of chikungunya virus emergence in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Knope, Katrina; Faddy, Helen M; Williams, Craig R; Harley, David

    2013-06-30

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a major threat to Australia given the distribution of competent vectors, and the large number of travellers returning from endemic regions. We describe current knowledge of CHIKV importations into Australia, and quantify reported viraemic cases, with the aim of facilitating the formulation of public health policy and ensuring maintenance of blood safety. Cases reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2002 to 2012 were analysed by place, month of acquisition, and place of residence. Rates of chikungunya importation were estimated based on reported cases and on the numbers of short-term movements. Between 2002 and 2012, there were 168 cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) imported into Australia. Victoria and New South Wales had the largest number of notifications. The main sources were Indonesia, India and Malaysia. The number of cases increased from 2008 to reach a peak in 2010 (n=64; 40%). Although Indonesia accounted for the majority of CHIKV notifications in Australia, travel from India had the highest CHIKV importation rate (number of imported cases per 100,000 travellers). The Australian population is increasingly at risk from CHIKV. Arrivals from endemic countries have increased concurrently with vector incursions via imported goods, as well as via local movement from the Torres Strait to North Queensland ports. An outbreak of CHIKV could have a significant impact on health, the safety of the blood supply and on tourism. Case and vector surveillance as well as population health responses are crucial for minimising any potential impact of CHIKV establishment in Australia. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General

  9. A Citizen Science Approach: A Detailed Ecological Assessment of Subtropical Reefs at Point Lookout, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Chris; Thurstan, Ruth; Beger, Maria; Dudgeon, Christine; Loder, Jennifer; Kovacs, Eva; Gallo, Michele; Flower, Jason; Gomez Cabrera, K-le; Ortiz, Juan; Lea, Alexandra; Kleine, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical reefs provide an important habitat for flora and fauna, and proper monitoring is required for conservation. Monitoring these exposed and submerged reefs is challenging and available resources are limited. Citizen science is increasing in momentum, as an applied research tool and in the variety of monitoring approaches adopted. This paper aims to demonstrate an ecological assessment and mapping approach that incorporates both top-down (volunteer marine scientists) and bottom-up (divers/community) engagement aspects of citizen science, applied at a subtropical reef at Point Lookout, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Marine scientists trained fifty citizen scientists in survey techniques that included mapping of habitat features, recording of substrate, fish and invertebrate composition, and quantifying impacts (e.g., occurrence of substrate damage, presence of litter). In 2014 these volunteers conducted four seasonal surveys along semi-permanent transects, at five sites, across three reefs. The project presented is a model on how citizen science can be conducted in a marine environment through collaboration of volunteer researchers, non-researchers and local marine authorities. Significant differences in coral and algal cover were observed among the three sites, while fluctuations in algal cover were also observed seasonally. Differences in fish assemblages were apparent among sites and seasons, with subtropical fish groups observed more commonly in colder seasons. The least physical damage occurred in the most exposed sites (Flat Rock) within the highly protected marine park zones. The broad range of data collected through this top-down/bottom-up approach to citizen science exemplifies the projects' value and application for identifying ecosystem trends or patterns. The results of the project support natural resource and marine park management, providing a valuable contribution to existing scientific knowledge and the conservation of local reefs.

  10. Economic Analysis and Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Urban and Peri-Urban Environments: A Review of the Global Situation with a Special Focus on Australia and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Christian Amos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH plays an important role in increasing water security for individuals and governments. The demand for tools to enable technical and economic analysis of RWH systems has led to a substantial body of research in the recent past. This paper focuses on the economic aspects of domestic RWH in urban and peri-urban environments. In this regard, key issues are identified and discussed including quality and quantity of harvested water, the water demand profile, the scale of installation, interest rates, the period of analysis, real estate value, and the water-energy-food nexus. Kenya and Australia are used as reference points having different economies and opposing RWH policies. It has been found that the previous studies on financial aspects of RWH systems often had conflicting results. Most of the economic analyses have ignored the full benefits that a RWH system can offer. In view of the varying and conflicting results, there is a need to standardize the methods of economic analysis of RWH systems.

