WorldWideScience

Sample records for environment plant production

  1. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  2. Ethylene production by plants in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    Ethylene production by 20-m^2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce and potato was monitored throughout growth and development in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Biomass Production Chamber. Chamber ethylene concentrations rose during periods of rapid growth for all four species, reaching 120 parts per billion (ppb) for wheat, 60 ppb for soybean, and 40 to 50 ppb for lettuce and potato. Following this, ethylene concentrations declined during seed fill and maturation (wheat and soybean), or remained relatively constant (potato). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. The highest ethylene production rates (unadjusted for chamber leakage) ranged from 0.04 to 0.06 ml m^-2 day^-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or approximately 0.8 to 1.1 nl g^-1 fresh weight h^-1 Results suggest that ethylene production by plants is a normal event coupled to periods of rapid metabolic activity, and that ethylene removal or control measures should be considered for growing crops in a tightly closed CELSS.

  3. Optimization of Photosynthetic Productivity in Contrasting Environments by Regulons Controlling Plant Form and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Demmig-Adams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding, with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals as well as (ii their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant’s sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction. The example of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from geographic origins with contrasting climates is used to describe the links between natural genetic variation in CBF transcription factors and the differential acclimation of plant anatomical and functional features needed to support superior photosynthetic performance in contrasting environments. Emphasis is placed on considering different temperature environments (hot versus cold and light environments (limiting versus high light, on trade-offs between adaptations to contrasting environments, and on plant lines minimizing such trade-offs.

  4. Radioecological studies of activation products released from a nuclear power plant into the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, M.; Mattsson, S.; Holm, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Barseback nuclear power plant, located on the Oresund sound between Denmark and Sweden, consists of two boiling water reactors. The release of radionuclides, mainly activation products, is quite low during normal operation. During the summer, when annual overhaul and partial refuelling take place, the discharge is much higher. Samples of seaweeds and crustaceans collected along the coast were analyzed for radionuclides. Seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus, F. Serratus, Ascophyllum nodosum and Cladophora glomerata) and crustaceans (Idothea and Gammarus) proved to be excellent bioindicators for radioactive corrosion products released from the nuclear power plant into the marine environment. These bioindicators have been used to map the spatial and temporal distribution of the released radioactivity. The activity has been followed up to 150 km from the power plant, and the decrease in activity concentration in the bioindicators with distance can be expressed by a power function. The variation with time of activity concentration reflects the amount of activity discharged from the power plant, with good resolution in time. The bioindicators exhibit different uptake patterns of the radionuclides detected. The crustacean Idothea showed variations in the Co/sup 60/ activity concentration between winter and summer. 9 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  6. Complex analysis of hazards to the man and natural environment due to electricity production in nuclear and coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a complex analysis of hazards connected with electrical energy production in nuclear power plants and coal power plants, starting with fuel mining, through power plant construction, operation, possible accidents and decommissioning to long term global effects. The comparison is based on contemporary, proven technologies of coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. The hazards to environment and man due to nuclear power are shown to be much smaller than those due to coal power cycle. The health benefits due to electrical power availability are shown to be much larger than the health losses due to its production. (author). 71 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  7. Uncovering the secrets of a productive environment, A journey through the impact of plants and colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.

    2014-01-01

    This PhD concerns the relationship between the physical environment and knowledge productivity. To create an optimal environment it is important to study the needs of knowledge workers in connection to the characteristics of the physical environment. Two components of the physical environment have

  8. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  9. Radioecological studies of activation products released from a nuclear power plant into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.; Nilsson, M.; Holm, E.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1967 samples of Fucus serratus and Fucus vesi--culosus from the Swedish west-coast were collected for analysis of the concentration of fallout products, natural actinides and products released by the nuclear industry. During this time two nuclear power stations were built and began operation in this area, ''Ringhals'' in 1974 and ''Barseback'' in 1975. When detectable concentrations of Co-60 and other activation products were found in Fucus, the sampling program was intensified, both in the vicinity of ''Barseback'' and at localities up to 150 km north. Our studies have shown that measurements on Fucus can be used to map the distribution of various radionuclides from a nuclear power station in the marine environment. Knowledge of this distribution and of factors affecting it are needed to construct a radioecological model for the estimation of individual and collective dose equivalent commitment arising from intake of food and water from the marine environment of the south-west of Sweden. (H.K.)

  10. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  11. Glycine Betaine and Proline Production in Eucalyptus Plant under NaCl Harassing Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, T. M.; Bano, A.; Ashraf, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out to study the production of Proline and Betaine by applying Abscisic acid (ABA) treatment under NaCl and water stressed conditions. The seeds of four provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulesnis were obtained from the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Provenance I), Punjab Forest Research Institute, Faisalabad (Provenance II), Bio-saline Research Station-I, Lahore (Provenance III) and Bio-saline Research Station-II of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad (Provenance 1V). It was observed that Proline and Betaine accumulation increased significantly in all the provenances with increase in drought or salt stress, ABA alone and in combination with drought. Provenance II and III species remained successful in maintaining higher Proline and Betaine accumulation as compared to Provenances I and IV. From the results it can be concluded that ABA treatment remains successful in enhancing Proline and Betaine production and maintaining the physiological parameters necessary to enhance plant growth both under salt and in combination with drought condition. (author)

  12. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  13. Plant traits and environment: floating leaf blade production and turnover of waterlilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Klok

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Floating leaf blades of waterlilies fulfill several functions in wetland ecosystems by production, decomposition and turnover as well as exchange processes. Production and turnover rates of floating leaf blades of three waterlily species, Nuphar lutea (L. Sm., Nymphaea alba L. and Nymphaea candida Presl, were studied in three freshwater bodies, differing in trophic status, pH and alkalinity. Length and percentages of leaf loss of marked leaf blades were measured weekly during the growing season. Area and biomass were calculated based on leaf length and were used to calculate the turnover rate of floating leaf blades. Seasonal changes in floating leaf production showed that values decreased in the order: Nymphaea alba, Nuphar lutea, Nymphaea candida. The highest production was reached for Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba in alkaline, eutrophic water bodies. The production per leaf was relatively high for both species in the acid water body. Nymphaea candida showed a very short vegetation period and low turnover rates. The ratio Total potential leaf biomass/Maximum potential leaf biomass (P/Bmax of the three species ranged from 1.35–2.25. The ratio Vegetation period (Period with floating leaves/Mean leaf life span ranged from 2.94–4.63, the ratio Growth period (Period with appearance of new floating leaves/Vegetation period from 0.53–0.73. The clear differences between Nymphaea candida versus Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba, may be due to adaptations of Nymphaea candida to an Euro-Siberic climate with short-lasting summer conditions.

  14. Plant traits and environment: floating leaf blade production and turnover of waterlilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Peter F; van der Velde, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Floating leaf blades of waterlilies fulfill several functions in wetland ecosystems by production, decomposition and turnover as well as exchange processes. Production and turnover rates of floating leaf blades of three waterlily species, Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm., Nymphaea alba L. and Nymphaea candida Presl, were studied in three freshwater bodies, differing in trophic status, pH and alkalinity. Length and percentages of leaf loss of marked leaf blades were measured weekly during the growing season. Area and biomass were calculated based on leaf length and were used to calculate the turnover rate of floating leaf blades. Seasonal changes in floating leaf production showed that values decreased in the order: Nymphaea alba , Nuphar lutea , Nymphaea candida . The highest production was reached for Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba in alkaline, eutrophic water bodies. The production per leaf was relatively high for both species in the acid water body. Nymphaea candida showed a very short vegetation period and low turnover rates. The ratio Total potential leaf biomass/Maximum potential leaf biomass (P/B max ) of the three species ranged from 1.35-2.25. The ratio Vegetation period (Period with floating leaves)/Mean leaf life span ranged from 2.94-4.63, the ratio Growth period (Period with appearance of new floating leaves)/Vegetation period from 0.53-0.73. The clear differences between Nymphaea candida versus Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba , may be due to adaptations of Nymphaea candida to an Euro-Siberic climate with short-lasting summer conditions.

  15. Production environment in mineral water plants; Mineral water kojo no seisan kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimatsu, A. [Morinaga Engineering Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    This paper summarizes mineral waters as commercial products, and the manufacturing facilities thereof. The most widely used pattern of packaging mineral waters is to use either PET bottle or back-in box. The manufacturing process consists generally of: rough filtration of natural water, storage, activated carbon filtration, filtration, sterilization, ultrafine filtration, warm water bottling, capping, cooling, cartoning, storage, and shipment. The rough filtration removes sands. The activated carbon filtration removes water soluble organics. The sterilization is carried out under conditions of retaining the water at 75{degree}C for 15 seconds or retaining at 120 to 140{degree}C for 2 seconds. The ultrafine filtration uses a ceramic filter with a thickness of 0.2{mu}m. Sterilizing harmful microorganisms uses heating operation and filters to remove bacteria. An example may be cited that uses a bio-clean room for the purpose of controlling the harmful microorganisms. Subject microorganisms include a variety of viruses, rickettsia, bacteria, and fungi. The super-high performance (HEPA) filter used in the sterilization is demanded of collecting dusts with sizes of 0.3{mu}m or larger at a collection efficiency of 99.97% or higher. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Temperature versus plant effects on diel dynamics of soil CO2 production and efflux: a controlled environment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinthaler, David; Roy, Jacques; Landais, Damien; Piel, Clement; Resco de Dios, Victor; Bahn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is the biggest source of CO2 emitted from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Therefore the understanding of its drivers is of major importance for models of carbon cycling. Next to temperature as a major abiotic factor, photosynthesis has been suggested as an important driver influencing diel patterns in Rs. Under natural conditions it is difficult to disentangle abiotic and biotic effects on soil CO2 production, as fluctuating light intensity affects both photosynthetic activity and soil temperature. To analyse individual and combined effects of soil temperature and light on the dynamics of soil CO2 production and efflux, we performed a controlled environment study at the ECOTRON facility in Montpellier. The study manipulated temperature and photosynthetically active radiation independently and was carried out in large macrocosms, hosting canopies of either a woody (cotton) or a herbaceous (bean) crop. In each macrocosm membrane tubes had been installed across the soil profile for continuous measurement of soil CO2 concentrations. In addition, an automated soil respiration system was installed in each macrocosm, whose data were also used for validating a model of soil CO2 production and transport based on the concentration profiles. Both for cotton and for bean canopies, under conditions of naturally fluctuating temperature and light conditions, soil CO2 production and efflux followed a clear diel pattern. Under constantly dark conditions (excluding immediate effects of photosynthesis) and constant temperature, no significant diel changes in Rs could be observed. Furthermore, soil CO2 production and efflux did not increase significantly upon exposure of previously darkened macrocosms to light. Under constant temperature and fluctuating light conditions, we observed a dampened diel pattern of Rs, which did not match diurnal solar cycles. A detailed residual analysis accounting for temporal trends in soil moisture suggested a significant

  17. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  18. Plants' responses to drought and shade environments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전병기

    Among them, drought is widely known as the main factor that limits plants' growth, productivity and development (Reddy et al., 2004; Shao et al., 2008; Li et al., 2009). Recently, drought occured frequently all over the globe due to climate changes (Khaine and Woo, 2015). Light and shade are very important environements ...

  19. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  20. Detection of Listeria spp. in liquid egg products and in the egg breaking plants environment and tracking of Listeria monocytogenes by PFGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoal, Katell; Fablet, Aurore; Courtillon, Céline; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Chemaly, Marianne; Protais, Jocelyne

    2013-08-16

    Human listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a severe bacterial infection that can lead to meningitis, cerebromeningitis, bacteremia or septicemia, with acute lethality and potentially leading to death. A study has shown that 29.5% of the caged laying hens in France are contaminated by L. monocytogenes (Chemaly et al., 2008). However, very little information regarding egg and egg product contamination is currently available. The objective of this study is to determine the sanitary status of egg products and egg breaking plants in France regarding Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes contaminations. The sampling scheme performed in five egg breaking plants in Western France during one year have revealed that 8.5% of raw egg products were contaminated by L. monocytogenes. No pasteurized egg products have been shown to be contaminated by L. monocytogenes. However, a high level of contamination by Listeria spp., and particularly by L. innocua, has been shown with 26.2% and 1.8% of raw and pasteurized egg products contaminated, respectively. This work has also revealed the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in the environment of egg breaking plants with 65.1% and 8.0% of contaminated samples, respectively. The typing of 253 isolates of L. monocytogenes by PFGE using ApaI and AscI enzymes has revealed a high diversity with 46 different pulsotypes and has shown that the raw material is a source of contamination of egg breaking plants. One L. monocytogenes cluster was dominant in the 5 egg-breaking plants during the four seasons studied. The issue of which strains are better adapted to egg products must be considered and studied in depth by comparing them to pulsotypes from strains of other chains. However, the traceability of L. monocytogenes in plants during the various seasons has also made it possible to highlight the presence of strains that are specific to egg breaking plants. The study of cleaning and disinfection methods in these plants as well

  1. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Penteado Filho, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  2. Thermal power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Recent versions of the air quality models which are reviewed and approved from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are analysed in favour of their application in simple and complex terrain, different meteorological conditions and modifications in the sources of pollutant emissions. Improvement of the standard methods for analysis of the risks affecting the environment from different energy sources has been carried out. The application of the newly introduced model enabled (lead to performing) risk analysis of the coal power plants compared to other types of energy sources. Detailed investigation of the risk assessment and perception from coal power plants, has been performed and applied to the Macedonian coal power plants. Introducing the concept of 'psychological pollution', a modification of the standard models and programs for risk assessment from various energy sources has been suggested (proposed). The model has been applied to REK Bitola, where statistically relevant differences in relation to the control groups have been obtained. (Original)

  3. From Environment to Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Behzad, H.; Archer, John A.C.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals

  4. From Environment to Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-04-29

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals

  5. Productivity and water use by rain-fed early maturing Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties grown at different plant densities in a coastal savannah environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanor, Emmanuel Nartey

    2016-06-01

    The production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under rain-fed conditions at the Kwabenya-Atomic area in the coastal savannah environment is constrained by low and erratic rainfall events. Improving cassava production in the area requires the use of cassava varieties which are efficient in the use of limited soil moisture. The objective of the study was to evaluate the response of two early maturing cassava varieties to three (3) planting densities to TDM, RY, and WUE. The actual evapotranspiration was also partitioned into crop transpiration and soil evaporation using LAI data. The field experiment was conducted at Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research farm, Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Kwabenya-Atomic in 2015. The split plot design in three replicates was used. The two (2) cassava varieties, Bankye Hemaa and Capevars Bankye, were assigned to the main plots and three (3) planting densities: 10,000, 13,333 and 20,000 plants ha"-1 to the subplots. Plants were sampled each month and moisture in the 120 cm soil profile monitored every two weeks using the neutron probe (CPN 503 Hydroprobe). Soil moisture data were used to estimate actual evapotranspiration (AET) using the water balance approach. Root yield (RY) for Bankye Hemaa and Capevars Bankye, ranged from 2.8 to 15.1 t/ha"-1 for the 10,000 plants ha"-1, 4.2 to 18.1 t/ha"-1 for the 13,333 plants ha"-1 and 5.1 to 21.3 t/ha"-1 for the 20,000 plants ha"-1. Additionally, water use efficiency in term of total dry matter (WUETDM ) for the two cassava varieties ranged from 1.7 to 11.6, 2.3 to 12.8 and 3.7 to 12.4 kg ha"-1 mm"-1 for the 10,000, 13,333 and 20,000 plants ha"-1 planting density, respectively. Bankye Hemaa grown at 20,000 plants ha"-1 produced the highest root yield of 21.3 t/ha"-1 and WUETDM of 12.4 kg ha"-1 mm"-1, because of the comparatively lower soil evaporation which led to increased available soil water for crop use and higher crop transpiration, leading to

  6. Onion seedling production in styrofoam trays under controlled environment, as summer-planted onions Plantas de cebola produzidas em bandejas sob cultivo protegido, no verão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Veiga De Vincenzo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Summer-planted onion (Allium cepa L. can increase grower profits, but the production of seedlings for transplant is difficult. This experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, with the objective of studying the behavior of the short-day onion hybrid Mercedes, in its initial stage, under controlled greenhouse environment, as summer-planted onions. Four formulated substrates, two different numbers of plants per cell were tested, and 288-cell styrofoam trays used. Trials were set up in split-plot design (n=3. Substrate and number of plants per cell represented main plots, and N application (2 and 3 times a week the subplots. The number of three plants per cell decrease the earlier onset of bulbing and increase plant height; substrates did not show differences; and the N application 3 times a week increased plant height and leaf dry weight, but did not result in earlier onset of bulbing.Uma das dificuldades do cultivo do verão da cebola (Allium cepa L., que permite maior lucro pois esta é a época de entressafra, é a produção de plantas para o transplante. Com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento na fase de muda do híbrido Mercedes, sob cultivo protegido como cultura de verão, o experimento foi instalado em estufa, em Piracicaba, SP com bandejas de isopor de 288 células. Foram testados quatro substratos. e dois números de plantas por células (3 e 4 plantas/célula, sendo sub-plot a suplementação mineral com nitrogênio 2 e 3 vezes por semana com nitrato de cálcio + nitrato de potássio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com fatorial 4 x 2 em parcelas subdivididas, e três repetições. A densidade de três plantas por célula apresentou menor taxa de bulbificação precoce e maior altura da planta; não houve diferença quanto aos substratos e que a aplicação de nitrogênio três vezes por semana apresentou os maiores valores de altura da planta e peso da matéria seca da parte aérea, n

  7. Plant Pathogenicity in Spaceflight Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Deborah L.; Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Anne J.

    1996-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses, which may promote microbial growth and result in pathogenicity to the plant. Recent plant experiments with super dwarf wheat aboard the NASA Space Shuttle and NASA/Russian Mir Space Station returned from the mission with severe degrees of fungal contamination. Understanding the cause of such microbial contamination and methods to eliminate it are necessary prerequisites for continued plant growth and development studies ...

  8. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-01-01

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  9. Resins production: batch plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banti, M.; Mauri, G.

    1996-01-01

    Companies that look for automation in their plants without external resources, have at their disposal flexible, custom and easy to use DCS, open towards PLC. In this article it is explained why Hoechts has followed this way of new plants for resins production automation

  10. Modular Engineering of Production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...

  11. RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES IN MARINE ENVIRONMENT. A STUDY ON THE CONCENTRATION OF MIXED FISSION PRODUCTS IN GREEK SEA WATERS AND OF 137CS IN FISH AND SEA PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANALI-KOTSAKI, S.; FLOROU-GAZI, H.

    1982-12-01

    Full text: The concentrations of mixed fission products in sea water and of 137 Cs in fish and sea plants are different for samples collected from different sampling areas. This difference is more remarkable the year where the level of the world wide fall-out is higher, especially with regards to M. F. P. concentrations in sea water samples. Increases or decreases to M.F.P. concentrations in sea water samples result to increases or decreases of 137 Cs in fish and sea plants. (author)

  12. Sublethal effects of herbicides on the biomass and seed production of terrestrial non-crop plant species, influenced by environment, development stage and assessment date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemens, Marleen M.; Dueck, Thom; Kempenaar, Corne; Lotz, Lambertus A.P.; Kropff, Martin J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Guidelines provided by the OECD and EPPO allow the use of single-species tests performed in greenhouses to assess the risk of herbicides to non-target terrestrial plant communities in the field. The present study was undertaken to investigate the use of greenhouse data to determine effects of herbicides with a different mode of action on the biomass, seed production and emergence of field-grown plants. In addition, a single species approach was compared with a mixed species approach. Effects on the biomass of greenhouse and field-grown plants were found to be related at different effect levels, indicating that it might be possible to translate results from greenhouse studies to field situations. However, the use of single-species tests may not be valid. The response of a single plant species to sublethal herbicide dosages differed to the response of the same species grown in a mixture with other species. - The use of single-species greenhouse tests in the ecological risk assessment of crop protection products may only be valid for single species in the field, not for vegetations.

  13. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, K [Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague

    1978-05-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, ash and soot emissions with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 85/Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts.

  14. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, K.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO 2 , NO 2 , ash and soot emmisions with 133 Xe and 85 Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts. (O.K.)

  15. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyberk, Oe.

    2000-01-01

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  16. Natural radioactivity in the production of titanium dioxide pigment: a study of the Laporte Plant and environment behaviour of radionuclides at Bunbury, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Statham, J.R.; Williams, G.A.

    1981-10-01

    A study of radioactivity levels in samples collected at a titanium dioxide plant at Bunbury in Western Australia is described. The radioactivities of the principal radionuclides present in the ilmenite feed ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 228 Th) are followed throughout the pigment production process. It is found that approximately 67 MBq/day of activity due to each of 228 Ra and 228 Th enters the plant (equivalent to 17.8 kg of thorium), and approximately 14 MBq/day of activity due to 226 Ra. Essentially all of this radioactivity leaves the plant in the form of acidic effluent, which is pumped to disposal lagoons and allowed to neutralise and drain away. A preliminary study of possible environmental effects of radioactivity in the effluent is presented. It was established that in the presence of high sulphate ion concentrations in both the plant feed liquor and the effluent, thorium remains in solution whereas radium, which forms an insoluble sulphate compound, tends to coprecipitate and is found in solid residues throughout the process

  17. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  18. Plant senescence and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Per L.; Culetic, Andrea; Boschian, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants....... With the aim to enhance productivity, a number of functional stay-green cultivars have been selected by conventional breeding, in particular of sorghum and maize. In many cases, a positive correlation between leaf area duration and yield has been observed, although in a number of other cases, stay...... plants, the expression of the IPT gene under control of senescence-associated promoters has been the most successful. The promoters employed for senescence-regulated expression contain cis-elements for binding of WRKY transcription factors and factors controlled by abscisic acid. In most crops...

  19. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...

  20. Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in extreme environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the extreme environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in extreme environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different extreme environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have important roles in stress resistance and adaptation to extremes. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from extreme environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Small hydropower plants in Switzerland: definition of spatial priorities, taking into account the conflicting interests of power production and protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehse, Heiko; Pazhepurackel, Vinitha

    2012-01-01

    Due to the promotion of small hydropower plants in Switzerland, a lot of new projects have been planned. This leads to conflicts of interests, especially between ecology and power production. Where should new power plants be built, and which rivers should be protected from any further impact ? In this paper a methodology is developed in order to find answers to those questions. It confronts the oppositional interests for the use and protection of rivers in a transparent way. By doing so, it is hoped to rationalize conflicts. The methodology should help the authorities to evaluate new projects, and it is a basis for regional strategies of river use and protection. The method was tested in collaboration with the cantonal authority of Bern to classify all the rivers of the canton (12'000 km) [Conseil-executif du canton de Berne 2009]. For each river section, the different interests were identified. It has been adapted for the canton of Fribourg to classify the river reaches where new plants are planned [Wehse 2010]. In 2011 the swiss confederation has published a recommendation for the cantonal and communal authorities, concerning the elaboration of cantonal strategies for the use and protection of the rivers [Wehse 2011], which is based on the same method. (authors)

  2. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  3. The plant expert system (PLEXSYS) development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S.; Patterson, L.; Jeffery, M.; Delashmutt, L.

    1989-06-01

    The PLEXSYS software engineering tool provides an environment with which utility engineers can build and use expert systems for power plant applications. PLEXSYS provides the engineer with access to many powerful Artificial Intelligence methodologies, while retaining an engineering frame of reference and minimizing the need for a formal background in computer science. The principle concept is that the description and understanding of power plant systems centers on graphical forms such as piping and instrumentation diagrams and electrical line diagrams, which define a graphics-based model of plant knowledge that is common to many applications. PLEXSYS provides a model editor that allows the user to construct and modify models of hydraulic, electrical, and information systems in terms of elementary components and their interconnections. Analysis of the resulting schematic models is provided by several functions that perform network analysis, schematic browsing, mathematical modeling and customization of the user interface. 41 figs., 1 tab

  4. Thermography to explore plant-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J Miguel; Grant, Olga M; Chaves, M Manuela

    2013-10-01

    Stomatal regulation is a key determinant of plant photosynthesis and water relations, influencing plant survival, adaptation, and growth. Stomata sense the surrounding environment and respond rapidly to abiotic and biotic stresses. Stomatal conductance to water vapour (g s) and/or transpiration (E) are therefore valuable physiological parameters to be monitored in plant and agricultural sciences. However, leaf gas exchange measurements involve contact with leaves and often interfere with leaf functioning. Besides, they are time consuming and are limited by the sampling characteristics (e.g. sample size and/or the high number of samples required). Remote and rapid means to assess g s or E are thus particularly valuable for physiologists, agronomists, and ecologists. Transpiration influences the leaf energy balance and, consequently, leaf temperature (T leaf). As a result, thermal imaging makes it possible to estimate or quantify g s and E. Thermal imaging has been successfully used in a wide range of conditions and with diverse plant species. The technique can be applied at different scales (e.g. from single seedlings/leaves through whole trees or field crops to regions), providing great potential to study plant-environment interactions and specific phenomena such as abnormal stomatal closure, genotypic variation in stress tolerance, and the impact of different management strategies on crop water status. Nevertheless, environmental variability (e.g. in light intensity, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) affects the accuracy of thermal imaging measurements. This review presents and discusses the advantages of thermal imaging applications to plant science, agriculture, and ecology, as well as its limitations and possible approaches to minimize them, by highlighting examples from previous and ongoing research.

  5. Uranium hexafluoride production plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN is a research and development institution, located in a densely populated area, in the city of Sao Paulo. The nuclear fuel cycle was developed from the Yellow Cake to the enrichment and reconversion at IPEN. After this phase, all the technology was transferred to private enterprises and to the Brazilian Navy (CTM/SP). Some plants of the fuel cycle were at semi-industrial level, with a production over 20 kg/h. As a research institute, IPEN accomplished its function of the fuel cycle, developing and transferring technology. With the necessity of space for the implementation of new projects, the uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production plant was chosen, since it had been idle for many years and presented potential leaking risks, which could cause environmental aggression and serious accidents. This plant decommission required accurate planning, as this work had not been carried out in Brazil before, for this type of facility, and there were major risks involving gaseous hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) both highly corrosive. Evaluations were performed and special equipment was developed, aiming to prevent leaking and avoid accidents. During the decommissioning work, the CNEN safety standards were obeyed for the whole operation. The environmental impact was calculated, showing to be not relevant.The radiation doses, after the work, were within the limits for the public and the area was released for new projects. (author)

  6. Coping mechanisms for crop plants in drought-prone environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter M

    2008-05-01

    Drought is a major limitation to plant productivity. Various options are available for increasing water availability and sustaining growth of crop plants in drought-prone environments. After a general introduction to the problems of water availability, this review focuses on a critical evaluation of recent progress in unravelling mechanisms for modifying plant growth responses to drought. Investigations of key regulatory mechanisms integrating plant growth responses to water deficits at the whole-organism, cellular and genomic levels continue to provide novel and exiting research findings. For example, recent reports contradict the widespread conception that root-derived abscisic acid is necessarily involved in signalling for stomatal and shoot-growth responses to soil water deficits. The findings bring into question the theoretical basis for alternate-side root-irrigation techniques. Similarly, recent reports indicate that increased ABA production or increased aquaporin expression did not lead to improved drought resistance. Other reports have concerned key genes and proteins involved in regulation of flowering (FT), vegetative growth (DELLA), leaf senescence (IPT) and desiccation tolerance (LEA). Introgression of such genes, with suitable promoters, can greatly impact on whole-plant responses to drought. Further developments could facilitate the introduction by breeders of new crop varieties with growth physiologies tailored to improved field performance under drought. Parallel efforts to encourage the introduction of supplementary irrigation with water made available by improved conservation measures and by sea- or brackish-water desalination, will probably provide comprehensive solutions to coping with drought-prone environments.

  7. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  8. Design for the Environment Products (Online Search)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  9. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  10. Cell physiology of plants growing in cold environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz, Cornelius

    2010-08-01

    The life of plants growing in cold extreme environments has been well investigated in terms of morphological, anatomical, and ecophysiological adaptations. In contrast, long-term cellular or metabolic studies have been performed by only a few groups. Moreover, a number of single reports exist, which often represent just a glimpse of plant behavior. The review draws together the literature which has focused on tissue and cellular adaptations mainly to low temperatures and high light. Most studies have been done with European alpine plants; comparably well studied are only two phanerogams found in the coastal Antarctic. Plant adaptation in northern polar regions has always been of interest in terms of ecophysiology and plant propagation, but nowadays, this interest extends to the effects of global warming. More recently, metabolic and cellular investigations have included cold and UV resistance mechanisms. Low-temperature stress resistance in plants from cold environments reflects the climate conditions at the growth sites. It is now a matter of molecular analyses to find the induced genes and their products such as chaperones or dehydrins responsible for this resistance. Development of plants under snow or pollen tube growth at 0 degrees C shows that cell biology is needed to explain the stability and function of the cytoskeleton. Many results in this field are based on laboratory studies, but several publications show that it is not difficult to study cellular mechanisms with the plants adapted to a natural stress. Studies on high light and UV loads may be split in two parts. Many reports describe natural UV as harmful for the plants, but these studies were mainly conducted by shielding off natural UV (as controls). Other experiments apply additional UV in the field and have had practically no negative impact on metabolism. The latter group is supported by the observations that green overwintering plants increase their flavonoids under snow even in the absence of

  11. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds. A Spanish version of this dataset is available for download at http://www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/products/list_of_labeled_products.html

  12. Montane plant environments in the Fynbos Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental data collected at 507 plots on 22 transects, and soil analytical data from 81 of these plots, have been used to describe the plant environments of the mountains in the Fynbos Biome. Two major regional gradients are recognized: a west-east gradient and a coast-interior gradient. Of particular consequence for fynbos-environment studies is the increase in the proportion of fine soil particles from west to east. At least some aspects of soil fertility also increase towards the east. The edaphic changes are paralleled by climatic changes: chiefly a decrease in the severity of summer drought towards the east. On the coast-interior gradient a major non-climatic variable in the gradient is rock cover. High rock cover is a feature of the interior ranges. Soils with organic horizons or with E horizons are a feature on the coastal mountains, but are generally lacking on the interior mountains. The other environmental gradients recognized occur on individual transects and all include edaphic variables. The rockiness-soil depth gradient, on which an increase in rockiness is associated with a decrease in soil depth and usually a decrease in clay content, tends to occur in three situations. Firstly, it is associated with local topographic variation; the shallow, rocky soils being a feature of the steeper slopes. Secondly, it is associated with the aspect gradient; the hot, dry northern aspects having shallow, rocky, less developed soils. Thirdly, it tends to be associated with the altitude-rainfall gradient: shallower soils being found at higher altitudes. It is also at higher altitudes that higher rainfall is found. Variation in oxidizable carbon is chiefly accounted for by the altitude-rainfall gradient. Whereas at a biome-wide level, aspects of soil fertility are related to soil texture, it appears that on individual transects fertility is linked to amounts of plant remains in the soil and to rainfall. Apart from these gradients, which are

  13. Processes for manufacture of products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a process for inhibiting browning of plant material comprising adding a chelating agent to a disrupted plant material and adjusting the pH to a value of 2.0 to 4.5. Processes for manufacture of soluble and insoluble products from a plant material are also disclosed. Soluble...

  14. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  15. Analysis of color environment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Kazuyuki; Akagi, Ichiro; Souma, Ichiro; Hiraki, Tadao; Sakurai, Yukihiro.

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of color and psychological analysis of the outlook of nuclear power plants and the visual environments inside of the plants. Study one was the color measurements of the outlook of nuclear plants and the visual environment inside of the plants. Study two was a survey of the impressions on the visual environments of nuclear plants obtained from observers and interviews of the workers. Through these analysis, we have identified the present state of, and the problems of the color environments of the nuclear plants. In the next step, we have designed the color environments of inside and outside of the nuclear plants which we would recommend (inside designs were about fuel handling room, operation floor of turbine building, observers' pathways, central control room, rest room for the operators). Study three was the survey about impressions on our design inside and outside of the nuclear plants. Nuclear plant observers, residents in Osaka city, residents near the nuclear plants, the operators, employees of subsidiary company and the PR center guides rated their impressions on the designs. Study four was the survey about the design of the rest room for the operators controlling the plants. From the results of four studies, we have proposed some guidelines and problems about the future planning about the visual environments of nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Design for the Environment Products (Online Search)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds.

  17. Planning product quality: An example - ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Miodrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The industry of ornamental plants is a subject of quality planning. The quality plan is a document setting out the specific quality practices in ornamental plants production. That plan introduce organizational structure procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality in life cycle of product chain. For engineers it represents a new tool.

  18. Medicinal plants: production and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunzhao Liu; Zobayed, S.M.A; Murch, S.J.; Saxena, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of biotechnology offer some possibility for the development of new technologies for the conservation, characterization and mass production of medicinal plant species, (i.e. in vitro cell culture techniques for the mass production of sterile, consistent, standardized medicinal plant materials). This paper discussed the following subjects - plant tissue culture, de novo shoot organogenesis, de novo root organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, large scale propagation in bioreactors and discovery of unique biomolecules

  19. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    clones (P. trichocurpa Torr. & Gray x P: deltoides Bartr., TD and P. deltoides x P. nigra L., DN), we determined the TD clone, which was more productive during the first three years, had slightly lower osmotic potential than the DN clone, and also indicated a small osmotic adjustment compared with the DN hybrid. However, the productivity differences were negligible by the fifth growing season. In a separate study with several P. deltoides clones, we did not observe a consistent relationship between growth and osmotic adjustment. Some clones that had low osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment were as productive as another clone that had high osmotic potential. The least productive clone also had low osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment. The absence of a correlation may have been partly due to the fact that all clones were capable of osmotic adjustment and had low osmotic potential. In a study involving an inbred three-generation TD F{sub 2} pedigree (family 331), we did not observe a correlation between relative growth rate and osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. However, when clones that exhibited osmotic adjustment were analyzed, there was a negative correlation between growth and osmotic potential, indicating clones with lower osmotic potential were more productive. This was observed only in clones that were exposed to drought. Although the absolute osmotic potential varied by growing environment, the relative ranking among progenies remains generally the same, suggesting that osmotic potential is genetically controlled. We have identified a quantitative trait locus for osmotic potential in another three-generation TD F{sub 2} pedigree (family 822). Unlike the many studies in agricultural crops, most of the forest tree studies were not based on plants exposed to severe stress to determine the role of osmotic adjustment. Future studies should consider using clones that are known to be productive but have contrasting osmotic adjustment capability as well as

  20. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  1. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  2. 42 CFR 491.6 - Physical plant and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical plant and environment. 491.6 Section 491.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...: Conditions for Certification; and FQHCs Conditions for Coverage § 491.6 Physical plant and environment. (a...

  3. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  4. Power plants operating in normal conditions, space management, and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the local populations considerations related to the establishment of a nuclear power plant comprising 4 units of 900 MW: reception of a population in the existing environment, acceptance of the power plant by the local population, effluent releases and environmental impacts, and the power plant future [fr

  5. Automated plant, production management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, V. I.; Belov, V. I.

    1984-12-01

    The development of a complex of tasks for the operational management of production (OUP) within the framework of an automated system for production management (ASUP) shows that it is impossible to have effective computations without reliable initial information. The influence of many factors involving the production and economic activity of the entire enterprise upon the plan and course of production are considered. It is suggested that an adequate model should be available which covers all levels of the hierarchical system: workplace, section (bridgade), shop, enterprise, and the model should be incorporated into the technological sequence of performance and there should be provisions for an adequate man machine system.

  6. Phytomonas: trypanosomatids adapted to plant environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Jaskowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 100 years after trypanosomatids were first discovered in plant tissues, Phytomonas parasites have now been isolated across the globe from members of 24 different plant families. Most identified species have not been associated with any plant pathology and to date only two species are definitively known to cause plant disease. These diseases (wilt of palm and coffee phloem necrosis are problematic in areas of South America where they threaten the economies of developing countries. In contrast to their mammalian infective relatives, our knowledge of the biology of Phytomonas parasites and how they interact with their plant hosts is limited. This review draws together a century of research into plant trypanosomatids, from the first isolations and experimental infections to the recent publication of the first Phytomonas genomes. The availability of genomic data for these plant parasites opens a new avenue for comparative investigations into trypanosomatid biology and provides fresh insight into how this important group of parasites have adapted to survive in a spectrum of hosts from crocodiles to coconuts.

  7. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables

  8. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as

  9. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables

  10. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fungal Production and Manipulation of Plant Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sandra; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Prasad, Kalika; Chini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated coevolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies. The plant-fungus communication relies on a rich chemical language. To manipulate the plant defence mechanisms, fungi produce and secrete several classes of biomolecules, whose modeof- action is largely unknown. Upon perception of the fungi, plants produce phytohormones and a battery of secondary metabolites that serve as defence mechanism against invaders or to promote mutualistic associations. These mutualistic chemical signals can be co-opted by pathogenic fungi for their own benefit. Among the plant molecules regulating plant-fungus interaction, phytohormones play a critical role since they modulate various aspects of plant development, defences and stress responses. Intriguingly, fungi can also produce phytohormones, although the actual role of fungalproduced phytohormones in plant-fungus interactions is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the recent advances in fungal production of phytohormone, their putative role as endogenous fungal signals and how fungi manipulate plant hormone balance to their benefits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Plants' responses to drought and shade environments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전병기

    factors affect plants' growth, morphology, physiology and biochemistry. Many research works .... Hardwood and Conifer tree species n central Wisconsin: Influence of light regime and .... Ecotypic variation in response to light spectra in Scots ...

  13. Influence of ingredients of motor transport exhausts on the seed productivity of adornment flowering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic descriptions of the seminal productivity for some ornamental flowering plants under influence of cars’ emissions are presented. Decreasing of the seminal productivity, germinating capacity of seeds and mass of thousand seeds was found. Recommendations on plants using for planting of the cities environment polluted by vehicles emissions are proposed.

  14. 7 CFR 302.2 - Movement of plants and plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plants and plant products. 302.2 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA; MOVEMENT OF PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS § 302.2 Movement of plants and plant products. Inspection or documentation of the plant health status of...

  15. Food-Energy Interactive Tradeoff Analysis of Sustainable Urban Plant Factory Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Chun Huang; Yu-Hui Chen; Ya-Hui Chen; Chi-Fang Wang; Ming-Che Hu

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the food–energy interactive nexus of sustainable urban plant factory systems. Plant factory systems grow agricultural products within artificially controlled growing environment and multi-layer vertical growing systems. The system controls the supply of light, temperature, humidity, nutrition, water, and carbon dioxide for growing plants. Plant factories are able to produce consistent and high-quality agricultural products within less production space for urban a...

  16. Probabilistic production simulation including CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.V.; Palsson, H.; Ravn, H.F.

    1997-04-01

    A probabilistic production simulation method is presented for an energy system containing combined heat and power plants. The method permits incorporation of stochastic failures (forced outages) of the plants and is well suited for analysis of the dimensioning of the system, that is, for finding the appropriate types and capacities of production plants in relation to expansion planning. The method is in the tradition of similar approaches for the analysis of power systems, based on the load duration curve. The present method extends on this by considering a two-dimensional load duration curve where the two dimensions represent heat and power. The method permits the analysis of a combined heat and power system which includes all the basic relevant types of plants, viz., condensing plants, back pressure plants, extraction plants and heat plants. The focus of the method is on the situation where the heat side has priority. This implies that on the power side there may be imbalances between demand and production. The method permits quantification of the expected power overflow, the expected unserviced power demand, and the expected unserviced heat demand. It is shown that a discretization method as well as double Fourier series may be applied in algorithms based on the method. (au) 1 tab., 28 ills., 21 refs.

