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Sample records for enterobacter sakazakii advice

  1. BIOTIPE ISOLAT LOKAL ENTEROBACTER SAKAZAKII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Ayu Saufani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacter sakazakii telah diklasifikasikan ke dalam 16 biogrup berdasarkan sifat biokimianya dan menjadi 3 biogrup berdasarkan 20 reaksi biokimia dengan perangkat cepat API 20E. Pada tahun 2007, Iversen mengklasifikasi ulang Enterobacter sakazakii menjadi Cronobacter spp. berdasarkan sifat genotip dan biokimia seperti uji indol, pemanfaatan malonat, dan kemampuannya memproduksi asam dari dulsitol serta metil-α-D-glukosida. Pengelompokan berdasarkan sifat biokimia terhadap genus dan spesies ini belum banyak dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengelompokkan Enterobacter sakazakii yang telah diisolasi dan terkonfirmasi menggunakan PCR berdasarkan gen penyandi 16S rRNA-nya pada penelitian sebelumnya. Pengelompokan dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat cepat RapID ONE® dan 4 reaksi biokimia Iversen. Hasil klasifikasi menggunakan RapID ONE® kemudian dibandingkan dengan hasil klasifikasi menggunakan API 20E yang telah dilaporkan sebelumnya. Dengan menggunakan RapID ONE diperoleh 9 isolat Enterobacter sakazakii, 9 isolat Enterobacter cloacae dan 1 isolat Enterobacter cancerogenus dari 19 isolat yang diteliti. Kesembilan belas isolat uji tersebut dapat dikelompokkan menjadi 16 biotipe. Jika dibandingkan dengan menggunakan API 20E, terdapat 8 isolat yang juga teridentifikasi sebagai Enterobacter sakazakii. Berdasarkan 4 reaksi biokimia Iversen, 15 dari 19 isolat di atas dapat diklasifikasikan ke dalam Cronobacter spp. Uji pirolidonil disarankan untuk mengklasifikasikan 4 isolat yang tidak terklasifikasi dengan 4 reaksi biokimia Iversen.

  2. Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronobacter sakazakii has been identified as an infrequently isolated opportunistic pathogen. Over 120 cases of C. sakazakii-related illness have been reported and most reported cases are life-threatening infections. Many of these outbreaks have been linked the consumption of C. sakazakii-contamina...

  3. Identification and phylogeny of Enterobacter sakazakii relative to Enterobacter and Citrobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Carol; Waddington, Michael; On, Stephen L.W.

    2004-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Enterobacter sakazakii strains were investigated using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and hsp60 sequencing. Each analysis distributed E. sakazakii strains among four clusters, indicating substantial taxonomic heterogeneity. The E. sakazakii type strain 16S rDNA sequence...... was 97.8% similar to that of Citrobacter koseri but 97.0% similar to that of Enterobacter cloacae....

  4. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  5. Cerebral infarctions due to CNS infection with Enterobacter sakazakii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, P.G.; Ball, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reports have implicated Enterobacter sakazakii, a gram-negative enteric bacillus, in neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Cases of severe central nervous system involvement, including ventriculitis, brain abscess, infarction, and cyst formation, have been described. We present serial head CT findings in a case of neonatal E. sakazakii meningitis complicated by a ring enhancing cerebral infarction which mimicked abscess formation. In meningitis secondary to this agent, a recognized pattern of cerebral hypodensity with or without cystic degeneration late in the course of the infection is likely to represent cerebral infarction rather than an abscess especially if there is a lack of culture evidence of a bacterial infection. (orig.)

  6. A new protocol for the detection of Enterobacter sakazakii applied to environmental samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.; Reij, M.W.; Puyvelde, van K.; Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Beumer, R.R.; Schothorst, van M.

    2004-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a motile, peritrichous, gram-negative rod that was previously known as a yellow pigmented Enterobacter cloacae. It is documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of life-threatening neonatal meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis. E. sakazakii has

  7. Meningoencephalitis and Compartmentalization of the Cerebral Ventricles Caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Martin B.; Allen, Stephen D.; Neal, Patricia; Reynolds, Janet

    1981-01-01

    A necrotizing meningoencephalitis complicated by ventricular compartmentalization and abscess formation caused by Enterobacter sakazakii in a previously healthy 5-week-old female is described. A detailed description of the isolate is presented. This communication firmly establishes the pathogenicity of E. sakazakii. PMID:7287892

  8. Inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin B on Enterobacter sakazakii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori

    2008-03-01

    The susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii, a food-borne pathogen, to several metal-bound forms of bovine lactoferrin (LF), pepsin-hydrolyzed LF (LF-hyd), and LF-derived peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B) was tested. MIC and MBC testing revealed that 4 strains of E. sakazakii show susceptibility to apo- and Cu-LF, LF-hyd, and LFcin B, but not to Fe-LF, similarly to Escherichia coli. A growth curve test indicated that E. sakazakii was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by apo-LF at 0.5 to 8 mg/ml. Even after being heated at 80 degrees C, LF at above 1 mg/ml inhibited the bacterial growth. These results suggest that bovine LF-related compounds may be useful for the inhibition of E. sakazakii in foods.

  9. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Sonnard, V.; Kandhai, M.C.; Marugg, J.; Joosten, H.

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed to detect and identify Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. The method is based on selective enrichment at 45 ± 0.5°C in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth supplemented with 0.5 M NaCl and 10 mg/liter vancomycin (mLST) for 22 to 24 h followed by streaking on tryptone

  10. Enterobacter sakazakii in infants: Novel phenomenon in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E. sakazakii has been implicated in necrotizing enterocolitis, bloodstream and central nervous system infections, with mortality rates of 40-80%. Two cases of E. sakazakii infections; one preterm very low birth weight neonate with meningitis and a two month infant with bacteraemia, are described for the first time in India. The first baby succumbed to the infection while the other responded to appropriate therapy. Powdered infant milk formulae have been implicated in causing neonatal infections and the first baby was on formula feed with classic signs of sepsis and meningitis. The second infant was on breast feed and probably developed nosocomial E. sakazakii bacteraemia.

  11. Adhesive properties of Enterobacter sakazakii to human epithelial and brain microvascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospischil Andreas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity in E. sakazakii. A necessary state in the successful colonization, establishment and ultimately production of disease by microbial pathogens is the ability to adhere to host surfaces such as mucous membranes, gastric and intestinal epithelial or endothelial tissue. This study examined for the first time the adherence ability of 50 E. sakazakii strains to the two epithelial cell lines HEp-2 and Caco-2, as well as the brain microvascular endothelial cell line HBMEC. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial culture conditions on the adherence behaviour were investigated. An attempt was made to characterize the factors involved in adherence. Results Two distinctive adherence patterns, a diffuse adhesion and the formation of localized clusters of bacteria on the cell surface could be distinguished on all three cell lines. In some strains, a mixture of both patterns was observed. Adherence was maximal during late exponential phase, and increased with higher MOI. The adhesion capacity of E. sakazakii to HBMEC cells was affected by the addition of blood to the bacteria growth medium. Mannose, hemagglutination, trypsin digestion experiments and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the adhesion of E. sakazakii to the epithelial and endothelial cells is mainly non-fimbrial based. Conclusion Adherence experiments show heterogeneity within different E. sakazakii strains. In agreement with studies on E. cloacae, we found no relationship between the adhesive capacities in E. sakazakii and the eventual production of specific fimbriae. Further studies will have to be carried out in order to determine the adhesin(s involved in the interaction of E. sakazakii with cells and to

  12. Enterobacter sakazakii brain abscess in the neonate: the importance of neuroradiologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdette, J.H.; Santos, C.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare but important cause of life-threatening neonatal sepsis and meningitis complicated by the development of brain abscess. Objective. Given the neurotropic qualities of this organism, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial as a poor prognosis follows brain abscess formation. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional imaging (CT and MRI) play an important role in the diagnostic work-up. Conclusion. A biopsy-proven case of E. sakazakii brain abscess, which was diagnosed on MR images, is presented, and the importance of prompt radiologic imaging of the central nervous system in the work-up of patients with this life-threatening disease is discussed. (orig.)

  13. My 40-Year History with Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii -- Lessons Learned, Myths Debunked, and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Farmer III

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Much has been learned about Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii since I first named and described Enterobacter sakazakii in 1980. However, there are still wide knowledge gaps. One of the most serious is that are still many uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from these bacteria, particularly in neonatal meningitis. Over the last few decades Cronobacter contamination of commercial powdered infant formula has apparently been reduced, but it is still an ongoing problem. The powdered infant formula industry still cannot produce powdered formula that is free of bacterial contamination with Cronobacter, other Enterobacteriaceae, and other pathogenic bacteria. Until this happens infants and other will be at risk of becoming infected when contaminated product is ingested.

  14. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho; Woon, Jae-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D 10 -values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g -1 onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 deg. C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula

  15. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Baek [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Yeongi 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of); Woon, Jae-Ho [Livestock Products standard Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang 430-824 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-11-15

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D{sub 10}-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g{sup -1} onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 deg. C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  16. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho; Woon, Jae-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-11-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D10-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g -1 onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 °C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  17. Effectiveness of Disinfectants in Killing Enterobacter sakazakii in Suspension, Dried on the Surface of Stainless Steel, and in a Biofilm▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Beuchat, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of 13 disinfectants used in hospitals, day-care centers, and food service kitchens in killing Enterobacter sakazakii in suspension, dried on the surface of stainless steel, and in biofilm was determined. E. sakazakii exhibited various levels of resistance to the disinfectants, depending on the composition of the disinfectants, amount and type of organic matrix surrounding cells, and exposure time. Populations of planktonic cells suspended in water (7.22 to 7.40 log CFU/ml) d...

  18. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Hee; Park, Ji-Yong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Kwon, Ki-Sung; Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2008-09-01

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D10-vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities.

  19. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yun-Hee [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yong [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon University, Sungnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myong-Soo [Department of Food Science, Ehwa Women' s University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sung [Center for Food safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D{sub 10}-vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities.

  20. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yun-Hee; Park, Ji-Yong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Kwon, Ki-Sung; Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2008-01-01

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D 10 -vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities

  1. Rapid Detection of Enterobacter Sakazakii in milk Powder using amino modified chitosan immunomagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinglian; Wang, Dongfeng

    2016-12-01

    Chitosan immunomagnetic beads (CIBs) were first prepared through converting hydroxyl groups of natural polymer material-chitosan into amino groups using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as modification agent and then coupling with polyclonal antibodies of Enterobacter sakazakii using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. The beads before coupling with antibodies were characterized by magnetic property measurement, FTIR, SEM and XRD technologies. In the assay a natural polysaccharide-chitosan, which has good biological and chemical properties such as non-toxicity, biocompatibility and high chemical reactivity was first used for synthesis of immunomagnetic beads. The detection method first established in this paper that combined the beads with chromogenic medium together to rapid detect E. sakazakii in milk powder could greatly improve the detection specificity and working efficiency. The beads exhibited a maximum capturing capacity of 1×10 6 cfu/g with the detection sensitivity of 4cfu/g. The results demonstrate that the assay is a straightforward, specific and sensitive alternative for rapid detection of E.sakazakii in food matrix. The total analysis time was as little as about 25h, which greatly shorten the detection time. The method can provides new ideas not only to preparation technique of immunomagnetic beads but to imunne detection technique in food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel immunosensor for Enterobacter sakazakii based on multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/thionine modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao; Dou Wenchao; Zhan Xuejia; Zhao Guangying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Constructed a novel immunosensor using MWCNT/[BMIM]PF 6 /thionine for E. sakazakii. ► Optimum conditions for the detection of E. sakazakii were investigated. ► The properties of proposed immunosensor were studied by AFM and CVs. ► The biosensor exhibited good specificity, reproducibility, stability and accuracy. - Abstract: A novel immunosensor for Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) based on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified by multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF 6 ) and thionine (Thi) was developed for the first time. The surface morphologies of modified electrodes were characterized by means of atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrochemical performance of the immunosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Horseradish peroxidase labeled antibody to E. sakazakii in [BMIM]PF 6 showed high activity and stability. Under optimal conditions, E. sakazakii could be detected in range of 10 3 –10 9 CFU/ml with detection limit of 7.7 × 10 1 CFU/ml. The proposed immunosensor exhibited excellent long-time storage stability and had potential use in clinical immunoassay of E. sakazakii.

  3. Attachment of and biofilm formation by Enterobacter sakazakii on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Beuchat, Larry R

    2006-09-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been reported to form biofilms, but environmental conditions affecting attachment to and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces have not been described. We did a study to determine the effects of temperature and nutrient availability on attachment and biofilm formation by E. sakazakii on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes. Five strains grown to stationary phase in tryptic soy broth (TSB), infant formula broth (IFB), or lettuce juice broth (LJB) at 12 and 25 degrees C were examined for the extent to which they attach to these materials. Higher populations attached at 25 degrees C than at 12 degrees C. Stainless steel coupons and enteral feeding tubes were immersed for 24 h at 4 degrees C in phosphate-buffered saline suspensions (7 log CFU/ml) to facilitate the attachment of 5.33 to 5.51 and 5.03 to 5.12 log CFU/cm(2), respectively, before they were immersed in TSB, IFB, or LJB, followed by incubation at 12 or 25 degrees C for up to 10 days. Biofilms were not produced at 12 degrees C. The number of cells of test strains increased by 1.42 to 1.67 log CFU/cm(2) and 1.16 to 1.31 log CFU/cm(2) in biofilms formed on stainless steel and feeding tubes, respectively, immersed in IFB at 25 degrees C; biofilms were not formed on TSB and LJB at 25 degrees C, indicating that nutrient availability plays a major role in processes leading to biofilm formation on the surfaces of these inert materials. These observations emphasize the importance of temperature control in reconstituted infant formula preparation and storage areas in preventing attachment and biofilm formation by E. sakazakii.

  4. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii from ass' milk in Sicily: case report, safety and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, F; Passantino, A

    2008-07-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii (Es) infections are likely to involve newborns and infants, causing meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. Contamination of infant formulae milk during factory production or bottle preparation is implicated. Es has been isolated from environmental sources and from food other than infant formula and milk powder, but why it is associated only with the consumption of infant formulae, is unclear. According to Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, Es is considered a microorganisms of greatest concern in infant formulae and follow-on formulae. Es is included between "safety criteria". The isolation of two strains of Es from 50 samples of ass' milk in Sicily is described. The antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates revealed a multiple resistance profile, including fluoroquinolones, commonly used to treat the infections. The authors underline the importance of survey because in Italy ass' milk is considered one of the solutions for infants suffering from hypersensitivity to milk protein of some animal species. There is scarce information about the ecology and the uncertainty concerning the source of infection in the children and adults; the authors are concerned that ass' milk could become a high-risk food.

  5. Survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant cereal as affected by composition, reconstitution liquid, and storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chun; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-06-01

    Invasive infections caused by Enterobacter sakazakii have occurred predominantly in low-birth-weight neonates and infants younger than 2 months of age. However, infections have also occurred in healthy infants up to 8 months of age and in immunocompromised children up to 4 years of age. The ability of E. sakazakii to survive and grow in infant cereals as affected by composition of the cereal, composition of the reconstitution liquid, and temperature is unknown. A study was done to determine the survival and growth characteristics of E. sakazakii initially at populations of 0.005 and 0.52 CFU/ml of infant rice cereal, oatmeal cereal, or rice with mixed fruit cereal reconstituted with water, milk, or apple juice. Reconstituted cereals were stored at 4, 12, 21, and 30 degrees C, and populations were monitored for up to 72 h. Growth did not occur in reconstituted cereals stored at 4 degrees C or in cereals reconstituted with apple juice and stored at 12 degrees C. Populations (> or =1 CFU/ml) were detected in cereals reconstituted with water or milk and stored at 12, 21, and 30 degres C for 24, 8, and 4 h, respectively. The composition of infant cereals did not markedly affect the survival or growth of E. sakazakii in reconstituted cereals. Populations of E. sakazakii in reconstituted cereal decreased with increases in populations of mesophilic aerobic microflora up to 8 to 9 log CFU/ml, which was concurrent with decreases in pH. E. sakazakii, initially at 2.62 log CFU/ml of rice cereal reconstituted with apple juice (pH 4.32), survived at 40C for at least 14 days. The pathogen grew at 21 and 30 degrees C within 2 days and then decreased to undetectable levels (<1 CFU/10 ml) in cereal stored at 21 degrees C for 5 days or 30'C for 4 days. Initially, at 7.32 log CFU/ml, E. sakazakii was detected in rice cereal stored at 4 degrees C for 50 days. It is recommended that reconstituted infant cereals stored at 21 or 30 degrees C be discarded within 4 h after preparation or

  6. Lactobacillus bulgaricus Prevents Intestinal Epithelial Cell Injury Caused by Enterobacter sakazakii-Induced Nitric Oxide both In Vitro and in the Newborn Rat Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Catherine J.; Williams, Monica; Petrosyan, Mikael; Guner, Yigit; Mittal, Rahul; Mock, Dennis; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Ford, Henri R.; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2009-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen that has been associated with outbreaks of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) as well as infant sepsis and meningitis. Our previous studies demonstrated that E. sakazakii induces NEC in a newborn rat model by inducing enterocyte apoptosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for enterocyte apoptosis are not known. Here we demonstrate that E. sakazakii induces significant production of nitric oxide (NO) in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) upon infection. The elevated production of NO, which is due to increased expression of inducible NO synthase, is responsible for apoptosis of IEC-6 cells. Notably, pretreatment of IEC-6 cells with Lactobacillus bulgaricus (ATCC 12278) attenuated the upregulation of NO production and thereby protected the cells from E. sakazakii-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, pretreatment with L. bulgaricus promoted the integrity of enterocytes both in vitro and in the infant rat model of NEC, even after challenge with E. sakazakii. Infection of IEC-6 cells with E. sakazakii upregulated several genes related to apoptosis, cytokine production, and various signaling pathways, as demonstrated by rat gene array analysis, and this upregulation was subdued by pretreatment with L. bulgaricus. In agreement with these data, L. bulgaricus pretreatment protected newborn rats infected with E. sakazakii from developing NEC, resulting in improved survival. PMID:19075027

  7. A disposable electrochemical immunosensor arrays using 4-channel screen-printed carbon electrode for simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Enterobacter sakazakii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Wenchao; Tang, Weilu; Zhao, Guangying

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical immunosensor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) and Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) detection using carbon screen-printed low-density arrays is reported. The sensors were fabricated based on screen-printed carbon arrays containing four carbon working electrode, an integrated carbon counter electrodes and an integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/sodium alginate (SA)/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) composite films were coated on all the working electrodes to enhance the sensitization of the electrode. Horseradish peroxidases (HRP) labeled antibodies of two bacteria were immobilize on different working electrode of the same screen-printed electrode respectively. The immobilization of MWCNTs, HRP labeled antibodies onto the screen-printed carbon electrodes was examined using atom force microscopy (AFM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The analytical performance of proposed immunosensor arrays toward E. sakazakii and E. coli O157:H7 was investigated by AFM and CV. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of E. sakazakii and E. coli O157:H7 were from 10 4 to 10 10 cfu/ml, with a detection limit of 4.57 × 10 3 cfu/ml (S/N = 3) and 3.27 × 10 3 cfu/ml (S/N = 3), respectively. The specificity, reproducibility, stability and accuracy of the proposed immunosensor arrays were also evaluated. Two antibodies modified work electrodes were tested and compared in terms of sensitivity and ability to recognize different pathogenic biological species

  8. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) from infant food, herbs and environmental samples and the subsequent identification and confirmation of the isolates using biochemical, chromogenic assays, PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Ababneh, Qotaiba O; Saadoun, Ismail M; Samara, Nawal A; Rashdan, Abrar M

    2009-10-27

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii), are a group of Gram-negative pathogens that have been implicated as causative agents of meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants. The pathogens are linked to infant formula; however, they have also been isolated from a wide range of foods and environmental samples. In this study, 233 samples of food, infant formula and environment were screened for the presence of Cronobacter spp. in an attempt to find its source. Twenty nine strains were isolated from samples of spices, herbs, infant foods, and dust obtained from household vacuum cleaners. Among the 76 samples of infant food, infant formula, milk powder and non-milk dairy products tested, only one sample of infant food contained Cronobacter spp. (1.4%). The other Cronobacter spp. isolates recovered include two from household vacuum dust, and 26 from 67 samples of herbs and spices. Among the food categories analyzed, herbs and spices harbored the highest number of isolates, indicating plants as a possible reservoir of this pathogen. Initial screening with API 20E test strips yielded 42 presumptive isolates. Further characterization using 3 chromogenic media (alpha-MUG, DFI and EsPM) and 8 sets of PCR primers detecting ITS (internal transcribed spacer sequences), 16S rRNA, zpx, gluA, gluB, OmpA genes followed by nucleotide sequencing of some PCR amplicons did not confirm the identity of all the isolates as none of the methods proved to be free of both false positives or false negatives. The final confirmation step was done by 16S rRNA sequence analysis identifying only 29 of the 42 isolates as Cronobacter spp. Our studies showed that Cronobacter spp. are highly diverse and share many phenotypic traits with other Enterobacteriaceae members highlighting the need to use several methods to confirm the identity of this pathogen. None of the biochemical, chromogenic or PCR primers proved to be a reliable method for confirmation of the identity of the isolates

  9. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii from infant food, herbs and environmental samples and the subsequent identification and confirmation of the isolates using biochemical, chromogenic assays, PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Nawal A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii, are a group of Gram-negative pathogens that have been implicated as causative agents of meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants. The pathogens are linked to infant formula; however, they have also been isolated from a wide range of foods and environmental samples. Results In this study, 233 samples of food, infant formula and environment were screened for the presence of Cronobacter spp. in an attempt to find its source. Twenty nine strains were isolated from samples of spices, herbs, infant foods, and dust obtained from household vacuum cleaners. Among the 76 samples of infant food, infant formula, milk powder and non-milk dairy products tested, only one sample of infant food contained Cronobacter spp. (1.4%. The other Cronobacter spp. isolates recovered include two from household vacuum dust, and 26 from 67 samples of herbs and spices. Among the food categories analyzed, herbs and spices harbored the highest number of isolates, indicating plants as a possible reservoir of this pathogen. Initial screening with API 20E test strips yielded 42 presumptive isolates. Further characterization using 3 chromogenic media (α-MUG, DFI and EsPM and 8 sets of PCR primers detecting ITS (internal transcribed spacer sequences, 16S rRNA, zpx, gluA, gluB, OmpA genes followed by nucleotide sequencing of some PCR amplicons did not confirm the identity of all the isolates as none of the methods proved to be free of both false positives or false negatives. The final confirmation step was done by 16S rRNA sequence analysis identifying only 29 of the 42 isolates as Cronobacter spp. Conclusion Our studies showed that Cronobacter spp. are highly diverse and share many phenotypic traits with other Enterobacteriaceae members highlighting the need to use several methods to confirm the identity of this pathogen. None of the biochemical, chromogenic or PCR primers proved to be a reliable

  10. My 40-Year History with Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii – Lessons Learned, Myths Debunked, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned about organism in the Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii complex since I first named and described Enterobacter sakazakii in 1980. However, there are still wide knowledge gaps. One of the most serious is that are still many uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk posed by these bacteria, particularly in neonatal meningitis. Over the last few decades, Cronobacter contamination of commercial powdered infant formula products has apparently been reduced, but it is still an ongoing problem. The powdered infant formula industry still cannot produce powdered formula that is free of bacterial contamination with Cronobacter, other Enterobacteriaceae, other pathogenic bacteria, and other microorganisms. Until this happens, infants and other will be at risk of becoming infected when they ingest contaminated formula. PMID:26640778

  11. Cronobacter sakazakii reduction by blueberry proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal S; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2014-05-01

    Blueberry juice and blueberry polyphenols reportedly have antimicrobial properties against foodborne pathogens, without much currently known on their effects against Cronobacter sakazakii. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) and commercial blueberry juice (BJ) against two strains of C. sakazakii, ATCC 29004 and 29544. BJ (pH 2.8), blueberry PAC (5 mg/ml) and controls (phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, and malic acid pH 3.0) were mixed with equal volumes of washed overnight cultures of C. sakazakii and incubated for 30 min, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h at 37°C. Reductions of ∼1 and 1.50 log CFU/ml were obtained for strains 29004 and 29544, respectively after 30 min with BJ or blueberry PAC. Both C. sakazakii strains 29004 and 29544 were reduced to undetectable levels from 8.25 ± 0.12 log CFU/ml and 8.48 ± 0.03 log CFU/ml, respectively with BJ (pH 2.8) or blueberry PAC after 1 h, while malic acid (pH 3.0) showed ∼1.3 log CFU/ml reduction for both strains. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed differences in cell membrane morphology with clumping and formation of blebs of the treated strains compared to untreated controls. These results warrant further in vivo studies with blueberry bioactives to determine potential for preventing and treating C. sakazakii infections. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. FIRST REPORT OF METALLO-β-LACTAMASES PRODUCING Enterobacter spp. STRAINS FROM VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Rodulfo, Hectorina E.; Rodríguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa E.; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; Carreño, Numirin; Marcano, Daniel; Donato, Marcos De

    2014-01-01

    Clinical strains of Enterobacter were isolated from Cumana's Central Hospital in Venezuela, and classified as E. cloacae (21), E. aerogenes (7), E. intermedium (1), E. sakazakii (1) and three unclassified. The strains showed high levels of resistance, especially to SXT (58.1%), CRO (48.8%), CAZ (46.6%), PIP (46.4%), CIP (45.2%) and ATM (43.3%). This is the first report for South America of bla VIM-2 in two E. cloacae and one Enterobacter sp., which also showed multiple mechanisms of resistance. Both E. cloacae showed bla TEM-1, but only one showed bla CTX-M-15 gene, while no bla SHV was detected. PMID:24553611

  13. Incidence of Cronobacter sakazakii in Dairy-based Desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagah M. Saad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter sakazakii is one of emerging foodborne pathogens around the world. A total of 90 dairy-based desserts samples (ice cream, Muhallabia and rice pudding were examined for detecting C. sakazakii. All samples were submitted for bacteriological examination and confirmed by molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene for C. sakazakii. The bacteriological and molecular examination revealed that the incidence of occurrence of C. sakazakii was 5.55% from the total dairy-based desserts samples, the highest percentage occurred in rice pudding samples (10%, while the incidence of C. sakazakii in ice cream and Muhallabia were 3.33% for each type. The results pointed out that high risk for human may occur by contaminated dairy-based desserts. The hygienic precautions must be taken during the processing of these types of products.

  14. Plant growth promoting potential and phylogenetic characteristics of a lichenized nitrogen fixing bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Chidanandamurthy Thippeswamy; Gayathri, Devaraja; Devaraja, Thimmalapura Neelakantaiah; Bandekar, Mandar; D'Souza, Stecy Elvira; Meena, Ram Murti; Ramaiah, Nagappa

    2016-12-01

    Lichens are complex symbiotic association of mycobionts, photobionts, and bacteriobionts, including chemolithotropic bacteria. In the present study, 46 lichenized bacteria were isolated by conventional and enrichment culture methods on nitrogen-free bromothymol blue (NFb) medium. Only 11 of the 46 isolates fixed nitrogen on NFb and had reduced acetylene. All these 11 isolates had also produced siderophore and 10 of them the IAA. Further, ammonia production was recorded from nine of these nitrogen fixers (NF). On molecular characterization, 16 S rRNA sequencing recorded that, nine NF belonged to Proteobacteria, within Gammaproteobacteria, and were closely related to Enterobacter sp. with a maximum similarity to Enterobacter cloacae. Each one of our NF isolates was aligned closely to Enterobacter pulveris strain E443, Cronobacter sakazakii strain PNP8 and Providencia rettgeri strain ALK058. Notably, a few strains we examined found to possess plant growth promoting properties. This is the first report of Enterobacter sp. from lichens which may be inhabit lichen thalli extrinsically or intrinsically. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  16. Supersize me: Cronobacter sakazakii phage GAP32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasifar, Reza; Griffiths, Mansel W. [Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sabour, Parviz M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph Food Research Centre, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 5C9 (Canada); Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang [Department of Microbiology-Infectiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Vandersteegen, Katrien; Lavigne, Rob [Laboratory of Gene Technology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Noben, Jean-Paul [Biomedical Research Institute and Transnational University Limburg, School of Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Alanis Villa, Argentina; Abbasifar, Arash [Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Nash, John H.E. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3W4 (Canada); Kropinski, Andrew M., E-mail: akropins@uoguelph.ca [Public Health Agency of Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3W4 (Canada); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages have been proposed to control bacterial pathogens; however, comprehensive knowledge about a phage is required to ensure its safety before clinical application. We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage genome (358,663 bp). A total of 571 genes including 545 protein coding sequences and 26 tRNAs were identified, thus more genes than in the smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium G37. BLASTP and HHpred searches, together with proteomic analyses reveal that only 23.9% of the putative proteins have defined functions. Some of the unique features of this phage include: a chromosome condensation protein, two copies of the large subunit terminase, a predicted signal-arrest-release lysin; and an RpoD-like protein, which is possibly involved in the switch from immediate early to delayed early transcription. Its closest relatives are all extremely large myoviruses, namely coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2, with whom it shares approximately 44% homologous proteins. Since the homologs are not evenly distributed, we propose that these three phages belong to a new subfamily. - Highlights: • Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 has a genome of 358,663 bp. • It encodes 545 proteins which is more than Mycoplasma genitalium G37. • It is a member of the Myoviridae. • It is peripherally related to coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2. • GAP32 encodes a chromosome condensation protein.

  17. Professional advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2006-01-01

    on the basis of the advice given and the realized state of the world. In equilibrium of this reputational cheap-talk game, no more than two messages are effectively reported. The model is extended to consider sequential communication by experts with conditionally independent signals. In the long run, learning...

  18. Stress tolerant virulent strains of Cronobacter sakazakii from food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Fakruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cronobacter sakazakii is considered as an emerging foodborne pathogen. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize virulent strains of Cronobacter sakazakii from food samples of Bangladesh. RESULT: Six (6 Cronobacter sakazakii was isolated and identified from 54 food samples on the basis of biochemical characteristics, sugar fermentation, SDS-PAGE of whole cell protein, plasmid profile and PCR of Cronobacter spp. specific genes (esak, gluA, zpx, ompA, ERIC, BOX-AIR and sequencing. These strains were found to have moderately high antibiotic resistance against common antibiotics and some are ESBL producer. Most of the C. sakazakii isolates were capable of producing biofilm (strong biofilm producer, extracellular protease and siderophores, curli expression, haemolysin, haemagglutinin, mannose resistant haemagglutinin, had high cell surface hydrophobicity, significant resistance to human serum, can tolerate high concentration of salt, bile and DNase production. Most of them produced enterotoxins of different molecular weight. The isolates pose significant serological cross-reactivity with other gram negative pathogens such as serotypes of Salmonella spp., Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. They had significant tolerance to high temperature, low pH, dryness and osmotic stress. CONCLUSION: Special attention should be given in ensuring hygiene in production and post-processing to prevent contamination of food with such stress-tolerant virulent Cronobacter sakazakii.

  19. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  20. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  1. Cronobacter sakazakii Infection from Expressed Breast Milk, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rowena; Menon, Vidthiya; Jensen, Slade O.; van Hal, Sebastiaan J.; Davis, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii neonatal infections are often epidemiologically linked to the consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. We describe a case resulting from consumption of contaminated expressed breast milk, as confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. This case highlights potential risks associated with storage and acquisition of expressed breast milk. PMID:29350166

  2. CRISPR-cas loci profiling of Cronobacter sakazakii pathovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Pauline; Forsythe, Stephen James

    2016-12-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii sequence types 1, 4, 8 and 12 are associated with outbreaks of neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis infections. However clonality results in strains which are indistinguishable using conventional methods. This study investigated the use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-cas loci profiling for epidemiological investigations. Seventy whole genomes of C. sakazakii strains from four clonal complexes which were widely distributed temporally, geographically and origin of source were profiled. All strains encoded the same type I-E subtype CRISPR-cas system with a total of 12 different CRISPR spacer arrays. This study demonstrated the greater discriminatory power of CRISPR spacer array profiling compared with multilocus sequence typing, which will be of use in source attribution during Cronobacter outbreak investigations.

  3. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  4. Genomic diversity within the enterobacter cloacae complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, A.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Delétoile, A.; Montijn, R.C.; Verhoef, J.; Fluit, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex have been increasingly isolated as nosocomial pathogens, but phenotypic identification of the E. cloacae complex is unreliable and irreproducible. Identification of species based on currently available genotyping tools is already superior to

  5. Enterobacter Strains Might Promote Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakul, Dilşad; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have been performed to determine the interaction between bacterial species and cancer. However, there has been no attempts to demonstrate a possible relationship between Enterobacter spp. and colon cancer so far. Therefore, in the present study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Enterobacter strains on colon cancer. Bacterial proteins were isolated from 11 Enterobacter spp., one Morganella morganii, and one Escherichia coli strains, and applied onto NCM460 (Incell) and CRL1790 (ATCC) cell lines. Cell viability and proliferation were determined in MTS assay. Flow Cytometry was used to detect CD24 level and apoptosis. Real-Time PCR studies were performed to determine NFKB and Bcl2 expression. Graphpad Software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that proteins, isolated from the Enterobacter spp., have significantly increased cell viability and proliferation, while decreasing the apoptosis of the cell lines tested. The data in the present study indicated that Enterobacter strains might promote colon cancer. Moreover, Enterobacter spp. could be a clinically important factor for colon cancer initiation and progression. Studies can be extended on animal models in order to develop new strategies for treatment.

  6. Cronobacter sakazakii infection alters serotonin transporter and improved fear memory retention in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagavathi Sundaram eSivamaruthi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that Cronobacter sakazakii infection cause septicemia, necrotizingenterocolitis (NEC and meningitis. In the present study, we tested whether the C. sakazakii infection alter the learning and memory through serotonin transporter (SERT. To investigate the possible effect on SERT, on postnatal day (PND-15, wistar rat pups were administered with single dose of C. sakazakii culture (Infected group: IF; 107 CFU or 100μL of Luria-Bertani broth (LB; Medium Control: MC or without any treatment (Naïve control: NC. All the individuals were subjected to passive avoidance test on PND-30 to test their fear memory. We show that single dose of C. sakazakii infection improved fear memory retention. Subsequently, we show that C. sakazakii infection induced the activation of Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3 and heat-shock proteins-90 (Hsp-90. On the other hand, level of serotonin (5-HT and SERT protein was down-regulated. Furthermore, we show that C. sakazakii infection up-regulate microRNA (miR-16 expression. The observed results highlight that C. sakazakii infections was responsible for improved fear memory retention and may have reduced the level of SERT protein, which is possibly associated with the interaction of up-regulated Hsp-90 with SERT protein or miR-16 with SERT mRNA. Taken together, observed results suggest that C. sakazakkii infection alter the fear memory possibly through SERT. Hence, this model may be effective to test the C. sakazakii infection induced changes in synaptic plasticity through SERT and effect of other pharmacological agents against pathogen induced memory disorder.

  7. Enterobacter and Klebsiella species isolated from fresh vegetables marketed in Valencia (Spain) and their clinically relevant resistances to chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir, María Pilar; Rico, Hortensia; Gozalbo, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Occurrence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic or commensal enterobacteria in marketed agricultural foodstuffs may contribute to their incorporation into the food chain and constitutes an additional food safety concern. In this work, we have determined the clinically relevant resistances to 11 common chemotherapeutic agents in Enterobacter and Klebsiella isolates from fresh vegetables from various sources (supermarkets and greengrocers' shops in Valencia, Spain). A total of 96 isolates were obtained from 160 vegetables analyzed (50% positive samples): 68 Enterobacter isolates (59 E. cloacae, two E. aerogenes, two E. cancerogenus, one E. gergoviae, and four E. sakazakii, currently Cronobacter spp.), and 28 Klebsiella isolates (19 K. oxytoca and 9 K. pneumoniae). Only seven isolates were susceptible to all agents tested, and no resistances to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol were detected. Most isolates were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (74 [58 Enterobacter and 16 Klebsiella]) or to ampicillin (80 [55/25]). Other resistances were less frequent: nitrofurantoin (13 isolates [12/1]), tetracycline (6 [5/1]), co-trimoxazole (3 [3/0]), cefotaxime (1 [1/0]), and streptomycin (2 [1/1]). Multiresistant isolates to two (56 [41/15]), three (10 E. cloacae isolates), four (one E. cloacae and one K. pneumoniae isolate), and five (two E. cloacae isolates) chemotherapeutic agents were also detected. The presence of potential pathogens points to marketed fresh produce, which often is eaten raw, as a risk factor for consumer health. In addition, these results support the usefulness of these bacterial species as indicators of the spreading of antibiotic resistances into the environment, particularly in the food chain, and suggest their role as carriers of resistance determinants from farms to consumers, which may constitute an additional "silent" food safety concern. Therefore, there is a need to improve the hygienic quality of marketed fresh

  8. Regulating household financial advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F. Cummings

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews economic theory related to investment advice. This theory explains 1 why financial advisors need to be carefully regulated for the benefit of both the investment advice industry and for consumers, 2 why principles-based regulation (e.g., a fiduciary standard is more efficient than rules-based regulation, 3 why dual regulation of financial professionals providing investment or insurance advice is inefficient and inequitable policy, and 4 why the application of a universal and uniform fiduciary standard will be difficult to implement.

  9. Outbreak of a novel Enterobacter sp. carrying blaCTX-M-15 in a neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshana, Stephen E; Gerwing, Lisa; Minde, Mercy; Hain, Torsten; Domann, Eugen; Lyamuya, Eligius; Chakraborty, Trinad; Imirzalioglu, Can

    2011-09-01

    Enterobacter hormaechei and Cronobacter sakazakii are amongst the most important causes of outbreaks of neonatal sepsis associated with powdered milk. In this study, we report for the first time an outbreak of a novel Enterobacter sp. harbouring bla(CTX-M-15) in a neonatal unit in Tanzania. Seventeen Gram-negative enteric isolates from neonatal blood cultures were studied. Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by disc diffusion testing, and the presence of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was established by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Identification by biochemical profiling was followed by nucleotide sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), rpoB and hsp60 alleles. Environmental sampling was done and control measures were established. Isolates were initially misidentified based on their fermentation characteristics and agglutination as Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi. All isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, except for ciprofloxacin and carbapenems, and were found to harbour bla(CTX-M-15) on a 291-kb narrow-range plasmid. PFGE analysis indicated the clonal outbreak of a single strain, infecting 17 neonates with a case fatality rate of 35%. The same strain was isolated from a milk bucket. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA, rpoB and hsp60 sequences permitted no definitive identification, clustering the strains in the Enterobacter cloacae complex with similarities of 92-98.8%. The data describe an outbreak of a novel bla(CTX-M-15)-positive, multiresistant Enterobacter strain in an African neonatal unit that can easily be misidentified taxonomically. These data highlight the need for constant surveillance of bacteria harbouring extended-spectrum β-lactamases as well as improvements in hygiene measures in developing countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of drug resistant Enterobacter species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enterobacter species are emerging clinical pathogens and they play important roles in the dissemination of drug resistant traits within the food chain due to their intrinsic abilities for resistance to commonly used antibiotics such as cephalosporins. Two Enterobacter cloacae and one Enterobacter hormaechei characterized in ...

  11. Pneumonia due to Enterobacter cancerogenus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Tülin; Baran, Gamze; Buyukguclu, Tuncay; Sezgin, Fikriye Milletli; Kaymaz, Haci

    2014-11-01

    Enterobacter cancerogenus (formerly known as CDC Enteric Group 19; synonym with Enterobacter taylorae) has rarely been associated with human infections, and little is known regarding the epidemiology and clinical significance of this organism. We describe a community-acquired pneumonia case in a 44-year-old female due to E. cancerogenus. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganism was performed by the automatized VITEK 2 Compact system (bioMerieux, France). The clinical case suggests that E. cancerogenus is a potentially pathogenic microorganism in determined circumstances; underlying diseases such as bronchial asthma, empiric antibiotic treatment, wounds, diagnostic, or therapeutic instruments.

  12. Polymorphisms in rpoS and stress tolerance heterogeneity in natural isolates of Cronobacter sakazakii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Begley, Máire; Hill, Colin

    2012-06-01

    Significant phenotypic diversity was observed when we examined the abilities of a number of Cronobacter sakazakii natural isolates to cope with various sublethal stress conditions (acid, alkaline, osmotic, oxidative, or heat stress). Levels of catalase activity and use of acetate as a carbon source, phenotypes commonly used as indirect assays to predict RpoS function, revealed a high correlation between predicted RpoS activity and tolerance to acid, alkaline, osmotic, and oxidative treatments. The rpoS genes were sequenced and analyzed for polymorphisms. Loss-of-function mutations were found in two strains; C. sakazakii DPC 6523 and the genome-sequenced strain C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894. The complementation of these strains with a functional rpoS gene resulted in an increase in bacterial tolerance to acid, osmotic, and oxidative stresses. The pigmentation status of strains was also assessed, and a high variability in carotenoid content was observed, with a functional rpoS gene being essential for the production of the characteristic yellow pigment. In conclusion, the evidence presented in this study demonstrates that rpoS is a highly polymorphic gene in C. sakazakii, and it supports the importance of RpoS for the tolerance under stress conditions that C. sakazakii may encounter in the food chain and in the host during infection.

  13. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  14. Enterobacter nimipressuralis as a cause of pseudobacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical significance of the Enterobacter nimipressuralis as human pathogens remains unclear. Case presentations The microbiologic culture monitoring system of sterile body fluids revealed on an episode of Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter amnigenus in blood culture results on the same day; the antibiotic sensitivity and MIC were nearly the same for both species. First patient was a healthy woman with postmenopausal syndrome, while second patient with herpes zoster. Both patients had febrile sensations without signs of bacteremia. E. amnigenus was also cultured from the unused package of salined cotton in the container through epidemiologic investigation. The cultured Enterobacter species were all identified as E. nimipressuralis through hsp60 gene sequencing and infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR). Conclusion When an unusual microorganisms such as E. nimipressuralis is isolated from blood of a patient with no clinical signs of sepsis, a pseudobacteremia should be suspected. When the antibiogram and MIC test results of bacterial cultures from two or more patients are nearly the same, although the species involved may appear different, it may be necessary to prove that they are the same species through molecular methods. The microbiologic cultures monitoring system will probably help to detect pseudobacteremia and other pseudo infections through reliable and fast identification. PMID:21029473

  15. Heat Tolerances of Salmonella, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Pediococcus acidilactici Inoculated into Galactooligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jihyun; Choi, Moonkak; Jeong, Haeseok; Lee, Sangseob; Kim, Yoonbin; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Hoikyung

    2017-07-01

    Food-grade galactooligosaccharide (GOS) with low water activity (a w of ca. 0.7) is used as an ingredient in various foods. We evaluated heat tolerances of Salmonella, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Pediococcus acidilactici at temperatures (70 to 85°C) used during the saturation process of GOS by comparing decimal reduction time (D-values) and thermal resistance constants (z-values). To determine the D- and z-values, GOS containing Salmonella (5.1 to 5.8 log CFU/g) or C. sakazakii (5.3 to 5.9 log CFU/g) was heat treated at 70, 77.5, or 85°C for up to 40, 25, or 15 s, respectively, and GOS containing P. acidilactici (6.1 to 6.5 log CFU/g) was heat treated at 70, 77.5, or 85°C for up to 150, 75, or 40 s, respectively. The D-values were calculated using a linear model for heating time versus microbial population for each bacterium. When the D-values for Salmonella, C. sakazakii, and P. acidilactici in GOS were compared, the thermal resistance of all bacteria decreased as the temperature increased. Among the three bacteria, P. acidilactici had higher D-values than did Salmonella and C. sakazakii. The z-values of Salmonella, C. sakazakii, and P. acidilactici were 30.10, 33.18, and 13.04°C, respectively. Overall order of thermal resistance was P. acidilactici > Salmonella ≈ C. sakazakii. These results will be useful for selecting appropriate heat treatment conditions for the decontamination of pathogenic microorganisms during GOS manufacturing.