  11. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  12. Research capacity and culture in podiatry: early observations within Queensland Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzarini Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research is a major driver of health care improvement and evidence-based practice is becoming the foundation of health care delivery. For health professions to develop within emerging models of health care delivery, it would seem imperative to develop and monitor the research capacity and evidence-based literacy of the health care workforce. This observational paper aims to report the research capacity levels of statewide populations of public-sector podiatrists at two different time points twelve-months apart. Methods The Research Capacity & Culture (RCC survey was electronically distributed to all Queensland Health (Australia employed podiatrists in January 2011 (n = 58 and January 2012 (n = 60. The RCC is a validated tool designed to measure indicators of research skill in health professionals. Participants rate skill levels against each individual, team and organisation statement on a 10-point scale (one = lowest, ten = highest. Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to determine any differences between the results of the two survey samples. A minimum significance of p  Results Thirty-seven (64% podiatrists responded to the 2011 survey and 33 (55% the 2012 survey. The 2011 survey respondents reported low skill levels (Median  6. Whereas, most reported their organisation’s skills to perform and support research at much higher levels (Median > 6. The 2012 survey respondents reported significantly higher skill ratings compared to the 2011 survey in individuals’ ability to secure research funding, submit ethics applications, and provide research advice, plus, in their organisation’s skills to support, fund, monitor, mentor and engage universities to partner their research (p  Conclusions This study appears to report the research capacity levels of the largest populations of podiatrists published. The 2011 survey findings indicate podiatrists have similarly low research capacity skill

  13. Dengue and climate change in Australia: predictions for the future should incorporate knowledge from the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard C; Currie, Bart J; Lindsay, Michael D; Mackenzie, John S; Ritchie, Scott A; Whelan, Peter I

    2009-03-02

    Dengue transmission in Australia is currently restricted to Queensland, where the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established. Locally acquired infections have been reported only from urban areas in the north-east of the state, where the vector is most abundant. Considerable attention has been drawn to the potential impact of climate change on dengue distribution within Australia, with projections for substantial rises in incidence and distribution associated with increasing temperatures. However, historical data show that much of Australia has previously sustained both the vector mosquito and dengue viruses. Although current vector distribution is restricted to Queensland, the area inhabited by A. aegypti is larger than the disease-transmission areas, and is not restricted by temperature (or vector-control programs); thus, it is unlikely that rising temperatures alone will bring increased vector or virus distribution. Factors likely to be important to dengue and vector distribution in the future include increased dengue activity in Asian and Pacific nations that would raise rates of virus importation by travellers, importation of vectors via international ports to regions without A. aegypti, higher rates of domestic collection and storage of water that would provide habitat in urban areas, and growing human populations in northern Australia. Past and recent successful control initiatives in Australia lend support to the idea that well resourced and functioning surveillance programs, and effective public health intervention capabilities, are essential to counter threats from dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. Models projecting future activity of dengue (or other vector-borne disease) with climate change should carefully consider the local historical and contemporary data on the ecology and distribution of the vector and local virus transmission.

  14. Can administrative data provide insights into the mental health of Indigenous Queenslanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Pais, Joanne

    2011-07-01

    The Australian Government has provided $20 million to establish the Population Health Research Network (PHRN), with representation from all States and Territories to facilitate population health research through data linkage. Health LinQ is part of the Queensland node involving four Queensland universities, Queensland Health and the Australian e-Health Research Centre. This paper reviews the potential for using administrative databases to study the mental health experience of Indigenous Queenslanders. Researchers can define cohorts for study within the administrative data or link them to their own data. Robust protocols preserve confidentiality so that researchers only receive anonymized data. Indigenous status can be defined either through place of residence or through the recording of Indigenous status in datasets such as the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection. Available data include hospital morbidity, mental health data and mortality. Indigenous status is correctly identified in about 89% of cases with variation by definition used. Administrative data provide researchers and decision makers with accessible, cost-effective information without the intrusion and cost of additional data collection. These techniques are especially useful in studying regional, rural and remote populations where access may be difficult.