  17. Thermonuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becka, J.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental safety and protection from the effects of the thermonuclear power plants are discussed. Factors are assessed which should be considered in the choice of fuel and breeding material of a thermonuclear reactor, the problems of structural material activation and the overall reactor concepts. Main specifications are given of the US thermonuclear power plant projects with D-T reaction based reactors. The overall amounts of tritium in the reactor cycles are shown. The potential biological risk is evaluated for the different materials considered for the UWMAK-1 project. Discussed are possible pathways of activity release in normal plant operation, non-radioactive aspects, such as waste heat, the magnetic field effect on personnel and population, etc., as well as possible environmental impacts in case of accidents. (B.S.)

  18. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  19. Nuclear Plant Modification in a Risk-Informed Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines a specific nuclear power plant modification performed in a risk-informed regulatory environment. It quantifies both the permanent and temporary effects of the modification, and performs a cost-benefit evaluation. (authors)

  20. Occurrence of transformation products in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Battaglin, William A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Meyer, Michael T.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, most environmental occurrence research has focused on the parent compounds of organic contaminants. Research, however, has documented that the environmental transport of chemicals, such as pesticides and emerging contaminants, are substantially underestimated if transformation products are not considered. Although most examples described herein were drawn from research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, such results are generally reflective of those found in other parts of the world. Results from a study of 51 streams in the Midwestern United States found that transformation products were seven of the ten most frequently detected pesticide compounds in late spring runoff (after application of pre-emergent herbicides), and nine of the ten most frequently detected compounds in fall season runoff (during and after harvest). In fact, 70% of the total herbicide concentration in water from the Mississippi River Basin was from transformation products. Results from a study of 86 municipal wells in Iowa found the frequency of detection increased from 17%, when pesticide parent compounds were considered, to 53%, when both parents and transformation products were considered. Transformation products were 12 of the 15 most frequently detected compounds for this groundwater study. Although studies on transformation products of synthetic organic compounds other than pesticides are not as common, wastewater treatment plant discharges have repeatedly been shown to contribute such transformation products to streams. In addition, select detergent transformation products have been commonly found in solid waste in the 1000's mg/kg. These findings and many others document that transformation products must be considered to fully assess the potential environmental occurrence of chemical contaminants and their transport and fate in various compartments of the hydrologic system. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  2. Plant Products for Innovative Biomaterials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena M. Varoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental biomaterials and natural products represent two of the main growing research fields, revealing plant-derived compounds may play a role not only as nutraceuticals in affecting oral health, but also in improving physico-chemical properties of biomaterials used in dentistry. Therefore, our aim was to collect all available data concerning the utilization of plant polysaccharides, proteins and extracts rich in bioactive phytochemicals in enhancing performance of dental biomaterials. Although compelling evidences are suggestive of a great potential of plant products in promoting material-tissue/cell interface, to date, only few authors have investigated their use in development of innovative dental biomaterials. A small number of studies have reported plant extract-based titanium implant coatings and periodontal regenerative materials. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first to deal with this topic, highlighting a general lack of research findings in an interesting field which still needs to be investigated.

  3. Monitoring product safety in the postmarketing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrar, Robert G; Dieck, Gretchen S

    2013-10-01

    The safety profile of a medicinal product may change in the postmarketing environment. Safety issues not identified in clinical development may be seen and need to be evaluated. Methods of evaluating spontaneous adverse experience reports and identifying new safety risks include a review of individual reports, a review of a frequency distribution of a list of the adverse experiences, the development and analysis of a case series, and various ways of examining the database for signals of disproportionality, which may suggest a possible association. Regulatory agencies monitor product safety through a variety of mechanisms including signal detection of the adverse experience safety reports in databases and by requiring and monitoring risk management plans, periodic safety update reports and postauthorization safety studies. The United States Food and Drug Administration is working with public, academic and private entities to develop methods for using large electronic databases to actively monitor product safety. Important identified risks will have to be evaluated through observational studies and registries.

  4. Vitality of plants to live in the indoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuri, Mohd Mahathir Suhaimi; Leman, A. M.; Hariri, Azian; Idris, Ahmad Fu'ad; Afandi, Azizi

    2017-09-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is generally a public concern because 90% of people spend their time indoor. IAQ must be preserved wisely to guarantee the health of the building occupants. One of the ways to maintain the quality of air is by placing plants in the building. However, all plants come from the outdoor, and the environment is different compared to indoor. Environmental factors such as temperature and light will absolutely affect the growth of the plant. Light and temperature that are too bright or too deem can wither the plants. Nevertheless, certain plant is capable of adapting with different situation after assimilation process has been conducted. This study intends to analyze the capacity of seven selected plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, Spider Plant, and Syngonium) to live in an indoor environment. The vitality of plants is based on photosynthetic level that is measured using leaf - chamber (LI-COR 6400). Two groups of plants were located in indoor and outdoor (indigenous location) setting, and were allowed to assimilate for two months before measurement were carried out. The results for the plant located indoor shows that only Spider Plant cannot perform photosynthesis under 300 lux, where the photosynthetic value remains negative. Meanwhile, other plants such as Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, and Syngonium that were left indoor showed similar 300 lux in which conform the ability of the plants to perform photosynthesis with the value of 0.3, 0.15, 0.35, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.1. In comparison, all of the plants that were stationed indoor and outdoor (except Spider Plant), the light compensation point (LCP) for indoor shows smaller value than the outdoor. This is because all the indoor plants had down - regulated their photosynthesis process by becoming more sensitive to light after their assimilation. From this study, it can be concluded that all plants except Spider Plant is able to live

  5. Mobile materials handling platform interface architecture for mass production environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walker, A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial manufacturing systems achieve production stability due to near constant production processes e.g. mass production. Passive methods such as production flow analysis can produce plant layouts which optimise material flow within...

  6. Nuclear power plants - active environment protection|

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, I.

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Commission, which is studying energy scenarios, will doubtlessly come to the conclusion that a withdrawal from nuclear energy is technically and economically feasible. Feasibility alone however is no justification for action. Have the questions been asked correctly by the parliamentarians? Are the real problems being bypassed? Is the demand for a withdrawal from nuclear energy soundly based? Is it not oversimplified? Many people are afraid of nuclear energy because they do not understand it. It is necessary that specialists formulate their ideas so that the layman can easily understand them. The broad public can be educated to lose their fear of nuclear power plants which they compare with the nuclear bombs. They can also be educated to lose their fear of radioactivity. The public should also realize that the CO 2 problem is actual and very serious, and that nuclear energy can in fact help to alleviate this particular problem. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Investigations of Methane Production in Hypersaline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reports of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, as well as the findings of hypersaline paleo-environments on that planet, have underscored the need to evaluate the importance of biological (as opposed to geological) trace gas production and consumption. Methane in the atmosphere of Mars may be an indication of life but might also be a consequence of geologic activity and/or the thermal alteration of ancient organic matter. Hypersaline environments have now been reported to be extremely likely in several locations in our solar system, including: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Modern hypersaline microbial mat communities, (thought to be analogous to those present on the early Earth at a period of time when Mars was experiencing very similar environmental conditions), have been shown to produce methane. However, very little is known about the physical and/or biological controls imposed upon the rates at which methane, and other important trace gases, are produced and consumed in these environments. We describe here the results of our investigations of methane production in hypersaline environments, including field sites in Chile, Baja California Mexico, California, USA and the United Arab Emirates. We have measured high concentrations of methane in bubbles of gas produced both in the sediments underlying microbial mats, as well as in areas not colonized by microbial mats in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline ecosystem, Baja California Mexico, in Chile, and in salt ponds on the San Francisco Bay. The carbon isotopic (d13C) composition of the methane in the bubbles exhibited an extremely wide range of values, (ca. -75 per mille ca. -25 per mille). The hydrogen isotopic composition of the methane (d2H) ranged from -60 to -30per mille and -450 to -350per mille. These isotopic values are outside of the range of values normally considered to be biogenic, however incubations of the sediments in contact with these gas bubbles reveals that the methane is indeed being

  8. Flavonoids as Important Molecules of Plant Interactions with the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Mierziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are small molecular secondary metabolites synthesized by plants with various biological activities. Due to their physical and biochemical properties, they are capable of participating in plants’ interactions with other organisms (microorganisms, animals and other plants and their reactions to environmental stresses. The majority of their functions result from their strong antioxidative properties. Although an increasing number of studies focus on the application of flavonoids in medicine or the food industry, their relevance for the plants themselves also deserves extensive investigations. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions of flavonoids in the physiology of plants and their relations with the environment.

  9. Deep Learning for Plant Identification in Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Guan; Zhang, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Plant image identification has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botanical taxonomy and computer vision. The first plant image dataset collected by mobile phone in natural scene is presented, which contains 10,000 images of 100 ornamental plant species in Beijing Forestry University campus. A 26-layer deep learning model consisting of 8 residual building blocks is designed for large-scale plant classification in natural environment. The proposed model achieves a recognition rate of 91.78% on the BJFU100 dataset, demonstrating that deep learning is a promising technology for smart forestry.

  10. Deep Learning for Plant Identification in Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant image identification has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botanical taxonomy and computer vision. The first plant image dataset collected by mobile phone in natural scene is presented, which contains 10,000 images of 100 ornamental plant species in Beijing Forestry University campus. A 26-layer deep learning model consisting of 8 residual building blocks is designed for large-scale plant classification in natural environment. The proposed model achieves a recognition rate of 91.78% on the BJFU100 dataset, demonstrating that deep learning is a promising technology for smart forestry.

  11. Online production validation in a HEP environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harenberg, T.; Lang, N.; Maettig, P.; Sandhoff, M.; Volkmer, F. [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany); Kuhl, T. [DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen (Germany); Schwanenberger, C. [DESY Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    In high energy physics (HEP) event simulations, petabytes of data are processed and stored requiring millions of CPU-years. This enormous demand for computing resources is handled by centers distributed worldwide, which form part of the LHC computing grid. The consumption of such an important amount of resources demands for an efficient production of simulation and for the early detection of potential errors. In this article we present a new monitoring framework for grid environments, which polls a measure of data quality during job execution. This online monitoring facilitates the early detection of configuration errors (specially in simulation parameters), and may thus contribute to significant savings in computing resources. (orig.)

  12. Combined production of fish and plants in recirculating water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegel, L.C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot plant of ca 2000 l of recirculating fresh water for intensive fish production was constructed in a controlled-environment greenhouse. The feasibility was examined of using nutrients from fish wastewater, mainly oxidized nitrogenous compounds, for plant production, combined with an activated sludge system for water purification. The reduction of nitrates, formed during the extended aeration process by nitrifying bacteria, was not sufficient by higher plants and unicellular algae alone to reduce the nitrate concentration in our system significantly. An additional microbial denitrification step had to be included to effect maximal decrease in nitrogenous compounds. For fish culture in the pilot plant Tilapia mossambica and Cyprinus carpio were chosen as experimental fishes. Both fish species showed significant weight increases during the course of the experiment. Ice-lettuce and tomatoes were tested both in recirculating water and in batch culture. The unicellular algae Scenedesmus spp. were grown in a non-sterile batch culture. All plants grew well in the wastewater without additional nutrients. Determination of the physical and chemical parameters for optimum water purification, the most suitable ratio of denitrification by plants and by microorganisms, and the most favourable fish and plant species for combined culture in recirculating water are important and of current interest in view of the increasing demand for clean, fresh water, and the pressing need to find new ways of producing protein for human nutrition under prevailing conditions of an exponentially expanding world population.

  13. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  14. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

  15. Targeting of detoxification potential of microorganisms and plants for cleaning environment polluted by organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of specially selected plants and microorganisms. Initial degradation of pesticides carry out by microorganisms; the forming dehalogenated products easily uptake by the plants and undergo oxidative degradation via plant detoxification enzymes. This approach can complete degradation of toxicants and their mineralization into nontoxic compounds. In the presented work the results of using selected strains from genera Pseudomonas and plants phytoremediators in the model experiments are given. It has been shown that the using developed technological approach effectively decreased degree of pollution in artificially polluted soil samples.

  16. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  17. Introduction to Nuclear Power Plant Environment Supervisory Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Il

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, there are five nuclear power plant sites, located at Yongkwang, Kori, Shin Kori, Uljin, and Wolsong. Each administrative district has its own NESC (Nuclear plant Environment Public Supervisory Committee) which consists of a steering committee and a center. The purpose of NESC is to let the public survey and inspect nuclear plant environment and then improve a clarity and confidence in plant construction and operation by themselves. In order to understand the situation of NESC and explore ways toward a better role of NESC, in this paper we try to enumerate a few major facts related to a current status of NESC. As a summary, there must be a great role of NESC in the relationship between the residents, a nuclear industry company and the related government division. Furthermore, NESC would certainly do its role for all sides provided that more strong definition of NESC in law, more financial supporting and more philosophical speculation for the being of NESC

  18. Food-Energy Interactive Tradeoff Analysis of Sustainable Urban Plant Factory Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the food–energy interactive nexus of sustainable urban plant factory systems. Plant factory systems grow agricultural products within artificially controlled growing environment and multi-layer vertical growing systems. The system controls the supply of light, temperature, humidity, nutrition, water, and carbon dioxide for growing plants. Plant factories are able to produce consistent and high-quality agricultural products within less production space for urban areas. The production systems use less labor, pesticide, water, and nutrition. However, food production of plant factories has many challenges including higher energy demand, energy costs, and installation costs of artificially controlled technologies. In the research, stochastic optimization model and linear complementarity models are formulated to conduct optimal and equilibrium food–energy analysis of plant factory production. A case study of plant factories in the Taiwanese market is presented.

  19. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  20. A Design of Ginseng Planting Environment Monitoring System Based on WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ding

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of ginseng products industry chain, this paper designs and implements ginseng planting environment monitoring system. The system realized data collection and detection of ginseng planting environment in real time by using wireless sensor, transmission of environmental parameters in real time by using GPRS wireless transmission module, and video monitor and alarm of ginseng land by using unattended machine. It is the foundation of information transformation of ginseng products industry chain based on the Internet of Things. The experiment of ginseng planting base in Fusong indicates the system can offer support of original data for scientific cultivation of ginseng, comprehensive analysis of ginseng products and propaganda of ginseng brand.

  1. Design of wireless communication systems for nuclear power plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadri, A.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of low-SNR (Signal-to-Noise ratio) digital communication system design in man-made electromagnetic environment within a nuclear power plant is addressed. A canonical structure of the low-SNR receiver is derived and analyzed for its bit error rate performance. The parameters that affect the error rate performance are identified and illustrated. Several well-known digital modulations are considered. It is shown that the receiver structure is dependent on the first-order probability density function of the noise environment. Thus, we offer comments for its robust implementation and its effect on bit error rate performance. We model the EM environment within the nuclear power plant to be e - mixture model, the parameters of which can be estimated to fit the environment. (author)

  2. Airborne heavy metal pollution in the environment of a danish steel plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, N. K.; Stephansen, U.; Rasmussen, L.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of heavy metal deposition was carried out in the vicinity of a Danish steel plant. Bulk precipitation and transplanted lichen (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.) were sampled at 12 stations in the environment before and after the production had been converted from open-hearth furnaces...

  3. Physiological quality of soybean seeds under different yield environments and plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. Baron

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yield potential of agricultural fields associated with plant spatial arrangement could determine the physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seeds from different yield environments and plant densities. Experiments were carried out in Boa Vista das Missões-RS, Brazil, during the 2014/2015 growing season. Yield environments were delineated by overlapping yield maps from the 2008, 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with two yield environments (low and high and five plant densities, with four replicates. Two varieties were tested: Brasmax Ativa RR (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 plants m-1 and Nidera 5909 RR (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 plants m-1. After harvested, the seeds were analysed as following: first count index, germination, abnormal seedlings, dead seeds, electrical conductivity, accelerate aging test, root length, hypocotyl length and seedling length. The spatial variability of seed vigor in the production field could be reduced by adjusting plant density, but the adjustment should consider the variety. Harvest according to yield environment is a strategy to separate lots of seeds with higher vigor, originated from high-yield environments.

  4. Water management and productivity in planted forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Nettles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As climate variability endangers water security in many parts of the world, maximizing the carbon balance of plantation forestry is of global importance. High plant water use efficiency is generally associated with lower plant productivity, so an explicit balance in resources is necessary to optimize water yield and tree growth. This balance requires predicting plant water use under different soil, climate, and planting conditions, as well as a mechanism to account for trade-offs in ecosystem services. Several strategies for reducing the water use of forests have been published but there is little research tying these to operational forestry. Using data from silvicultural and biofuel feedstock research in pine plantation ownership in the southeastern USA, proposed water management tools were evaluated against known treatment responses to estimate water yield, forest productivity, and economic outcomes. Ecosystem impacts were considered qualitatively and related to water use metrics. This work is an attempt to measure and compare important variables to make sound decisions about plantations and water use.

  5. Using the iPlant collaborative discovery environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Shannon L; Lenards, Andrew J; Barthelson, Roger A; Merchant, Nirav; McKay, Sheldon J

    2013-06-01

    The iPlant Collaborative is an academic consortium whose mission is to develop an informatics and social infrastructure to address the "grand challenges" in plant biology. Its cyberinfrastructure supports the computational needs of the research community and facilitates solving major challenges in plant science. The Discovery Environment provides a powerful and rich graphical interface to the iPlant Collaborative cyberinfrastructure by creating an accessible virtual workbench that enables all levels of expertise, ranging from students to traditional biology researchers and computational experts, to explore, analyze, and share their data. By providing access to iPlant's robust data-management system and high-performance computing resources, the Discovery Environment also creates a unified space in which researchers can access scalable tools. Researchers can use available Applications (Apps) to execute analyses on their data, as well as customize or integrate their own tools to better meet the specific needs of their research. These Apps can also be used in workflows that automate more complicated analyses. This module describes how to use the main features of the Discovery Environment, using bioinformatics workflows for high-throughput sequence data as examples. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Pilot plant study for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J S [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    Most of domestic alcohol fermentation factory adopt batch process of which productivity is lower than continuous fermentation process. They have made great effort to increase productivity by means of partial unit process automatization and process improvement with their accumulated experience but there is technical limitation in productivity of batch fermentation process. To produce and supply fuel alcohol, economic aspects must be considered first of all. Therefore, development of continuous fermentation process, of which productivity is high, is prerequisite to produce and use fuel alcohol but only a few foreign company possess continuous fermentation technic and use it in practical industrial scale fermentation. We constructed pilot plant (5 Stage CSTR 1 kl 99.5 v/v% ethanol/Day scale) to study some aspects stated below and our ultimate aims are production of industrial scale fuel alcohol and construction of the plant by ourselves. Some study concerned with energy saving separation and contamination control technic were entrusted to KAIST, A-ju university and KIST respectively. (author) 67 refs., 100 figs., 58 tabs.

  7. Super thermal power plants and environment: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible impact on the environment by the particulate matters, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, trace metals and solid/liquid wastes, which are emitted during the combustion of coal in the super thermal power plants of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The coal consumed by these plants have sufficient sulphur content and ash. Of all the mineral in coal, pyrite is one of the most deleterious in combustion and a major source of oxide of sulphur pollution of the atmosphere. The impact of these on the terrestrial and aquatic environment in and around power plants and on region have been discussed. To arresting such contaminants, some remedial measures are suggested. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  8. Adaptation to the Host Environment by Plant-Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H Charlotte; Rep, Martijn

    2017-08-04

    Many fungi can live both saprophytically and as endophyte or pathogen inside a living plant. In both environments, complex organic polymers are used as sources of nutrients. Propagation inside a living host also requires the ability to respond to immune responses of the host. We review current knowledge of how plant-pathogenic fungi do this. First, we look at how fungi change their global gene expression upon recognition of the host environment, leading to secretion of effectors, enzymes, and secondary metabolites; changes in metabolism; and defense against toxic compounds. Second, we look at what is known about the various cues that enable fungi to sense the presence of living plant cells. Finally, we review literature on transcription factors that participate in gene expression in planta or are suspected to be involved in that process because they are required for the ability to cause disease.

  9. Official control of plant protection products in Poland: detection of illegal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, Marek; Płonka, Marlena; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Kronenbach-Dylong, Dorota; Waleczek, Kazimierz; Weber, Roland

    2018-04-03

    Market presence of illegal and counterfeit pesticides is now a global problem. According to data published in 2012 by the European Crop Protection Association (ECPA), illegal products represent over 10% of the global market of plant protection products. Financial benefits are the main reason for the prevalence of this practice. Counterfeit and illegal pesticides may contain substances that may pose a threat to the environment, crops, animals, and humans, inconsistent with the label and registration dossier. In Poland, action against illegal and counterfeit plant protection products is undertaken by the Main Inspectorate of Plant Health and Seed Inspection (PIORiN), the police, the prosecution, and the pesticide producers. Results of chemical analyses carried out by the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Sośnicowice Branch, Pesticide Quality Testing Laboratory (PQTL IPP-NRI Sosnicowice Branch) indicate that a majority of illegal pesticides in Poland are detected in the group of herbicides. Products from parallel trade tend to have the most irregularities. This article describes the official quality control system of plant protection products in Poland and presents the analytical methods for testing pesticides suspected of adulteration and recent test results.

  10. Nuclear and thermal power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejstrik, V.

    1978-01-01

    The growth is briefly outlined of world daily power consumption and the possibilities are discussed of meeting this demand. Coal and nuclear power are of primary importance as energy resources for the present and the near future. Production costs per 1 kWh of electric power in nuclear power plants are already lower in fossil fuel power plants and both types of power plants have an environmental impact. Activities are presented of radioisotopes resulting from nuclear reactor operation and their release and environmental impact are discussed. An analysis is made of emissions from combustion processes and of wastes from fossil-fuel power plant operation. The environmental impacts of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants are compared. (Z.M.)

  11. Nuclear and thermal power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejstrik, V [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Pruhonice. Ustav Krajinne Ekologie

    1978-01-01

    The growth is briefly outlined of world daily power consumption and the possibilities are discussed of meeting this demand. Coal and nuclear power are of primary importance as energy resources for the present and the near future. Production costs per 1 kWh of electric power in nuclear power plants are already lower than in fossil fuel power plants and both types of power plants have an environmental impact. Activities are presented of radioisotopes resulting from nuclear reactor operation and their release and environmental impact are discussed. An analysis is made of emissions from combustion processes and of wastes from fossil-fuel power plant operation. The environmental impacts of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants are compared.

  12. Conservation investment for rare plants in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Smith, Lacy M; Steel, Zachary L

    2013-01-01

    Budgets for species conservation limit actions. Expending resources in areas of high human density is costly and generally considered less likely to succeed. Yet, coastal California contains both a large fraction of narrowly endemic at-risk plant species as well as the state's three largest metropolitan regions. Hence understanding the capacity to protect species along the highly urbanized coast is a conservation priority. We examine at-risk plant populations along California's coastline from San Diego to north of San Francisco to better understand whether there is a relationship between human population density and: i) performance of at-risk plant populations; and ii) conservation spending. Answering these questions can help focus appropriate strategic conservation investment. Rare plant performance was measured using the annualized growth rate estimate between census periods using the California Natural Diversity Database. Human density was estimated using Census Bureau statistics from the year 2000. We found strong evidence for a lack of a relationship between human population density and plant population performance in California's coastal counties. Analyzing US Endangered Species expenditure reports, we found large differences in expenditures among counties, with plants in San Diego County receiving much higher expenditures than other locations. We found a slight positive relationship between expenditures on behalf of endangered species and human density. Together these data support the argument that conservation efforts by protecting habitats within urban environments are not less likely to be successful than in rural areas. Expenditures on behalf of federally listed endangered and threatened plants do not appear to be related to proximity to human populations. Given the evidence of sufficient performance in urban environments, along with a high potential to leverage public support for nature in urban environments, expenditures in these areas appear to be an

  13. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  14. Monitoring of radionuclides in the environs of Finnish nuclear power plants in 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K-L.; Klemola, S.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    Surveillance of radioactive substances around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1989-1990 according to the regular monitoring programmes. About 1000 samples were analysed annually from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The dominant artificial radionuclides in the vicinity of the power plants were still the cesium isotopes, 137 Cs and 134 Cs, originating from the Chernobyl accident. Owing to radioactive decay, other fallout nuclides with shorter half-lives disappeared from the environmental samples during the period in question. Trace amounts of activation products originating from the airborne releases of the local power plants were detected in some air and deposition samples. Discharged nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms and sinking matter collected from the Olkiluoto area in 1990. However, the concentrations were so low that they did not markedly raise the radiation burden in the environment. (orig.)

  15. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  16. Integrated control algorithms for plant environment in greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kanyu; Deng, Lujuan; Gong, Youmin; Wang, Shengxue

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a survey of plant environment control in artificial greenhouse was put forward for discussing the future development. Firstly, plant environment control started with the closed loop control of air temperature in greenhouse. With the emergence of higher property computer, the adaptive control algorithm and system identification were integrated into the control system. As adaptation control is more depending on observation of variables by sensors and yet many variables are unobservable or difficult to observe, especially for observation of crop growth status, so model-based control algorithm were developed. In order to evade modeling difficulty, one method is predigesting the models and the other method is utilizing fuzzy logic and neural network technology that realize the models by the black box and gray box theory. Studies on control method of plant environment in greenhouse by means of expert system (ES) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been initiated and developed. Nowadays, the research of greenhouse environment control focus on energy saving, optimal economic profit, enviornment protection and continualy develop.

  17. On site selection of thermoelectric power plants in polluted environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental impact of combined heat-power plants. The selection of the site of these plants depends on the spatial distribution law of pollutants and their chemical interaction with environment. The solutions of a diffusion equation describing a system of chemically interacting pollutants are given and discussed. The environmental impacts are described in terms of wind and atmosphere stability, effective and built stack height and the source distance parameters. The optimal constructive solutions are judged upon the concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen oxides at the ground level which must be kept under the maximum admissible limit. (author). 8 figs

  18. Exploration and production environment. Preserving the future our responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the Total Group commitments to manage natural resources in a rational way, to preserve biodiversity for future generations and protect the environment. It contains the health, safety, environment and quality charter of Total, the 12 exploration and production health, safety and environment rules and the exploration and production environmental policy. (A.L.B.)

  19. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  20. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  1. Transfer-factors for radionuclides in the coal-fired power plants environments in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, Dragana; Jankovic, Marija; Joksic, Jasminka; Radenkovic, Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the coal combustion in power plants, radionuclides are distributed in solid and gaseous combustion products and discharged into environment. Radioactivity monitoring of coal-fired power-plants environments (PP Nikola Tesla, PP Kolubara, PP Morava and PP Kostolac) in Serbia was carried out during 2003-2006. Here are presented results concerning the soil-plant and ash-plant systems. Plant samples growing at the soil and ash disposals are analyzed by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%) and corresponding transfer factors (TF) for natural isotopes 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were calculated and discussed. Obtained concentrations values of naturally occurring radionuclides are in following ranges: (0.4 - 29) Bq/kg 226 Ra, (0.16 - 23) Bq/kg 232 Th, (245 - 1274) Bq/kg 40 K, (1.7 - 30) Bq/kg 238 U, (0.08 - 4.7) Bq/kg 235 U, (5.6 - 95) Bq/kg 210 Pb; (28 - 288) Bq/kg 7 Be and man-made 137 Cs in range 0.06 - 2.8 Bq/kg. Ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are calculated for several sampling points. Values for both ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors are much higher for 40 K than 226 Ra and 232 Th probably due to different assimilation mechanisms of these elements by plants. Analyzed radionuclides have higher concentrations in the ash disposal than soil, and corresponding transfer-factors values obtained for ash-plant systems (ranged from 0,007 to 0,179 for 226 Ra, from 0,015 to 0,174 for 232 Th and from 0,418 to 2,230 for 40 K) are higher, indicating that there is no limit value for absorption in plants. (author)

  2. Nuclear power plants and the environment. Water samplings and releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Philippe; Bordet, Francois; Chevalier, Christian; Colin, Jean-Luc; Khalanski, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This voluminous and illustrated guide aims at giving detailed information on the nature of waters used by nuclear power plants and of releases, on how these samplings and controls are performed, on the associated risks for the environment and public health, and on how public is informed. After a general overview of these issues, a chapter addresses the protection of nature and biodiversity and the actions performed by EDF in this respect. The next chapter deals with public information. The next chapters discuss the water needs of a nuclear power plant, effluent releases and their impacts. Two chapters are dedicated to the monitoring and control of the environment, and to the various techniques of environmental metrology. Legal and regulatory aspects are then presented

  3. Genetically engineered plants in the product development pipeline in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Ranjini; Pande, Hem

    2016-01-02

    In order to proactively identify emerging issues that may impact the risk assessment and risk management functions of the Indian biosafety regulatory system, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change sought to understand the nature and diversity of genetically engineered crops that may move to product commercialization within the next 10 y. This paper describes the findings from a questionnaire designed to solicit information about public and private sector research and development (R&D) activities in plant biotechnology. It is the first comprehensive overview of the R&D pipeline for GE crops in India.

  4. Nuclear power plants and environment-Legal and institutional aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de

    1986-01-01

    Some legal aspects about nuclear power plants siting in face of environment legislation and policy in the Brazilian law are discussed. The public participation in the process of site selection in face of actual constitutional precepts and the decision given by Supreme Court which determined to private competence of the Union, given by Constitutional rules and by the law number 6803 in 1980. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Reactor plant construction productivity, why so different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeter, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The manual labor component (manhours per kw) required to construct a nuclear power plant has increased radically since the advent of the fixed price turnkey projects of the late 1960's and early 1970's. Utilities and their architect-engineers have been, for the past several years, evaluating and diagnosing possible reasons for the increase and, in particular, the wide variation in labor manhours per kw among plants built in the same time frame. Since construction labor can amount to as much as 35--40% of direct capital cost, ways and means must be found to arrest this manhour escalation. One important way is by improving productivity. Some of the manhour increase is beyond an owner's control, e.g. NRC regulatory and other federal and state requirements adding to the scope of work. Several areas where there is potential for productivity improvement are identified as follows: (1) Revise contract strategy and bid work on a fixed price basis. This can be done by utilizing bid packages where the scope of work is clearly identified and based on well defined plans and specifications. (2) Upgrade the quality of construction management and remove first line supervision from union control. Use periodic work sampling to pinpoint causes and cure for poor productivity. (3) Reduce design complexity and improve constructibility by means of innovative design and material utilization--models help. (4) Improve labor productivity by restoring management rights in collective bargaining agreements. If this is not possible, go open shop or owner build with your own work force

  6. Epigenetic variation in mangrove plants occurring in contrasting natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Fonseca Lira-Medeiros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation, are inherited in plant species and may occur in response to biotic or abiotic stress, affecting gene expression without changing genome sequence. Laguncularia racemosa, a mangrove species, occurs in naturally contrasting habitats where it is subjected daily to salinity and nutrient variations leading to morphological differences. This work aims at unraveling how CpG-methylation variation is distributed among individuals from two nearby habitats, at a riverside (RS or near a salt marsh (SM, with different environmental pressures and how this variation is correlated with the observed morphological variation.Significant differences were observed in morphological traits such as tree height, tree diameter, leaf width and leaf area between plants from RS and SM locations, resulting in smaller plants and smaller leaf size in SM plants. Methyl-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP was used to assess genetic and epigenetic (CpG-methylation variation in L. racemosa genomes from these populations. SM plants were hypomethylated (14.6% of loci had methylated samples in comparison to RS (32.1% of loci had methylated samples. Within-population diversity was significantly greater for epigenetic than genetic data in both locations, but SM also had less epigenetic diversity than RS. Frequency-based (G(ST and multivariate (beta(ST methods that estimate population structure showed significantly greater differentiation among locations for epigenetic than genetic data. Co-Inertia analysis, exploring jointly the genetic and epigenetic data, showed that individuals with similar genetic profiles presented divergent epigenetic profiles that were characteristic of the population in a particular environment, suggesting that CpG-methylation changes may be associated with environmental heterogeneity.In spite of significant morphological dissimilarities, individuals of L. racemosa from salt marsh and riverside presented

  7. Open Source Power Plant Simulator Development Under Matlab Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratemi, W.M.; Fadilah, S.M.; Abonoor, N

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an open source programming approach is targeted for the development of power plant simulator under Matlab environment. With this approach many individuals can contribute to the development of the simulator by developing different orders of complexities of the power plant components. Such modules can be modeled based on physical principles, or using neural networks or other methods. All of these modules are categorized in Matlab library, of which the user can select and build up his simulator. Many international companies developed its own authoring tool for the development of its simulators, and hence it became its own property available for high costs. Matlab is a general software developed by mathworks that can be used with its toolkits as the authoring tool for the development of components by different individuals, and through the appropriate coordination, different plant simulators, nuclear, traditional , or even research reactors can be computerly assembled. In this paper, power plant components such as a pressurizer, a reactor, a steam generator, a turbine, a condenser, a feedwater heater, a valve, a pump are modeled based on physical principles. Also a prototype modeling of a reactor ( a scram case) based on neural networks is developed. These modules are inserted in two different Matlab libraries one called physical and the other is called neural. Furthermore, during the simulation one can pause and shuffle the modules selected from the two libraries and then proceed the simulation. Also, under the Matlab environment a PID controller is developed for multi-loop plant which can be integrated for the control of the appropriate developed simulator. This paper is an attempt to base the open source approach for the development of power plant simulators or even research reactor simulators. It then requires the coordination among interested individuals or institutions to set it to professionalism. (author)

  8. Historical plant cost and annual production expenses for selected electric plants, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a composite of the two prior publications, Hydroelectric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses and Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses. Beginning in 1979, Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses contained information on both steam-electric and gas-turbine electric plant construction cost and annual production expenses. The summarized historical plant cost described under Historical Plant Cost in this report is the net cumulative-to-date actual outlays or expenditures for land, structures, and equipment to the utility. Historical plant cost is the initial investment in plant (cumulative to the date of initial commercial operation) plus the costs of all additions to the plant, less the value of retirements. Thus, historical plant cost includes expenditures made over several years, as modifications are made to the plant. Power Production Expenses is the reporting year's plant operation and maintenance expenses, including fuel expenses. These expenses do not include annual fixed charges on plant cost (capital costs) such as interest on debt, depreciation or amortization expenses, and taxes. Consequently, total production expenses and the derived unit costs are not the total cost of producing electric power at the various plants. This publication contains data on installed generating capacity, net generation, net capability, historical plant cost, production expenses, fuel consumption, physical and operating plant characteristics, and other relevant statistical information for selected plants

  9. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  10. Interannual variability of plant phenology in tussock tundra: modelling interactions of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Laundre, J.A.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a linked model of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw in order to estimate interannual variability of arctic plant phenology and its effects on plant productivity. The model is tested using 8 years of soil temperature data, and three years of bud break data of

  11. Modeling adaptation of wetland plants under changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, R.; Muneepeerakul, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    An evolutionary-game-theoretic approach is used to study the changes in traits of wetland plants in response to environmental changes, e.g., altered patterns of rainfall and nutrients. Here, a wetland is considered as a complex adaptive system where plants can adapt their strategies and influence one another. The system is subject to stochastic rainfall, which controls the dynamics of water level, soil moisture, and alternation between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in soil. Based on our previous work, a plant unit is characterized by three traits, namely biomass nitrogen content, specific leaf area, and allocation to rhizome. These traits control the basic functions of plants such as assimilation, respiration, and nutrient uptake, while affecting their environment through litter chemistry, root oxygenation, and thus soil microbial dynamics. The outcome of this evolutionary game, i.e., the best-performing plant traits against the backdrop of these interactions and feedbacks, is analyzed and its implications on important roles of wetlands in supporting our sustainability such as carbon sequestration in biosphere, nutrient cycling, and repository of biodiversity are discussed.

  12. Plant-associated bacterial populations on native and invasive plant species: comparisons between 2 freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade, Ola A; Pung, Kayleigh

    2012-06-01

    Plant-microbial interactions have been well studied because of the ecological importance of such relationships in aquatic systems. However, general knowledge regarding the composition of these biofilm communities is still evolving, partly as a result of several confounding factors that are attributable to plant host properties and to hydrodynamic conditions in aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrences of various bacterial phylogenetic taxa on 2 native plants, i.e., mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L.) and cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum Bartram), and on an invasive species, i.e., garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande), were quantitatively examined using nucleic acid staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The plants were incubated in triplicates for about a week within the Kalamazoo River and Pierce Cedar Creek as well as in microcosms. The bacterial groups targeted for enumeration are known to globally occur in relatively high abundance and are also ubiquitously distributed in freshwater environments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of the bacterioplankton assemblages revealed that the majority of bacterial cells that hybridized with the different probes were similar between the 2 sites. In contrast, the plant-associated populations while similar on the 3 plants incubated in Kalamazoo River, their representations were highest on the 2 native plants relative to the invasive species in Pierce Cedar Creek. Overall, our results further suggested that epiphytic bacterial assemblages are probably under the influences of and probably subsequently respond to multiple variables and conditions in aquatic milieus.

  13. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms.

  14. Cancer incidence in the environment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study of cancer in children in the environment of nuclear power plants has been written on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The study is a case controlled study based on the German Register of Cancer in Children. The most important outcome of the study is the finding that a connection can be observed in Germany between the proximity to a nuclear power plant of the place of living and the risk of a child to develop cancer in the 5 th year of life. The magnitude of this risk was calculated to be approximately 0.2%, i.e., out of a total of 13,373 cases of cancer, 29 would be attributable to living within the 5 km zone around a nuclear power plant. This finding demands an explanation. The study proper cannot serve as a material witness because it had not been designed to establish cause and effect relations between the risk and potential origins. The expert consultants frankly state that current knowledge about radiation biology and epidemiology in principle does not allow the ionizing radiation emitted by German nuclear power plants in normal operation to be interpreted as the cause. Whether confounders, selection or chance play a role in the observed and documented finding cannot be explained for good by the study. However, although representing an honorable acquittal, the study produces a different effect in the public mind. What is remembered is the link between nuclear power plants and cancer in children. (orig.)

  15. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed

  16. Assessment of productivity at four generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarlas, M.; Nelson, M.

    1976-01-01

    The 1975 FEA study of power plant reliability was undertaken as a first step in improving the productivity of large (larger than 400 MW) generating units by attempting to trace outages to their root causes so that meaningful corrective action can be taken at the root of the problem. Trident Engineering Associates studied the operation, maintenance, management, and manning of two fossil-fueled and two nuclear-fueled units, one each of above average and one below average reliability (high availability and low forced outage rate). It was expected that the differences between a highly reliable unit and a less reliable unit would lead to recommendations which would be useful for improving productivity of units throughout the country. The findings are of two basic types: (1) general concepts covering problem areas, fundamental reasons and immediate symptoms behind the problems, methods used to eliminate or alleviate the problems, and proposed solutions; (2) details which provide statistics that establish the relative lost productivity by fundamental causes. Eight root causes (fundamental reasons for failures or outages) were established into which most failures and outages could be assigned. Twenty nine cause factors (causes of failure) were established which assisted in assigning the failures and outages to a root cause

  17. Production loss among employees perceiving work environment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Hagberg, Jan; Bergström, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    The overall aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between factors in the psychosocial work environment and work environment-related production loss. Employees at a Swedish university were invited to answer a workplace questionnaire and were selected for this study if they reported having experienced work environment-related problems in the past 7 days (n = 302). A stepwise logistic regression and a modified Poisson regression were used to identify psychosocial work factors associated with work environment-related production loss as well as to identify at what level those factors are associated with production loss. Employees who reported having experienced work environment problems but also fair leadership, good social climate, role clarity and control of decision had significantly lower levels of production loss, whereas employees who reported inequality and high decision demands reported significantly higher levels of production loss. Never or seldom experiencing fair leadership, role clarity, equality, decision demands and good social climate increase the risk of production loss due to work environment problems, compared to those who experience these circumstances frequently, always or most of the time. Several psychosocial work factors are identified as factors associated with a reduced risk of production losses among employees despite the nature of the work environment problem. Knowledge of these factors may be important not only to reduce employee ill-health and the corresponding health-related production loss, but also reduce immediate production loss due to work environment-related problems.