  16. Financial Advice: Who Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…

  17. Genomic diversity within the Enterobacter cloacae complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Paauw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex have been increasingly isolated as nosocomial pathogens, but phenotypic identification of the E. cloacae complex is unreliable and irreproducible. Identification of species based on currently available genotyping tools is already superior to phenotypic identification, but the taxonomy of isolates belonging to this complex is cumbersome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study shows that multilocus sequence analysis and comparative genomic hybridization based on a mixed genome array is a powerful method for studying species assignment within the E. cloacae complex. The E. cloacae complex is shown to be evolutionarily divided into two clades that are genetically distinct from each other. The younger first clade is genetically more homogenous, contains the Enterobacter hormaechei species and is the most frequently cultured Enterobacter species in hospitals. The second and older clade consists of several (subspecies that are genetically more heterogeneous. Genetic markers were identified that could discriminate between the two clades and cluster 1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on genomic differences it is concluded that some previously defined (clonal and heterogenic (subspecies of the E. cloacae complex have to be redefined because of disagreements with known or proposed nomenclature. However, further improved identification of the redefined species will be possible based on novel markers presented here.

  18. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  19. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Inactivation of Nondesiccated and Desiccated Cronobacter sakazakii in Reconstituted Infant Formula by Combination of Citral and Mild Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Jia, Zhenyu; Sun, Yi; Chen, Yifei; Guo, Du; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wen, Qiwu; Guo, Xiao; Ma, Linlin; Yang, Baowei; Baloch, Allah Bux; Xia, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of citral plus mild heat on nondesiccated and desiccated Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula. Various concentrations of citral (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%) combined with various temperatures (25, 45, 50, and 55°C) were applied to nondesiccated and desiccated cocktails of three C. sakazakii strains (approximately 6.0 log CFU mL -1 ) in reconstituted infant formula, and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically. The combined treatments had marked antimicrobial effects on C. sakazakii compared with the control. Desiccated cells were more susceptible to citral than were nondesiccated cells in reconstituted infant formula. These findings suggest there is a potential application of citral in combination with mild heat to control C. sakazakii during preparation of reconstituted infant formula.

  1. Monitoring ultraviolet (UV) radiation inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in dry infant formula using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Swanson, Barry G; Rasco, Barbara A; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with dry infant formula presenting a high risk to low birth weight neonates. The inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula by ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone and combined with hot water treatment at temperatures of 55, 60, and 65 °C were applied in this study. UV radiation with doses in a range from 12.1 ± 0.30 kJ/m² to 72.8 ± 1.83 kJ/m² at room temperature demonstrated significant inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula (P radiation combining 60 °C hot water treatment increased inactivation of C. sakazakii cells significantly (P radiation on C. sakazakii inactivation kinetics (D value) were not observed in infant formula reconstituted in 55 and 65 °C water (P > 0.05). The inactivation mechanism was investigated using vibrational spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy detected significant stretching mode changes of macromolecules on the basis of spectral features, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Minor changes on cell membrane composition of C. sakazakii under UV radiation could be accurately and correctly monitored by infrared spectroscopy coupled with 2nd derivative transformation and principal component analysis. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae; versatile bacterial pathogens confronting antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin-Regli, Anne; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes and E. cloacae have been reported as important opportunistic and multiresistant bacterial pathogens for humans during the last three decades in hospital wards. These Gram-negative bacteria have been largely described during several outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections in Europe and particularly in France. The dissemination of Enterobacter sp. is associated with the presence of redundant regulatory cascades that efficiently control the membrane permeability ensuring the bacterial protection and the expression of detoxifying enzymes involved in antibiotic degradation/inactivation. In addition, these bacterial species are able to acquire numerous genetic mobile elements that strongly contribute to antibiotic resistance. Moreover, this particular fitness help them to colonize several environments and hosts and rapidly and efficiently adapt their metabolism and physiology to external conditions and environmental stresses. Enterobacter is a versatile bacterium able to promptly respond to the antibiotic treatment in the colonized patient. The balance of the prevalence, E. aerogenes versus E. cloacae, in the reported hospital infections during the last period, questions about the horizontal transmission of mobile elements containing antibiotic resistance genes, e.g., the efficacy of the exchange of resistance genes Klebsiella pneumoniae to Enterobacter sp. It is also important to mention the possible role of antibiotic use in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases in this E. aerogenes/E. cloacae evolution. PMID:26042091

  3. Enterobacter cloacae complex: clinical impact and emerging antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzatesta, Maria Lina; Gona, Floriana; Stefani, Stefania

    2012-07-01

    Species of the Enterobacter cloacae complex are widely encountered in nature, but they can act as pathogens. The biochemical and molecular studies on E. cloacae have shown genomic heterogeneity, comprising six species: Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterobacter kobei, Enterobacter ludwigii and Enterobacter nimipressuralis, E. cloacae and E. hormaechei are the most frequently isolated in human clinical specimens. Phenotypic identification of all species belonging to this taxon is usually difficult and not always reliable; therefore, molecular methods are often used. Although the E. cloacae complex strains are among the most common Enterobacter spp. causing nosocomial bloodstream infections in the last decade, little is known about their virulence-associated properties. By contrast, much has been published on the antibiotic-resistance features of these microorganisms. In fact, they are capable of overproducing AmpC β-lactamases by derepression of a chromosomal gene or by the acquisition of a transferable ampC gene on plasmids conferring the antibiotic resistance. Many other resistance determinants that are able to render ineffective almost all antibiotic families have been recently acquired. Most studies on antimicrobial susceptibility are focused on E. cloacae, E. hormaechei and E. asburiae; these studies reported small variations between the species, and the only significant differences had no discriminating features.

  4. [Septic pylephlebitis associated with Enterobacter cloacae septicemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezyane, T; Abouzahir, A; El Kharrass, A; Bassou, D; Fatihi, J; Hammi, S; Mahassin, F; Ghafir, D; Ohayon, V

    2010-02-01

    Septic pylephlebitis or purulent thrombosis of the portal venous system generally results from a progressive extension of suppurated thrombophlebitis, secondary to an intrabdominal infection. Germs most often found are Escherichia coli and Streptococcus, isolation of Enterobacter cloacae is unusual. We report a particular observation of septic pylephlebitis associated with E. cloacae bacteremia, without biliary, digestive or pancreatic lesion on the CT-scan. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolated germ and the negative epidemiologic investigation pled in favour of community acquired infection. The infection resolved with antibiotics and anticoagulation, followed by total repermeation of the portal system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Enumeration of Enterobacter cloacae after chloramine exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Watters, S K; Pyle, B H; LeChevallier, M W; McFeters, G A

    1989-01-01

    Growth of Enterobacter cloacae on various media was compared after disinfection. This was done to examine the effects of monochloramine and chlorine on the enumeration of coliforms. The media used were TLY (nonselective; 5.5% tryptic soy broth, 0.3% yeast extract, 1.0% lactose, and 1.5% Bacto-Agar), m-T7 (selective; developed to recover injured coliforms), m-Endo (selective; contains sodium sulfite), TLYS (TLY with sodium sulfite), and m-T7S (m-T7 with sodium sulfite). Sodium sulfite in any m...

  6. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  7. Instructional Advice, Time Advice and Learning Questions in Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 97) used an introductory text and a computer simulation to learn fundamental concepts about statistical analyses (e.g., analysis of variance, regression analysis and General Linear Model). Each learner was randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (with or without instructional advice) x 2 (with or without time advice) x 2…

  8. Actions and advice in coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoche, Hendrik; Jamadagni, HS; Rao, PR Sheshagiri

    2015-01-01

    To improve their agricultural output, farmers require timely and contextualized information and advice. Relevant information and advice provided by trusted peers represents a promising approach. We present the considerations for the design of coli, an agricultural information network on touch scr...

  9. Advice concerning radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Dutch National cancer incidence figures were calculated by using the reliable data on cancer incidence in the Eindhoven area and population forecasts and information obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Several radiotherapy departments suffer from under capacity (a lack of resources and understaffing). Data have also shown that 35% of cancer patients receive radiotherapy, instead of 50%. Calculations have been made by the committee on the present and future needs with regard to equipment and staff. In 1983, the number of megavoltage therapy units amounted to 38, but should have been 65. It should be 80 in 1990 and 90 in 2000. Since building and installing such equipment is a lengthy process a considerable effort is needed to make up for the arrears. The committee advocates the extension of the system of regional cooperation in cancer care (comprehensive cancer centres), in which radiotherapy departments play a crucial role. Working parties from the committee provided a comprehensive description of current radiotherapy practice with reference to physical, technical, clinical and management aspects. Another working party assessed the results of cancer treatment with regard to many different tumour sites. Recent and expected developments were analysed or indicated. The Radiotherapy Committee commissioned an external team to conduct a project to achieve a picture of future developments using methods different to those of the committee's. An interim advice has been added on this subject. (Auth.)

  10. Enumeration of Enterobacter cloacae after chloramine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, S K; Pyle, B H; LeChevallier, M W; McFeters, G A

    1989-01-01

    Growth of Enterobacter cloacae on various media was compared after disinfection. This was done to examine the effects of monochloramine and chlorine on the enumeration of coliforms. The media used were TLY (nonselective; 5.5% tryptic soy broth, 0.3% yeast extract, 1.0% lactose, and 1.5% Bacto-Agar), m-T7 (selective; developed to recover injured coliforms), m-Endo (selective; contains sodium sulfite), TLYS (TLY with sodium sulfite), and m-T7S (m-T7 with sodium sulfite). Sodium sulfite in any medium improved the recovery of chloramine-treated E. cloacae. However, sodium sulfite in TLYS and m-T7S did not significantly improve the detection of chlorine-treated E. cloacae, and m-Endo was the least effective medium for recovering chlorinated bacteria. Differences in recovery of chlorine- and chloramine-treated E. cloacae are consistent with mechanistic differences between the disinfectants. PMID:2619309

  11. Analysis and design of advice

    CERN Document Server

    Jureta, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This innovative book offers a rigorous approach to the analysis and design of advice in real-world decision situations, in which the advisor must manage with variously imprecise, unclear, incomplete or conflicting qualitative information.

  12. The new species Enterobacter oryziphilus sp. nov. and Enterobacter oryzendophyticus sp. nov. are key inhabitants of the endosphere of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Six independent Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, nitrogen-fixing rod-shaped isolates were obtained from the root endosphere of rice grown at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Results The strains produced fatty acid patterns typical for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Comparative sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA as well as rpoB genes allocated the strains to two well-defined groups within the genus Enterobacter, family Enterobacteriaceae. The analyses indicated Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter arachidis and Enterobacter oryzae to be the closest related species. An RpoB (translated) protein comparison supported the placement in the genus Enterobacter and the relatedness of our isolates to the aforementioned species. Genomic DNA:DNA hybridization analyses and biochemical analyses provided further evidence that the novel strains belong to two new species within the genus Enterobacter. The two species can be differentiated from each other and from existing enteric species by acid production from L-rhamnose and D-melibiose, decarboxylation of ornithine and utilization of D-alanine, D-raffinose L-proline and L-aspartic acid, among other characteristics. Members of both species revealed capacities to colonise rice roots, including plant-growth-promoting capabilities such as an active supply of fixed nitrogen to the plant and solubilisation of inorganic phosphorus, next to traits allowing adaptation to the plant. Conclusions Two novel proposed enterobacterial species, denominated Enterobacter oryziphilus sp. nov. (type strain REICA_142T=LMG 26429T=NCCB 100393T) and Enterobacter oryzendophyticus sp. nov. (type strain REICA_082T=LMG 26432T =NCCB 100390T) were isolated from rice roots. Both species are capable of promoting rice growth by supplying nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:23865888

  13. Enterobacter tabaci sp. nov., a novel member of the genus Enterobacter isolated from a tobacco stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yan-Qing; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Di-Yan, Li; Li, Qing-Qing; Dang, Li-Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Qiu, Li-Hong; Nimaichand, Salam; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-stain negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YIM Hb-3(T), was isolated from the stem of a tobacco plant. The strain was observed to form convex, circular and yellow-colored colonies. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as Q-8. The major fatty acids (>5%) detected were C(16:1)ω7c and/or C(16:1)ω6c (summed feature 3), C(16:0), C(17:0)cyclo, C(18:1)ω7c and/or C(18:1)ω6c (summed feature 8), C(14:0)3-OH and/or iso-C(16:1)I (summed feature 2), C(14:0) and C(12:0). The genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 54.8 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and multilocus sequence analysis showed that strain YIM Hb-3(T) had the closest phylogenetic relationship with Enterobacter mori LMG 25706(T). DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YIM Hb-3(T) and E. mori LMG 25706(T) was 46.9 ± 3.8%. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, phylogenetic analysis, and DNA-DNA relatedness value, strain YIM Hb-3(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Enterobacter, for which the name Enterobacter tabaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM Hb-3(T) (=KACC 17832(T) =KCTC 42694(T)).

  14. Individual cell lag time distributions of Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) and impact of pooling samples on its detection in powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miled, Rabeb Bennour; Guillier, Laurent; Neves, Sandra; Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Colin, Pierre; Besse, Nathalie Gnanou

    2011-06-01

    Cells of six strains of Cronobacter were subjected to dry stress and stored for 2.5 months at ambient temperature. The individual cell lag time distributions of recovered cells were characterized at 25 °C and 37 °C in non-selective broth. The individual cell lag times were deduced from the times taken by cultures from individual cells to reach an optical density threshold. In parallel, growth curves for each strain at high contamination levels were determined in the same growth conditions. In general, the extreme value type II distribution with a shape parameter fixed to 5 (EVIIb) was the most effective at describing the 12 observed distributions of individual cell lag times. Recently, a model for characterizing individual cell lag time distribution from population growth parameters was developed for other food-borne pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. We confirmed this model's applicability to Cronobacter by comparing the mean and the standard deviation of individual cell lag times to populational lag times observed with high initial concentration experiments. We also validated the model in realistic conditions by studying growth in powdered infant formula decimally diluted in Buffered Peptone Water, which represents the first enrichment step of the standard detection method for Cronobacter. Individual lag times and the pooling of samples significantly affect detection performances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Genome Analysis of Enterobacter cloacae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wing-Yee; Wong, Chi-Fat; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacter cloacae species includes an extremely diverse group of bacteria that are associated with plants, soil and humans. Publication of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophytic E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 provided an opportunity to perform the first comparative genome analysis between strains of this dynamic species. Examination of the pan-genome of E. cloacae showed that the conserved core genome retains the general physiological and survival genes of the species, while genomic factors in plasmids and variable regions determine the virulence of the human pathogenic E. cloacae strain; additionally, the diversity of fimbriae contributes to variation in colonization and host determination of different E. cloacae strains. Comparative genome analysis further illustrated that E. cloacae strains possess multiple mechanisms for antagonistic action against other microorganisms, which involve the production of siderophores and various antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins, chitinases and antibiotic resistance proteins. The presence of Type VI secretion systems is expected to provide further fitness advantages for E. cloacae in microbial competition, thus allowing it to survive in different environments. Competition assays were performed to support our observations in genomic analysis, where E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 demonstrated antagonistic activities against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. PMID:24069314

  16. Rapid identification of Enterobacter hormaechei and Enterobacter cloacae genetic cluster III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohad, S; Block, C; Kravitz, V; Farber, A; Pilo, S; Breuer, R; Rorman, E

    2014-05-01

    Enterobacter cloacae complex bacteria are of both clinical and environmental importance. Phenotypic methods are unable to distinguish between some of the species in this complex, which often renders their identification incomplete. The goal of this study was to develop molecular assays to identify Enterobacter hormaechei and Ent. cloacae genetic cluster III which are relatively frequently encountered in clinical material. The molecular assays developed in this study are qPCR technology based and served to identify both Ent. hormaechei and Ent. cloacae genetic cluster III. qPCR results were compared to hsp60 sequence analysis. Most clinical isolates were assigned to Ent. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii and Ent. cloacae genetic cluster III. The latter was proportionately more frequently isolated from bloodstream infections than from other material (P < 0·05). The qPCR assays detecting Ent. hormaechei and Ent. cloacae genetic cluster III demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. The presented qPCR assays allow accurate and rapid identification of clinical isolates of the Ent. cloacae complex. The improved identifications obtained can specifically assist analysis of Ent. hormaechei and Ent. cloacae genetic cluster III in nosocomial outbreaks and can promote rapid environmental monitoring. An association was observed between Ent. cloacae cluster III and systemic infection that deserves further attention. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Estimación de poblaciones de Cronobacter Sakazakii mediante densidad óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández de Matías, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii se ha aislado en fórmulas lácteas infantiles asociándolo con casos esporádicos o pequeños brotes de sepsis, meningitis y enterocolitis necrotizante en bebes prematuros e inmunodeprimidos. La infección es poco frecuente pero su tasa de mortalidad es elevada (40-80%) con graves secuelas neurológicas, hidrocefalia, retraso del desarrollo neural y tetraplejia en los individuos supervivientes. El objetivo del ensayo experimental es hallar la relación lineal entre la absorb...

  18. Identification of resistance and virulence factors in an epidemic Enterobacter hormaechei outbreak strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, A.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Verhoef, J.; Fluit, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial strains differ in their ability to cause hospital outbreaks. Using comparative genomic hybridization, Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates were studied to identify genetic markers specific for Enterobacter cloacae complex outbreak strains. No outbreak-specific genes were found that were

  19. Advice dilemmas: Managing advice against the competing public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to resolving this issue is an acknowledgement that, whether as counsellor or health adviser, persuasion and influence are central features of the VCT interaction. Clear practice guidelines and tools are required to assist counsellors to distinguish between advice, suggestion or mere confirmation of an intended client ...

  20. Unconditional lower bounds against advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Santhanam, R.

    2009-01-01

    We show several unconditional lower bounds for exponential time classes against polynomial time classes with advice, including: (1) For any constant c, NEXP not in P^{NP[n^c]} (2) For any constant c, MAEXP not in MA/n^c (3) BPEXP not in BPP/n^{o(1)}. It was previously unknown even whether NEXP in

  1. Reclassification of Enterobacter oryziphilus and Enterobacter oryzendophyticus as Kosakonia oryziphila comb. nov. and Kosakonia oryzendophytica comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Yan; Zhou, Yuan Liang; Ji, Jing; Gu, Chun Tao

    2016-08-01

    The taxonomic positions of Enterobacter oryziphilus and Enterobacter oryzendophyticus were re-examined on the basis of concatenated partial rpoB, atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequence analysis. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree based upon concatenated partial rpoB, atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences clearly showed that E. oryziphilus and E. oryzendophyticus and all defined species of the genus Kosakonia form a clade separate from other genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and, therefore, these species of the genus Enterobacter should be transferred to the genus Kosakonia. E. oryziphilus and E. oryzendophyticus are reclassified as K. oryziphila comb. nov. (type strain REICA_142T=LMG 26429T=NCCB 100393T) and K. oryzendophytica comb. nov. (type strain REICA_082T=LMG 26432T=NCCB 100390T), respectively.

  2. Electrochemical coupled immunosensing platform based on graphene oxide/gold nanocomposite for sensitive detection of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Bajpai, Vivek K; Rengaraj, Arunkumar; Hwang, Seung Kyu; Song, Xinjie; Kim, Myunghee; Huh, Yun Suk; Han, Young-Kyu

    2018-06-30

    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensing platform for the detection of Cronobacter sakazakii was developed using a graphene oxide/gold (GO/Au) composite. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Au nanoparticles, with an average size of GCE). The electrochemical sensing performance of immunofunctionalized GCE was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, in pure culture there was a linear relationship between electrical signal and C. sakazakii levels over the range 2.0 × 10 2 -2.0 × 10 7 cfu/mL (R 2 = 0.999), with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10 1 cfu/mL. The total analytical time was 15 min per sample. The C. sakazakii electrochemical immunosensing assay was able to successfully detect 2.0 × 10 1 cfu/mL of C. sakazakii in artificially contaminated powdered infant formula without any enrichment or pre-enrichment steps. Furthermore, the recovery rates of the C. sakazakii electrochemical immunosensing assay following spiking of powdered infant formula with different concentrations of C. sakazakii (cfu/mL) were 82.58% at 2.0 × 10 1 cfu/mL, 84.86% at 2.0 × 10 2 cfu/mL, and 95.40% at 2.0 × 10 3 cfu/mL. The C. sakazakii electrochemical immunosensing assay had good selectivity, reproducibility, and reactivity compared with other Cronobacter spp. and/or pathogens belonging to other genera, indicating its significant potential in the clinical diagnosis of C. sakazakii. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequency of Isolation of Enterobacter Species from a Variety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of occurrence of Enterobacter species and their antibiogram from clinical specimens of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and wound obtained from University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, ... There was no significant difference in infection rate among the age groups (p > 0.05).

  4. Financial Literacy, Confidence and Financial Advice Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households.

  5. ¬¬¬¬ SURVIVAL OF Cronobacter sakazakii IN SKIM MILK DURING SPRAY DRYING, STORAGE AND RECONSTITUTION [Ketahanan Hidup Cronobacter sakazakii dalam Susu Skim selama Proses Pengeringan Semprot, Penyimpanan dan Rekonstitusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Nuraida1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen known to survive dry conditions and its presence in powder infant formula (PIF has been linked to several outbreaks. In Indonesia, isolation of this bacterium from various foods have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spray drying and storage humidity on the survival of C. sakazakii YRc3a in skim milk and their viability upon reconstitution. The survival of Cronobacter during spray drying was determined by comparing the number of bacteria before and after drying. The viability of Cronobacter in spray dried skim milk (SDSM during storage was observed at weeks 1 to 8 and 12. At the same intervals, SDSM containing the pathogens was reconstituted at either 27°C or 50°C and the survivors were enumerated. The data were plotted to yield survival curves. Spray drying caused 4.19 log CFU/g reduction of Cronobacter and the bacteria experiencing drying were less sensitive to reconstitution at 50°C. During storage, the water activity of SDSM reached equilibrium at week 2 and afterwards, they started to decrease when stored at 50% or 90% RH, but maintained its viability at 70% RH. Storage at 50% and 90% RH accelerated the death rate of C. sakazakii YRc3a, resulting in the decline of the viable counts for 3 log cycles. At 50% RH, C. sakazakii Yrc3a decreased significantly, but the survivors exhibited increased heat resistance with the lowest reduction upon reconstitution at 50°C (0.16 log CFU/ml.

  6. RAW MILK AT VENDING MACHINES: EVALUATION OF E. SAKAZAKII, COXIELLA BURNETII AND M. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN PIEDMONT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gallina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian consumers changed their food habits in the last period; the increase of raw milk consuming is also related to the high number of self service vending machines that have been authorized, particularly in Northern Italy. According to national rules on raw milk hygienic conditions, the most important bacteria are checked by Veterinary Services; the aim of this study was to investigate some emerging or re-emerging hazards in raw milk at vending machines. For this reason 100 raw milk samples were collected and analyzed in order to detect E. sakazakii, Coxiella burnetii and M. avium subsp paratuberculosis. One milk sample resulted to be positive with PCR method for E. sakazakii (no cultural confirmation was possible; 49% of samples resulted posivite for the presence of Coxiella burnetii specific DNA, and 5% of milk samples came out positive to the presence of M. paratuberuclosis antibodies with ELISA methods.

  7. Caregivers' compliance with referral advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several malaria endemic countries have implemented community health worker (CHW) programmes to increase access to populations underserved by health care. There is considerable evidence on CHW adherence to case management guidelines, however, there is limited evidence on the compliance...... in the control arm were trained to treat malaria with ACTs based on fever symptoms. Caregivers' referral forms were linked with CHW treatment forms to determine whether caregivers complied with the referral advice. Factors associated with compliance were examined with logistic regression. RESULTS: CHW saw 18......,497 child visits in the moderate-to-high transmission setting and referred 15.2% (2815/18,497) of all visits; in the low-transmission setting, 35.0% (1135/3223) of all visits were referred. Compliance to referral was low, in both settings

  8. Explaining customer experience of digital financial advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyze the customer experience of digital-driven financial advice systems. It is the objective of this study to develop a cross-cultural model for validating customer experiences of digital financial advice. In doing so, both objective and subjective system aspects have

  9. 5 CFR 2635.107 - Ethics advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ethics advice. 2635.107 Section 2635.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.107 Ethics advice. (a) As required by §§ 2638.201...

  10. Dietary Advice for Airline Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat; Nowak

    1997-03-01

    In addition to their regular meal service, most of the major domestic and international airlines offer special meals. It should be noted that regular meal services on international flights often give a choice of meals, even in economy class, and often include a salad and or fruit dish, which could be consumed by most people. More airlines also seem to be moving towards having at least one more culturally appropriate meal on the menu, particularly for relevant flight sectors. However, these meals may be inappropriate for some passengers, and there is a need for this special meals service. Meals services on airlines have improved greatly in recent years, particularly with the employment of consultant dietitians to the catering staff of airlines and advances in chef training. Special meal services are designed to cater to the most common variations of meals required by most passengers for medical, religious, or other reasons. The special requirements for these meals are described elsewhere.1 It is important to realize that the meals are designed and the ingredients interpreted by that airline, and may not necessarily reflect what the traveler might eat at home. So it is important to advise travelers not to have high expectations of this special meal service. This paper aims to provide some basic practical advice for selection of special diets for airline travelers.

  11. Microbiological Features of KPC-Producing Enterobacter Isolates Identified in a U.S. Hospital System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chulsoo; Syed, Alveena; Hu, Fupin; O’Hara, Jessica A.; Rivera, Jesabel I.; Doi, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological data regarding KPC-producing Enterobacter spp. are scarce. In this study, 11 unique KPC-producing Enterobacter isolates were identified among 44 ertapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacter isolates collected between 2009 and 2013 at a hospital system in Western Pennsylvania. All cases were healthcare-associated and occurred in medically complex patients. While pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed diverse restriction patterns overall, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified Enterobacter cloacae isolates with sequence types (STs) 93 and 171 from two hospitals each. The levels of carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations were highly variable. All isolates remained susceptible to colistin, tigecycline, and the majority to amikacin and doxycycline. A blaKPC-carrying IncN plasmid conferring trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was identified in three of the isolates. Spread of blaKPC in Enterobacter spp. appears to be due to a combination of plasmid-mediated and clonal processes. PMID:25053203

  12. The differential importance of mutations within AmpD in cephalosporin resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babouee Flury, Baharak; Ellington, Matthew J; Hopkins, Katie L; Turton, Jane F; Doumith, Michel; Woodford, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Mechanisms leading to carbapenem and cephalosporin resistance were sought in Enterobacter aerogenes isolates that were highly resistant to carbapenems but had no known carbapenemase. Results were compared with recent work examining carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae. Eighteen carbapenem-resistant E. aerogenes were screened for known β-lactamase and carbapenemase genes, and novel carbapenemases were sought in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of the three most resistant isolates. For all isolates, ampC, ampR, ampD and the porin genes omp35 and omp36 were investigated by Sanger sequencing or from available WGS data. Expression of ampC and porin genes was measured in comparison with cephalosporin- and carbapenem-susceptible control strains by reverse transcriptase PCR, with porin translation also detected by SDS-PAGE. Loss of Omp35, primarily due to decreased transcription (up to 250×), was observed in ertapenem-resistant isolates (MICs ≥ 2 mg/L), whereas meropenem resistance (MICs ≥ 4 mg/L) was observed in those isolates also showing decreased or no production of Omp36. Loss of Omp36 was due to combinations of premature translation termination or reduced transcription. In contrast to E. cloacae, cephalosporin resistance in E. aerogenes was not associated with lesions in AmpD. High-level cefepime resistance (MIC = 32 mg/L) was caused by a novel modification in the H-10 helix of AmpC in one isolate. The differential importance of AmpD lesions in cephalosporin resistance in E. cloacae and E. aerogenes underlines the differences between these contrasting members of the Enterobacter genus. Porin loss resulted in high-level carbapenem resistance with gradual loss of Omp36, which led to high-level meropenem resistance. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal Trends in Enterobacter Species Bloodstream Infection: A Population-Based Study, 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Lahr, Brian D.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Baddour, Larry M.

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter species are the fourth most common cause of gram-negative bloodstream infection (BSI). We examined temporal changes and seasonal variation in the incidence rate of Enterobacter spp. BSI, estimated 28-day and 1-year mortality, and determined in vitro antimicrobial resistance rates of Enterobacter spp. bloodstream isolates in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1/1/1998 to 12/31/2007. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to examine temporal changes and seasonal variation in incidence rate and Kaplan-Meier method to estimate 28-day and 1-year mortality. The median age of patients with Enterobacter spp. BSI was 58 years and 53% were female. The overall age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of Enterobacter spp. BSI was 3.3/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-4.4). There was a linear trend of increasing incidence rate from 0.8 (95% CI: 0-1.9) to 6.2 (95% CI: 3.0-9.3) per 100,000 person-years between 1998 and 2007 (p=0.002). There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of Enterobacter spp. BSI during the warmest four months compared to the remainder of the year (incidence rate ratio 1.06 [95% CI: 0.47-2.01]). The overall 28-day and 1-year mortality rates of Enterobacter spp. BSI were 21% (95% CI: 8-34%) and 38% (95% CI: 22-53%), respectively. Up to 13% of Enterobacter spp. bloodstream isolates were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to describe the epidemiology and outcome of Enterobacter spp. BSI. The increase in incidence rate of Enterobacter spp. BSI over the past decade, coupled with its associated antimicrobial resistance, dictate more investigation of this syndrome. PMID:20518795

  14. Development and feasibility of falls prevention advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten-Krouwel, Diny; Schuurmans, Marieke; Emmelot-Vonk, Mariëlle; Pel-Littel, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the feasibility of nursing falls prevention advice and factors influencing feasibility. The frequency and seriousness of falls in hospitalised patients are underestimated, and such falls should be preventable because of the presence of professionals. A best practice-based falls prevention advice was developed to decrease the incidence of secondary falls and the incidence of primary falls in the long term and to increase the knowledge of nurses about falls prevention and the seriousness of falls. A descriptive, explorative study. Feasibility of the advice for 30 patients was assessed 82 times (theoretically, three times per patient) by observation and by interviewing nurses, patients and their families. The falls prevention advice was used in 48% of the assessments. There was a difference in use between interventions. Interventions that required more knowledge, communication and extra activities were implemented the least. The absence of materials and knowledge about falls prevention were important determinants of the non-implementation of certain interventions. Before falls prevention advice is implemented, it is important to educate nurses about falls, communication skills and implementation of the advice. The falls prevention advice might help nurses to prevent falls and increase their knowledge about falls prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. MRSA Prevention Information and Advice for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Team Healthcare Providers Prevention Information and Advice Posters for the Athletic Community General MRSA Information and ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  16. Explaining customer experience of digital financial advice

    OpenAIRE

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyze the customer experience of digital-driven financial advice systems. It is the objective of this study to develop a cross-cultural model for validating customer experiences of digital financial advice. In doing so, both objective and subjective system aspects have been considered. It is found that experiential subjective system aspects are the most important. Surveys have been conducted in The United Kingdom and The Netherlands. In exploratory factor analys...

  17. Enterobacter xiangfangensis sp. nov., isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough, and reclassification of Enterobacter sacchari Zhu et al. 2013 as Kosakonia sacchari comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng

    2014-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain, 10-17(T), was isolated from traditional sourdough in Heilongjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) gene sequence analysis, DNA gyrase (gyrB) gene sequence analysis, initiation translation factor 2 (infB) gene sequence analysis, ATP synthase β subunit (atpD) gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 10-17(T) was phylogenetically related to Enterobacter hormaechei CIP 103441(T), Enterobacter cancerogenus LMG 2693(T), Enterobacter asburiae JCM 6051(T), Enterobacter mori LMG 25706(T), Enterobacter ludwigii EN-119(T) and Leclercia adecarboxylata LMG 2803(T), having 99.5%, 99.3%, 98.7%, 98.5%, 98.4% and 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the present study, a novel species, Enterobacter xiangfangensis sp. nov., is proposed and the type strain is 10-17(T) ( = LMG 27195(T) = NCIMB 14836(T) = CCUG 62994(T)). Enterobacter sacchari Zhu et al. 2013 was reclassified as Kosakonia sacchari comb. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB, infB and atpD gene sequence analysis and the type strain is strain SP1(T)( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  18. Pragmatic dietary advice for diabetes during Navratris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovely Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Navratri is one of the most common religious fasts observed among Hindus. A large number of people with diabetes follow Navratris fast irrespective of its health implications, often without proper education and medical advice. The quest for the scientific research on dietary advices for Hindu fasts including Navratris shows paucity of literature comparative to the dietary advices advocated during Ramadan. The eating and physical activity patterns during different fasts vary a lot depending up on social and cultural factors. Even eating pattern is not uniform among all persons following Navratris and is modified as per their region, local culture, and religious beliefs. Dietary advice during Navratris depends upon pattern of fasting, religious beliefs, and local sociocultural factors. In this review, efforts are made to provide pragmatic dietary advice for people with diabetes, modifications in the menus and cooking practices, and timings of the meals for successful blood glucose management during Navratris. This review will also help plan diet and physical activity advice for persons observing other fasts as well.

  19. Enterobacter muelleri sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; McInroy, John A; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-11-01

    A beige-pigmented, oxidase-negative bacterial strain (JM-458T), isolated from a rhizosphere sample, was studied using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JM-458T with sequences of the type strains of closely related species of the genus Enterobacter showed that it shared highest sequence similarity with Enterobacter mori (98.7 %), Enterobacter hormaechei (98.3 %), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens, Enterobacter ludwigii and Enterobacter asburiae (all 98.2 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other Enterobacter species were below 98 %. Multilocus sequence analysis based on concatenated partial rpoB, gyrB, infB and atpD gene sequences showed a clear distinction of strain JM-458T from its closest related type strains. The fatty acid profile of the strain consisted of C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo, iso-C15 : 0 2-OH/C16 : 1ω7c and C18 : 1ω7c as major components. DNA-DNA hybridizations between strain JM-458T and the type strains of E. mori, E. hormaechei and E. ludwigii resulted in relatedness values of 29 % (reciprocal 25 %), 24 % (reciprocal 43 %) and 16 % (reciprocal 17 %), respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization results together with multilocus sequence analysis results and differential biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties showed that strain JM-458T represents a novel species of the genus Enterobacter, for which the name Enterobacter muelleri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JM-458T ( = DSM 29346T = CIP 110826T = LMG 28480T = CCM 8546T).

  20. Thermodynamic study and optimization of hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiano, B.; Perego, P. [University of Genova (Italy). Chemical and Process Engineering Department ' G.B. Bonino'

    2002-02-01

    This paper investigates the influence of pH and temperature on hydrogen bioproduction by Enterobacter aerogenes (NCIMB 10102) utilizing starch hydrolysate as substrate. An optimum pH range corresponding to 6.1-6.6 is the main evidence of batch runs carried out at different pHs. An optimum value of temperature corresponding to 40{sup o}C is experimentally determined by means of batch fermentation runs carried out at different operative temperatures. A thermodynamic study, which was performed developing the Arrhenius approach, allows the estimation, for both fermentation and thermal inactivation, of the activation enthalpies (67.3 and 118.1 kJmol{sup -1}) and of the correlated entropies (-0.087 and -0.46 kJmol{sup -1} K{sup -1}). (author)

  1. Phenotypic changes contributing to Enterobacter gergoviae biocide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périamé, M; Philippe, N; Condell, O; Fanning, S; Pagès, J-M; Davin-Regli, A

    2015-08-01

    Enterobacter gergoviae is a recurrent contaminant of cosmetic and hygiene products. To understand how this bacterium adapts to biocides, we studied Ent. gergoviae CIP 76.01 and its triclosan and Methylisothiazolinone-chloromethylisothiazolinone (MIT-CMIT) tolerant isogenic mutants. They were compared with others also isolated from contaminated cosmetics. Phenotypic differences were noted and these included changes in the bacterial envelope and flagella along with differences in motility, and biofilm growth rates. Triclosan and MIT-CMIT derivatives expressed flagella and other MIT-CMIT derivatives exhibited some external appendages. Those bacteria expressing a high-level minimal inhibitory concentration to MIT-CMIT, expressed a strong biofilm formation. No differential phenotypes were noted for carbon source utilisation. Enterobacter gergoviae demonstrated a diverse response to both of these preservatives contained in cosmetic preparations, depending on their concentrations. Interestingly, this adaptive response is associated with modifications of filament structure-related proteins contributing to increase the organism motility and the production of biofilm. Recurrent contaminations of cosmetics products by Ent. gergoviae, needed a better understanding concerning the bacterial adaptation to preservative agents, with particular concern to triclosan and MIT-CMIT. We demonstrated that bacteria response is associated to various mechanisms represented by expression of external appendages (pili or fimbriae) that control cell motility and biofilm formation and evolving as the concentration of biocides adaptation increased. Such mechanisms which are not chemical specific can also promote a cross-resistance to other biocidal agents. The characterization of Ent. gergoviae adaptability to biocides allows industry to adjust the ranges of concentrations and composition of preservatives in formula. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Kinetic characterization of a novel acid ectophosphatase from Enterobacter asburiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Galdiano Júnior, Renato F; Rodrigues, Gisele Regina; Lemos, Eliana G M; Pizauro Junior, João Martins

    2016-02-01

    Expression of acid ectophosphatase by Enterobacter asburiae, isolated from Cattleya walkeriana (Orchidaceae) roots and identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, was strictly regulated by phosphorus ions, with its optimal activity being observed at an inorganic phosphate concentration of 7 mM. At the optimum pH 3.5, intact cells released p-nitrophenol at a rate of 350.76 ± 13.53 nmol of p-nitrophenolate (pNP)/min/10(8) cells. The membrane-bound enzyme was obtained by centrifugation at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 4 °C. p-Nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) hydrolysis by the enzyme follows "Michaelis-Menten" kinetics with V = 61.2 U/mg and K0.5 = 60 μM, while ATP hydrolysis showed V = 19.7 U/mg, K0.5 = 110 μM, and nH = 1.6 and pyrophosphate hydrolysis showed V = 29.7 U/mg, K0.5 = 84 μM, and nH = 2.3. Arsenate and phosphate were competitive inhibitors with K i = 0.6 mM and K i = 1.8 mM, respectively. p-Nitrophenyl phosphatase (pNPPase) activity was inhibited by vanadate, while p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, EDTA, calcium, copper, and cobalt had no inhibitory effects. Magnesium ions were stimulatory (K0.5 = 2.2 mM and nH = 0.5). Production of an acid ectophosphatase can be a mechanism for the solubilization of mineral phosphates by microorganisms such as Enterobacter asburiae that are versatile in the solubilization of insoluble minerals, which, in turn, increases the availability of nutrients for plants, particularly in soils that are poor in phosphorus.

  3. Eight-Year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterobacter Cloacae Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Man; Wang, Ailin; Xu, Jiancheng; Yuan, Ye

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacter cloacae isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 683 strains of Enterobacter cloacae were collected from sputum 410 (60.0%), secretions and pus 105 (15.4%), urine 69 (10.1%) during the past 8 years. No Enterobacter cloacae was resistant to imipenem and meropenem in the First Bethune Hospital. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacter cloacae had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from b eing transmitted.

  4. Long Chain N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Enterobacter sp. Isolated from Human Tongue Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wai-Fong; Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Chan, Xin-Yue; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    We report the isolation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-producing Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surfaces of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent supernatants extract from Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 activated the biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4), suggesting production of long chain AHLs by these isolates. High resolution mass spectrometry analysis of these extracts confirmed that Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 produced a long chain N-acyl homoserine lactone, namely N-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of Enterobacter sp., strain T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and N-acyl homoserine lactones production by this bacterium. PMID:23202161

  5. Risk Factors for Emergence of Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins among Enterobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Keith S.; Cosgrove, Sara; Harris, Anthony; Eliopoulos, George M.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2001-01-01

    Among 477 patients with susceptible Enterobacter spp., 49 subsequently harbored third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter spp. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins were independent risk factors for resistance (relative risk [OR] = 2.3, P = 0.01); quinolone therapy was protective (OR = 0.4, P = 0.03). There were trends toward decreased risk for resistance among patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins and either aminoglycosides or imipenem. Of the patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins, 19% developed resistance. PMID:11502540

  6. An Enterobacter Plasmid as a New Genetic Background for the Transposon Tn1331

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    determined to be 99% similar to E. cloacae by both 16S rDNA and Phoenix analysis and was designated Enterobacter sp W001. Enterobacter sp W001 was...adolescents. JAMA. 2002;287(23):3096–3102. 9. Foster TJ. Plasmid- determined resistance to antimicrobial drugs and toxic metal ions in bacteria. Microbiol...mediated type II dihydrofolate reductase gene among trimethoprim -resistant urinary pathogens in Greek hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1992;29

  7. Advice Complexity of the Online Search Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemente, Jhoirene; Hromkovič, Juraj; Komm, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    the minimum amount of information needed in order to achieve a certain competitive ratio. We design an algorithm that reads $b$ bits of advice and achieves a competitive ratio of (M/m)^{1/(2^b+1)} where M and m are the maximum and minimum price in the input. We also give a matching lower bound. Furthermore......The online search problem is a fundamental problem in finance. The numerous direct applications include searching for optimal prices for commodity trading and trading foreign currencies. In this paper, we analyze the advice complexity of this problem. In particular, we are interested in identifying......, we compare the power of advice and randomization for this problem....

  8. Enterobacter siamensis sp. nov., a transglutaminase-producing bacterium isolated from seafood processing wastewater in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunthongpan, Suwannee; Bourneow, Chaiwut; H-Kittikun, Aran; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee

    2013-01-01

    A novel strain of Enterobacter, C2361(T), a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and facultative anaerobic bacterium with the capability to produce transglutaminase, was isolated from seafood processing wastewater collected from a treatment pond of a seafood factory in Songkhla Province, Thailand. Phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characteristics, including chemotaxonomic characteristics, showed that the strain was a member of the genus Enterobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain C2361(T) and Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae ATCC 13047(T) and Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens LMG 2683(T) were 97.5 and 97.5%, respectively. Strain C2361(T) showed a low DNA-DNA relatedness with the above-mentioned species. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C17:0cyclo and C14:0. The DNA G+C content was 53.0 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence gathered in this study, it should be classified as a novel species of the genus Enterobacter for which the name Enterobacter siamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C2361(T) (= KCTC 23282(T) = NBRC 107138(T)).