  15. Current Government Actions and Potential Policy Options for Reducing Obesity in Queensland Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser A. Alsharairi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available School nutrition policies provide promising avenues towards the improvement of children’s eating habits and the prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity rates and related chronic diseases are increasing in Queensland, in part as a result of unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. There is a very high investment by the Queensland government in maintaining healthy weight and promoting nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren through delivering a range of initiatives across the state. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of nutrition/physical education and parental involvement programs addressing obesity delivered in Queensland schools. This paper can be used to guide government and policy-makers regarding the most effective policy options that will promote healthy eating and physical activity among Queensland schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to: (i summarize current evidence on Queensland government responses to obesity; and (ii discuss potential policy options that could support healthy eating and regular physical activity, and examine the evidence base for each option and suggest new areas for future research.

  16. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  17. A Case Study of the MBA Market in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, James E.; Armstrong, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    The Western Australia market for master's-level business administration education (MBA) is examined, particularly relating to the University of Western Australia. An overview of current Australian MBA market conditions is given; and the history, competitive environment, structure, admission policy, tuition, and student financial aid of the…

  18. Some thermoluminescence ages in Queensland: a problem resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In a previous paper (Tejan-Kella et al Aust J. Soil Res. 28, 465, 1990), thermoluminescence (TL) dates were presented for a soil horizon at five sites in a chronosequence of freely-drained podzols at Cooloola and North Stradbroke Island, Queensland. The TL ages followed the expected order based on geomorphological evidence; and the TL age of 120 ±11 ka for the Amity dune on North Stradbroke Island agreed with uranium series dates for underlying coral recovered during sand mining. Nevertheless, several features of the TL results gave rise to some concern and were noted in the above mentioned paper. Specifically, the apparent TL age of 11 ± 2 ka for the Kings Bore site was widely at variance with the inferred age of about 0.5 ka based on geomorphological and soil profile evidence. Further, an apparent TL age of about 8 ka was found for samples from the Carlo sand blow. The Carlo samples were taken at mean depths of 1.0 m and 1.5 m from within the advancing toe of the dune, which is obviously mobile since it is encroaching on living vegetation. The time since last exposure to sunlight could scarcely exceed a decade. New measurements are reported, designed to resolve the former discrepancies. All sites have been re-dated, together with a new one, CA5S/1 (Chalambar) and a reduced value have been obtained. The fact that the TL age is somehow smaller than the U-series age may reflect the expectation that the summit of the dune be younger than the base

  19. Some thermoluminescence ages in Queensland: a problem resolved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    In a previous paper (Tejan-Kella et al Aust J. Soil Res. 28, 465, 1990), thermoluminescence (TL) dates were presented for a soil horizon at five sites in a chronosequence of freely-drained podzols at Cooloola and North Stradbroke Island, Queensland. The TL ages followed the expected order based on geomorphological evidence; and the TL age of 120 {+-}11 ka for the Amity dune on North Stradbroke Island agreed with uranium series dates for underlying coral recovered during sand mining. Nevertheless, several features of the TL results gave rise to some concern and were noted in the above mentioned paper. Specifically, the apparent TL age of 11 {+-} 2 ka for the Kings Bore site was widely at variance with the inferred age of about 0.5 ka based on geomorphological and soil profile evidence. Further, an apparent TL age of about 8 ka was found for samples from the Carlo sand blow. The Carlo samples were taken at mean depths of 1.0 m and 1.5 m from within the advancing toe of the dune, which is obviously mobile since it is encroaching on living vegetation. The time since last exposure to sunlight could scarcely exceed a decade. New measurements are reported, designed to resolve the former discrepancies. All sites have been re-dated, together with a new one, CA5S/1 (Chalambar) and a reduced value have been obtained. The fact that the TL age is somehow smaller than the U-series age may reflect the expectation that the summit of the dune be younger than the base. Paper no. 14; 1 tab., 1 fig.