  18. Campylobacter jejuni survival in a poultry processing plant environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Lourdes; Melero, Beatriz; Jaime, Isabel; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko; Rovira, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption of poultry, especially chicken's meat is considered the most common route for human infection. The aim of this study was to determine if Campylobacter spp. might persist in the poultry plant environment before and after cleaning and disinfection procedures and the distribution and their genetic relatedness. During one month from a poultry plant were analyzed a total of 494 samples -defeathering machine, evisceration machine, floor, sink, conveyor belt, shackles and broiler meat- in order to isolate C. jejuni and C. coli. Results showed that C. jejuni and C. coli prevalence was 94.5% and 5.5% respectively. Different typing techniques as PFGE, MLST established seven C. jejuni genotypes. Whole genome MLST strongly suggest that highly clonal populations of C. jejuni can survive in adverse environmental conditions, even after cleaning and disinfection, and persist for longer periods than previous thought (at least 21 days) in the poultry plant environment. Even so, it might act as a source of contamination independently of the contamination level of the flock entering the slaughter line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production Planning and Planting Pattern Scheduling Information System for Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitadiar, Tanhella Zein; Farikhin; Surarso, Bayu

    2018-02-01

    This paper present the production of planning and planting pattern scheduling faced by horticulture farmer using two methods. Fuzzy time series method use to predict demand on based on sales amount, while linear programming is used to assist horticulture farmers in making production planning decisions and determining the schedule of cropping patterns in accordance with demand predictions of the fuzzy time series method, variable use in this paper is size of areas, production advantage, amount of seeds and age of the plants. This research result production planning and planting patterns scheduling information system with the output is recommendations planting schedule, harvest schedule and the number of seeds will be plant.

  20. Architecture of the Product State Model Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Larsen, Michael; Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen B.

    2003-01-01

    on thedevelopment activities of the PSM architecture. An example discusses how to handle product relatedinformation on the shop floor in a manufacturing company and focuses on how dynamically updatedproduct data can improve control of production activities. This prototype example of welding a jointbetween two steel...... plates serves as proof of concept for the PSM architecture....

  1. Concepts, strategies and potentials using hypo-g and other features of the space environment for commercialization using higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Opportunities for releasing, capturing, constructing and/or fixing the differential expressions or response potentials of the higher plant genome in the hypo-g environment for commercialization are explored. General strategies include improved plant-growing, crop and forestry production systems which conserve soil, water, labor and energy resources, and nutritional partitioning and mobilization of nutrients and synthates. Tissue and cell culture techniques of commercial potential include the growing and manipulation of cultured plant cells in vitro in a bioreactor to produce biologicals and secondary plants of economic value. The facilitation of plant breeding, the cloning of specific pathogen-free materials, the elimination of growing point or apex viruses, and the increase of plant yield are other O-g applications. The space environment may be advantageous in somatic embryogenesis, the culture of alkaloids, and the development of completely new crop plant germ plasm.

  2. Bioreactors for plant cells: hardware configuration and internal environment optimization as tools for wider commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Milen I; Weber, Jost

    2014-07-01

    Mass production of value-added molecules (including native and heterologous therapeutic proteins and enzymes) by plant cell culture has been demonstrated as an efficient alternative to classical technologies [i.e. natural harvest and chemical (semi)synthesis]. Numerous proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up plant cell culture-based processes (most notably to produce paclitaxel) and several commercial processes have been established so far. The choice of a suitable bioreactor design (or modification of an existing commercially available reactor) and the optimization of its internal environment have been proven as powerful tools toward successful mass production of desired molecules. This review highlights recent progress (mostly in the last 5 years) in hardware configuration and optimization of bioreactor culture conditions for suspended plant cells.

  3. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2017-10-26

    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWP fat . Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWP protein . For NWP Fe, Zn and Ca , dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant ( p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  4. Ecological aspects of nuclear power plants in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, P.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented about ecological effects of giant nuclear Power Plants (ca. 5,000 MWe) on coastal environment. From short to long time, the problems concern the following points of view: - physical: (sitology; necessity of ecological mapping); - mechanical: (the cooling systems. 'Courantology'. Disturbance of marine micro- and macro-organisms); - thermal: (the heated discharges; thermal pollution. Effects on dissolved chemicals and marine organisms. Acquaculture and its limits); - chemical and radiochemical: (synergistic pollutions. Chlorine vs. fouling. Acute or chronic radioactive effluents; concentration by food chains). The conclusions emphasize the necessity of 'pluridisciplinarity' and 'zero-point' definition. Three ecological categories can be distinguished on the basis of water physical turn-over; to this categories correspond various standards and recommandations for management of nuclear Power Plants in coastal zones [fr

  5. Studies on environment safety and application of advanced reactor for inland nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Jie, L.

    2014-01-01

    To study environment safety assessment of inland nuclear power plants (NPPs), the impact of environment safety under the normal operation was researched and the environment risk of serious accidents was analyzed. Moreover, the requirements and relevant provisions of site selection between international nuclear power plant and China's are comparatively studied. The conclusion was that the environment safety assessment of inland and coastal nuclear power plant have no essential difference; the advanced reactor can meet with high criteria of environment safety of inland nuclear power plants. In this way, China is safe and feasible to develop inland nuclear power plant. China's inland nuclear power plants will be as big market for advanced reactor. (author)

  6. Plant response-based sensing for control starategies in sustainable greenhouse production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacira, M.; Sase, S.; Okushima, L.; Ling, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of environmental variability is one of the major concerns in experimental design for both research in plant systems and greenhouse plant production. Microclimates surrounding plants are not usually uniform. Therefore, many samples and sensors are required to obtain a true representation of the plant population. A plant monitoring system capable of reducing the required number of samples by reducing environmental variability would be more advantageous. To better understand plant-environment interaction, it is essential to study plants, microclimate surrounding the plants and the growth media. To achieve this, the monitoring system must be equipped with proper instrumentation. To achieve proper management practices and sustainable greenhouse production, it is essential first to understand plants and their interactions with their surroundings and then establish plant response-based sensing and control strategies for greenhouse processes. Therefore, an effort was conducted to review and discuss current sensing and control strategies in greenhouse research and plant production and provide recommendations on plant response-based sensing and control strategies for sustainable greenhouse production

  7. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant. ... rosmarinic acid in medicinal plants, herbs and spices has beneficial and health promoting ... of rosmarinic acid starts with the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.

  8. Sustainable Sanitation—A Cost-Effective Tool to Improve Plant Yields and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Karinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human urine and faeces are products formed every day in every human society. The volume and fertilisation value of urine is higher than that of faeces. This paper reviews data that urine has been used successfully as a fertiliser for cereals and some vegetables. According to the literature, urine fertilised plants may have produced higher, similar or slightly lower yields than mineral fertilized plants but they invariably resulted in higher yields than non-fertilised plants. There have been no microbiological risks associated with any products. The taste and chemical quality of the products are similar to plants treated with mineral fertilisers. Separating toilets, where urine and faeces are separated already in the toilet, could be beneficial not only in poor but also in the industrialized countries. A separating toilet could be installed also in old buildings and it could allow individuals to live in coastal areas, mountainous or other sensitive environments. In poor areas, urine fertilisation could increase food production also in home plots and reduce hunger. It could also combat water contamination and help to reduce diseases caused by enteric micro-organisms. If urine were to be viewed as a resource rather than a waste product, more families could be encouraged to install low-cost toilets which would especially improve the wellbeing of women.

  9. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  10. Technoeconomic study of supercritical biodiesel production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Errazu, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years, biodiesel has gained more market due to its benefits and because it appears as the natural substitute for diesel. However, the highest cost of this process is associated with the raw material employed, making it a less competitive and more expensive fuel. Therefore, research is being done in order to use low price raw material, such as acid oils, frying oils or soapstocks. In this work, a biodiesel production plant was developed using supercritical methanol and acid oils as raw materials. This technology was compared with some other alternatives previously described with the aim of making a comparative study, not only on the technical aspects but also on the economic results. A process simulator was employed to produce the conceptual design and simulate each technology. Using these models, it was possible to analyze different scenarios and to evaluate productivity, raw material consumption, economic competitiveness and environmental impacts of each process. Although the supercritical alternative appears as a good technical possibility to produce biodiesel, today, it is not an economic alternative due to its high operating costs

  11. Sensors Increase Productivity in Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    California's San Juan Capistrano-based Endevco Corporation licensed three patents covering high-temperature, harsh-environment silicon carbide (Si-C) pressure sensors from Glenn Research Center. The company is exploring their use in government markets, as well as in commercial markets, including commercial jet testing, deep well drilling applications where pressure and temperature increase with drilling depth, and in automobile combustion chambers.

  12. Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58˚ 22' N, 26˚ 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were

  13. Development of techniques for electrochemical studies in power plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.

    2000-01-01

    The properties of the oxide films on the engineering alloys used as construction materials in power plants change as a result of exposure to aqueous environments. The susceptibility of the materials to different forms of corrosion is influenced by the properties of these oxide films. The structure and electrochemical properties of the oxide films are in turn dependent on the applied water chemistry. Therefore, water chemistry control has been used in minimising the impact of different corrosion phenomena in operating power plants. Since there is not only one ideal operational specification for all light water reactors, individually designed water chemistry programs are needed to take into account plant-specific design features and particular problem areas. The applicability of alternative water chemistry practices require fast and reliable in-line electrochemical techniques to monitor possible changes in the oxidation behaviour of nuclear power plant materials. This thesis summarises the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland over the past 10 years to increase the knowledge of factors affecting the oxidation behaviour of construction materials in aqueous coolants at high temperatures. The work started with the development of electrodes for measurement of high temperature water chemistry parameters such as pH and the corrosion potential of construction materials. After laboratory testing these electrodes were used both in test reactors and in operating nuclear power plants. These measurements showed that high temperature water chemistry monitoring may be more accurate than corresponding room temperature measurements, particularly during transient situations. However, it was also found that understanding the processes taking place within and on oxide films requires a combination of electrochemical techniques enabling characterisation of the electronic properties of these films. This conclusion resulted in development of a controlled

  14. Game-based training environment for nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung Tamin; Sun Tienlung; Yang Chihwei; Yang Lichen; Cheng Tsungchieh; Wang Jyhgang

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant's safety is very important problem. In this very conscientious environment if operator has a little mistake, they may threaten with many people influence their safety. Therefore, operating training of control room is very important. However, the operator training is in limited space and time. Each operator must go to simulative control room do some training. If we can let each trainee having more time to do training and does not go to simulative control room. It may have some advantages for trainee. Moreover, in the traditional training ways, each operator may through the video, teaching manual or through the experienced instructor to learn the knowledge. This training way may let operator feel bored and stressful. So, in this paper aims, we hope utilizing virtual reality technology developing a game-based virtual training environment of control room. Finally, we will use presence questionnaire evaluating realism and feasibility of our virtual training environment. Expecting this initial concept of game-based virtual training environment can attract trainees having more learning motivation to do training in off-hour. (author)

  15. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Layer breeding programmes in changing production environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENSTRA, F.; TEN NAPEL, J.; VISSCHER, J.; VAN SAMBEEK, F.

    2016-01-01

    The housing and management of laying hens and their productivity has gone through enormous developments in the last century. Housing has changed from free-range systems, via battery cages to a variety of loose housing and different types of battery cages, and back to outdoor access systems.

  17. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  18. The Panacea Plants for Environment and Humanity: Caper and Ritha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadim YEMİŞ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caper and Ritha are plants which have very important effects on both living beings and natural habitat. They are used in many areas like medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and agriculture because of their positive features. Caper is compatible with the Mediterranean ecosystem and resistant to drought and high-salinity. When compared to the other most plants, it can remain green for a long time without water even in the summer season. Due to this magnificent property, this plant is effectively used for environmental protection. It has been reported that Caper contains biologically active compounds such as glucosinolates, alkoloids, phenolics, flavonoid, tocopherol and minerals such as sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron. Ritha grows in Asia’s tropical and sub-tropical regions. It contributes to the environment like Caper because, it has ability to capture the chemical pollution from the soil. So, it helps to improve the quality and efficiency of the land by holding heavy metals like mercury, iron and zinc in the leaves and grabbing lead and cadmium in its fruits. Moreover, it biologically decomposes injurious organic molecules such as hexachlorobenzene and naphthalene. Furthermore, the nectar of Ritha can kill the flies and larvae of Southern cattle mite’s species called Boophilus microplus.

  19. Whole high-quality light environment for humans and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharakshane, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases. It has been revealed that yield photon flux is proportional to luminous efficacy and increases as the color temperature decreases, general color rendering index Ra and the special color rendering index R14 (green leaf) increase. General-purpose white LED lamps with a color temperature of 2700 K, Ra > 90 and luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W are as efficient as the best high-pressure sodium lamps, and at a higher luminous efficacy their yield photon flux per joule is even bigger in proportion. Here we show that demand for high color rendering white LED light is not contradictory to the agro-technical objectives.

  20. Uranium production and the environment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.V.

    2002-01-01

    The production of uranium from open-pit and underground mines in Kazakhstan has terminated. Currently, uranium is extracted in Kazakhstan only by the In Situ Leaching (ISL) method. This method has a number of economical and ecological advantages. During a short period in the 70s-80s, Kazakhstan created a firm basis for developing uranium extraction by the ISL method. Now more than half of the world's uranium reserves amenable to the ISL method are located in Kazakhstan. By 2005, a significant increase in uranium production is planned. Thereby, Kazakhstan has the ability to grow into a world leader in uranium extraction through a lower cost and low environmental impact operations using the ISL method. (author)

  1. Products and environment. Report on integrated product policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The National Commission for Sustainable Development established on 16 November 1999 a subgroup which had as one of its tasks to formulate a national strategy or a strategic view on how Finland should promote integrated product policy in accordance with the requirements of sustainable development. The aim of integrated product policy is to improve the environmental friendliness of products and product systems by taking into account the environmental effects during their entire lifecycles. Its leading principles are lifecycle thinking, market-basedness, integration of environmental aspects into economic activity, and that all actors within the product chain (consumers, trade, companies) decrease the environmental consequences of their activities according to the principle of shared responsibility and to their preconditions. Political decision-making and administration should provide firms and clients with the required preconditions and i.a. remove obstacles to knowledge and promote research. In product policy, emphasis is on especially those instruments that encourage actors to develop their activities. At national level, economic instruments should be directed to domestic demand and use of products. It is often most appropriate to develop economic instruments for production and legislation and other regulation within international co-operation. (orig.)

  2. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  3. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan; Nielsen, Niels E.; Wilcox, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha -1 for Cd, 660 g ha -1 for Pb, 180 g ha -1 for Cu, 350 g ha -1 for Mn, and 205 g ha -1 for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 μm) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 μm) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil

  4. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 12 Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Nielsen, Niels E. [Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Lab, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK1871, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wilcox, Andrew [Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cd, 660 g ha{sup -1} for Pb, 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cu, 350 g ha{sup -1} for Mn, and 205 g ha{sup -1} for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 {mu}m) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 {mu}m) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  5. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior

    2004-12-22

    In this report is described the work effort to develop and demonstrate a software framework to support advanced process simulations to evaluate the performance of advanced power systems. Integrated into the framework are a broad range of models, analysis tools, and visualization methods that can be used for the plant evaluation. The framework provides a tightly integrated problem-solving environment, with plug-and-play functionality, and includes a hierarchy of models, ranging from fast running process models to detailed reacting CFD models. The framework places no inherent limitations on the type of physics that can be modeled, numerical techniques, or programming languages used to implement the equipment models, or the type or amount of data that can be exchanged between models. Tools are provided to analyze simulation results at multiple levels of detail, ranging from simple tabular outputs to advanced solution visualization methods. All models and tools communicate in a seamless manner. The framework can be coupled to other software frameworks that provide different modeling capabilities. Three software frameworks were developed during the course of the project. The first framework focused on simulating the performance of the DOE Low Emissions Boiler System Proof of Concept facility, an advanced pulverized-coal combustion-based power plant. The second framework targeted simulating the performance of an Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycle - Fuel Cell Turbine (IGCC-FCT) plant configuration. The coal gasifier models included both CFD and process models for the commercially dominant systems. Interfacing models to the framework was performed using VES-Open, and tests were performed to demonstrate interfacing CAPE-Open compliant models to the framework. The IGCC-FCT framework was subsequently extended to support Virtual Engineering concepts in which plant configurations can be constructed and interrogated in a three-dimensional, user-centered, interactive

  6. Crushed stone production plant for NPP building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obolenskij, V.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The project of the granite-crushed stone quarry - the large modern plant producing building materials, is presented. The quarry is designated for providing NPP and other power objects building with high-strength crushed stone. The plant consists of: quarry; crushing-sorting plant with maintenance objects arranged on its ground; basis and service stores of explosive materials; tail facility and purifying systems; water supply purifying stations; water storage basin. The plant is reserved for 2335 thousand m 3 yearly utoput of crushed stone; the staff consists of 535 persons, the budgeted cost of building is 26.6 million rubles. Physicochemical characteristics of granosyenites of the ''Granitnoye'' deposit - the raw material resource base of the plant and technological scheme of the crushing-sorting plant are given. Planned measures on building organization and recultivation of disturbed grounds are presented

  7. Work Environment and Productivity among Primary School Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 5 (5), Serial No. ... work environment of Nigeria primary school teachers to greater productivity ... changes on the structure and curriculum, recommend and prescribed teaching methods and ...

  8. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce...... aerobic CH4 into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  9. Analysis of anaerobic product properties in fluid and aggressive environments

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov, A.; Tulinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of experiments involved in investigation of properties of some domestic and foreign-made anaerobic materials in components and units operating in fluid and aggressive environments. These experiments determined the strength and swell values of anaerobic products in the sea water, fuel and oil, and confirmed their anticorrosion properties. The experiments demonstrated high resistance of anaerobic products to various fluids and aggressive environments, which make...

  10. Soil biota suppress positive plant diversity effects on productivity at high but not low soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Shan; Deyn, De Gerlinde B.; Jiang, B.; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-01-01

    Plant community productivity commonly increases with increasing plant diversity, which is explained by complementarity among plant species in resource utilization (complementarity effect), or by selection of particularly productive plant species in diverse plant communities (selection effect).

  11. Transgenic plants as green factories for vaccine production | Vinod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccine technology represents an alternative to fermentation based vaccine production system. Transgenic plants are used for the production of plant derived specific vaccines with native immunogenic properties stimulating both humoral and mucosal immune responses. Keeping in view the practical need of new ...

  12. Preliminary Hazard Analysis applied to Uranium Hexafluoride - UF6 production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomzhinsky, David; Bichmacher, Ricardo; Braganca Junior, Alvaro; Peixoto, Orpet Jose

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the Preliminary hazard Analysis applied to the UF 6 Production Process, which is part of the UF 6 Conversion Plant. The Conversion Plant has designed to produce a high purified UF 6 in accordance with the nuclear grade standards. This Preliminary Hazard Analysis is the first step in the Risk Management Studies, which are under current development. The analysis evaluated the impact originated from the production process in the plant operators, members of public, equipment, systems and installations as well as the environment. (author)

  13. Interface between the production plan and the master production schedule in assembly environments

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Navarro, Marcos; Sánchez Brenes, Magaly

    2012-01-01

    In a production environment there is a direct relationship between the market and the manufacturing process of goods.When production is immersed in an assembly environment, the process of production planning and scheduling becomes complex, and the enterprises have the risk of losing competitive advantages in terms of not meeting delivery dates and production high costs. Linear programming has become an appropriate tool for production planning and scheduling in complex manufacturing environmen...

  14. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants. 355.21 Section 355.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. The phosphorus fertilizer production as a source of rare-earth elements pollution of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volokh, A.A.; Gorbunov, A.V.; Revich, B.A.; Gundorina, S.F.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Chen Sen Pal.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers some peculiarities of the production of phosphorus fertilizers from the point of view of the pollution of the environment with rare-earth elements. The principal possibility is demonstrated of the determination of the influence of a given type of production on the environment by measuring the change in the rare-arth elements interrelationship in the show. The main source of industrial dust is identified. The distribution of pollutants in dependence on the size of aerosol particles is given. The data on the concentrations of the pollutants in agricultural plants, employees hair and hair of local residents are also reported. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  16. Heavy metals in contaminated environment: Destiny of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, oxidative status and phytoextraction in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari Lajayer, Behnam; Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Nikabadi, Shahab

    2017-11-01

    Contamination of soils, water and air with toxic heavy metals by various human activities is a crucial environmental problem in both developing and developed countries. Heavy metals could be introduced into medicinal plant products through contaminated environment (soil, water and air resources) and/or poor production practices. Growing of medicinal plants in heavy metal polluted environments may eventually affect the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, causing significant changes in the quantity and quality of these compounds. Certain medicinal and aromatic plants can absorb and accumulate metal contaminants in the harvestable foliage and, therefore, considered to be a feasible alternative for remediation of polluted sites without any contamination of essential oils. Plants use different strategies and complex arrays of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative defense systems to cope with overproduction of ROS causes from the heavy metals entered their cells through foliar and/or root systems. This review summarizes the reports of recent investigations involving heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants and its effects on elicitation of secondary metabolites, toxicity and detoxification pathways, international standards regarding in plants and plant-based products, and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-medicinal plants systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotype x environment interaction QTL mapping in plants: lessons from Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Soda, M.; Malosetti, M.; Zwaan, B.J.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and development are influenced by the genetic composition of the plant (G), the environment (E), and the interaction between them (G × E). To produce suitable genotypes for multiple environments, G × E should be accounted for and assessed in plant-breeding programs. Here, we review the

  18. Modern technologies and equipment for environment and sustainable development at ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Marius Cristian; Patrascu, Mihai; Pop, Artimisia; Chilom, Rodica

    2004-01-01

    At ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant, the sustainable development concept incorporates as a priority the environmental protection through the production process technology. Norway's Prime Minister, Mr. Gro Harlem Brundtland used the concept of 'sustainable development' in 1987, when as President of International Commission for Environment and Sustainable Development, he presented his report 'Our common future'. Sustainable development means that development that allows satisfying our present needs without spoiling the next generation capacity to meet their own needs. Any technology has both advantages and disadvantages; when considering the concept of sustainable development we have to take into account all the aspects, namely: - causes identification and review; - results evaluation; - corrective and preventive actions. Thus, ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant has implemented a typical environment management system by means of what the general and specific objectives have been established, these objectives being stated in an Environment Policy Declaration: - Environment Management System as per SR EN ISO 14001/1997; - Quality Management System as per SR EN ISO 9001/2000; - IQNet- The International Certification Network. The paper presents the modern equipment for emissions and in-missions management with real time data transmission, for air and water as environment elements. Section two deals with trial of modern technology for industrial discharged wastewater treatment using the method of controlled batching of surface-active materials. Investigations on method application and laboratory testing as well as findings are given. As a conclusion, one can state that ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant, has as one of its main concern keeping on high standards the safety of its equipment operation, sustainable development and risk eliminating so that neither environment or the population in vicinity is affected. (authors)

  19. Energy, economy, and environment analysis and optimization on manufacturing plant energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lujia; Mears, Laine; Beaufort, Cleveland; Schulte, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are proposed. • Objectives of energy, economy, and environment are proved conflicting. • 3-input-5-output energy supply system of an automotive plant is studied. - Abstract: Increasing attention has recently been drawn to energy consumption in manufacturing plants. Facing the challenges from reducing emissions coupled with rising raw material prices and energy costs, manufacturers are trying to balance the energy usage strategy among the total energy consumption, economy, and environment, which can be self-conflicting at times. In this paper, energy systems in manufacturing environments are reviewed, and the current status of onsite energy system and renewable energy usage are discussed. Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are effectively formulated for making the best use of energy delivered to the production processes. Energy supply operation suggestions based on the optimization results are obtained. Finally, an example from an automotive assembly manufacturer is described to demonstrate the energy usage in the current manufacturing plants and how the optimization approaches can be applied to satisfy the energy management objectives. According to the optimization results, in an energy oriented operation, it takes 35% more in monetary cost; while in an economy oriented operation, it takes 17% more in megawatt hour energy supply and tends to rely more on the inexpensive renewable energy.

  20. Robotized production systems observed in modern plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverina, A. N.

    1985-09-01

    Robots, robotized lines and sectors are no longer innovations in shops at automotive plants. The widespread robotization of automobile assembly operations is described in general terms. Robot use for machining operation is also discussed.

  1. An Empirical Study Analyzing Job Productivity in Toxic Workplace Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Anjum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a final response rate of 89%. For analysis purposes, AMOS 22 was used to study the direct and indirect effects of the toxic workplace environment on job productivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was conducted to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors, while the Hayes mediation approach was used to verify the mediating role of job burnout between the four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. A toxic workplace with multiple dimensions, such as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment, and workplace bullying, was used in this study. Findings: By using the multiple statistical tools and techniques, it has been proven that ostracism, incivility, harassment, and bullying have direct negative significant effects on job productivity, while job burnout was shown to be a statistical significant mediator between the dimensions of a toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we concluded that organizations need to eradicate the factors of toxic workplace environments to ensure their prosperity and success. Practical Implications: This study encourages managers, leaders, and top management to adopt appropriate policies for enhancing employees’ productivity. Limitations: This study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. Future research aims to expand the study by using a longitudinal research design.

  2. An Empirical Study Analyzing Job Productivity in Toxic Workplace Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Amna; Ming, Xu; Siddiqi, Ahmed Faisal; Rasool, Samma Faiz

    2018-05-21

    Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a final response rate of 89%. For analysis purposes, AMOS 22 was used to study the direct and indirect effects of the toxic workplace environment on job productivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors, while the Hayes mediation approach was used to verify the mediating role of job burnout between the four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. A toxic workplace with multiple dimensions, such as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment, and workplace bullying, was used in this study. Findings: By using the multiple statistical tools and techniques, it has been proven that ostracism, incivility, harassment, and bullying have direct negative significant effects on job productivity, while job burnout was shown to be a statistical significant mediator between the dimensions of a toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we concluded that organizations need to eradicate the factors of toxic workplace environments to ensure their prosperity and success. Practical Implications: This study encourages managers, leaders, and top management to adopt appropriate policies for enhancing employees’ productivity. Limitations: This study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. Future research aims to expand the study by using a longitudinal research design.

  3. Plant Design for the Production of DUAGG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The cost of producing DUAGG is an important consideration for any interested private firm in determining whether DUCRETE is economically viable as a material of construction in next-generation spent nuclear fuel casks. This study analyzed this project as if it was a stand-alone project. The capital cost includes engineering design, equipment costs and installation, start up, and management; the study is not intended to be a life-cycle cost analysis. The costs estimated by this study are shown in Table ES.1, and the conclusions of this study are listed in Table ES.2. The development of DUAGG and DUCRETE is a major thrust of the Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Project. An obvious use of depleted uranium is as a shielding material (e.g., DUCRETE). DUCRETE is made by replacing the conventional stone aggregate in concrete with DUAGG. One objective of this project is to bring the development of DUCRETE to a point at which a demonstrated basis exists for its commercial deployment. The estimation of the costs to manufacture DUAGG is an important part of this effort. Paul Lessing and William Quapp developed DUAGG and DUCRETE as part of an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) program to find beneficial uses for depleted uranium (DU). Subsequently, this technology was licensed to Teton Technologies, Inc. The DUAGG process mixes DUO 2 with sintering materials and additives to form pressed briquettes. These briquettes are sintered at 1300 C, and the very dense sintered briquettes are then crushed and classified into gap-graded size fractions. The graded DUAGG is then ready to be used to make high-strength heavy DUCRETE. The DUCRETE shielding will be placed into an annular steel cask-shell mold, which has internal steel reinforcing bars. The objectives of this study are to (1) use previous DUAGG process developments to design a plant that will produce DUAGG at a baseline rate, (2) determine the size of the equipment required to meet the

  4. Amino acid production exceeds plant nitrogen demand in Siberian tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Bárta, Jiři; Čapek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Guggenberger, Georg; Hugelius, Gustaf; Knoltsch, Anna; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Prommer, Judith; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Urich, Tim; Richter, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Arctic plant productivity is often limited by low soil N availability. This has been attributed to slow breakdown of N-containing polymers in litter and soil organic matter (SOM) into smaller, available units, and to shallow plant rooting constrained by permafrost and high soil moisture. Using 15N pool dilution assays, we here quantified gross amino acid and ammonium production rates in 97 active layer samples from four sites across the Siberian Arctic. We found that amino acid production in organic layers alone exceeded literature-based estimates of maximum plant N uptake 17-fold and therefore reject the hypothesis that arctic plant N limitation results from slow SOM breakdown. High microbial N use efficiency in organic layers rather suggests strong competition of microorganisms and plants in the dominant rooting zone. Deeper horizons showed lower amino acid production rates per volume, but also lower microbial N use efficiency. Permafrost thaw together with soil drainage might facilitate deeper plant rooting and uptake of previously inaccessible subsoil N, and thereby promote plant productivity in arctic ecosystems. We conclude that changes in microbial decomposer activity, microbial N utilization and plant root density with soil depth interactively control N availability for plants in the Arctic.

  5. The impact of new product introduction on plant productivity in the North American automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gopal, A.; Goyal, M.; Netessine, S.; Reindorp, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Product launch—an event when a new product debuts for production in a plant—is an important phase in product development. But launches disrupt manufacturing operations, resulting in productivity losses. Using data from North American automotive plants from years 1999–2007, we estimate that a product

  6. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  7. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  8. Stimulating productivity of hydroponic lettuce in controlled environments with triacontanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, S. L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    Triacontanol (1-triacontanol) applied as a foliar spray at 10(-7) M to 4-day-old, hydroponically grown leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings in a controlled environment increased leaf fresh and dry weight 13% to 20% and root fresh and dry weight 13% to 24% 6 days after application, relative to plants sprayed with water. When applied at 8 as well as 4 days after seeding, triacontanol increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, and mean relative growth rate 12% to 37%. There was no benefit of repeating application of triacontanol in terms of leaf dry weight gain.

  9. The need for integrated pollution prevention control of the environment concerning industrial and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trpevska T, Magdalena; Kostova, Brankitsa

    2008-01-01

    Within the Low on the Environment, Regulations of the Directive 96/61/Eu regarding Integrated Pollution Prevention Control are implemented. The Low significantly changes the manner of industrial plants operation in reference to environmental protection. The study presents description of the system for Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, list of production branches to which this system refers, and as well as experiences of Tehnolab Ltd, Skopje - expert consulting company, concerning preparation of A and B Integrated Environmental Permits for several installation from R. Macedonia.(Author)

  10. Application of Modern Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Productivity Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A. Naser

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain current high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, new requirements and commitments, unnecessary workloads and stress levels, and human errors. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by the commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the desire by many plants to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New productivity improvement capabilities with measurable economic benefits are needed so that a successful business case can be made for their use. Improved and new instrumentation and control, human-system interface, information and communications technologies used properly can address concerns about cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and enable shifts to even higher performance levels. This can be accomplished through the use of new technology implementations to improve productivity, reduce costs of systemic inefficiencies and avoid unexpected costs. Many of the same type of productivity improvements for operating plants will be applicable for new plants. As new plants are being built, it is important to include these productivity improvements or at least provide the ability to implement them easily later

  11. Hydrogen production at hydro-power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnay, D. S.

    A tentative design for hydrogen-producing installations at hydropower facilities is discussed from technological, economic and applications viewpoints. The plants would use alternating current to electrolyze purified river water. The hydrogen would be stored in gas or liquid form and oxygen would be sold or vented to the atmosphere. The hydrogen could later be burned in a turbine generator for meeting peak loads, either in closed or open cycle systems. The concept would allow large hydroelectric plants to function in both base- and peak-load modes, thus increasing the hydraulic utilization of the plant and the capacity factor to a projected 0.90. Electrolyzer efficiencies ranging from 0.85-0.90 have been demonstrated. Excess hydrogen can be sold for other purposes or, eventually, as domestic and industrial fuel, at prices competitive with current industrial hydrogen.

  12. Comparison of Authorization/Registration/Notification Processes among Biocidal Products, Cosmetics, Plant Protection Products and Human Medicinal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, comparison of the authorization/registration/notification processes of biocidal products, cosmetics, plant protection products and medicinal products are made and in this respect, the situation in EU is assessed.

  13. The Plant-Window System: A framework for an integrated computing environment at advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The extensive use of computer technology in advanced reactor designs provides the opportunity to greatly expand the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, to support highly efficient and increasingly safe operation of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and sued, to the proper users throughout the plan. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications within a common computing environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces so as to define a flexible computing environment for both current generation nuclear power plants and advanced reactor designs

  14. Product development for catering - how to integrate issues on nutrition, quality and environment in the products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector......Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector...

  15. The waste isolation pilot plant: A new regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, M.W.; Schneider, S.P.; Saris, E.C.; Austin, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is ready to embark on a multiyear test program, using radioactive waste, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP is a deep geologic repository, constructed in ancient salt beds in southeastern New Mexico. It was authorized by Congress in 1979 as a research and development facility to demonstrate safe disposal of the nation's defense transuranic (TRU) waste. Nonradioactive testing in the repository has been under way for several years. The DOE is now ready to begin underground experiments at WIPP with small amounts of TRU waste. Radioactive waste testing in an actual repository environment will reduce uncertainties associated with predictions of long-term repository performance. However, the authority for DOE to begin this new phase of the test program no longer resides within the department. The WIPP is now subject to a new level of regulatory oversight by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal agencies, as set forth by Public Law 102-579, the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, signed by the President on October 30, 1992. This paper discusses the act's new regulatory requirements for WIPP

  16. On the sustainable productivity of planted forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    1999-01-01

    Planted forests have more than a millennium of history and represent the world's best hope for meeting global wood requirements in the twenty-first century. Advances in genetic improvement, nursery practices, stand establishment, and tending, harvesting, and manufacturing have boosted plantation yields to a higher level than at any point in history. Despite this,...

  17. New CHP plant for a rubber products manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, R.; Martí, C.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of 2014 the company Industrias de Hule Galgo decided to undertake the installation project of an efficient CHP plant for its production plant, with the aim of bringing down energy costs and improving the company’s competitive position in the market. The new plant has already started its first operational phase. The project has comprised the installation of a single cycle with gas-powered gensets providing a total electrical capacity of 6.6 MW. This provides the necessary thermal oil for the production plant; covers 100% of the electrical power consumed by the industrial complex; and also generates cooling water, giving improved production capacity by supercooling the extrusion system. To execute these works, Industrias de Hule Galgo contracted the services of engineering company AESA to provide the engineering, procurement and construction of the CHP plant. (Author)

  18. New salty waffle products "Fish Krekis" with fish & plant semifinished products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Dina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the directions of expansion of the range of wafer snack products of high nutritional value by using fish & plant semifinished products. The study scientifically grounds the benefits of using the new fish & plant semifinished products in manufacturing waffle salty snack products. The data provided in the article prove that the use of the fish & plant semifinished products & herbal ingredients enable a range of the new wafer snack products «Fish krekis» with high content of proteins, organic calcium, fiber and vitamins, with improved consumer properties, as well as more efficient use of Ukrainian raw fish materials.

  19. Reconceptualizing cancer immunotherapy based on plant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Plants can be used as inexpensive and facile production platforms for vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. More recently, plant-based biologics have expanded to include cancer immunotherapy agents. The following review describes the current state of the art for plant-derived strategies to prevent or reduce cancers. The review discusses avenues taken to prevent infection by oncogenic viruses, solid tumors and lymphomas. Strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and virus na...

  20. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    OpenAIRE

    MOREIRA, M.D.; PICANÇO, M.C.; BARBOSA, L.C. de A.; GUEDES, R.N.C.; CAMPOS, M.R. de; SILVA, G.A.; MARTINS, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  1. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  2. Cowley Ridge wind plant experiences best production year ever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The Cowley Ridge wind plant in southern Alberta in its fifth year of operation generated 63,380 MWh of electricity, exceeding its annual goal by about 15 per cent. December was one of the highest production months ever. During December the plant operated an an average of 62 per cent capacity throughout the month. The annual average is 35 per cent of capacity

  3. Optimization of Jatropha curcas pure plant oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna

    2015-01-01

    The use of pure plant oils as fuel, either directly or after conversion of the oil to bio-diesel, is considered to be one of the potential contributions to the transformation of the current fossil oil based economy to a sustainable bio-based one. The production of oil producing seeds using plants

  4. Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production | Mazou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production. ... This paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of latex, such as the reactions catalyzed, physiological functions, specificities, sources and their industrial applications. Keywords: Plant latex, lipase, Transesterification, purification, biodiesel ...

  5. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and development: A situation report ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... tuberculosis (XDR-TB), call for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs to combat this disease.

  6. Initial biochar effects on plant productivity derive from N fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, Simon; Memelink, Ilse; Hodgson, Edward; Jones, Sian; van de Voorde, Tess F. J.; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Mommer, Liesje; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2017-01-01

    Biochar application to soil is widely claimed to increase plant productivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not conclusively described. Here, we aim to elucidate these mechanisms using stable isotope probing.

  7. The heavy water production plant at Arroyito, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecabert, R.

    1984-01-01

    The author describes the construction of an industrial heavy water production plant (Planta Industrial de Agua Pesada, PIAP) in Argentina. The heavy water enrichment is based on a hydrogen/ammonia isotope exchange. (Auth.)