  9. Biochemical basis of mercury remediation and bioaccumulation by Enterobacter sp. EMB21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Arvind; Kumar, Sumit; Khare, Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to isolate metal bioaccumulating bacterial strains and to study their applications in removal of environmental problematic heavy metals like mercury. Five bacterial strains belonging to genera Enterobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas were isolated from oil-spilled soil. Among these, one of the strains Enterobacter sp. EMB21 showed mercury bioaccumulation inside the cells simultaneous to its bioremediation. The bioaccumulation of remediated mercury was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The mercury-resistant loci in the Enterobacter sp. EMB21 cells were plasmid-mediated as confirmed by transformation of mercury-sensitive Escherichia coli DH5α by Enterobacter sp. EMB21 plasmid. Effect of different culture parameters viz-a-viz inoculum size, pH, carbon, and nitrogen source revealed that alkaline pH and presence of dextrose and yeast extract favored better remediation. The results indicated the usefulness of Enterobacter sp. EMB21 for the effective remediation of mercury in bioaccumulated form. The Enterobacter sp. EMB21 seems promising for heavy metal remediation wherein the remediated metal can be trapped inside the cells. The process can further be developed for the synthesis of valuable high-end functional alloy, nanoparticles, or metal conjugates from the metal being remediated.

  10. The best advice I ever got.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wademan, Daisy

    2005-01-01

    A young manager faces an impasse in his career. He goes to see his mentor at the company, who closes the office door, offers the young man a chair, recounts a few war stories, and serves up a few specific pointers about the problem at hand. Then, just as the young manager is getting up to leave, the elder executive adds one small kernel of avuncular wisdom--which the junior manager carries with him through the rest of his career. Such is the nature of business advice. Or is it? The six essays in this article suggest otherwise. Few of the leaders who tell their stories here got their best advice in stereotypical form, as an aphorism or a platitude. For Ogilvy & Mather chief Shelly Lazarus, profound insight came from a remark aimed at relieving the tension of the moment. For Novartis CEO Daniel Vasella, it was an apt comment, made on a snowy day, back when he was a medical resident. For publishing magnate Earl Graves and Starwood Hotels' Barry Sternlicht, advice they received about trust from early bosses took on ever deeper and more practical meaning as their careers progressed. For Goldman Sachs chairman Henry Paulson, Jr., it was as much his father's example as it was a specific piece of advice his father handed down to him. And fashion designer Liz Lange rejects the very notion that there's inherent wisdom in accepting other people's advice. As these stories demonstrate, people find wisdom when they least expect to, and they never really know what piece of advice will transcend the moment, profoundly affecting how they later make decisions, evaluate people, and examine--and reexamine--their own actions.

  11. Epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter bacteremia in a brazilian hospital Epidemiologia de bacteremia causadas por Enterobacter produtores de β-lactamases de espectro estendido em um hospital brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enterobacter can be included in the group of extended spectrum β-lactamases (EBSL-producing bacteria, though few studies exist evaluating risk factors associated with this microorganism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with ESBL-producing-Enterobacter and mortality METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with 58 bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing-Enterobacter (28 cases and non-ESBL (30 cases RESULTS: Risk factors associated with ESBL-Enterobacter were trauma, length of hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, urinary catheter and elective surgery (pINTRODUÇÃO: Enterobacter pode ser incluído no grupo de bactérias produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL, mas existem poucos estudos avaliando fatores de risco para ESBL. Nós realizamos uma coorte retrospective para determiner fatores de risco associados com Enterobacter produtores de ESBL MÉTODOS: Uma coorte retrospectiva com 58 bacteremias por Enterobacter ESBL (28 casos e não-ESBL (30 casos RESULTADOS: Fatores de risco para ESBL-Enterobacter foram trauma, tempo de internação, admissão em UTI, sonda vesical e cirurgia eletiva (p<0.05. A mortalidade foi similar entre ESBL e não-ESBL CONCLUSÕES: Enterobacter produtor de ESBL é prevalente e a curva de mortalidade foi semelhante com o grupo não-ESBL.

  12. Generating personalized advice for schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emerencia, A.; van der Krieke, Lian; Sytema, S.; Petkov, N.; Aiello, M.

    The results of routine patient assessments in psychiatric healthcare in the Northern Netherlands are primarily used to support clinicians. We developed Wegweis, a web-based advice platform, to make this data accessible and understandable for patients. Objective: We show that a fully automated

  13. Mortgage risks, debt literacy and financial advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Raun; van Rooij, Maarten C.J.

    2016-01-01

    A limited understanding of mortgage contracts and the risks involved may have contributed to the outbreak of the 2007–2008 financial crisis. We developed a special questionnaire relating mortgage loan decisions to financial knowledge and financial advice. Our results demonstrate that homeowners

  14. A New Paradigm in Mortgage Loan Advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otterstedt, Margrét Sesselja; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Kulahci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Danish mortgage market has undergone considerable changes during the last 15 years. New and more complex variations of loan products have been introduced. Nevertheless, mortgage loan advice has remained, by large, unchanged. This paper addresses a study where a number of new refinancing rules...

  15. Advice under uncertainty in the marine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankel, Dorothy J.; Aps, Robert; Padda, Gurpreet

    2012-01-01

    lacking. Fisheries science that gives advice to policy-making is plagued by uncertainties; the stakes of the policies are high and value-laden and need therefore to be treated as an example of “post-normal science” (PNS). To achieve robust governance, understanding of the characteristics and implications...

  16. [Pharmaceutical advice concerning different pharmaceutical dosage forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakonyi, Gergely; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the commonly applied types of drug uptake and the pharmacists' advice concerning a certain dosage form. The manuscript also deals with the modified release dosage forms and their abbreviations in the name of the marketing authorized products.

  17. Use of enhanced nisin derivatives in combination with food-grade oils or citric acid to control Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Alicia; Morrissey, Ruth; Field, Des; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2017-08-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are well known food-borne pathogens that can cause severe disease. The identification of new alternatives to heating to control these pathogens in foods, while reducing the impact on organoleptic properties and nutritional value, is highly desirable. In this study, nisin and its bioengineered variants, nisin V and nisin S29A, are used alone, or in combination with plant essential oils (thymol, carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde) or citric acid, with a view to controlling C. sakazakii and E. coli O157:H7 in laboratory-based assays and model food systems. The use of nisin variants (30 μM) with low concentrations of thymol (0.015%), carvacrol (0.03%) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.035%) resulted in extended lag phases of growth compared to those for corresponding nisin A-essential oil combinations. Furthermore, nisin variants (60 μM) used in combination with carvacrol (0.03%) significantly reduced viable counts of E. coli O157:H7 (3-log) and C. sakazakii (4-log) compared to nisin A-carvacrol treatment. Importantly, this increased effectiveness translated into food. More specifically, sub-inhibitory concentrations of nisin variants and carvacrol caused complete inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice within 3 h at room temperature compared to that of the equivalent nisin A combination. Furthermore, combinations of commercial Nisaplin and the food additive citric acid reduced C. sakazakii numbers markedly in infant formula within the same 3 h period. These results highlight the potential benefits of combining nisin and variants thereof with carvacrol and/or citric acid for the inhibition of Gram negative food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and characterization of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. in poultry of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Shuvro Prokash; Sultana, Munawar; Hossain, M Anwar

    2013-05-01

    Poultry and poultry products are major contributors of zoonotic pathogens. Limited data are available on Enterobacter spp. as a potent zoonotic pathogen in poultry. The present study is a first endeavor on the emergence of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. and its prevalence arising from poultry in Bangladesh. Cloacal swabs from poultry samples of five different farms at Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh were collected and from 106 isolates, 18 presumptive Enterobacter spp. were obtained. Antibiogram using 19 used antibiotics belonging to 15 major groups revealed that all of the 18 isolates were completely resistant to penicillin and rifampicin, but differed in their drug resistance pattern against ampicillin (94.4%), clindamycin (94.4%), erythromycin (94.4%), vancomycin (88.9%), sulfonamides (72.2%), imipenem (66.6%), streptomycin (55.6%), nitrofurantoin (33.3%), doxycycline (33.3%), tetracyclines (33.3%), cefepime (11.1%), and gentamicin (5.6%). All Enterobacter spp. were found to be plasmid free, implying that multidrug-resistant properties are chromosomal borne. The vanA and sulI were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay in 17 and 13 isolates, respectively. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA distributed the 18 multidrug-resistant Enterobacter spp. into three genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the representatives of the three genotypes using partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (approximately 900 bp) showed that the genotypically diverse groups belonged to Enterobacter hormaechei, E. cloacae, and E. cancerogenus, respectively. The clinical significance of the close relative Enterobacter spp. is indicative of their zoonotic potential. Therefore, urgent intervention is required to limit the emergence and spread of these bacteria in poultry feed as well as prudent use of antibiotics among poultry farmers in Bangladesh.

  19. Re-examination of the taxonomic status of Enterobacter helveticus, Enterobacter pulveris and Enterobacter turicensis as members of the genus Cronobacter and their reclassification in the genera Franconibacter gen. nov. and Siccibacter gen. nov. as Franconibacter helveticus comb. nov., Franconibacter pulveris comb. nov. and Siccibacter turicensis comb. nov., respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Roger; Grim, Christopher J; Gopinath, Gopal R; Mammel, Mark K; Sathyamoorthy, Venugopal; Trach, Larisa H; Chase, Hannah R; Fanning, Séamus; Tall, Ben D

    2014-10-01

    Recently, a taxonomical re-evaluation of the genus Enterobacter, based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, has led to the proposal that the species Enterobacter pulveris, Enterobacter helveticus and Enterobacter turicensis should be reclassified as novel species of the genus Cronobacter. In the present work, new genome-scale analyses, including average nucleotide identity, genome-scale phylogeny and k-mer analysis, coupled with previously reported DNA-DNA hybridization values and biochemical characterization strongly indicate that these three species of the genus Enterobacter are not members of the genus Cronobacter, nor do they belong to the re-evaluated genus Enterobacter. Furthermore, data from this polyphasic study indicated that all three species constitute two new genera. We propose reclassifying Enterobacter pulveris and Enterobacter helveticus in the genus Franconibacter gen. nov. as Franconibacter pulveris comb. nov. (type strain 601/05(T) = LMG 24057(T) = DSM 19144(T)) and Franconibacter helveticus comb. nov. (type strain 513/05(T) = LMG 23732(T) = DSM 18396(T)), respectively, and Enterobacter turicensis in the genus Siccibacter gen. nov. as Siccibacter turicensis comb. nov. (type strain 508/05(T) = LMG 23730(T) = DSM 18397(T)).

  20. An Enterobacter plasmid as a new genetic background for the transposon Tn1331

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi MR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad R Alavi1,2, Vlado Antonic2, Adrien Ravizee1, Peter J Weina3, Mina Izadjoo1,2, Alexander Stojadinovic21Division of Wound Biology and Translational Research, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and American Registry of Pathology, Washington DC, 2Combat Wound Initiative Program, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington DC, 3The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USABackground: Genus Enterobacter includes important opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that could infect complex wounds. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in these microorganisms represents a challenging clinical problem in the treatment of these wounds. In the authors’ screening of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from complex wounds, an Enterobacter species was isolated that harbors antibiotic-resistant plasmids conferring resistance to Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to identify the resistance genes carried by one of these plasmids.Methods: The plasmids from the Enterobacter isolate were propagated in E. coli and one of the plasmids, designated as pR23, was sequenced by the Sanger method using fluorescent dye-terminator chemistry on a genetic analyzer. The assembled sequence was annotated by search of the GenBank database.Results: Plasmid pR23 is composed of the transposon Tn1331 and a backbone plasmid that is identical to the plasmid pPIGDM1 from Enterobacter agglomerans. The multidrug-resistance transposon Tn1331, which confers resistance to aminoglycoside and beta lactam antibiotics, has been previously isolated only from Klebsiella. The Enterobacter plasmid pPIGDM1, which carries a ColE1-like origin of replication and has no apparent selective marker, appears to provide a backbone for propagation of Tn1331 in Enterobacter. The recognition sequence of Tn1331 transposase for insertion into pPIGDM1 is the pentanucleotide TATTA, which occurs only once throughout the length of this plasmid.Conclusion: Transposition of Tn1331 into

  1. Treatment outcomes in patients with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Catherine S; O'Neal, Hollis R; Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R

    2012-10-01

    Infections with resistant Enterobacter spp. are increasingly described, yet data on outcomes associated with these infections are limited. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate outcomes of hospitalized patients with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (CR) Enterobacter bacteremia. Cephalosporin resistance was detected using cefotaxime and cefpodoxime. Patients with Enterobacter spp. bacteremia from January 2006 through February 2008 defined the population. We defined cases as those with CR isolates; controls were patients with bacteremia due to non-CR isolates. Treatment failure was defined as persistence of the presenting signs of infection 72 h after initial culture collection. Of the 95 Enterobacter cases identified, 31 (33%) were CR. CR cases were significantly associated with treatment failure (odds ratio (OR) 2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.94). This association was not seen after adjustment for age, simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II), and inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. Inappropriate empiric therapy (adjusted OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.32-11.31) and SAPS II score (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16) were significantly associated with treatment failure in the multivariate analysis. Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia is associated with treatment failure due to receipt of inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy and severity of illness.

  2. Enterobacter mori sp. nov., associated with bacterial wilt on Morus alba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Lou, Miao-Miao; Xie, Guan-Lin; Wang, Guo-Fen; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Fang; Fang, Yuan; Su, Ting; Li, Bin; Duan, Yong-Pin

    2011-11-01

    Two isolates of mulberry-pathogenic bacteria isolated from diseased mulberry roots were investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated strains R18-2(T) and R3-3 to the genus Enterobacter, with Enterobacter asburiae, E. amnigenus, E. cancerogenus, E. cloacae subsp. cloacae, E. cloacae subsp. dissolvens and E. nimipressuralis as their closest relatives. Cells of the isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods, 0.3-1.0 µm wide and 0.8-2.0 µm long, with peritrichous flagella, showing a DNA G+C content of 55.1 ± 0.5 mol%. Calculation of a similarity index based on phenotypic features and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis suggested that these isolates are members of E. cancerogenus or E. asburiae or a closely related species. Biochemical data revealed that the isolates could be differentiated from their nearest neighbours by the presence of lysine decarboxylase activity and their ability to utilize d-arabitol. DNA-DNA relatedness also distinguished the two isolates from phylogenetically closely related Enterobacter strains. Based on these data, it is proposed that the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Enterobacter, named Enterobacter mori sp. nov. The type strain is R18-2(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10322(T) = LMG 25706(T)).

  3. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, Sohail; Afzal, Muhammad; Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Brady, Carrie L.; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: → E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. → E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. → E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. → E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. → Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  4. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Sohail [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Afzal, Muhammad [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad (Pakistan); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Environmental Resources and Technologies Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Brady, Carrie L. [Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: > E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. > E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. > E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. > E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. > Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  5. Advice letter on policy instruments renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In a letter of July 2010 the Energy Council made recommendations for a policy framework with more obligations and fewer subsidies. This included the Energy Council's advice to investigate whether the introduction of a supplier obligation could play a major role in the realisation of the CO2 emission target of the Netherlands and increase the share of renewable energy in line with European agreements. This advice letter deals with one aspect of the broader considerations: the share of renewable electricity and the kind of incentive framework that is needed to achieve the target concerned. In this letter we will examine the possibilities of the SDE+ support (financial incentive for renewable energy) scheme and the supplier obligation, the effects on the market and the consequences for achieving the target. This letter closes with conclusions and recommendations. [nl

  6. Consumer's Negative emotions, Financial Decisions, Financial Advice

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantaki, Violetta

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore the consumers decision making process. In particular, this study attempts to examine consumers negative emotions, which elicit during a decision processing. Especially, the case of a financial decision will be examined. Moreover, consumers negative emotion will be investigated in relation with consumers coping behaviour. To be more specific, the option of seeking advice as a successful consumers coping behaviour will be explor...

  7. Financial Advice: An Improvement for Worse?

    OpenAIRE

    Karabulut, Yigitcan

    2010-01-01

    Using a unique administrative data set from a large German commercial bank, this paper aims to ascertain the role of financial advisors in individual portfolios. Following on the heels of the ongoing regulatory and political debate as to the merits of financial advice, we focus in this paper on three key issues. First, we examine whether collaboration with financial advisors attains to better performing portfolios. Second, we investigate whether the involvement of financial advisors mitigates...

  8. Communication of Science Advice to Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2016-01-01

    There are various ways to construct good processes for soliciting and understanding science. Our critique of advisory models finds that a well-supported chief science advisor (CSA) best ensures the provision of deliberative, informal, and emergency advice to government. Alternatively, bias, increasingly manifest as science-based advocacy, can hinder communication, diminish credibility, and distort scientific evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulations and classification advice: transport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.; Owen, K.

    1990-01-01

    The packaging of radioactive material for transport must conform with the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These regulations are extensive and complex and require specialist interpretation. Packaging must be designed to contain the material, to limit radiation to safe levels, and to maintain the material in a safe state under both normal and accident conditions. British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) developed the TRANAID expert system to provide automated expert advice on the subject. It is used at BNFL and by other users internationally. The system was produced to meet an internal BNFL emphasis on accurate consistent and reliable interpretation of the complex IAEA regulations; and to provide a commercial product which would meet an external need. TRANAID provides reliable and consistent advice on safe transport procedures which reduce the workload on scarce skilled personnel, and allows them to concentrate on their primary task of packaging design. TRANAID also avoids overclassifying radioactive shipments, which would lead to the use of more expensive packaging than strictly is required. The IAEA regulations are applied internationally, and so there is a large potential worldwide market. The indications from the initial response are that future sales and use are expected to more than cover the investment. Other non-quantifiable benefits include the provision of consistent advice within a uniform approach, the safe-guarding of knowledge of the IAEA regulations, training and improvement in the expertise of users, improved management control, and enhancement of the professional image of BNFL. (author)

  10. Maintaining clinical governance when giving telephone advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazawi, William; Agarwal, Kosh; Suddle, Abid; Aluvihare, Varuna; Heneghan, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Delivering excellent healthcare depends on accurate communication between professionals who may be in different locations. Frequently, the first point of contact with the liver unit at King's College Hospital (KCH) is through a telephone call to a specialist registrar or liver fellow, for whom no case notes are available in which to record information. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical governance of telephone referrals and to generate contemporaneous records that could be easily retrieved and audited. An electronic database for telephone referrals and advice was designed and made securely available to registrars in our unit. Service development in a tertiary liver centre that receives referrals from across the UK and Europe. Demographic and clinical data were recorded prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Data from 350 calls were entered during 5 months. The information included the nature and origin of the call (200 from 75 different institutions), disease burden and severity of disease among the patients discussed with KCH, and outcome of the call. The majority of cases were discussed with consultants or arrangements were made for formal review at KCH. A telephone referrals and advice database provides clinical governance, serves as a quality indicator and forms a contemporaneous record at the referral centre. Activity data and knowledge of disease burden help to tailor services to the needs of referrers and commissioners. We recommend implementation of similar models in other centres that give extramural verbal advice.

  11. Isolation of Enterobacter cowanii in tomatoes after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicalvi, M.C.V.; Solidonio, E.G.; Silva, M.A.; Colaco, W.; Silva, G.R. da; Sena, K.X.F.R de

    2013-01-01

    The tomato is one of the most consumed fruit in the world. Bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Irradiation is a physical method which reduces waste by eliminating spoilage organisms in foods. The objective of this study was to identify and determine the resistance profile of micro-organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae from irradiated tomatoes. Were used three batches each containing 80 tomatoes, and divided in control and irradiated. The samples were individually properly identified as the irradiation dose applied. The material was subjected to irradiation with gamma rays, for irradiating with a cobalt-60 source, using doses: 1.0, 1.5 and 2 kGy (6,060 kGy/h). For microbiological analysis tomatoes were cut out, and removing the shells to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was transferred to an Erlenmeyer containing sterilized water, stirring the assembly mechanically. Aliquots of the wash waters were sown in differential and selective media. After reisolation, the colonies were subjected to Gram staining then performed biochemical tests for identification. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute). It was isolated three strains of Enterobacter cowanii in tomato samples irradiated with a dose of 1.0 kGy, without isolating the other doses. As for the resistance profile, the strains were resistant to Ampicillin identified. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 1.5 and 2 kGy was effective in tomatoes as well as the micro-organism isolated after irradiation showed no profile of multidrug resistance. (author)

  12. Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children Language: English ( ... from the flu. Advice on How to Prevent Flu for Caregivers of Young Children 1. Take Time ...

  13. No Effect of Writing Advice on Reading Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2018-01-01

    This article considers text comprehension through the integrated perspectives of language processing research and practical writing advice as expressed in writing guides and language policies. Such guides for instance include advice to use active constructions instead of passives and sentences...

  14. Genome Sequence of the Enterobacter mori Type Strain, LMG 25706, a Pathogenic Bacterium of Morus alba L. ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Wang, Guo-Feng; Liu, He; Xie, Guan-Lin; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Enterobacter mori is a plant-pathogenic enterobacterium responsible for the bacterial wilt of Morus alba L. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the type strain, LMG 25706. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome sequence of a plant-pathogenic bacterium in the genus Enterobacter. PMID:21602328

  15. Disinfection of deionised water inoculated with enterobacter using ultra violet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time the enterobacter, not the escherichia coli,was used as a model bacteria to asses the disinfection of microorganisms in water by UV (Ultra Violet) irradiation. The cell density of the liquid culture was followed by optical density of 1.837 at 600 nm on spectrometer. For the disinfection purpose, a laboratory scale batch reactor (10 cm wide, 20 cm long, and 10 cm height), containing 250 ml sterilised deionized water inoculated with enterobacter,was run under supra-band gap light (wavelength < 400 nm, peaking between 340 and 365 nm with a maximum of 350 nm). After carrying out seven batch experiments it is concluded that the complete inactivation of Enterobacter ( approx. equal to x 10/sup 6/ CFU/ml) in the water can be achieved by UV irradiation for 2 hours. (author)

  16. Stepwise Advice Negotiation in Writing Center Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Innhwa

    2014-01-01

    While the delivery and reception of advice is a practice integral to a wide range of settings, little attention has been given to the detailed practices of advice resistance and how it leads to advice negotiation. Based on 7 hours of videotaped tutoring interactions among 6 tutors and 11 tutees, this conversation analytic study examines the…

  17. 32 CFR 776.10 - Informal ethics advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal ethics advice. 776.10 Section 776.10... § 776.10 Informal ethics advice. (a) Advisors. Covered attorneys may seek informal ethics advice either... of Director, JA Division, HQMC; and (5) Head, Standards of Conduct/Government Ethics Branch...

  18. Content and Style of Advice in Iran and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    The content and nature of nonprofessional advice in Iran, a hierarchical and collectivist culture, was compared to the same type of advice in Canada, an egalitarian and individualist culture. A researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 10 letters, each describing a writer's problem and asking for advice. The responses of participants…

  19. Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of glycerol using Enterobacter and Citrobacter Sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Biniam T; Constanti, Magda; Stchigel, Alberto M; Medina, Francesc; Sueiras, Jesus E

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an attractive substrate for biohydrogen production because, in theory, it can produce 3 mol of hydrogen per mol of glycerol. Moreover, glycerol is produced in substantial amounts as a byproduct of producing biodiesel, the demand for which has increased in recent years. Therefore, hydrogen production from glycerol was studied by dark fermentation using three strains of bacteria: namely, Enterobacter spH1, Enterobacter spH2, and Citrobacter freundii H3 and a mixture thereof (1:1:1). It was found that, when an initial concentration of 20 g/L of glycerol was used, all three strains and their mixture produced substantial amounts of hydrogen ranging from 2400 to 3500 mL/L, being highest for C. freundii H3 (3547 mL/L) and Enterobacter spH1 (3506 mL/L). The main nongaseous fermentation products were ethanol and acetate, albeit in different ratios. For Enterobacter spH1, Enterobacter spH2, C. freundii H3, and the mixture (1:1:1), the ethanol yields (in mol EtOH/mol glycerol consumed) were 0.96, 0.67, 0.31, and 0.66, respectively. Compared to the individual strains, the mixture (1:1:1) did not show a significantly higher hydrogen level, indicating that there was no synergistic effect. Enterobacter spH1 was selected for further investigation because of its higher yield of hydrogen and ethanol. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  20. Isolation of Enterobacter cowanii in tomatoes after gamma irradiation; Isolamento de Enterobacter cowanii em tomates apos irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicalvi, M.C.V.; Solidonio, E.G.; Silva, M.A.; Colaco, W., E-mail: claudiavicalvi@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Tecnologias Energeticas e Nucleares; Silva, G.R. da; Sena, K.X.F.R de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Antibioticos

    2013-08-15

    The tomato is one of the most consumed fruit in the world. Bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Irradiation is a physical method which reduces waste by eliminating spoilage organisms in foods. The objective of this study was to identify and determine the resistance profile of micro-organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae from irradiated tomatoes. Were used three batches each containing 80 tomatoes, and divided in control and irradiated. The samples were individually properly identified as the irradiation dose applied. The material was subjected to irradiation with gamma rays, for irradiating with a cobalt-60 source, using doses: 1.0, 1.5 and 2 kGy (6,060 kGy/h). For microbiological analysis tomatoes were cut out, and removing the shells to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was transferred to an Erlenmeyer containing sterilized water, stirring the assembly mechanically. Aliquots of the wash waters were sown in differential and selective media. After reisolation, the colonies were subjected to Gram staining then performed biochemical tests for identification. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute). It was isolated three strains of Enterobacter cowanii in tomato samples irradiated with a dose of 1.0 kGy, without isolating the other doses. As for the resistance profile, the strains were resistant to Ampicillin identified. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 1.5 and 2 kGy was effective in tomatoes as well as the micro-organism isolated after irradiation showed no profile of multidrug resistance. (author)

  1. Biological Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Raymond E. S.

    In a search to turn the economically and environmentally non-valuable "waste" streams of biodiesel production into a profitable byproduct, a mutant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 was developed by six-tube subculturing technique. This technique is based on the principle of adaptive evolution, and involved subculturing the bacterium in a tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB) containing specific glycerol and ethanol concentration for six consecutive times. Then, the six consecutive subculturing was repeated in a fresh TSB of higher glycerol and ethanol concentrations. A new mutant strain, E. aerogenes S012, which could withstand a combination of 200 g/l glycerol and 30 g/l ethanol concentrations, was developed. The wild and mutant strains were used for the fermentation of pure (P-) and recovered (R-) glycerol. Taguchi and full factorial methods of design of experiments were used to screen and optimize the important process factors that influence the microbial production of ethanol. A statistically sound regression model was used to establish the mathematical relationship between the process variables and ethanol production. Temperature of 38°C, agitation speed of 200 rpm, pH of 6.3-6.6, and microaerobic condition were the optimum process conditions. Different pretreatment methods to recover glycerol from the crude glycerol and the subsequent fermentation method showed that direct acidification using 85% H3PO4 was the best. The R-glycerol contained 51% pure glycerol and 21% methanol. The wild strain, E. aerogenes ATCC 13048, produced only 12 g/l and 12.8 g/l ethanol from 20 g/l P- and R-glycerol respectively, and could not utilize higher glycerol concentrations. The mutant, E. aerogenes S012, produced ethanol amount and yield of 43 g/l and 1.12 mol/mol-glycerol from P-glycerol, respectively within 96 h. It also produced ethanol amount and yield of 26.8 g/l and 1.07 mol/mol-glycerol, respectively, from R-glycerol within the same duration. In a

  2. Giving advice to agents with hidden goals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available than it would have otherwise. Similarly, advice can be a boost to 1Benjamin Rosman is with the Institute of Perception, Action and Behaviour in the School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, UK, and Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems (MIAS...), CSIR, South Africa benjros@gmail.com 2Subramanian Ramamoorthy is with the Institute of Perception, Action and Behaviour in the School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, UK s.ramamoorthy@ed.ac.uk Fig. 1. The envisaged scene: an agent (the human...

  3. Advice on Writing a Scientific Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.

    2006-04-01

    What makes one author a good communicator and another a poor one? What turns out one manuscript a swift editorial task, and another an editorial nightmare? Based on direct experience from the manuscripts of the lectures and papers presented during this school, advice is given on what to do and on what to avoid when writing a scientific paper. Some feedback recommendation is also provided on how to prepare manuscripts, handle copyright and permissions to reproduce, how to anticipate plagiarism, how to deal with editors and referees, and how to avoid common errors. A few illustrations of English grammar and style for the foreign author are given.

  4. Variability in cell response of Cronobacter sakazakii after mild-heat treatments and its impact on food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eParra-Flores

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. have been responsible for severe infections in infants associated with consumption of powdered infant formula (PIF and follow-up formulae (FUF. Despite several risk assessments described in published studies, few approaches have considered the tremendous variability in cell response that small micropopulations or single cells can have in infant formula during storage, preparation or post process/preparation before the feeding of infants. Stochastic approaches can better describe microbial single cell response than deterministic models as we prove in this study. A large variability of lag phase was observed in single cell and micropopulations of ≤50 cells. This variability increased as the heat shock increased and growth temperature decreased. Obviously, variability of growth of individual Cronobacter sakazakii cell is affected by inoculum size, growth temperature and the probability of cells able to grow at the conditions imposed by the experimental conditions should be taken into account, especially when errors in bottle-preparation practices, such as improper holding temperatures or manipulation, may lead to growth of the pathogen to a critical cell level. The mean probability of illness from initial inoculum size of 1 cell were below 0.2 in all the cases and for inoculum size of 50 cells the mean probability of illness were, in most of the cases, was above 0.7.

  5. Computational-based structural, functional and phylogenetic analysis of Enterobacter phytases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Krishnendu; Kundu, Shreyasi; Banerjee, Sandipan; Ghosh, Pallab Kumar; Maiti, Tushar Kanti

    2018-06-01

    Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolases (i.e., phytases) are known to be a very important enzyme responsible for solubilization of insoluble phosphates. In the present study, Enterobacter phytases have characterized by different phylogenetic, structural and functional parameters using some standard bio-computational tools. Results showed that majority of the Enterobacter phytases are acidic in nature as most of the isoelectric points were under 7.0. The aliphatic indices predicted for the selected proteins were below 40 indicating their thermostable nature. The average molecular weight of the proteins was 48 kDa. The lower values of GRAVY of the said proteins implied that they have better interactions with water. Secondary structure prediction revealed that alpha-helical content was highest among the other forms such as sheets, coils, etc. Moreover, the predicted 3D structure of Enterobacter phytases divulged that the proteins consisted of four monomeric polypeptide chains i.e., it was a tetrameric protein. The predicted tertiary model of E. aerogenes (A0A0M3HCJ2) was deposited in Protein Model Database (Acc. No.: PM0080561) for further utilization after a thorough quality check from QMEAN and SAVES server. Functional analysis supported their classification as histidine acid phosphatases. Besides, multiple sequence alignment revealed that "DG-DP-LG" was the most highly conserved residues within the Enterobacter phytases. Thus, the present study will be useful in selecting suitable phytase-producing microbe exclusively for using in the animal food industry as a food additive.

  6. Alterations in the response of pigs to Salmonella typhimurium when provided Enterobacter cloacae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weanling pigs are at risk of succumbing to illness due to an immature immune system and insufficient supply of available energy at the time of weaning. Recent evidence has suggested that providing pigs with Enterobacter cloacae can increase the concentration of circulating triglycerides (TAGs) and t...

  7. Clinical analysis of Enterobacter bacteremia in pediatric patients: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Lu, Jen-Her; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Shu-Jen; Chen, Chun-Jen; Wu, Keh-Gong; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Enterobacter species has emerged as an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of bacteremia in pediatric patients. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of patients (under the age of 18 years) having Enterobacter bacteremia who were treated at Taipei the Veterans General Hospital from January 2001 to June 2011. In total, 853 positive blood cultures were obtained from 620 patients during the study period. Among them, 96 episodes of Enterobacter bacteremia were found in 83 patients, accounting for 11.3% of all bacteremia. Eighty-two cases (98.8%) were nosocomial infections. Most of the cases were neonates (62 cases, 74.7%) and premature infants (51 cases, 61.5%). The common sources of bacteremia were the respiratory tract (53.0%), followed by intravascular catheter (10.8%), multiple sources (10.8%), and the gastrointestinal tract (8.4%). The overall case fatality rate was 18.1%, with the highest rate being reported among premature infants. The factors responsible for the deaths were leukocytosis and a higher median number of underlying diseases. Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that Enterobacter species are probably an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia in premature neonates. The number of underlying diseases should be considered a major factor influencing the prognosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The status of the species Enterobacter siamensisKhunthongpan et al. 2014. Request for an Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Doijad, Swapnil; Chakraborty, Trinad; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2016-01-01

    In the course of a taxonomic study describing novel species of the genus Enterobacter it was found that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain of Enterobacter siamensis, obtained both directly from the authors of the publication on Enterobacter siamensis and from the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (C2361T and KCTC 23282T, respectively), was not congruent with the 16S rRNA gene sequence deposited in the GenBank database under the accession number HQ888848, which was applied for phylogenetic analysis in the species proposal. The remaining deposit in the Japanese type culture collection, NBRC 107138T, showed an identical 16S rRNA gene sequence to the other two cultures and overall, this sequence differed at 35 positions in comparison with the 1429 bp sequence published under the accession number HQ888848.Therefore, the type strain of this species cannot be included in any further scientific comparative study. It is proposed that the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes place the name Enterobacter siamensis on the list of rejected names, if a suitable replacement for the type strain is not found or a neotype strain is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request for an Opinion.

  9. Simultaneous production of hydrogen and ethanol from waste glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes KKU-S1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reungsang, Alissara; Sittijunda, Sureewan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production from waste glycerol by a newly isolated bacterium Enterobacter aerogenes KKU-S1 were investigated employing response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD). The Plackett-Burman design was first used to screen...

  10. Isolation, identification, characterization, and evaluation of cadmium removal capacity of Enterobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Zaghum; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ismail, Norli; Lalung, Japareng

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on the isolation and characterization of high cadmium-resistant bacterial strains, possible exploitation of its cadmium-accumulation and cadmium-induced proteins. Cadmium-resistant bacterial strains designated as RZ1 and RZ2 were isolated from industrial wastewater of Penang, Malaysia. These isolates were identified as Enterobacter mori and Enterobacter sp. WS12 on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequence based molecular phylogenetic characteristics. Both isolates were Gram negative, cocci, and growing well in Lauria-Bertani broth medium at 35 °C temperature and pH 7.0. Results also indicated that Enterobacter mori and Enterobacter sp. WS12are capable to remove 87.75 and 85.11% of the cadmium from 100 µg ml(-1) concentration, respectively. This study indicates that these strains can be useful as an inexpensive and efficient bioremediation technology to remove and recover the cadmium from wastewater. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cefepime vs other antibacterial agents for the treatment of Enterobacter species bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Galar, Alicia; Guzmán-Suarez, Belisa B; Kubiak, David W; Baghdady, Nour; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hooper, David C; O'Brien, Thomas F; Marty, Francisco M

    2014-06-01

    Carbapenems are recommended for treatment of Enterobacter infections with AmpC phenotypes. Although isolates are typically susceptible to cefepime in vitro, there are few data supporting its clinical efficacy. We reviewed all cases of Enterobacter species bacteremia at 2 academic hospitals from 2005 to 2011. Outcomes of interest were (1) persistent bacteremia ≥1 calendar day and (2) in-hospital mortality. We fit logistic regression models, adjusting for clinical risk factors and Pitt bacteremia score and performed propensity score analyses to compare the efficacy of cefepime and carbapenems. Three hundred sixty-eight patients experienced Enterobacter species bacteremia and received at least 1 antimicrobial agent, of whom 52 (14%) died during hospitalization. Median age was 59 years; 19% were neutropenic, and 22% were in an intensive care unit on the day of bacteremia. Twenty-nine (11%) patients had persistent bacteremia for ≥1 day after antibacterial initiation. None of the 36 patients who received single-agent cefepime (0%) had persistent bacteremia, as opposed to 4 of 16 (25%) of those who received single-agent carbapenem (P Enterobacter species bacteremia. Its use should be further explored as a carbapenem-sparing agent in this clinical scenario.

  12. Bacterial cellulose synthesis mechanism of facultative anaerobe Enterobacter sp. FY-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kaihua; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Bing; Chen, Sibin; Zhao, Qianqian; Chen, Yueqing; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-25

    Enterobacter sp. FY-07 can produce bacterial cellulose (BC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three potential BC synthesis gene clusters (bcsI, bcsII and bcsIII) of Enterobacter sp. FY-07 have been predicted using genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis, in which bcsIII was confirmed as the main contributor to BC synthesis by gene knockout and functional reconstitution methods. Protein homology, gene arrangement and gene constitution analysis indicated that bcsIII had high identity to the bcsI operon of Enterobacter sp. 638; however, its arrangement and composition were same as those of BC synthesizing operon of G. xylinum ATCC53582 except for the flanking sequences. According to the BC biosynthesizing process, oxygen is not directly involved in the reactions of BC synthesis, however, energy is required to activate intermediate metabolites and synthesize the activator, c-di-GMP. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite quantitative analysis demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions genes involved in the TCA cycle were downregulated, however, genes in the nitrate reduction and gluconeogenesis pathways were upregulated, especially, genes in three pyruvate metabolism pathways. These results suggested that Enterobacter sp. FY-07 could produce energy efficiently under anaerobic conditions to meet the requirement of BC biosynthesis.

  13. Biotransformation of Ferulic acid to 4-Vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized using chemical methods but biological synthesis adds value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive...

  14. Let Me Give You a Piece of Advice: Empirical Papers about Advice Taking in Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Tzioti (Stefanie)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUsing advice in decision making is widespread for all sorts of important personal and professional decisions. Yet, traditional research on individual decision making has failed to systematically study the impact that social interactions about a decision problem can have on the decision

  15. Comparative Genomic Characterization of the Highly Persistent and Potentially Virulent Cronobacter sakazakii ST83, CC65 Strain H322 and Other ST83 Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Chase

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter (C. sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen and has been associated with serious infections with high mortality rates predominantly in pre-term, low-birth weight and/or immune compromised neonates and infants. Infections have been epidemiologically linked to consumption of intrinsically and extrinsically contaminated lots of reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, thus contamination of such products is a challenging task for the PIF producing industry. We present the draft genome of C. sakazakii H322, a highly persistent sequence type (ST 83, clonal complex (CC 65, serotype O:7 strain obtained from a batch of non-released contaminated PIF product. The presence of this strain in the production environment was traced back more than 4 years. Whole genome sequencing (WGS of this strain together with four more ST83 strains (PIF production environment-associated confirmed a high degree of sequence homology among four of the five strains. Phylogenetic analysis using microarray (MA and WGS data showed that the ST83 strains were highly phylogenetically related and MA showed that between 5 and 38 genes differed from one another in these strains. All strains possessed the pESA3-like virulence plasmid and one strain possessed a pESA2-like plasmid. In addition, a pCS1-like plasmid was also found. In order to assess the potential in vivo pathogenicity of the ST83 strains, each strain was subjected to infection studies using the recently developed zebrafish embryo model. Our results showed a high (90–100% zebrafish mortality rate for all of these strains, suggesting a high risk for infections and illness in neonates potentially exposed to PIF contaminated with ST83 C. sakazakii strains. In summary, virulent ST83, CC65, serotype CsakO:7 strains, though rarely found intrinsically in PIF, can persist within a PIF manufacturing facility for years and potentially pose significant quality assurance challenges to the PIF manufacturing industry.

  16. Escherichia coli and Cronobacter sakazakii in 'Tommy Atkins' minimally processed mangos: Survival, growth and effect of UV-C and electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, David; Graça, Ana; Nunes, Carla; Quintas, Célia

    2018-04-01

    These studies were aimed at assessing the growing capacity of Escherichia coli and Cronobacter sakazakii and the effectiveness of Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation, acidic electrolyzed (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed (NEW) waters in the inhibition of these bacteria on minimally processed 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes (MPM). The fruits were contaminated by dip inoculation and kept 10 days at 4, 8, 12 and 20 °C while enumerating bacteria. Contaminated mangoes were disinfected using UV-C (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kJ/m 2 ), AEW, NEW and sodium hypochlorite (SH) and the microorganisms were monitored. None of the enterobacteria grew at 4, 8 and 12 °C regardless of having persisted during the 10-day period. At 20 °C, E. coli and C. sakazakii grew, after adaption phases of 48 h and 24 h, to values of 8.7 and 8.5 log cfu/g at day eight, respectively. E. coli showed the highest reduction counts on the MPM washed with NEW and SH (2.2 log cfu/g). UV-C was more effective in reducing C. sakazakii (2.4-2.6 log cfu/g), when compared to AEW, NEW and SH (1.2-1.8 log cfu/g). The efficacy of decontamination technologies depends on microorganisms, highlighting the importance of preventing contamination at the primary production and of combining different methods to increase the safety of fresh-cut fruits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Financial Coaching Advice Model: An Exploration into how it Satisfies Expectations of Quality Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Knutsen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For 20 years, the financial planning sector in Australia has been transitioning from a sales-orientated force to aprofession of qualified and skilled practitioners. Today, the potential for professional financial planning adviceto benefit Australians financially, economically and psychologically is recognised by government. Financially,these benefits include increased savings, less interest expense through faster debt reduction, higher investmentreturns and appropriate levels of insurance. Economically, a more financially literate society has the potentialfor less reliance on an already burdened social security system. Psychologically, the benefits include the peaceof mind that comes from an individual being confident in financial matters. However, despite this level ofrecognition and development, national surveys have reported that only a small percentage of the populationactually seek professional financial advice. The factors attributing to these low percentages included the gapsin financial literacy limiting an individual’s engagement in financial matters and consumer’s current mistrust ofthe financial advice business models that remain dominated by commission-driven product sales. Thesedeficiencies have led some financial planning firms to break from financial product sales as the primary advicemodel and focus on financial coaching. Exploratory interviews with the practitioners and clients of a selectedfinancial planning firm have generated insightful discussion into how a financial coaching advice model isachieving the financial, economic and psychological benefits recognised by government as the potentialoutcomes of professional financial advice. The aim of this paper is to present the findings from that discussionand demonstrate the opportunities embedded within a financial coaching advice model. It is argued that thisdiscussion offers a foundation for future research direction in an area currently under researched in

  18. Molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and qnr determinants in Enterobacter species from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hajime; Yano, Hisakazu; Hirakata, Yoichi; Hirotani, Ayako; Arai, Kazuaki; Endo, Shiro; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Ogawa, Miho; Shimojima, Masahiro; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Gu, Yoshiaki; Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has been increasing worldwide, but screening criteria for detection of ESBLs are not standardized for AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae such as Enterobacter species. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of ESBLs and/or AmpC β-lactamases in Japanese clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. and the association of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants with ESBL producers. A total of 364 clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. collected throughout Japan between November 2009 and January 2010 were studied. ESBL-producing strains were assessed by the CLSI confirmatory test and the boronic acid disk test. PCR and sequencing were performed to detect CTX-M, TEM, and SHV type ESBLs and PMQR determinants. For ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp., pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using XbaI restriction enzyme. Of the 364 isolates, 22 (6.0%) were ESBL producers. Seven isolates of Enterobacter cloacae produced CTX-M-3, followed by two isolates producing SHV-12. Two isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes produced CTX-M-2. Of the 22 ESBL producers, 21 had the AmpC enzyme, and six met the criteria for ESBL production in the boronic acid test. We found a significant association of qnrS with CTX-M-3-producing E. cloacae. The 11 ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. possessing bla(CTX-M), bla(SHV), or bla(TEM) were divided into six unique PFGE types. This is the first report about the prevalence of qnr determinants among ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. from Japan. Our results suggest that ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. with qnr determinants are spreading in Japan.