  20. A comparison of severely injured trauma patients admitted to level 1 trauma centres in Queensland and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; Wullschleger, Martin E.; Nielsen, Susan E.; McNamee, Anitia M.; Lefering, Rolf; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Schuetz, Michael A.

    Background: The allocation of a trauma network in Queensland is still in the developmental phase. In a search for indicators to improve trauma care both locally as state-wide, a study was carried out comparing trauma patients in Queensland to trauma patients in Germany, a country with 82.4 million

  1. The establishment of the Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia in Queensland (1996–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction For chiropractors and osteopaths after graduation, the learning process continues by way of experience and continuing education (CE. The provision of CE and other vocational services in Queensland between 1996 and 2002 is the subject of this paper. Methods The Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia (COCA implemented a plan, which involved continuing education, with speakers from a broad variety of health provider areas; and the introduction of the concepts of evidence-based practice. The plan also involved building membership. Results Membership of COCA in Queensland grew from 3 in June 1996 to 167 in 2002. There were a total of 25 COCA symposia in the same period. Evidence-based health care was introduced and attendees were generally satisfied with the conferences. Discussion The development of a vocational body (COCA for chiropractors and osteopaths in Queensland was achieved. Registrants in the field have supported an organisation that concentrates on the vocational aspects of their practice.

  2. Using MSD prevention for cultural change in mining: Queensland Government/Anglo Coal Industry partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbury, Trudy; Sanderson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Queensland Mining has a strong focus on safety performance, but risk management of health, including Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) continues to have a lower priority. The reliance on individual screening of workers and lower level approaches such as manual handling training is part of the coal mining 'culture'. Initiatives such as the New South Wales and Queensland Mining joint project to develop good practice guidance for mining has allowed for a more consistent message on participatory ergonomics and prevention of MSD. An evidence based practice approach, including the introduction of participatory ergonomics and safe design principles, was proposed to Anglo American Coal operations in Queensland. The project consisted of a skills analysis of current health personnel, design of a facilitated participatory ergonomics training program, site visits to identify good practice and champions, and a graduated mentoring program for health personnel. Early results demonstrate a number of sites are benefiting from site taskforces with a focus on positive performance outcomes.

  3. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment.

  4. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  5. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given

  6. Uranium production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    The history of uranium mining and milling in Australia is briefly outlined, particular attention being given to the development of Australia's only two operating mills, Nabarlek and Ranger, and its only operating mine, Ranger. The latter project is used to illustrate the prerequisites for development of the industry and the complex roles of the various parties involved in establishing a new mine: equity holders, customers, financiers, the securities industry, trade unions, and the public. The moves currently being taken to resolve the future of the industry in Australia, particularly the examination of issues relating to Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle being conducted by the Australian Science and Technology Council, preclude any firm conclusions being drawn, but the various options open to the government are reviewed and the record of Australian governments and unions and the attitude of the Australian public are described. (Author) (3 tabs., fig.)

  7. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the export value from uranium could reach that from wool. In terms of benefit to the community the economic rewards are considerable but, in terms of providing energy to the world, Australias uranium is vital

  8. Young women's recent experience of labour and birth care in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie; Miller, Yvette