  8. What about improving the productivity of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Knecht, P.D.; Prideaux, D.L.; Zahner, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The FEA in April of 1974 established an Interagency Task Group on Power Plant Reliability, which was charged with the broad objective of improving the productivity of existing and planned large fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. It took approximately 11 months for the task force to publish a report, ''Report on Improving the Productivity of Electrical Power Plants'' (FEA-263-G), a detailed analysis and comparison of successful and below-average-performance power plants. The Nuclear Service Corp. portion of this study examined four large central-station power plants: two fossil (coal) and two nuclear plants. Only plants with electrical generation capacities greater than 400 MWe were considered. The study included the following: staff technical skill, engineering support, QA program, plant/corporate coordination, operation philosophy, maintenance programs, federal/state regulations, network control, and equipment problems. Personnel were interviewed, and checklists providing input from some 21 or more plant and corporate personnel of each utility were utilized. Reports and other documentation were also reviewed. It was recognized early that productivity is closely allied to technical skills and positive motivation. For this reason, considerable attention was given to people in this study

  9. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  10. Genotype by Environment Effects on Potato Mini-Tuber Seed Production in an Aeroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián F. Mateus-Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the environmental effect on plant development and mini-tuber production of a diverse group of potato genotypes grown under an aeroponic system, a G × E interaction experiment was carried out in greenhouses located at CIP’s experimental stations in La Molina (Lima and Huancayo (Junín. Five contrasting environments were set-up and evaluated. A combined Analysis of Variance was performed for the variables “days to tuber set”, “days to senescence” and “plant height”. An Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI Analysis was performed for yield variables: mini-tuber “weight” and “number of mini-tubers” per plant. There was a high variation in all the responses to the treatments. “Days to tuber set” was influenced by genetic responses, temperature and greenhouse Photosynthetically Active Radiation intensity. Considerable increases in the length of the vegetative cycle and plant height were recorded for all genotypes, and these were particularly notable in the warmer coastal environments. AMMI analysis showed that yield variables were primarily influenced by the genotypic effect followed by the genotype by environment interaction effect. The Venturana variety (T2 was the best performing genotype with a total average mini-tuber “weight” of 644 g per plant while the Chucmarina variety (T1 performed best for the variable “number of mini-tubers” with an overall average of 60.2 mini-tubers per plant. Both showed stability across different environments for these variables. The advanced clones T3 (395434.1, T5 (397077.16 and T6 (397073.16 showed stability for yield variables, but their performance was below the overall average of the trial. It is recommended that the environment and management should ideally be tailored to the genotype as this will result in significant yield gains.

  11. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  12. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  13. Fiber optic lighting system for plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. George, Dennis R.; Feddes, John J. R.

    1991-02-01

    Dennis St. George John Feddes (Dept. of Agricultural Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton AB Canada T6G 2Hl) A prototype light collection and transmission device was developed and evaluated for the potential of irradiating plants grown in an opague growth chamber. Results indicated that the device transmitted light with a photon flux of 130 1amol/s/m2 (4000-7000 nm) to the bottom of the growth chamber when direct solar radiation was 800 W/m2 (300-2500 nm) outside. The overall collection and transmission efficiency for photosynthetically active radiation is 19. 2. A growth trial with plants indicated that artificial lighting is required during cloudy periods. 1.

  14. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eMuller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these ‘urban plantings’ are typically designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant ‘ecological values’ by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban centre of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region over two, six week sampling periods characterised by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation, plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity.Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly - likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

  15. Plant Products for Pharmacology: Application of Enzymes in Their Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zarevúcka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Different plant products have been subjected to detailed investigations due to their increasing importance for improving human health. Plants are sources of many groups of natural products, of which large number of new compounds has already displayed their high impact in human medicine. This review deals with the natural products which may be found dissolved in lipid phase (phytosterols, vitamins etc.. Often subsequent convenient transformation of natural products may further improve the pharmacological properties of new potential medicaments based on natural products. To respect basic principles of sustainable and green procedures, enzymes are often employed as efficient natural catalysts in such plant product transformations. Transformations of lipids and other natural products under the conditions of enzyme catalysis show increasing importance in environmentally safe and sustainable production of pharmacologically important compounds. In this review, attention is focused on lipases, efficient and convenient biocatalysts for the enantio- and regioselective formation / hydrolysis of ester bond in a wide variety of both natural and unnatural substrates, including plant products, eg. plant oils and other natural lipid phase compounds. The application of enzymes for preparation of acylglycerols and transformation of other natural products provides big advantage in comparison with employing of conventional chemical methods: Increased selectivity, higher product purity and quality, energy conservation, elimination of heavy metal catalysts, and sustainability of the employed processes, which are catalyzed by enzymes. Two general procedures are used in the transformation of lipid-like natural products: (a Hydrolysis/alcoholysis of triacylglycerols and (b esterification of glycerol. The reactions can be performed under conventional conditions or in supercritical fluids/ionic liquids. Enzyme-catalyzed reactions in supercritical fluids combine the

  16. Production of lysosomal enzymes in plant-based expression systems

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to the production of enzymatically active recombinant human and animal lysosomal enzymes involving construction and expression of recombinant expression constructs comprising coding sequences of human or animal lysosomal enzymes in a plant expression system. The plant expression system provides for post-translational modification and processing to produce a recombinant gene product exhibiting enzymatic activity. The invention is demonstrated by working examples in which ...

  17. The Plant-Window system: A flexible, expandable computing environment for the integration of power plant activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the US nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed on Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  18. How the Physical Work Environment Can Affect Individual Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsdottir, Thordis; Hansen, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Strategic Management The topic of this thesis is about how the physical work environment affects individual productivity, and with focus on productivity through the well-being aspect of individuals. The thesis has a theoretical approach with a pilot-exercise including a pilot experiment and questionnaire. This approach was chosen as the research question is comprehensive, and with the timeframe to complete this thesis. A theoretical approach gives the possibility to furt...

  19. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements

  20. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1996-07-01

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: 32 P, 51 Cr, 60 C, and 65 Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated

  1. Maintenance in nuclear production power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights the importance and quality of maintenance in the complete phases of development, in a sector which has been often questioned by the public opinion, and that is always subject to national and international standards. The aim of maintenance is to guarantee the production of electric power in a reliable, safe, economic and friendly environmentally way, assuring a long-term production. (Author)

  2. Power plant construction contracting in a changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The 1965 blackout in the Northeast provided the wake-up call that spawned in unprecedented program of power plant construction by electric utilities. This building program began in the late 1960s and continued unabated through the 1970s. Beginning in the late 1970s, state regulators began in era of 'prudence' reviews which disallowed as imprudent significant portions of the costs of certain nuclear units being brought on line at the time. This regulatory experience brought about a fundamental change in the way in which utilities evaluated the need for additional capacity. This paper explores construction contracting trends in light of recent developments in the relationship between the electric utility and the state regulator. It is within this context that the utility decides: (1) whether to build, buy, or save; and (2) if the decision is to build, which project planning and administration considerations will maximize the utility's ability to incorporate project costs into the ratebase. In order to put these issues into their proper perspective, this paper first presents a brief overview of the prudence decisions of the past, and the chilling effect of these decisions generally on new project planning. The paper next focuses on the recent changes to the post-construction prudence review model, including the introduction of pre-approval arrangements and rolling prudence reviews. Following that will be a survey of new construction spending decisions in light of these changes. After an analysis of the bases for the prudence disallowances of the past and the application of the lessons learned from these disallowances to contract planning and administration issues of today, the paper will close with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used contract delivery methods in today's regulatory environment

  3. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is

  4. Reconceptualizing cancer immunotherapy based on plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Plants can be used as inexpensive and facile production platforms for vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. More recently, plant-based biologics have expanded to include cancer immunotherapy agents. The following review describes the current state of the art for plant-derived strategies to prevent or reduce cancers. The review discusses avenues taken to prevent infection by oncogenic viruses, solid tumors and lymphomas. Strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and virus nanoparticles are described, and examples are provided. The review ends with a discussion of the implications of plant-based cancer immunotherapy for developing countries. PMID:28884013

  5. Synthetic Environments as visualization method for product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.; van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Damgrave, Roy Gerhardus Johannes; Damgrave, Roy G.J.; de Ridder, Huib; Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explored the use of low fidelity Synthetic Environments (SE; i.e., a combination of simulation techniques) for product design. We explored the usefulness of low fidelity SE to make design problems explicit. In particular, we were interested in the influence of interactivity on user

  6. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...

  7. Optimal planting systems for cut gladiolus and stock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to elucidate the effect of different planting systems, videlicet (viz. flat, ridge, and raised bed system on growth, yield and quality of gladiolus and stock. Corms of ‘Rose Supreme’ and ‘White Prosperity’ gladiolus and seedlings of ‘Cheerful White’, ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Double’ and ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Single’ stock were planted on different planting systems in individual experiments for each species. Gladiolus had similar good quality production irrespective of planting systems with numerical superiority of ridge planting, which produced longer stems with higher stem fresh weight, but delayed corm sprouting by ca. 1 d compared to raised bed or flat planting system. Among cultivars, ‘Rose Supreme’ produced higher number of florets per spike, taller stems with longer spikes, higher fresh weight of stems and higher number of cormels than ‘White Prosperity’. Stock plants grown on flat beds produced stems with greater stem length, leaf area and fresh weight of stems compared to ridge or raised bed planting systems. Plants grown on ridges produced the highest stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, total leaf chlorophyll contents, and number of flowers per spike. ‘Cheerful White’ and ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Double’ performed best by producing good quality stems in shorter period compared to ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Single’. In summary, gladiolus should be grown on ridges, while stock may be planted on flat beds for higher yields of better quality flowers.

  8. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adan S. S.; Calderaro, Gisele; Guimarães, Patricia C.; Magalhaes, Mateus R.; Morais, Marcos V. B.; Rafee, Sameh A. A.; Ribeiro, Igor O.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Martins, Jorge A.; Martins, Leila D.; Martin, Scot T.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.

    2017-07-01

    How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies favoring the burning of

  9. Plant growth and physiology of vegetable plants as influenced by carbon dioxide environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tadashi

    1973-01-01

    In order to obtain basic knowledge on the increased giving of carbon dioxide to vegetables, the carbon dioxide environment in growing houses was analyzed, and the physiological and ecological properties of vegetables cultivated in carbon dioxide environment were elucidated. To improve the carbon dioxide environment, giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide, air flow, ventilation, and others were examined. The concentration of carbon dioxide began to decrease when the illumination intensity on growing layer reached 1 -- 1.5 lux, owing to the photo-synthetic activity of vegetables, and decreased rapidly at 3 -- 5 lux. The lowering of carbon dioxide concentration lowered the photo-synthesis of vegetables extremely, and the transfer of synthesized carbohydrate to roots was obstructed. The effect suffered in low carbon dioxide concentration left some aftereffect even after ventilation and the recovery of carbon dioxide concentration. But this aftereffect was not observed in case of cucumber. To improve carbon dioxide environment, the air flow or ventilation required for minimizing the concentration lowering was determined, but giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide was most effective. The interaction of carbon dioxide concentration and light was examined regarding the effect on photo-synthesis, and some knowledge of practical application was obtained. The effect of giving more carbon dioxide was more remarkable as the treatment was given to younger seedlings and in the period when the capacity of absorbing assimilation products was higher. (Kako, I.)

  10. Technical solutions for mitigating adverse impacts on the environment implemented at Deva Thermal Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, Victor; Egyed, Francisc; Manea, Laurean

    2004-01-01

    harmony with current and prospective environmental protection demands, especially for air protection. The facts herein presented clearly show the financial efforts so far made in operation as well as for prospective investments in further modernisation of the electrostatic precipitators and implementation of desulfurization plants, as top priorities. Another concern is the landscape and agricultural reinstatement of the ash disposal dumps that have been filled thus mitigating to the greatest extent possible the adverse effects that the existence of Deva Power Plant creates in its environment. A parallel ash recycling process has been initiated by marketing the dry ash to be used in the cement industry; the Power Plant collaborate with an important neighbouring cement producer for this purpose. The impact that the ash disposal dump has on the environment will be thus alleviated. The ash disposal area will also be reduced with the increase in the need of ash to be utilised on other commercial activities. The action plan for desulfurization, and gas emission mitigation in general, elaborated by Deva Power Plant has been integrated in a national average term programme involving all power industry polluting bodies. The flue gas desulfurization programme requires further modernisation of main power generation systems, primarily of burners to reduce NOx emission level below 500 mg/Nm 3 , and of electrostatic precipitators to reduce the powder emissions below 50 mg/Nm 3 . By adopting the wet limestone desulfurization method, SO 2 emissions into the air will be decreased from 50,000 tons annually to 4,500 tons and the desulfurization by-products will be marketed for the cement industry or infrastructure works

  11. Comparison of the effects of nuclear power plants and thermal power plants on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.; Teverovskij, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of ecological effects produced by a thermal power station (TPS) and a nuclear power plant (NPP) of similar electric capacity has been made. The ecological advantages of NPP over TPS are revealed in analysis of aerosol and gas blow-out and its danger for the environment. From the above data it follows that TPS as compared with NPP of similar electric capacity produces a 100 and 1000 fold higher air pollution effect than the latter. The dose of TPS radiation effect is minimum 500 times higher than that of NPP at normal operation. Large-scale construction of NPP is one of the most perfect means of atmosphere protection against harmful industrial discharges

  12. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  13. Concepts in production ecology for analysis and design of animal and plant-animal production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de G.W.J.; Ridder, de N.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of a hierarchy in growth factors (defining, limiting and reducing growth factors), as developed for plant production has shown its usefulness in the analysis and design of plant production systems. This hierarchy presents a theoretical framework for the analysis of biophysical conditions in

  14. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  15. Pharmaceuticals and Personal-Care Products in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, Mireia; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) derived from agricultural, urban, and industrial areas accumulate in plants at concentrations (ng to μg kg -1 ) that can be toxic to the plants. Importantly, the dietary intake of these PPCP-contaminated plants may also pose a risk to human health, but currently little is known about the fate of PPCPs in plants and their effect on or risk to the ecosystem. In this Opinion article we propose that in-depth research on the use of plants as a monitoring device for assessing the use and environmental presence of PPCPs is warranted. The toxicity of PPCPs to plants and their microbiota needs to be established, as well as any toxic effects on herbivores including humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Roots, plant production and nutrient use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, de P.; Noordwijk, van M.

    1987-01-01

    The role of roots in obtaining high crop production levels as well as a high nutrient use efficiency is discussed. Mathematical models of diffusion and massflow of solutes towards roots are developed for a constant daily uptake requirement. Analytical solutions are given for simple and more

  17. Mobile robot teleoperation system for plant inspection based on collecting and utilizing environment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Nobuyasu; Asama, Hajime; Kita, Nobuyuki; Yang, Hai-quan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes about development of a mobile robot teleoperation system for plant inspection. In our system, the robot is an agent for collecting the environment data and is also teleoperated by the operator utilizing such accumulated environment data which is displayed on the operation interface. The robot equips many sensors for detecting the state of the robot and the environment. Such redundant sensory system can be also utilized to collect the working environment data on-site while the robot is patrolling. Here, proposed system introduces the framework of collecting and utilizing environment data for adaptive plant inspection using the teleoperated robot. A view simulator is primarily aiming to facilitate evaluation of the visual sensors and algorithms and is also extended as the Environment Server, which is the core technology of the digital maintenance field for the plant inspection. In order to construct detailed seamless digital maintenance field mobile robotic technology is utilized to supply environment data to the server. The sensory system on the robot collect the environment data on-site and such collected data is uploaded to the Environment Server for compiling accurate digital environment data base. The robot operator also can utilize accumulated environment data by referring to the Environment Server. In this paper, we explain the concept of our teleoperation system based on collecting and utilizing environment data. Using developed system, inspection patrol experiments were attempted in the plant mock-up. Experimental results are shown by using an omnidirectional mobile robot with sensory system and the Environment Server. (author)

  18. Plant diversity surpasses plant functional groups and plant productivity as driver of soil biota in the long term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Eisenhauer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments.We studied changes in the impacts of plant diversity and presence of key functional groups on soil biota by investigating the performance of soil microorganisms and soil fauna two, four and six years after the establishment of model grasslands. The results indicate that temporal changes of plant community effects depend on the trophic affiliation of soil animals: plant diversity effects on decomposers only occurred after six years, changed little in herbivores, but occurred in predators after two years. The results suggest that plant diversity, in terms of species and functional group richness, is the most important plant community property affecting soil biota, exceeding the relevance of plant above- and belowground productivity and the presence of key plant functional groups, i.e. grasses and legumes, with the relevance of the latter decreasing in time.Plant diversity effects on biota are not only due to the presence of key plant functional groups or plant productivity highlighting the importance of diverse and high-quality plant derived resources, and supporting the validity of the singular hypothesis for soil biota. Our results demonstrate that in the long term plant diversity essentially drives the performance of soil biota questioning the paradigm that belowground communities are not affected by plant diversity and reinforcing the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning.

  19. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C; McGuire, A David; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-05

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  20. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C.; McGuire, A. David; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche–efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche–efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species’ inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  1. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C.; McGuire, A. David; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche–efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche–efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species’ inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty. PMID:25901325

  2. Entropy production and plant transpiration in the Liz catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Tesař, Miroslav; Krejča, M.; Weger, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 81-89 ISSN 1802-503X Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) 2B06132 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : plant transpiration * phytomass productivity * heat balance * entropy production Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  3. Genotype-environment interactions in improving animal production in harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercoe, J.E.; Frisch, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Realized production is determined by two genetically controlled factors: production potential, which is estimated by the production in the absence of environmental stress, and the level of resistance to environmental stress. Across breeds these two sets of factors are negatively correlated, i.e. breeds with a high production potential have a low level of resistance to environmental stresses and vice versa. This phenomenon is the reason for genotype-environment interactions in production characters. Understanding the phenomenon enables rational decisions to be made when implementing cross-breeding or upgrading strategies and in determining the relative pressures that should be applied to productive and adaptive traits when selecting within a breed. It also assists in deciding whether genetic or environmental solutions are appropriate to a particular problem. The concept is presented and discussed in relation to the requirements for breed evaluation studies. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  4. UNDERSTANDING PLANT-SOIL RELATIONSHIPS USING CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although soil is a component of terrestrial ecosystems, it is comprised of a complex web of interacting organisms, and therefore, can be considered itself as an ecosystem. Soil microflora and fauna derive energy from plants and plant residues and serve important functions in mai...

  5. Produção de frutos e caracterização de ambientes de ocorrência de plantas nativas de araticum no cerrado de Goiás Fruit production and environment characterization of the occurrence of native plants of araticum in the Cerrado of Goiás state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

    2009-06-01

    structure variation among populations was investigated through dendrograms by the UPGMA linking criterion. The results demonstrated that the production of araticum fruits is low and changeable in areas and years, and the average corresponds to 2.97 usable fruits and 1.37 not usable fruits per plant. The phenotypic variation of morphologic characters between populations of araticum of the Goiás state does not present a standard of space arrangement. The production of fruits per plant is very changeable, since some plants present productive and apparent quality characteristics of fruits that make them potential plants matrix. The main pests that attack the fruits of araticum are: Spermologus funereus, Cerconota anonella and Bephratelloides pomorum. The anthropic pressure on natural environments of production of araticum has reduced the current production and can make the future productions impracticable.

  6. Heterologous production of peptides in plants: fusion proteins and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Juliane Flávia Cançado; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Lacorte, Cristiano

    2013-11-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the ectopic production of proteins and peptides of different organisms leading to biopharmaceutical production in large cultures of bacterial, yeasts and mammalian cells. Otherwise, the expression of recombinant proteins and peptides in plants is an attractive alternative presenting several advantages over the commonly used expression systems including reduced production costs, easy scale-up and reduced risks of pathogen contamination. Different types of proteins and peptides have been expressed in plants, including antibodies, antigens, and proteins and peptides of medical, veterinary and industrial applications. However, apart from providing a proof of concept, the use of plants as platforms for heterologous protein and peptide production still depends on key steps towards optimization including the enhancement of expression levels, manipulation of post-transcriptional modifications and improvements in purification methods. In this review, strategies to increase heterologous protein and peptide stability and accumulation are discussed, focusing on the expression of peptides through the use of gene fusions.

  7. Secondary Plant Products Causing Photosensitization in Grazing Herbivores: Their Structure, Activity and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems.

  8. PROVIDING PLANT DATA ANALYTICS THROUGH A SEAMLESS DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    As technology continues to evolve and become more integrated into a worker’s daily routine in the Nuclear Power industry the need for easy access to data becomes a priority. Not only does the need for data increase but the amount of data collected increases. In most cases the data is collected and stored in various software applications, many of which are legacy systems, which do not offer any other option to access the data except through the application’s user interface. Furthermore the data gets grouped in “silos” according to work function and not necessarily by subject. Hence, in order to access all the information needed for a particular task or analysis one may have to access multiple applications to gather all the data needed. The industry and the research community have identified the need for a digital architecture and more importantly the need for a Seamless Digital Environment. An SDE provides a means to access multiple applications, gather the data points needed, conduct the analysis requested, and present the result to the user with minimal or no effort by the user. In addition, the nuclear utilities have identified the need for research focused on data analytics. The effort should develop and evaluate use cases for data mining and analytics for employing information from plant sensors and database for use in developing improved business analytics. Idaho National Laboratory is leading such effort, which is conducted in close collaboration with vendors, nuclear utilities, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and Electric Power Research Institute. The goal of the study is to research potential approaches to building an analytics solution for equipment reliability, on a small scale, focusing on either a single piece of equipment or a single system. The analytics solution will likely consist of a data integration layer, predictive and machine learning layer and the user interface layer that will display the output of the analysis in a straight

  9. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bilck

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the development of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen, when the plant is planted without being removed from the bag. Both black and white biodegradable bags remained intact throughout the seedling production period (60 days. After being transplanted into containers (240 days, they were completely biodegraded, and there was no significant difference between the dry mass of these plants and that of plants that were transplanted without the bags. The plants that were cultivated without being removed from the polyethylene bags had root development difficulties, and the wrapping showed no signs of degradation. The use of biodegradable films is an alternative for the production of bags for seedlings, as these can then be transplanted directly into the soil without removing the bag, reducing the risk of damage to the roots during the moment of transplant.

  10. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, André Tavares Corrêa; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of diversity on soil respiration. We hypothesized that plant diversity could affect soil respiration in two ways. On the one hand, more diverse plant communities have been shown to promote plant productivity, which could increase soil respiration. On the other hand, the nutrient concentration in the biomass produced has been shown to decrease with diversity, which could counteract the production-induced increase in soil respiration. Our results clearly show that soil respiration increased with species richness. Detailed analysis revealed that this effect was not due to differences in species composition. In general, soil respiration in mixtures was higher than would be expected from the monocultures. Path analysis revealed that species richness predominantly regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity. No evidence supporting the hypothesized negative effect of lower N concentration on soil respiration was found. We conclude that shifts in productivity are the main mechanism by which changes in plant diversity may affect soil respiration.

  11. Production of wind power in the built environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeman, L.G.J.; Peters, D.J.; Bruessau, K.M.; Lichtenberg, R.; Cleijne, H.; Hoeve, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A state-of-the-art is given of the production of energy from wind in the built environment in the Netherlands. Also attention is paid to technical, planning, sociological and economical bottlenecks for the use of small wind turbines in the built environment. And finally, the perspectives in the light of renewable energy targets in the Netherlands for the year 2020 are discussed. Two scenario's were discussed: (1) turbines installed on or next to buildings; and (2) turbines that are integrated in the building [nl

  12. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  13. The abundance and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in the atmospheric environment of composting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Qiu, Tianlei; Sun, Yanmei; Wang, Xuming

    2018-07-01

    Composting is considered to reduce the introduction of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment through land application of manure; however, the possible pollution of ARGs in the atmospheric environment of composting plants is unknown. In this study, 29 air samples including up- and downwind, composting, packaging, and office areas from 4 composting plants were collected. Dynamic concentrations of 22 subtypes of ARGs, class 1 integron (intl1), and 2 potential human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), and bacterial communities were investigated using droplet digital PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively. In this study, intl1 and 22 subtypes of ARGs (except tetQ) were detected in air of composting, packaging, office, and downwind areas. The highest concentration of 15 out of 22 subtypes of ARGs was detected in the packaging areas, and intl1 also had the maximum average concentration of 10 4  copies/m 3 , with up to (1.78 ± 0.49) × 10 -2 copies/16S rRNA copy. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling of ARGs, potential HPBs, and bacterial components all indicated that the bioaerosol pollutant pattern in packaging areas was most similar to that in composting areas, followed by office, downwind, and upwind areas. The co-occurrence between ARGs and bacterial taxa assessed by Procrustes test, mantel test, and network analysis implied that aerosolized ARG fragments from composting and packaging areas contributed to the compositions of ARG aerosols in office and downwind areas. The results presented here show that atmoshperic environments of composting plants harbor abundant and diverse ARGs, which highlight the urgent need for comprehensive evaluation of potential human health and ecological risks of composts during both production as well as land application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria in onion production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colo, Josip; Hajnal-Jafari, Timea I; Durić, Simonida; Stamenov, Dragana; Hamidović, Saud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the effect of rhizospheric bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strains 1 and 2) and Bacillus subtilis on the growth and yield of onion and on the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of onion. The ability of microorganisms to produce indole-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was also assessed. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in chernozem type of soil. Bacillus subtilis was the best producer of IAA, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were better at producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphates. The longest seedling was observed with the application of Azotobacter chroococcum. The height of the plants sixty days after sowing was greater in all the inoculated variants than in the control. The highest onion yield was observed in Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum variants. The total number of bacteria and the number of Azotobacter chroococcum were larger in all the inoculated variants then in the control. The number of fungi decreased in most of the inoculated variants, whereas the number of actinomycetes decreased or remained the same.

  15. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  16. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje A. Wolff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  17. Conditions for Productive Learning in Network Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponti, M.; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Lindström, B.

    2004-01-01

    are designed without a deep understanding of the pedagogical, communicative and collaborative conditions embedded in networked learning. Despite the existence of good theoretical views pointing to a social understanding of learning, rather than a traditional individualistic and information processing approach......The Kaleidoscope1 Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for Productive Networked Learning Environments is developing and elaborating conceptual understandings of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) emphasizing the use of cross-cultural comparative......: Pedagogical design and the dialectics of the digital artefacts, the concept of collaboration, ethics/trust, identity and the role of scaffolding of networked learning environments.   The JEIRP is motivated by the fact that many networked learning environments in various European educational settings...

  18. Production of biogas from plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuer, J.

    1980-12-01

    Different crop residues from agriculture and horticulture were investigated for feasibility of producing biogas. The anaerobic fermentation has been performed in batch system fermentation reactors (5 liters) at mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Content of volatile solids (VS/TS) in raw materials varied from 78.5 percent in silage from top of sugar beet to 97.3 percent in straw of rye. The highest content of lignin was found in stalks of Jerusalem artichoke (49.6 percent), stalks of horse bean (47.6 percent) and the lowest in leaves of cauliflower (9.5 percent), top of sugar beet and leaves of cabbage (11 percent) in both. Ratio of carbon to nitrogen was the highest in the straw of rye (60) and the lowest in silage from top of sugar beet (11) and in leaves of cauliflower (11). Rate of biogas production during the first 13 days of fermentation was about 27 liters per kg TS per day, achieved from top of sugar beet. Typical mean rate of biogas production, about 9 liters per kg TS per day, was performed during the first 40 days of retention time from straw of wheat and stalks of rape. Top of sugar beet and manure slurry have had the shortest effective retention time ca 20 days. Maximum total yield of biogas (427.0 liters per kg TS) was achieved from top of sugar beet. From manure slurry 257.5 liters biogas per kg TS was obtained. Methane content in biogas produced during the final 7 days of retention time was the highest from silage from top of artichoke (72.8 percent), stalks of horse bean (71.6 percent) and straw of wheat (71.0 percent). The lowest percentage of methane (59.0 percent) was found in biogas from top of sugar beet.

  19. Foreign Investment and International Plant Configuration: Whither the Product Cycle?

    OpenAIRE

    Belderbos,René; Sleuwaegen,Leo

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of the decision to invest abroad in particular configurations of overseas plants for 120 Japanese firms active in 36 well-defined electronic product markets. We find support for a structured internationalization decision model in which the decision to produce abroad and the choice for a specific international plant configuration are treated as nested strategic options. Drivers at the industry and firm level push firms to consider overseas investment, and locational...

  20. Exploration of plant genomes in the FLAGdb++ environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leplé Jean-Charles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the contexts of genomics, post-genomics and systems biology approaches, data integration presents a major concern. Databases provide crucial solutions: they store, organize and allow information to be queried, they enhance the visibility of newly produced data by comparing them with previously published results, and facilitate the exploration and development of both existing hypotheses and new ideas. Results The FLAGdb++ information system was developed with the aim of using whole plant genomes as physical references in order to gather and merge available genomic data from in silico or experimental approaches. Available through a JAVA application, original interfaces and tools assist the functional study of plant genes by considering them in their specific context: chromosome, gene family, orthology group, co-expression cluster and functional network. FLAGdb++ is mainly dedicated to the exploration of large gene groups in order to decipher functional connections, to highlight shared or specific structural or functional features, and to facilitate translational tasks between plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera. Conclusion Combining original data with the output of experts and graphical displays that differ from classical plant genome browsers, FLAGdb++ presents a powerful complementary tool for exploring plant genomes and exploiting structural and functional resources, without the need for computer programming knowledge. First launched in 2002, a 15th version of FLAGdb++ is now available and comprises four model plant genomes and over eight million genomic features.

  1. Virtual Collaborative Simulation Environment for Integrated Product and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulli, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Deneb Robotics is a leader in the development of commercially available, leading edge three- dimensional simulation software tools for virtual prototyping,, simulation-based design, manufacturing process simulation, and factory floor simulation and training applications. Deneb has developed and commercially released a preliminary Virtual Collaborative Engineering (VCE) capability for Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). This capability allows distributed, real-time visualization and evaluation of design concepts, manufacturing processes, and total factory and enterprises in one seamless simulation environment.

  2. Increasing Military Physician Productivity in a Managed Care Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-13

    allows us to obtain to a common denominator, or one single rating even though the services are dissimilar and the input units are not "weighted." Serway ...many ideas as possible to catalyze the process. In removing barriers to productivity in the work environment, a thorough analysis of the physical ...physician and the organization has increased. The whole text of the book "Doctor’s Decisions and the Cost of Medical Care" is dedicated to this concept

  3. Investigation by gamma-ray spectrometry and INAA of radioactivity impact on phosphate fertilizer plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Companis, I.; Georgescu, I. I.; Pincovshi, E.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive polluting effect of a phosphate fertilizer plant on the environment was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis (INAA). The hazards could arise from industrial plants using raw phosphate materials to prepare fertilizers for agricultural purposes due to the phosphate rock which, depending on the type and geographical zone of provenance may contain rather large amounts of uranium. The fertilizer plant under study is situated about 4 km from the town of Turnu Magurele, on the left bank of the Danube River in Romania. The main by-products of the factory are: nitro phosphate type fertilizers (NP, NPK), Ammonia, Nitric acid, Ammonium nitrate, Urea, Sulfuric acid, Phosphoric acid, Sodium fluorosilicate and Aluminum sulfate. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 2 26Ra, 2 35U, 2 38U, 2 32Th, and 4 0K), as well as 1 37Cs man-made radionuclide in surface soils collected from semicircular areas within radii of 0.5 and 15 km of the plant; in addition, different NPK type fertilizers and phosphate rocks were investigated. The samples (mass of about 100-g each) were kept tightly closed for one month to permit 2 26Ra to establish radioactive equilibrium with its decay products. This method makes it possible to assess U, Th, and K contents in samples by measuring 2 38U and 2 32Th (in equilibrium with their radioactive daughters) and 4 0K radioactivity, taken into account that 1 g of U, Th and K yield 1 2358 Bq 2 38U, 569 Bq 2 35U, 4057.2 Bq 2 32Th and 33.11 Bq 4 0K, respectively. The spectrometrical chain was based on a HPGe (EG and G Ortec) detector of 30 % relative efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution at 1332 keV of 6 0Co. INAA technique (neutron irradiation at TRIGA reactor of SCN Pitesti) was used to determine macro, micro and trace elements in samples collected from both technological shops of the factory (air dust and drinking tap water) and its surroundings

  4. Performance optimization of the Växtkraft biogas production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, Eva; Lindmark, Johan; Nordlander, Eva; Odlare, Monica; Dahlquist, Erik; Kastensson, Jan; Leksell, Niklas; Pettersson, Carl-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pre-treatment of ley crop can increase the biogas plant performance. ► Membrane filtration can increase the capacity of the biogas plant. ► Mechanical pre-treatment of the ley crop shows the highest energy efficiency. ► Using a distributor to spread the residues as fertilizer show promising results. -- Abstract: All over the world there is a strong interest and also potential for biogas production from organic residues as well as from different crops. However, to be commercially competitive with other types of fuels, efficiency improvements of the biogas production process are needed. In this paper, results of improvements studies done on a full scale co-digestion plant are presented. In the plant organic wastes from households and restaurants are mixed and digested with crops from pasture land. The areas for improvement of the plant addressed in this paper are treatment of the feed material to enhance the digestion rate, limitation of the ballast of organics in the water stream recirculated in the process, and use of the biogas plant residues at farms. Results from previous studies on pre-treatment and membrane filtration of recirculated process water are combined for an estimation of the total improvement potential. Further, the possibility of using neural networks to predict biogas production using historical data from the full-scale biogas plant was investigated. Results from an investigation using the process residues as fertilizer are also presented. The results indicate a potential to increase the biogas yield from the process with up to over 30% with pre-treatment of the feed and including membrane filtration in the process. Neural networks have the potential to be used for prediction of biogas production. Further, it is shown that the residues from biogas production can be used as fertilizers but that the emission of N 2 O from the fertilized soil is dependent on the soil type and spreading technology.

  5. Determination of Oxygen Production by Cyanobacteria in Desert Environment Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Prieto, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The cyanobacteria have been characterized for being precursor in the production of oxygen. By means of photosynthetic reactions, they provide oxygen to the environment that surrounds them and they capture part of surrounding dioxide of carbon. This way it happened since the primitive Earth until today. Besides, these microorganisms can support the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. The presence of cyanobacterias in an environment like a dry tropical bioma, such as the geographical location called Desert of The Tatacoa (Huila - Colombia), is determinant to establish parameters in the search of biological origin of atmospheric oxygen detected in Mars. In that case, I work with a random sample of not rhizospheric soil, taken to 15 cm of depth. After determining the presence of cyanobacterias in the sample, this one was in laboratory to stimulate the oxygen production. The presence of oxygen in Mars is very interesting. Since oxygen gas is very reactive, it disappear if it is not renewed; the possibility that this renovation of oxygen has a biological origin is encouraging, bearing in mind that in a dry environment and high radiation such as the studied one, the production of oxygen by cyanobacterias is notable. Also it is necessary to keep in mind that the existence of cyanobacterias would determine water presence in Mars subsoil and the nutrients cycles renovation. An interesting exploration possibility for some future space probe to Mars might be the study of worldwide distribution of oxygen concentration in this planet and this way, indentify zones suitable for microbian life.

  6. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in food production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L. monocytogenes has been established in different plants for the production of food, including dairy plants, abattoirs, plants for the processing of fish, as well as those for the production of ready-to-eat (RTE food and this fact is being considered as the primary mechanism of food contamination with this bacteria. There is also the factor of numerous and diverse contaminated production equipment, because it has certain parts that are inaccessible for the necessary cleaning and disinfection. The temperature, position, as well as the material of the work surface are also linked to the contamination of plants with this bacteria. Investigations carried out so far have helped toward the better understanding of the manner and time of contamination of food items in the course of the production process, but there are still unresolved problems, including most certainly the biggest one - the adherence of bacteria and the creation of a biofilm, when the bacteria is in that condition more resistant to so-called stress factors which are usually used in the food industry for the purpose of decontamination of the surfaces with which foods come into contact. The control of L. monocytogenes in food production plants is possible primarily by using an integrated programme, compatible with the systems Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP and Good Hygiene Practice (GHP, necessary in the production of food that is safe for the consumer. Essentially, the control measures that can contribute to reducing the incidence of findings of L.monocytogenes in the finished product, as well as the reducing of the level of contamination with this bacteria are linked, on the one hand, with hygiene procedures in the production process, and, on the other, with the applied technological procedures.

  7. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications.

  8. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    contrast to the case of the strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Overall, these research improves understanding of mechanisms underlying the expansion of CAM plants with important implications on shifts in dryland vegetation composition, bioenergy production, food security, and adaptation to global environment change.

  9. The control of radioactivity in the working environment in the factories for production of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, B.N.; Gnjatovic, S.S.; Vujovic, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    The results of dosimetric control in factories for the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers in Serbia, and of the measurement of the total beta radioactivity of samples collected in these factories, are presented. An increase in the radiation dose, even up to 1000 times background, has been found at certain places in the plant. These results serve as a basis for conclusions on the existence, variation and collection of the radioactive component in particular phases of the technological process for the production of phosphate fertilizers. An attempt is made on the basis of the results obtained in three plants to evaluate the degree of danger in the working environment and in the area surrounding the factories and to propose protective measures. (Author)

  10. The Value of Native Plants and Local Production in an Era of Global Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Weisberg, Peter J; Provenza, Frederick D

    2017-01-01

    For addressing potential food shortages, a fundamental tradeoff exists between investing more resources to increasing productivity of existing crops, as opposed to increasing crop diversity by incorporating more species. We explore ways to use local plants as food resources and the potential to promote food diversity and agricultural resilience. We discuss how use of local plants and the practice of local agriculture can contribute to ongoing adaptability in times of global change. Most food crops are now produced, transported, and consumed long distances from their homelands of origin. At the same time, research and practices are directed primarily at improving the productivity of a small number of existing crops that form the cornerstone of a global food economy, rather than to increasing crop diversity. The result is a loss of agro-biodiversity, leading to a food industry that is more susceptible to abiotic and biotic stressors, and more at risk of catastrophic losses. Humans cultivate only about 150 of an estimated 30,000 edible plant species worldwide, with only 30 plant species comprising the vast majority of our diets. To some extent, these practices explain the food disparity among human populations, where nearly 1 billion people suffer insufficient nutrition and 2 billion people are obese or overweight. Commercial uses of new crops and wild plants of local origin have the potential to diversify global food production and better enable local adaptation to the diverse environments humans inhabit. We discuss the advantages, obstacles, and risks of using local plants. We also describe a case study-the missed opportunity to produce pine nuts commercially in the Western United States. We discuss the potential consequences of using local pine nuts rather than importing them overseas. Finally, we provide a list of edible native plants, and synthesize the state of research concerning the potential and challenges in using them for food production. The goal of our

  11. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Projet Production EPR 1, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  12. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  13. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF); Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  14. Cogeneration Power Plants: a Proposed Methodology for Unitary Production Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metalli, E.

    2009-01-01

    A new methodology to evaluate unitary energetic production costs in the cogeneration power plants is proposed. This methodology exploits the energy conversion factors fixed by Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas. So it allows to settle such unitary costs univocally for a given plant, without assigning them a priori subjective values when there are two or more energy productions at the same time. Moreover the proposed methodology always ensures positive values for these costs, complying with the total generation cost balance equation. [it

  15. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  16. [Effective productions of plant secondary metabolites having antitumor activity by plant cell and tissue cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shoko

    2005-06-01

    Methods for the effective production of plant secondary metabolites with antitumor activity using plant cell and tissue cultures were developed. The factors in tannin productivity were investigated using culture strains producing different types of hydrolyzable tannins, i.e., gallotannins (mixture of galloylglucoses), ellagi-, and dehydroellagitannins. Production of ellagi- and dehydroellagitannins was affected by the concentrations and ratio of nitrogen sources in the medium. The formation of oligomeric ellagitannins in shoots of Oenothera tetraptera was correlated with the differentiation of tissues. Cultured cells of Eriobotrya japonica producing ursane- and oleanane-type triterpenes with antitumor activities were also established.

  17. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  18. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  19. STUDY OF PLANT-WIDE CONTROL IMPLEMENTATION IN PRODUCTION PROCESS OF GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHERIN INDRIAWATI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plant-wide control system to optimize electricity production in geothermal power plant is proposed in this research. The objective is to overcome the deficiency due to changes in the characteristics of production well and fluctuation in electricity demand load. The proposed plant-wide control system has two main tasks; to maintain production process at optimum value and to increase efficiency. The pressure in separator and condenser is maintained at the respective set points under electrical load fluctuations in order to ensure optimum efficiency. The control system also reduce the usage of auxialiary electrical power and increase efficiency. The task was performed by controlling inlet cooling water temperatures to the condenser. It was concluded that the proposed control structure was able to increase efficiency and maintain production.