  19. Comprehensive Genome Analysis of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp.: New Insights into Phylogeny, Population Structure, and Resistance Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Kalyan D; Chen, Liang; Fouts, Derrick E; Sutton, Granger; Brinkac, Lauren; Jenkins, Stephen G; Bonomo, Robert A; Adams, Mark D; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2016-12-13

    Knowledge regarding the genomic structure of Enterobacter spp., the second most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, remains limited. Here we sequenced 97 clinical Enterobacter species isolates that were both carbapenem susceptible and resistant from various geographic regions to decipher the molecular origins of carbapenem resistance and to understand the changing phylogeny of these emerging and drug-resistant pathogens. Of the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 30 possessed bla KPC-2 , 40 had bla KPC-3 , 2 had bla KPC-4 , and 2 had bla NDM-1 Twenty-three isolates were carbapenem susceptible. Six genomes were sequenced to completion, and their sizes ranged from 4.6 to 5.1 Mbp. Phylogenomic analysis placed 96 of these genomes, 351 additional Enterobacter genomes downloaded from NCBI GenBank, and six newly sequenced type strains into 19 phylogenomic groups-18 groups (A to R) in the Enterobacter cloacae complex and Enterobacter aerogenes Diverse mechanisms underlying the molecular evolutionary trajectory of these drug-resistant Enterobacter spp. were revealed, including the acquisition of an antibiotic resistance plasmid, followed by clonal spread, horizontal transfer of bla KPC -harboring plasmids between different phylogenomic groups, and repeated transposition of the bla KPC gene among different plasmid backbones. Group A, which comprises multilocus sequence type 171 (ST171), was the most commonly identified (23% of isolates). Genomic analysis showed that ST171 isolates evolved from a common ancestor and formed two different major clusters; each acquiring unique bla KPC -harboring plasmids, followed by clonal expansion. The data presented here represent the first comprehensive study of phylogenomic interrogation and the relationship between antibiotic resistance and plasmid discrimination among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp., demonstrating the genetic diversity and complexity of the molecular mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance in this

  20. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.

  1. Enterobactérias isoladas de baratas (Periplaneta americana capturadas em um hospital brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinésia A. Prado

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Isolar e identificar microrganismos em baratas capturadas em um hospital público e determinar o seu perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana. Métodos. As baratas foram capturadas nos períodos matutino e noturno, colocadas em frascos desinfetados com álcool a 70%, transferidas para um frasco estéril e levadas ao laboratório. Consideraram-se as baratas íntegras e vivas, as quais foram colocadas em solução salina estéril (0,8% e homogeneizadas. Essa solução foi semeada nos meios de cultura ágar MacConkey, caldo nutriente, infusão de cérebro e coração (ágar BHI, ágar Sabouraud e ágar manitol. As culturas foram examinadas em um estereomicroscópio para a contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias. Para a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana utilizou-se o teste de difusão de disco. Resultados. Detectou-se prevalência de 56% de enterobactérias e de 18% de estafilococos coagulase negativos. Identificaram-se 15 espécies de enterobactérias. As mais freqüentes foram Klebsiella pneumoniae (17%; Enterobacter aerogenes (14%; Serratia marcescens (13%; Hafnia alvei (12%; Enterobacter gergoviae e Enterobacter cloacae (9%; e Serratia spp. (6%. Tanto as enterobactérias quanto os estafilococos coagulase negativos apresentaram uma resistência significativa aos antimicrobianos, inclusive à oxacilina. Conclusões. A prevalência de bactérias enteropatogênicas e de estafilococos coagulase negativos isolados de baratas Periplaneta americana no hospital estudado demonstra a fragilidade das condutas adotadas tanto para o controle de vetores quanto para o uso dos antimicrobianos. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade da implementação de um programa efetivo de saneamento ambiental e do uso racional dos antimicrobianos dentro das instituições de saúde.

  2. Enterobactérias isoladas de baratas (Periplaneta americana capturadas em um hospital brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Marinésia A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Isolar e identificar microrganismos em baratas capturadas em um hospital público e determinar o seu perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana. Métodos. As baratas foram capturadas nos períodos matutino e noturno, colocadas em frascos desinfetados com álcool a 70%, transferidas para um frasco estéril e levadas ao laboratório. Consideraram-se as baratas íntegras e vivas, as quais foram colocadas em solução salina estéril (0,8% e homogeneizadas. Essa solução foi semeada nos meios de cultura ágar MacConkey, caldo nutriente, infusão de cérebro e coração (ágar BHI, ágar Sabouraud e ágar manitol. As culturas foram examinadas em um estereomicroscópio para a contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias. Para a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana utilizou-se o teste de difusão de disco. Resultados. Detectou-se prevalência de 56% de enterobactérias e de 18% de estafilococos coagulase negativos. Identificaram-se 15 espécies de enterobactérias. As mais freqüentes foram Klebsiella pneumoniae (17%; Enterobacter aerogenes (14%; Serratia marcescens (13%; Hafnia alvei (12%; Enterobacter gergoviae e Enterobacter cloacae (9%; e Serratia spp. (6%. Tanto as enterobactérias quanto os estafilococos coagulase negativos apresentaram uma resistência significativa aos antimicrobianos, inclusive à oxacilina. Conclusões. A prevalência de bactérias enteropatogênicas e de estafilococos coagulase negativos isolados de baratas Periplaneta americana no hospital estudado demonstra a fragilidade das condutas adotadas tanto para o controle de vetores quanto para o uso dos antimicrobianos. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade da implementação de um programa efetivo de saneamento ambiental e do uso racional dos antimicrobianos dentro das instituições de saúde.

  3. Phage types, antibiograms and R-plasmids of Klebsiella and Enterobacter isolated from hospital environment and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, J; Lantos, J; Fekete, J; Marjai, E

    1986-01-01

    Four-hundred and twenty-two Klebsiella strains and 294 Enterobacter strains were isolated from direct or indirect environment of hospitalized patients, from foodstuffs, foods, culinary utensils and staff in hospital and in catering establishments. Of Klebsiella, the species K. aerogenes (76.5%) of Enterobacter, the species E. cloacae (77.6%) occurred the most frequently in all specimens. Klebsiella strains were typable in 68.5%; 53.1% of the Enterobacter strains were sensitive to phage. Most of the untypable Klebsiella and Enterobacter strains and the multiresistant strains originated from screening in hospitals. Sensitive bacteria as well as those resistant to one or two antibiotics may be potentially dangerous for the patient consuming them, since they may become multiresistant due to R-plasmid transfer.

  4. [New Enterobacteriaceae found in medical bacteriology Moellerella wisconsensis, Koserella trabulsii, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Escherichia fergusonii, Enterobacter asbutiae, Rahnella aquatilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, C

    1989-01-01

    Characteristics of 6 "new" Enterobacteriaceae species, occasionally isolated from human sources: Moellerella wisconsensis, Koserella trabulsii, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Escherichia fergusonii, Rahnella aquatilis, Enterobacter asburiae are described and compared with those of closely related species.

  5. Method for Phenotypic Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Enterobacter Species in the Routine Clinical Setting ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, James Cohen; Diederen, Bram; al Naiemi, Nashwan; Fluit, Ad; Arents, Niek; Thijsen, Steven; Vlaminckx, Bart; Mouton, Johan W.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine

    2011-01-01

    In 271 Enterobacter blood culture isolates from 12 hospitals, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence varied between 0% and 30% per hospital. High prevalence was associated with dissemination, indicating the potential relevance of infection control measures. Screening with cefepime or Vitek 2, followed by a cefepime/cefepime-clavulanate Etest, was an accurate strategy for ESBL detection in Enterobacter isolates (positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 99%). PMID:21562100

  6. Pre-travel advice: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    The message of the pre-travel provider is necessarily paradoxic. First the provider lists a score of causes of illness and premature demise, and then states, "But it sounds like a great trip and I think you'll have fun." Pre-travel providers need to walk a fine line: they must encourage patients to be cautious but not paranoid, optimistic but realistic. This discussion is complicated further by the fact that risk reduction is not the only consideration; if it were, practitioners would advise patients to remain in the developed world and foray from their homes only to visit health clubs and the fruit-and-vegetable section of grocery stores. A tacit assumption in travel medicine is that some degree of acceptance of heightened risk is tolerated for the benefit of improved quality of life offered by travel abroad. The amount of risk that is reasonable to accept for a given benefit in quality of life yielded by travel cannot be quantified, however. Providers must render judgments on what is "reasonable" and what is not, and this complex decision is based on equal parts medical knowledge and intuition. At one extreme, mountaineers in Nepal have been found to have a 2.4% mortality rate per expedition [83,84]. The travel provider might make the reasonable decision to counsel these travelers to avoid that activity. These travelers most likely will ignore that advice, at which point the provider must endeavor to reduce risk to the extent possible. Other situations in which the provider should advise a change in itinerary or activities include counseling parents who plan to take an infant to high altitude or a pregnant woman who plans to scuba dive. If travelers remain cloistered in their hotel rooms, eating all meals from room service and watching CNN, then it could be suggested that they are overly risk-adverse and might consider foraying out of the hotel, despite the potential associated increased risks to health. Conversely, if travelers find themselves on motorcycles

  7. ADVICE--Educational System for Teaching Database Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovic, M.; Radivojevic, Z.; Blagojevic, V.; Bojovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Web-based educational system, ADVICE, that helps students to bridge the gap between database management system (DBMS) theory and practice. The usage of ADVICE is presented through a set of laboratory exercises developed to teach students conceptual and logical modeling, SQL, formal query languages, and normalization. While…

  8. 29 CFR 1400.735-3 - Advice and counseling service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advice and counseling service. 1400.735-3 Section 1400.735-3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND DISCIPLINE General § 1400.735-3 Advice and counseling service...

  9. Emotions in advice taking: the roles of agency and valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hooge, I.E.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Tzioti, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, advice taking has received attention in decision-making research, and some studies suggest that emotions may play a role in this process. Yet a clear account of how emotions influence advice taking is lacking. The current research introduces a parsimonious explanation by suggesting that

  10. Advice-giving in the English lingua franca classroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important pragmatic differences between the ways in which advice is given by native speakers and ... gender differences and that teacher modeling may have an effect on which available form of advice-giving a ... nation wishes to participate in global enterprises such as international finance, multi-national corporations, and ...

  11. The design, purpose, and effects of voting advice applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, Martin; Anderson, Joel; Walgrave, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    In recent electoral politics, one of the most striking internet-related developments is the increasingly widespread use of Voting Advice Applications (VAAs). In this introduction to the symposium devoted to analysing the design, purpose, and effects of voting advice applications, we briefly discuss

  12. 19 CFR 111.39 - Advice to client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advice to client. 111.39 Section 111.39 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.39 Advice to client. (a) Withheld or false information. A broker must not withhold information relative to any customs business from a client...

  13. No Effect of Writing Advice on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2018-01-01

    This article considers text comprehension through the integrated perspectives of language processing research and practical writing advice as expressed in writing guides and language policies. Such guides for instance include advice to use active constructions instead of passives and sentences instead of nominalizations. These recommended and…

  14. 5 CFR 1304.4607 - Advice to former Government employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advice to former Government employees. 1304.4607 Section 1304.4607 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST § 1304.4607 Advice to former Government employees. The Office...

  15. Advising in austerity reflections on challenging times for advice agencies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirwan, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Advising in austerity provides a lively and thought-provoking account of the conditions, consequences and challenges of advice work in the UK. It examines how advisors negotiate the private troubles of those who come to Citizens Advice Bureaux (CAB) and construct ways forward.

  16. Emotions in Advice Taking: The Roles of Agency and Valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, de I.E.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Tzioti, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, advice taking has received attention in decision-making research, and some studies suggest that emotions may play a role in this process. Yet a clear account of how emotions influence advice taking is lacking. The current research introduces a parsimonious explanation by suggesting that

  17. Bioethanol production from mannitol by a newly isolated bacterium, Enterobacter sp. JMP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Kim, Young Mi; Rhee, Hong Soon; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-05-01

    In this study a new bacterium capable of growing on brown seaweed Laminaria japonica, Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was isolated from the gut of turban shell, Batillus cornutus. In anaerobic condition, it produced high yields of ethanol (1.15 mol-EtOH mol-mannitol(-1)) as well as organic acids from mannitol, the major carbohydrate component of L. japonica. Based on carbon distribution and metabolic flux analysis, it was revealed that mannitol was more favorable than glucose for ethanol production due to their different redox states. This indicates that L. japonica is one of the promising feedstock for bioethanol production. Additionally, the mannitol dehydrogenation pathway in Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was examined and verified. Finally, an attempt was made to explore the possibility of controlling ethanol production by altering the redox potential via addition of external NADH in mannitol fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. KPC and VIM producing Enterobacter cloacae strain from a hospital in northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Marcano, Daniel; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Salgado, Nurys; Cuaical, Nirvia; Rodriguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; De Donato, Marcos

    2015-06-01

    An 83-year-old male patient is admitted to the central hospital in Cumana, Venezuela with severe urinary infection, history of hospitalizaions and prolonged antimicrobial treatments. A strain of Enterobacter cloacae was isolated showing resistance to multiple types of antibiotics (only sensitive to gentamicin), with phenotype of serine- and metallo-carbapenemases. Both, bla(VIM-2) and bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolate. This is the first report of an Enterobacteriaceae species producing both KPC carbapenemase and VIM metallo carbapenemase in Venezuela. This finding has a great clinical and epidemiological impact in the region, because of the feasibility of transferring these genes, through mobile elements to other strains of Enterobacter and to other infection-causing species of bacteria.

  19. The Complex Epidemiology of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter Infections: A Multicenter Descriptive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Amity, Keren; Coyle, Joseph R; Ackerman, Benjamin; Tal-Jasper, Ruthy; Ofer-Friedman, Hadas; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Bogan, Christopher; Lephart, Paul R; Kaplansky, Tamir; Maskit, Moran; Azouri, Tal; Zaidenstein, Ronit; Perez, Federico; Bonomo, Robert A; Kaye, Keith S; Marchaim, Dror

    2015-11-01

    The pandemic of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was primarily due to clonal spread of bla KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, thoroughly studied CRE cohorts have consisted mostly of K. pneumoniae. To conduct an extensive epidemiologic analysis of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp. (CREn) from 2 endemic and geographically distinct centers. CREn were investigated at an Israeli center (Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, January 2007 to July 2012) and at a US center (Detroit Medical Center, September 2008 to September 2009). bla KPC genes were queried by polymerase chain reaction. Repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to determine genetic relatedness. In this analysis, 68 unique patients with CREn were enrolled. Sixteen isolates (24%) were from wounds, and 33 (48%) represented colonization only. All isolates exhibited a positive Modified Hodge Test, but only 93% (27 of 29) contained bla KPC. Forty-three isolates (63%) were from elderly adults, and 5 (7.4%) were from neonates. Twenty-seven patients died in hospital (40.3% of infected patients). Enterobacter strains consisted of 4 separate clones from Assaf Harofeh Medical Center and of 4 distinct clones from Detroit Medical Center. In this study conducted at 2 distinct CRE endemic regions, there were unique epidemiologic features to CREn: (i) polyclonality, (ii) neonates accounting for more than 7% of cohort, and (iii) high rate of colonization (almost one-half of all cases represented colonization). Since false-positive Modified Hodge Tests in Enterobacter spp. are common, close monitoring of carbapenem resistance mechanisms (particularly carbapenemase production) among Enterobacter spp. is important.

  20. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to

  1. Clonality, outer-membrane proteins profile and efflux pump in KPC- producing Enterobacter sp. in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Juliana Ferraz; Rizek, Camila; Marchi, Ana Paula; Guimaraes, Thais; Miranda, Lourdes; Carrilho, Claudia; Levin, Anna S; Costa, Silvia F

    2017-03-17

    Carbapenems resistance in Enterobacter spp. has increased in the last decade, few studies, however, described the mechanisms of resistance in this bacterium. This study evaluated clonality and mechanisms of carbapenems resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. identified in three hospitals in Brazil (Hospital A, B and C) over 7-year. Antibiotics sensitivity, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR for carbapenemase and efflux pump genes were performed for all carbapenems-resistant isolates. Outer-membrane protein (OMP) was evaluated based on PFGE profile. A total of 130 isolates of Enterobacter spp were analyzed, 44/105 (41, 9%) E. aerogenes and 8/25 (32,0%) E. cloacae were resistant to carbapenems. All isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, polymyxin B and tigecycline. KPC was present in 88.6% of E. aerogenes and in all E. cloacae resistant to carbapenems. The carbapenems-resistant E. aerogenes identified in hospital A belonged to six clones, however, a predominant clone was identified in this hospital over the study period. There is a predominant clone in Hospital B and Hospital C as well. The mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems differ among subtypes. Most of the isolates co-harbored blaKPC, blaTEM and /or blaCTX associated with decreased or lost of 35-36KDa and or 39 KDa OMP. The efflux pump AcrAB-TolC gene was only identified in carbapenems-resistant E. cloacae. There was a predominant clone in each hospital suggesting that cross-transmission of carbapenems-resistant Enterobacter spp. was frequent. The isolates presented multiple mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems including OMP alteration.

  2. Identification of an operon involved in fluoride resistance in Enterobacter cloacae FRM

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Tian, Jian; Liu, Lihui; Zhu, Tao; Yu, Xiaoxia; Chu, Xiaoyu; Yao, Bin; Wu, Ningfeng; Fan, Yunliu

    2017-01-01

    Fluorine is ubiquitous and the most active non-metal element in nature. While many microorganisms have developed fluoride resistance as a result of the widespread and prolonged application of oral hygiene products, the mechanisms used by these organisms to overcome fluoride toxicity are incompletely understood. In this study, a fluoride-resistant strain, Enterobacter cloacae FRM, was identified which could grow well at a fluoride concentration of 4,000?mg/L. According to comparative genomics,...

  3. Genetic characterisation of tigecycline-resistant Enterobacter spp. in blood isolates causing bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Min Kyeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Park, Ga Eun; Kim, So Hyun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2018-01-05

    Tigecycline (TIG) is one of the most important antimicrobial agents used to treat infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, rates of TIG-resistant pathogens have increased recently. This study was conducted to identify the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and to investigate the role of efflux pumps in high-level TIG-resistant Enterobacter spp. isolates causing bacteraemia. A total of 323 Enterobacter spp. causing bacteraemia were collected from eight hospitals in various regions of South Korea. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the broth microdilution method and Etest. Expression levels of the efflux pump gene acrA and its regulators (ramA and rarA) were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Isolate relatedness was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among the 323 clinical isolates included in this study, 37 (11.5%) were TIG-non-susceptible, of which 8 isolates were highly resistant to TIG with MICs of 8mg/L (4 isolates) or 16mg/L (4 isolates). All high-level TIG-resistant isolates showed increased expression of acrA (0.93-13.3-fold) and ramA (1.4-8.2-fold). Isolates with a tigecycline MIC of 16mg/L also showed overexpression of rarA compared with TIG-susceptible isolates. In this study, overexpression of acrA, ramA and rarA was observed in high-level TIG-resistant Enterobacter spp. isolates. We suggest that rarA might be involved in the regulation of acrA overexpression in high-level TIG-resistant Enterobacter spp. isolates. Efflux pump-mediated resistance should be closely monitored because it could be indirectly attributed to the use of other antibiotics transported by the same efflux pump. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Characterization of rhamnolipids produced by non-pathogenic Acinetobacter and Enterobacter bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošková, M.; Schreiberová, O.; Ježdík, R.; Chudoba, J.; Masák, M.; Sigler, Karel; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 130, FEB 2013 (2013), s. 510-516 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/456 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pseudomonas aeruginosa * Acinetobacter calcoaceticus * Enterobacter asburiae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  5. Impact of glycerol and nitrogen concentration on Enterobacter A47 growth and exopolysaccharide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cristiana A V; Marques, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Ana R V; Antunes, Sílvia; Grandfils, Christian; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enterobacter A47 produces a fucose-containing exopolysaccharide (EPS) by cultivation in mineral medium supplemented with glycerol. EPS synthesis by Enterobacter A47 was shown to be influenced by both the initial glycerol and nitrogen concentrations and by the nutrients' feeding rate during the fed-batch phase. Initial nitrogen concentrations above 1.05g/L were detrimental for EPS synthesis: the productivity was reduced to 0.35-0.62g/Ld (compared to 1.89-2.04g/Ld under lower nitrogen concentrations) and the polymer had lower fucose content (14-17%mol, compared to 36-38%mol under lower nitrogen concentrations). On the other hand, EPS productivity was improved to 5.66g/Ld by increasing the glycerol and nitrogen feeding rates during the fed-batch phase. However, the EPS thus obtained had lower fucose (26%mol) and higher galactose (34%mol) contents, as well as lower average molecular weight (7.2×10(5)). The ability of Enterobacter A47 to synthesize EPS with different physico-chemical characteristics may be useful for the generation of biopolymers with distinct functional properties suitable for different applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fermentative hydrogen production by the newly isolated Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong-Hwan; Hyun Yoon, Jong; Eun Kyoung Ahn; Park, Tai Hyun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea); Kim, Mi-Sun [Biomass Research Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Jun Sim, Sang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea)

    2007-02-15

    A new fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from a domestic landfill and identified as Enterobacter asburiae using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization methods. The isolated bacterium, designated as Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1, is a new species that has never been examined as a potential hydrogen-producing bacterium. This study examined the hydrogen-producing ability of Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1. During fermentation, the hydrogen was mainly produced in the stationary phase. The hydrogen yield based on the formate consumption was 0.43 mol hydrogen/mol formate. This strain was able to produce hydrogen over a wide range of pH (4-7.5), with the optimum pH being pH 7. The level of hydrogen production was also affected by the initial glucose concentration, and the optimum value was found to be 25 g glucose/l. The maximum and overall hydrogen productivities were 398 and 174 ml/l/hr, respectively, at pH 7 with an initial glucose concentration of 25 g/l. This strain could produce hydrogen from glucose and many other carbon sources such as fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol. (author)

  7. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  8. Decisions and advice about infant feeding: findings from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decisions and advice about infant feeding: findings from sociological work in ... element were used to probe women's decision-making concerning infant feeding. ... Scant attention has been paid to the results of studies undertaken in other ...

  9. Antimalarial measures - type, sources of advice and compliance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-06-01

    Jun 1, 1994 ... pharmacies as well as actual behaviour in this regard and sources of advice accessed ... pharmacies and 53 'care providers' (members of travel parties). Doctors ... TPS Drug Information Services, Johannesburg. L Baker, DIP.

  10. factors associated with discharge against medical advice among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital environmental factors have a significant relationship with discharge against medical advice. A similar study ..... contractors, and by reinforcing the infection control committee this will .... Sources: Field survey, 2015. The results in Table ...

  11. The Effect of Customer Empowerment on Adherence to Expert Advice

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Nuno; Jong, Martijn; Stremersch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCustomers often receive expert advice related to their health, finances, taxes or legal procedures, to name just a few. A noble stance taken by some is that experts should empower customers to make their own decisions. In this article, we distinguish informational from decisional empowerment and study whether empowerment leads customers to adhere more or less to expert advice. We empirically test our model using a unique dataset involving 11,735 respondents in 17 countries on four...

  12. GYNOTEL: telephone advice to gynaecological surgical patients after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caljouw, Monique A A; Hogendorf-Burgers, Marja E H J

    2010-12-01

    To investigate in surgical gynaecological patients the types of health problems arising or persisting up to six weeks after discharge and the effectiveness of telephone advice. The decreasing length of hospital stay has increased the need for specific instructions about the postdischarge period. Telephone advice could be a valuable tool to address this problem. To our knowledge, postdischarge health problems and the value of telephone advice have not been investigated among gynaecological patients. Randomised controlled trial. Gynaecological patients expected to stay in the ward longer than 24 hour were invited to participate. A pilot study showed that wound healing, pain, mobility, urination, defecation and vaginal bleeding were the most common health problems postdischarge. Based on that information, guidelines were formulated that were used by trained nurses to give telephone advice to the intervention group (n=235), in addition to the usual care. The control group of gynaecological patients (n=233) received usual care only. Of all 468 participants, about 50% were operated for general gynaecology. At discharge, wound pain (56%), mobility problems (54%) and constipation (27%) were the most frequently mentioned problems in both groups. Participants who completely followed the advice with regard to wound healing (p=0.02), pain (p=0.01), vaginal bleeding (p=0.03) and mobility (p=0.04) experienced greater improvement than participants who did not follow, or only partly followed, the advice. The telephone advice appears to make a significant contribution to help gynaecological surgical patients to solve or reduce their postdischarge health problems. The positive effect of such advice can be interpreted as an improvement in the quality of life of the postoperative gynaecological patient. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Targeting the robo-advice customer: the development of a psychographic segmentation model for financial advice robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, D.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the world’s first psychographic market segmentation model that supports personalization, customer education, customer activation, and customer engagement strategies with financial advice robots. As traditional segmentation models in consumer finance primarily

  14. High frequency of silver resistance genes in invasive isolates of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, S; Dahlö, M; Tellgren-Roth, C; Schaal, W; Melhus, Å

    2017-07-01

    Silver-based products have been marketed as an alternative to antibiotics, and their consumption has increased. Bacteria may, however, develop resistance to silver. To study the presence of genes encoding silver resistance (silE, silP, silS) over time in three clinically important Enterobacteriaceae genera. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 752 bloodstream isolates from the years 1990-2010 were investigated. Age, gender, and ward of patients were registered, and the susceptibility to antibiotics and silver nitrate was tested. Clonality and single nucleotide polymorphism were assessed with repetitive element sequence-based PCR, multi-locus sequence typing, and whole-genome sequencing. Genes encoding silver resistance were detected most frequently in Enterobacter spp. (48%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (41%) and Escherichia coli 4%. Phenotypical resistance to silver nitrate was found in Enterobacter (13%) and Klebsiella (3%) isolates. The lowest carriage rate of sil genes was observed in blood isolates from the neonatology ward (24%), and the highest in blood isolates from the oncology/haematology wards (66%). Presence of sil genes was observed in international high-risk clones. Sequences of the sil and pco clusters indicated that a single mutational event in the silS gene could have caused the phenotypic resistance. Despite a restricted consumption of silver-based products in Swedish health care, silver resistance genes are widely represented in clinical isolates of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species. To avoid further selection and spread of silver-resistant bacteria with a high potential for healthcare-associated infections, the use of silver-based products needs to be controlled and the silver resistance monitored. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid by Enterobacter sp. T4384 using organic waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Deshpande, Tushar R; Chun, Jongsik; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Hyunook; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2013-02-01

    In a study of hydrogen-producing bacteria, strain T4384 was isolated from rice field samples in the Republic of Korea. The isolate was identified as Enterobacter sp. T4384 by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences. Enterobacter sp. T4384 grew at a temperature range of 10-45 degrees C and at an initial pH range of 4.5-9.5. Strain T4384 produced hydrogen at 0-6% NaCl by using glucose, fructose, and mannose. In serum bottle cultures using a complete medium, Enterobacter sp. T4384 produced 1,098 ml/l H2, 4.0 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid. In a pH-regulated jar fermenter culture with the biogas removed, 2,202 ml/l H2, 6.2 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid were produced, and the lag-phase time was 4.8 h. Strain T4384 metabolized the hydrolysate of organic waste for the production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid. The strain T4384 produced 947 ml/l H2, 3.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.2 g/l acetic acid from 6% (w/v) food waste hydrolysate; 738 ml/l H2, 4.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.8 g/l acetic acid from Miscanthus sinensis hydrolysate; and 805 ml/l H2, 5.0 g/l ethanol, and 0.7 g/l acetic acid from Sorghum bicolor hydrolysate.

  16. Caution required when relying on a colleague's advice; a comparison between professional advice and evidence from the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulshof Carel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational Physicians rely especially on advice from colleagues when answering their information demands. On the other hand, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM promotes the use of up-to-date research literature instead of experts. To find out if there was a difference between expert-based practice and EBM we compared professional advice on occupational health topics with best evidence from the literature. Methods We asked 14 occupational physicians to consult their usual information sources on 12 pre-conceived occupational health problems. The problems were presented in the form of case vignettes which contained sufficient clinical information to be used by the occupational physicians for the consultation of their experts. We had searched the literature for the best available evidence on the 12 problems, which made it possible to answer the clinical questions with a clear yes or no. Results The cases could be used by the occupational physicians as arising from their own practice. All together the occupational physicians consulted 75 different experts. Almost half of the consulted experts were near colleagues, 10% were industrial hygienists, 8% medical specialists and the rest had a varied background. Fifty three percent (95% confidence interval 42% to 65% of all professional advice was not in line with the research literature. In 18 cases (24% professional advice explicitly referred to up-to-date research literature as their used source. These cases were substantially less incorrect (17% than advice that had not mentioned the literature as a source (65% (difference 48%, 95% Confidence Interval from 27% to 69%. Conclusion Advice that occupational physicians routinely get in their daily practice differs substantially from best evidence from the literature. Occupational physicians who ask professional advice should always ask about the evidence of this advice.

  17. Caution required when relying on a colleague's advice; a comparison between professional advice and evidence from the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Frederieke; Verbeek, Jos; Hulshof, Carel; van Dijk, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Background Occupational Physicians rely especially on advice from colleagues when answering their information demands. On the other hand, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) promotes the use of up-to-date research literature instead of experts. To find out if there was a difference between expert-based practice and EBM we compared professional advice on occupational health topics with best evidence from the literature. Methods We asked 14 occupational physicians to consult their usual information sources on 12 pre-conceived occupational health problems. The problems were presented in the form of case vignettes which contained sufficient clinical information to be used by the occupational physicians for the consultation of their experts. We had searched the literature for the best available evidence on the 12 problems, which made it possible to answer the clinical questions with a clear yes or no. Results The cases could be used by the occupational physicians as arising from their own practice. All together the occupational physicians consulted 75 different experts. Almost half of the consulted experts were near colleagues, 10% were industrial hygienists, 8% medical specialists and the rest had a varied background. Fifty three percent (95% confidence interval 42% to 65%) of all professional advice was not in line with the research literature. In 18 cases (24%) professional advice explicitly referred to up-to-date research literature as their used source. These cases were substantially less incorrect (17%) than advice that had not mentioned the literature as a source (65%) (difference 48%, 95% Confidence Interval from 27% to 69%). Conclusion Advice that occupational physicians routinely get in their daily practice differs substantially from best evidence from the literature. Occupational physicians who ask professional advice should always ask about the evidence of this advice. PMID:16131405

  18. Dark fermentative hydrogen and ethanol production from biodiesel waste glycerol using a co-culture of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maru, B.T.; López, F.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Constantí, M.; Medina, F.

    2016-01-01

    In previous comparative studies, Enterobacter spH1 was selected as the best hydrogen and ethanol producer (Knothe, 2010). Here, glycerol fermentation was compared between three other strains: Escherichia coli CECT432, Escherichia coli CECT434 and Enterobacter cloacae MCM2/1. E. coli CECT432 was

  19. In vitro susceptibility and resistance phenotypes in contemporary Enterobacter isolates in a university hospital in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z; Samonis, George; Perdikis, Dimitrios; Mavromanolaki, Viktoria Eirini; Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Falagas, Matthew E

    2017-06-01

    To study the evolution in the susceptibility of Enterobacter spp. in Crete, Greece from 2010 to 2015. Non-duplicate isolates were studied using automated systems. Phenotypic confirmatory tests were applied. A total of 939 Enterobacter isolates were included. Colistin was the most active antibiotic (97.9%) followed by imipenem (96.1%), gentamicin (95.7%), tigecycline (91.8%), cefepime (89.4%), chloramphenicol (85.8%), fosfomycin (85.5%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (83.3%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (73.3%). Antibiotic resistance did not increase during the study period for most antibiotics. Lower susceptibility was observed among multidrug-resistant strains and carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates. AmpC was the most common resistant mechanism (21%); carbapenemases (3.7%) and aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (6.5%) were also detected. A significant proportion of Enterobacter spp. was resistant to several antibiotics, most notably β-lactams.

  20. Detection of New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (Encoded by blaNDM-1 ) in Enterobacter aerogenes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Xiao, Wei-Qiang; Gong, Jiao-Mei; Pan, Jun; Xu, Qing-Xia

    2017-03-01

    The increase in bla NDM -1 in Enterobacteriaceae has become a major concern worldwide. In previous study, we investigated clonal dissemination and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenem in China. We carried out retrospective surveillance for bla NDM -1 among carbapenem-resistant enterobacter strains, which were isolated from patients at our hospital by bacterial strains selection, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, species identification, and molecular detection of resistance gene. We found three bla NDM -1 -positive isolates which were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes in clinical patients in China. The bla NDM -1 -positive Enterobacter aerogenes isolates were first found. It is important to mandate prudent usage of antibiotics and implement infection control measures to control the spread of these resistant bla NDM -1 -positive strains. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enterobacter sp. LU1 as a novel succinic acid producer - co-utilization of glycerol and lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podleśny, Marcin; Jarocki, Piotr; Wyrostek, Jakub; Czernecki, Tomasz; Kucharska, Jagoda; Nowak, Anna; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2017-03-01

    Succinic acid is an important C4-building chemical platform for many applications. A novel succinic acid-producing bacterial strain was isolated from goat rumen. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Enterobacter. This is the first report of a wild bacterial strain from the genus Enterobacter that is capable of efficient succinic acid production. Co-fermentation of glycerol and lactose significantly improved glycerol utilization under anaerobic conditions, debottlenecking the utilization pathway of this valuable biodiesel waste product. Succinic acid production reached 35 g l -1 when Enterobacter sp. LU1 was cultured in medium containing 50 g l -1 of glycerol and 25 g l -1 of lactose as carbon sources. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Aerobic and heterotrophic nitrogen removal by Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27 with efficient utilization of hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Tripathy, Swetaleena; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27 exhibited simultaneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification in presence of high concentration of hydroxylamine. With the initial nitrogen concentration of 100mgL -1 h -1 , ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal efficiencies were 81%, 99.9% and 92.8%, while the corresponding maximum removal rates reached as high as 11.6, 15.1 and 11.2mgL -1 h -1 respectively. Quantitative amplification by real time PCR and enzyme assay demonstrated that hydroxylamine reductase gene (hao) is actively involved in hetrotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process of Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27. PCR primers were designed targeting amplification of hao gene from diversified environmental soil DNA. The strain Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27 significantly maintained the undetectable amount of dissolved nitrogen throughout 60days of zero water exchange fish culture experiment in domestic wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacter spp. isolates from companion animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC β-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates

  4. Bioconversion of lutein by Enterobacter hormaechei to form a new compound, 8-methyl-α-ionone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guifang; Wang, Fangfang; Sun, Jianhong; Ye, Jianbin; Mao, Duobin; Ma, Ke; Yang, Xuepeng

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the final product of the bioconversion of lutein by a novel lutein-degrading bacterium, Enterobacter hormaechei A20, and the kinetics of the process. A new product, 8-methyl-α-ionone, was resolved by GC-MS. The compound was further identified by NMR. A conversion yield of 90% was achieved by E. hormaechei in 36 h with 10 g lutein l -1 . This is the first report of the bioconversion of lutein to form 8-methyl-α-ionone. A degradation pathway is proposed.

  5. Chronological emergence of a class a carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter aerogenes in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yi Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the case of a 77-year-old, long-term, bedridden patient, with a nosocomial wound infection caused by a multidrug-resistant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogense. The isolate produced an Ambler-class A carbapenemase, which was demonstrated by the Modified Hodge test (MHT and a confirmatory inhibition test. However, no known carbapenemase genes were discovered in this isolate by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs with specific primers. New carbapenemase or other resistant mechanisms could be explored from the isolate of carbapenem-resistant E. aerogense, according to the revised criteria (CLSI, 2012.

  6. Infective endocarditis due to Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yusuke; Okugawa, Shu; Kimura, Satoshi; Makita, Eiko; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Ota, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of using a long-term combination of meropenem and amikacin to treat infective endocarditis caused by Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli, such as the E. cloacae in our study, may become possible pathogens of infective endocarditis. Our experience with this case indicates that long-term use of a combination of β-lactam and aminoglycosides might represent a suitable management option for future infective endocarditis cases due to non-Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella spp. (HACEK group) Gram-negative bacilli such as ours. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Molecular identification of aiiA homologous gene from endophytic Enterobacter species and in silico analysis of putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P S; Rai, V Ravishankar

    2014-01-03

    The aiiA homologous gene known to encode AHL- lactonase enzyme which hydrolyze the N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signaling molecules produced by Gram negative bacteria. In this study, the degradation of AHL molecules was determined by cell-free lysate of endophytic Enterobacter species. The percentage of quorum quenching was confirmed and quantified by HPLC method (pEnterobacter asburiae VT65, Enterobacter aerogenes VT66 and Enterobacter ludwigii VT70 strains. Sequence alignment analysis revealed the presence of two zinc binding sites, "HXHXDH" motif as well as tyrosine residue at the position 194. Based on known template available at Swiss-Model, putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase was constructed. The result showed that novel endophytic strains of Enterobacter genera encode the novel aiiA homologous gene and its structural importance for future study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The travel advice as an inhibiting factor of tourist movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylonopoulos Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is significantly affected by unpredictable and uncertain factors such as the occurrence of a terrorist attack, an epidemic outbreak or a natural disaster, etc. The impact of these phenomena on the tourist movement of the country or the place where the event occurred is aggravated by the way it is presented by the media both locally and internationally. The adverse climate gets worse by the issuance of travel advice that usually accompanies such phenomena and has the effect of limiting or even halting tourist flows. In order to identify and study the different types of travel advice that have been issued during international tourism crisis incidents, an internet search was carried out using keywords. Moreover, a study on the travel advice issued by major tourists' origin states, as the USA, Australia, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, etc. was carried out. Incidents (terrorist attacks, epidemics, natural disasters which had a great impact on tourism were then selected. In addition, the issuance of travel advice, their different issuing authorities, the classification level and the impact on the tourism of the country or the place in question were examined. An analysis of the reaction and the instructions of major international organizations (World Health Organization, World Tourism Organization concerning the management of such crises, directly or indirectly affecting tourism, were also analyzed. The study of the relevant websites, the international literature and the recorded incidents shows that the issuing of travel advice has negative effects on many sectors of tourism activity and is a bottleneck for tourism development. In fact, in many cases, travel advice is used by countries to exert pressure on other countries in order to achieve a desired result. Due to the enormous economic and social effects when issuing travel advice, the states proper management is necessary in order to minimize the negative consequences and avoid

  9. Hybrid modeling of microbial exopolysaccharide (EPS) production: The case of Enterobacter A47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rodolfo; von Stosch, Moritz; Portela, Rui M C; Torres, Cristiana A V; Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M; Oliveira, Rui

    2017-03-20

    Enterobacter A47 is a bacterium that produces high amounts of a fucose-rich exopolysaccharide (EPS) from glycerol residue of the biodiesel industry. The fed-batch process is characterized by complex non-linear dynamics with highly viscous pseudo-plastic rheology due to the accumulation of EPS in the culture medium. In this paper, we study hybrid modeling as a methodology to increase the predictive power of models for EPS production optimization. We compare six hybrid structures that explore different levels of knowledge-based and machine-learning model components. Knowledge-based components consist of macroscopic material balances, Monod type kinetics, cardinal temperature and pH (CTP) dependency and power-law viscosity models. Unknown dependencies are set to be identified by a feedforward artificial neural network (ANN). A semiparametric identification schema is applied resorting to a data set of 13 independent fed-batch experiments. A parsimonious hybrid model was identified that describes the dynamics of the 13 experiments with the same parameterization. The final model is specific to Enterobacter A47 but can be easily extended to other microbial EPS processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome analysis and identification of gelatinase encoded gene in Enterobacter aerogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahimi, Safiyyah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abdul; Khalid, Rozida Abdul; Repin, Rul Aisyah Mat; Lamri, Mohd Fadly; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    In this study, bioinformatic analysis towards genome sequence of E. aerogenes was done to determine gene encoded for gelatinase. Enterobacter aerogenes was isolated from hot spring water and gelatinase species-specific bacterium to porcine and fish gelatin. This bacterium offers the possibility of enzymes production which is specific to both species gelatine, respectively. Enterobacter aerogenes was partially genome sequenced resulting in 5.0 mega basepair (Mbp) total size of sequence. From pre-process pipeline, 87.6 Mbp of total reads, 68.8 Mbp of total high quality reads and 78.58 percent of high quality percentage was determined. Genome assembly produced 120 contigs with 67.5% of contigs over 1 kilo base pair (kbp), 124856 bp of N50 contig length and 55.17 % of GC base content percentage. About 4705 protein gene was identified from protein prediction analysis. Two candidate genes selected have highest similarity identity percentage against gelatinase enzyme available in Swiss-Prot and NCBI online database. They were NODE_9_length_26866_cov_148.013245_12 containing 1029 base pair (bp) sequence with 342 amino acid sequence and NODE_24_length_155103_cov_177.082458_62 which containing 717 bp sequence with 238 amino acid sequence, respectively. Thus, two paired of primers (forward and reverse) were designed, based on the open reading frame (ORF) of selected genes. Genome analysis of E. aerogenes resulting genes encoded gelatinase were identified.