    2014-07-01

    young parenthood continues to be an issue of concern in terms of clinical and psychosocial outcomes for mothers and their babies, with higher rates of medical complications such as preterm labour and hypertensive disease and a higher risk of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate how young age impacts on women's experience of intrapartum care. secondary analysis of data collected in a population based survey of women who had recently given birth in Queensland, comparing clinical and interpersonal aspects of the intrapartum maternity care experience for 237 eligible women aged 15-20 years and 6534 aged more than 20 years. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were undertaken. in the univariate analysis a number of variables were significantly associated with clinical aspects of labour and birth and perceptions of care: young women were more likely to birth in a public facility, to travel for birth and to live in less economically advantaged areas, to have a normal vaginal birth and to have one carer through labour. They were also less likely to report being treated with respect and kindness and talked to in a way they could understand. In logistic regression models, after adjustment for parity, other socio-demographic factors and mode of birth, younger mothers were still more likely to birth in a public facility, to travel for birth, to be more critical about interpersonal and aspects of care and the hospital or birth centre environment. this study shows how experience of care during labour and birth is different for young women. Young women reported poorer quality interpersonal care which may well reflect an inferior care experience and stereotyping by health professionals, indicating a need for more effective staff engagement with young women at this time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative adoption of cone beam computed tomography and panoramic radiography machines across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A; Critchley, S; Monsour, P A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the current adoption of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiography (PR) machines across Australia. Information regarding registered CBCT and PR machines was obtained from radiation regulators across Australia. The number of X-ray machines was correlated with the population size, the number of dentists, and the gross state product (GSP) per capita, to determine the best fitting regression model(s). In 2014, there were 232 CBCT and 1681 PR machines registered in Australia. Based on absolute counts, Queensland had the largest number of CBCT and PR machines whereas the Northern Territory had the smallest number. However, when based on accessibility in terms of the population size and the number of dentists, the Australian Capital Territory had the most CBCT machines and Western Australia had the most PR machines. The number of X-ray machines correlated strongly with both the population size and the number of dentists, but not with the GSP per capita. In 2014, the ratio of PR to CBCT machines was approximately 7:1. Projected increases in either the population size or the number of dentists could positively impact on the adoption of PR and CBCT machines in Australia. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Bayesian estimation of the dynamics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza transmission in Queensland: A space-time SIR-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Clements, Archie C A; Williams, Gail; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-04-01

    A pandemic strain of influenza A spread rapidly around the world in 2009, now referred to as pandemic (H1N1) 2009. This study aimed to examine the spatiotemporal variation in the transmission rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 associated with changes in local socio-environmental conditions from May 7-December 31, 2009, at a postal area level in Queensland, Australia. We used the data on laboratory-confirmed H1N1 cases to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of transmission using a flexible Bayesian, space-time, Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) modelling approach. The model incorporated parameters describing spatiotemporal variation in H1N1 infection and local socio-environmental factors. The weekly transmission rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was negatively associated with the weekly area-mean maximum temperature at a lag of 1 week (LMXT) (posterior mean: -0.341; 95% credible interval (CI): -0.370--0.311) and the socio-economic index for area (SEIFA) (posterior mean: -0.003; 95% CI: -0.004--0.001), and was positively associated with the product of LMXT and the weekly area-mean vapour pressure at a lag of 1 week (LVAP) (posterior mean: 0.008; 95% CI: 0.007-0.009). There was substantial spatiotemporal variation in transmission rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 across Queensland over the epidemic period. High random effects of estimated transmission rates were apparent in remote areas and some postal areas with higher proportion of indigenous populations and smaller overall populations. Local SEIFA and local atmospheric conditions were associated with the transmission rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009. The more populated regions displayed consistent and synchronized epidemics with low average transmission rates. The less populated regions had high average transmission rates with more variations during the H1N1 epidemic period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relations between Teachers' Classroom Goals and Values: A Case Study of High School Teachers in Far North Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudelko, Claudia E.; Boon, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is an empirical gap in the evidence of the relations between teachers' classroom goals and values, two key variables linked to students' achievement motivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate this relationship in an Australian teacher sample. We surveyed 102 high school teachers from seven schools in Cairns, Queensland…

  12. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (bank attached bars or inset or inner floodplains, these more or less flat-lying surfaces within the macro-channel have hitherto received little attention in sediment budgeting models. We use high resolution LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over the last ~ 100 years can be accounted for by that stored as in-channel alluvium. These features therefore can play an important role in mitigating the impact on the receiving water of accelerated erosion.