  20. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Water plays a central role affecting all aspects of the dynamics in aridland ecosystems. Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. The ecological studies in this project revolve around one fundamental premise: that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process. In contrast, hydrogen is not fractionated during water uptake through the root. Soil water availability in shallow, deep, and/or groundwater layers vary spatially; therefore hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap provide a direct measure of the water source currently used by a plant. The longer-term record of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios is recorded annually in xylem tissues (tree rings). The research in this project addresses variation in stable isotopic composition of aridland plants and its consequences for plant performance and community-level interactions.

  1. Transfer of radionuclides from the environment to crops and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, J.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer rates of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 65 Zn, 60 Co and 22 Na from the irrigation water to different crops, determined by means of experimental models, depend on the mode of conveyance, the water quality, and on the type and portion of the plant in question. In certain cases, the resulting contamination to foodstuffs undergoing irrigation is higher than that of the water. The contamination level of the consumed product also depends on the food processing technology. The monitoring of crops and converted agricultural products is thus of great use for the knowledge of the radiological state of the site. Measurements taken in the environment show that this contamination is very slight. This monitoring is very well accepted by farmers and managers of food product conversion companies, because it provides proof of the quality of their products from the radiological standpoint [fr

  2. Impact of power plant KRSKO on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hak, Nena; Lulic, Stipe

    1993-01-01

    The Sava river is among the largest rivers in the Republic of Croatia. It drains 95.000 square kilometers before meeting the Danube River. The Sava river and its surroundings we being exploited in agriculture, forestry, power generation (one nuclear power plant and several thermal power plants), oil transportation, gravel extraction and recreation. At last, the Sava River is the major source of fresh water for industry and population. Different authorized institutions from the Republic of Slovenia and the Republic of Croatia are included in programs of nonradiological and radiological monitoring of Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPPK). Quarterly, the institutions from the Republic of Croatia, NPP Krsko and the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Croatia, submit public information in the Republic of Croatia about NPP Krsko operation and its environmental impact

  3. Environment pollution with aluminium around a coalburning electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, J.

    1997-01-01

    The experiments were carried out from November 1991 till November 1993 on the area surrounding an electric power plant within the circle of 20 km diameter and five geographical directions (N, S, SE, E, W). The results presented in this paper have indicated the threats caused by emissions of the power plant ashes and dusts. Mean aluminium content in soil has been multiply surpassed on the area studied. This must have as impact on fauna and flora. The distribution and intensity of pollution is determined first of all by the distance from the emitters and direction of prevailing winds. A part of aluminium contained in water soluble compounds can be distributed on large areas, what adds a lot to the threat to animals. That is why high chimneys do not solve the problem of pollution around big industrial plants. (author)

  4. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant in...

  5. The hydrodynamics of plant spacing distance: Optimizing consumptive and non-consumptive water use in water-limited environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, A.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Howington, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of soil moisture in water-stressed environments is one of the primary factors controlling plant performance and overall plant community productivity and structure. The minimization of non-consumptive water loss, or water not utilized by plants (i.e. consumptive use), to bare soil evaporation is a key plant survival strategy and important agricultural consideration. Competitive (negative) and facilitative (positive) interactions between individual plants play a pivotal role in controlling the local coupled soil-plant-atmosphere hydrodynamics that affect both consumptive and non-consumptive water use. The strength of these two types of interactions vary with spacing distance between individuals. In a recent PNAS publication, we hypothesized that there exists a quantifiable spacing distance between plants that optimizes the balance between competition and facilitation, and hence maximizes water conservation. This study expands upon on our previous work, for which only a subset of the data generated was used, through the development and testing of a numerical model that can test a conceptual model we presented. The model simulates soil-plant-atmosphere continuum heat and mass transfer hydrodynamics, taking into account the complex feedbacks that exist between the near-surface atmosphere, subsurface, and plants. This model has been developed to explore the combined effects of subsurface competition and micro-climatic amelioration (i.e., facilitation) on local soil moisture redistribution and fluxes in the context of water-stressed environments that experienced sustained winds. We believe the results have the potential to provide new insights into climatological, ecohydrological, and hydrological problems pertaining to: the extensively used and much debated stress-gradient hypothesis, plant community population self-organization, agricultural best practices (e.g., water management), and spatial heterogeneity of land-atmosphere fluxes.

  6. Effect of operating conditions and environment on properties of materials of PWR type nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, M.

    1987-01-01

    Operating reliability and service life of PWR type nuclear power plants are discussed with respect to the material properties of the plant components. The effects of the operating environment on the material properties and the methods of their determination are characterized. Discussed are core materials, such as fuel, its cladding and regulating rod materials, and the materials of pipes, steam generators and condensers. The advances in the production of pressure vessel materials and their degradation during operation are treated in great detail. (Z.M.)

  7. Root foraging increases performance of the clonal plant Potentilla reptans in heterogeneous nutrient environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengwen; van Kleunen, Mark; During, Heinjo J; Werger, Marinus J A

    2013-01-01

    Plastic root-foraging responses have been widely recognized as an important strategy for plants to explore heterogeneously distributed resources. However, the benefits and costs of root foraging have received little attention. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew pairs of connected ramets of 22 genotypes of the stoloniferous plant Potentilla reptans in paired pots, between which the contrast in nutrient availability was set as null, medium and high, but with the total nutrient amount kept the same. We calculated root-foraging intensity of each individual ramet pair as the difference in root mass between paired ramets divided by the total root mass. For each genotype, we then calculated root-foraging ability as the slope of the regression of root-foraging intensity against patch contrast. For all genotypes, root-foraging intensity increased with patch contrast and the total biomass and number of offspring ramets were lowest at high patch contrast. Among genotypes, root-foraging intensity was positively related to production of offspring ramets and biomass in the high patch-contrast treatment, which indicates an evolutionary benefit of root foraging in heterogeneous environments. However, we found no significant evidence that the ability of plastic foraging imposes costs under homogeneous conditions (i.e. when foraging is not needed). Our results show that plants of P. reptans adjust their root-foraging intensity according to patch contrast. Moreover, the results show that the root foraging has an evolutionary advantage in heterogeneous environments, while costs of having the ability of plastic root foraging were absent or very small.

  8. Viral vectors for production of recombinant proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Chiara; Chen, Qiang; Santi, Luca

    2008-08-01

    Global demand for recombinant proteins has steadily accelerated for the last 20 years. These recombinant proteins have a wide range of important applications, including vaccines and therapeutics for human and animal health, industrial enzymes, new materials and components of novel nano-particles for various applications. The majority of recombinant proteins are produced by traditional biological "factories," that is, predominantly mammalian and microbial cell cultures along with yeast and insect cells. However, these traditional technologies cannot satisfy the increasing market demand due to prohibitive capital investment requirements. During the last two decades, plants have been under intensive investigation to provide an alternative system for cost-effective, highly scalable, and safe production of recombinant proteins. Although the genetic engineering of plant viral vectors for heterologous gene expression can be dated back to the early 1980s, recent understanding of plant virology and technical progress in molecular biology have allowed for significant improvements and fine tuning of these vectors. These breakthroughs enable the flourishing of a variety of new viral-based expression systems and their wide application by academic and industry groups. In this review, we describe the principal plant viral-based production strategies and the latest plant viral expression systems, with a particular focus on the variety of proteins produced and their applications. We will summarize the recent progress in the downstream processing of plant materials for efficient extraction and purification of recombinant proteins. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bilck,Ana Paula; Olivato,Juliana Bonametti; Yamashita,Fabio; Souza,José Roberto Pinto de

    2014-01-01

    The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the deve...

  10. Expanding the functional significance of automated control systems for the production process at hydroelectric plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.S.; Kononova, M.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    Automated control systems for the production process (ACS PP) have been successfully implemented in a number of hydroelectric plants in the Russian Federation. The circle of problems that can be solved using ACS PP can be conditionally divided into two classes: on-line/technological control, and production-technological control. This article describes successes and future directions for the solution of these two classes of problems. From the discussion, it is concluded (1) that the data base for existing ACS PP at hydroelectric plants can be successfully employed as points for monitoring the conservation of an environment of local significance; (2) that is is expedient to discuss the problem with organizations, including local control groups interested in the development of territorial-basin systems for ecological monitoring; and (3) that the initiative in creating local territorial-basin support points for monitoring should emanate from guidelines for hydroelectric plants with ACS PP. 3 refs., 2 figs

  11. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R; Giribone, P; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  12. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R.; Giribone, P.; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  13. Pharmacologically active plant metabolites as survival strategy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardo, C; Sartori, F

    2003-01-01

    The fact that plant organisms produce chemical substances that are able to positively or negatively interfere with the processes which regulate human life has been common knowledge since ancient times. One of the numerous possible examples in the infusion of Conium maculatum, better known as Hemlock, a plant belonging to the family umbelliferae, used by the ancient Egyptians to cure skin diseases. The current official pharmacopoeia includes various chemical substances produced by secondary plant metabolisms. For example, the immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent organ transplant rejection and the majority of antibiotics are metabolites produced by fungal organisms, pilocarpin, digitalis, strophantus, salicylic acid and curare are examples of plant organism metabolites. For this reason, there has been an increase in research into plants, based on information on their medicinal use in the areas where they grow. The study of plants in relation to local culture and traditions is known as "ethnobotany". Careful study of the behaviour of sick animals has also led to the discovery of medicinal plants. The study of this subject is known as "zoopharmacognosy". The aim of this article is to discuss the fact that "ad hoc" production of such chemical substances, defined as "secondary metabolites", is one of the modes in which plant organisms respond to unfavourable environmental stimuli, such as an attack by predatory phytophagous animals or an excessive number of plant individuals, even of the same species, in a terrain. In the latter case, the plant organisms produce toxic substances, called "allelopathic" which limit the growth of other individuals. "Secondary metabolites" are produced by metabolic systems that are shunts of the primary systems which, when required, may be activated from the beginning, or increased to the detriment of others. The study of the manner in which such substances are produced is the subject of a new branch of learning called "ecological

  14. The potential of plant viruses to promote genotypic diversity via genotype x environment interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Stuefer, Josef F.

    2011-01-01

    † Background and Aims Genotype by environment (G × E) interactions are important for the long-term persistence of plant species in heterogeneous environments. It has often been suggested that disease is a key factor for the maintenance of genotypic diversity in plant populations. However, empirical...... and the G × E interactions were examined with respect to genotypespecific plant responses to WClMV infection. Thus, the environment is defined as the presence or absence of the virus. † Key Results WClMV had a negative effect on plant performance as shown by a decrease in biomass and number of ramets...... evidence for this contention is scarce. Here virus infection is proposed as a possible candidate for maintaining genotypic diversity in their host plants. † Methods The effects of White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) on the performance and development of different Trifolium repens genotypes were analysed...

  15. Major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherding, J.D.; Sebastian, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee

  16. Plant-based fertilizers for organic vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To ensure high yield and quality in organic vegetable production, crops often require additional fertilizer applied during the season. Due to the risk of contamination of edible plant products from slurry, plant-based fertilizers may be used as an alternative. The purpose of our work was to develop...... fertility, the term “mobile green manures” is used for green-manure crops that are harvested in one field and then moved as a whole and used as fertilizer in other fields. To further investigate mobile-green-manure crops for use as efficient fertilizers, pot and field experiments were conducted...... with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and kale (Brassica oleracea sabellica) supplied with organic matter consisting of a wide range of plant species with varying nutrient concentrations. Further, field experiments were conducted with leek (Allium porrum) and celery (Apium graveolens dulce) supplied...

  17. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  18. Callus production and regeneration of the medicinal plant Papaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... and morphinan alkaloids production in two species of opium poppy. Biomed. Biotechnol. 1(2): 70-78. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant, 15: 473-497. Rao AQ, Hussain SS, Shahzad MS, Bokhari SYA, Raza MH, Rakha ...

  19. Production of heterologous storage polysaccharides in potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Vincken, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Starch is the most important storage polysaccharide in higher plants. This polysaccharide is used in many industrial applications as it is abundant, renewable and biodegradable and it can be modified into a wide range of products used in food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and industry. With the

  20. Initial biochar effects on plant productivity derive from N fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, S.L.; Memelink, Ilse; Hodgson, Edward; Jones, S.; Voorde, van de T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim
    Biochar application to soil is widely claimed to increase plant productivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not conclusively described. Here, we aim to elucidate these mechanisms using stable isotope probing.
    Methods
    We conducted two experiments with

  1. Improving planting pattern for intercropping in the whole production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... vegetable for the people or to enrich biodiversity of rubber plantations in the area of hundred-miles rubber ..... Influence of rubber canopy on intercrop productivity. Trans. Malaysian Soc. Plant Physiol. 2: 75-79. Lin Weifu, Zhou Zhongyu, Huang Shoufeng (1999). A review and prospect of intercropping in ...

  2. The scholarly productivity and work environments of academic pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Andrews, Brienna; Lui, Julia; Raja, G Leela

    2017-09-08

    Productive faculty are key to generating new knowledge and advancing pharmacy practice. The work environments of academic pharmacists are critical to their vitality, commitment, and longevity. To (1) identify correlates of faculty scholarly productivity and teaching effectiveness, considering personal and environmental characteristics; (2) determine the relationship between a faculty's perception of organizational citizenship behaviors they witness with the organizational culture of their employing college/school of pharmacy; and (3) describe the relationship between organizational climate, job satisfaction, and commitment of academic pharmacists. A self-administered survey was disseminated to a random sample of U.S. academic pharmacists acquired from AACP list-servs. The survey measured perceptions of their organization's culture, the organizational citizenship behaviors they witness at their institution, their job satisfaction, teaching load and productivity, and scholarly productivity based upon peer-reviewed scholarly papers accepted. Both bivariate and multivariate (regression) procedures were employed to identify factors most responsible for explaining academic pharmacist's work environment. Responses were received from 177 of 600 survey recipients. Faculty reported having had accepted 10.9 ± 13.6 papers in peer-reviewed journals during the previous 5 years, with most of those in journals with relatively low Impact Factor scores. Faculty productivity was related to type of academic institution employed, teaching effectiveness, job satisfaction, and other factors. Organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational culture was seen similarly by faculty of varied ranks and experience levels. Commitment to remain at the current college/school of pharmacy was highly associated with culture, climate, and job satisfaction conditions. The results provided evidence for a strong connection or nexus between teaching and research effectiveness. Organizational

  3. Institutional and pedagogical criteria for productive open source learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ryberg, Thomas; Semey, Ian Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this article we present some institutional and pedagogical criteria for making an informed decision in relation to identifying and choosing a productive open source learning environment. We argue that three concepts (implementation, maintainability and further development) are important when...... considering the sustainability and cost efficiency of an open source system, and we outline a set of key points for evaluating an open source software in terms of cost of system adoption. Furthermore we identify a range of pedagogical concepts and criteria to emphasize the importance of considering...... the relation between the local pedagogical practice and the pedagogical design of the open source learning environment. This we illustrate through an analysis of an open source system and our own pedagogical practice at Aalborg University, Denmark (POPP)....

  4. Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Plant Production Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this proposal is to develop a low power consuming solid polymer electrolyte based, miniaturized electrochemical CO2 sensor that can continuously,...

  5. Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Plant Production Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this proposal is to develop a low power consuming solid polymer electrolyte based, miniaturized electrochemical CO2 sensor that can continuously,...

  6. Measurement of gamma radiation doses in nuclear power plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochvar, I.A.; Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Sergeeva, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    Considered are the problems of measuring gamma radiation dose values and the dose distribution in the nuclear power plant area with the aim of estimating the extent of their effect on the population. Presented are the dosimeters applied, their distribution throughout the controlled area, time of measurement. The distribution of gamma radiation doses over the controlled area and the dose alteration with the increase of the distance from the release source are shown. The results of measurements are investigated. The conclusion is made that operating nuclear power plants do not cause any increase in the gamma radiation dose over the area. Recommendations for clarifying the techniques for using dose-meters and decreasing measurement errors are given [ru

  7. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Lind

    Full Text Available LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  8. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kara R; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  9. Evaluation of the impact on the environment of thermal power plant releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, C.; Bertrand, R.; Garnier, G.; Berard, P.; Archimbaud, M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the impact on the environment of oil and coal fired power plants, and of nuclear plants. The impact is evaluated by the level of the air pollution around the plant. But the selected pollutants (Sulfur oxides, Nitrogen oxides, Trace elements, organic compounds) are not specific of the pollution produced by the power plant. Therefore, we measured the specific emission of the plant by a continuous sampling in the stack gases. To evaluate the contribution of the plant to the global pollution, a series of diffusion tests was run to measure the atmospheric transfer between the stack and the monitoring system. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was added to the stack plume and its concentration was measured in the environment continuously at the monitoring stations, and by a mobile network for tracing the movement of the plume due to a shift in wind direction. Thereby the impact of other sources could be estimated [fr

  10. Perceptions of impact: Invasive alien plants in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Luke J; Gaertner, Mirijam; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Richardson, David M

    2018-06-08

    Many alien plant species are introduced to urban areas to create, augment or restore ecosystem services (ES). However, many of these species spread beyond original plantings, sometimes causing negative effects on existing ES or creating novel ecosystem disservices (EDS). An understanding of the perceptions of urban residents regarding invasive alien plants (IAPs) and the ES and EDS they provide is needed for the effective prioritisation of IAP management efforts in cities. Using the city of Cape Town, South Africa as a case study, we conducted questionnaire-based surveys (online and face-to-face) to determine the perceptions of urban residents regarding IAPs and their capacity to provide ES and EDS. Most urban residents perceive IAPs negatively (i.e. agreeing that they create EDS), but many recognise their importance in providing ES. Although most residents are not opposed to the management of IAPs, such actions are not perceived as a high priority relative to other environmental problems. Socio-demographic variables such as age, education, environmental awareness, and ethnicity shape urban residents' perceptions of IAPs. Older, more educated respondents were more likely to perceive IAPs negatively, while respondents with greater environmental awareness were aware of the benefits provided by IAPs. This study highlights the need to integrate public perceptions into the planning and management of IAPs and emphasises the importance of including ES assessments into the decision-making process, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Archiving plant inspection data in a virtual environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Nobuyuki; Kita, Yasuyo; Yang, Hai-quan

    2004-01-01

    ''Digital Maintenance Field Technology'' was proposed for reliable and robust maintenance of a nuclear power plant. It digitizes and maintains whole information of maintenance fields in computer system for a long time. Digital Field Archival Technology'' is one of three core technologies of the ''Digital Maintenance Field Technology''. The essential functions of the Digital Field Archival Technology'' is to store, maintain and visualize the inspection data during a long period. In order to enable the operators or other agents to review the plant information at any time, at any location and in any form, the information must be stored with collect indexes of time and space. The virtual space resembling the real space is suitable to store the observed information. In this paper, the concept to store the observed information into the virtual space is realized under the assumption that the geometrical structure of real plant is static and reconstructed in the virtual space. The system for storing observed information especially image data gotten by mobile inspection robots and visualizing the stored data as desired is introduced. (author)

  12. Ecogenotoxicity testing of aquatic environment by comet assay in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of environmental monitoring is the detection of potentially hazardous compounds in water. We have set up a standard method to apply the Comet assay in aquatic plants that could be of great interest to evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress on the same species regarded as most sensitive to environmental pollutants. The aim of the present study was to set up of standardized procedure to evaluate genotoxicity in aquatic plants- Ceratophyllum demersum one that is submerged free floating and the other is Lemna minor - a fresh water floating plant by Comet assay. Electrophoresis and unwinding times were adapted to obtain minimum DNA migration evaluated as tail intensity % or tail moment in the control group and, at the same time maximum sensitivity for DNA damage with known genotoxicants. We further investigated the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced in the same species. Based on the repeatability of results obtained we suggest that Ceratophyllum, Lemna can serve as model species and Comet assay could be adopted to monitor the eco-genotoxicity of water pollutants.

  13. Calculation of LUEC using HEEP Software for Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Minhwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution by reducing the release of carbon dioxide. A Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is considered as an efficient reactor to couple with the thermo-chemical Sulfur Iodine (SI) cycle to achieve the hydrogen economy. HEEP(Hydrogen Economy Evaluation Program) is one of the software tools developed by IAEA to evaluate the economy of the nuclear hydrogen production system by estimating unit hydrogen production cost. In this paper, the LUHC (Levelized Unit Hydrogen Cost) is calculated by using HEEP for nuclear hydrogen production plant, which consists of 4 modules of 600 MWth VHTR coupled with SI process. The levelized unit hydrogen production cost(LUHC) was calculated by the HEEP software.

  14. Biogas and mineral fertiliser production from plant residues of phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2011-07-01

    The former uranium mining site in Ronneburg, Thuringia, Germany was known as a big source of uranium with more than 113,000 tons of uranium mined from 1946 to 1990. This area has been remediated since the nineties of the last century. However, nowadays the site in Ronneburg is still specially considered because of the heterogeneous contamination by many heavy metals and the vegetation can be affected. Three plant species including Indian mustard - Brassica juncea L., triticale - x. Triticosecale Wittmaek and sunflower - Helianthus annuus L. were seeded as accumulators of heavy metals and radionuclides in the phytoremediation process in 2009 and 2010 in Ronneburg. The subsequent utilization of the plant residues after phytoremediation is of special consideration. Batch fermentation of harvested plant materials under the mesophilic condition showed that all of the investigated plant materials had much higher biogas production than liquid cow manure except triticale root, of which biogas yield per volatile solid was not significantly higher than the one of sludge. The highest biogas yields (311 L{sub N}/kg FM and 807 L{sub N}/kg VS) were achieved from the spica of triticale after 42 days of retention of anaerobic digestion. Triticale shoot residues generated higher biogas and methane yields than the previously reported triticale materials that were harvested from the uncontaminated soil Triticale was considered as the highest potential species in biogas production, beside the best growth ability on the acidic soil at the test field site with highest biomass production. Biogas yield of Indian mustard shoot was also high but dramatically varied from 2009 to 2010. Digestates after anaerobic digestion of plant residues contained various macronutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur, and various micronutrients such as iron, manganes, zinc, etc. The accumulation levels of heavy metals in the investigated plant materials were not the hindrance factors

  15. Dimensional measurements with submicrometer uncertainty in production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, L.; Gudnason, M. M.; Madruga, D.

    2015-01-01

    The work concerns a laboratory investigation of a method to achieve dimensional measurements with submicrometer uncertainty under conditions that are typical of a production environment. The method involves the concurrent determination of dimensions and material properties from measurements carried...... gauge blocks along with their uncertainties were estimated directly from the measurements. The length of the two workpieces at the reference temperature of 20 °C was extrapolated from the measurements and compared to certificate values. The investigations have documented that the developed approach...

  16. Scheduling a Single Mobile Robot Incorporated into Production Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    to the challenges of issues such as energy conservation and pollution preventions. Facing the central tension between manufacturing and environmental drivers is difficult, but critical to develop new technologies, particularly mobile robots, that can be incorporated into production to achieve holistic solutions....... This chapter deals with the problem of finding optimal operating sequence in a manufacturing cell of a mobile robot with manipulation arm that feeds materials to feeders. The “Bartender Concept” is discussed to show the cooperation between the mobile robot and industrial environment. The performance criterion...

  17. Using natural variation to unravel the dynamic regulation of plant performance in diverse environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    All plants are able to respond to changes in their environment by adjusting their morphology and metabolism, but large differences are observed in the effectiveness of these responses in the light of plant fitness. Between and within species large differences are

  18. Expert environment for the development of nuclear power plants failure diagnosis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, P.N.; Oggianu, S.; Etchepareborda, A.; Fernandez, O.

    1996-01-01

    The present work explores some of the developing stages of an Expert Environment for plant failures Diagnosis Systems starting from Knowledge Based Systems. We present a prototype that carries out an inspection of anomalous symptoms and a diagnosis process based on a Plant Abnormality Model of a PHWR secondary system

  19. Gas treatment processes for keeping the environment of nuclear plants free from gas-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, H.

    1977-01-01

    The separation processes in gas treatment steps for the decontamination of circuit or offgas streams are described and their practicability is evaluated. Examples of the effectiveness of gas separation plants for keeping the environment within and without nuclear plants free from harmful gas-borne activity are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. Topical radiation protection questions of use of agricultural land in the environs of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carach, J.; Csupka, S.; Petrasova, M.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is presented of the problems of the use of agricultural land in the environs of nuclear power plants. The analysis of emission activity in nuclear power plants presently under construction shows that for normal operation no precautions are necessary. For accidents, specific health protection measures are planned. (author)

  1. Spectral composition of light and growing of plants in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhomirov, A.A. [Institute of Biophysics, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The curve of the action spectrum of photosynthesis is examined under the controlled influence of light that involves av 3-5 minutes irradiation with one specific spectral flux. Different curves were obtained for spectral affectivity of green leaf photosynthesis when plants have had long duration adaptation to lamps of different spectral composition and PAR intensity. The author suggests that the illumination of plants in natural conditions does not have to be copied for growing plants in controlled environments.

  2. UPVapor: Cofrentes nuclear power plant production results analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel, M.; Palomo, M. J.; Baraza, A.; Vaquer, J.

    2010-10-01

    UPVapor software version 02 has been developed for the Cofrentes nuclear power plant Data Analysis Department (Spain). It is an analysis graphical environment in which users have available all the plant variables registered in the process computer system (SIEC). In order to perform this, UPVapor software has many advanced graphic tools for work simplicity, as well as a friendly environment easy to use and with many configuration possibilities. Plant variables are classified in the same way that they are in SIEC computer and these values are taken from it through the network of Iberdrola. UPVapor can generate two different types of graphics: evolution graphs and X Y graphs. The first ones analyse the evolution up to twenty plant variables in a user's defined time period and according to historic plant files. Many tools are available: cursors, graphic configuration, mobile means, non valid data visualization ... Moreover, a particular analysis configuration can be saved, as a pre selection, giving the possibility of charging pre selection directly and developing quick monitoring of a group of preselected plant variables. In X Y graphs, it is possible to analyse a variable value against another variable in a defined time. As an option, users can filter previous data depending on a variable certain range, with the possibility of programming up to five filters. As well as the other graph, X Y graph has many configurations, saving and printing options. With UPVapor software, data analysts can save a valuable time during daily work and, as it is of easy utilization, it permits to other users to perform their own analysis without ask the analysts to develop. Besides, it can be used from any work centre with access to network framework. (Author)

  3. UPVapor: Cofrentes nuclear power plant production results analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Baraza, A. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    UPVapor software version 02 has been developed for the Cofrentes nuclear power plant Data Analysis Department (Spain). It is an analysis graphical environment in which users have available all the plant variables registered in the process computer system (SIEC). In order to perform this, UPVapor software has many advanced graphic tools for work simplicity, as well as a friendly environment easy to use and with many configuration possibilities. Plant variables are classified in the same way that they are in SIEC computer and these values are taken from it through the network of Iberdrola. UPVapor can generate two different types of graphics: evolution graphs and X Y graphs. The first ones analyse the evolution up to twenty plant variables in a user's defined time period and according to historic plant files. Many tools are available: cursors, graphic configuration, mobile means, non valid data visualization ... Moreover, a particular analysis configuration can be saved, as a pre selection, giving the possibility of charging pre selection directly and developing quick monitoring of a group of preselected plant variables. In X Y graphs, it is possible to analyse a variable value against another variable in a defined time. As an option, users can filter previous data depending on a variable certain range, with the possibility of programming up to five filters. As well as the other graph, X Y graph has many configurations, saving and printing options. With UPVapor software, data analysts can save a valuable time during daily work and, as it is of easy utilization, it permits to other users to perform their own analysis without ask the analysts to develop. Besides, it can be used from any work centre with access to network framework. (Author)

  4. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    There is no single satisfactory way to measure productivity in the construction industry. The industry is too varied, too specialized and too dependent upon vast numbers of interrelations between trades, contractors, designers and owners. Hence, no universally reliable indices for measuring construction productivity has been developed. There are problems that are generic to all large union-built nuclear power plants. The actions of any one owner cannot rectify the shortcomings of the construction industry. The generic problems are being identified, and many national organizations are attempting to make the construction industry more productive by recommending various changes

  5. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. S. Medeiros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies

  6. Coupling Solid Oxide Electrolyser (SOE) and ammonia production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinti, Giovanni; Frattini, Domenico; Jannelli, Elio; Desideri, Umberto; Bidini, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative NH 3 production plant was designed. • CO 2 emissions and energy consumption are studied in three different designs. • High temperature electrolysis allows to achieve high efficiency and heat recovery. • The coupling permits storage of electricity into a liquid carbon free chemical. - Abstract: Ammonia is one of the most produced chemicals worldwide and is currently synthesized using nitrogen separated from air and hydrogen from natural gas reforming with consequent high consumption of fossil fuel and high emission of CO 2 . A renewable path for ammonia production is desirable considering the potential development of ammonia as energy carrier. This study reports design and analysis of an innovative system for the production of green ammonia using electricity from renewable energy sources. This concept couples Solid Oxide Electrolysis (SOE), for the production of hydrogen, with an improved Haber Bosch Reactor (HBR), for ammonia synthesis. An air separator is also introduced to supply pure nitrogen. SOE operates with extremely high efficiency recovering high temperature heat from the Haber-Bosch reactor. Aspen was used to develop a model to study the performance of the plant. Both the SOE and the HBR operate at 650 °C. Ammonia production with zero emission of CO 2 can be obtained with a reduction of 40% of power input compared to equivalent plants.

  7. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  8. Impact of Interior Physical Environment on Academicians’ Productivity in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambreen Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the impact of indoor physical environment on academicians‟ productivity in different higher education institutes of Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa (KPK province of Pakistan. The study is based on primary data collected from one hundred and forty four educationists‟ of various institutes in Pakistan namely, COMSATS Abbottabad campus, Hazara University, Mansehra campus, UET campus, Abbottabad, Hazara University, Havelian campus, Comwave university, Abbottabad campus and University of Peshawar. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was analyzed using the techniques of rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. All the findings were tested at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. The finding of this study shows that office design is very important in terms of increasing employees‟s productivity. The study opines that comfortable and contented office design motivates and energizes the employees to increase their performance.

  9. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of 26 Al, 49 V, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 93 Nb, and 94 Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs

  11. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelme, Fabien; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large consensus that plant-plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation-climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1) the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2) alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant-plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and climate change.

  12. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  13. Industrial plants for production of highly enriched nitrogen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krell, E.; Jonas, C.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the present stage of development of large-scale enrichment of 15 N. The most important processes utilized to separate nitrogen isotopes, namely chemical exchange in the NO/NO 2 /HNO 3 system and low-temperature distillation of NO at -151 0 C, are compared, especially with respect to their economics and use of energy. As examples, chemical exchange plants in the GDR are discussed, and the research activities necessary to optimize the process, especially to solve aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, interface and processing problems, are reviewed. Good results were obtained by the choice of an optimum location and the design of a plant for pre-enrichment to 10 at.% 15 N and an automatically operating two-section cascade for the high enrichment of 15 N to more than 99 at.%. The chemical industry has taken over operation of the plant with the consequence that the raw materials are all available without additional transport. All by-products (nitrous gases and sulphuric acid) are returned for use elsewhere within the industry. The technology of the plant has been chosen so that the quantity of highly enriched product can be varied within a wide range. The final product is used to synthesize more than 250 different 15 N-labelled compounds which are also produced on an industrial scale. (author)

  14. Cost Evaluation with G4-ECONS Program for SI based Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-ho; Lee, Ki-young; Kim, Yong-wan

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary hydrogen is production is primarily based on fossil fuels, which is not considered as environments friendly and economically efficient. To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution reducing the release of carbon dioxide. Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The economic assessment was performed for nuclear hydrogen production plant consisting of VHTR coupled with SI cycle. For the study, G4-ECONS developed by EMWG of GIF was appropriately modified to calculate the LUHC, assuming 36 months of plant construction time, 5 % of annual interest rate and 12.6 % of fixed charge rate. In G4-ECONS program, LUHC is calculated by the following formula; LUHC = (Annualized TCIC + Annualized O-M Cost + Annualized Fuel Cycle Cost + Annualized D-D Cost) / Annual Hydrogen Production Rate

  15. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  16. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison

    2002-01-01

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT41047. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a computational workbench for simulating the performance of Vision 21 Power Plant Systems. Within the last quarter, our efforts have become focused on developing an improved workbench for simulating a gasifier based Vision 21 energyplex. To provide for interoperability of models developed under Vision 21 and other DOE programs, discussions have been held with DOE and other organizations developing plant simulator tools to review the possibility of establishing a common software interface or protocol to use when developing component models. A component model that employs the CCA protocol has successfully been interfaced to our CCA enabled workbench. To investigate the software protocol issue, DOE has selected a gasifier based Vision 21 energyplex configuration for use in testing and evaluating the impacts of different software interface methods. A Memo of Understanding with the Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD) in Australia has been completed that will enable collaborative research efforts on gasification issues. Preliminary results have been obtained for a CFD model of a pilot scale, entrained flow gasifier. A paper was presented at the Vision 21 Program Review Meeting at NETL (Morgantown) that summarized our accomplishments for Year One and plans for Year Two and Year Three

  17. The second green revolution? Production of plant-based biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Biodegradable plastics are those that can be completely degraded in landfills, composters or sewage treatment plants by the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms. Truly biodegradable plastics leave no toxic, visible or distinguishable residues following degradation. Their biodegradability contrasts sharply with most petroleum-based plastics, which are essentially indestructible in a biological context. Because of the ubiquitous use of petroleum-based plastics, their persistence in the environment and their fossil-fuel derivation, alternatives to these traditional plastics are being explored. Issues surrounding waste management of traditional and biodegradable polymers are discussed in the context of reducing environmental pressures and carbon footprints. The main thrust of the present review addresses the development of plant-based biodegradable polymers. Plants naturally produce numerous polymers, including rubber, starch, cellulose and storage proteins, all of which have been exploited for biodegradable plastic production. Bacterial bioreactors fed with renewable resources from plants--so-called 'white biotechnology'--have also been successful in producing biodegradable polymers. In addition to these methods of exploiting plant materials for biodegradable polymer production, the present review also addresses the advances in synthesizing novel polymers within transgenic plants, especially those in the polyhydroxyalkanoate class. Although there is a stigma associated with transgenic plants, especially food crops, plant-based biodegradable polymers, produced as value-added co-products, or, from marginal land (non-food), crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), have the potential to become viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics and an environmentally benign and carbon-neutral source of polymers.

  18. The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M., E-mail: jmarchetti@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Camino La Carrindanga km 7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of the mayor economic parameters for biodiesel production. {yields} Variations of profitability of a biodiesel plant due to changes in the market scenarios. {yields} Comparison of economic indicators of a biodiesel production facility when market variables are modified. - Abstract: Biodiesel appears as one of the possible alternative renewable fuels to substitute diesel fuel derived from petroleum. Several researches have been done on the technical aspects of biodiesel production in an attempt to develop a better and cleaner alternative to the conventional process. Economic studies have been carried out to have a better understanding of the high costs and benefits of different technologies in the biodiesel industry. In this work it is studied the effect of the most important economic variables of a biodiesel production process over the general economy of a conventional plant which employs sodium methoxide as catalyst. It has been analyzed the effect of the oil price, the amount of free fatty acid, the biodiesel price, the cost of the glycerin, the effect due to the modification on the methanol price, the washing water price, and several others. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases.

  19. The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Influence of the mayor economic parameters for biodiesel production. → Variations of profitability of a biodiesel plant due to changes in the market scenarios. → Comparison of economic indicators of a biodiesel production facility when market variables are modified. - Abstract: Biodiesel appears as one of the possible alternative renewable fuels to substitute diesel fuel derived from petroleum. Several researches have been done on the technical aspects of biodiesel production in an attempt to develop a better and cleaner alternative to the conventional process. Economic studies have been carried out to have a better understanding of the high costs and benefits of different technologies in the biodiesel industry. In this work it is studied the effect of the most important economic variables of a biodiesel production process over the general economy of a conventional plant which employs sodium methoxide as catalyst. It has been analyzed the effect of the oil price, the amount of free fatty acid, the biodiesel price, the cost of the glycerin, the effect due to the modification on the methanol price, the washing water price, and several others. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases.

  20. Methanethiol-dependent dimethylsulfide production in soil environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Ornella; Pratscher, Jennifer; Curson, Andrew R J; Williams, Beth T; Rostant, Wayne G; Murrell, J Colin; Todd, Jonathan D

    2017-10-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an environmentally important trace gas with roles in sulfur cycling, signalling to higher organisms and in atmospheric chemistry. DMS is believed to be predominantly produced in marine environments via microbial degradation of the osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). However, significant amounts of DMS are also generated from terrestrial environments, for example, peat bogs can emit ~6 μmol DMS m -2 per day, likely via the methylation of methanethiol (MeSH). A methyltransferase enzyme termed 'MddA', which catalyses the methylation of MeSH, generating DMS, in a wide range of bacteria and some cyanobacteria, may mediate this process, as the mddA gene is abundant in terrestrial metagenomes. This is the first study investigating the functionality of MeSH-dependent DMS production (Mdd) in a wide range of aerobic environments. All soils and marine sediment samples tested produced DMS when incubated with MeSH. Cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods were used to assess microbial community changes in response to MeSH addition in a grassland soil where 35.9% of the bacteria were predicted to contain mddA. Bacteria of the genus Methylotenera were enriched in the presence of MeSH. Furthermore, many novel Mdd + bacterial strains were isolated. Despite the abundance of mddA in the grassland soil, the Mdd pathway may not be a significant source of DMS in this environment as MeSH addition was required to detect DMS at only very low conversion rates.

  1. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants.

  2. 129I in the environment around a nuclear reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.N.; Doshi, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    129 I and 131 I activities are measured in leaf samples collected within Trombay region, covering a radius of 4500 m from the reprocessing plant. The concentration of 129 I and 131 I in dried leaf samples ranged from 0.04 to 1.28 pCi/gm and 4 to 5 pCi/gm respectively. A radiochemical procedure involving distillation and solvent extractions of 129 I and then counting in a Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer is used for its final determination. The concentration of 129 I observed in leaf samples collected at the south site gate is used to calculate the dose commitment to an adult via grass-cow-milk pathway. On the basis of conservative assumption that the activity present in the grass would be equal to that in the leaf, the dose commitment to an adult through milk ingestion route will not exceed 5.5 μSv/y. (author). 2 tabs., 13 refs

  3. Plants from Chernobyl zone could shed light on genome stability in radioactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Galina; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Doonan, John

    2016-07-01

    For nearly 30 years, despite of chronic radiation, flora in Chernobyl zone continue to flourish, evidencing the adaptation of plants to such an environment. Keeping in mind interplanetary missions, this phenomenon is a challenge for plant space research since it highlights the possible mechanisms of genome protection and stabilization in harmful environment. Plants are sessile organisms and, contrary to animals, could not escape the external impact. Therefore, plants should evolve the robust system allowing DNA-protection against damage, which is of special interest. Our investigations show that Arabidopsis thaliana from Chernobyl zone tolerate radiomimetics and heavy metals better than control plants from non-polluted areas. Besides, its genome is less affected by such mutagens. qPCR investigations have revealed up-regulation of some genes involved in DNA damage response. In particular, expression of ATR is increased slightly and downstream expression of CycB1:1 gene is increased significantly after bleomycin treatment suggesting role of ATR-dependent pathway in genome stabilization. Several DNA repair pathways are known to exist in plants. We continue investigations on gene expression from different DNA repair pathways as well as cell cycle regulation and investigation of PCD hallmarks in order to reveal the mechanism of plant tolerance to radiation environment. Our investigations provide unique information for space researchers working on biotechnology of radiation tolerant plants.