  11. Statistical optimization of fermentative hydrogen production from xylose by newly isolated Enterobacter sp. CN1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Chuannan; Cui, Jingjing; Liu, Zuotao; Liu, Yuntao; Hu, Zhong [Department of Biology, Shantou University, Shantou 515063 (China); Long, Minnan [The School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Statistical experimental designs were applied for the optimization of medium constituents for hydrogen production from xylose by newly isolated Enterobacter sp. CN1. Using Plackett-Burman design, xylose, FeSO{sub 4} and peptone were identified as significant variables which highly influenced hydrogen production. The path of steepest ascent was undertaken to approach the optimal region of the three significant factors. These variables were subsequently optimized using Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were found to be xylose 16.15 g/L, FeSO{sub 4} 250.17 mg/L, peptone 2.54 g/L. Hydrogen production at these optimum conditions was 1149.9 {+-} 65 ml H{sub 2}/L medium. Under different carbon sources condition, the cumulative hydrogen volume were 1217 ml H{sub 2}/L xylose medium, 1102 ml H{sub 2}/L glucose medium and 977 ml H{sub 2}/L sucrose medium; the maximum hydrogen yield were 2.0 {+-} 0.05 mol H{sub 2}/mol xylose, 0.64 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. Fermentative hydrogen production from xylose by Enterobacter sp. CN1 was superior to glucose and sucrose. (author)

  12. Exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter sp. YG4 reduces uranium induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Nagaraj; Devasya, Rekha Punchapady; Bhagwath, Arun Ananthapadmanabha

    2016-01-01

    Uranium nephrotoxicity is a health concern with very few treatment options. Bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) possess multiple biological activities and appear as prospective candidates for treating uranium nephrotoxicity. This study focuses on the ability of an EPS produced by a bacterial strain Enterobacter sp. YG4 to reduce uranium nephrotoxicity in vivo. This bacterium was isolated from the gut contents of a slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac). Based on the aniline blue staining reaction and infrared spectral analysis, the EPS was identified as β-glucan and its molecular weight was 11.99×10(6)Da. The EPS showed hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity in vitro. To assess the protection provided by the EPS against uranium nephrotoxicity, a single dose of 2mg/kg uranyl nitrate was injected intraperitoneally to albino Wistar rats. As intervention, the EPS was administered orally (100mg/kg/day) for 4 consecutive days. The rats were sacrificed on the fifth day and analyses were conducted. Increased serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels and histopathological alterations in kidneys were observed in uranyl nitrate treated animals. All these alterations were reduced with the administration of Enterobacter sp. YG4 EPS, emphasizing a novel approach in treating uranium nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Occurrence of Enterobacter hormaechei carrying blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biwei; Feng, Yu; McNally, Alan; Zong, Zhiyong

    2018-02-01

    Three carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) were recovered from different patients in a hospital. All 3 isolates carried 2 carbapenemase genes bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1 . A study was performed to characterize their relatedness and to investigate possible links among the patients. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the isolates were Enterobacter hormaechei and belonged to ST177 of the ECC. There were 19-142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the isolates, suggesting that the isolates were likely from a central reservoir, which might have existed for some time. bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1 were carried on 2 different IncF-type plasmids in the isolates. The 3 bla NDM-1 -carrying plasmids were almost identical and were self-transmissible, while the bla KPC-2 -carrying plasmids were only transmissible in the presence of the bla NDM-1 -carrying plasmid. The source of and direct links among them were not identified, suggesting a hospital transmission of a common multidrug resistant strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel trehalose synthase gene from Enterobacter hormaechei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ming

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trehalose synthase (TreS which converts maltose to trehalose is considered to be a potential biocatalyst for trehalose production. This enzymatic process has the advantage of simple reaction and employs an inexpensive substrate. Therefore, new TreS producing bacteria with suitable enzyme properties are expected to be isolated from extreme environment. Results Six TreS producing strains were isolated from a specimen obtained from soil of the Tibetan Plateau using degenerate PCR. A novel treS gene from Enterobacter hormaechei was amplified using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. The gene contained a 1626 bp open reading frame encoding 541 amino acids. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant TreS was purified and characterized. The purified TreS had a molecular mass of 65 kDa and an activity of 18.5 U/mg. The optimum temperature and pH for the converting reaction were 37°C and 6, respectively. Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+and SDS inhibited the enzyme activity at different levels whereas Mn2+ showed an enhancing effect by 10%. Conclusion In this study, several TreS producing strains were screened from a source of soil bacteria. The characterization of the recombinant TreS of Enterobacter hormaechei suggested its potential application. Consequently, a strategy for isolation of TreS producing strains and cloning of novel treS genes from natural sources was demonstrated.

  15. Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M DeAngelis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 was initially cultivated based on anaerobic growth on lignin as sole carbon source. The source of the isolated bacteria was from tropical forest soils that decompose litter rapidly with low and fluctuating redox potentials, making it likely that bacteria using oxygen-independent enzymes play an important role in decomposition. We have used transcriptomics and proteomics to examine the increased growth of the anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 when grown on media amended with lignin compared to unamended growth. Proteomics revealed accelerated xylose uptake and metabolism under lignin-amended growth, and lignin degradation via the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway, catalase/peroxidase enzymes, and the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase proteins. We also observed increased production of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, other electron transport chain proteins, and ATP synthase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. We detected significant lignin degradation over time by absorbance, and also used metabolomics to demonstrate increased xylose utilization in lignin-amended compared to unamended growth. Our data shows the advantages of a multi-omics approach, where incomplete pathways identified by genomics were completed, and new observations made on coping with poor carbon availability. The fast growth, high efficiency and specificity of enzymes employed in bacterial anaerobic litter deconstruction makes these soils useful templates for improving biofuel production.

  16. Multiple brain abscesses due to Enterobacter cloacae in an immune-competent child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi G. Saini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscesses due to Enterobacteriaceae in immune-competent children are rare, and those due to Enterobacter cloacae are even rarer. We report an interesting case of community-acquired E. cloacae neuroinfection resulting in multiple brain abscesses in a young child with no underlying risk-factors. A 10 year-old-boy presented with low-grade fever, headache, neck pain and progressive deterioration of sensorium. On examination, he was conscious but drowsy with photophobia, normal fundii, meningeal signs, mild hypertonia, brisk muscle stretch reflexes and extensor plantar responses. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed bilateral, multiple pyogenic abscesses. Culture of the abscess material aspirated at the time of surgical drainage showed growth of E. cloacae. He received intravenous imipenem for 18 weeks guided by clinical and radiological response. A pragmatic approach combining early surgical drainage, targeted antimicrobial therapy and patient-tailored duration based on the clinico-radiological response is needed in such difficult cases. Keywords: Neuroinfection, Enterobacter, Brain abscess, Pyogenic, Carbapenems

  17. Production of L-lactic acid from metabolically engineered strain of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2017-07-01

    In this study, L-lactic acid production was investigated from metabolically engineered strain of E. aerogenes ATCC 29007. The engineered strain E. aerogenes SUMI01 (Δpta) was generated by the deletion of phosphate acetyltransferase (pta) gene from the chromosome of E. aerogenes ATCC 29007 and deletion was confirmed by colony PCR. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, at 37°C and pH 6 for 84h, the L-lactic acid produced by engineered strain E. aerogenes SUMI01 (Δpta) in flask fermentation using 100g/L mannitol as the carbon source was 40.05g/L as compared to that of the wild type counterpart 20.70g/L. At the end of the batch fermentation in bioreactor the production of L-lactic acid reached to 46.02g/L and yield was 0.41g/g by utilizing 112.32g/L mannitol. This is the first report regarding the production of L-lactic acid from Enterobacter species. We believe that this result may provide valuable guidelines for further engineering Enterobacter strain for the improvement of L-lactic acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Sharma, Deepak; Varney, Rebecca; Simmons, Blake A.; Isern, Nancy G.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Robinson, Errol W.

    2013-08-29

    The anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 was initially cultivated based on anaerobic growth on lignin as sole carbon source. The source of the isolated bacteria was from tropical forest soils that decompose litter rapidly with low and fluctuating redox potentials, making it likely that bacteria using oxygen-independent enzymes play an important role in decomposition. We have examined differential expression of the anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 during growth on lignin. After 48 hours of growth, we used transcriptomics and proteomics to define the enzymes and other regulatory machinery that these organisms use to degrade lignin, as well as metabolomics to measure lignin degradation and monitor the use of lignin and iron as terminal electron acceptors that facilitate more efficient use of carbon. Proteomics revealed accelerated xylose uptake and metabolism under lignin-amended growth, and lignin degradation via the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway, catalase/peroxidase enzymes, and the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase proteins. We also observed increased production of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, other electron transport chain proteins, and ATP synthase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Our data shows the advantages of a multi-omics approach, where incomplete pathways identified by genomics were completed, and new observations made on coping with poor carbon availability. The fast growth, high efficiency and specificity of enzymes employed in bacterial anaerobic litter deconstruction makes these soils useful templates for improving biofuel production.

  19. A halotolerant Enterobacter sp. displaying ACC deaminase activity promotes rice seedling growth under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anumita; Ghosh, Pallab Kumar; Pramanik, Krishnendu; Mitra, Soumik; Soren, Tithi; Pandey, Sanjeev; Mondal, Monohar Hossain; Maiti, Tushar Kanti

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is proven to be hampered by the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of stress-induced ethylene under salinity stress. One-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the direct precursor of ethylene synthesized by plants. Bacteria possessing ACC deaminase activity can use ACC as a nitrogen source preventing ethylene production. Several salt-tolerant bacterial strains displaying ACC deaminase activity were isolated from rice fields, and their plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties were determined. Among them, strain P23, identified as an Enterobacter sp. based on phenotypic characteristics, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry data and the 16S rDNA sequence, was selected as the best-performing isolate for several PGP traits, including phosphate solubilization, IAA production, siderophore production, HCN production, etc. Enterobacter sp. P23 was shown to promote rice seedling growth under salt stress, and this effect was correlated with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes and stress-induced ethylene. Isolation of an acdS mutant strain enabled concluding that the reduction in stress-induced ethylene content after inoculation of strain P23 was linked to ACC deaminase activity. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Board advice following publication of the 1990 Recommendations of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published new Recommendations and the Board has a statutory duty to advise Government and those with responsibilities for radiation protection on the acceptability to and the applicability in the UK of those Recommendations. The Board wishes to consult widely before finalising the advice which is proposed in this document. In general, the Board endorses the conceptual framework for radiological protection recommended by ICRP. In particular, the distinction between practices and intervention is useful and is consistent with the way in which the Board has presented its recent advice. A major new concept is that of a constraint. The Board believes that the introduction of constraints provides a powerful method for improving protection against ionising radiation. The advice in this consultative document is for maximum generic values of dose constraints for both workers and the public. Finally the Board proposes to endorse the use of the radiological quantities recommended by ICRP. (author)

  1. Board advice following publication of the 1990 Recommendations of ICRP

    CERN Document Server

    United Kingdom. At. Energy Res. Establ. Nat. Radiolog. Protect. Board. Harwell

    1991-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published new Recommendations and the board has a statutory duty to advise Government and those with responsibilities for radiation protection on the acceptability to and the applicability in the UK of those Recommendations. The Board wishes to consult widely before finalising the advice which is proposed in this document. In general, the Board endorses the conceptual framework for radiological protection recommended by ICRP. In particular, the distinction between practices and intervention is useful and is consistent with the way in which the Board has presented its recent advice. A major new concept is that of a constraint. The Board believes that the introduction of constraints provides a powerful method for improving protection against ionising radiation. The advice in this consultative document is for maximum generic values of dose constraints for both workers and the public. Finally the Board proposes to endorse the use of the radiologic...

  2. Advice Complexity of the Online Induced Subgraph Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komm, Dennis; Královič, Rastislav; Královič, Richard

    2016-01-01

    of the input can influence the solution quality. We evaluate the information in a quantitative way by considering the best possible advice of given size that describes the unknown input. Using a result from Boyar et al. we give a tight trade-off relationship stating that, for inputs of length n, roughly n...... subgraph problem, preemption does not significantly help by giving a lower bound of Omega(n/(c^2\\log c)) on the bits of advice that are needed to obtain competitive ratio c, where c is any increasing function bounded from above by \\sqrt{n/\\log n}. We also give a linear lower bound for c close to 1....... these problems by investigating a generalized problem: for an arbitrary but fixed hereditary property, find some maximal induced subgraph having the property. We investigate this problem from the point of view of advice complexity, i.e. we ask how some additional information about the yet unrevealed parts...

  3. Patient characteristics associated with receipt of lifestyle behavior advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, Leonor; Svetkey, Laura P; Ayotte, Brian J; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2009-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviors such as reducing weight if overweight or obese, reducing salt intake, exercising, reducing alcohol intake, quitting smoking, and eating a healthy diet are related to the prevention and control of chronic diseases. However the amount of lifestyle advice provided by clinicians has been declining over the last decade. In 2002, a telephone survey was conducted to assess the quality of preventive care offered by health care providers. The study was a cross-sectional observational study of a randomly selected sample of 516 diverse individuals in Durham County, North Carolina. Information regarding age, sex, race, education, health conditions, and self-reported receipt of lifestyle advice was examined in the study. The odds of receiving advice to engage in preventive lifestyle behaviors were significantly higher for those with a pre-existing diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension and for participants reporting poor health status. For example, the odds of receiving advice to control or lose weight was 8.32 (95% CI, 2.65, 26.75) among individuals reporting a diagnosis of diabetes. Similarly, the odds of reporting "receiving advice to reduce salt intake" was 6.97 (95% CI, 3.74, 13.00) among subjects reporting a diagnosis of hypertension. The results are from a cross-sectional study of a sample of individuals in only one county. Additionally, the results are based on patient self-reported information, which could be subject to recall and social desirability bias. Patients with identified health problems were more likely than others to report being advised to adopt healthy lifestyle recommendations. Future research should examine methods to encourage health care providers to offer lifestyle advice to those without pre-existing illness.

  4. Determinants of physical activity frequency and provider advice during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Eilann C; Forbes, Peter W; Oken, Emily; Belfort, Mandy B

    2017-09-05

    Our aims were to (1) describe the frequency of physical activity and prenatal healthcare provider advice about physical activity during pregnancy and (2) examine determinants and correlates of 3rd trimester physical activity and receipt of physical activity advice. We analyzed data from the 2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. We studied 2669 women from North Carolina and Colorado with data on physical activity frequency in the 3 months prior to pregnancy and during the 3rd trimester and 1584 women from Oklahoma with data on provider advice regarding physical activity during pregnancy. Respondents reported physical activity, defined as 30 min or more of exercise/physical activity (excluding vocationally related activity), in in these categories: pregnancy was strongly associated with low likelihood of ACOG guideline adherence in the 3rd trimester (aOR 0.10, 95% CU 0.04, 0.30 vs. 1-4 days/week). Underweight women were more likely to adhere to ACOG guidelines than normal weight women (aOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.36, 3.79). Overweight women were more likely to receive physical activity advice (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.3, 6.3 vs. normal weight), but obese women were not (aOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.4, 1.2). Few women meet ACOG guideline criteria for physical activity during pregnancy. Improving physical activity and weight status prior to pregnancy may improve activity levels during pregnancy. Nearly one third did not receive advice about physical activity during prenatal care. Obese women were no more likely to receive advice than their normal weight counterparts, indicating the need for targeted physical activity counseling in this population.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter sp. Sa187, an Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from the Desert Plant Indigofera argentea

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Alam, Intikhab; Geurts, Rene; Bisseling, Ton; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Hirt, Heribert; Saad, Maged

    2017-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. Sa187 is a plant endophytic bacterium, isolated from root nodules of the desert plant Indigofera argentea, collected from the Jizan region of Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the genome sequence of Sa187, highlighting several genes involved in plant growth–promoting activity and environmental adaption.

  6. Characterization of the population structure, drug resistance mechanisms and plasmids of the community-associated Enterobacter cloacae complex in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Kai; Yu, Wei; Cao, Xiaoli; Shen, Ping; Lu, Haifeng; Luo, Qixia; Rossen, John W. A.; Xiao, Yonghong

    Objectives: To investigate the population structure, drug resistance mechanisms and plasmids of community-associated Enterobacter cloacae complex (CA-ECC) isolates in China. Methods: Sixty-two CA-ECC isolates collected from 31 hospitals across China were typed by hsp60 typing and MLST. ESBL and

  7. Draft genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. Sa187, an endophytic bacterium isolated from the desert plant Indigofera argentea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafi, Feras F.; Alam, Intikhab; Geurts, Rene; Bisseling, Ton; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Hirt, Heribert; Saad, Maged M.

    2017-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. Sa187 is a plant endophytic bacterium, isolated from root nodules of the desert plant Indigofera argentea, collected from the Jizan region of Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the genome sequence of Sa187, highlighting several genes involved in plant growth-promoting activity and

  8. Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 possessing high heavy-metal resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.-B.; Shi, J.-J.; Wang, C.-H.; Chang, J.-S.

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate biosorption kinetics and equilibria of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) ions using the biomass of Enterobacter sp. J1 isolated from a local industry wastewater treatment plant. Efficiency of metal ion recovery from metal-loaded biomass to regenerate the biosorbent was also determined. The results show that Enterobacter sp. J1 was able to uptake over 50 mg of Pb per gram of dry cell, while having equilibrium adsorption capacities of 32.5 and 46.2 mg/g dry cell for Cu and Cd, respectively. In general, Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe biosorption isotherm fairly well, except that prediction of Pb adsorption was relatively poor with Langmuir model, suggesting a different mechanism for Pb biosorption. Adjusting the pH value to 3.0 led to nearly complete desorption of Cd from metal-loaded biomass, while over 90% recovery of Pb and Cu ions was obtained at pH ≤ 2. After four repeated adsorption/desorption cycles, biomass of Enterobacter sp. J1 retained 75, 79 and 90% of original capacity for adsorption of Pb, Cu and Cd, respectively, suggesting good reusability of the biosorbent. A combinative model was proposed to describe the kinetics of heavy-metal adsorption by Enterobacter sp. J1 and the model appeared to have an excellent prediction of the experimental data. The model simulation results also seemed to suggest that intracellular accumulation may occur during the uptake of Pb

  9. Plant growth promotion and root colonization by EPS producing Enterobacter sp. RZS5 under heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, R Z; Patel, P R; Shaikh, S S

    2015-02-01

    The heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from field soil and identified as Enterobacter sp. RZS5 tolerates a high concentration (100-2000 μM) of various heavy metal ions such as Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, CO2+ and Fe2+ when grown in such environment and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we have demonstrated EPS production by Enterobacter sp. RZS5 during 60 h of growth in yeast extract mannitol broth (YEMB). The yield increased by two fold after the addition of 60 μM of Ca2+; 50 μM of Fe2+ and 60 μM of Mg2+ ions in YEMB, and the optimization of physico-chemical parameters. EPS was extracted with 30% (v/v) of isopropanol as against the commonly used 50% (v/v) isopropanol method. EPS-rich broth promoted seed germination, shoot height, root length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seed and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed. The higher colony-forming unit of Enterobacter sp. in soil inoculated with EPS rich broth of Enterobacter sp. indicated the root colonizing potential and rhizosphere competence of the isolate. The FTIR spectra of the EPS extract confirmed the presence of the functional group characteristics of EPS known to exhibit a high binding affinity towards certain metal ions. This overall growth and vigour in plants along with the effective root colonization, reflected the potential of the isolate as an efficient bio-inoculant in bioremediation.

  10. Association of Enterobacter cloacae and other bacteria with onion bulb rot in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 1.6 million metric tons of onion bulbs are produced annually in the Pacific Northwest USA. Bulb decay can be a major problem and is caused by a variety of plant pathogens. Onion bulbs exhibiting symptoms of bacterial rot were sampled to determine the causal agents. Enterobacter cloacae...

  11. Method for phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in enterobacter species in the routine clinical setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, J.C.; Diederen, B.; Al Naiemi, N.; Fluit, A.; Arents, N.; Thijsen, S.; Vlaminckx, B.; Mouton, J.W.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 271 Enterobacter blood culture isolates from 12 hospitals, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence varied between 0% and 30% per hospital. High prevalence was associated with dissemination, indicating the potential relevance of infection control measures. Screening with cefepime or

  12. Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 possessing high heavy-metal resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W.-B. [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chung Hwa College of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Shi, J.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-H. [Department of Biological Engineering, Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: changjs@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2006-06-30

    This study was undertaken to investigate biosorption kinetics and equilibria of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) ions using the biomass of Enterobacter sp. J1 isolated from a local industry wastewater treatment plant. Efficiency of metal ion recovery from metal-loaded biomass to regenerate the biosorbent was also determined. The results show that Enterobacter sp. J1 was able to uptake over 50 mg of Pb per gram of dry cell, while having equilibrium adsorption capacities of 32.5 and 46.2 mg/g dry cell for Cu and Cd, respectively. In general, Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe biosorption isotherm fairly well, except that prediction of Pb adsorption was relatively poor with Langmuir model, suggesting a different mechanism for Pb biosorption. Adjusting the pH value to 3.0 led to nearly complete desorption of Cd from metal-loaded biomass, while over 90% recovery of Pb and Cu ions was obtained at pH {<=} 2. After four repeated adsorption/desorption cycles, biomass of Enterobacter sp. J1 retained 75, 79 and 90% of original capacity for adsorption of Pb, Cu and Cd, respectively, suggesting good reusability of the biosorbent. A combinative model was proposed to describe the kinetics of heavy-metal adsorption by Enterobacter sp. J1 and the model appeared to have an excellent prediction of the experimental data. The model simulation results also seemed to suggest that intracellular accumulation may occur during the uptake of Pb.

  13. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter sp. Sa187, an Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from the Desert Plant Indigofera argentea

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2017-02-17

    Enterobacter sp. Sa187 is a plant endophytic bacterium, isolated from root nodules of the desert plant Indigofera argentea, collected from the Jizan region of Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the genome sequence of Sa187, highlighting several genes involved in plant growth–promoting activity and environmental adaption.

  15. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase in Enterobacter spp.--evaluation of six phenotypic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Miranda, Keite da Silva; Palmeiro, Jussara Kasuko; Conte, Danieli; Maia, Fernanda Valverde; Reason, Iara Taborda de Messias; Monteiro, Cristina Leise; Dalla-Costa, Libera Maria

    2012-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are plasmid-mediated enzymes that hydrolyze cephalosporins and monobactams. The lack of a standard method to detect ESBL in Enterobacter spp. has led to underestimating its frequency. The aim of this study was to evaluate ESBL detection in Enterobacter spp. By the double-disk synergy test (DDST) and combined disk test (CDT) assay using cefepime, cefotaxime, and ceftazime as substrates for ESBL, plus AmpC inhibitors in different associations. A total of 83 Enterobacter spp. ESBL and 31 non-ESBL Enterobacter spp. were tested, and a cutoff point ≥3 mm was defined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for combined disc methods. All tests showed 100% specificity. The sensitivity was 89.2% for DDST and CDT without AmpC inibitor, 90.4% in the combined disc test in Mueller-Hinton agar containing phenylboronic acid (CDT-PBAA), and 94% in the combined disc test in Mueller-Hinton agar containing cloxacillin (CDT-CLXA). Cefepime was the best substrate, mainly when AmpC inhibitors were not used. However, superior results were achieved when all cephalosporins were evaluated together. In conclusion, to improve ESBL detection in Enterobacter spp., some modifications in phenotypic tests are needed, such as to reduce the distance between the discs to 20 mm in DDST, to use a cutoff point for ≥3 mm on the CDT, and to include a cefepime disk or an inhibitor of AmpC in all tests.

  16. Sense about Sex: Media, Sex Advice, Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Feona; Barker, Meg John; Boynton, Petra; Hancock, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The media are widely acknowledged as important in sex and relationship education, but they are usually associated with "bad" effects on young people in contrast to the "good" knowledge represented by more informational and educational formats. In this paper we look at sex advice giving in newspapers, magazines and television in…

  17. An Evaluation of an Occupational Health Advice Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, P.; Ford, Norma J.; Murphy, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to identify the profile of service users of an occupational health (OH) support service and establish areas of need, and to gather client feedback on the experience of participating in the support service and perceived outcomes and the impact of the advice received. Design and Setting: We carried out…

  18. Use and preference of advice on small children's food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey...

  19. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…

  20. 21 CFR 14.174 - Advice and recommendations in writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specific drug or a class of drugs are ordinarily in the form of a written report. The report may consist of the approved minutes of the meeting or a separate written report. The report responds to the specific... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advice and recommendations in writing. 14.174...

  1. Advice for Writing a Thesis (Based on What Examiners Do)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Clinton

    2017-01-01

    In the article, "What examiners do: What thesis students should know", we identified 11 things that thesis examiners do as they read and judge a thesis. But, we left a gap in the research: knowing this, What should thesis students do to write for their examiners? In this article, I fill the gap. The advice for thesis students is: first,…

  2. Web accessibility practical advice for the library and information professional

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Offers an introduction to web accessibility and usability for information professionals, offering advice on the concerns relevant to library and information organizations. This book can be used as a resource for developing staff training and awareness activities. It will also be of value to website managers involved in web design and development.

  3. Personalized nutrition advice : an everyday-life perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents societal preconditions for Personalized Nutrition Advice (PNA) that result from an everyday-life perspective on this innovative approach. Generally, PNA is regarded as promising, because it provides users with highly specific information on individual health risks and benefits

  4. Provision of RPA advice to users of minor radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.; Anderson, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The problems of providing cost effective Radiation Protection Supervisor (RPS) training and appropriate storage for minor radioactive sources are discussed. Threshold limits of radioactive holdings are proposed, above which an RPS should be formally trained and specialised source storage facilities provided. Proposals are made for the provision of practical radiation protection advice without need of a detailed hazard assessment. (author)

  5. 18 CFR 388.104 - Informal advice from Commission staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission staff. 388.104 Section 388.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Commission staff. (a) The Commission staff provides informal advice and assistance to the general public and... expressed by the staff do not represent the official views of the Commission, but are designed to aid the...

  6. Discharge from hospital against medical advice among paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty eight (87.5%) of the 32 children whose social class were available came from low social class. Conclusions: Discharge against medical advice is not infrequent in the study population. We recommend health education and free medical care for under-five children and comprehensive implementation of National ...

  7. The Effect of Customer Empowerment on Adherence to Expert Advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M.A. Camacho (Nuno); M.G. de Jong (Martijn); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCustomers often receive expert advice related to their health, finances, taxes or legal procedures, to name just a few. A noble stance taken by some is that experts should empower customers to make their own decisions. In this article, we distinguish informational from decisional

  8. Women and Heart Disease: Sharing Advice from the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women and Heart Disease Sharing Advice From The Heart Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table of Contents This ... inspired you to get involved in the American Heart Association's Go Red For Women movement and Red ...

  9. General physical health advice for people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Graeme; Clifton, Andrew V; Xia, Jun; White, Margueritte M

    2014-03-28

    There is currently much focus on provision of general physical health advice to people with serious mental illness and there has been increasing pressure for services to take responsibility for providing this. To review the effects of general physical healthcare advice for people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (last update search October 2012) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and registries of Clinical Trials. There is no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. All randomised clinical trials focusing on general physical health advice for people with serious mental illness.. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a fixed-effect model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Seven studies are now included in this review. For the comparison of physical healthcare advice versus standard care we identified six studies (total n = 964) of limited quality. For measures of quality of life one trial found no difference (n = 54, 1 RCT, MD Lehman scale 0.20, CI -0.47 to 0.87, very low quality of evidence) but another two did for the Quality of Life Medical Outcomes Scale - mental component (n = 487, 2 RCTs, MD 3.70, CI 1.76 to 5.64). There was no difference between groups for the outcome of death (n = 487, 2 RCTs, RR 0.98, CI 0.27 to 3.56, low quality of evidence). For service use two studies presented favourable results for health advice, uptake of ill-health prevention services was significantly greater in the advice group (n = 363, 1 RCT, MD 36.90, CI 33.07 to 40.73) and service use: one or more primary

  10. Whole genome sequence of Enterobacter ludwigii type strain EN-119T, isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gengmi; Hu, Zonghai; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Bing; Wu, Lijuan

    2015-04-01

    Enterobacter ludwigii strain EN-119(T) is the type strain of E. ludwigii, which belongs to the E. cloacae complex (Ecc). This strain was first reported and nominated in 2005 and later been found in many hospitals. In this paper, the whole genome sequencing of this strain was carried out. The total genome size of EN-119(T) is 4952,770 bp with 4578 coding sequences, 88 tRNAs and 10 rRNAs. The genome sequence of EN-119(T) is the first whole genome sequence of E. ludwigii, which will further our understanding of Ecc. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wenyu; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Sun, Bing; Chen, Yu.; Liu, Minhui [Department of Biochemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-01-15

    Enterobacter aerogenes W-23 bacteria exhibiting hydrogen production (HP) ability were exposed to He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm) to improve the HP ability. Upon the optimum irradiation dosage (18 mW for 22.2 min), a stable positive mutant strain E. aerogenes HB-5M was obtained. The maximum specific rate of HP of the mutant strain was 0.042h{sup -1}, which was about twice that of the wild strain. It was suggested that the higher HP ability of the mutant strain might be presumably attributed to the enhancement of hydrogenase activity. In addition, the kinetic parameters of cell growth, substrate consumption and HP of the wild strain and its mutant strain were regressed to simulate the fermentation process of E. aerogenes. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. (author)

  12. Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5, a Nickel Resistant Bacterium for Possible Bioremediation of Nickel Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anirudha; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Nickel resistant bacterial strain Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5 was isolated and showed resistance up to 15 mM and could remove Ni optimally better at 37 degrees C and pH 7. Maximum removal was found at initial concentration of 0.5 to 2 mM, however, growth and Ni removal were affected by other heavy metals. Major amount of the metal was accumulated in the membrane fractions and certain negatively charged groups were found responsible for Ni binding. KUNi5 could also produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, indole-acetic acid and siderophore. It seems that KUNi5 could be a possible candidate for Ni detoxification and plant growth promotion in Ni-contaminated field.

  13. Nosocomial outbreak of Enterobacter gergoviae bacteraemia in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeswire, R; Thong, K L; Puthucheary, S D

    2003-04-01

    A nosocomial outbreak of bacteraemia, caused by Enterobacter gergoviae infected 11 babies, nine of whom were premature, and was investigated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a general hospital in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The strain that was isolated from the babies was also isolated from the dextrose saline used for the dilution of parenteral antibiotics and from the hands of a healthcare worker on duty in the nursery. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of Xba I-digested chromosomal DNA confirmed a possible cross-contamination of parenteral dextrose saline and the healthcare worker. Prompt and effective control measures were initiated within NICU and the nosocomial infection of E. gergoviae was brought to an abrupt end. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak of E. gergoviae in the NICU in a hospital in the state of Johor, Malaysia.

  14. Enhanced dark hydrogen fermentation by addition of ferric oxide nanoparticles using Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-05-01

    Ferric oxide nanoparticles (FONPs) were used to facilitate dark hydrogen fermentation using Enterobacter aerogenes. The hydrogen yield of glucose increased from 164.5±2.29 to 192.4±1.14mL/g when FONPs concentration increased from 0 to 200mg/L. SEM images of E. aerogenes demonstrated the existence of bacterial nanowire among cells, suggesting FONPs served as electron conduits to enhance electron transfer. TEM showed cellular internalization of FONPs, indicating hydrogenase synthesis and activity was potentially promoted due to the released iron element. When further increasing FONPs concentration to 400mg/L, the hydrogen yield of glucose decreased to 147.2±2.54mL/g. Soluble metabolic products revealed FONPs enhanced acetate pathway of hydrogen production, but weakened ethanol pathway. This shift of metabolic pathways allowed more nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for reducing proton to hydrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cloning and characterization of newly isolated lipase from Enterobacter sp. Bn12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh, Parisa; Yakhchali, Bagher; Karkhane, Ali Asghar

    2014-01-01

    A mesophilic Enterobacter sp. Bn12 producing an alkaline thermostable lipase was isolated from soil in Tehran, Iran. The lipase gene (ELBn12) was identified from a genomic library. Sequence analysis of the DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 879 bp encoding a lipase with a molecular mass of 31.3 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 96% identity with a lipase of Enterobacter sp. Ag1 and the identity of their DNA sequences was 88.9%. ELBn12 belongs to the lipase subfamily I.1 and its catalytic triad consists of Ser82, Asp237 and His259. The lipase was expressed in Escherichia coli (BL21) pLysS and partially purified by anion exchange chromatography. The maximum activity of ELBn12 was obtained at temperature of 60 °C and pH 8.0 towards tricaprylin (C8) and its specific activity was around 2900 U/mg. ELBn12 was stable within a broad pH range from 6.0 to 11.0. The enzyme showed high stability in both polar and nonpolar organic solvents at 50% (v/v). The lipase activity was enhanced in the presence of 10 mM of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+), while heavy metals (Fe(3+) and Zn(2+)) had strong inhibitory effect. ELBn12 showed high activity in the presence of 1% (w/v) nonionic surfactants, however ionic surfactants inhibited the lipolytic activity. ELBn12 characteristics show that it has a potential to be used in various industrial processes.

  16. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized by chemical methods but biological synthesis adds market value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive component of agricultural crops, is plentiful in corn hulls, cereal bran, and sugar-beet pulp. Two Enterobacter strains, E. soli, and E. aerogenes, accumulated 550-600 ppm amounts of 4-VG when grown in media containing 1,000 ppm ferulic acid; no accumulations were observed with the other strains. Decreasing the amount of ferulic acid present in the media increased the conversion efficiency. When ferulic acid was supplied in 500, 250, or 125 ppm amounts E. aerogenes converted ~72 % of the ferulic acid present to 4-VG while E. soli converted ~100 % of the ferulic acid to 4-VG when supplied with 250 or 125 ppm amounts of ferulic acid. Also, lowering the pH improved the conversion efficiency. At pH 5.0 E. aerogenes converted ~84 % and E. soli converted ~100 % of 1,000 ppm ferulic acid to 4-VG. Only small, 1-5 ppm, accumulations of vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid were observed. E. soli has a putative phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) that is 168 amino acids long and is similar to PADs in other enterobacteriales; this protein is likely involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to 4-VG. E. soli or E. aerogenes might be useful as a means of biotransforming ferulic acid to 4-VG.

  17. Effect of some environmental parameters on fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae DM11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, K.; Kumar, A.; Das, D. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Biotechnology, Fermentation Technology Laboratory

    2006-06-15

    This study addressed the issue of using biological systems for hydrogen production as an environmentally sound alternative to conventional thermochemical and electrochemical processes. In particular, it examined the potential for anaerobic fermentation for biological hydrogen production and the possibility of coupling gaseous energy generation with simultaneous treatment of biodegradable waste materials. The study focused on hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation using Enterobacter cloacae DM11, a Gram-negative, motile facultative anaerobe. Although hydrogen production by these bacteria depends on many environmental parameters, there is very little information on the effects of these factors in the hydrogen production potential of this organism. For that reason, this study examined the effect of initial medium pH, reaction temperature, initial glucose concentration, and iron (Fe2+) concentration on the fermentative production of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production was carried out by Enterobacter cloacae DM11, using glucose as the substrate. Batch cultivations were performed in a 500 ml custom-designed vertical tubular bioreactor. The maximum molar yield of hydrogen was 3.31 mol (mol glucose){sub 1}. The rate and cumulative volume of hydrogen production decreased at higher initial glucose concentration. The pH of 6.5 at a temperature of 37 degrees C was most suitable for maximum rate of production of hydrogen in batch fermentation. The addition of Fe2+ on hydrogen production had a marginal enhancing effect on total hydrogen production. A simple model developed from the modified Gompertz equation was used to fit the cumulative hydrogen production curve and to estimate the hydrogen production potential, maximum production rate, and lag time. It was concluded that these study results could be used in the development of a high rate continuous hydrogen production process. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Caution required when relying on a colleague's advice; a comparison between professional advice and evidence from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Frederieke; Verbeek, Jos; Hulshof, Carel; van Dijk, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Background: Occupational Physicians rely especially on advice from colleagues when answering their information demands. On the other hand, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) promotes the use of up-to-date research literature instead of experts. To find out if there was a difference between expert-based

  19. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing.

  20. NDM-1 encoded by a pNDM-HN380-like plasmid pNDM-BJ03 in clinical Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yang; Liu, Wei; Liang, Hui; Zhao, Shulong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jia; Jin, Cheng; Hu, Hongyan

    2018-02-01

    A carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae hhy03 with a bla NDM-1 and bla SHV-12 -coharboring plasmid was isolated from a sputum specimen of a patient. This is the third nucleotide sequence report of bla NDM-1 -harboring plasmid from Enterobacter cloacae that have caused lethal infections in China, indicating the spread of NDM-1 by IncX3 plasmid between Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter spp. in patients with bacteremia in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Conte, Andréia; Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Taborda de Messias Reason, Iara; da Silva, Márcio José; Dalla-Costa, Libera Maria

    2014-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasingly prevalent in Enterobacter spp., posing a challenge to the treatment of infections caused by this microorganism. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of inpatients with bacteremia caused by ESBL and non ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. in a tertiary hospital over the period 2004-2008. The presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaPER genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequence analysis. Genetic similarity between strains was defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Enterobacter spp. was identified in 205 of 4907 of the patients who had positive blood cultures during hospitalization. Of those cases, 41 (20%) were ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. Nosocomial pneumonia was the main source of bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. The presence of this microorganism was associated with longer hospital stays. The ESBL genes detected were: CTX-M-2 (23), CTX-M-59 (10), CTX-M-15 (1), SHV-12 (5), and PER-2 (2). While Enterobacter aerogenes strains showed mainly a clonal profile, Enterobacter cloacae strains were polyclonal. Although no difference in clinical outcomes was observed between patients with infections by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing strains, the detection of ESBL in Enterobacter spp. resulted in the change of antimicrobials in 75% of cases, having important implications in the decision-making regarding adequate antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. PERAN COMMUNITY ADVICE SEBAGAI PEMODERASI DALAM KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristiana Widyastuti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of rational motives and emotional motives on purchasing decisions with community advice as a moderating variable. This study was conducted on biker as community adviser in Jakarta. The number of samples is 75 data, obtained from the questionaire filled by the respondents. Data analysis uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with Partial Least Square (PLS test equipment. The results of statistical tests revealed that the rational motives and emotional motives have positive effect on purchasing decisions, whereas community advice has no positive effect on purchasing decisions, it is not able to moderate the relationship among variables. Producer and distributors are important to maintain the quality and reliability of products that rationally influence consumers to buy. In addition, efforts to maintain the credibility of the brand are also important to emphasize the consumer’s pride.

  3. Getting started on your research: practical advice for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Ronald J

    2010-10-01

    Guidance and mentorship benefit faculty who having little or no background conducting research in medical education. From his experience the author suggests three characteristics that distinguish medical educators who are especially productive in their scholarly activities: intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivation, collaboration with colleagues, and the personal qualities of patience and organization. He then expands on these characteristics by offering practical advice in the form of eight tips for faculty seeking to acquire or improve their medical education research skills.

  4. Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D

    2000-01-01

    Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940

  5. Why Financial Advice Cannot Substitute for Financial Literacy?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Debbich

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of financial advice provided by sellers of financial services to substitute for financial literacy of customers. I set up a simple theoretical model in which an informed financial advisor communicates with a less informed customer of financial services. Given the existence of a conflict of interest from the advisor's perspective, the model predicts that only well financially sophisticated customers receive relevant information from the advisor. This fact tends ...

  6. Regulating Robo Advice across the Financial Services Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Tom; Dellaert, Benedict

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAutomated financial product advisors – “robo advisors” – are emerging across the financial services industry, helping consumers choose investments, banking products, and insurance policies. Robo advisors have the potential to lower the cost and increase the quality and transparency of financial advice for consumers. But they also pose significant new challenges for regulators who are accustomed to assessing human intermediaries. A well-designed robo advisor will be honest and comp...

  7. Attending physician and patient in radiotherapeutic treatment: practical advices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This brochure is devoted to external radiotherapy and provides some pieces of practical advices for each stage of the patient's treatment: before, during and after radiotherapy. The monitoring and management of short-, medium- and long-term side-effects represent a major stake. Such side-effects and their treatments are presented in tables for each affected part of the body or affected organ. (J.S.)

  8. Advice on the accelerated market implementation of advanced biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    The Platform for Sustainable Mobility aims to promote the accelerated market introduction of more sustainable motor fuels and vehicle technology. The Platform distinguishes four transition paths: hybridization of the fleet of cars; implementation of biofuels; hydrogen-fuelled driving (driving on natural gas and biogas); intelligent transport systems (ITS). This advice involves part of the transition path for the implementation of biofuels, i.e. accelerated market introduction of advances biofuels. [mk] [nl

  9. Millennials at Work: The Advice of Great Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Millennials at Work The Advice of Great Leaders Carol Axten Axten has more than 30 years of experience in Defense Department engineering, program...management, and policy development. She has graduate degrees in business , engineering, international relations, and national security resource strategy...million members of the millennial generation will enter the workforce and by 2030 will make up 75 percent of all working professionals. As managers in the

  10. Reinforcement learning agents providing advice in complex video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew E.; Carboni, Nicholas; Fachantidis, Anestis; Vlahavas, Ioannis; Torrey, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a teacher-student framework for reinforcement learning, synthesising and extending material that appeared in conference proceedings [Torrey, L., & Taylor, M. E. (2013)]. Teaching on a budget: Agents advising agents in reinforcement learning. {Proceedings of the international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems}] and in a non-archival workshop paper [Carboni, N., &Taylor, M. E. (2013, May)]. Preliminary results for 1 vs. 1 tactics in StarCraft. {Proceedings of the adaptive and learning agents workshop (at AAMAS-13)}]. In this framework, a teacher agent instructs a student agent by suggesting actions the student should take as it learns. However, the teacher may only give such advice a limited number of times. We present several novel algorithms that teachers can use to budget their advice effectively, and we evaluate them in two complex video games: StarCraft and Pac-Man. Our results show that the same amount of advice, given at different moments, can have different effects on student learning, and that teachers can significantly affect student learning even when students use different learning methods and state representations.

  11. Risk factors and treatment outcomes of bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter species in adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kyungmin; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, Jungok; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of Enterobacter infection is complicated due to its intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. Medical records of 192 adults with cancer who had Enterobacter bacteremia were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the risk factors for and the treatment outcomes in extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia in adults with cancer. The main outcome measure was 30-day mortality. Of the 192 patients, 53 (27.6%) had bloodstream infections caused by ESC-resistant Enterobacter species. Recent use of a third-generation cephalosporin, older age, tumor progression at last evaluation, recent surgery, and nosocomial acquisition were associated with ESC-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rate was significantly higher in the resistant group. Multivariate analysis showed that respiratory tract infection, tumor progression, septic shock at presentation, Enterobacter aerogenes as the culprit pathogen, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for mortality. ESC resistance was significantly associated with mortality in patients with E. aerogenes bacteremia, although not in the overall patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrigenomics-based personalised nutritional advice: in search of a business model?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Berezowska, A.; Goossens, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional advice has mainly focused on population-level recommendations. Recent developments in nutrition, communication, and marketing sciences have enabled potential deviations from this dominant business model in the direction of personalisation of nutrition advice. Such personalisation efforts

  13. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-520] Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix..., Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain...

  14. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Wu, Xiao; Ouyang, Liming; Zhang, Yian Biao; Stadler, Andrea; McCorkle, Sean; Zhu, Wei; Maslov, Sergei; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis) and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  15. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyh Taghavi

    Full Text Available Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  16. Targeting the robo-advice customer: the development of a psychographic segmentation model for financial advice robots

    OpenAIRE

    van Thiel, D.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the world’s first psychographic market segmentation model that supports personalization, customer education, customer activation, and customer engagement strategies with financial advice robots. As traditional segmentation models in consumer finance primarily focus on externally observed demographics or economic criteria such as profession, age, income, or wealth, post-hoc psychographic segmentation further supports personalization in the digital adviso...