  13. A multi-criteria approach to Great Barrier Reef catchment (Queensland, Australia) diffuse-source pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, R; Herr, A; Brodie, J; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria based tool for assessing the relative impact of diffuse-source pollution to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) from the river basins draining into the GBR lagoon. The assessment integrates biophysical and ecological data of water quality and pollutant concentrations with socio-economic information pertaining to non-point source pollution and (potential) pollutant impact. The tool generates scores for each river basin against four criteria, thus profiling the basins and enabling prioritization of management alternatives between and within basins. The results support policy development for pollution control through community participation, scientific data integration and expert knowledge contributed by people from across the catchment. The results specifically provided support for the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, released in October 2003. The aim of the plan is to provide a framework for reducing discharge of sediment, nutrient and other diffuse-source loads and (potential) impact of that discharge and for prioritising management actions both between and within river basins.

  14. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Carruth, Althea; Windsor, Carol; Clark, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where there is good primary care, there develops a number of downstream effects including a sense of empowerment to manage difficult rural environmental circumstances. This has particular bearing on health outcomes for people with fewer resources.

  15. Quantifying the erosion processes and land-uses which dominate fine sediment supply to Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallbrink, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the contributions from the three major erosion sources in the catchments of Moreton Bay are quantified, specifically for the 137 Cs and 226 Ra were measured on the <10 μm fraction of eroding soils from these areas and then compared to concentrations on the same size fraction on deposited sediments within the rivers. A mixing model was then used to calculate the contributions from the different sources to the sediments. The contributions in the Brisbane and Logan catchments were found to be subsoil erosion (∼66±10%); sheet erosion from cultivated lands 33±10% and sheet erosion of uncultivated land 1±10%. Surface and subsoil erosion contributions from the coastal catchments were found to be variable

  16. Implications of sedimentological studies for environmental pollution assessment and management: Examples from fluvial systems in North Queensland and Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Bradley; McConchie, David

    1993-05-01

    Sedimentology is of increasing importance in environmental research, particularly environmental pollution studies, where past trends in environmental processes need to be combined with data on present conditions to predict likely future changes—the past and present as a key to the future. Two examples are used to illustrate the role of sedimentology in assessing the influence of major processes on the transport, accumulation, deposition and modification of contaminants in fluvial/estuarine systems and in developing environmental management plans. Example 1 shows that when assessing nutrient behaviour in fluvial/estuarine depositional settings, it is important to examine the partitioning of phosphorus between grain size fractions to evaluate the sedimentological processes which control the dispersion and trapping of these contaminants. Example 2 shows that in studies of anthropogenic metal inputs to modern depositional settings, lateral and stratigraphic trends in sediment texture and mineralogy should be examined, in addition to trends in metal loads and evaluation of the prevailing physical, chemical and biological processes that may influence metal mobility and dispersion. Clearly, basic sedimentological data should form part of any assessment of potentially contaminated sites and part of investigations into the dispersion and trapping of contaminants in fluvial systems. These data are also required for rational environmental management to ensure that planning decisions are compatible with natural environmental constraints.

  17. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althea Page-Carruth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. Methods: The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. Results: The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. Conclusions: The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where there is good primary care, there develops a number of downstream effects including a sense of empowerment to manage difficult rural environmental circumstances. This has particular bearing on health outcomes for people with fewer resources.