  4. Implications of stratospheric ozone depletion upon plant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is identified as the major factor of concern to result from stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation is believed to have wide ranging effects on plant physiology and biochemistry. In screening studies of > 300 species and cultivars, > 50% have shown sensitivity to UV radiation. The most sensitive plant families appear to be Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae and Cruciferae. The need for a better understanding of the effects of UV radiation on crop plant physiology and particularly of the repair and protective mechanisms developed by some species is stressed. This paper was presented at a colloquium on Implications of global climate changes on horticultural cropping practices and production in developing countries held at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science at Tulsa, Oklahoma, on 2 Aug. 1989

  5. Hydrogen generation by metal corrosion in simulated Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telander, M.R.; Westerman, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    The corrosion and gas-generation characteristics of three material types: low-carbon steel (the current waste packaging material for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), Cu-base materials, and Ti-base materials were determined in both the liquid and vapor phase of Brine A, a brine representative of an intergranular Salado Formation brine. Test environments included anoxic brine and anoxic brine with overpressures of CO 2 , H 2 S, and H 2 . Low-carbon steel reacted at a slow, measurable rate with anoxic brine, liberating H 2 on an equimolar basis with Fe reacted. Presence of CO 2 caused the initial reaction to proceed more rapidly, but CO 2 -induced passivation stopped the reaction if the CO 2 were present in sufficient quantities. Low-carbon steel immersed in brine with H 2 S showed no reaction, apparently because of passivation of the steel by formation of a protective iron sulfide reaction product. Cu- and Ti-base materials showed essentially no corrosion when exposed to brine and overpressures of N 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 S except for the rapid and complete reaction between Cu-base materials and H 2 S. No significant reaction took place on any material in any environment in the vapor-phase exposures

  6. Magnetic field considerations in fusion power plant environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liemohn, H.B.; Lessor, D.L.; Duane, B.H.

    1976-09-01

    A summary of magnetic field production mechanisms and effects is given. Discussions are included on the following areas: (1) stray magnetic and electric fields from tokamaks, (2) methods for reducing magnetic fields, (3) economics of magnetic field reductions, (4) forces on magnetizable objects near magnetic confinement fusion reactors, (5) electric field transients in tokamaks, (6) attenuation and decay of electromagnetic fields, and (7) magnetic field transients from tokamak malfunctions

  7. Impacts on the environment and landscape of new energy productions on farm parcels and buildings, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointereau, Ph.; Bochu, J.L.; Couturier, Ch.; Coulon, F.; Arnal, A.; Giorgis, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at identifying positive and negative impacts of new energy productions implemented in farms on the environment (water, soil, biodiversity, space occupancy) and on landscapes, and at proposing techniques and regulations to strengthen positive consequences and to limit possible problems created by these energy productions. The considered productions are: trees apart from forest (hedges and copses), new farm energetic crops (Miscanthus for example), solar equipment (photovoltaic mounted on buildings or on ground, solar hot water and solar dryers), biogas production equipment, hydraulic micro-plants. The authors addressed the following environmental impacts: water (in quantity and quality), soils (quality, erosion risks), biodiversity, space occupancy (with respect to other activities), and landscape

  8. Production of Metabolites as Bacterial Responses to the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in marine environments are often under extreme conditions of e.g., pressure, temperature, salinity, and depletion of micronutrients, with survival and proliferation often depending on the ability to produce biologically active compounds. Some marine bacteria produce biosurfactants, which help to transport hydrophobic low water soluble substrates by increasing their bioavailability. However, other functions related to heavy metal binding, quorum sensing and biofilm formation have been described. In the case of metal ions, bacteria developed a strategy involving the release of binding agents to increase their bioavailability. In the particular case of the Fe3+ ion, which is almost insoluble in water, bacteria secrete siderophores that form soluble complexes with the ion, allowing the cells to uptake the iron required for cell functioning. Adaptive changes in the lipid composition of marine bacteria have been observed in response to environmental variations in pressure, temperature and salinity. Some fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, have only been reported in prokaryotes in deep-sea bacteria. Cell membrane permeability can also be adapted to extreme environmental conditions by the production of hopanoids, which are pentacyclic triterpenoids that have a function similar to cholesterol in eukaryotes. Bacteria can also produce molecules that prevent the attachment, growth and/or survival of challenging organisms in competitive environments. The production of these compounds is particularly important in surface attached strains and in those in biofilms. The wide array of compounds produced by marine bacteria as an adaptive response to demanding conditions makes them suitable candidates for screening of compounds with commercially interesting biological functions. Biosurfactants produced by marine bacteria may be helpful to increase mass transfer in different industrial processes and in the bioremediation of

  9. Core@shell Nanoparticles: Greener Synthesis Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among an array of hybrid nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles comprise of two or more materials, such as metals and biomolecules, wherein one of them forms the core at the center, while the other material/materials that were located around the central core develops a shell. Core-shell nanostructures are useful entities with high thermal and chemical stability, lower toxicity, greater solubility, and higher permeability to specific target cells. Plant or natural products-mediated synthesis of nanostructures refers to the use of plants or its extracts for the synthesis of nanostructures, an emerging field of sustainable nanotechnology. Various physiochemical and greener methods have been advanced for the synthesis of nanostructures, in contrast to conventional approaches that require the use of synthetic compounds for the assembly of nanostructures. Although several biological resources have been exploited for the synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles, but plant-based materials appear to be the ideal candidates for large-scale green synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles. This review summarizes the known strategies for the greener production of core-shell nanoparticles using plants extract or their derivatives and highlights their salient attributes, such as low costs, the lack of dependence on the use of any toxic materials, and the environmental friendliness for the sustainable assembly of stabile nanostructures.

  10. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  11. Genetic improvement of plants for enhanced bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanghamitra; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between "feedstock versus foodstock" continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.

  12. Monitoring psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria contamination in a ready-to-eat vegetable salad production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Snauwaert, Cindy; De Vos, Paul; Huys, Geert; Devlieghere, Frank

    2014-08-18

    A study monitoring lactic acid bacteria contamination was conducted in a company producing fresh, minimally processed, packaged and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable salads (stored at 4°C) in order to investigate the reason for high psychrotrophic LAB levels in the products at the end of shelf-life. Initially, high microbial counts exceeding the established psychrotrophic thresholds (>10(7)-10(8)CFU/g) and spoilage manifestations before the end of the shelf-life (7days) occurred in products containing an assortment of sliced and diced vegetables, but within a one year period these spoilage defects became prevalent in the entire processing plant. Environmental sampling and microbiological analyses of the raw materials and final products throughout the manufacturing process highlighted the presence of high numbers of Leuconostoc spp. in halved and unseeded, fresh sweet bell peppers provided by the supplier. A combination of two DNA fingerprinting techniques facilitated the assessment of the species diversity of LAB present in the processing environment along with the critical point of their introduction in the production facility. Probably through air mediation and surface adhesion, mainly members of the strictly psychrotrophic species Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum subsp. gelidum were responsible for the cross-contamination of every vegetable handled within the plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  14. Search for bioactive natural products from medicinal plants of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Ishibashi, Masami

    2010-10-01

    In our continuous search for bioactive natural products from natural resources, we explored medicinal plants of Bangladesh, targeting cancer-related tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-signaling pathway, along with some other biological activities such as prostaglandin inhibitory activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical-scavenging activity, and cell growth inhibitory activity. Along with this, we describe a short field study on Sundarbans mangrove forests, Bangladesh, in the review.

  15. Research of beekeeping products using as radioprotectors for plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. О. Oginova

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted on a winter wheat, which was cultivated in a 30-km area in the year ofChernobylaccident, allowed to ascertain that complex use of sodium humate and beekeeping products is ineffective for diminishing the negative irradiation influence on the early growth processes of plants. Only the simultaneous use of humic preparations and anodic extraction of propolis has permanent positive effect.

  16. Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Aninidita; Karmakar, Subrata; Mukherjee, Souti

    2010-10-01

    As an alternative fuel biodiesel is becoming increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and adverse environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fuelled engines. Biodiesel, the non-toxic fuel, is mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock like vegetable oils, animal fats and residual oils. Choice of feedstocks depends on process chemistry, physical and chemical characteristics of virgin or used oils and economy of the process. Extensive research information is available on transesterification, the production technology and process optimization for various biomaterials. Consistent supply of feedstocks is being faced as a major challenge by the biodiesel production industry. This paper reviews physico-chemical properties of the plant and animal resources that are being used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Efforts have also been made to review the potential resources that can be transformed into biodiesel successfully for meeting the ever increasing demand of biodiesel production. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Harpole, W. Stanley; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Calabrese, Laura B.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Collins, Scott L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Frater, Paul; Gasarch, Eve I.; Gruner, Daneil S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Lambers, Janneke Hille Ris; Humphries, Hope; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam D.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Mortensen, Brent; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Wang, Gang; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters-2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity an

  18. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eAnthelme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is a large consensus that plant–plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation–climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1 the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2 alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant–plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and

  19. Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation. Well-established agricultural management by agrotechnological means has shown no longer to be effective enough to confront with this challenge. Instead, in order to maximize the production, it is advisable to implement such practices in combination with biological applications. Nowadays, high technologies are widely adopted into agricultural production, biological diversity conservation and crop improvement. Wang et al. has nicely outlined the utilization of DNA-based technologies in this field. Among these are the applications of (i) DNA markers into cultivar identification, seed purity analysis, germplasm resource evaluation, heterosis prediction, genetic mapping, cloning and breeding; and (ii) gene expression data in supporting the description of crop phenology, the analytic comparison of crop growth under stress versus non-stress conditions, or the study of fertilizer effects. Besides, various purposes of using transgenic technologies in agriculture, such as generating cultivars with better product quality, better tolerance to biotic or abiotic stress, are also discussed in the review. One of the important highlights in this issue is the review of the benefits brought by high-throughput sequencing technology, which is also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS). It is not so difficult to recognize that its application has allowed us to carry out biological studies at much deeper level

  20. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  1. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables

  2. Characteristics of a productive research environment: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, C J; Ruffin, M T

    1992-06-01

    What environmental factors stimulate and maintain research productivity? To answer this question, the authors conducted an extensive review of articles and books on research productivity published from the mid-1960s through 1990. This review revealed that a consistent set of 12 characteristics was found in research-conducive environments: (1) clear goals that serve a coordinating function, (2) research emphasis, (3) distinctive culture, (4) positive group climate, (5) assertive participative governance, (6) decentralized organization, (7) frequent communication, (8) accessible resources, particularly human, (9) sufficient size, age, and diversity of the research group, (10) appropriate rewards, (11) concentration on recruitment and selection, and (12) leadership with research expertise and skill in both initiating appropriate organizational structure and using participatory management practices. Some of these characteristics are not surprising, although some findings were unexpected, such as that participative governance correlated consistently with research productivity. The differential impact of each of these 12 characteristics is unclear. It is clear, however, that the leader has a disproportionate impact through his or her influence on all of the other characteristics. Yet, an overarching feature of these characteristics is their interdependency. These factors do not operate in research groups as isolated characteristics. Rather, they are like fine threads of a whole fabric: individual, yet when interwoven, providing a strong, supportive, and stimulating backdrop for the researcher. The authors conclude that while at a distance the productive research enterprise looks like a highly robust entity, upon closer inspection it is revealed to be a delicate structure highly dependent on the existence and effective working of numerous individual, organizational, and leadership characteristics.

  3. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OFWORKING ENVIRONMENT FOR REPAIRERS OF RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK IN PLANT CONDITIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeikina, N A; Kurenkova, G V

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive hygienic assessment of working environment for main occupational groups Railway Car Repair Plant in factory conditions shows that workers are exposed to the impact of factors of chemical nature in concentrations exceeding maximum allowable (lead, manganese, alkali caustic, sulphuric and nitric acids, chromium trioxide, silicon-containing dust, white corundum, diiron trioxide, silicate-organic dust, wood and carbon dusts), the high level of noise, the local vibration, insufficient levels of artificial lighting. The manual work is used, that determines the high severity of the labor process in the most of workers. There was identified the inconsistency of quality and quantitative estimation of the work conditions on chemical factor at implementation of various types of control: certification of workplaces on work conditions, productions and state control. There was given an a priori evaluation of the occupational risk in the three main workshops, there were detected 13 occupations with mild (moderate) risk, 9 occupations with average (significant) risk, 6 professions with high (intolerable) risk category and 1 occupation--with very high (intolerable) risk category. Low indices of occupational diseases according to official statistics were establishedfail to be consistent with a high probability of their occurrence in the production.

  4. Extraterrestrial fiberglass production using solar energy. [lunar plants or space manufacturing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D.; Sobon, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for fiberglass production systems in both lunar and space environments. The raw material, of lunar origin, will be plagioclase concentrate, high silica content slag, and calcium oxide. Glass will be melted by solar energy. The multifurnace in the lunar plant and the spinning cylinder in the space plant are unique design features. Furnace design appears to be the most critical element in optimizing system performance. A conservative estimate of the total power generated by solar concentrators is 1880 kW; the mass of both plants is 120 tons. The systems will reproduce about 90 times their total mass in fiberglass in 1 year. A new design concept would be necessary if glass rods were produced in space.

  5. Countermeasures for siting and environment of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Koichi

    1976-01-01

    Though the requests to urge the construction of nuclear power plants increased since the oil crisis, it is clear that it is necessary to take some countermeasures without delay at present because the location problems are in deadlock. Drastic change of the way of thinking should be made first if the social and political extensions of the problem are considered. It must require the persevering effort based on long-range outlook. Accordingly, emphasis is put on the introduction of the environmental administration in U.S. which seems to have many respects to be referred to in the following description. Then National Environmental Policy Act and the permission and approval procedures for nuclear power stations in U.S. are described, and the details of environmental disputes are listed. It reveals the discrepancy of the actual circumstances in Japan and the United States, and that the important portion of the U.S. experience and concept is not learned by Japanese. The Government lacks the recognition that the public acceptance of safety is not obtained till the report of safety investigation and environmental assessment by the governmental organizations are entrusted to people's judgement. That is, the procedures to win the public acceptance are omitted in Japan. The thoroughness of environmental protection is first of all necessary for achieving the target of nuclear power development. Since it seems to be nothing but the countermeasures for the public acceptance of nuclear power generation to cope with ''60 mens' testimony'', the main points of the ''Sixty mens' testimony'' in Fukushima public hearing are cited at the end, which is supposed to include almost all opposite opinions. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Activity concentration of radionuclides in plants in the environment of western Ghats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    A field study on the transfer of primordial radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and fallout radionuclides 210 Po in different plant species in tropical forest of western Ghats environment is presented. Material and Methods: The Top storey, Second storey, Shrubs and epiphytic plant species were chosen and concentration of these radionuclides in plant and soil were measured by employing gamma ray spectrometer and alpha counter. Results: The concentration ratio shows the variation in different species while a wild plant Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. Conclusion: The dust trapped in the root system of. epiphytic plants could be used as bio indicator to monitor fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. The concentration of 232 Th and 40 K in leaves depends on the age of the leaves.

  7. The uranium production cycle and the environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Within the international community it is widely recognized that the responsibility for management of uranium production and all related activities should be independent of the organizations providing for the oversight and regulatory function. An important role of the IAEA is establishing international safety standards for protection of health and environment against exposure to ionizing radiation. Once legally binding laws, regulations and standards are established,either through national and international programmes, it becomes the responsibility of the management and operators of uranium production projects for carrying our all activities to meet these requirements. The major emphasis of the IAEA's Project on Raw Materials for Reactor Fuels is to improve and strengthen the practice of preventive measures by establishing guidelines for environmental impact assessment and mitigation and the recognition and promotion of good practice and modern technology. The Waste Technology programme provides advice on the cleanup and remediation of old production sites and wastes. One important mechanism for recognizing and promoting best practice in environmental management of uranium production is fostering information exchange among specialists. The IAEA exercises this mechanism, for examples though publications, electronic information exchange and, particularly, through large gatherings of specialists and decision makers at international conferences, symposia and seminars. The topics covered at the symposium were: Energy needs and challenges for the 21{sup st} Century; uranium supply for the short and long term; sustainable development, energy resources and nuclear energy's role in greenhouse gas abatement; economic impact of world mining; impacts of mining on developed and developing countries; environmental and social impacts of uranium mining in several countries; examples of positive and negative impacts of uranium mining projects on local communities; environmental

  8. The uranium production cycle and the environment. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Within the international community it is widely recognized that the responsibility for management of uranium production and all related activities should be independent of the organizations providing for the oversight and regulatory function. An important role of the IAEA is establishing international safety standards for protection of health and environment against exposure to ionizing radiation. Once legally binding laws, regulations and standards are established,either through national and international programmes, it becomes the responsibility of the management and operators of uranium production projects for carrying our all activities to meet these requirements. The major emphasis of the IAEA's Project on Raw Materials for Reactor Fuels is to improve and strengthen the practice of preventive measures by establishing guidelines for environmental impact assessment and mitigation and the recognition and promotion of good practice and modern technology. The Waste Technology programme provides advice on the cleanup and remediation of old production sites and wastes. One important mechanism for recognizing and promoting best practice in environmental management of uranium production is fostering information exchange among specialists. The IAEA exercises this mechanism, for examples though publications, electronic information exchange and, particularly, through large gatherings of specialists and decision makers at international conferences, symposia and seminars. The topics covered at the symposium were: Energy needs and challenges for the 21 st Century; uranium supply for the short and long term; sustainable development, energy resources and nuclear energy's role in greenhouse gas abatement; economic impact of world mining; impacts of mining on developed and developing countries; environmental and social impacts of uranium mining in several countries; examples of positive and negative impacts of uranium mining projects on local communities; environmental issues

  9. Modeling coupled nitrogen and water use strategies of plant productivity through hydraulic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Savoy, P.; Pleban, J. R.; Tai, X.; Ewers, B. E.; Sperry, J.; Weinig, C.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in heat, nutrient, and drought stresses create novel environments that threaten the health of forests and viability of crop production. Here a trait-based conceptual model finds tradeoffs in maximum hydraulic conductance (Kmax), root to leaf area ratio (RLA) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) based on the energy costs of acquiring water and nitrogen (N) to support gross primary production (GPP). The atmosphere supplies carbon to and demands water from plants via their stomata. The demand for water increases at higher temperatures due to increased vapor pressure deficits. The lost water is replenished by a passive wicking process that pulls water and N from the soil into roots and up water-filled xylem tubes. When water is in short supply the cost of getting it is high as measured by a decline in K and stomatal closure. Soil N dynamics also influence plant water use. When N is abundant, plants grow low VC fine roots with lower specific root length (m g-1), low Kmax, and maintain a relatively low RLA. In low N environments, N is costly and fine roots gain efficiency by building less robust (or higher VC) xylem with higher Kmax and higher RLA. What happens when the cost of acquiring water changes from high to low under low and high N costs? We incorporated the conceptual model into TREES, which couples whole plant hydraulics to carbon allocation, root-rhizosphere expansion/contraction and, also new for this study, a rhizosphere-root centric microbe-plant N dynamics. We used two experimental studies (drought, N) and two drought-prone fluxnet sites to test the conceptual model at individual plant and regional scales, respectively, and with frequent short versus infrequent long dry periods. When water was not limiting the hydraulic tradeoffs suppressed differences in GPP between the N use strategies. When water was in short supply, however, low RLA&VC plants dropped GPP early during drought because of low Kmax. Since these plants had low VC roots they also

  10. Does co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with endophytic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve plant growth in a polluted environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ważny, Rafał; Rozpądek, Piotr; Jędrzejczyk, Roman J; Śliwa, Marta; Stojakowska, Anna; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    Phytoremediation of polluted sites can be improved by co-inoculation with mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. In this study, the effects of single- and co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Rhizoglomus intraradices, and endophytic fungi, Mucor sp. or Trichoderma asperellum, on plant growth, vitality, toxic metal accumulation, sesquiterpene lactone production and flavonoid concentration in the presence of toxic metals were evaluated. Inoculation with the AM fungus increased biomass yield of the plants grown on non-polluted and polluted substrate. Co-inoculation with the AM fungus and Mucor sp. resulted in increased biomass yield of plants cultivated on the polluted substrate, whereas co-inoculation with T. asperellum and the AM fungus increased plant biomass on the non-polluted substrate. In the presence of Mucor sp., mycorrhizal colonization and arbuscule richness were increased in the non-polluted substrate. Co-inoculation with the AM fungus and Mucor sp. increased Zn concentration in leaves and roots. The concentration of sesquiterpene lactones in plant leaves was decreased by AM fungus inoculation in both substrates. Despite enhanced host plant costs caused by maintaining symbiosis with numerous microorganisms, interaction of wild lettuce with both mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi was more beneficial than that with a single fungus. The study shows the potential of double inoculation in unfavourable environments, including agricultural areas and toxic metal-polluted areas.

  11. Exploration and production environment. Preserving the future our responsibility; Exploration et production environnement. Preserver l'avenir: notre responsabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the Total Group commitments to manage natural resources in a rational way, to preserve biodiversity for future generations and protect the environment. It contains the health, safety, environment and quality charter of Total, the 12 exploration and production health, safety and environment rules and the exploration and production environmental policy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Exploration and production environment. Preserving the future our responsibility; Exploration et production environnement. Preserver l'avenir: notre responsabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the Total Group commitments to manage natural resources in a rational way, to preserve biodiversity for future generations and protect the environment. It contains the health, safety, environment and quality charter of Total, the 12 exploration and production health, safety and environment rules and the exploration and production environmental policy. (A.L.B.)

  13. Uptake of actinides and nuclear fission products in graminaceous and nongraminaceous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Stephanie Lynn

    Radionuclides exist within the environment naturally and also from release during nuclear power and weapons production. The ability of plants to uptake radionuclides may prove beneficial for exploitation in the field of phytoremediation and as a biomonitor within the field of nuclear forensics. The fact that plants have the ability to take up radionuclides as an unintended metabolic process is well known, however, the mechanisms through which uptake occur present large gaps within the current research. Therefore, gaining further knowledge regarding overall plant radionuclide uptake and specific mechanisms may prove as an invaluable tool to enhance phytoremediation and nuclear forensic efforts. Within this work, controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in order to determine any uptake differences between graminaceous (rye grass) and nongraminaceous (cucumber) plants. A matrix of samples were individually spiked with known amounts of Sr, Cs, Th, U as well as ligands of acetate, citrate, DFOB. Uptake was compared through the calculation and analysis of distribution coefficients within the roots and shoots of each plant sample. A variety of trends were observed throughout this study. Overall, it was determined that the cucumber plant takes up slightly higher concentrations within both the roots and the shoots, except for within the Cs set of samples. Within the Cs samples it was determined that uptake was much higher in the rye grass than in the cucumber plant. Therefore, it was concluded that it may be more beneficial to focus on the collection of grasses and other graminaceous plants when the goal is to collect a plant to determine nuclear activity within the vicinity of a facility. This is due to the fact that Cs is generally released at higher concentrations than other radionuclides during the process of nuclear power and energy production. Similarly, grasses may also be desired as the main focus for phytoremediation efforts due to the fact that Cs is a

  14. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria reduce aphid population and enhance the productivity of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair; Khaliq, Abdul; Ahmed, Jam Nazir; Nawaz, Ahmad; Hussain, Mubshar

    2018-04-24

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1tiller -1 ), and highest plant height (85.8cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320m -2 ), straw yield (8.6Mgha -1 ), and grain yield (4.8Mgha -1 ) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5-38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Collaborative Product Development in an R&D Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jose M.; Keys, L. Ken; Chen, Injazz J.; Peterson, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) organizations are being required to be relevant, to be more application-oriented, and to be partners in the strategic management of the business while meeting the same challenges as the rest of the organization, namely: (1) reduced time to market; (2) reduced cost; (3) improved quality; (4) increased reliability; and (5) increased focus on customer needs. Recent advances in computer technology and the Internet have created a new paradigm of collaborative engineering or collaborative product development (CPD), from which new types of relationships among researchers and their partners have emerged. Research into the applicability and benefits of CPD in a low/no production, R&D, and/or government environment is limited. In addition, the supply chain management (SCM) aspects of these relationships have not been studied. This paper presents research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) investigating the applicability of CPD and SCM in an R&D organization. The study concentrates on the management and implementation of space research activities at GRC. Results indicate that although the organization is engaged in collaborative relationships that incorporate aspects of SCM, a number of areas, such as development of trust and information sharing merit special attention.

  16. Implementing quality/productivity improvement initiatives in an engineering environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quality/Productivity Improvement (QPI) initiatives in the engineering environment at McDonnell Douglas-Houston include several different, distinct activities, each having its own application, yet all targeted toward one common goal - making continuous improvement a way of life. The chief executive and the next two levels of management demonstrate their commitment to QPI with hands-on involvement in several activities. Each is a member of a QPI Council which consists of six panels - Participative Management, Communications, Training, Performance/Productivity, Human Resources Management and Strategic Management. In addition, each manager conducts Workplace Visits and Bosstalks, to enhance communications with employees and to provide a forum for the identification of problems - both real and perceived. Quality Circles and Project Teams are well established within McConnel Douglas as useful and desirable employee involvement teams. The continued growth of voluntary membership in the circles program is strong evidence of the employee interest and management support that have developed within the organization.

  17. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, A.K. [BARC-BTIR Complex, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Atomic Energy. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology

    2002-07-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  18. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  19. Energy efficiency in the agricultural and food industry illustrated with the example of the feed production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembicki Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is an indicator specifying the amount of saved electric energy thanks to implementation of suitable systems and solutions aimed at reducing the energy consumption in a production plant. Effective use of electric energy or heat energy is intended to reduce the amount of energy required to manufacture products and provide services. Decreased demand for electric energy in the production plant by only a few percent’s may result in considerable savings which in turn assure increased production profitability. If we reduce the energy consumption, it will translate into reduced pollution generated and emitted to the environment. Thanks to this, the plant may limit its negative impact on the surrounding. The feed industry is known to consume much amount of energy for the purposes of production. This energy is intended for pre-processing of substrates, actual production and preparation of ready product to be taken over by the customer. Farmers use fodders to feed their animals. Quality of fodders (feeds and their ingredients determine health of farm animals, which has a direct impact on the quality of products we consume, and consequently on our health. An thorough analysis of feed production plants and reduction of their energy consumption should translate into improved effectiveness. Saved energy allows producing high-quality products and using ingredients of higher quality, which in turn may influence competitiveness of prices of ready products.

  20. Aquatic plant Azolla as the universal feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana F; Biswas, Bijoy; Ramkumar, Narasimhan; Singh, Rawel; Kumar, Jitendra; James, Anton; Roddick, Felicity; Lal, Banwari; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Bhaskar, Thallada; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2016-01-01

    The quest for sustainable production of renewable and cheap biofuels has triggered an intensive search for domestication of the next generation of bioenergy crops. Aquatic plants which can rapidly colonize wetlands are attracting attention because of their ability to grow in wastewaters and produce large amounts of biomass. Representatives of Azolla species are some of the fastest growing plants, producing substantial biomass when growing in contaminated water and natural ecosystems. Together with their evolutional symbiont, the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, Azolla biomass has a unique chemical composition accumulating in each leaf including three major types of bioenergy molecules: cellulose/hemicellulose, starch and lipids, resembling combinations of terrestrial bioenergy crops and microalgae. The growth of Azolla filiculoides in synthetic wastewater led up to 25, 69, 24 and 40 % reduction of NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, PO 4 -P and selenium, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. This led to a 2.6-fold reduction in toxicity of the treated wastewater to shrimps, common inhabitants of wetlands. Two Azolla species, Azolla filiculoides and Azolla pinnata, were used as feedstock for the production of a range of functional hydrocarbons through hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-hydrogen and bio-ethanol. Given the high annual productivity of Azolla, hydrothermal liquefaction can lead to the theoretical production of 20.2 t/ha-year of bio-oil and 48 t/ha-year of bio-char. The ethanol production from Azolla filiculoides, 11.7 × 10 3  L/ha-year, is close to that from corn stover (13.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year), but higher than from miscanthus (2.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year) and woody plants, such as willow (0.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year) and poplar (1.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year). With a high C/N ratio, fermentation of Azolla biomass generates 2.2 mol/mol glucose/xylose of hydrogen, making this species a competitive feedstock for hydrogen production compared with other bioenergy crops

  1. Production costs: U.S. hydroelectric power plants, 4th Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book provides 1991 operation and maintenance expenses for over 800 conventional and pumped-storage hydroelectric power plants. Report shows operator and plant name, plant year-in-service, installed capacity, 1991 net generation, O ampersand M expenses, total production costs and current plant capitalization. Fifty eight percent of the utility-owned hydroelectric plants in the US are covered by this report. Data diskette provides additional capital and production cost accounts and number of employees for each plant

  2. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacchettini, G.; Calliera, M.; Marchis, A.; Glass, R.; Ellis, C.B.; Machera, K.; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.; Spanoghe, P.; Capri, E.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment,

  3. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  4. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of Indoor Plant to Reduce CO2 in Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Mohd Mahathir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern country strongly emphasizes on indoor air quality (IAQ because it can effect on human health and productivity. Numerous efforts were performed to make sure that sustainability of IAQ is guaranteed. In the last 4th decade, researchers discover that indoor plants have abilities to reduce indoor air pollution. Generally, plants, carbon dioxide (CO2, light, and temperature involve in the photosynthesis process. This paper intends to study the effectiveness of seven indoor plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, Spider Plant, and Syngonium to reduce CO2 with different light level. This study was conducted in one cubic meter of chamber, and each plant was put into the chamber individually with CO2 concentration in the chamber is set at 1000±50ppm, and light intensities is set at 300 and 700 lux, while temperature were fixed at 25±1°C. Based on the results, only the Spider Plant was not able to absorb CO2 during the test at 300 lux of light intensity. Meanwhile, Prayer Plant performed well when tested at 300 or 700 lux of light intensity compare to other investigates plants. This study can conclude that light intensity play an important role for the plant to absorb CO2 effectively. All the indoor plants absorbed more CO2, when the light intensity is increased.

  6. Algorithm of actions to identify and reduce risks in the production of milk and plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foods with a new generation of functional and improved consumer properties, corresponds to the modern concepts of nutrition science and consumer needs. functional food production is a major global trend in food science and the subject of innovation. One of the important trends is the use of plant complexes and plant food systems. Using the plant complexes (PC and plant food systems (PFS provides a number of benefits: improved consumer properties of the product, do not need to change the process, it is possible to control directional rheological properties and consistency of the finished products, reduced the number of risk points in the production cycle. This paper describes the development of an algorithm of action to identify and mitigate risks in the production of milk and plant products. Also conducted a risk analysis, identified and assessed the risks in the process of production, installed capacity of available resources to reduce the level of risk. Established and submitted to the critical control points in production processes, as well as the critical limits for each critical control points, and the procedure for corrective action in case of violations of the past. During the study, measured changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora of semi-finished and Quantity of Mesophilic Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Microorganisms (QMAFAnM. To determine QMAFAnM samples were taken: 1 – cheesecakes (control, 2 – cheesecakes with RPS. Microbiological studies analyzed frozen-conjugated semi-finished products was determined within 90 days. It is clear from the data that the cottage cheese with semi-finished products have a lower RPM 11.7%. Analyzing the data, it is possible to conclude that the physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of products was developed to set standards on cheese semi-finished products. multilevel structure that characterizes the quality indicators has been developed and is

  7. Arco to enter European PGE production with new Rotterdam plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.

    1993-01-01

    Arco Chemical (Newtown Square, PA) will enter production of propylene glycol ethers (PGEs) in Europe by building a 70,000-m.t./year plant at its Rotterdam site. Arco's board has approved the project, with construction to begin this year and completion expected in mid-1995. 'This new plant supports the company's long-standing strategy to increase its downstream integration in value-added derivatives of propylene oxide,' says Jack Oppasser, president of Arco Chemical Europe (Maidenhead, U.K.). 'It allows the company to sustain its strong position in the growing European glycol ether market.' Arco's move represents a challenge to Dow Europe (Horgen, Switzerland), which dominates the European PGE market. Dow is Europe's biggest producer of PGEs, with its Dowanol brands commanding a share greater than 50% of the estimated 90,000-m.t./year methyl-based PGE market. This was recently boosted by completion of the expansion of its plant at Stade, Germany, from 60,000 m.t./year to 110,000 m.t./year. While Arco does not currently make PGEs in Europe, it is the second-largest supplier, with about 15,000 m.t.-20,000 m.t./year, via 'third-party manufacturing arrangements' with European producers, including BP Chemicals, and imports from its 90-million lbs/year plant at Bayport, TX. However, Arco refuses to comment on this because of 'antitrust aspects.'

  8. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  9. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  10. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; br, picanco@ufv; br, guedes@ufv; br, mateusc3@yahoo com; br, agronomiasilva@yahoo com

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  11. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio; julioufv@yahoo.com.br

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD 50 from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g -1 a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  12. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, Sandra; Núñez-López, Lizeth; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca E.; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize) or proposed species (large grass families). The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass. PMID:28951875

  13. PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCT RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF SLOVENE ORIGIN FOUND IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2008, 166 apple, bean, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, pear, potato and spinach samples from Slovene producers were analysed for plant protection product residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 158 different active compounds using three analytical methods. In two samples (1.2% exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs were determined which is better than the results of the monitoring of pesticide residues in the products of plant origin in the 27 European Union, Member States (EU MS and 2 European Free Trade Association (EFTA States: Norway and Iceland in 2008 (2.2%. The most frequently found active substance in agricultural products was dithiocarbamates. Products which contained 4 or more active substances per sample were apples and pears.

  14. Friend or foe? Reactive oxygen species production, scavenging and signaling in plant response to environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnocka, Weronika; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2018-01-10

    In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). However, high accumulations of ROS can also trigger redox homeostasis disturbance which can lead to cell death, and in consequence, to a limitation in biomass and yield production. Different ROS have various half-lifetimes and degrees of reactivity toward molecular components such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Thus, they play different roles in intra- and extra-cellular signaling. Despite their possible damaging effect, ROS should mainly be considered as signaling molecules that regulate local and systemic acclimatory and defense responses. Over the past two decades it has been proven that ROS together with non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), hormones, Ca 2+ waves, and electrical signals are the main players in SAA and SAR, two physiological processes essential for plant survival and productivity in unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Genetical Studies On Haploid Production In Some Ornamental Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOSTAFA, M.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Haploid are plants with a gametophytic chromosome number and doubled haploid are dihaploids that have undergone chromosome duplication. The production of haploid and doubled haploid (DHs) through gametic embryogenesis allows a single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, shortening the time required to produce homozygous plants in comparison with the conventional breeding methods that employ several generations of selfing. The production of haploid and DHs provides a particularly attractive biotechnological tool, and the development of haploidy technology and protocols to produce homozygous plants has had a significant impact on agricultural systems. Nowadays, these bio technologies represent an integral part of the breeding programmes of many agronomically important crops. There are several available methods to obtain haploid and DHs, of which in vitro anther or isolated microspore culture are the most effective and widely used (Germana Maria 2011). Tissue culture techniques, particularly short-term culture procedures such as shoot-tip culture and regeneration from primary explants, have been proposed as methods for obtaining large numbers of plants identical to the plant used as an explant source( Evans et al., 1984). Nicotiana spp. are one of the most important commercial crops in the world ( Liu and Zhang, 2008). Nicotiana alata is member from family solanacea, it is ornamental plant and the diploid cells contains 18 chromosomes. Nitsch (1969) reported the first production of haploid plants through anther culture and regeneration of plants of Nicotiana alata, For these reasons they have been considered to suitable candidates for model species in somatic cell genetics research( Bourgin et al., 1979). Radiobiological studies on plant tissues in culture may provide information on the cell growth behavior, radiosensitivity and the induction of mutations. The radiosensitivity of plants and calli can be manifested mostly in three

  16. Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, R.O.; Cristini, P.R.; Marziale, D.P.; Furnari, E.S.; Fernandez, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

  17. The Complexity of Bioactive Natural Products in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Tina

    Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive natural products promoting their fitness. These specialized metabolites may serve as chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens and may inhibit the growth and development of competing species. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two...... classes of defence compounds, which have diverging properties, but also share common biosynthetic features. Hydroxynitrile glucosides are produced in species across the plant kingdom, whereas glucosinolates are found almost exclusively within the Brassicales, which generally does not contain...... hydroxynitrile glucosides. This division has raised questions regarding possible evolutionary relationships between the biosynthetic pathways. The very rare co-occurrence of hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates found in Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, løgkarse) and Carica papaya (papaya) makes...

  18. Resource use efficiency of closed plant production system with artificial light: concept, estimation and application to plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Toyoki

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has recently been conducted on plant factory with artificial light, which is one type of closed plant production system (CPPS) consisting of a thermally insulated and airtight structure, a multi-tier system with lighting devices, air conditioners and fans, a CO2 supply unit, a nutrient solution supply unit, and an environment control unit. One of the research outcomes is the concept of resource use efficiency (RUE) of CPPS.This paper reviews the characteristics of the CPPS compared with those of the greenhouse, mainly from the viewpoint of RUE, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of the resource fixed or held in plants to the amount of the resource supplied to the CPPS.It is shown that the use efficiencies of water, CO2 and light energy are considerably higher in the CPPS than those in the greenhouse. On the other hand, there is much more room for improving the light and electric energy use efficiencies of CPPS. Challenging issues for CPPS and RUE are also discussed.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity Determination in Plants and Plant-Derived Products: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Aneta; Cimpeanu, Carmen; Predoi, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the analytical methods applied to antioxidant and antioxidant capacity assessment in plant-derived products. Aspects related to oxidative stress, reactive oxidative species' influence on key biomolecules, and antioxidant benefits and modalities of action are discussed. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant balance is critically discussed. The conventional and nonconventional extraction procedures applied prior to analysis are also presented, as the extraction step is of pivotal importance for isolation and concentration of the compound(s) of interest before analysis. Then, the chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrochemical methods for antioxidant and antioxidant capacity determination in plant-derived products are detailed with respect to their principles, characteristics, and specific applications. Peculiarities related to the matrix characteristics and other factors influencing the method's performances are discussed. Health benefits of plants and derived products are described, as indicated in the original source. Finally, critical and conclusive aspects are given when it comes to the choice of a particular extraction procedure and detection method, which should consider the nature of the sample, prevalent antioxidant/antioxidant class, and the mechanism underlying each technique. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for each method. PMID:28044094

  20. Environment supervision in a nuclear industry plant: Cogema example in Pierrelatte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.L.

    1993-07-01

    Every nuclear industrial facility must achieve radioactivity measurements of its environment: COGEMA is therefore very careful of its environmental quality and guarantees the supervision of it with a programme corresponding to the activities and to the environment characteristics. We shall study- the atmospheric control- the waters control- the plants control and we shall end on results synthesis, which must be analysed according to the natural omnipresent radioactivity. 6 Annexes

  1. Detection of plant adaptation responses to saline environment in rhizosphere using microwave sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomachi, T.; Kobashikawa, C.; Tanigawa, H.; Omoda, E.