  17. 77 FR 48169 - The Information Technology Agreement: Advice and Information on the Proposed Expansion: Part 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Information Technology Agreement: Advice and Information on the Proposed Expansion: Part 1; The Information Technology Agreement: Advice and Information on the Proposed Expansion: Part 2 AGENCY: United States... Technology Agreement: Advice and Information on the Proposed Expansion: Part 1, and investigation No. 332-536...

  18. Behavior Modification of Studying Through Study Skills Advice and Self-Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven

    1975-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of two behavioral self-control procedures as additions to the typical treatment for college students' study behavior--study skills advice. Predicted self-monitoring would be an effective treatment addition to study skills advice and study skills advice would be superior to the control groups. Results supported…

  19. The present day relevance of Paul's advice to the family in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many people and organizations have made several efforts to improve and enhance the survival of the family. An example is the advice of Saint Paul, the Apostle to the Christian family in Ephesians 5:22-25 and 6:1-9. This paper examines this advice and its relevance to the society today. Key Words: Paul, Apostle; Advice; ...

  20. The pattern of clinical advice sought by general practitioners from a medical consultant in clinical biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, D

    1997-01-01

    Clinical biochemistry departments can be a valuable source of clinical advice for further investigations and the need for referral to specialist clinics. This paper outlines the pattern of clinical advice sought by general practitioners in a district hospital setting, and addresses some of the issues regarding seeking such advice and the implications for continuing medical education and training. PMID:9196966

  1. Factors influencing compliance to tactical driver advice: an assessment using a think-aloud protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, Malte; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje

    2013-01-01

    Connected Cruise Control (CCC) is an in-car driver support systems that aims to improve throughput in dense motorway traffic by advising drivers how to drive. The system is currently under development within a HTAS project. It will integrate lane advice, headway advice and speed advice. CCC will not

  2. Bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on weed seed germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishan, R.; Lee, I.J.

    2017-01-01

    Weeds are major challenges in crop cultivation and cause yield loss. The bacteria based bio-herbicides are emerging against chemical herbicides. This study was aimed to explore the bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on various weed species. The efficacy of I-3 bacterial isolates against weed growth was compared with I-4-5 bacterial strain. The bacterial strains, I-3 and I-4-5 inhibited the seed germination of Cyperus microiria Maxim. Enterobacter sp. I-3 showed higher weed control activity than I-4-5. It was confirmed with growth reduction of C. microiria Maxim. The seed germination of Digitaria sanguinalis L. weed was accelerated during the interaction of I-4-5 and it was drastically declined by I-3 bacterial culture. However, Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. seeds treated with either I-3 or I-4-5 bacterial culture showed no significant germination inhibition. The results of this study suggested that salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 can be applied as bacterial herbicides to control weeds in agricultural fields. (author)

  3. Isolation and determination antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mardaneh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterobacter cloacae is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacillus, from the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes disease in plants and humans (premature and immunocompromised persons of all age groups. The goal of this study was to isolate and determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula (PIF milk in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU ward. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 125 consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward were surveyed. Isolation and Identification of microorganisms was carried out according to FDA method. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the standard disc diffusion method based on CLSI (2011 recommendations. Results: Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from 2 (1.6% of 125 PIF milk samples. The results showed that isolated strains are sensitive to most antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Conclusion: Since the infant formula (PIF samples are unsterile products and contamination could occure during different steps, it is imperative to prepare the infant formula milk foods according to the manufacturer’s instruction and in an aseptic condition. Contamination of PIF only could be reduced or prevented by monitoring the critical control points and taking appropriate action during the processing.

  4. Stimulation of the growth of Jatropha curcas by the plant growth promoting bacterium Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Chaitanya Kumar; Patel, Baldev; Saraf, Meenu

    2012-03-01

    A novel Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 is a plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Jatropha cucas a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. Based on phenotypic, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic studies, strain MSA2 could be classified as a member of E. cancerogenus. However, comparisons of characteristics with other known species of the genus Enterobacter suggested that strain MSA2 could be a novel PGPB strain. In vitro studies were carried for the plant growth promoting attribute of this culture. It tested positive for ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) deaminase production, phytase, phosphate solubilization, IAA (Indole acetic acid) production, siderophore, and ammonia production. The isolate was then used as a inoculant for the vegetative study of Jatropha curcas plant. Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 supplemented with 1% carboxymethylcellulose showed overall plant growth promotion effect resulting in enhanced root length (124.14%), fresh root mass (81%), fresh shoot mass (120.02%), dry root mass (124%), dry shoot mass (105.54%), number of leaf (30.72%), chlorophyll content (50.41%), and biomass (87.20%) over control under the days of experimental observation. This study was designed for 120 days and was in triplicate and the data was collected at every 30 days.

  5. Cellular Injuries in Cronobacter sakazakii CIP 103183T and Salmonella enterica Exposed to Drying and Subsequent Heat Treatment in Milk Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Emilie; Guyot, Stéphane; Peltier, Caroline; Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Because of the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low-moisture foods, their decontamination is an important issue in food protection. This study aimed to clarify some of the cellular mechanisms involved in inactivation of foodborne pathogens after drying and subsequent heating. Individual strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii were mixed into whole milk powder and dried to different water activity levels (0.25 and 0.58); the number of surviving cells was determined after drying and subsequent thermal treatments in closed vessels at 90 and 100°C, for 30 and 120 s. For each condition, the percentage of unculturable cells was estimated and, in parallel, membrane permeability and respiratory activity were estimated by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes. After drying, it was clearly observable that the percentage of unculturable cells was correlated with the percentage of permeabilized cells (responsible for 20–40% of the total inactivated bacteria after drying), and to a lesser degree with the percentage of cells presenting with loss of respiratory activity. In contrast, the percentages of unculturable cells observed after heat treatment were strongly correlated with the loss of respiratory activity and weakly with membrane permeability (for 70–80% of the total inactivated bacteria after heat treatment). We conclude that cell inactivation during drying is closely linked to membrane permeabilization and that heat treatment of dried cells affects principally their respiratory activity. These results legitimize the use of time–temperature scales and allow better understanding of the cellular mechanisms of bacterial death during drying and subsequent heat treatment. These results may also allow better optimization of the decontamination process to ensure food safety by targeting the most deleterious conditions for bacterial cells without denaturing the food product. PMID:29593704

  6. Pathway engineering of Enterobacter aerogenes to improve acetoin production by reducing by-products formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Woong; Jung, Hwi-Min; Im, Dae-Kyun; Jung, Moo-Young; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2017-11-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes was metabolically engineered for acetoin production. To remove the pathway enzymes that catalyzed the formation of by-products, the three genes encoding a lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) and two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (budC, and dhaD), respectively, were deleted from the genome. The acetoin production was higher under highly aerobic conditions. However, an extracellular glucose oxidative pathway in E. aerogenes was activated under the aerobic conditions, resulting in the accumulation of 2-ketogluconate. To decrease the accumulation of this by-product, the gene encoding a glucose dehydrogenase (gcd) was also deleted. The resulting strain did not produce 2-ketogluconate but produced significant amounts of acetoin, with concentration reaching 71.7g/L with 2.87g/L/h productivity in fed-batch fermentation. This result demonstrated the importance of blocking the glucose oxidative pathway under highly aerobic conditions for acetoin production using E. aerogenes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synergistic effect of Candida maltosa HY-35 and Enterobacter aerogenes W-23 on hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wenyu; Wen, Jianping; Chen, Yu.; Sun, Bing; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Minghui; Caiyin, Qinggele [Department of Biochemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2007-06-15

    An aciduric high-yielding hydrogen yeast named Candida maltosa HY-35 was screened, which can grow and produce hydrogen at pH 1.3. Further research was carried out batchwise to measure the hydrogen-producing ability of a mixed culture of C. maltosa HY-35 and a facultative anaerobe Enterobacter aerogenes W-23. In this method, with the mixed culture of these two strains at 35 {sup circle} C for 28 h, the hydrogen yield was 1735 ml/l, which was 17.15% and 119.90% higher than those of the monoculture of E. aerogenes W-23 and C. maltosa HY-35, respectively. Meanwhile, the average hydrogen production rate with the mixed culture was 261.1 ml/h/l, which was 7.85% and 146.23% higher than those of the monoculture of E. aerogenes W-23 and C. maltosa HY-35, respectively. The results suggested that mixed culture of these two strains had the synergistic effect on hydrogen production. The optimum fermentation medium and operation conditions for hydrogen production with mixed culture were also investigated. (author)

  8. The purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction of a glycerophosphodiesterase from Enterobacter aerogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Colin J.; Carr, Paul D.; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Liu, Jian-Wei; Ollis, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The metallo-glycerophosphodiesterase from E. aerogenes (GpdQ) has been cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. Initial screening of crystallization conditions for this enzyme resulted in the identification of needles from one condition in a sodium malonate grid screen. Removal of the metals from the enzyme and subsequent optimization of these conditions led to crystals. The metallo-glycerophosphodiesterase from Enterobacter aerogenes (GpdQ) has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Initial screening of crystallization conditions for this enzyme resulted in the identification of needles from one condition in a sodium malonate grid screen. Removal of the metals from the enzyme and subsequent optimization of these conditions led to crystals that diffracted to 2.9 Å and belonged to space group P2 1 3, with unit-cell parameter a = 164.1 Å. Self-rotation function analysis and V M calculations indicated that the asymmetric unit contains two copies of the monomeric enzyme, corresponding to a solvent content of 79%. It is intended to determine the structure of this protein utilizing SAD phasing from transition metals or molecular replacement

  9. Bio-hydrogen production by Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1 isolated from a landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong-Hwan Shin; Jong Hyun Yoon; Tai Hyun Park [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    A new fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from a landfill, and it was identified as Enterobacter asburiae strain using a genomic DNA hybridization method. Environmental factors and metabolic flux influencing the hydrogen production were investigated, including pH, initial glucose and formate concentrations. The major hydrogen production pathway of this strain is considered to be a formate pathway by using formate hydrogen lyase (FHL). Optimum pH for the hydrogen production was pH 7.0 in PYG medium, at which hydrogen production/unit volume and overall hydrogen productivity were 2615 ml/l and 174 ml H{sub 2}/l/hr, respectively, at 25 g glucose/l. The maximum hydrogen productivity was estimated to be 417 ml H{sub 2}/l/hr at 15 g glucose/l. This strain produced bio-hydrogen mostly in the stationary phase, in which formate concentration was high. In this paper, hydrogen production was tried in formate medium after cell harvest. (authors)

  10. Electricity generation by Enterobacter cloacae SU-1 in mediator less microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samrot, Antony V.; Senthilkumar, P.; Pavankumar, K.; Akilandeswari, G.C. [Department of Biotechnology, Sathyabama University, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Rajalakshmi, N.; Dhathathreyan, K.S. [Center for Fuel Cell Technology ARCI, IITM Research Park, Phase I, 2nd Floor, 6 Kanagam Road, Tharamani, Chennai 600 113, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-08-15

    We have investigated a Enterobacter cloacae SU-1, bacteria for mediator less microbial fuel cell with different carbon sources and is found to be more effective as the microorganism is able to transfer electrons directly (exo-electrogenic organism) via the cytochromes or the ubiquinone. These carriers of electrons are in form of stable reversible redox couples, not biologically degraded and not toxic to cell. The major advantage of mediator less microbial fuel cells emphasize that additives in the anolyte is not compatible with the purpose of water purification. The anode chamber with the bacteria is maintained under anaerobic conditions so that the bacteria will undergo anaerobic biochemical pathways like Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Electron Transport Chain (ETC) where electrons and protons are released. Here protons are released in TCA cycle and whereas electrons are released from ETC. The mediator less microbial fuel cell delivered an open circuit potential (OCP) of 0.93 V and power of 3 mW/sq cm. During power generation from the microbes, there was a drop in coulombic efficiency in terms of fluctuations during drawing power, as the carbon source is being utilized for the cell growth. (author)

  11. Bio-hydrogen production by Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1 isolated from a landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong-Hwan Shin; Jong Hyun Yoon; Tai Hyun Park

    2006-01-01

    A new fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from a landfill, and it was identified as Enterobacter asburiae strain using a genomic DNA hybridization method. Environmental factors and metabolic flux influencing the hydrogen production were investigated, including pH, initial glucose and formate concentrations. The major hydrogen production pathway of this strain is considered to be a formate pathway by using formate hydrogen lyase (FHL). Optimum pH for the hydrogen production was pH 7.0 in PYG medium, at which hydrogen production/unit volume and overall hydrogen productivity were 2615 ml/l and 174 ml H 2 /l/hr, respectively, at 25 g glucose/l. The maximum hydrogen productivity was estimated to be 417 ml H 2 /l/hr at 15 g glucose/l. This strain produced bio-hydrogen mostly in the stationary phase, in which formate concentration was high. In this paper, hydrogen production was tried in formate medium after cell harvest. (authors)

  12. Determination for Enterobacter cloacae based on a europium ternary complex labeled DNA probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Niu, Cheng-Gang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Ruan, Min; Qin, Pin-Zhu; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    The fast detection and accurate diagnosis of the prevalent pathogenic bacteria is very important for the treatment of disease. Nowadays, fluorescence techniques are important tools for diagnosis. A two-probe tandem DNA hybridization assay was designed for the detection of Enterobacter cloacae based on time-resolved fluorescence. In this work, the authors synthesized a novel europium ternary complex Eu(TTA) 3(5-NH 2-phen) with intense luminescence, high fluorescence quantum yield and long lifetime before. We developed a method based on this europium complex for the specific detection of original extracted DNA from E. cloacae. In the hybridization assay format, the reporter probe was labeled with Eu(TTA) 3(5-NH 2-phen) on the 5'-terminus, and the capture probe capture probe was covalent immobilized on the surface of the glutaraldehyde treated glass slides. The original extracted DNA of samples was directly used without any DNA purification and amplification. The detection was conducted by monitoring the fluorescence intensity from the glass surface after DNA hybridization. The detection limit of the DNA was 5 × 10 -10 mol L -1. The results of the present work proved that this new approach was easy to operate with high sensitivity and specificity. It could be conducted as a powerful tool for the detection of pathogen microorganisms in the environment.

  13. Biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl by Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong; Wang, Saige; Shi, Nan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2018-04-15

    The application of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl has a lasting toxic effect on some succession crops. Here, a bacterium capable of utilizing chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole source of nitrogen was isolated from the contaminated soil and was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1, and its detoxification and degradation of the herbicide were then examined. The biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was significantly accelerated with increasing concentration (1-10mg/l) and temperature (20-40°C). The optimal pH for the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was pH 7.0. A pathway for the biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was proposed, in which it could be first converted into 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine and an intermediate product by the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge and then transformed into saccharin via hydrolysis and amidation. The plant height and fresh weight of corn that had been incubated in nutrient solution containing 0.2mg/l of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly recovered to 83.9% and 83.1% compared with those in the uninoculated control, although the root growth inhibition of chlorimuron-ethyl could not be alleviated after inoculation for 14 d. The results indicate that the isolate CE-1 is a promising bacterial resource for the biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction of a glycerophosphodiesterase from Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Colin J.; Carr, Paul D.; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Liu, Jian-Wei; Ollis, David L., E-mail: ollis@rsc.anu.edu.au [The Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    The metallo-glycerophosphodiesterase from E. aerogenes (GpdQ) has been cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. Initial screening of crystallization conditions for this enzyme resulted in the identification of needles from one condition in a sodium malonate grid screen. Removal of the metals from the enzyme and subsequent optimization of these conditions led to crystals. The metallo-glycerophosphodiesterase from Enterobacter aerogenes (GpdQ) has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Initial screening of crystallization conditions for this enzyme resulted in the identification of needles from one condition in a sodium malonate grid screen. Removal of the metals from the enzyme and subsequent optimization of these conditions led to crystals that diffracted to 2.9 Å and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameter a = 164.1 Å. Self-rotation function analysis and V{sub M} calculations indicated that the asymmetric unit contains two copies of the monomeric enzyme, corresponding to a solvent content of 79%. It is intended to determine the structure of this protein utilizing SAD phasing from transition metals or molecular replacement.

  15. Identification and production of bioflocculants by Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. and their characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, L; Nellaiah, H; Kathiresan, T; Rajini, N; Christopher, Fenila

    2017-05-28

    In this work, two bioflocculants, namely, EB-EPS and B1-EPS, were derived from Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively, and analyzed with regard to their production and characterization. About 0.9 and 0.16 g of purified EB and B1 were obtained from I L of fermentation broth. Chemical analysis showed the contents of purified EB and B1 mainly as 88.7 and 92.8% (w/w) of carbohydrate, and 11.3 and 21.8% (w/w) protein, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, amide, and carboxyl groups in the identified bioflocculant. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results exhibited enhanced thermal stability with a minimum mass loss of 50% while 25% were found to have occurred at higher temperatures (>400°C) for microbe-derived compounds EB and B1 leading to the possibility of using these compounds as fillers or for fabricating composite films for high-temperature applications. Further, the compounds from both the bacteria exhibited good antibacterial characteristics against pathogenic Escherichia coli. Degradability study of bioflocculant-embedded composite films shows the possibility of attaining eco-friendly bioremediation. Accordingly, experimental results revealed the suitability of developed composite films as a suitable alternative for food packaging and biomedical applications.

  16. Regulation of hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes by external NADH and NAD{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chong; Ma, Kun; Xing, Xin-Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Experiments involving the addition of external nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (NADH) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) have been designed to examine how the hydrogen in Enterobacter aerogenes is liberated by NADH or NAD{sup +}. The addition of external NADH or NAD{sup +} was found to regulate hydrogen production by E. aerogenes in resting cells, batch cultures, and chemostat cultures. Particularly in chemostat cultivation, with the external addition of NADH, hydrogen production via the NADH pathway was decreased, while that via the formate pathway was increased; in the end, the overall hydrogen p was decreased. The addition of NAD{sup +}, on the other hand, gave the opposite results. The membrane-bound hydrogenase was found to play a central role in regulating hydrogen production. The occurrence of NADH oxidation (NAD{sup +} reduction) on the cell membrane resulted in an electron flow across the membrane; this changed the oxidation state and metabolic pattern of the cells, which eventually affected the hydrogen evolution. (author)

  17. Hydrogen production from the monomeric sugars hydrolyzed from hemicellulose by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yunli; Wang, Jianji; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Yunlai; Li, Guozhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471039, Henan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Relatively large percentages of xylose with glucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and rhamnose constitute the hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. In this paper, hydrogen production performance of facultative anaerobe (Enterobacter aerogenes) has been investigated from these different monomeric sugars except glucose. It was shown that the stereoisomers of mannose and galactose were more effective for hydrogen production than those of xylose and arabinose. The substrate of 5 g/l xylose resulted in a relative high level of hydrogen yield (73.8 mmol/l), hydrogen production efficiency (2.2 mol/mol) and a maximum hydrogen production rate (249 ml/l/h). The hydrogen yield, hydrogen production efficiency and the maximum hydrogen production rate reached 104 mmol/l, 2.35 mol/mol and 290 ml/l/h, respectively, on a substrate of 10 g/l galactose. The hydrogen yields and the maximum hydrogen production rates increased with an increase of mannose concentrations and reached 119 mmol/l and 518 ml/l/h on the culture of 25 g/l mannose. However, rhamnose was a relative poor carbon resource for E. aerogenes to produce hydrogen, from which the hydrogen yield and hydrogen production efficiency were about one half of that from the mannose substrate. E. aerogenes was found to be a promising strain for hydrogen production from hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. (author)

  18. Bio-hydrogen production from glycerol by a strain of Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, P.A.S.S; Bartolomeu, M.L.; Tome, M.M.; Rosa, M.F. [INETI, Unit of Biomass/Renewable Energy Department, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the H2 production from glycerol-containing byproducts obtained from biodiesel industrial production, using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 Sputum. H2 production using as substrate pure glycerol and glycerol-containing biodiesel byproducts was compared. The effect of parameters such as initial substrate concentration and sodium chloride addition on the bio-hydrogen production efficiency was also investigated. The results showed that using 10 g/L of pure glycerol or biodiesel residues, containing the same concentration of glycerol as substrate, lead to similar bio-hydrogen productions (3.46 LH2/L and 3.28 LH2/L fermentation medium, respectively). This indicates that the performance of the E. aerogenes strain used was not influenced by the presence of other components than glycerol in biodiesel residues, at least for the tested waste concentration range. When sodium chloride was added to the fermentation medium with pure 10 g/L glycerol, H2 production was not affected (3.34 LH2/L fermentation medium), showing that metabolism of the E. aerogenes strain was not inhibited by this biodiesel waste component up to 4 g/L chloride concentration. Biodiesel residues used without sterilization provided a higher H2 production (1.03 L) than the ones submitted to previous sterilization in autoclave (0.89 L).

  19. Colistin resistance associated with outer membrane protein change in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter asburiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Béla; Kocsis, Béla; Tóth, Ákos; Kristóf, Katalin; Felső, Péter; Kocsis, Béla; Böddi, Katalin; Szabó, Dóra

    2017-06-01

    In this study, outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter asburiae were analyzed. One colistin-susceptible and three colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae sequence type 258 strains as well as one colistin-susceptible E. asburiae and its colistin-heteroresistant counterpart strain were involved in the study. OMP analysis of each strain was performed by microchip method. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) investigation was carried out after separation of OMPs by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion. The MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of OMPs in the colistin-susceptible K. pneumoniae found 16 kDa proteins belonging to the LysM domain/BON superfamily, as well as DNA starvation proteins, whereas OmpX and OmpW were detected in the colistin-resistant counterpart strains. OmpC and OmpW were detected in the colistin-susceptible E. asburiae, whereas OmpA and OmpX were identified in the colistin-resistant counterpart. This study demonstrated that OMP differences were between colistin-susceptible and -resistant counterpart strains. The altered Gram-negative cell wall may contribute to acquired colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

  20. Hydrogen production of Enterobacter aerogenes altered by extracellular and intracellular redox states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashimada, Y.; Rachman, M.A.; Kakizono, T.; Nishio, N. [Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Department of Molecular Biotechnology

    2002-12-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes HU-101, tested for its hydrogen production in batch cultures on various substrates, produced the highest amount of hydrogen when the substrate was glycerol. The yield of hydrogen is a function of the degree to which the substrates are reduced. To examine the effect of intracellular redox state on hydrogen yield, glucose-limiting chemostat cultures were carried out at various pH using strain HU-101 and its mutant AY-2. For both strains, the molar yield and the production rate of hydrogen and the hydrogenase activity in the cell-free extract were optimal at the culture pH of 6.3. The highest NADH/NAD ratio in both strains was also observed at pH 6.3, at which the ratio in AY-2 was more than two-fold that of HU-101. Furthermore, NAD(P)H-dependent hydrogen formation was observed in the cell-free extract of AY-2, and hydrogenase activity was found not in the cytoplasmic but in the cell membrane fraction, suggesting that a high intracellular redox state, that is a high NADH/NAD ratio, would accelerate hydrogen production by driving membrane-bound NAD(P)H-dependent hydrogenase. (author)

  1. Production, characteristics and applications of phytase from a rhizosphere isolated Enterobacter sp. ACSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanderman, Ashira; Puri, Adarsh Kumar; Permaul, Kugen; Singh, Suren

    2016-10-01

    Optimization of process parameters for phytase production by Enterobacter sp. ACSS led to a 4.6-fold improvement in submerged fermentation, which was enhanced further in fed-batch fermentation. The purified 62 kDa monomeric phytase was optimally active at pH 2.5 and 60 °C and retained activity over a wide range of temperature (40-80 °C) and pH (2.0-6.0) with a half-life of 11.3 min at 80 °C. The kinetic parameters K m, V max, K cat, and K cat/K m of the pure phytase were 0.21 mM, 131.58 nmol mg(-1) s(-1), 1.64 × 10(3) s(-1), and 7.81 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The enzyme was fairly stable in the presence of pepsin under physiological conditions. It was stimulated by Ca(+2), Mg(+2) and Mn(+2), but inhibited by Zn(+2), Cu(+2), Fe(+2), Pb(+2), Ba(+2) and surfactants. The enzyme can be applied in dephytinizing animal feeds, and the baking industry.

  2. Extreme furfural tolerance of a soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GGT036.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Young; Gong, Gyeongtaek; Park, Hong-Sil; Um, Youngsoon; Sim, Sang Jun; Woo, Han Min

    2015-01-10

    Detoxification process of cellular inhibitors including furfural is essential for production of bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Here we isolated an extreme furfural-tolerant bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GGT036 from soil sample collected in Mt. Gwanak, Republic of Korea. Among isolated bacteria, only E. cloacae GGT036 showed cell growth with 35 mM furfural under aerobic culture. Compared to the maximal half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of well-known industrial strains Escherichia coli (24.9 mM furfural) and Corynebacterium glutamicum (10 mM furfural) based on the cell density, IC50 of E. cloacae GGT036 (47.7 mM) was significantly higher after 24 h, compared to E. coli and C. glutamicum. Since bacterial cell growth was exponentially inhibited depending on linearly increased furfural concentrations in the medium, we concluded that E. cloacae GGT036 is an extreme furfural-tolerant bacterium. Recently, the complete genome sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 was announced and this could provide an insight for engineering of E. cloacae GGT036 itself or other industrially relevant bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enterobacter aerogenes metabolites enhance Microcystis aeruginosa biomass recovery for sustainable bioflocculant and biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Ju, Hanyu; Zhang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Jiquan; Sun, Caiyun

    2018-04-07

    We report a recycling bioresource involving harvesting of Microcystis aeruginosa using the bioflocculant (MBF-32) produced by Enterobacter aerogenes followed by the recovery of the harvested M. aeruginosa as the main substrate for the sustainable production of MBF-32 and biohydrogen. The experimental results indicate that the efficiency of bioflocculation exceeded 90% under optimal conditions. The harvested M. aeruginosa was further recycled as the main substrate for the supply of necessary elements. The highest yield (3.6±0.1g/L) of MBF-32 could be obtained from 20g/L of wet biomass of M. aeruginosa with an additional 20g/L of glucose as the extra carbon source. The highest yield of biohydrogen was 35mL of H 2 /g (dw) algal biomass, obtained from 20g/L of wet biomass of M. aeruginosa with an additional 10g/L of glycerol. Transcriptome analyses indicated that MBF-32 was mainly composed of polysaccharide and tyrosine/tryptophan proteins. Furthermore, NADH synthase and polysaccharide export-related genes were found to be up-regulated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inactivation of Enterobacter aerogenes in reconstituted skim milk by high- and low-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengpu; Hemar, Yacine; Lewis, Gillian D; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-11-01

    The inactivation of Enterobacter aerogenes in skim milk using low-frequency (20kHz) and high-frequency (850kHz) ultrasonication was investigated. It was found that low-frequency acoustic cavitation resulted in lethal damage to E. aerogenes. The bacteria were more sensitive to ultrasound in water than in reconstituted skim milk having different protein concentrations. However, high-frequency ultrasound was not able to inactivate E. aerogenes in milk even when powers as high as 50W for 60min were used. This study also showed that high-frequency ultrasonication had no influence on the viscosity and particle size of skim milk, whereas low-frequency ultrasonication resulted in the decrease in viscosity and particle size of milk. The decrease in particle size is believed to be due to the breakup of the fat globules, and possibly to the cleavage of the κ-casein present at the surface of the casein micelles. Whey proteins were also found to be slightly affected by low-frequency ultrasound, with the amounts of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin slightly decreasing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Particular Distribution of Enterobacter cloacae Strains Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection within Clonal Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Majid; Bakhshi, Bita; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Based on biochemical properties, Enterobacter cloacae represents a large complex of at least 13 variant species, subspecies, and genotypes that progressively identified as the most species causing hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance between phylogenetically related strains within the E. cloacae complex and the frequency of urinary tract infection caused by them. A 268-bp fragment was obtained from hsp60 gene for 50 clinical E. cloacae isolates from urine cultures of inpatients that admitted to six hospitals in Tehran, Iran during December 2012 to November 2013. The 107 nucleotide sequences were analyzed and the evolutionary distances of sequences were computed and neighbor-joining tree was calculated. It showed that all of the genetic clusters have not an equal involvement in pathogenesis of urinary tract infections. Three superior clusters were found, together representing more than two third (80%) of the isolates (cluster VI with 25 members; clusters III and VIII with 9 and 6 members, respectively) and some genetic clusters were absent (IV, X, XII, and xiii), some of which are supposed to be associated with plants and no human infection has been reported. This study, for the first time, reports the unequal contribution of E. cloacae complex subspecies and clusters in urinary tract infections in Iran and together with studies from other countries suggest that the subspecies of E.hormaechei subsp. Oharae is the most prevalent E. cloacae complex subspecies regardless of country under study.

  6. Establishment of a Molecular Serotyping Scheme and a Multiplexed Luminex-Based Array for Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xi; Wang, Min; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yao; Chen, Tingting; Wu, Pan; Chen, Min; Liu, Bin; Feng, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Serotyping based on surface polysaccharide antigens is important for the clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of pathogens. Polysaccharide gene clusters (PSgcs) are typically responsible for the diversity of bacterial surface polysaccharides. Through whole-genome sequencing and analysis, eight putative PSgc types were identified in 23 Enterobacter aerogenes strains from several geographic areas, allowing us to present the first molecular serotyping system for E. aerogenes . A conventional antigenic scheme was also established and correlated well with the molecular serotyping system that was based on PSgc genetic variation, indicating that PSgc-based molecular typing and immunological serology provide equally valid results. Further, a multiplex Luminex-based array was developed, and a double-blind test was conducted with 97 clinical specimens from Shanghai, China, to validate our array. The results of these analyses indicated that strains containing PSgc4 and PSgc7 comprised the predominant groups. We then examined 86 publicly available E. aerogenes strain genomes and identified an additional seven novel PSgc types, with PSgc10 being the most abundant type. In total, our study identified 15 PSgc types in E. aerogenes , providing the basis for a molecular serotyping scheme. From these results, differing epidemic patterns were identified between strains that were predominant in different regions. Our study highlights the feasibility and reliability of a serotyping system based on PSgc diversity, and for the first time, presents a molecular serotyping system, as well as an antigenic scheme for E. aerogenes , providing the basis for molecular diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance of this important emerging pathogen.

  7. Following celebrities’ medical advice: meta-narrative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To synthesise what is known about how celebrities influence people’s decisions on health. Design Meta-narrative analysis of economics, marketing, psychology, and sociology literatures. Data sources Systematic searches of electronic databases: BusinessSource Complete (1886-), Communication & Mass Media Complete (1915-), Humanities Abstracts (1984-), ProQuest Political Science (1985-), PsycINFO (1806-), PubMed (1966-), and Sociology Abstracts (1952-). Inclusion criteria Studies discussing mechanisms of celebrities’ influence on people in any context. Results Economics literature shows that celebrity endorsements act as signals of credibility that differentiate products or ideas from competitors and can catalyse herd behaviour. Marketing studies show that celebrities transfer their desirable attributes to products and use their success to boost their perceived credibility. Psychology shows that people are classically conditioned to react positively to the advice of celebrities, experience cognitive dissonance if they do not, and are influenced by congruencies with their self conceptions. Sociology helps explain the spread of celebrity medical advice as a contagion that diffuses through social networks and people’s desire to acquire celebrities’ social capital. Conclusions The influence of celebrity status is a deeply rooted process that can be harnessed for good or abused for harm. A better understanding of celebrity can empower health professionals to take this phenomenon seriously and use patient encounters to educate the public about sources of health information and their trustworthiness. Public health authorities can use these insights to implement regulations and restrictions on celebrity endorsements and design counter marketing initiatives—perhaps even partnering with celebrities—to discredit bogus medical advice while promoting evidence based practices.

  8. A quantitative analysis of the quality and content of the health advice in popular Australian magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amanda; Smith, David; Peel, Roseanne; Robertson, Jane; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-06-01

    To examine how health advice is provided in popular magazines and the quality of that advice. A prospective quantitative analysis of the quality of health advice provided in Australian magazines between July and December 2011 was conducted. A rating instrument was adapted from the Media Doctor Australia rating tool used to assess quality of health news reporting. Criteria included: recommends seeing a doctor; advice based on reliable evidence; advice clear and easily applied; benefits presented meaningfully; potential harms mentioned; evidence of disease mongering; availability and cost of treatments; obvious advertising; vested interest, and anecdotal evidence. 163 health advice articles were rated showing a wide variation in the quality of advice presented between magazines. Magazines with 'health' in the title, rated most poorly with only 36% (26/73) of these articles presenting clear and meaningful advice and 52% (38/73) giving advice based on reliable evidence. Australian magazines, especially those with health in the title, generally presented poor quality, unreliable health advice. Teen magazine Dolly provided the highest quality advice. Consumers need to be aware of this when making health choices. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Health professionals' advice for breastfeeding problems: not good enough!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Ingram, Jennifer

    2008-09-11

    Jane Scott and colleagues have recently published a paper in the International Breastfeeding Journal showing that health professionals are still giving harmful advice to women with mastitis. We see the management of mastitis as an illustration of health professionals' management of wider breastfeeding issues. If health professionals don't know how to manage this common problem, how can they be expected to manage less common conditions such as a breast abscess or nipple/breast candidiasis? There is an urgent need for more clinical research into breastfeeding problems and to improve the education of health professionals to enable them to promote breastfeeding and support breastfeeding women.

  10. Policy Advice to Alberta’s New Premier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On September 6th, 2014, members of the Progressive Conservative Party of Alberta elected Jim Prentice as leader of their party, and Premier of Alberta. The School of Public Policy assembled its key thinkers in economic, taxation, energy and natural resource policy to provide unsolicited but important advice to Premier Prentice on some areas of policy that matter most to Alberta, and that will demand the Premier’s attention as he takes office. These are opinion pieces, are not peer reviewed, and reflect the views of their authors alone.

  11. More about software requirements thorny issues and practical advice

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2006-01-01

    No matter how much instruction you've had on managing software requirements, there's no substitute for experience. Too often, lessons about requirements engineering processes lack the no-nonsense guidance that supports real-world solutions. Complementing the best practices presented in his book, Software Requirements, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers tackles even more of the real issues head-on in this book. With straightforward, professional advice and practical solutions based on actual project experiences, this book answers many of the tough questions rais

  12. Health professionals' advice for breastfeeding problems: Not good enough!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jane Scott and colleagues have recently published a paper in the International Breastfeeding Journal showing that health professionals are still giving harmful advice to women with mastitis. We see the management of mastitis as an illustration of health professionals' management of wider breastfeeding issues. If health professionals don't know how to manage this common problem, how can they be expected to manage less common conditions such as a breast abscess or nipple/breast candidiasis? There is an urgent need for more clinical research into breastfeeding problems and to improve the education of health professionals to enable them to promote breastfeeding and support breastfeeding women.

  13. From single-species advice to mixed-species management: taking the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Reeves, S.A.; Patterson, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Fishery management advice has traditionally been given on a stock-by-stock basis. Recent problems in implementing this advice, particularly for the demersal fisheries of the North Sea, have highlighted the limitations of the approach. In the long term, it would be desirable to give advice...... that accounts for mixed-fishery effects, but in the short term there is a need for approaches to resolve the conflicting management advice for different species within the same fishery, and to generate catch or effort advice that accounts for the mixed-species nature of the fishery. This paper documents...... a recent approach used to address these problems. The approach takes the single-species advice for each species in the fishery as a starting point, then attempts to resolve it into consistent catch or effort advice using fleet-disaggregated catch forecasts in combination with explicitly stated management...

  14. Delivering effective science communication: advice from a professional science communicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam

    2017-10-01

    Science communication is becoming ever more prevalent, with more and more scientists expected to not only communicate their research to a wider public, but to do so in an innovative and engaging manner. Given the other commitments that researchers and academics are required to fulfil as part of their workload models, it is unfair to be expect them to also instantly produce effective science communication events and activities. However, by thinking carefully about what it is that needs to be communicated, and why this is being done, it is possible to develop high-quality activities that are of benefit to both the audience and the communicator(s). In this paper, I present some practical advice for developing, delivering and evaluating effective science communication initiatives, based on over a decade of experience as being a professional science communicator. I provide advice regarding event logistics, suggestions on how to successfully market and advertise your science communication initiatives, and recommendations for establishing effective branding and legacy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unrealistic optimism in advice taking: A computational account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yuan Chang; Zaki, Jamil

    2018-02-01

    Expert advisors often make surprisingly inaccurate predictions about the future, yet people heed their suggestions nonetheless. Here we provide a novel, computational account of this unrealistic optimism in advice taking. Across 3 studies, participants observed as advisors predicted the performance of a stock. Advisors varied in their accuracy, performing reliably above, at, or below chance. Despite repeated feedback, participants exhibited inflated perceptions of advisors' accuracy, and reliably "bet" on advisors' predictions more than their performance warranted. Participants' decisions tightly tracked a computational model that makes 2 assumptions: (a) people hold optimistic initial expectations about advisors, and (b) people preferentially incorporate information that adheres to their expectations when learning about advisors. Consistent with model predictions, explicitly manipulating participants' initial expectations altered their optimism bias and subsequent advice-taking. With well-calibrated initial expectations, participants no longer exhibited an optimism bias. We then explored crowdsourced ratings as a strategy to curb unrealistic optimism in advisors. Star ratings for each advisor were collected from an initial group of participants, which were then shown to a second group of participants. Instead of calibrating expectations, these ratings propagated and exaggerated the unrealistic optimism. Our results provide a computational account of the cognitive processes underlying inflated perceptions of expertise, and explore the boundary conditions under which they occur. We discuss the adaptive value of this optimism bias, and how our account can be extended to explain unrealistic optimism in other domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Entericidin is required for a probiotic treatment (Enterobacter sp. strain C6-6) to protect trout from cold-water disease challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubiger, Carla B; Orfe, Lisa H; Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S; Cain, Kenneth D; Shah, Devendra H; Call, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes bacterial cold-water disease in multiple fish species, including salmonids. An autochthonous Enterobacter strain (C6-6) inhibits the in vitro growth of F. psychrophilum, and when ingested as a putative probiotic, it provides protection against injection challenge with F. psychrophilum in rainbow trout. In this study, low-molecular-mass (≤3 kDa) fractions from both Enterobacter C6-6 and Escherichia coli K-12 culture supernatants inhibited the growth of F. psychrophilum. The ≤3-kDa fraction from Enterobacter C6-6 was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and subsequent tandem mass spectroscopy identified EcnB, which is a small membrane lipoprotein that is a putative pore-forming toxin. Agar plate diffusion assays demonstrated that ecnAB knockout strains of both Enterobacter C6-6 and E. coli K-12 no longer inhibited F. psychrophilum (P ) and the wild-type strain (C6-6) were added to the fish diet every day for 38 days. On day 11, the fish were challenged by injection with a virulent strain of F. psychrophilum (CSF 259-93). Fish that were fed C6-6 had significantly longer survival than fish fed the ecnAB knockout strain (P Enterobacter C6-6, and it may present new opportunities for therapeutic and prophylactic treatments against similarly susceptible pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Advice taking from humans and machines: an fMRI and effective connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Goodyear

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With new technological advances, advice can come from different sources such as machines or humans, but how individuals respond to such advice and the neural correlates involved need to be better understood. We combined functional MRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis with an X-ray luggage-screening task to investigate the neural basis and corresponding effective connectivity involved with advice utilization from agents framed as experts. Participants were asked to accept or reject good or bad advice from a human or machine agent with low reliability (high false alarm rate. We showed that unreliable advice decreased performance overall and participants interacting with the human agent had a greater depreciation of advice utilization during bad advice compared to the machine agent. These differences in advice utilization can be perceivably due to reevaluation of expectations arising from association of dispositional credibility for each agent. We demonstrated that differences in advice utilization engaged brain regions that may be associated with evaluation of personal characteristics and traits (precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, temporoparietal junction and interoception (posterior insula. We found that the right posterior insula and left precuneus were the drivers of the advice utilization network that were reciprocally connected to each other and also projected to all other regions. Our behavioral and neuroimaging results have significant implications for society because of progressions in technology and increased interactions with machines.

  18. Survival Strategies of the Plant-Associated Bacterium Enterobacter sp. Strain EG16 under Cadmium Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanmei; Chao, Yuanqing; Li, Yaying; Lin, Qingqi; Bai, Jun; Tang, Lu; Wang, Shizhong; Ying, Rongrong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-04

    Plant-associated bacteria are of great interest because of their potential use in phytoremediation. However, their ability to survive and promote plant growth in metal-polluted soils remains unclear. In this study, a soilborne Cd-resistant bacterium was isolated and identified as Enterobacter sp. strain EG16. It tolerates high external Cd concentrations (Cd(2+) MIC, >250 mg liter(-1)) and is able to produce siderophores and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), both of which contribute to plant growth promotion. Surface biosorption in this strain accounted for 31% of the total Cd accumulated. The potential presence of cadmium sulfide, shown by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, suggested intracellular Cd binding as a Cd response mechanism of the isolate. Cd exposure resulted in global regulation at the transcriptomic level, with the bacterium switching to an energy-conserving mode by inhibiting energy-consuming processes while increasing the production of stress-related proteins. The stress response system included increased import of sulfur and iron, which become deficient under Cd stress, and the redirection of sulfur metabolism to the maintenance of intracellular glutathione levels in response to Cd toxicity. Increased production of siderophores, responding to Cd-induced Fe deficiency, not only is involved in the Cd stress response systems of EG16 but may also play an important role in promoting plant growth as well as alleviating the Cd-induced inhibition of IAA production. The newly isolated strain EG16 may be a suitable candidate for microbially assisted phytoremediation due to its high resistance to Cd and its Cd-induced siderophore production, which is likely to contribute to plant growth promotion. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoates granuales in bacillus Sp. MFD11 and enterobacter Sp. SEL2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, N.; Jamil, N.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. MFD11 (JF901809) and Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) were isolated from agriculture waste contaminated sites. When fed with 2% glucose as a carbon source, these bacteria produced 75.26±0.45% and 76.61±0.28% PHA of their wet weight respectively. The accumulated PHA was extracted by direct addition of sodium dodysyl sulphate in the culture medium, which yielded 52.3±0.56 micro g/l and 136.21±0.45 micro g/l PHA respectively when assayed with Crotonic acid. The PHA detection medium (PDM) provided nutrient limitation condition which favored accumulation of PHA granules. A tremendous increase in cell size was observed when strain MFD11 was grown in PDM. The size of the granules as revealed by TEM micrographs spanned from 0.1 to 1.5 micro m which is quite large as compared to the size reported in the literature 0.2 to 0.5 micro m 18). (PHA polymer was analyzed by FTIR, GC/MS and proton Nuclear magnetic resonance. The intense absorption band in the spectrum at 1724-1740 cm -1 and 1215 cm -1 to 1280 corresponding to C=O and C-O stretching group, respectively, indicated that the both strains were PHA producers. GC/MS analysis indicated that the polymer produced were copolymers of PHB-co-PHV. NMR also suggested that the extracted PHA was not a homopolymer but was the blend of copolymers with 3HV in lower abundance. Differential calorimetric thermal analysis showed melting temperature of 163 and 169 degree C for PHA produced by both strains, respectively. However, the observed melting temperature was found to be lower than the standard PHB (Signa-aldrich). (author)

  20. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  1. Characterization of endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 and application in pulp industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Cai, Jun; Wang, Changgao; Du, Xin; Lin, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    β-Mannanases are the second most important enzymes for the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. An endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 was purified at 11.7 ± 0.2-fold to homogeneity with a final recovery of 15.2 ± 0.2 %. Using purified β-mannanase protein and SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass was found to be 43.16 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme was found to be 7.0 and 55 °C, respectively. The β-mannanase activity was stable over a broad pH range of pH 2.0-10.0. In addition, the purified enzyme was highly activated by several metal ions and chemical reagents, such as Mg 2+ , L-cysteine, glutathione (GSH) and β-mercaptoethanol. Whereas the enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC), phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The β-mannanase was highly active towards glucomannan, and showed endo-activity by producing a mixture of oligosaccharides. Moreover, the enzyme displayed a classical endo-type mode on mannooligosaccharides. The β-mannanase coupled with xylanase significantly improved the brightness of kraft pulp, whereas it has no remarkable effect on the tensile strength of the pulp. Our functional studies of the purified β-mannanase indicate that the enzyme is beneficial to industrial applications, in particular, biotechnological processes, such as food, feed and pulp industry.