  18. Distribution of Fe in waters and bottom sediments of a small estuarine catchment, Pumicestone Region, southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaghati, Tania; Cox, Malcolm E.; Preda, Micaela

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved and extractable iron concentrations in surface water, groundwater and bottom sediments were determined for Halls Creek, a small subtropical tidally influenced creek. Dissolved iron concentrations were much higher in fresh surface waters and groundwater compared to the estuarine water. In bottom sediments, iron minerals were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD); of these, hematite (up to 11%) has formed by precipitation from iron-rich water in the freshwater section of the catchment. Pyrite was only identified in the estuarine reach and demonstrated several morphologies [identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] including loosely and closely packed framboids, and the euhedral form. The forms of pyrite found in bottom sediments indicate in situ production and recrystallisation. In surface waters, pyrite was detected in suspended sediment; due to oxygen concentrations well above 50 μmol/l, it was concluded that framboids do not form in the water column, but are within resuspended bottom sediments or eroded from creek banks. The persistence of framboids in suspended sediments, where oxygen levels are relatively high, could be due to their silica and clay-rich coatings, which prevent a rapid oxidation of the pyrite. In addition to identifying processes of formation and transport of pyrite, this study has environmental significance, as this mineral is a potential source of bioavailable forms of iron, which can be a major nutrient supporting algal growth

  19. The impacts of grazing land management on the wind erodibility of the Mulga Lands of western Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 100 Mt of dust is eroded by wind from the Australian land surface each year. Wind erosion may be widespread across the arid and semi-arid rangelands, with impacts on soil nutrients, carbon and ecosystem services, human health, and climate. The susceptibility of landscapes to wind erosio...

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder Coursework for Teachers and Teacher-Aides: An Investigation of Courses Offered in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Mitchell; Lamb, Janeen; Bartlett, Brendan; Datta, Poulomee

    2017-01-01

    The content and structure of pre-service and teacher-aide programs has major implications for training, management, support and deployment of teachers and teacher-aides in mainstream schools working with students who have ASD. Data pertaining to course content and structure were collected from university and teacher-aide training websites, program…

  1. Asymmetric ecological and economic responses for rangeland restoration: A case study of tree thickening in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological and economic thresholds are important considerations when making decisions about safeguarding or restoring degraded rangelands. When degradation levels have passed a threshold, most managers figure it is either time to take action or too late to take action depending on the particular c...

  2. Learning to learn with farmers : a case study of an adult learning extension project conducted in Queensland, Australia 1990 - 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the relationship between the use of participatory processes in the development and use of information and knowledge and their impact on change is described and explored. This research utilises a major extension project carried out with respect to fallow management in

  3. The electricity supply industry in Queensland, financial report 1982/83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This fourth financial report deals with the finances of the electricity supply industry and includes three sections. Section 1: letter to the minister; scope of the report; the Commission; the electricity authorities; forecasts; tariff policy; and the Queensland Electricity Supply Industry Superannuation Board. Section 2: consolidated schedules; and audited financial statements. Section 3: statistics; including production, distribution, consumption, financial, accidents, towns and locations.

  4. Exploring Information Experience Using Social Media during the 2011 Queensland Floods: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Sharon; Partridge, Helen; Davis, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Social media networks have emerged as a powerful tool in allowing collaboration and sharing of information during times of crisis (Axel Bruns, The Centre for Creative Industries Blog, comment posted January 19, 2011). The 2011 Queensland floods provided a unique opportunity to explore social media use during an emergency. This paper presents the…

  5. The Health Legislation Amendment Act 2013 (QLD) and Queensland's health assets privatisation dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Caroline; Faunce, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    'New legislation in Queensland has provided a "pathway" for the privatisation of health assets and services in Queensland, which effectively realigns the health care system to the financial market. This column explores how this legislation contained the antecedents of the Queensland doctors' dispute when doctors roundly rejected new employment contracts in February 2014. It also argues that such legislation and its attendant backlash provides a valuable case study in view of the federal government's 2014 budget offer to the States of extra funding if they sell their health assets to fund new infrastructure. The move to privatise health in Queensland has also resulted in a government assault on the ethical credibility of the opposing medical profession and changes to the health complaints system with the introduction of a Health Ombudsman under ministerial control. The column examines these changes in light of R (Heather) v Leonard Cheshire Foundation [2001] EWHC Admin 429, a case concerning the obligations of a private entity towards publically funded clients in the United Kingdom. In discussing concerns about the impact of privatisation on the medical profession, the column points to a stark conflict between the duty to operate hospitals as a business rather than as a duty to patients.