    2008-01-01

    The physiological adaptation responses in plants to environmental stress, such as water stress and salt stress induce changes in physicochemical conditions of the plant, since formation of osmotic-regulatory substances can be formed during the environmental adaptation responses. Strong electrolytes, amino acids, proteins and saccharides are well-known as osmoregulatory substances. Since these substances are ionic conductors and their molecules are electrically dipolar, it can be considered that these substances cause changes in the dielectric properties of the plant, which can be detected by microwave sensing. The dielectric properties (0.3 to 3GHz), water content and water potential of plant leaves which reflect the physiological condition of the plant under salt stress were measured and analyzed. Experimental results showed the potential of the microwave sensing as a method for monitoring adaptation responses in plants under saline environment and that suggested the saline environment in rhizosphere can be detected noninvasively and quantitatively by the microwave sensing which detects the changes in complex dielectric properties of the plant

  2. SiC Sensors in Extreme Environments: Real-time Hydrogen Monitoring for Energy Plant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruby

    2008-03-01

    Clean, efficient energy production, such as the gasification of coal (syngas), requires physical and chemical sensors for exhaust gas monitoring as well as real-time control of the combustion process. Wide-bandgap semiconducting materials systems can meet the sensing demands in these extreme environments consisting of chemically corrosive gases at high temperature and pressure. We have developed a SiC based micro-sensor for detection of hydrogen containing species with millisecond response at 600 C. The sensor is a Pt-SiO2-SiC device with a dense Pt catalytic sensing film, capable of withstanding months of continuous high temperature operation. The device was characterized in robust sensing module that is compatible with an industrial reactor. We report on the performance of the SiC sensor in a simulated syngas ambient at 370 C containing the common interferants CO2, CH4 and CO [1]. In addition we demonstrate that hours of exposure to >=1000 ppm H2S and 15% water vapor does not degrade the sensor performance. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the hydrogen response of the sensor we have modeled the hydrogen adsorptions kinetics at the internal Pt-SiO2 interface, using both the Tempkin and Langmuir isotherms. Under the conditions appropriate for energy plant applications, the response of our sensor is significantly larger than that obtained from ultra-high vacuum electrochemical sensor measurements at high temperatures. We will discuss the role of morphology, at the nano to micro scale, on the enhanced catalytic activity observed for our Pt sensing films in response to a heated hydrogen gas stream at atmospheric pressure. [1] R. Loloee, B. Chorpening, S. Beers & R. Ghosh, Hydrogen monitoring for power plant applications using SiC sensors, Sens. Actuators B:Chem. (2007), doi:10.1016/j.snb.2007.07.118

  3. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS WITH INGREDIENTS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed the use of feijoa as a filler for cheese products. Distinctive at-sign feijoa is a high content of watersoluble compounds in the fruits of iodine. According to their content feijoa can match with seafood, no plant does not accumulate a large number of iodine compounds (about 0.2 1 mg per 100 g of product. Feijoa is very useful for people living in iodine deficiency regions, as well as for preventers of thyroid diseases. The rind of the fruit is rich in antioxidants. The technology of GUT-goad product feijoa. Feature of the technology is that the finished cheese is made in the form of a mixture of filler pureed fruit pulp and sugar in a ratio of 1: 1, and the powder dry skin. Objects of research a filler in the form of syrup (pineapple guava pulp and sugar and the rind of the fruit in the form of crushed dry cottage cheese. Compatible with cream cheese filling sensory determined by the following indicators appearance, consistency, color, smell, taste. Syrup dosage ranged from 1 to 10%, dry filler from 0.5 to 3.5%. A mixture of fillers were added to the finished curd product in the ratio of syrup fairies feijoa and dry powder peel 8: 1.5. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations of preparation of fillers and incorporation in the finished cheese. Determined the antioxidant activity syrup feijoa 1,963 mg / dm3 . It was found that the cheese product is rich in antioxidants, iodine, which helps to eliminate free radicals from the body and strengthen health care. Herbal additive allows to obtain a product with a new taste characteristics. The shelf life of cottage cheese products 5 days.

  4. Phased array UT (Ultrasonic Testing) used in electricity production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Phased Array-Ultrasonic testing techniques widely used for detection and quantitative determination of the lattice defects which have been formed from fatigues or stress corrosion cracking in the materials used in the electricity production plants are presented with particular focus on the accurate determination of the defects depth (sizing) and defects discrimination applicable to weld metals of austenite stainless steels and Ni base alloys. The principle of this non-destructive analysis is briefly explained, followed by point and matrix focus phased array methods developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd are explained rather in detail with illustration and the evaluated results. (S. Ohno)

  5. Buildup of 236U in the gaseous diffusion plant product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized projection of the average annual 236 U concentration that can be expected in future enriched uranium product from the US-ERDA gaseous diffusion plants when reprocessed fuels become available for cascade feeding is given. It is concluded that the buildup of 236 U is not an ever-increasing function, but approaches a limiting value. Projected concentrations result in only slight separative work losses and present no operational problem to ERDA in supplying light water reactor requirements. The use of recycle uranium from power reactor spent fuels will result in significant savings in natural uranium feed

  6. Methane impurity production in the fusion reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, P.T.

    1984-11-01

    Fusion requires temperatures of the order of 10 8 degrees C. In order to attain the required temperature it will be essential to minimise the energy losses from the plasma. Impurities are a major cause of plasma cooling. Ionization of impurity species in the plasma leads to a subsequent decay and emission of radiation. The most common low Z contaminants to be consideed are water and methane produced by reaction of hydrogen isotopes with oxygen and carbon. This review focuses on the methane production problem. We will be concerned with the sources of carbon in the reactor and also with the reactivity of carbon with hydrogen molecules, atoms and ions and the synergistic effects which can arise from coincident fluxes of electrons and photons and the effects of radiation-induced damage of the materials involved. While the reactor first wall will provide the most hostile environment for methane producton, most of the reactions discussed can occur in breeder blankets and also in other tritium facilities such as fuel handling, purification and storage facilities

  7. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M.; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based systems for PPCP removal are still limited. The removal of PPCPs in CWs often involves a diverse and complex set of physical, chemical and biological processes, which can be affected by the design and operational parameters selected for treatment. This review summarizes the PPCP removal performance in different aquatic plant-based systems. We also review the recent progress made towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms and pathways of PPCP attenuation during such phytoremediation. Additionally, the effect of key CW design characteristics and their interaction with the physico-chemical parameters that may influence the removal of PPCPs in functioning aquatic plant-based systems is discussed. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the removal performance of PPCPs in CW systems. • Investigation of the mechanisms and pathways contributing to PPCP removal in CWs. • Investigation of the effect of CW design parameters on PPCP removal. • Investigation of the correlation between physico-chemical parameters and PPCP removal. -- This review gives an overview of the present state of research on the removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products by means of constructed wetlands

  8. Analyzing RCD30 Oblique Performance in a Production Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M. E.; Kornus, W.; Magariños, A.; Pla, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2014 the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) decided to incorporate digital oblique imagery in its portfolio in response to the growing demand for this product. The reason can be attributed to its useful applications in a wide variety of fields and, most recently, to an increasing interest in 3d modeling. The selection phase for a digital oblique camera led to the purchase of the Leica RCD30 Oblique system, an 80MPixel multispectral medium-format camera which consists of one Nadir camera and four oblique viewing cameras acquiring images at an off-Nadir angle of 35º. The system also has a multi-directional motion compensation on-board system to deliver the highest image quality. The emergence of airborne oblique cameras has run in parallel to the inclusion of computer vision algorithms into the traditional photogrammetric workflows. Such algorithms rely on having multiple views of the same area of interest and take advantage of the image redundancy for automatic feature extraction. The multiview capability is highly fostered by the use of oblique systems which capture simultaneously different points of view for each camera shot. Different companies and NMAs have started pilot projects to assess the capabilities of the 3D mesh that can be obtained using correlation techniques. Beyond a software prototyping phase, and taking into account the currently immature state of several components of the oblique imagery workflow, the ICGC has focused on deploying a real production environment with special interest on matching the performance and quality of the existing production lines based on classical Nadir images. This paper introduces different test scenarios and layouts to analyze the impact of different variables on the geometric and radiometric performance. Different variables such as flight altitude, side and forward overlap and ground control point measurements and location have been considered for the evaluation of aerial triangulation and

  9. ANALYZING RCD30 OBLIQUE PERFORMANCE IN A PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Soler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC decided to incorporate digital oblique imagery in its portfolio in response to the growing demand for this product. The reason can be attributed to its useful applications in a wide variety of fields and, most recently, to an increasing interest in 3d modeling. The selection phase for a digital oblique camera led to the purchase of the Leica RCD30 Oblique system, an 80MPixel multispectral medium-format camera which consists of one Nadir camera and four oblique viewing cameras acquiring images at an off-Nadir angle of 35º. The system also has a multi-directional motion compensation on-board system to deliver the highest image quality. The emergence of airborne oblique cameras has run in parallel to the inclusion of computer vision algorithms into the traditional photogrammetric workflows. Such algorithms rely on having multiple views of the same area of interest and take advantage of the image redundancy for automatic feature extraction. The multiview capability is highly fostered by the use of oblique systems which capture simultaneously different points of view for each camera shot. Different companies and NMAs have started pilot projects to assess the capabilities of the 3D mesh that can be obtained using correlation techniques. Beyond a software prototyping phase, and taking into account the currently immature state of several components of the oblique imagery workflow, the ICGC has focused on deploying a real production environment with special interest on matching the performance and quality of the existing production lines based on classical Nadir images. This paper introduces different test scenarios and layouts to analyze the impact of different variables on the geometric and radiometric performance. Different variables such as flight altitude, side and forward overlap and ground control point measurements and location have been considered for the evaluation of aerial

  10. Simulation and sensitivity analysis for heavy linear paraffins production in LAB production Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Hajir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkyl benzene (LAB is vastly utilized for the production of biodegradable detergents and emulsifiers. Predistillation unit is a part of LAB production plant in which that produced heavy linear paraffins (nC10-nC13. In this study, a mathematical model has been developed for heavy linear paraffins production in distillation columns, which has been solved using a commercial code. The models have been validated by the actual data. The effects of process parameters such as reflux rate, and reflux temperature using Gradient Search technique has been investigated. The sensitivity analysis shows that optimum reflux in columns are achieved.

  11. Germination and seedling establishment of spiny hopsage in response to planting date and seedbed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Marshall R. Haferkamp; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Reestablishment of spiny hopsrge (Grayia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) in the shrub steppe requires development of appropriate seeding technology. We examined the effect of planting date and seedbed environment on germination and seedling establishment of 2 seed sources at 2 southwestern Idaho sites. Seedbeds were prepared by rototilling. In 1987-88, seeds...

  12. Phytoremediation and phytomining: Using plants to remediate contaminated or mineralized environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of harsh environment for plants is metal and metalloid contaminated or mineralized soils which exist in most countries due to geological formations or to the history of mining and smelting. Depending on soil pH and fertility, metal-rich soils may be barren and eroding into wider areas. Some...

  13. Advances in greenhouse automation and controlled environment agriculture: A transition to plant factories and urban farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse cultivation has evolved from simple covered rows of open-fields crops to highly sophisticated controlled environment agriculture (CEA) facilities that projected the image of plant factories for urban farming. The advances and improvements in CEA have promoted the scientific solutions for ...

  14. Plant Community and Soil Environment Response to Summer Fire in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire is a keystone process in many ecosystems, especially grasslands. However, documentation of plant community and soil environment responses to fire is limited for semiarid grasslands relative to that for mesic grasslands. Replicated summer fire research is lacking, but much needed because summe...

  15. Plants as extreme environments? Ni-resistant bacteria and Ni-hyperaccumulators of serpentine flora.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengoni, A.; Schat, H.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest in the bacterial communities occurring in unusual, often extreme, environments. On serpentine outcrops around the world, a high diversity of plant species showing the peculiar features of metal hyperaccumulation is present. These metal

  16. Distribution of Invasive Plants in Urban Environment Is Strongly Spatially Structured

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štajerová, Kateřina; Šmilauer, P.; Brůna, Josef; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2017), s. 681-692 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive plant s * urban environment * species richness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.615, year: 2016

  17. Natural genetic variation in stomatal response can help to increase acclimation of plants to dried environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Meeteren, Van U.

    2018-01-01

    In the current century, global warming is becoming an alarming issue causing an increase in the area of barren lands. Arid and semi-arid regions are characterised with shortage of water in both under- and above-ground environments. Plants with high water use efficiency should be considered for

  18. Micropropagation of tulip: production of virus-free stock plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwyszyńska, Małgorzata; Sochacki, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    We describe here a new tulip micropropagation method based on the cyclic shoot multiplication in presence of the thidiazuron (TDZ), which enables the production of virus-free stock plants, speeds up breeding, and provides new genotypes for the market. In our novel protocol, cyclic shoot multiplication can be performed for 2-3 years by using TDZ instead of other cytokinins, as 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and N(6)-(-isopentyl)adenine (2iP). It makes possible to produce 500-2,000 microbulbs from one healthy plant. There are six main stages of tulip micropropagation. Stage 0 is the selection of true-to-type and virus-free plants, confirmed by ELISA. Fragments of flower stems isolated from bulbs are used as initial explants. Shoot multiplication is based on the regeneration of adventitious shoots, which are sub-cultured every 8 weeks. In the Stage 3, the specially prepared shoots are induced by low temperature treatment to form bulbs which finally develop on a sucrose-rich medium at 20 degrees C. Bulbs are then dried for 6 weeks and rooted in vivo. The number of multiplication subcultures should be limited to 5-10 cycles in order to lower the risk of mutation. Virus indexing should be repeated 3-4 times, at the initial stage and then during shoot multiplication. Genetic stability of micropropagated shoots can be confirmed using molecular markers.

  19. Retrofit of distillation columns in biodiesel production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Nghi; Demirel, Yasar

    2010-01-01

    Column grand composite curves and the exergy loss profiles produced by the Column-Targeting Tool of the Aspen Plus simulator are used to assess the performance of the existing distillation columns, and reduce the costs of operation by appropriate retrofits in a biodiesel production plant. Effectiveness of the retrofits is assessed by means of thermodynamics and economic improvements. We have considered a biodiesel plant utilizing three distillation columns to purify biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) and byproduct glycerol as well as reduce the waste. The assessments of the base case simulation have indicated the need for modifications for the distillation columns. For column T202, the retrofits consisting of a feed preheating and reflux ratio modification have reduced the total exergy loss by 47%, while T301 and T302 columns exergy losses decreased by 61% and 52%, respectively. After the retrofits, the overall exergy loss for the three columns has decreased from 7491.86 kW to 3627.97 kW. The retrofits required a fixed capital cost of approximately $239,900 and saved approximately $1,900,000/year worth of electricity. The retrofits have reduced the consumption of energy considerably, and leaded to a more environmentally friendly operation for the biodiesel plant considered.

  20. Plant life forms in thermal regulation and self purification of urban housing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S H [Osmania Univ., Ecology and Environmental Studies Div., Hyderabad (India)

    1995-12-01

    This article is concerned with the air quality of the closed indoor environment with respect to its temperature and carbon dioxide levels and with the assessment of management practices that have been used to reduce temperature and carbon dioxide levels with the help of certain plants. Phanerophytic lifeforms, such as trees, shrubs, herbs and creepers surrounding dwellings can be shown to produce a cooling effect, reducing temperatures by up to 11{sup o}C. Certain succulent plants like Kalanchoe marmorata, Bryophyllum pinnata and Apicra deltoideae were observed under experimental conditions to reduce carbon dioxide levels up to 90% from closed chambers under dark conditions. Certain ornamental plants such as Verbena bipinnatifida and Ixora coccinea could remove 63-75% of carbon dioxide from closed indoor environments in the presence of light. (author) 3 tabs., 11 refs.

  1. Methodologies for assessment of power plant ecological effects in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Various types of models or methodologies relevant to the assessment of entrainment, thermal, and impingement impacts of power plant operation in the marine environment are presented. The majority of methodologies available for assessing power plant effects are focused at the organism or population level. The most widely applied approaches for estimating entrainment effects on fish populations are the equivalent adult and trophic-conversion methodologies. Current methods to predict the number of fish and distribution of species impinged consider physical factors of the environment but not the biological or behavorial characteristics of fish. With proper validation, ecosystem-level models that consider aggregate responses of biological components to stress may prove to be a viable approach for investigating power plant ecological effects

  2. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  3. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. ► Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. ► Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  4. Plant-microbe interactions: Plant hormone production by phylloplane fungi. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, T.; Ilvesoksa, J.; Rosenqvist, H.

    1993-06-23

    The molds Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides and the yeast Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from the leaves of three short-rotation Salix clones, were found to produce indole-3-acetic acid (a growth promoter of plants). Abscisic acid (a growth inhibitor of plants) production was detected in B. cinerea. The contents of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the leaves of the Salix clones and the amounts of fungal propagules in these leaves were also measured, in order to evaluate whether the amounts of plant growth regulators produced by the fungi would make a significant contribution to the hormonal quantities of the leaves. The content of abscisic acid, and to a lesser degree that of indole-3-acetic acid, showed a positive correlation with the frequency of infection by the hormone producing organisms. The amounts of hormone producing fungi on leaves that bore visible colonies were, however, not sufficiently high to support the argument that neither the fungal production of abscisic nor indole-3-acetic acid would to a significant degree contribute to the hormonal contents of the leaves of the Salix clones.

  5. In Plant Activation: An Inducible, Hyperexpression Platform for Recombinant Protein Production in Plants[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L.; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A.; Harding, Robert M.; Dale, James L.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein. PMID:23839786

  6. Biochar amendment improves soil fertility and productivity of mulberry plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has the potential to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. A field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Bangladesh Sericulture Research and Training Institute (BSRTI, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biochar on soil properties, growth, yield and foliar disease incidence of mulberry plant. The study consisted of 6 treatments: control, basal dose of NPK, rice husk biochar, mineral enriched biochar, basal dose + rice husk biochar and basal dose + mineral enriched biochar. Growth parameters such as node/meter, total branch number/plant, total leaf yield/hectare/year were significantly increased in basal dose + mineral enriched biochar treated plot in second year compared with the other fertilizer treatments. In second year, the total leaf yield/hectare/year were also 142.1% and 115.9% higher in combined application of basal dose + mineral enriched biochar and basal dose + rice husk biochar, respectively, than the control treatment. The soil properties such as organic matter, phosphorus, sulphur and zinc percentage were significantly increased with both the (mineral enriched and rice husk biochar treated soil applied with or without recommended basal dose of NPK than the control and only the recommended basal dose of NPK, respectively. Further, the lowest incidences of tukra (6.4%, powdery mildew (10.4% and leaf spot (7.6% disease were observed in second year under mineral enriched biochar treated plot than the others. The findings revealed that utilization of biochar has positive effect on the improvement of soil fertility and productivity as well as disease suppression of mulberry plant.

  7. Measuring production loss due to health and work environment problems: construct validity and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Bergström, Gunnar; Björklund, Christina; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to validate two measures of production loss, health-related and work environment-related production loss, concerning their associations with health status and work environment factors. Validity was assessed by evaluating the construct validity. Health problems related and work environment-related problems (or factors) were included in separate analyses and evaluated regarding the significant difference in proportion of explained variation (R) of production loss. health problems production loss was not found to fulfill the criteria for convergent validity in this study; however, the measure of work environment-related production loss did fulfill the criteria that were set up. The measure of work environment-related production loss can be used to screen for production loss due to work environment problems as well as an outcome measure when evaluating the effect of organizational interventions.

  8. Relative role of contemporary environment versus history in shaping diversity patterns of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2012-01-01

    What determines large-scale patterns of species diversity is a central and controversial topic in biogeography and ecology. In this study, we compared the effects of contemporary environment and historical contingencies on species richness patterns of woody plants in China, using fine-resolution ......-plant species richness across China, while historical contingencies generate regional deviations from this trend. Our findings imply that both species diversity and regional evolutionary and ecological histories should be taken into account for future nature conservation......., and the Tibetan Plateau, perhaps reflecting their special geological features and history. Nevertheless, partial regression indicated that historical effects were less important relative to contemporary environment. In conclusion, contemporary environment (notably climate) determines the general trend in woody...

  9. A global comparison of the nutritive values of forage plants grown in contrasting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark A

    2018-03-17

    Forage plants are valuable because they maintain wild and domesticated herbivores, and sustain the delivery of meat, milk and other commodities. Forage plants contain different quantities of fibre, lignin, minerals and protein, and vary in the proportion of their tissue that can be digested by herbivores. These nutritive components are important determinants of consumer growth rates, reproductive success and behaviour. A dataset was compiled to quantify variation in forage plant nutritive values within- and between-plant species, and to assess variation between plant functional groups and bioclimatic zones. 1255 geo-located records containing 3774 measurements of nutritive values for 136 forage plant species grown in 30 countries were obtained from published articles. Spatial variability in forage nutritive values indicated that climate modified plant nutritive values. Forage plants grown in arid and equatorial regions generally contained less digestible material than those grown in temperate and tundra regions; containing more fibre and lignin, and less protein. These patterns may reveal why herbivore body sizes, digestion and migration strategies are different in warmer and drier regions. This dataset also revealed the capacity for variation in the nutrition provided by forage plants, which may drive consumer species coexistence. The proportion of the plant tissue that was digestible ranged between species from 2 to 91%. The amount of fibre contained within plant material ranged by 23-90%, protein by 2-36%, lignin by 1-21% and minerals by 2-22%. On average, grasses and tree foliage contained the most fibre, whilst herbaceous legumes contained the most protein and tree foliage contained the most lignin. However, there were individual species within each functional group that were highly nutritious. This dataset may be used to identify forage plant species or mixtures of species from different functional groups with useful nutritional traits which can be cultivated

  10. Workplace ergonomics in lean production environments: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezes, Pedro M; Dinis-Carvalho, José; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Lean Production Systems (LPS) have become very popular among manufacturing industries, services and large commercial areas. A LPS must develop and consider a set of work features to bring compatibility with workplace ergonomics, namely at a muscular, cognitive and emotional demands level. Identify the most relevant impacts of the adoption of LPS from the ergonomics point of view and summarizes some possible drawbacks for workplace ergonomics due to a flawed application of the LPS. The impacts identified are focused in four dimensions: work pace, intensity and load; worker motivation, satisfaction and stress; autonomy and participation; and health outcome. This paper also discusses the influence that the work organization model has on workplace ergonomics and on the waste elimination previewed by LPS. Literature review focused LPS and its impact on occupational ergonomics conditions, as well as on the Health and Safety of workers. The main focus of this research is on LPS implementations in industrial environments and mainly in manufacturing industry workplaces. This is followed by a discussion including the authors' experience (and previous research). From the reviewed literature it seems that there is no consensus on how Lean principles affect the workplace ergonomics since most authors found positive (advantages) and negative (disadvantages) impacts. The negative impacts or disadvantages of LPS implementations reviewed may result from the misunderstanding of the Lean principles. Possibly, they also happen due to partial Lean implementations (when only one or two tools were implemented) that may be effective in a specific work context but not suitable to all possible situations as the principles of LPS should not lead, by definition, to any of the reported drawbacks in terms of workplace ergonomics.

  11. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  12. Modeling Linkages Between Effective Impervious Surface and Urban Vegetation Productivity in Semi-arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. A.; Tague, C.

    2010-12-01

    and degraded downstream water quality). We explore the relative roles of TIA and EIA on water availability and plant productivity in a semi-arid urban environment through a series of modeling exercises. The Regional HydroEcological Simulation System (RHESSys) is used to model a range of impervious surface and vegetation scenarios on a test hillslope in the Mission Creek catchment in Santa Barbara CA. Results indicate that reduced EIA can indeed act to mitigate the impact of TIA on water available to plants. We then implement a modification to the RHESSys model that incorporates patch scale estimates of EIA into simulations of the entire Mission Creek catchment, allowing us to quantify likely catchment-scale impacts of altering EIA.

  13. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

  14. Assessment of long-term effects of radionuclides discharged from a phosphate ore processing plant to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degetti, S.; Mazzoti, D.; Dall'Ara, S.; DeJoanna, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea was interested by continuous direct discharge of phosphogypsum from a local phosphate fertilizer industry up to 1985 following a productive activity of about twenty years.As it is known, due to the remarkable amounts of natural radioactivity connected with the productive cycle of fertilizers from phosphate ores, the release to the environment of huge amounts of potentially hazardous wastes might be in principle of major radioecological concern.In this respect Ra-226 and its decay products are expected to be the main responsible of radioactivity background enhancement.Taking into account that discharge at sea (depth 30-35 m) was interrupted over ten years ago, following the closing of the plant, the main scope of this investigation was to assess the long-term effect of the disposal of phosphogypsum in the marine environment and in particular the possible enrichment of the radioactive fraction after solubilization of the gypsum carrier. In order to assess the actual radioecological influence of discharged slurries on the marine environment a preliminary sampling was carried out.Radioactivity data obtained from sediment cores clearly indicate anomalies in respect to typical 'background' values obtained from homologous samples collected in an unaffected area in proximity of the disposal site.As an example, Ra-226 activities in sediment were found to be one hundred fold higher than natural background.Radioactivity data from sediments cores collected in sites interested by bottom sea currents coming from discharge area will be also reported and discussed.(authors)

  15. Boron availability to plants from coal combustion by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukier, U.; Sumner, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Agronomic use of coal combustion by-products is often associated with boron (B) excess in amended soils and subsequently in plants. A greenhouse study with corn (Zea mays L.) as test plant was conducted to determine safe application rates of five fly ashes and one flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FDG). All by-products increased soil and corn tissue B concentration, in some cases above toxicity levels which are 5 mg hot water soluble B (hwsB)kg -1 soil and 100 mg B kg -1 in corn tissue. Acceptable application rates varied from 4 to 100 Mg ha -1 for different by-products. Leaching and weathering of a high B fly ash under ponding conditions decreased its B content and that of corn grown in fly ash amended soil, while leaching of the same fly ash under laboratory conditions increased fly ash B availability to corn in comparison to the fresh fly ash. Hot water soluble B in fly ash or FDG amended soil correlated very well with corn tissue B. Hot water soluble B in fly ash amended soil could be predicted based on soil pH and B solubility in ash at different pH values but not so in the case of FDG. Another greenhouse study was conducted to compare the influence of FDG and Ca(OH 2 ) on B concentration in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves grown in soil amended with the high B fly ash. The Ca(OH) 2 significantly decreased tissue B content, while FDG did not affect B uptake from fly ash amended soil. 41 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  16. The Effects of Agricultural Raw Product Exports on Environment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship between openness, trade and environmental damaging are the most important problems in the early 1990s. Some scientists assume the environmental quality is a normal good and increasing income increases demand for environmentally safe products. Therefore, Firms will be encouraging the using of safer and less polluting procedure. On the other hand other scientists assume international trade grows the environmental degradation through environmentally polluting industries and expand economics scales in developing countries. While environmental standards are low in these countries, the expansion of trade will lead to more pollution. Some experimental studies have confirmed a negative relationship between trade and environment. The effect of import and export of trade is not considered as important components of trade, despite very consideration of the relationship between openness, trade and environmental by researchers while in general part trade may have different effect on environmental. Materials and Methods: The base model is used to study the relationship between economic growth and environmental indexes and trade. Grossman and Krueger (1991 and Shafik and Bandvpady (1992 used the trade intensity variable, obtained from the ratio of exports plus imports divided by GDP as the World Trade openness of an economy measure. Grossman and Krueger (1991, the first person who developed environmental Kuznets curve (EKC used multiple versions of the model. Instrumental variable regression model has been estimated using panel data of period 1998 and 2009 for 73 countries, including 27 development countries and 46 developing countries. Countries with more than 0.9 Human Development Index eligible as developed countries and countries by Human Development Index between 0.7 to 0.9 considered as developing countries., based on the standard international trade classification. For exports of agricultural raw materials, 5

  17. International scientists’ priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence...

  18. Propagation environments [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of all factors influencing plant growth in a nursery environment is needed for the successful growth and production of high-quality container plants. Propagation structures modify the atmospheric conditions of temperature, light, and relative humidity. Native plant nurseries are different from typical horticultural nurseries because plants must be...

  19. Improvement in the bioenergetics system of plants under metal stress environment via seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Askari, S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Hg and its remediation through seaweeds on seedlings were escorted in a greenhouse experiment in a randomized block design. The effects of Hg were monitored in relation with bioenergetics system of Trigonella foenumgraecum plant at test site scale. Plants that were exposed to Hg, showed affect in diverse ways, including affinity to suffer in morphological as well as on sugar metabolism. The stress imposed by Hg exposure also extends to chloroplast pigments that lead to the distorted photosynthetic apparatus. The outcomes of reduced contents of photosynthetic machinery related with reduced contents of glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugars and carbohydrate contents of plants. These contents plays vital rule for providing bioenergy to the plant growth regulation. It was suggested that Hg is lethal for plant bioenergetics system due to which plants fail to survive under stress. The lethal effects of Hg were tried to remediate through green seaweeds (Codium iyengrii). It was observed that seaweeds successfully controlled the mobility of Hg metal and improves the plant growth regulatory system at lower applied dose only. While at higher dose of Hg, seaweeds were also effective but to a certain limits. It was established that continuous addition of Hg in soil and aquatic resources execute to the plant productivity. It is demand of time to develop alternative eco-friendly remediation technologies for controlling, cleaning Hg-polluted zones. (author)

  20. PGPR Potentially Improve Growth of Tomato Plants in Salt-Stressed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Zameer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are colonized bacterial species that has the capability to improve plant growth by certain direct and indirect means. Environmental factors including both biotic and abiotic stresses are among the major constraints to crop production. In the current study, the effectiveness of microbial inoculation (Bacillus megaterium for enhancing growth of tomato plants under salt stress conditions has been investigated. Significant improvement in shoot length, root length, leaf surface area, number of leaves, total weight of the shoot and root was observed in tomato plants inoculated with zm7 strain post 15 and 30 days of its application. Zm3, Zm4 and Zm6 strains improved the morphological parameters as compared to the control. Chlorophyll content a, chlorophyll content b, anthocyanin and carotenoid content was increased in tomato plants subjected to Zm7, Zm6 and Zm4 strains. Stress responsive genes; metallothionein and glutothion gene were found highly expressed in Zm7 treated tomato plants as compared to control, untreated plants. Significant correlation of anthocyanin was reported for carotenoids, chlorophyll-b, shoot weight and total weight of seedling while carotenoids were significantly correlated with leaf surface area, root length, chlorophyll-b and anthocyanin. Overall, Zm7 strain proved best for improvement in salt stressed plant’s morphological parameters and biochemical parameters as compared to control, untreated plants.

  1. Biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals in plant cell and organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Diego; Sanchez, Raul; Lalaleo, Liliana; Bonfill, Mercedes; Corchete, Purificacion; Palazon, Javier

    2018-03-09

    Plant biofactories are biotechnological platforms based on plant cell and organ cultures used for the production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals, although to date only a few of these systems have successfully been implemented at an industrial level. Metabolic engineering is possibly the most straightforward strategy to boost pharmaceutical production in plant biofactories, but social opposition to the use of GMOs means empirical approaches are still being used. Plant secondary metabolism involves thousands of different enzymes, some of which catalyze specific reactions, giving one product from a particular substrate, whereas others can yield multiple products from the same substrate. This trait opens plant cell biofactories to new applications, in which the natural metabolic machinery of plants can be harnessed for the bioconversion of phytochemicals or even the production of new bioactive compounds. Synthetic biological pipelines involving the bioconversion of natural substrates into products with a high market value may be established by the heterologous expression of target metabolic genes in model plants. To summarize the state of the art of plant biofactories and their applications for the pipeline production of cosme-, pharma- and biopharmaceuticals. In order to demonstrate the great potential of plant biofactories for multiple applications in the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals, this review broadly covers the following: plant biofactories based on cell and hairy root cultures; secondary metabolite production; biotransformation reactions; metabolic engineering tools applied in plant biofactories; and biopharmaceutical production. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. A chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein is required for proper photosynthetic acclimation of plants under fluctuating light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2017-09-19

    Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530 ) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments. Evidence is presented that mph2 mutant light stress susceptibility results from a defect in photosystem II (PSII) repair, and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MPH2 is involved in disassembling monomeric complexes during regeneration of dimeric functional PSII supercomplexes. Moreover, mph2 -and previously characterized PSII repair-defective mutants-exhibited reduced growth under fluctuating light conditions, while PSII photoprotection-impaired mutants did not. These findings suggest that repair is not only required for PSII maintenance under static high-irradiance light conditions but is also a regulatory mechanism facilitating photosynthetic adaptation under fluctuating light environments. This work has implications for improvement of agricultural plant productivity through engineering PSII repair.

  3. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  4. Radiolytic gas production from concrete containing Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the extent of gas production from radiolysis of concrete containing radioactive Savannah River Plant waste, samples of concrete and simulated waste were irradiated by 60 Co gamma rays and 244 Cm alpha particles. Gamma radiolysis simulated radiolysis by beta particles from fission products in the waste. Alpha radiolysis indicated the effect of alpha particles from transuranic isotopes in the waste. With gamma radiolysis, hydrogen was the only significant product; hydrogen reached a steady-state pressure that increased with increasing radiation intensity. Hydrogen was produced faster, and a higher steady-state pressure resulted when an organic set retarder was present. Oxygen that was sealed with the wastes was depleted. Gamma radiolysis also produced nitrous oxide gas when nitrate or nitrite was present in the concrete. With alpha radiolysis, hydrogen and oxygen were produced. Hydrogen did not reach a steady-state pressure at 137 Cs and 90 Sr), hydrogen will reach a steady-state pressure of 8 to 28 psi, and oxygen will be partially consumed. These predictions were confirmed by measurement of gas produced over a short time in a container of concrete and actual SRP waste. The tests with simulated waste also indicated that nitrous oxide may form, but because of the low nitrate or nitrite content of the waste, the maximum pressure of nitrous oxide after 300 years will be 238 Pu and 239 Pu will predominate; the hydrogen and oxygen pressures will increase to >200 psi

  5. Review of annual radioecological studies carried out since 1991 in the French nuclear power plants environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Gontier, G.; Renaud, P.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1991, the IRSN carries out annual radioecological studies in the environment of the French Nuclear Power Plants. More than 5,000 samples, collected in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems around the 20 studied plants, have been analysed by low-level gamma spectrometry. This paper presents the main goals and methods for such studies, and the lessons learnt from 11 years results. The French NPP routine atmospheric releases do not lead to detectable radioactive inputs into their surroundings. For this reason, IRSN decided to reduce the number of analysis concerning terrestrial samples since 2000. On the other hand, NPP liquid discharges into rivers are responsible for the presence of low 60 Co, 58 Co, 110m Ag and 54 Mn activities and significant difference in 137 Cs/ 134 Cs activity ratios measured in aquatic compartments. Radioactive discharges of artificial gamma emitters are also detectable in the Channel marine environment around NPP. Nevertheless, this influence is often concealed by radionuclides released by COGEMA-La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. Beyond important evaluations concerning the presence of artificial radionuclides in NPP's environment, studies conducted since 1991 give us an important database that can be used for a better knowledge of transfers and distribution of radioactivity through the environment. (author)

  6. [Native plant resources to optimize the performances of forest rehabilitation in Mediterranean and tropical environment: some examples of nursing plant species that improve the soil mycorrhizal potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, Robin; Ramanankierana, Heriniaina; Hafidi, Mohamed; Baohanta, Rondro; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Bâ, Amadou; Galiana, Antoine; Bally, René; Lebrun, Michel; Prin, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The overexploitation of natural resources, resulting in an increased need for arable lands by local populations, causes a serious dysfunction in the soil's biological functioning (mineral deficiency, salt stress, etc.). This dysfunction, worsened by the climatic conditions (drought), requires the implementation of ecological engineering strategies allowing the rehabilitation of degraded areas through the restoration of essential ecological services. The first symptoms of weathering processes of soil quality in tropical and Mediterranean environments result in an alteration of the plant cover structure with, in particular, the pauperization of plant species diversity and abundance. This degradation is accompanied by a weakening of soils and an increase of the impact of erosion on the surface layer resulting in reduced fertility of soils in terms of their physicochemical characteristics as well as their biological ones (e.g., soil microbes). Among the microbial components particularly sensitive to erosion, symbiotic microorganisms (rhizobia, Frankia, mycorrhizal fungi) are known to be key components in the main terrestrial biogeochemical cycles (C, N and P). Many studies have shown the importance of the management of these symbiotic microorganisms in rehabilitation and revegetation strategies of degraded environments, but also in improving the productivity of agrosystems. In particular, the selection of symbionts and their inoculation into the soil were strongly encouraged in recent decades. These inoculants were selected not only for their impact on the plant, but also for their ability to persist in the soil at the expense of the residual native microflora. The performance of this technique was thus evaluated on the plant cover, but its impact on soil microbial characteristics was totally ignored. The role of microbial diversity on productivity and stability (resistance, resilience, etc.) of eco- and agrosystems has been identified relatively recently and has led

  7. Our Environment Shapes Us: The Importance of Environment and Sex Differences in Regulation of Autoantibody Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Edwards

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems’ ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases. Intrinsic (i.e., sex hormones, sex chromosomes, etc. and extrinsic (microbiome composition, external triggers, and immune modulators factors appear to impact the overall outcome of immune responses between sexes. Evidence suggests that interactions between environmental contaminants [e.g., endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs] and host leukocytes affect the ability of the immune system to mount a response to exogenous and endogenous insults, and/or return to normal activity following clearance of the threat. Inherently, males and females have differential immune response to external triggers. In this review, we describe how environmental chemicals, including EDCs, may have sex differential influence on the outcome of immune responses through alterations in epigenetic status (such as modulation of microRNA expression, gene methylation, or histone modification status, direct and indirect activation of the estrogen receptors to drive hormonal effects, and differential modulation of microbial sensing and composition of host microbiota. Taken together, an intriguing question develops as to how an individual’s environment directly and indirectly contributes to an altered immune response, dysregulation of autoantibody production, and influence autoimmune disease development. Few studies exist utilizing well-controlled cohorts of both sexes

  8. Photosynthetic characteristics of an amphibious plant, Eleocharis vivipara: Expression of C4 and C3 modes in contrasting environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Osamu; Samejima, Muneaki; Muto, Shoshi; Miyachi, Shigetoh

    1988-01-01

    Eleocharis vivipara Link, a freshwater amphibious leafless plant belonging to the Cyperaceae can grow in both terrestrial and submersed aquatic conditions. Two forms of E. vivipara obtained from these contrasting environments were examined for the characteristics associated with C 4 and C 3 photosynthesis. In the terrestrial form, the culms, which are photosynthetic organs, possess a Kranz-type anatomy typical of C 4 plants, and well-developed bundle-sheath cells contain numerous large chloroplasts. In the submersed form, the culms possess anatomical features characteristic of submersed aquatic plants, and the reduced bundle-sheath cells contain only a few small chloroplasts. 14 C pulse- 12 C chase experiments showed that the terrestrial form and the submersed form fix carbon by way of the C 4 pathway, with aspartate (40%) and malate (35%) as the main primary products, and by way of the C 3 pathway, with 3-phosphoglyceric acid (53%) and sugar phosphates (14%) as the main primary products, respectively. The terrestrial form showed photosynthetic enzyme activities typical of the NAD-malic enzyme-C 4 subtype, whereas the submersed form showed decreased activities of key C 4 enzymes and an increased ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. These data suggest that this species can differentiate into the C 4 mode under terrestrial conditions and into the C 3 mode under submersed conditions

  9. Preliminary field dose rate determination in the environment of the Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, I.; Zombori, P.; Koblinger, L.; Andrasi, A.; Deme, S.