  2. Sucrose dependent mineral phosphate solubilization in Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 by heterologous overexpression of periplasmic invertases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chanchal; Wagh, Jitendra; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2016-12-01

    Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 solubilizes mineral phosphates in the presence of glucose by the secretion of gluconic acid generated by the action of a periplasmic pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase. In order to achieve mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype in the presence of sucrose, plasmids pCNK4 and pCNK5 containing genes encoding the invertase enzyme of Zymomonas mobilis (invB) and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (suc2) under constitutive promoters were constructed with malE signal sequence (in case of invB alone as the suc2 is secreted natively). When introduced into E. asburiae PSI3, E. a. (pCNK4) and E. a. (pCNK5) transformants secreted 21.65 ± 0.94 and 22 ± 1.3 mM gluconic acid, respectively, in the presence of 75 mM sucrose and they also solubilized 180 ± 4.3 and 438 ± 7.3 µM P from the rock phosphate. In the presence of a mixture of 50 mM sucrose and 25 mM glucose, E. a. (pCNK5) secreted 34 ± 2.3 mM gluconic acid and released 479 ± 8.1 µM P. Moreover, in the presence of a mixture of eight sugars (10 mM each) in the medium, E. a. (pCNK5) released 414 ± 5.3 µM P in the buffered medium. Thus, this study demonstrates incorporation of periplasmic invertase imparted P solubilization ability to E. asburiae PSI3 in the presence of sucrose and mixture of sugars.

  3. Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robyn C; Schaffner, Donald W

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes on household surfaces was evaluated by using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm 2 ) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 10 7 CFU/surface. Foods (with a 16-cm 2 contact area) were dropped onto the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Posttransfer, surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted, and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log percent transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food, and surface type all had highly significant effects (P food, while the least bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1 to 62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02 to 94%) was similar to transfer of bacteria to bread with butter (∼0.02 to 82%), and these transfer rates under a given set of conditions were more variable than with watermelon and gummy candy. The popular notion of the "five-second rule" is that food dropped on the floor and left there for foods (watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy), four different contact times (food and the surface, are of equal or greater importance. Some transfer takes place "instantaneously," at times of <1 s, disproving the five-second rule. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Effect of nanocomposite packaging containing ZnO on growth of Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmailzadeh, Hakimeh [National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sangpour, Parvaneh, E-mail: Sangpour@merc.ac.ir [Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Department, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahraz, Farzaneh [National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Jalal [Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaksar, Ramin [National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened new windows in active food packaging. Nano-sized ZnO is an inexpensive material with potential antimicrobial properties. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antibacterial effect of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) containing ZnO nanoparticles on Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes. ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by facil molten salt method and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanocomposite films containing 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder. The growth of both microorganisms has decreased in the presence of ZnO containing nanocomposites compared with controls. Nanocomposites with 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles had stronger antibacterial effect against both bacteria in comparison with the 2 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites. B. subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ZnO containing nanocomposite films compared with E. aerogenes as Gram-negative bacteria. There were no significant differences between the migration of Zn ions from 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites and the released Zn ions were not significantly increased in both groups after 14 days compared with the first. Regarding the considerable antibacterial effects of ZnO nanoparticles, their application in active food packaging can be a suitable solution for extending the shelf life of food. - Highlights: • ZnO containing nanocomposites decreased growth of both B. subtilis and E. aerogenes. • B. subtilis was more sensitive to ZnO containing nanocomposites. • The migration of Zn ions from nanocomposites was negligible.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of clinical Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream isolates in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Wang

    Full Text Available Enterobacter cloacae is a major nosocomial pathogen causing bloodstream infections. We retrospectively conducted a study to assess antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic relationships of E. cloacae bloodstream isolates in two tertiary university-affiliated hospitals in Shanghai, in order to facilitate managements of E. cloacae bloodstream infections and highlight some unknowns for future prevention.Fifty-three non-duplicate E. cloacae bloodstream isolates were consecutively collected from 2013 to 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion. PCR was performed to detect extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, carbapenemase and colistin resistance (MCR-1 gene. Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC genes were detected using a multiplex PCR assay targeting MIR/ACT gene (closely related to chromosomal EBC family gene and other plasmid-mediated genes, including DHA, MOX, CMY, ACC, and FOX. eBURST was applied to analyze multi-locus sequence typing (MLST.The rates of resistance to all tested antibiotics were 0.05. SHV (6/8, 75.0% and MIR/ACT (15/18, 83.3% predominated in ESBL and pAmpC producers respectively. Moreover, 2 isolates co-carried TEM-1, SHV-12, IMP-26 and DHA-1. MLST analysis distinguished the 53 isolates into 51 STs and only ST414 and ST520 were assigned two isolates of each (2/53.The antimicrobial resistance rates were low among 53 E. cloacae bloodstream isolates in the two hospitals. Multiclonality disclosed no evidence on spread of these isolates in Shanghai. The simultaneous presence of ESBL, carbapenemase and pAmpC detected in 2 isolates was firstly reported in Shanghai, which necessitated active ongoing surveillances and consistent prevention and control of E. cloacae.

  6. Auto-aggregation properties of a novel aerobic denitrifier Enterobacter sp. strain FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; An, Qiang; Zhao, Bin; Guo, Jin Song; Huang, Yuan Sheng; Tian, Meng

    2018-02-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain FL was newly isolated from activated sludge and exhibited significant capability of auto-aggregation as well as aerobic denitrification. The removal efficiencies of NO 3 - -N, total nitrogen (TN), and TOC by strain FL in batch culture reached 94.6, 63.9, and 72.5% in 24 h, respectively. The production of N 2 O and N 2 in the presence of oxygen demonstrated the occurrence of aerobic denitrification. The auto-aggregation index of strain FL reached 54.3%, suggesting a high tendency that the cells would agglomerate into aggregates. The production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), which were mainly composed of proteins followed by polysaccharides, was considered to be related to the cell aggregation according to Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The proteins in EPS were evenly and tightly combined to cells and altered the protein secondary structures of cell surface from random coils to β-sheets and three-turn helices. The alteration of protein secondary structures of cell surface caused by the proteins in EPS might play a dominant role in the auto-aggregation of strain FL. To further assess the feasibility of strain FL for synthetic wastewater treatment, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), solely inoculated with strain FL, was conducted. During the 16 running cycles, the removal efficiency of NO 3 - -N was 90.2-99.7% and the auto-aggregation index was stabilized at 35.0-41.5%. The EPS promoted the biomass of strain FL to aggregate in the SBR.

  7. Physiological and biochemical role of the butanediol pathway in Aerobacter (Enterobacter) aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, L; Bryn, K; Stormer, F C

    1975-01-01

    Aerobacter (Enterobacter) aerogenes wild type and three mutants deficient in the formation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol were grown in a glucose minimal medium. Culture densities, pH, and diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol levels were recorded. The pH in wild-type cultures dropped from 7.0 to 5.8, remained constant while acetoin and 2,3-butanediol were formed, and increased to pH 6.5 after exhaustion of the carbon source. More 2,3-butanediol than acetoin was formed initially, but after glucose exhaustion reoxidation to acetoin occurred. The three mutants differed from the wild type in yielding acid cultures (pH below 4.5). The wild type and one of the mutants were grown exponentially under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the pH fixed at 7.0, 5.8, and 5.0, respectively. Growth rates decreased with decreasing pH values. Aerobically, this effect was weak, and the two strains were affected to the same degree. Under anaerobic conditions, the growth rates were markedly inhibited at a low pH, and the mutant was slightly more affected than the wild type. Levels of alcohol dehydrogenase were low under all conditions, indicating that the enzyme plays no role during exponential growth. The levels of diacetyl (acetoin) reductase, lactate dehydrogenase, and phosphotransacetylase were independent of the pH during aerobic growth of the two strains. Under anaerobic conditions, the formation of diacetyl (acetoin) reductase was pH dependent, with much higher levels of the enzyme at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.0. Lactate dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase revealed the same pattern of pH-dependent formation in the mutant, but not in the wild type. PMID:239921

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading Enterobacter sp. strain SE08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lin; Hu, Qiulong; Xiong, Xingyao; Su, Xiaojun; Huang, Yanning; Jiang, Ziwei; Zhou, Qingming; Zhao, Songyi; Zeng, Wei-ai

    2013-10-01

    A bacterial strain (SE08) capable of utilizing 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) as the sole carbon and energy source for growth was isolated by continuous enrichment culturing in minimal salt medium (MSM) from a long term MCPA exposed soil. This bacterial strain was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Its ability to degrade MCPA was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The strain SE08 can tolerate unusually high MCPA concentrations (125-2000mg/L). The influences of culturing factors (initial concentration, pH, and temperature) on the bacterial growth and substrate degradation were studied. The results showed that the optimal MCPA degradation occurred at an MCPA concentration of 500mg/L, 30°C and pH 6.0. Under these conditions, 68.5 percent of MCPA in MSM was degraded by SE08, and the OD600nm reached 0.64 after culturing for 72h. The degradation of MCPA could be enhanced by addition of both carbon and nitrogen sources. At an initial MCPA concentration of 500mg/L, when 5g/L glucose and 2.5g/L yeast extract were added into the MSM media, the MCPA degradation was significantly increased to 83.8 percent, and OD600nm was increased to 1.09 after incubation at 30°C and pH 6.0 for 72h. This is the first study showing that an Enterobacter sp. strain is capable of degrading MCPA, which might provide a new approach for the remediation of MCPA contaminated soil and contribute to the limited knowledge about the function of Enterobacter species. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parents’ professional sources of advice regarding child discipline and their use of corporal punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Moeller, William; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet C.

    2014-01-01

    Parents (n=500) were surveyed about which professional groups they were most likely to seek and follow advice from regarding child discipline as well as their use of corporal punishment (CP). Nearly half of parents reported that they were most likely to seek child discipline advice from pediatricians (48%), followed by religious leaders (21%) and mental health professionals (18%). Parents that sought advice from religious leaders (vs. pediatricians) had nearly 4 times the odds of reporting use of CP. Parents reported they were more likely to follow the advice of pediatricians than any other professional; however, Black parents were as likely to follow the advice of religious leaders as that of pediatricians. Pediatricians play a central role in advising parents about child discipline. Efforts to engage pediatricians in providing violence prevention counseling should continue. Increased efforts are needed to engage other professionals, especially religious leaders, in providing such advice to parents. PMID:23185082

  10. Parents' professional sources of advice regarding child discipline and their use of corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Moeller, William; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet C

    2013-02-01

    Parents (n = 500) were surveyed about which professional groups they were most likely to seek and follow advice from regarding child discipline as well as their use of corporal punishment (CP). Nearly half of the parents reported that they were most likely to seek child discipline advice from pediatricians (48%), followed by religious leaders (21%) and mental health professionals (18%). Parents who sought advice from religious leaders (vs pediatricians) had nearly 4 times the odds of reporting use of CP. Parents reported that they were more likely to follow the advice of pediatricians than any other professional; however, black parents were as likely to follow the advice of religious leaders as that of pediatricians. Pediatricians play a central role in advising parents about child discipline. Efforts to engage pediatricians in providing violence prevention counseling should continue. Increased efforts are needed to engage other professionals, especially religious leaders, in providing such advice to parents.

  11. Watchful Waiting for Cases of Pediatric Otitis Media: Modeling Parental Response to Physician Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGeorge, Erina L; Smith, Rachel A; Caldes, Emily P; Hackman, Nicole M

    2016-08-01

    Watchful waiting (WW) can reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in the treatment of pediatric otitis media (ear infection), but its utility is impaired by underutilization and noncompliance. Guided by advice response theory, the current study proposes advantage and capacity as factors that predict how caregivers evaluate and respond affectively to WW. Parents (N = 373) of at least 1 child age 5 years or younger completed questionnaires that assessed responses to hypothetical WW advice for their youngest child. Perceptions of advantage from WW and the capacity to monitor and manage symptoms predicted advice quality, physician trust, and future compliance both directly and indirectly through negative affect. The findings suggest the elaboration of advice response theory to include more aspects of advice content evaluation (e.g., advantage) and the influence of negative affect. The study also provides practical guidance for physicians seeking to improve caregiver reception of WW advice.

  12. TPMG Northern California appointments and advice call center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conolly, Patricia; Levine, Leslie; Amaral, Debra J; Fireman, Bruce H; Driscoll, Tom

    2005-08-01

    Kaiser Permanente (KP) has been developing its use of call centers as a way to provide an expansive set of healthcare services to KP members efficiently and cost effectively. Since 1995, when The Permanente Medical Group (TPMG) began to consolidate primary care phone services into three physical call centers, the TPMG Appointments and Advice Call Center (AACC) has become the "front office" for primary care services across approximately 89% of Northern California. The AACC provides primary care phone service for approximately 3 million Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members in Northern California and responds to approximately 1 million calls per month across the three AACC sites. A database records each caller's identity as well as the day, time, and duration of each call; reason for calling; services provided to callers as a result of calls; and clinical outcomes of calls. We here summarize this information for the period 2000 through 2003.

  13. Telemedical advice to long-distance passenger ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS......: Data from the journals for 1 year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical officers on passenger ferries were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen RM records, 73% pertaining to passengers and 27% for crew members, were analyzed. Passenger patients were generally...... complaints, and more than half of these involved severe or considerable pain. Only acetaminophen (paracetamol) and opioids were in the ferry medicine chest. At least 77 patients would have benefited from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The paramedical assistance and the medicine...

  14. Sport participation and Ramadan observance: Advice for the athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy J. Shephard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A growing number of Muslim athletes now engage in international competition. This raises the question of the advice they should be given if a major event occurs during the month of Ramadan. Methods: A narrative review has been based upon books and extensive reviews completed by the author and other investigators. Results: Practical considerations hamper assessment of the effects of Ramadan upon physical performance, but there seem small decreases in muscular strength and both anaerobic and aerobic capacity.  Nevertheless, athletes who wish to observe Ramadan can reduce such effects by prior adjustment of diet and training plans, minimizing sleep loss, and careful management of fluid and food intake during the period of intermittent fasting. Conclusion: Competitors in most events can observe Ramadan with a small loss of athletic performance. However, intermittent fasting can endanger health for individuals with type I diabetes mellitus, and for participants in ultra-endurance events (particularly under hot conditions.

  15. Nutritional Advice for Patients with Melasma in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Mojtabaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Melasma (called Kalaf in Iranian traditional medicine is a common acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of skin. Several factors including exposure to sunlight, pregnancy, and endocrine diseases increase the risk for Melasma. In traditional medicine, antecedent philosophers and physicians have tried to understand the nature and mechanisms of different systems of the human body for the diagnosis and management of Melasma; they have offered different solutions for it. This study is important since Melasma is a disease causing mental side effects in patients, due to darkness and opacity of the skin; therefore, the treatment of Melasma in terms of its psychological complications is of particular importance. In addition, texts of Iranian traditional medicine contain a wealth of nutritional advice for patients with Melasma. These texts have, until now, not yet been reviewed. The present study has considered the most important references of Iranian traditional medicine texts. Objectives The objective of this study was to extract and categorize the nutritional advice of Iranian traditional medicine texts for the treatment of Melasma. Results Dietary recommendations, not only for treatment but also for prevention of diseases and staying healthy, are very efficient. Conclusions Based on the traditional medicine texts, it is helpful to avoid Soda-producing food as well as to identify appropriate food in order to eliminate the accumulation of Soda or black bile from the blood. This study offers a set of analytical and clinical research on food, which in traditional medicine is called Soda-producing as well as Soda reducing.

  16. Diagnostic medical exposures: advice on exposure to ionising radiation during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The NRPB offers advice on exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy, based on data published since 1985. In providing this advice the Board has considered risks to the developing embryo and fetus of death, malformation, mental impairment, cancer (solid tumours and leukaemias) and genetic damage from irradiation after the first missed menstrual period. The possible risks from irradiation of the early (up to 3-4 weeks) conceptus and from gonodal irradiation of patients is also covered in the present advice. (Author)

  17. Achieving Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain: The Role of Healthcare Provider Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deputy, Nicholas P; Sharma, Andrea J; Kim, Shin Y; Olson, Christine K

    2018-01-10

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain recommendations in 2009. We examined associations between healthcare provider advice about gestational weight gain and inadequate or excessive weight gain, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index category. We analyzed cross-sectional data from women delivering full-term (37-42 weeks of gestation), singleton infants from four states that participated in the 2010-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (unweighted n = 7125). Women reported the weight gain range (start and end values) advised by their healthcare provider; advice was categorized as follows: starting below recommendations, starting and ending within recommendations (IOM consistent), ending above recommendations, not remembered, or not received. We examined associations between healthcare provider advice and inadequate or excessive, compared with appropriate, gestational weight gain using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 26.3% of women reported receiving IOM-consistent healthcare provider advice; 26.0% received no advice. Compared with IOM-consistent advice, advice below recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of inadequate weight gain among underweight (aPR 2.22, CI 1.29-3.82) and normal weight women (aPR 1.57, CI 1.23-2.02); advice above recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of excessive weight gain among all but underweight women (aPR range 1.36, CI 1.08-1.72 to aPR 1.42, CI 1.19-1.71). Not remembering or not receiving advice was associated with both inadequate and excessive weight gain. Few women reported receiving IOM-consistent advice; not receiving IOM-consistent advice put women at-risk for weight gain outside recommendations. Strategies that raise awareness of IOM recommendations and address barriers to providing advice are needed.

  18. Sociality Mental Modes Modulate the Processing of Advice-Giving: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People have different motivations to get along with others in different sociality mental modes (i.e., communal mode and market mode, which might affect social decision-making. The present study examined how these two types of sociality mental modes affect the processing of advice-giving using the event-related potentials (ERPs. After primed with the communal mode and market mode, participants were instructed to decide whether or not give an advice (profitable or damnous to a stranger without any feedback. The behavioral results showed that participants preferred to give the profitable advice to the stranger more slowly compared with the damnous advice, but this difference was only observed in the market mode condition. The ERP results indicated that participants demonstrated more negative N1 amplitude for the damnous advice compared with the profitable advice, and larger P300 was elicited in the market mode relative to both the communal mode and the control group. More importantly, participants in the market mode demonstrated larger P300 for the profitable advice than the damnous advice, whereas this difference was not observed at the communal mode and the control group. These findings are consistent with the dual-process system during decision-making and suggest that market mode may lead to deliberate calculation for costs and benefits when giving the profitable advice to others.

  19. Exploring multi-metal biosorption by indigenous metal-hyperresistant Enterobacter sp. J1 using experimental design methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.-B.; Kao, W.-C.; Shi, J.-J.; Chang, J.-S.

    2008-01-01

    A novel experimental design, combining mixture design and response surface methodology (RSM), was developed to investigate the competitive adsorption behavior of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 able to tolerate high concentrations of a variety of heavy metals. Using the proposed combinative experimental design, two different experiment designs in a ternary metal biosorption system can be integrated to a succinct experiment and the number of experimental trials was markedly reduced from 38 to 26 by reusing the mutual experimental data. Triangular contour diagrams and triangular three-dimensional surface plots were generated to describe the ternary metal biosorption equilibrium data in mixture design systems. The results show that the preference of metal sorption of Enterobacter sp. J1 decreased in the order of Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Cd 2+ . The presence of other metals resulted in a competitive effect. The influence of the other two metals in ternary metal biosorption system can be easily determined by comparing the stray distance from the single metal biosorption. The behavior of competitive biosorption was successfully described and predicted using a combined Langmuir-Freundlich model along with new three-dimensional contour-surface plots

  20. Exploring multi-metal biosorption by indigenous metal-hyperresistant Enterobacter sp. J1 using experimental design methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W.-B. [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Kao, W.-C.; Shi, J.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: changjs@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-05-01

    A novel experimental design, combining mixture design and response surface methodology (RSM), was developed to investigate the competitive adsorption behavior of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 able to tolerate high concentrations of a variety of heavy metals. Using the proposed combinative experimental design, two different experiment designs in a ternary metal biosorption system can be integrated to a succinct experiment and the number of experimental trials was markedly reduced from 38 to 26 by reusing the mutual experimental data. Triangular contour diagrams and triangular three-dimensional surface plots were generated to describe the ternary metal biosorption equilibrium data in mixture design systems. The results show that the preference of metal sorption of Enterobacter sp. J1 decreased in the order of Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+}. The presence of other metals resulted in a competitive effect. The influence of the other two metals in ternary metal biosorption system can be easily determined by comparing the stray distance from the single metal biosorption. The behavior of competitive biosorption was successfully described and predicted using a combined Langmuir-Freundlich model along with new three-dimensional contour-surface plots.

  1. Purification and characterization of a GH43 β-xylosidase from Enterobacter sp. identified and cloned from forest soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Eleonora; Negro Alvarez, María José; Sabarís di Lorenzo, Gonzalo; Gonzalez, Sergio; Rorig, Marcela; Talia, Paola; Grasso, Daniel H; Sáez, Felicia; Manzanares Secades, Paloma; Ballesteros Perdices, Mercedes; Cataldi, Angel A

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic biomass for second generation biofuels requires optimization of enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from a native and two cultivated forest soil samples. Amplification of glycosyl hydrolases was attempted by using a low stringency-degenerate primer PCR strategy, using total soil DNA and bulk DNA pooled from positive colonies as template. A set of primers was designed based on Acidothermus cellulolyticus genome, by search of conserved domains of glycosyl hydrolases (GH) families of interest. Using this approach, a fragment containing an open reading frame (ORF) with 98% identity to a putative GH43 beta-xylosidase coding gene from Enterobacter cloacae was amplified and cloned. The full protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as N-terminal or C-terminal His-tagged fusions and purified under native conditions. Only N-terminal fusion protein, His-Xyl43, presented beta-xylosidase activity. On pNPX, optimal activity was achieved at pH 6 and 40 °C and Km and Kcat values were 2.92 mM and 1.32 seg(-1), respectively. Activity was also demonstrated on xylobiose (X2), with Km 17.8 mM and Kcat 380 s(-1). These results demonstrated that Xyl43 is a functional beta-xylosidase and it is the first evidence of this activity for Enterobacter sp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological reduction of hexavalent chromium and mechanism analysis of detoxification by enterobacter sp. HT1 isolated from tannery effluents, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Marjangul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacter sp. HT1, Cr (VI resistant bacterial strain was isolated from the wastewater sample of the tannery in Mongolia. Batch experiments on hexavalent chromium removal was carried out at 10, 20, and 30 mg/L of Cr (VI added as potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, at pH 7 and temperature of 30 °C using pure culture of Enterobacter sp. HT1 as inoculum.  The isolated HT1 is capable of reduction nearly 100% of Cr (VI resulting in the decrease of Cr (VI from 10 to 0.2 mg/L within 20 hours. When the concentration of Cr (VI increased to 20 and 30mg/L, almost complete reduction of Cr (VI could achieve after 72 and 96 hours, respectively.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.322 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p47-52

  3. Hydrolysis of surimi wastewater for production of transglutaminase by Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H-Kittikun, Aran; Bourneow, Chaiwut; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-12-01

    Surimi wastewater (SWW) is an industrial wastewater, released during the washing step of surimi preparation from minced fish, that causes environmental problem. In this study, SWW produced from ornate threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon) was hydrolysed and used to cultivate Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112 for the production of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, EC 2.3.2.13). The SWW was repeatedly used to wash the fish mince that gained a final protein content of 3.20% (w/v). The commercial protease, Delvolase was the most appropriate protease used to produce fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) from SWW. The FPH at 40% degree of hydrolysis was used instead of a peptone portion in the SPY medium (3.0% starch, 2.0% peptone, 0.2% yeast extract, 0.2% MgSO(4), 0.2% K(2)HPO(4) and 0.2% KH(2)HPO(4), pH 7.0) to cultivate the tested strains at 37°C, shaking speed at 150rpm. Providencia sp. C1112 produced higher MTGase activity (1.78±0.05U/ml) than Streptoverticillium mobaraense (1.61±0.02U/ml) at 18h of cultivation in FPH medium. On the other hand, the Enterobacter sp. C2361 produced lower MTGase activity (1.18±0.03U/ml). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enterobacter gergoviae membrane modifications are involved in the adaptive response to preservatives used in cosmetic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périamé, Marina; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Davin-Regli, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the adaptive mechanisms in Enterobacter gergoviae which are involved in recurrent contaminations in cosmetic products that are incorporated with preservatives. Bacterial strains from two backgrounds were examined for a profound understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation against preservatives. It included a series of Ent. gergoviae strain-ATCC 33028 derivatives, isolated using increasing methylisothiazolinone-chloromethylisothiazolinone (MIT-CMIT) and triclosan concentrations. The other series was of Ent. gergoviae isolates from cosmetic products exhibiting MIT-CMIT and triclosan resistance. We evaluated the outer membrane protein modifications and efflux mechanisms activities responsible for the resistant trait via immunoblotting assays. Additionally, for understanding the efflux activity real-time efflux, experiments were performed. A cross-insusceptibility between preservatives and some disinfectants was observed in MIT-CMIT-resistant derivative isolates, but antibiotics susceptibility was not altered. Resistance to EDTA was significant in all preservatives insusceptible derivative strains, indicating modifications in the LPS layer. Furthermore, an array of real-time efflux assays indicated different activity levels while no variations were detected in porins and AcrAB-TolC pumps production. Overexpression of a specific flagellin-type protein was observed in one of the MIT-CMIT- and triclosan-resistant strains. Another candidate, a 25-kDa peroxiredoxin enzyme involved in oxidative detoxification, was identified to be overexpressed in MIT-CMIT derivative. A similar profile was also observed among strains isolated from cosmetic products. Our study highlights the existence of adaptive mechanisms such as overexpression of detoxifying enzymes, flagellin, modification of membrane structure/function in Ent. gergoviae. They might be involved in recurrent episodes of contaminations occurring in the cosmetic production

  5. Impact of probiotic drugs, based on Enterobacter faecium autostrains, on human intestinal microflora in confined habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Batov, Alexey; Usanova, Nonna

    The aim of research: Investigation of influence of probiotic drugs based on autostrains of Enter-obacter faecium, selected from the crew in long term isolation experiment in confined habitat. It is known that during long-term presence in confined habitat the risk of infectious diseases increases. One of the main infectious risk occurs during first 20 days of isolation as a result of exchange of strains and stress-mediated disbacterioses. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate activities of probiotics to avoid this risk. Furthermore, in case of super long term autonomous flight there should be possibilities of application of autochthonous microflora strains as pro-biotics to strengthen colonial resistance of crews. Materials and methods: In the experiment there were used probiotic drugs based on autostrains of E. faecium, selected from the crew before the experiment. Probiotic drugs were consumed during 30 days since the beginning of the experiment with the break of consumption between 10th to 19th day. Results: Comparing the state of intestinal microflora of the crew on the baseline and 14th day of experiment re-vealed remarkable changes of microflora: the increasing of concentration of bifidobacteria and E. faecium (approximately 10 times), elimination of hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, reduction of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative non-fermenting rods, lactobacilli and normal E.coli. On the 45th day of isolation, 15 days after finishing of auto-strains administration, there fere signs of restoration of disbacteriosis: the quantitative decreasing lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and normal E.coli, increasing of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. Conclusion: Thus we managed to avoid risk of pathogenicity potential growth in first 2 decades of isolation. Application of probiotic, based on the autostrains of E. faecium leads to insignificant changes of concentration of lactobacteries, bifidobacteries, normal E. coli and to

  6. Advice on drug safety in pregnancy: are there differences between commonly used sources of information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost Widnes, Sofia K; Schjøtt, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety regarding use in pregnancy is not established for many drugs. Inconsistencies between sources providing drug information can give rise to confusion with possible therapeutic consequences. Therefore, it is important to measure clinically important differences between drug information sources. The objective of this study was to compare two easily accessible Norwegian sources providing advice on drug safety in pregnancy - the product monographs in the Felleskatalog (FK), published by the pharmaceutical companies, and the five regional Drug Information Centres (DICs) in Norway - in addition to assessing the frequency of questions regarding drug safety in pregnancy made to the DICs according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. Advice on drug use in pregnancy provided by the DICs in 2003 and 2005 were compared with advice in the product monographs for the respective drugs in the FK. Comparison of advice was based on categorization to one of four categories: can be used, benefit-risk assessment, should not be used, or no available information. A total of 443 drug advice were categorized. Seven out of ten of drugs frequently enquired about, according to the ATC system, were drugs acting on the nervous system (group N). For 208 (47%) of the drugs, advice differed between the DICs and FK. Advice from the FK was significantly (p drugs that were newly introduced and those that had been on the market for a longer time, advice regarding use of drugs in the first trimester and advice regarding use of drugs in the second or third trimester, or between advice provided during 2003 and during 2005. The results of this study show considerable differences between two Norwegian sources providing advice on the use of drugs in pregnancy. Based on the knowledge that healthcare providers choose sources of information in a random manner, our results may be of clinical importance. We believe that the problem with heterogeneous drug information on this

  7. Innovation and Patchwork Partnerships: Advice Services in Austere Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Forbess

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the UK’s austerity regime, government spending has been slashed, while audit regimes tie up officers of charitable organisations in bureaucracy rather than leaving them free to attend to the substance of their jobs. These funding-cuts-masquerading-as-market-based-restructuring have drastically affected the provision of advice to welfare dependents. But advisers, and the organisations they work for, piece together new patchworks of funds, devise new forms of face-to-face advice, and rework the boundaries of the law. Local authority funds are invested to yield returns from centrally-funded sources. People are helped to honour their tax commitments while challenging debts incurred from the incorrect award and reclaim of benefits, and to pay their council tax and rent. For advisers, austerity is more a matter of seeking new resource flows, inventing novel interventions, and creating new spaces where justice may be sought and found, than of passively accepting funding cuts. En el Reino Unido, las políticas de recortes de fondos maquilladas como restructuraciones basadas en el mercado han afectado drásticamente la provisión a los dependientes de la asistencia social. Pero los asesores y las organizaciones para las que trabajan forman nuevos tejidos de fondos financieros, ingenian nuevas formas de ayudar en persona y reconfiguran los límites de la ley. Los fondos financieros de los gobiernos locales se invierten para obtener réditos de fuentes de financiación centralizada. Se ayuda a la gente a cumplir con sus obligaciones fiscales y, al mismo tiempo, a recortar las deudas generadas por una incorrecta concesión y reclamación de prestaciones, y a pagar sus tasas municipales y sus alquileres. Para los asesores, la austeridad es una cuestión de buscar nuevos flujos de recursos, idear nuevas formas de intervención y crear nuevos espacios en los que la justicia pueda ser buscada y hallada. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http

  8. [Pre-travel advice and patient education of Hungarian travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Ingrid; Felkai, Péter

    2018-03-01

    According to international surveys, over half of the travellers face some kind of health issue when travelling. The overwhelming majority of travel-related illnesses can be prevented with pre-travel medical consultations, but the syllabus and content of the consultation have to match the travel habits and culture of the given society. This publication explores the specificities and travel habits of Hungarian travellers. One hundred participants of a travel exhibition completed a survey about their international travel. As the survey was not representative, the data could only be processed through simple statistical methods. However, since the exhibition was presumably attended by those wishing to travel, the conclusions drawn from the results are worth publishing, since no similar survey in Hungary has been published before. Based on the suitable classification of age groups in travel medicine, 11% of the participants were adolescents / young adults (aged 15-24), 81% adults (25-59) and 8% elderly (60-74). Twenty-eight percent of the participants travel multiple times a year, 40% yearly and 32% of them less frequently; 16% of the adults, 8% of the adolescents and 4% of the elderly age group travel multiple times a year. The travel destinations of Hungarian travellers have remained practically unchanged since a study was conducted 13 years ago: the vast majority (95%) travelled within Europe, 2% to the United States, and 11% of them elsewhere. Since Hungarians do not travel to endemic areas, only 5% consulted their general practitioners (GPs) prior to travelling, and 29% did when they had to be vaccinated. Forty-two percent of those wishing to travel never consult their GPs, even though 29% of them are aware of some chronic illness. Instead, 51% gather their health information from the internet and only 6% from their doctors. By the contradiction between the poor health status of the majority of Hungarian travellers and the negligence of seeking pre-travel advice

  9. The role of financial literacy and advice in fi nancial decision making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A growing body of research is focused on determining to what extent fi nancial advice can act as a substitute for low levels of fi nancial literacy. To date, studies have found confl icting results. This study used data from a national survey of South Africans to determine whether advice could substitute for low levels of fi nancial ...

  10. The visual advice centre Eindhoven, an experiment in Dutch low vision care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neve, J.J.; Jorritsma, F.F.; Kinds, G.F.; Kooijman, A.C.; Looijestijn, P.L.; Welling, J.A.; Wildt, van der G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Visual Advice Centre Eindhoven (VAC-E) provides the partially sighted with advice and prescriptions for low vision aids and illumination on the basis of an examination of their individual needs and their residual visual abilities. In the Dutch context of low vision care the V AC-E can be

  11. The binding study advice in medical education: a 2-year experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Goorden, R.; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the effectiveness of higher education, Dutch universities implemented the binding study advice at medical faculties. Accordingly, medicine students of Radboud University need to gain >/= 42 out of 60 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits to obtain a positive binding study advice

  12. Empowering Girls through Sport? Sports Advice Books for Young Female Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecken, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Advice books by female athletes are among the top selling sports books for young readers in the US. Though they have received little attention to date, sports advice books are important to examine because of how they function as a form of conduct manual instructing girls in specific understandings of female identity. Implying that girls face…

  13. Smoking cessation advice in consultations with health problems not related to smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Baarts, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    and was primarily discussed if it posed a particular risk to a particular patient. Smoking cessation advice also occurred in conversations addressing the patient ’ s well-being. If occurring without any other readable frame, smoking cessation advice was apt to be perceived by patients as part of a public campaign...

  14. 21 CFR 312.41 - Comment and advice on an IND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Examples of such advice may include advice on the adequacy of technical data to support an investigational plan, on the design of a clinical trial, and on whether proposed investigations are likely to produce the data and information that is needed to meet requirements for a marketing application. (c) Unless...

  15. Compliance hotlines: practical advice for implementing a reporting mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastin, M J

    1999-01-01

    No element of a corporate compliance program in healthcare facilities generates more controversy than the hotline established for employees who wish to raise a concern. Healthcare organizations are adopting hotlines but with reluctance, mainly because of limited staff available to answer calls and because of limited support from upper management. Those that have committed to the hotline will tell you they can't imagine not having it. Running a good hotline means first answering such questions as whether it will be answered in-house, outsourced or handled through a combination of both means. The best organizations treat the hotline as a resource for employees, managers and physicians. If employees receive advice about policies over the hotline, however, it must be answered in-house. If multiple call answers are used, a secure file-sharing system, either paper or online, must be in use to track caller concerns. Most calls are routine, but one where the caller is reporting a serious infraction can save an organization millions of dollars by forestalling a false claim or allowing for voluntary resolution of a problem. If your company has run a hotline unsuccessfully and earned a poor reputation with employees, outsourcing may be the best option. A hotline that is not supported by management may prove to be an insurmountable problem for anyone who attempts to operate it. Your approach to hotline call intake will set the tone for your compliance program.

  16. Advice concerning the early diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoma is in the Netherlands for men the most frequent type of cancer; the incidence in women is rising. In the Netherlands nowadays, per year about 7100 persons die of this disease which therefore constitutes an important public health problem. The request of advice asks - among other things - whether in the future the periodical X-ray examination of the thorax for the detection of tuberculosis of persons over 40 years can be continued for presymptomatic cases of bronchial carcinoma. The available relevant literature does not yet give indications that periodical mass radiography has any influence on the morbidity and mortality of the disease. On the other hand, literature describing clinical experience shows that the prognosis of patients with bronchial carcinoma, detected in an early presymptomatic stage, is essentially better than in the case of patients with symptomatic disease. A critical analysis of the literature does not furnish epidemiological arguments to recommend periodical mass radiography for bronchial carcinoma. However, because lungcancer forms an extremely important public health problem and because the scarcity of randomized; controlled studies in this field, the committee advises - from a scientific point of view - to perform such a study in one or preferably two regions in the Netherlands. A number of conditions are mentioned which such a study at least should meet. (Auth.)

  17. Top-selling childbirth advice books: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell; Nardini, Katrina; McLeod-Waldo, Rebecca; Ennis, Linda

    2009-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that one-third of women receive information about pregnancy and childbirth through books. Messages about what characteristics are normal (or expected) in childbirth are disseminated in a variety of ways, including popular childbirth education books, but little study of them has been conducted. The purpose of this investigation is to address that gap by examining the discussions about childbirth in the 10 top-selling books in the United States. Discourse analysis (relating to the public, personal, and political discussions about a specific phenomenon) was used to study 10 best-selling United States childbirth advice books marketed to childbearing women during the first week of November 2007. Book styles ranged from clinical descriptions of pregnancy and birth primarily offering reassurance, self-help information, and danger signs to more folksy and humorous commentaries. Presentation of scientific evidence to support recommendations was uneven and at times inaccurate. Five focal areas of discourse included body image, labor and birth, pain, power and control, and life preparation for motherhood. Top-selling books shine an interesting light on the current state of United States maternity practices. Women and health professionals should assess them carefully and engage with each other about their recommendations and implications for childbirth.

  18. Factors Impacting On Patient Compliance with Medical Advice: Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krot Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper to identify factors which have a bearing on compliance with medical advice in various age groups. The survey was conducted, using the CAWI method, on a representative sample of 1000 respondents who declared having used healthcare services in the previous six months. Control of competences is one of the strongest factors which is common for the oldest and youngest groups. Interestingly, trust in the integrity and honesty of doctors is significant for the youngest patients, i.e., the higher is the level of trust, the lower is the tendency to non-comply. Another type of trust is related to the benevolence of doctors and is significant to patients of the middle age group. Satisfaction is a significant predictor in the two oldest groups of patients. High levels of satisfaction seem to deter people from non-adherence to recommended treatment regimens. The results of the present study provide knowledge about the nature and diversity of factors behind patient compliance in various age groups.

  19. Inspiration from role models and advice for moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; McGinn, Lata K

    2012-12-01

    This Behavior Therapy series on overcoming the glass ceiling followed from a highly attended panel at ABCT on the same topic. The current paper summarizes the common themes across the various papers in this series with respect to obstacles prominent women have faced, and how we can learn from their stories to help inform the future. These themes include the importance of role models, messages from a supportive environment, difficulties balancing careers with children, coordinating careers with family, importance of taking charge of one's career, moving forward despite negative internal and external messages, and questions about whether things have changed substantially. In addition, this paper contains a summary of the helpful advice from accomplished women in academia for navigating the academic waters. It is our aspiration that going forward this series will stimulate other conversations as well as increase thought, behavior, solidarity, and awareness about this topic so that we can continue to work toward a future when things will continue to improve for women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Refugees' advice to physicians: how to ask about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J

    2014-08-01

    About 45.2 million people were displaced from their homes in 2012 due to persecution, political conflict, generalized violence and human rights violations. Refugees who endure violence are at increased risk of developing chronic psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. The primary care visit may be the first opportunity to detect the devastating psychological effects of trauma. Physicians and refugees have identified communication barriers that inhibit discussions about mental health. In this study, refugees offer advice to physicians about how to assess the mental health effects of trauma. Ethnocultural methodology informed 13 focus groups with 111 refugees from Burma, Bhutan, Somali and Ethiopia. Refugees responded to questions concerning how physicians should ask about mental health in acceptable ways. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic categorization informed by Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence. Refugees recommended that physicians should take the time to make refugees comfortable, initiate direct conversations about mental health, inquire about the historical context of symptoms and provide psychoeducation about mental health and healing. Physicians may require specialized training to learn how to initiate conversations about mental health and provide direct education and appropriate mental health referrals in a brief medical appointment. To assist with making appropriate referrals, physicians may also benefit from education about evidence-based practices for treating symptoms of refugee trauma. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. For the sake of whom: conversation analysis of advice giving in offender counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-ying, Guo

    2013-08-01

    Regarded as beneficial and preferable to the clients, advice delivery has been an integral part of counseling; however, there are controversies over the suitability of giving advice in counseling services, including counseling conducted in the context of prisons. Based on conversation analysis, this article tries to explore when and how police counselors in two Chinese prisons give advice and how inmate clients respond to and seek advice in offender counseling. It is found that advice delivery, supposed to be for the inmate clients' sake, only serves a phatic function in the context of prisons in which security is a priority, and transforming inmates into law-abiding citizen is the overall goal of prison rehabilitation and correction. Hence, offender counselors, intending to alleviate depression and anxiety in inmate clients, are caught in a dilemma.

  2. Micro-aerobic, anaerobic and two-stage condition for ethanol production by Enterobacter aerogenes from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisaard, Kanokrat; Angelidaki, Irini; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2011-01-01

    The microbial production of ethanol from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR1468, under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated. The experimental results showed that micro-aerobic conditions were more favorable for cellular growth (4.0 g/L DCW), ethanol...