  6. Monitoring the extent of flooding : Based on a case study in Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Zlatanova, S.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Goulevitch, B.

    2011-01-01

    “Of droughts and flooding rains” (Dorothea Mackellar 1885-1968, “My Country”). The recent flooding in Queensland affected rural areas, mines, towns and cities including the state capital. Tracking such an event on a day-by day basis raises practical and theoretical issues. While this year’s floods

  7. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  8. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  9. School Outcomes in New South Wales and Queensland: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul W.; Voon, Derby

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the differences in school (NAPLAN) outcomes between New South Wales and Queensland. It shows that there are pronounced differences in Year 3 NAPLAN results between these states, though these dissipate when later class years are considered. The reasons for these state effects in school outcomes are explored using an empirical…

  10. The Relevance of Mathematics: Leaders and Teachers as Gatekeeper for Queensland Senior Calculus Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easey, Michael; Gleeson, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the larger study, of which this paper is a part, is to investigate the decline in Year 10 male students' participation in senior calculus mathematics courses at an independent boys' school located in metropolitan Queensland. This paper draws on Sealey and Noyes's (2010) relevance framework to conduct document analysis and interviews…

  11. Assessment Policy and Practice Effects on New Zealand and Queensland Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gavin T. L.; Lake, Robert; Matters, Gabrielle

    2009-01-01

    Teachers' thinking about four conceptions of teaching (i.e., apprenticeship-developmental, nurturing, social reform, and transmission) were captured using the "Teaching Perspectives Inventory" (TPI). New Zealand and Queensland have very similar teaching-related policies and practices but differences around assessment policies and…

  12. The Identity of Catholic Schools as Seen by Teachers in Catholic Schools in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Jim; O'Gorman, John; O'Neill, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the opinions of teachers in Queensland Catholic schools regarding the identity, purposes and characteristics of Catholic schools. It draws on survey data from 2287 teachers in Catholic schools as well as semi-structured interviews with 20 teachers. Respondents were asked about their reasons for working in Catholic Education…

  13. Flood Risk in Australia: Whose Responsibility Is It, Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van den Honert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research into four key stakeholders in flood risk management in Australia: local councils, the insurance industry, the State Emergency Service (SES, and local residents; examining the perception of their own roles and responsibilities, and those of the other stakeholders. Key informant interviews were conducted in four locations—Brisbane and Emerald, in Queensland, Dora Creek, in New South Wales, and Benalla, in Victoria. We find that understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder varied considerably between research participants. Insurance representatives felt their concerns about increasing flood risk costs were unheeded until the 2010–2011 floods made them the “canary in the coal mine”. Councils felt they had limited options for reducing flood risk. SES representatives felt they were too relied upon for event response, with requests for assistance outstripping their capacity to assist, and many residents were uncertain how to prepare for flood, relying on emergency agencies and the local council to protect them. Key lessons for flood risk management in Australia are (a an urgent need for all stakeholders to better understand each others’ roles and responsibilities; and (b residents must take greater responsibility for their own personal protection. Only then can the vision of shared responsibility presented by the 2009 National Strategy for Disaster Resilience be achieved.

  14. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001-2012 and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations.

  15. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Cornish, Lisa Michelle; Fearnley, Emily; Glass, Kathryn; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001-2012) and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations.

  16. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; King, Mark; Haque, Md Mazharul; Washington, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia) using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25) participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat) was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes), and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this behaviour. Some

  18. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios

    Full Text Available Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25 participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes, and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this

  19. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  20. Improving education and supervision of Queensland X-