    1983-01-01

    The in situ measurements were performed by a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer and a GM detector at 23 points in the environment of the power plant. During the sophisticated calibration procedure the energy and direction dependences of the detector responses were also taken into account. The dose rates were also determined by the POKER-CAMP computer code for natural radionuclides with an assumed source distribution. On the basis of the good agreement between the measured and calculated values the sensitivity of the measuring system was assessed for some given distributed radionuclides released from the power plant. (author)

  10. How Planting Density Affects Number and Yield of Potato Minitubers in a Commercial Glasshouse Production System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der A.J.H.; Lommen, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial potato minituber production systems aim at high tuber numbers per plant. This study investigated by which mechanisms planting density (25.0, 62.5 and 145.8 plants/m2) of in vitro derived plantlets affected minituber yield and minituber number per plantlet. Lowering planting density

  11. Effects of Urin Cow Dosage on Growth and Production of Sorgum Plant (Sorghum Bicolor L) on Peat Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami Lestari, Sri; Andrian, Andi

    2017-12-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)), is a potential cultivated plant, especially in marginal and dry areas, sorghum has an important role as a source of carbohydrates, sorghum is expected as an alternative choice for peatland cultivation, with the use of peatlands is also expected Raising awareness of the environment by cultivating more environmentally friendly plants. The aim of this research is to know the influence and get the best dosage of cow urine on growth and production of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) plant on peat soil. The experiment was conducted experimentally by using Completely Randomized Design (RAL), with one factor, namely: Cow urine administration, given in 5 treatments and 4 replications, resulting in 20 trials. Each experimental unit consists of 4 plants and 2 plants to be sampled. The factors studied were A0 = dose of cow urine 0 cc / 1, A1 = dose of cow urine 25 cc / 1, A2 = dose of cow urine 50 cc / 1, A3 = dose of cow urine 75 cc / 1, A4 = dose Cow urine 100 cc / 1. Conclusion Giving of cow urine has significant effect on growth and production of sorghum plant which is seen on the parameters of plant height, leaf length, leaf width. While wet weight 100 seeds and dry weight of 100 seeds of sorghum plants have no significant effect. The best dose is given by A4 treatment with the best dose of 100 cc / 1.

  12. [Sugar Chain Construction of Functional Natural Products Using Plant Glucosyltransferases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Plant secondary product glycosyltransferases belong to family 1 of the glycosyltransferase superfamily and mediate the transfer of a glycosyl residue from activated nucleotide sugars to lipophilic small molecules, thus affecting the solubility, stability and pharmacological activities of the sugar-accepting compounds. The biotechnological application of plant glycosyltransferases in glycoside synthesis has attracted attention because enzymatic glycosylation offers several advantages over chemical methods, including (1) avoiding the use of harsh conditions and toxic catalysts, (2) providing strict control of regio-and stereo-selectivity and (3) high efficiency. This review describes the in vivo and in vitro glycosylation of natural organic compounds using glycosyltransferases, focusing on our investigation of enzymatic synthesis of curcumin glycosides. Our current efforts toward functional characterization of some glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of iridoids and crocin, as well as in the sugar chain elongation of quercetin glucosides, are described. Finally, I describe the relationship of the structure of sugar chains and the intestinal absorption which was investigated using chemoenzymatically synthesized quercetin glycosides.

  13. Dosimetry in radiation plant of food and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Keiji

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental concept for sterilization is generally to bring the objects into the condition that less than one microorganism can grow in 10 6 products. Therefore required dose differs according to the selection of indexing microorganism. In the U.K., approximately 2.5 Mrad is adopted by employing methylmethacrylate (trade name Perspex) as the standard dosimeter. Japan has no legally controlled sterilization dose, but 2.5 Mrad in adopted in irradiation plants. In Japan, plants for the germination suppression of potatos and onions have been operated, the permitted dose being 15 krad. It is legal obligation to measure dose, and presently Fricke dosimeter is used, though it has some problems. As for rice and wheat sterilization, also Fricke dosimeter meets the requirements for the package forms of box or bag, but problems arise in bulk treatment at silo type equipments. Considering future expansion of application, the following developments may be necessary: dosimeters for 10--50 krad, dosimeters for 0.1 to 0.5 Mrad measurement being able to be handled similarly to Fricke or Perspex dosimeter, and measuring method for absorbed dose of electron beam. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Wireless microwave acoustic sensor system for condition monitoring in power plant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio [Univ. of Maine, Orno, ME (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This project successfully demonstrated novel wireless microwave acoustic temperature and pressure sensors that can be embedded into equipment and structures located in fossil fuel power plant environments to monitor the condition of components such as steam headers, re-heat lines, water walls, burner tubes, and power turbines. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology researched and developed through a collaborative partnership between the University of Maine and Environetix Technologies Corporation can provide a revolutionary impact in the power industry since it is anticipated that the wireless sensors will deliver reliable real-time sensing information in harsh power plant conditions that involve temperatures up to 1100oC and pressures up to 750 psi. The work involved the research and development of novel high temperature harsh environment thin film electrodes, piezoelectric smart microwave acoustic sensing elements, sensor encapsulation materials that were engineered to function over long times up to 1100oC, and a radio-frequency (RF) wireless interrogation electronics unit that are located both inside and outside the high temperature harsh environment. The UMaine / Environetix team have interacted with diverse power plant facilities, and identified as a testbed a local power generation facility, which burns municipal solid waste (MSW), the Penobscot Energy Recovery Company (PERC), Orrington, Maine. In this facility Environetix / UMaine successfully implemented and tested multiple wireless temperature sensor systems within the harsh-environment of the economizer chamber and at the boiler tubes, transferring the developed technology to the power plant environment to perform real-time sensor monitoring experiments under typical operating conditions, as initially targeted in the project. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology developed under this project for power plant applications offers several significant advantages including wireless

  15. Properties of bituminization product from Olkiluoto power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Vuorinen, U.

    1985-09-01

    In Finland, disposal into repositories excavated into bedrock on the present power plant sites is considered to be the most feasible alternative for the low- and intermediate level wastes. The Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies has sponsored mainly experimental research work on long-term properties of bituminized ion exchange resin performed in the Reactor Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland since 1981. This report presents results on follow-up measurements of the leach tests started in 1981 and results on new leach tests with cement equilibrated water. Swelling of the bituminization product caused by water uptake is considered important. Both unrestricted and restricted swelling measurements were performed and are reported here. In addition to leaching and swelling also radiolytic gas generation and pH-changes of the leachant are discussed

  16. Sensor and Communication Network Technology for Harsh Environments in the Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Park, Hee Yoon; Hong, Seok Bong; Koo, In Soo

    2008-02-01

    One of the challenges in harsh environments qualification and verification for emerging new I and C system of the nuclear power plant is to define the operational environment of these new emerging I and C sensor and communication network such that they are tested to the limits of a mission without requiring expensive over design. To aid this, this report defines, discusses and recommends environmental guideline and verification requirements for using state-of-the-art RPS sensors, fiber optic communication system, wireless communication and wireless smart sensors in nuclear harsh environments. This report focuses on advances in sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, neutron and thermal power sensors) and their potential impact. Discussed are: radiation, thermal, electromagnetic, and electrical environment specifications. Presented are the typical performance data (survivability guidelines and experimental data), evaluation procedure and standard test method of communication devices, state-of-the-art RPS sensors, and communication systems

  17. Sensor and Communication Network Technology for Harsh Environments in the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Park, Hee Yoon; Hong, Seok Bong; Koo, In Soo

    2008-02-15

    One of the challenges in harsh environments qualification and verification for emerging new I and C system of the nuclear power plant is to define the operational environment of these new emerging I and C sensor and communication network such that they are tested to the limits of a mission without requiring expensive over design. To aid this, this report defines, discusses and recommends environmental guideline and verification requirements for using state-of-the-art RPS sensors, fiber optic communication system, wireless communication and wireless smart sensors in nuclear harsh environments. This report focuses on advances in sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, neutron and thermal power sensors) and their potential impact. Discussed are: radiation, thermal, electromagnetic, and electrical environment specifications. Presented are the typical performance data (survivability guidelines and experimental data), evaluation procedure and standard test method of communication devices, state-of-the-art RPS sensors, and communication systems.

  18. Coenzyme Q10 production in plants: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Sanjay Singh; Jaiwal, Anjali; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-06-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or Ubiquinone10 (UQ10), an isoprenylated benzoquinone, is well-known for its role as an electron carrier in aerobic respiration. It is a sole representative of lipid soluble antioxidant that is synthesized in our body. In recent years, it has been found to be associated with a range of patho-physiological conditions and its oral administration has also reported to be of therapeutic value in a wide spectrum of chronic diseases. Additionally, as an antioxidant, it has been widely used as an ingredient in dietary supplements, neutraceuticals, and functional foods as well as in anti-aging creams. Since its limited dietary uptake and decrease in its endogenous synthesis in the body with age and under various diseases states warrants its adequate supply from an external source. To meet its growing demand for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries, there is a great interest in the commercial production of CoQ10. Various synthetic and fermentation of microbial natural producers and their mutated strains have been developed for its commercial production. Although, microbial production is the major industrial source of CoQ10 but due to low yield and high production cost, other cost-effective and alternative sources need to be explored. Plants, being photosynthetic, producing high biomass and the engineering of pathways for producing CoQ10 directly in food crops will eliminate the additional step for purification and thus could be used as an ideal and cost-effective alternative to chemical synthesis and microbial production of CoQ10. A better understanding of CoQ10 biosynthetic enzymes and their regulation in model systems like E. coli and yeast has led to the use of metabolic engineering to enhance CoQ10 production not only in microbes but also in plants. The plant-based CoQ10 production has emerged as a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach capable of supplying CoQ10 in ample amounts. The current strategies, progress and constraints of

  19. Consequences of reduced production of electricity in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Power Administration has assessed the possibilities of expanding electric power sources other than nuclear power plants for the years 1980 and 1985. Reports on costs in the form of loss of capital and increased operating costs involved in the dismantling of nuclear power plants are made in Supplement 1. The economics division of the Finance Department, starting with a long-range study model of the Swedish economy, has calculated the consequences of a cutback in electric power up to 1980 for Sweden's economy and employment in that year. The consequences of reduction of electricity supplies up to 1985 are summarized in Supplement 2 in this report. It is concluded that in order to be able to manage the problem of supplying electricity by 1985, it will be necessary to increase oil power above what was assumed in the energy policy program. There will have to be new oil-based power as well. According to the Power Administration, oil-power facilities can be expanded to varying degrees, depending upon when the decision is made. The Power Administration's calculations show that 125 TWh is possible in 1985 without nuclear power only if a decision for discontinuation is made in the fall of 1976. This is based on very optimistic assumptions about the time of execution of a program for oil-steam operation, and also on the assumption that extreme measures will be initiated to force expansion of both district-heating distribution and power + heat facilities. Oil consumption for production of electricity in such an electric power system would be about 9 million m 3 , which is about 5 times more than at present and about one-third of the present total consumption of petroleum products in Sweden

  20. Plant Growth Optimization by Vegetable Production System in HI-SEAS Analog Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Gill, Tracy R.; Quincy, Charles D.; Roberson, Luke B.; Binsted, Kim; Morrow, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) is a scientific payload designed to support plant growth for food production under microgravity conditions. The configuration of Veggie consists of an LED lighting system with modular rooting pillows designed to contain substrate media and time-release fertilizer. The pillows were designed to be watered passively using capillary principles but have typically been watered manually by the astronauts in low-Earth orbit (LEO). The design of Veggie allows cabin air to be drawn through the plant enclosure for thermal and humidity control and for supplying CO2 to the plants. Since its delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014, Veggie has undergone several experimental trials by various crews. Ground unit testing of Veggie was conducted during an 8-month Mars analog study in a semi-contained environment of a simulated habitat located at approximately 8,200 feet (2,500 m) elevation on the Mauna Loa volcano on the Island of Hawaii. The Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) offered conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) intended to simulate a planetary exploration mission. This paper provides data and analyses to show the prospect for optimized use of the current Veggie design for human habitats. Lessons learned during the study may provide opportunities for updating the system design and operational parameters for current Veggie experiments being conducted onboard the ISS and for payloads on future deep space missions.

  1. Phenotypic plasticity of fine root growth increases plant productivity in pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissom James E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plastic response of fine roots to a changing environment is suggested to affect the growth and form of a plant. Here we show that the plasticity of fine root growth may increase plant productivity based on an experiment using young seedlings (14-week old of loblolly pine. We use two contrasting pine ecotypes, "mesic" and "xeric", to investigate the adaptive significance of such a plastic response. Results The partitioning of biomass to fine roots is observed to reduce with increased nutrient availability. For the "mesic" ecotype, increased stem biomass as a consequence of more nutrients may be primarily due to reduced fine-root biomass partitioning. For the "xeric" ecotype, the favorable influence of the plasticity of fine root growth on stem growth results from increased allocation of biomass to foliage and decreased allocation to fine roots. An evolutionary genetic analysis indicates that the plasticity of fine root growth is inducible, whereas the plasticity of foliage is constitutive. Conclusions Results promise to enhance a fundamental understanding of evolutionary changes of tree architecture under domestication and to design sound silvicultural and breeding measures for improving plant productivity.

  2. The influence of gadolinium and yttrium on biomass production and nutrient balance of maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatz, Jessica; Vetterlein, Doris; Mattusch, Jürgen; Otto, Matthias; Daus, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are expected to become pollutants by enriching in the environment due to their wide applications nowadays. The uptake and distribution of gadolinium and yttrium and its influence on biomass production and nutrient balance was investigated in hydroponic solution experiments with maize plants using increasing application doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L −1 . It could be shown that concentrations of up to 1 mg L −1 of Gd and Y did not reduce or enhance the plant growth or alter the nutrient balance. 10 mg L −1  Gd or Y resulted in REE concentrations of up to 1.2 weight-% in the roots and severe phosphate deficiency symptoms. Transfer rates showed that there was only little transport of Gd and Y from roots to shoots. Significant correlations were found between the concentration of Gd and Y in the nutrient solution and the root tissue concentration of Ca, Mg and P. - Highlights: • Roots accumulate REE in very high concentrations. • Transfer factors from root to shoot tissue are very low, with HREE higher than MREE. • The nutrient balance of the plant is severely influenced by REE addition. • Phosphate deficiency appears at high concentrations of REE addition. - The addition of the rare-earth elements Gd and Y results in less Ca and Mg uptake and phosphate deficiency in maize plants grown in hydroponics

  3. Evaluation of some soil amendments plant productivity under saline conditions using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, E.A.K.

    2004-01-01

    this study was carried out in Wadi Ras Sudr (south Saini government). this location was characterized as poor soil with high salinity (wasteland). in the same time it suffers from shortage of water resources. therefore, we aimed to utilize this soil as well as the saline ground water for introducing it into production systems. the reclamation of virgin poor soil need large efforts and much research, especially plant exposure to salinity which is rapidly followed by a decrease in growth rate. the use of natural organic sources as organic fertilizers improve the growth and yields of plants, and safe the environment from pollution . organic fertilizers (Of) such as green manure (G M) or poultry manure (P M) can be used as nutrient sources for good plant growth, where the soil amendments improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. economically, the yield improvement and nutrient supply will reflect the potential use of such organic materials. also , phosphorus and/or potassium supplementation separately or in combination with O F (G M and/or P M) improved the growth of both barley and wheat plants under such adverse condition of salinity using 15 N isotope dilution technique

  4. Establishment of a sensor testbed at NIST for plant productivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. W.; Hutyra, L.; Reinmann, A.; Trlica, A.; Marrs, J.; Jones, T.; Whetstone, J. R.; Logan, B.; Reblin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate assessments of biogenic carbon fluxes is challenging. Correlating optical signatures to plant activity allows for monitoring large regions. New methods, including solar-induced fluorescence (SIF), promise to provide more timely and accurate estimate of plant activity, but we are still developing a full understanding of the mechanistic leakage between plant assimilation of carbon and SIF. We have initiated a testbed to facilitate the evaluation of sensors and methods for remote monitoring of plant activity at the NIST headquarters. The test bed utilizes a forested area of mature trees in a mixed urban environment. A 1 hectare plot within the 26 hectare forest has been instrumented for ecophysiological measurements with an edge (100 m long) that is persistently monitored with multimodal optical sensors (SIF spectrometers, hyperspectral imagers, thermal infrared imaging, and lidar). This biological testbed has the advantage of direct access to the national scales maintained by NIST of measurements related to both the physical and optical measurements of interest. We offer a description of the test site, the sensors, and preliminary results from the first season of observations for ecological, physiological, and remote sensing based estimates of ecosystem productivity.

  5. Safety level assessment in the production environment using Fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Conclusion: The application of the proposed method can reveal which safety items and factors are most important in improving workers safety, and therefore decide where to concentrate resources in order to improve the safety of the work environment.

  6. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test. Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air. The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL. It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  7. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  8. Monitoring for radioactive materials releasing to environment in M310 reformatived nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhenyu; Yang Guangli; Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Airborne radioactive materials of nuclear power plant (NPP) releases to the environment from the stack of NPP. Radioactive liquid waste releases of the ocean, the fluvial and the lake through the liquid waste letdyke of NPP. Further more, a few radioactive waste may be taken out of the NPP by vehicle or personnel. For the purpose of strict management and control above-mentioned waste, we use detect equipment monitoring radioactive waste of NPP. Management and control for the releasing of radioactive material to the environment in M310 reformatived NPP is strict and safety. (authors)

  9. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-11-09

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants.

  10. Radiometric Analysis of the Ores, Products, Wastewater and Environment of Some Factories in the 10th of Ramadan City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mongy, S.A.; El-Fiki, S.A.; Diab, A.M.; Madbouly, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This work aims at radiological assessment of environment of some industrial activities of the 10 Th of Ramadan City, Ores. final products, waste environmental samples (soil and plant) of five factories: Heavy industries, Ceramics, Granite, detergents and Sponge were collected and analyzed by using γ Spectroscopy. The results show that 10 K , 238 U series and 2 3 2 Th series are found in some of the collected factories samples with different concentrations. The results indicate that 10 K, 238 U series. 232 Th series and the man-made 137 Cs are found in all the soil samples. While the collected plants samples contain 40 K only. The radioactivity levels in the water samples are lower than the UNSCEAR data. It is concluded that the industrial activities did not contribute in increasing of the natural radioactive levels of the city environment

  11. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs and...

  12. Production of Se-methylselenocysteine in transgenic plants expressing selenocysteine methyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Hugh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become increasingly evident that dietary Se plays a significant role in reducing the incidence of lung, colorectal and prostate cancer in humans. Different forms of Se vary in their chemopreventative efficacy, with Se-methylselenocysteine being one of the most potent. Interestingly, the Se accumulating plant Astragalus bisulcatus (Two-grooved poison vetch contains up to 0.6% of its shoot dry weight as Se-methylselenocysteine. The ability of this Se accumulator to biosynthesize Se-methylselenocysteine provides a critical metabolic shunt that prevents selenocysteine and selenomethionine from entering the protein biosynthetic machinery. Such a metabolic shunt has been proposed to be vital for Se tolerance in A. bisulcatus. Utilization of this mechanism in other plants may provide a possible avenue for the genetic engineering of Se tolerance in plants ideally suited for the phytoremediation of Se contaminated land. Here, we describe the overexpression of a selenocysteine methyltransferase from A. bisulcatus to engineer Se-methylselenocysteine metabolism in the Se non-accumulator Arabidopsis thaliana (Thale cress. Results By over producing the A. bisulcatus enzyme selenocysteine methyltransferase in A. thaliana, we have introduced a novel biosynthetic ability that allows the non-accumulator to accumulate Se-methylselenocysteine and γ-glutamylmethylselenocysteine in shoots. The biosynthesis of Se-methylselenocysteine in A. thaliana also confers significantly increased selenite tolerance and foliar Se accumulation. Conclusion These results demonstrate the feasibility of developing transgenic plant-based production of Se-methylselenocysteine, as well as bioengineering selenite resistance in plants. Selenite resistance is the first step in engineering plants that are resistant to selenate, the predominant form of Se in the environment.

  13. Plio-Pleistocene climate change and geographic heterogeneity in plant diversity-environment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have induced geographic heterogeneity in plant species richness-environment relationships in Europe due to greater in situ species survival and speciation rates in southern Europe. We formulate distinct hypotheses on how Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have...... affected richness-topographic heterogeneity and richness-water-energy availability relationships, causing steeper relationships in southern Europe. We investigated these hypotheses using data from Atlas Florae Europaeae on the distribution of 3069 species and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Our...... analyses showed that plant species richness generally increased with topographic heterogeneity (ln-transformed altitudinal range) and actual evapotranspiration (AET). We also found evidence for strong geographic heterogeneity in the species richness-environment relationship, with a greater increase...

  14. CosmoBon, tree research team, for studying utilization of woody plant in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Baba, Keiichi; Chida, Yukari

    2012-07-01

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science, as Tree research team, TRT. Trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. We have the serious problem about their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We have been investigating the tension wood formation under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. CosmoBon is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. The tension wood formation in CosmoBon was confirmed as the same as that in the natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  15. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  16. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains, floor covering, and upholstery of furniture) and consumers are in contact with these products for up to 24 hours a day. The Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) commissioned RIVM to mak...

  17. Red mud a byproduct of aluminum production contains soluble vanadium that causes genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mišík, Miroslav [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Ian T. [Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Reismüller, Matthias; Pichler, Clemens; Rainer, Bernhard [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Mišíková, Katarina [Department of Botany, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mayes, William M. [Centre for Environmental and Marine Sciences, University of Hull, Scarborough YO11 3AZ (United Kingdom); Knasmueller, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Red mud (RM) is a byproduct of aluminum production; worldwide between 70 and 120 million tons is produced annually. We analyzed RM which was released in the course of the Kolontar disaster in Hungary into the environment in acute and genotoxicity experiments with plants which are widely used for environmental monitoring. We detected induction of micronuclei which reflect chromosomal damage in tetrads of Tradescantia and in root cells of Allium as well as retardation of root growth with contaminated soils and leachates. Chemical analyses showed that RM contains metals, in particular high concentrations of vanadium. Follow-up experiments indicated that vanadate causes the effects in the plants. This compound causes also in humans DNA damage and positive results were obtained in carcinogenicity studies. Since it was found also in RM from other production sites our findings indicate that its release in the environment is a global problem which should be studied in more detail. Capsule abstract: Our findings indicate that the red mud causes genotoxic effect in plants probably due to the presence of vanadate which is contained at high concentrations in the residue. - Highlights: • Red mud, a by-product of aluminum production, causes DNA-damage in higher plants. • We showed that this effect is caused by vanadate a known carcinogenic genotoxin. • Vanadate is contained in high concentrations in the residue. • Release of red mud may cause adverse effects in ecosystems and affect human health.

  18. Eradication of Productivity Related Problems Through Lean Principles In Integrated Manufacturing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this competitive era, manufacturing enterprises struggle to adopt cost-effective manufacturing systems. Overview of the recent manufacturing enterprises shows that successful global manufacturing enterprises have distributed their manufacturing capabilities over the globe. The successes of distributed integrated manufacturing enterprises depend upon the adaptation of appropriate manufacturing technologies like computer integrated manufacturing (CIM under the global collaborative environment along with the principles of lean manufacturing so that their corporate goals are achieved. CIM is an umbrella term which involves automated design, analysis, planning manufacturing, dispatching, customer-interaction, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control and factory floor functions, which are inter-linked through the computer, to control all the campus-wide manufacturing related operations. It helps to improve the performance of a firm by integrating various areas of manufacturing business in which most of lean ideas are embedded. These lean ideas cause work in a process to be performed with minimum of non-value adding activities and focus on customers’ needs by delivering them at minimum time, with high quality and at minimum cost by eliminating hidden waste. What happens at the shop floor of even an integrated industry is that proper and timely attention is not paid to the intangible lean principles in the manual part of the CIM system which results in substantial loss of the plant productivity. Therefore the objective of this research paper is to investigate the different poor productivity-related problems in a partially integrated manufacturing environment and lay down the remedial measures to eradicate them using ‘Juran’s problem solving techniques’ and various ‘lean tools’ which results in the reduced wastages and hence improved productivity.

  19. GM plants with increased tolerance to unfavourable environment – benefits and potential risks

    OpenAIRE

    Djilianov, Dimitar

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture faces the great challenges to meet the increasing demands of the society for food and row materials and the progressing global warming. To solve these problems we need to develop new crop varieties with high yield and highly tolerant to abitoic stress and at the same time to ensure sustainable development of the society and environment. In this respect it is expected that modern biotechnologies will help plant breeding. The development of genetically modified crop...

  20. Competition and facilitation structure plant communities under nurse tree canopies in extremely stressful environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Namazi, Ali A; El-Bana, Magdy I; Bonser, Stephen P

    2017-04-01

    Nurse plant facilitation in stressful environments can produce an environment with relatively low stress under its canopy. These nurse plants may produce the conditions promoting intense competition between coexisting species under the canopy, and canopies may establish stress gradients, where stress increases toward the edge of the canopy. Competition and facilitation on these stress gradients may control species distributions in the communities under canopies. We tested the following predictions: (1) interactions between understory species shift from competition to facilitation in habitats experiencing increasing stress from the center to the edge of canopy of a nurse plant, and (2) species distributions in understory communities are controlled by competitive interactions at the center of canopy, and facilitation at the edge of the canopy. We tested these predictions using a neighbor removal experiment under nurse trees growing in arid environments. Established individuals of each of four of the most common herbaceous species in the understory were used in the experiment. Two species were more frequent in the center of the canopy, and two species were more frequent at the edge of the canopy. Established individuals of each species were subjected to neighbor removal or control treatments in both canopy center and edge habitats. We found a shift from competitive to facilitative interactions from the center to the edge of the canopy. The shift in the effect of neighbors on the target species can help to explain species distributions in these canopies. Canopy-dominant species only perform well in the presence of neighbors in the edge microhabitat. Competition from canopy-dominant species can also limit the performance of edge-dominant species in the canopy microhabitat. The shift from competition to facilitation under nurse plant canopies can structure the understory communities in extremely stressful environments.

  1. Living near a nuclear plant. Health Environment Workshop, 2. semester Year 2011-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevreux, Pierre; Verzat, Valentine

    2012-05-01

    As nuclear energy is a matter of debate as a source of energy because of the huge hazards related to the possibility of a nuclear accident, it is often forgotten that, in its normal operation, a nuclear plant releases radioactive isotopes and many chemical compounds in the environment, and health studies performed on the long term on people living near nuclear plants begin to reveal, for example, an increase of child leukaemia. In this report, and after some recalls about a nuclear plant operation (water supply, overview of releases of radioactive isotopes and chemical compounds), the authors discuss the impact on child cancer by commenting some knowledge about the effect of low doses, and by commenting the results of two studies (KiKK of 2008, and INSERM). They discuss the posture of the ASN and the associated controversy, and finally outline the relevance of the different arguments

  2. Localization of wind power plants: the aspects of environment and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-25

    The appraisement of the anticipated effects of the wind power on the environment is presented. The following factors are observed: the safety of the plants, noise, infrasound, disturbance of lights and television as well as the effects on nature and birds. Large land based plants with horisontal axis are studied. The risk for a person to be hit by a piece of blade is calculated to 1 x 10 /sup -7/ per million hours. A piece of ice can be thrown up to 250 m in the direction of wind at its highest velocity. The mechanism of nnoise is not well known. The elimination of the disturbance of telecommunication can be attained. Other effects are difficult to quantify and could possibly be manipulated. The distance between human activities and a wind power plant is recommended to be 250 m.

  3. Environmentally adapted energy production and working environment. Manufacture of wood pellets; Miljoeanpassad energiproduktion och arbetsmiljoe. Tillverkning av traepellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez de Davila, Eliana

    2002-04-01

    The working environment at three wood pellet production plants was studied. Measurements were made of dust, microorganisms (bacteria and molds) and terpenes. Both stationary and personal sampling equipment were used. Dust sources and dust diffusion were mapped. Work in the raw material storage rooms and at the semi-automatic sack-filling stations can give high exposure to wood dusts (max. 4.7 mg/m{sup 3}). These high levels might cause irritations in the respiratory tract. Relatively high levels of terpenes were detected in the plant that did not dry wood shavings or sawdust. Pressing of non-dried shavings probably leads to emission of terpenes and other gaseous substances in the plant. Recommendations for improvements of the working conditions are given in the report.

  4. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues.

  5. Gaseous environment of plants and activity of enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.F.; Zemlyanukhin, A.A.; Igamberdiev, A.U.; Salam, A.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors investigated the action of hypoxia and high CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere on activity of phosphofructokinase, aldolase, glucose phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.), corn scutella (Zea mays L.), and hemp cotyledons (Cannabis sativa L.). The first 4-12h of hypoxia witnessed suppression of enzymes of the initial stages of glycolysis (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase)and activation of enzymes of its final stages (alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase) and enzymes linking glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). An excess of CO 2 in the environment accelerated and amplified this effect. At the end of a 24-h period of anaerobic incubation, deviations of enzyme activity from the control were leveled in both gaseous environments. An exception was observed in the case of phosphofructokinase, whose activity increased markedly at this time in plants exposed to CO 2 . Changes in activity of the enzymes were coupled with changes in their kinetic parameters (apparent K m and V max values). The activity of isocitrate lyase was suppressed in both variants of hypoxic gaseous environments, a finding that does not agree with the hypothesis as to participation of the glyoxylate cycle in the metabolic response of plants to oxygen stress. Thus, temporary inhibition of the system of glycolysis and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway constituted the initial response of the plants to O 2 stress, and CO 2 intensified this metabolic response

  6. Environment monitoring and residents health condition monitoring of nuclear power plant Bohunice region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letkovicova, M.; Rehak, R.; Stehlikova, B.; Celko, M.; Hraska, S.; Klocok, L.; Kostial, J.; Prikazsky, V.; Vidovic, J.; Zirko, M.; Beno, T.; Mitosinka, J.

    1998-01-01

    The report contents final environment evaluation and selected characteristic of residents health physics of nuclear power plant Bohunice region. Evaluated data were elaborated during analytical period 1993-1997.Task solving which results are documented in this final report was going on between 1996- 1998. The report deals in individual stages with the following: Information obtaining and completing which characterize demographic situation of the area for the 1993-1997 period; Datum obtaining and completing which contain selected health physics characteristics of the area residents; Database structures for individual data archiving from monitoring and collection; Brief description of geographic information system for graphic presentation of evaluation results based on topographic base; Digital mapping structure description; Results and evaluation of radionuclide monitoring in environment performed by Environmental radiation measurements laboratory by the nuclear power plant Bohunice for the 1993-1997 period. Demographic situation evaluation and selected health physics characteristics of the area of nuclear power plant residents for the 1993-1997 period are summarized in the final part of the document. Monitoring results and their evaluation is processed in graph, table, text description and map output forms. Map outputs are processed in the geographic information system Arc View GIS 3.0a environment

  7. Marine environment status assessment based on macrophytobenthic plants as bio-indicators of heavy metals pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Danowska, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of study was to develop the environmental quality standards (EQS MP ) for selected heavy metals: Pb, Cd, Hg and Ni bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine macrophytobenthic plants: Chara baltica, Cladophora spp., Coccotylus truncatus, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Polysiphonia fucoides, Stuckenia pectinata and Zanichellia palustris, collected in designated areas of the southern Baltic Sea in period 2008–2015. The calculated concentration ratios (CR), which attained very high values: 10 4 L kg −1 for lead, 10 3 L kg −1 for nickel and mercury and even 10 5 L kg −1 for cadmium formed the basis for the determination of EQS MP values. The EQS MP values were: 26 mg kg −1 d.w. for Pb, 33 mg kg −1 d.w. for Cd, 32 mg kg −1 d.w. for Ni and 0.4 mg kg −1 d.w. for Hg. The application of macrophytobenthic plants as bioindicators in marine environment status assessment of certain areas of the Baltic Sea is also described in the paper. - Highlights: • Macrophytobenthic plants were applied as a bioindicators for heavy metals pollution assessment. • The environmental quality standards for Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg in macrophytobenthic plants were evaluated. • The marine environment status assessment method based on bioindicators was proposed.

  8. Study on the improvement of working environment at night in maintenance works at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Mitsuru; Kotani, Fumio

    2000-01-01

    At the maintenance work site in nuclear power plants, due to the shortening (reduction of a regular inspection period) of the regular inspection period, the tendency toward working on around-the-clock basis has increased; thus, nighttime work is on the rise. Based upon research both locally and internationally, as well as examples of measures against such a tendency and the results of on-site surveys of the environment surrounding maintenance works at nuclear power plants, the author comprehensively studied the effects of nighttime work on workers, the measures to cope with the situation, and how a working environment for nighttime work should be. Based on the results, the authors made a guidebook for nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants. This guidebook, which deals with the subject of nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants, is quite unique in the world. It is expected that by using this guidebook, the quality of nighttime maintenance work and the levels of techniques/skills would be enhanced and maintained, and the safety of workers would be ensured, promoting considerably thus the establishment of a comfortable workplace. (author)

  9. Study on the improvement of working environment at night in maintenance works at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Mitsuru; Kotani, Fumio [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    At the maintenance work site in nuclear power plants, due to the shortening (reduction of a regular inspection period) of the regular inspection period, the tendency toward working on around-the-clock basis has increased; thus, nighttime work is on the rise. Based upon research both locally and internationally, as well as examples of measures against such a tendency and the results of on-site surveys of the environment surrounding maintenance works at nuclear power plants, the author comprehensively studied the effects of nighttime work on workers, the measures to cope with the situation, and how a working environment for nighttime work should be. Based on the results, the authors made a guidebook for nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants. This guidebook, which deals with the subject of nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants, is quite unique in the world. It is expected that by using this guidebook, the quality of nighttime maintenance work and the levels of techniques/skills would be enhanced and maintained, and the safety of workers would be ensured, promoting considerably thus the establishment of a comfortable workplace. (author)

  10. QTLs for heading date and plant height under multiple environments in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmin; Hu, Wei; Tan, Cong; Xing, Yongzhong

    2017-02-01

    Both heading date and plant height are important traits related to grain yield in rice. In this study, a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both traits under 3 long-day (LD) environments and 1 short-day (SD) environment. A total of eight QTLs for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were detected by composite interval mapping under LD conditions. Additional one QTL for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were identified by Two-QTL model under LD conditions. Among them, major QTLs qHd7.1, qHd7.2 and qHd8 for heading date, and qPh1 and qPh7.1 for plant height were commonly detected. qHd7.1 and qHd7.2 were mapped to small regions of less than 1 cM. Genome position comparison of previously cloned genes with QTLs detected in this study revealed that qHd5 and qPh3.1 were two novel QTLs. The alleles of these QTLs increasing trait values were dispersed in both parents, which well explained the transgressive segregation observed in this population. In addition, the interaction between qHd7.1 and qHd8 was detected under all LD conditions. Multiple-QTL model analysis revealed that all QTLs and their interactions explained over 80% of heading date variation and 50% of plant height variation. Two heading date QTLs were detected under SD condition. Of them, qHd10 were commonly identified under LD condition. The difference in QTL detection between LD and SD conditions indicated most heading date QTLs are sensitive to photoperiod. These findings will benefit breeding design for heading date and plant height in rice.

  11. Product lifecycle management through innovative and competitive business environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gecevska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Product Lifecycle Management (PLM is the process of managing the whole life cycle of a product starting from generating an idea, concept description, business analyzes, product design and solution architecture and technical implementation, to the successful entrance to the market, service, maintenance and product improvement. At present, a wide range of stakeholders including consumers, regulators, shareholders and public bodies are demanding that companies address product management through all life cycle in a more comprehensive and sustainable way. However, even if a company actually wishes innovate its processes for improving the way to account for project management, it will face relevant difficulties to deal with different guidelines, tools and methods currently addressing the matter from various points of view. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on PLM from an operational point of view with the objective to help companies to answer to the main market needs.

  12. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... official plant and are in violation of this part or any of said Federal Acts or any State or local law...

  13. A proposal for safety design philosophy of HTGR for coupling hydrogen production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Tazawa, Yujiro; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting research and development for hydrogen production utilizing heat from High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). Towards the realization of nuclear hydrogen production, coupled hydrogen production plants should not be treated as an extension of a nuclear plant in order to open the door for the entry of non-nuclear industries as well as assuring reactor safety against postulated abnormal events initiated in the hydrogen production plants. Since hydrogen production plant utilizing nuclear heat has never been built in the world, little attention has been given to the establishment of a safety design for such system including the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). In the present study, requirements in order to design, construct and operate hydrogen production plants under conventional chemical plant standards are identified. In addition, design considerations for safety design of nuclear facility are suggested. Furthermore, feasibility of proposed safety design and design considerations are evaluated. (author)

  14. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Research on plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems, and our understanding of how plant species diversity and interactions affect processes in marine ecosystems is still limited. To investigate if plant species richness and composition influence...... plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...

  15. Genotype by production environment interaction in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaw, H.L.; Ponzonia, R.W.; Hamzah, A.; Abu-Bakara, K.R.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Three discrete generations of GIFT fish (Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus; a total of 10,065 fish with pedigree and phenotypic information) were tested in pond and cage culture environments to determine genotype by production environment interaction between both environments in Malaysia.

  16. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains,

  17. Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-Mix Manufacturing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and... Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering on January 13, 2017, in

  18. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... including the burden of parasitic diseases in livestock and human exposure to ... for: -improving livestock production, animal, and human health; -supporting local ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  19. Radioactive pollution from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazoe, H; Hosoda, M; Sorimachi, A; Nakata, A; Yoshida, M A; Tokonami, S; Yamada, M

    2012-11-01

    Major contaminants from venting and hydrogen explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors between 12 and 15 March 2011 were transported northwestward and deposited on soil and plants via precipitation. Surface soils and plant leaves were sampled at 64 sites in the Fukushima Prefecture. The highest concentrations of (134)Cs (84.4 kBq kg(-1)) and (137)Cs (82.0 kBq kg(-1)) in surface soils were observed at Nagadoro in Iidate village located 32 km northwest from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Furthermore, (131)I, (129)Te, (129 m)Te, (110 m)Ag and (140)La were detected in the same samples. Outer surface of plant leaves, such as bamboo, cabbage and grasses were highly contaminated at the high-dose rate areas of Tsushima and Minami-Tsushima in Namie town. Mugwort leaves that grew after the pollution event had extremely low concentration of radionuclides; however, the plant/soil radiocaesium ratio was 0.023 ± 0.006. It is anticipated that decomposition of fallen leaves will promote recycling of radionuclides in the environment.

  20. Interdependence of Agricultural Production and Environment and the Road to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curić Jasmina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of agricultural production in the world is in serious crisis. Interdependence of agricultural production and the environment is multiple and causality works both ways. On one hand, there are environmental changes which hamper food production, and on the other, the agricultural production, as it is, is severely damaging the environment. The very systems of agricultural production jeopardize future production. The goal of this paper is to explore causes of limitations of sustainable agricultural development in the world, where the authors emphasize the following: gas emissions with greenhouse effect, a disturbed cycle of nitrogen circulation and destruction of biodiversity.