  3. Changes in qnr Prevalence and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. Collected from 1990 to 2005▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahilevitz, Jacob; Engelstein, Dalia; Adler, Amos; Temper, Violeta; Moses, Allon E.; Block, Colin; Robicsek, Ari

    2007-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. collected from 1990 through 2005 at a tertiary care center were studied for qnr genes. Isolates bearing these genes emerged in the mid-1990s, coinciding with the time of a rapid increase in fluoroquinolone resistance. Sixty percent of these isolates were ciprofloxacin susceptible by CLSI breakpoints. PMID:17526754

  4. Occurrence and analysis of irp2 virulence gene in isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. from microbiota and hospital and community-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Lopes, Ana Catarina; Rodrigues, Juliana Falcão; Cabral, Adriane Borges; da Silva, Maíra Espíndola; Leal, Nilma Cintra; da Silveira, Vera Magalhães; de Morais Júnior, Marcos Antônio

    2016-07-01

    Eighty-five isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp., originating from hospital- and community-acquired infections and from oropharyngeal and faecal microbiota from patients in Recife-PE, Brazil, were analyzed regarding the presence of irp2 gene. This is a Yersinia typical gene involved in the synthesis of siderophore yersiniabactin. DNA sequencing confirmed the identity of irp2 gene in five K. pneumoniae, five Enterobacter aerogenes and one Enterobacter amnigenus isolates. To our knowledge in the current literature, this is the first report of the irp2 gene in E. amnigenus, a species considered an unusual human pathogen, and in K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes isolates from the normal microbiota and from community infections, respectively. Additionally, the analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggest the irp2 genes derived from isolates used in this study are more closely related to that of Yersinia pestis P.CE882 than to that of Yersinia enterocolitica 8081. These data demonstrated that K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. from normal microbiota and from community- and hospital-acquired infections possess virulence factors important for the establishment of extra-intestinal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinetics of biological decolorisation of anthraquinone based Reactive Blue 19 using an isolated strain of Enterobacter sp.F NCIM 5545.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Pinjari, Dipak V

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the bacterial decolorisation of Reactive Blue 19 by an Enterobacter sp.F which was isolated from a mixed culture from anaerobic digester for biogas production. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequencing comparisons indicate that Enterobacter sp.F was 99.7% similar to Enterobacter cloacae ATCC13047. The kinetics of Reactive Blue 19 dye decolorisation by bacterium had been estimated. Effects of substrate concentration, oxygen, temperature, pH, glucose and glucose to microbe weight ratio on the rate of decolorisation were investigated to understand key factor that determines the performance of dye decolorisation. The maximum decolorisation efficiency of Reactive Blue 19 was 90% over period of 24 h for optimized parameter. To the best of our knowledge, this research study is the report where Enterobacter sp.F has been reported with about 90% decolorizing ability against anthraquinone based Reactive Blue 19 dye. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enterobacter cloacae Complex Isolates Harboring blaNMC-A or blaIMI-Type Class A Carbapenemase Genes on Novel Chromosomal Integrative Elements and Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David A; Mataseje, Laura F; Davidson, Ross; Delport, Johannes A; Fuller, Jeff; Hoang, Linda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Levett, Paul N; Roscoe, Diane L; Willey, Barbara M; Mulvey, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates submitted to a reference laboratory from 2010 to 2015 were screened by PCR for seven common carbapenemase gene groups, namely, KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, GES, and NMC-A/IMI. Nineteen of the submitted isolates (1.7%) were found to harbor Ambler class A bla NMC-A or bla IMI -type carbapenemases. All 19 isolates were resistant to at least one carbapenem but susceptible to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin. Most isolates (17/19) gave positive results with the Carba-NP test for phenotypic carbapenemase detection. Isolates were genetically diverse by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing, and hsp60 gene analysis. The genes were found in various Enterobacter cloacae complex species; however, bla NMC-A was highly associated with Enterobacter ludwigii Whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed that all NMC-A ( n = 10), IMI-1 ( n = 5), and IMI-9 ( n = 2) producers harbored the carbapenemase gene on EludIMEX-1-like integrative mobile elements (EcloIMEXs) located in the identical chromosomal locus. Two novel genes, bla IMI-5 and bla IMI-6 , were harbored on different IncFII-type plasmids. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring bla NMC-A/IMI -type carbapenemases are relatively rare in Canada. Though mostly found integrated into the chromosome, some variants are located on plasmids that may enhance their mobility potential. © Crown copyright 2017.

  7. Prevalence and impact of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production on clinical outcomes in cancer patients with Enterobacter species bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jong; Park, Ki-Ho; Chung, Jin-Won; Sung, Heungsup; Choi, Seong-Ho; Choi, Sang-Ho

    2014-09-01

    We examined the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production and the impact of ESBL on clinical outcomes in cancer patients with Enterobacter spp. bacteremia. Using prospective cohort data on Enterobacter bacteremia obtained between January 2005 and November 2008 from a tertiary care center, the prevalence and clinical impact of ESBL production were evaluated. Two-hundred and three episodes of Enterobacter spp. bacteremia were identified. Thirty-one blood isolates (15.3%, 31/203) scored positive by the double-disk synergy test. Among 17 isolates in which ESBL genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, CTX-M (n = 12), SHV-12 (n = 11), and TEM (n = 4) were the most prevalent ESBL types. Prior usage of antimicrobial agents (77.4% vs. 54.0%, p = 0.02) and inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy (22.6% vs. 3.0%, p Enterobacter bacteremia. Although inappropriate empirical therapy was more common in the ESBL-positive group, ESBL production was not associated with poorer outcomes.

  8. Isolation of the opdE gene that encodes for a new hydrolase of Enterobacter sp. capable of degrading organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino-Flores, Concepción; Dantán-González, Edgar; Vázquez-Ramos, Alejandra; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Díaz-Méndez, Rafael; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Castrejón-Godínez, Maria Luisa; Ramos-Quintana, Fernando; Ortiz-Hernández, Maria Laura

    2012-06-01

    Microbial enzymes that can hydrolyze organophosphorus compounds have been isolated, identified and characterized from different microbial species in order to use them in biodegradation of organophosphorus compounds. We isolated a bacterial strain Cons002 from an agricultural soil bacterial consortium, which can hydrolyze methyl-parathion (MP) and other organophosphate pesticides. HPLC analysis showed that strain Cons002 is capable of degrading pesticides MP, parathion and phorate. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA amplification were performed for strain characterization and identification, respectively, showing that the strain Cons002 is related to the genus Enterobacter sp. which has a single chromosome of 4.6 Mb and has no plasmids. Genomic library was constructed from DNA of Enterobacter sp. Cons002. A gene called opdE (Organophosphate Degradation from Enterobacter) consists of 753 bp and encodes a protein of 25 kDa, which was isolated using activity methods. This gene opdE had no similarity to any genes reported to degrade organophosphates. When kanamycin-resistance cassette was placed in the gene opdE, hydrolase activity was suppressed and Enterobacter sp. Cons002 had no growth with MP as a nutrients source.

  9. Role of ceftazidime dose regimen on the selection of resistant Enterobacter cloacae in the intestinal flora of rats treated for an experimental pulmonary infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.W. Mouton (Johan); M.T. ten Kate (Marian); A.J. Bijl; A. Ott (Alewijn); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The effect of ceftazidime dosing increments and frequency of dosing on the selection of ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter cloacae in the intestine was studied in rats, during treatment of a pulmonary infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Rats with pulmonary

  10. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ram, Faujdar; Ogollah, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. The District Level Household Survey (2007-08) was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver appropriate and recommended advice to all clients, irrespective of

  11. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India.The District Level Household Survey (2007-08 was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice.A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver appropriate and recommended advice to all clients

  12. Q-PCR Based Culture-Independent Enumeration and Detection of Enterobacter: An Emerging Environmental Human Pathogen in Riverine Systems and Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chandra B.; Shanker, Rishi; Gupta, Vijai K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of safe and pristine water is a global challenge when large numbers of natural and anthropogenic water resources are being depleted with faster rate. The remaining water resources are severely contaminated with various kinds of contaminants including microorganisms. Enterobacter is one of the fecal coliform bacteria of family Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacter was earlier used as an indicator bacterium along with other fecal Coliforms namely Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, and Klebsiella, but it is now known to cause various diseases in human beings. In this study, we have collected 55 samples from potable water and riverine system and proved their presence using their conserved sequences of 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes with the help of SYBR green real-time PCR, which showed very high specificity for the detection of Enterobacter. The Enterobacter counts in potable water were found to 1290 ± 32.89 to 1460 ± 39.42 cfu/100 ml. The Enterobacter levels in surface water were 1.76 × 104 ± 492, 1.33 × 104 ± 334, 1.15 × 104 ± 308, 2.56 × 104 ± 802, 2.89 × 104 ± 962, 8.16 × 104 ± 3443 cfu/100 ml; the levels of Enterobacter contamination associated with hydrophytes were 4.80 × 104 ± 1804, 3.48 × 104 ± 856, 8.50 × 104 ± 2074, 8.09 × 104 ± 1724, 6.30 × 104 ± 1738, 3.68 × 104 ± 949 cfu/10 g and the Enterobacter counts in sediments of the river, were 2.36 × 104 ± 703, 1.98 × 104 ± 530, 9.92 × 104 ± 3839, 6.80 × 104 ± 2230, 8.76 × 104 ± 3066 and 2.34 × 104 ± 732 cfu/10 g at the sampling Site #1, Site #2, Site #3, Site #4, Site #5, and Site #6, respectively. The assay could be used for the regular monitoring of potable water and other water reservoirs to check waterborne outbreaks. PMID:26925044

  13. Pretravel health advice among international travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Maldonado, Fernando; Quispe, Wanda; Serrano, Edson; Mozo, Karen; Gonzales, Elsa; Seas, Carlos; Verdonck, Kristien; Echevarria, Juan I; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Cuzco, a Peruvian city of historical interest located 3,326 m above sea level, is a frequent destination for tourists. We conducted a descriptive study to assess the extent and sources of pretravel health advice received by international travelers before their arrival to Cuzco. Data were collected as part of a health survey among travelers. Between August and November 2002, travelers between 15 and 65 years old were invited to fill out a questionnaire in the departing area of Cuzco's international airport. A total of 5,988 travelers participated. The mean age was 35.4 years (SD 11.4 yr); 50.6% were female and 50.8% were single. Tourism was the reason for traveling in 90.2% of the participants, and 89.3% of them were traveling with companions. Pretravel health information was received by 93.6%. The median number of information sources was two, with books (41.5%), travel medicine clinics (38.8%), the Internet (23.3%), and general practitioners (22.7%) as the main sources. Most frequently received recommendations were about safe food and water consumption (85%), use of insect repellents (66.0%), sunburn protection (64.4%), and condom use (22%). Only 16.5% took medication to prevent altitude sickness, and 14.2% took medication to prevent traveler's diarrhea. Variables independently associated with receiving pretravel health information from a health care professional were female gender, country of residence other than the United States, length of stay in Cuzco > 7 days, length of stay in other Peruvian cities > 7 days, tourism as the main reason for visiting Cuzco, traveling with companions, and consulting of more than one source of information. Most travelers arriving to Cuzco had received pretravel health information, and the majority obtained it from more than one source. Recommendations addressed for specific health risks, such as altitude sickness prophylaxis, were received by few travelers.

  14. Weight Management Advice for Clients with Overweight or Obesity: Allied Health Professional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne J. Snodgrass

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The potential for allied health professionals to intervene through the provision of lifestyle advice is unknown. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals in the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for clients with overweight or obesity. Dietitians, exercise physiologists, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and psychologists (n = 296 working in New South Wales were surveyed using paper-based and online methods. The majority of health professionals (71% believed that providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice; 81% provided physical activity advice but only 57% provided dietary advice. Other than dietitians, few had received training in client weight management during their professional qualification (14% or continuing education (16%. Providing dietary advice was associated with: believing it was within their scope of practice (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.9–7.9, p < 0.01, training during their entry-level qualification (OR 7.2, 3.2–16.4, p < 0.01 and having departmental guidelines (OR 4.7, 2.1–10.9, p < 0.01. Most health professionals are willing to provide lifestyle advice to clients with overweight or obesity but few have received required training. Developing guidelines and training for in client weight management may potentially impact on rising obesity levels.

  15. Advice for salt, sugar and fat intake habits among adults: a national-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suele Manjourany Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : A healthy diet is recognized as an important strategy for promoting health as an essential part of non-pharmacological therapy of various health problems. OBJECTIVE : To analyze the reported advice for the intake of salt, sugar and fat for the Brazilian adults living in urban areas. METHODOLOGY : National-based cross-sectional study with 12,402 adults interviewed in 100 Brazilian cities. RESULTS : The most prevalent advice was to low fat intake (38%, followed by the advice to low salt and sugar intake (36% and sugar (29%. The percentage of receiving different advice was similar and more common among women, older people, those with a partner, higher economic class, former smokers, active and in person with physician diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes and overweight. People with white skin color received more advice to eat healthy food, except for the orientation to low salt intake. CONCLUSION : The results show a low prevalence of advice, which configures a missed opportunity to prevent health problems. Although dietary counseling should not be understood only as the transmission of advice regarding some nutrients, it is important to develop actions in order to qualify services and health professionals, allowing the population to have access to qualified information about the benefits of having healthy lifestyles.

  16. Family planning advice and postpartum contraceptive use among low-income women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah L

    2007-03-01

    In Mexico, family planning advice has been incorporated into the clinical guidelines for prenatal care. However, the relationship between women's receipt of family planning advice during prenatal care and subsequent contraceptive use has not been evaluated. Data were collected in 2003 and 2004 in 17 Mexican states from 2,238 urban low-income women postpartum. Participating women reported on prenatal services received and contraceptive use. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models evaluated whether receiving family planning advice during prenatal care predicted current contraceptive use, after quality of care in the community, service utilization, delivery characteristics, household socioeconomic characteristics, and maternal and infant characteristics were controlled for. Overall, 47% of women used a modern contraceptive method. Women who received family planning advice during prenatal care were more likely to use a contraceptive than were those who did not receive such advice (odds ratio, 2.2). Women who received family planning advice had a higher probability of using condoms (relative risk ratio, 2.3) and IUDs (5.2), and of undergoing sterilization (1.4), than of using no method. Integrating family planning advice into prenatal care may be an important strategy for reaching women when their demand for contraception is high.

  17. Metabolic and Co-Metabolic Transformation of Diclofenac by Enterobacter hormaechei D15 Isolated from Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissaoui, Salima; Ouled-Haddar, Houria; Sifour, Mohamed; Harrouche, Kamel; Sghaier, Haitham

    2017-03-01

    The presence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as diclofenac (DCF), in the environment, is an emerging problem due to their harmful effects on non-target organisms, even at low concentrations. We studied the biodegradation of DCF by the strain D15 of Enterobacter hormaechei. The strain was isolated from an activated sludge, and identified as E. hormaechei based on its physiological characteristics and its 16 S RNA sequence. Using HPTLC and GC-MS methods, we demonstrated that this strain metabolized DCF at an elimination rate of 52.8%. In the presence of an external carbon source (glucose), the elimination rate increased to approximately 82%. GC-MS analysis detected and identified one metabolite as 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one; it was produced as a consequence of dehydration and lactam formation reactions.

  18. A Comparison of Molecular Typing Methods Applied to Enterobacter cloacae complex: hsp60 Sequencing, Rep-PCR, and MLST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular typing using repetitive sequenced-based PCR (rep-PCR and hsp60 sequencing were applied to a collection of diverse Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates. To determine the most practical method for reference laboratories, we analyzed 71 E. cloacae complex isolates from sporadic and outbreak occurrences originating from 4 geographic areas. While rep-PCR was more discriminating, hsp60 sequencing provided a broader and a more objective geographical tracking method similar to multilocus sequence typing (MLST. In addition, we suggest that MLST may have higher discriminative power compared to hsp60 sequencing, although rep-PCR remains the most discriminative method for local outbreak investigations. In addition, rep-PCR can be an effective and inexpensive method for local outbreak investigation.

  19. Cloning and characterization of the ddc homolog encoding L-2,4-diaminobutyrate decarboxylase in Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S; Mutoh, N; Tsuzuki, D; Ikai, H; Nakao, H; Shinoda, S; Narimatsu, S; Miyoshi, S I

    2000-05-01

    L-2,4-diaminobutyrate decarboxylase (DABA DC) catalyzes the formation of 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP) from DABA. In the present study, the ddc gene encoding DABA DC from Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 was cloned and characterized. Determination of the nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame of 1470 bp encoding a 53659-Da protein of 490 amino acids, whose deduced NH2-terminal sequence was identical to that of purified DABA DC from E. aerogenes. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly similar to those of Acinetobacter baumannii and Haemophilus influenzae DABA DCs encoded by the ddc genes. The lysine-307 of the E. aerogenes DABA DC was identified as the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding residue by site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, PCR analysis revealed the distribution of E. aerogenes ddc homologs in some other species of Enterobacteriaceae. Such a relatively wide occurrence of the ddc homologs implies biological significance of DABA DC and its product DAP.

  20. Utilisation of Business Advice in Small Innovative Firms: the Role of Trust and Tacit Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łobacz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of the influence of trust relationship, as well as tacit knowledge on the process of business advice utilisation in small innovative firms. Research Design & Methods: The  analysis  is  based  on  empirical  research  conducted with the use of the explorative approach. The multiple case study methodology was used. Findings: Trust relationships as well as tacit knowledge were identified as factors essential to the process of utilisation of business advice in small innovative firms. It was recognised that the significance of both factors is related not only to the process of advice, but also as a purpose of activities happening prior to advice. They are referred to as the initial phase. Implications & Recommendations: The  findings  provide  implications  for  further  research of the structure of the process of business advice utilisation. It is related to the inclusion of the “initial phase”, as well as to the  necessity to include both factors in further research. The paper also provides implicationsrelated to the measurement of business advice output, and recommendations on the construction of public policy instruments. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in using the process perspective and qualitative methodology in the field of the utilisation of business advice. It extends our understanding of the processes of business advice with regard to trust, as well as the use of tacit knowledge. The original contribution is to add the “initial phase” to the description of the business advice process.

  1. Health behaviour advice from health professionals to Canadian adults with hypertension: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin L; Gee, Marianne E; Bancej, Christina; Nolan, Robert P; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Joffres, Michel; Bienek, Asako; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals play an important role in providing health information to patients. The objectives of this study were to examine the type of advice that Canadians with hypertension recall receiving from health professionals to manage their condition, and to assess if there is an association between health behaviour advice provided by health professionals and self-reported engagement in health behaviour modification. Respondents of the 2009 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada (N = 6142) were asked about sociodemographic characteristics, health care utilization, and health behaviour modification to control hypertension. Association between receipt of advice from health professional and ever engaging, continuing to engage, and not engaging in health behaviour modification was quantified by prevalence rate ratios. Most participants (90.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.6-92.2) reported that the health professional most responsible for treating their high blood pressure was their general practitioner. Approximately 9% reported that they had not received or do not recall receiving any advice for blood pressure control. The most commonly reported advice received from a health professional was to participate in physical activity or exercise (70.0%). Respondents who had received advice on health behaviour change to manage their high blood pressure were more likely to report engaging in the behaviour compared with those who did not receive such advice. Many Canadians with hypertension receive health behaviour change advice from their health professionals. Receiving this advice was associated with a greater likelihood of attempting health behaviour change and attempting to sustain that change. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Advice for acute low back pain: a comparison of what research supports and what guidelines recommend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew L; Lin, Chung-Wei C; de Carvalho, Flavia A; Phan, Kevin; Koes, Bart; Maher, Chris G

    2017-10-01

    Advice is widely considered an effective treatment for acute low back pain (LBP); however, details on what and how to deliver this intervention is less clear. We assessed and compared clinical trials that test advice for acute LBP with practice guidelines for their completeness of reporting and concordance on the content, method of delivery, and treatment regimen of advice interventions. Systematic review. Advice randomized controlled trials were identified through a systematic search. Guidelines were taken from recent overviews of guidelines for LBP. Completeness of reporting was assessed using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist. Thematic analysis was used to characterize advice interventions into topics across the aspects of content, method of delivery, and regimen. Concordance between clinical trials and guidelines was assessed by comparing the number of trials that found a statistically significant treatment effect for an intervention that included a specific advice topic with the number of guidelines recommending that topic. The median (interquartile range) completeness of reporting for clinical trials and guidelines was 8 (7-9) and 3 (2-4) out of nine items on the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist, respectively. Guideline recommendations were discordant with clinical trials for 50% of the advice topics identified. Completeness of reporting was less than ideal for randomized controlled trials and extremely poor for guidelines. The recommendations made in guidelines of advice for acute LBP were often not concordant with the results of clinical trials. Taken together, these findings mean that the potential clinical value of advice interventions for patients with acute LBP is probably not being realized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-08-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile bacterium, producing 4.5 μg mL(-1) indole acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It utilized 27 out of 95 substrates in BIOLOG GN2 micro plate system. It was able to convert insoluble tri-calcium phosphate to soluble phosphorus up to 43.5 μg mL(-1) with decrease in pH of the medium up to 4.5 after 10 days incubation at 28 ± 2 °C in the Pikovskaya's broth. High performance liquid chromatography of cell free supernatant showed that Fs-11 produced malic acid and gluconic acid (2.43 and 16.64 μg mL(-1), respectively) in Pikovskaya's broth. Analysis of 900 bp fragment of pyrroloquinoline quinine pqqE gene sequence showed 98 % homology with that of E. cloacae pqqE gene. Confocal laser scanning microscope revealed strong colonization of fluorescently labeled Fs-11 with sunflower roots. Sunflower inoculation with Fs-11 and its rifampicin resistant derivative in sterile sand and natural soil showed that Fs-11 colonized sunflower roots up to 30 days after transplanting in both sterile sand as well as natural soil. Moreover, Fs-11 inoculation resulted in increased plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and total phosphorus contents as compared to un-inoculated plants. The data showed that Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 is an efficient phosphate solubilizing and plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and has great potential to be used as bio-inoculant for sunflower under phosphorus deficient conditions.

  4. Rheumatology telephone advice line - experience of a Portuguese department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R; Marques, A; Mendes, A; da Silva, J A

    2015-01-01

    Telephone helplines for patients are tool for information and advice. They can contribute to patient's satisfaction with care and to the effectiveness and safety of treatments. In order to achieve this, they need to be adequately adapted to the target populations, as to incorporate their abilities and expectations. a) Evaluate the adherence of patients to a telephone helpline managed by nurses in a Portuguese Rheumatology Department, b) Analyse the profile of users and their major needs, c) Analyse the management of calls by the nurses. The target population of this phone service are the patients treated at Day Care Hospital and Early Arthritis Clinic of our department. Nurses answered phone calls immediately between 8am and 4pm of working days. In the remaining hours messages were recorded on voice mail and answered as soon as possible. Details of the calls were registered in a dedicated sheet and patients were requested permission to use data to improve the service, with respect for their rights of confidentiality, anonymity and freedom of decision. In 18 months 173 calls were made by 79 patients, with a mean age of 47.9 years (sd=9.13). Considering the proportions of men and women in the target population, it was found that men called more frequently (M= 32.7% vs F= 20.4%, p=.016). The reasons for these calls can be divided into three categories: instrumental help, such as the request for results of complementary tests or rescheduling appointments (43.9% of calls); counselling on side effects or worsening of the disease/pain (31.2 %); counselling on therapy management (24.9%). Neither sex nor patient age were significantly related to these reasons for calling. Nurses resolved autonomously half (50.3%) of the calls and in 79.8% of the cases there was no need for patient referral to other health services. About a quarter of patients adhered to the telephone helpline.. Patients called to obtain support in the management of disease and therapy or to report side

  5. 77 FR 47880 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ....S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on Probable Economic... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of... Mexico: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES...

  6. Consumers’ intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel, S.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; Ronteltap, A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We examine

  7. Consumers' intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Wendel (Sonja); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A. Ronteltap (Amber); H.C.M. van Trijp (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We

  8. Destination image and crime in Mexico: An analysis of foreign government travel advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carlos Monterrubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Destination image has been recognised as an influential component of travel decision processes. Although organic sources of information play an important role in shaping destination image, researchers have often ignored the types of sources and the information they deliver. In particular, official websites where government travel advice is given, especially in relation to crime, have been widely excluded from scholarly research. This paper analyses the relationship between crime-related travel advice given by foreign governments and Mexico’s destination image. Qualitative content analysis of official websites from the US, Canada, the UK and Spain reveals that the travel advice given relates largely to the violence and insecurity that Mexico is currently experiencing. “No advisory in effect”, “Exercise caution” and “Defer non-essential travel” are messages commonly found in the governments’ travel advice about Mexico.

  9. A qualitative study of English community pharmacists' experiences of providing lifestyle advice to patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kirsty; Pattison, Helen; Langley, Chris; Powell, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression is modifiable through lifestyle behaviors. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to facilitate self-management of cardiovascular health however research shows varied pharmacist engagement in providing lifestyle advice. This study explored community pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of providing lifestyle advice to patients with CVD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen pharmacists (1 supermarket; 7 multiple; 7 independent) recruited through multiple methods from community pharmacies across the Midlands, England. A thematic analysis was conducted using a Framework approach. Pharmacists categorized patients according to their perceptions of the patients' ability to benefit from advice. Many barriers to providing lifestyle advice were identified. Confidence to provide lifestyle advice varied, with pharmacists most comfortable providing lifestyle advice in conjunction with conversations about medicines. Some pharmacists felt lifestyle advice was an integral part of their role whilst others questioned whether pharmacists should give lifestyle advice at all, particularly when receiving no remuneration for doing so. Pharmacists viewed providing lifestyle advice as important but identified many barriers to doing so. Lifestyle advice provision was influenced by pharmacists' perceptions of patients. Professional identity and associated role conflict appeared to underpin many of the barriers to pharmacists providing lifestyle advice. Pharmacists may benefit from enhanced training to: increase their confidence to provide lifestyle advice; integrate lifestyle advice with regular pharmaceutical practice and challenge their perceptions of some patients' receptiveness to lifestyle advice and behavior change. Changes to the way UK pharmacists are remunerated may increase the provision of lifestyle advice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of cystovaginoscopy and hygienic advice in girls referred for symptoms of vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Ashok Daya; Hurst, Katherine Victoria; Steinbrecher, Henrik

    2012-05-01

    Vulvovaginitis is a common presenting symptom referred to a paediatric urology clinic. Some of these patients undergo diagnostic cystovaginoscopy to determine whether there is any underlying anatomical cause for the persistent infection. However, in the majority of the patients, no underlying abnormality is found and they are given hygienic advice and prescribed bio yoghurt postoperatively. This study examines the outcome in these patients after hygienic advice is given: determining whether cystovaginoscopy was really necessary and whether it changed the management of vulvovaginitis.

  11. The implementation of ergonomics advice and the stage of change approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmore, Paul; Aylward, Paul; Karnon, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the implementation of injury prevention advice tailored according to the Stage of Change (SOC) approach. The managers of 25 workgroups, drawn from medium to large companies across a wide range of occupational sectors were allocated to receive either standard ergonomics advice or ergonomics advice tailored according to the workgroup SOC. Twelve months after the advice was provided, semi-structured interviews were conducted with each manager. In a multivariate model, managers who had received tailored advice were found to have implemented significantly more of the recommended changes (IRR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.07-2.63) and more "additional" changes (IRR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.12-3.20). Qualitative analysis identified that the key barriers and facilitators to the implementation of changes were largely related to worker resistance to change and the attitudes of senior managers towards health and safety. The findings from this study suggest that the implementation of ergonomics recommendations may be improved by the tailoring of advice according to SOC principles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrigenomics-based personalised nutritional advice: in search of a business model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronteltap, Amber; van Trijp, Hans; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Goossens, Jo

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional advice has mainly focused on population-level recommendations. Recent developments in nutrition, communication, and marketing sciences have enabled potential deviations from this dominant business model in the direction of personalisation of nutrition advice. Such personalisation efforts can take on many forms, but these have in common that they can only be effective if they are supported by a viable business model. The present paper takes an inventory of approaches to personalised nutrition currently available in the market place as its starting point to arrive at an identification of their underlying business models. This analysis is presented as a unifying framework against which the potential of nutrigenomics-based personalised advice can be assessed. It has uncovered nine archetypical approaches to personalised nutrition advice in terms of their dominant underlying business models. Differentiating features among such business models are the type of information that is used as a basis for personalisation, the definition of the target group, the communication channels that are being adopted, and the partnerships that are built as a part of the business model. Future research should explore the consumer responses to the diversity of "archetypical" business models for personalised nutrition advice as a source of market information on which the delivery of nutrigenomics-based personalised nutrition advice may further build.

  13. Linked analysis for definition of nurse advice line syndrome groups, and comparison to encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Steven F; Henry, J; Snyde, M

    2005-08-26

    Nurse advice call centers are a potentially important source of data for syndromic surveillance purposes. For this reason, researchers at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and Kaiser Permanente of the Mid-Atlantic States (KPMAS) have been collaborating to develop methods to use this data within the ESSENCE II Syndromic Surveillance System in the National Capital Region. The objective of this report is to present a general method for finding syndrome groups in data sources that can be linked to physician encounters and to determine effective advice call syndrome groups for use with KPMAS advice data. Advice calls are linked to physician encounters and stratified by patient age. They are placed in groups according to a maximum positive predictive value criterion. The groups are evaluated by correlating the resulting syndrome time series against physician encounter data. Potentially useful advice syndrome groups are found for respiratory, lower gastrointestinal (GI), and total GI syndromes for each age stratum. The time series of the advice data for respiratory, lower GI, and upper GI syndromes accurately predict the physician encounter time series for the corresponding syndromes for each age stratum.

  14. A survey of exercise advice and recommendations in United Kingdom paediatric cardiac clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig A; Gowing, Lucy; Horn, Richard; Stuart, Alan Graham

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity and exercise have important health benefits for children and adolescents with CHD. The objective of this study was to survey the provision of advice and recommendations in United Kingdom paediatric CHD clinics. A three-page questionnaire was sent out to paediatric cardiac consultants in the United Kingdom, paediatric consultants with expertise in cardiology, and nursing staff (Paediatricians with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group), as well as all members of the British Congenital Cardiovascular Association. The aim of this questionnaire was to determine the extent and scope of current information provision and to assess the importance that clinicians place on this advice. There were 68 responses in total, and the data showed that, of these, 24 (36%) clinicians had never provided paediatric CHD patients with written advice about exercise. Only 27 (39%) clinicians provided physical activity advice at every appointment. Lack of time during consultation (n=39, 56.9%), lack of training (n=38, 55.2%), and uncertainty about appropriate recommendations (n=38, 55.2%) were identified as the main factors preventing clinicians from providing patients with advice about physical activity. Although healthcare providers consider physical activity to be very important, the provision of clear, specific advice and recommendations is underutilised; therefore, more education and provision of resources to support the promotion of exercise need to be provided to clinicians and their support teams.

  15. On Advice Complexity of the k-server Problem under Sparse Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, S.; Kamali, S.; López-Ortiz, A.

    2013-01-01

    O (n(log μ +log logN)) bits of advice. Among other results, this gives a 3-competitive algorithm for planar graphs, provided with O (n log log N) bits of advice. On the other side, we show that an advice of size Ω (n) is required to obtain a 1-competitive algorithm for sequences of size n even......We consider the k-Server problem under the advice model of computation when the underlying metric space is sparse. On one side, we introduce Θ (1)-competitive algorithms for a wide range of sparse graphs, which require advice of (almost) linear size. Namely, we show that for graphs of size N...... and treewidth α, there is an online algorithm which receives O (n(log α +log log N))1 bits of advice and optimally serves a sequence of length n. With a different argument, we show that if a graph admits a system of μ collective tree (q, r)- spanners, then there is a (q + r)-competitive algorithm which receives...

  16. Racial disparities in reported prenatal care advice from health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M D; Kotelchuck, M; Alexander, G R; Johnson, W E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relationship between certain maternal behaviors and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been well documented. One method to alter these behaviors is through the advice of women's health care providers. Advice from providers may be particularly important in minority populations, who have higher rates of infant mortality and prematurity. This study examines racial disparities according to women's self-report of advice received from health care providers during pregnancy in four areas: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, drug use, and breast-feeding. METHODS. Health care providers' advice to 8310 White non-Hispanic and Black women was obtained from the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. RESULTS. After controlling for sociodemographic, utilization, and medical factors, Black women were more likely to report not receiving advice from their prenatal care providers about smoking cessation and alcohol use. The difference between Blacks and Whites also approached significance for breast-feeding. No overall difference was noted in advice regarding cessation of drug use, although there was a significant interaction between race and marital status. CONCLUSIONS. These data suggest that Black women may be at greater risk for not receiving information that could reduce their chances of having an adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:8279618

  17. Multidrug-Resistant CTX-M-(15, 9, 2)- and KPC-2-Producing Enterobacter hormaechei and Enterobacter asburiae Isolates Possessed a Set of Acquired Heavy Metal Tolerance Genes Including a Chromosomal sil Operon (for Acquired Silver Resistance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo N; Siqueira, Thiago E S; Martinez, Roberto; Darini, Ana Lucia C

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is concern in healthcare-associated infections. On the other hand, bacterial tolerance to other antimicrobials, like heavy metals, has been neglected and underestimated in hospital pathogens. Silver has long been used as an antimicrobial agent and it seems to be an important indicator of heavy metal tolerance. To explore this perspective, we searched for the presence of acquired silver resistance genes ( sil operon: silE, silS, silR, silC, silF, silB, silA , and silP ) and acquired extended-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance genes ( bla CTX-M and bla KPC ) in Enterobacter cloacae Complex (EcC) ( n = 27) and Enterobacter aerogenes ( n = 8) isolated from inpatients at a general hospital. Moreover, the genetic background of the silA (silver-efflux pump) and the presence of other acquired heavy metal tolerance genes, pcoD (copper-efflux pump), arsB (arsenite-efflux pump), terF (tellurite resistance protein), and merA (mercuric reductase) were also investigated. Outstandingly, 21/27 (78%) EcC isolates harbored silA gene located in the chromosome. Complete sil operon was found in 19/21 silA -positive EcC isolates. Interestingly, 8/20 (40%) E. hormaechei and 5/6 (83%) E. asburiae co-harbored silA/pcoD genes and bla CTX-M-(15,2,or9) and/or bla KPC-2 genes. Frequent occurrences of arsB, terF , and merA genes were detected, especially in silA/pcoD -positive, multidrug-resistant (MDR) and/or CTX-M-producing isolates. Our study showed co-presence of antibiotic and heavy metal tolerance genes in MDR EcC isolates. In our viewpoint, there are few studies regarding to bacterial heavy metal tolerance and we call attention for more investigations and discussion about this issue in different hospital pathogens.

  18. Multidrug-Resistant CTX-M-(15, 9, 2- and KPC-2-Producing Enterobacter hormaechei and Enterobacter asburiae Isolates Possessed a Set of Acquired Heavy Metal Tolerance Genes Including a Chromosomal sil Operon (for Acquired Silver Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo N. Andrade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is concern in healthcare-associated infections. On the other hand, bacterial tolerance to other antimicrobials, like heavy metals, has been neglected and underestimated in hospital pathogens. Silver has long been used as an antimicrobial agent and it seems to be an important indicator of heavy metal tolerance. To explore this perspective, we searched for the presence of acquired silver resistance genes (sil operon: silE, silS, silR, silC, silF, silB, silA, and silP and acquired extended-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance genes (blaCTX−M and blaKPC in Enterobacter cloacae Complex (EcC (n = 27 and Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 8 isolated from inpatients at a general hospital. Moreover, the genetic background of the silA (silver-efflux pump and the presence of other acquired heavy metal tolerance genes, pcoD (copper-efflux pump, arsB (arsenite-efflux pump, terF (tellurite resistance protein, and merA (mercuric reductase were also investigated. Outstandingly, 21/27 (78% EcC isolates harbored silA gene located in the chromosome. Complete sil operon was found in 19/21 silA-positive EcC isolates. Interestingly, 8/20 (40% E. hormaechei and 5/6 (83% E. asburiae co-harbored silA/pcoD genes and blaCTX−M−(15,2,or9 and/or blaKPC−2 genes. Frequent occurrences of arsB, terF, and merA genes were detected, especially in silA/pcoD-positive, multidrug-resistant (MDR and/or CTX-M-producing isolates. Our study showed co-presence of antibiotic and heavy metal tolerance genes in MDR EcC isolates. In our viewpoint, there are few studies regarding to bacterial heavy metal tolerance and we call attention for more investigations and discussion about this issue in different hospital pathogens.

  19. Enterobacter sp. I-3, a bio-herbicide inhibits gibberellins biosynthetic pathway and regulates abscisic acid and amino acids synthesis to control plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Park, Jae-Man; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-12-01

    Very few bacterial species were identified as bio-herbicides for weed control. The present research was focused to elucidate the plant growth retardant properties of Enterobacter sp. I-3 during their interaction by determining the changes in endogenous photosynthetic pigments, plant hormones and amino acids. The two bacterial isolates I-4-5 and I-3 were used to select the superior bacterium for controlling weed seeds (Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) germination. The post-inoculation of I-3 (Enterobacter sp. I-3) significantly inhibited the weeds seed germination than their controls. The mechanism of bacterium induced plant growth reduction was identified in lettuce treated with I-3 bacterium and compared their effects with known chemical herbicide, trinexapac-ethyl (TE). The treatment of I-3 and TE showed a significant inhibitory effect on shoot length, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, shoot weight, root weight and chlorophyll content in lettuce seedlings. The endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) analysis showed that Enterobacter sp. I-3 treated plants had lower levels of GAs (GA 12 , GA 19 , GA 20 and GA 8 ) and GAs/ABA ratio and then, the higher level of ABA when compared to their controls. Indeed, the individual amino acids ie., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, threonine, alanine, serine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine were declined in TE and I-3 exposed plants. Our results suggest that the utilization of Enterobacter sp. I-3 inhibits the GAs pathway and amino acids synthesis in weeds to control their growth can be an alternative to chemical herbicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Leaving the Hospital Against Medical Advice Among People Who Use Illicit Drugs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lianlian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Leaving the hospital against medical advice is an increasing problem in acute care settings and is associated with an array of negative health consequences that may lead to readmission for a worsened health outcome or mortality. Leaving the hospital against medical advice is particularly common among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) and has been linked to a number of complex issues; however, few studies have focused specifically on this population beyond identifying them as being at an increased risk of leaving the hospital prematurely. Furthermore, programs and interventions for reducing the rate of leaving the hospital against medical advice among PWUD in acute care settings have not been well studied. Objectives. We systematically assessed the literature examining hospital discharge against medical advice from acute care among this population and identified potential methods to minimize the occurrence of this phenomenon. Search methods. We searched 5 electronic databases (from database inception to August 2014) and article reference lists for articles investigating hospital discharge from acute care against medical advice among PWUD. Search terms consistent across databases included “patient discharge,” “hospital discharge,” “against medical advice,” “drug user,” “substance-related disorders,” and “intravenous substance abuse.” Selection criteria. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal as an original research article in English. We excluded gray literature, case reports, case series, reviews, and editorials. We retained original studies that reported illicit drug use as a predictor of leaving the hospital against medical advice and studies of discharge against medical advice that included PWUD as a population of interest, and we assessed significance through appropriate statistical tests. We excluded studies that reported patients leaving the hospital against medical advice

  1. Enhancement of the catalytic activity of ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 through random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jiyoung; Jung, Chaewon; Han, Dongfei; Seo, Jiyoung; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 catalyzes the decarboxylation reaction of lignin monomers and phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives, that is, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively. Among various ferulic acid decarboxylase enzymes, we chose the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4, whose crystal structure is known, and produced mutants to enhance its catalytic activity by random and site-directed mutagenesis. After three rounds of sequential mutations, FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) showed approximately 34-fold higher catalytic activity than wild-type for the production of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Docking analyses suggested that the increased activity of FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) could be due to formation of compact active site compared with that of the wild-type FADase. Considering the amount of phenolic compounds such as lignin monomers in the biomass components, successfully bioengineered FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 could provide an ecofriendly biocatalytic tool for producing diverse styrene derivatives from biomass.

  2. High prevalence of non-clonal imipenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter spp. isolates in Korea and their association with porin down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Hong, Yoon-Kyoung; Lee, Haejeong; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and clonal distribution of imipenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter clinical isolates from hospitals in Korea and the contributions of various mechanisms to imipenem nonsusceptibility. The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to imipenem of 357 non-duplicated Enterobacter isolates obtained from eight geographically distant tertiary care hospitals in Korea was evaluated. Imipenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter isolates were genotyped. Additionally, β-lactamase genes were screened using PCR, and the expression of efflux pump and porin genes was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. A total of 31 isolates (8.7%) were not susceptible to imipenem. Clonal diversity of 17 imipenem-nonsusceptible E. cloacae isolates was demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing. Fourteen imipenem-nonsusceptible E. aerogenes isolates were found to be distantly genetically related by an ERIC-PCR analysis. Expression levels of porin ompD and ompK35 genes were decreased in all imipenem-nonsusceptible E. cloacae and E. aerogenes isolates. However, only two isolates were found positive for bla IMP and bla VIM genes, and expression of the efflux pump gene, acrB, was not associated with reduced imipenem susceptibility. Imipenem resistance seems to have occurred independently in most of the imipenem-nonsusceptible isolates in this study, and decreased porin expression was found to be the main mechanism underlying this reduced susceptibility to imipenem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The waaL gene mutation compromised the inhabitation of Enterobacter sp. Ag1 in the mosquito gut environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Dong; Jiang, Jinjin; Yu, Wanqin; Kukutla, Phanidhar; Uentillie, Alejandro; Xu, Jiannong

    2015-08-27

    The mosquito gut harbors a variety of bacteria that are dynamically associated with mosquitoes in various contexts. However, little is known about bacterial factors that affect bacterial inhabitation in the gut microbial community. Enterobacter sp. Ag1 is a predominant Gram negative bacterium in the mosquito midgut. In a mutant library that was generated using transposon Tn5-mediated mutagenesis, a mutant was identified, in which the gene waaL was disrupted by the Tn5 insertion. The waaL encodes O antigen ligase, which is required for the attachment of O antigen to the outer core oligosaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The waaL(-) mutation caused the O antigen repeat missing in the LPS. The normal LPS structure was restored when the mutant was complemented with a plasmid containing waaL gene. The waaL(-) mutation did not affect bacterial proliferation in LB culture, the mutant cells grew at a rate the same as the wildtype (wt) cells. However, when waaL(-) strain were co-cultured with the wt strain or complemented strain, the mutant cells proliferated with a slower rate, indicating that the mutants were less competitive than wt cells in a community setting. Similarly, in a co-feeding assay, when fluorescently tagged wt strain and waaL(-) strain were orally co-introduced into the gut of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, the mutant cells were less prevalent in both sugar-fed and blood-fed guts. The data suggest that the mutation compromised the bacterial inhabitation in the gut community. Besides, the mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress, demonstrated by lower survival rate upon exposure to 20 mM H₂O₂. Lack of the O antigen structure in LPS of Enterobacter compromised the effective growth in co-culture and co-feeding assays. In addition, O-antigen was involved in protection against oxidative stress. The findings suggest that intact LPS is crucial for the bacteria to steadily stay in the gut microbial community.

  4. Why do women not adhere to advice on maternal referral in rural Tanzania? Narratives of women and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembe, Andrea B; Mbekenga, Columba K; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In most low-income countries, many women with high-risk pregnancies and complications do not reach the referral hospitals despite the provision of referral advice. To explore how antenatal maternal referral advice is understood and handled in a rural Tanzanian community. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with six women who did not go to hospital and 13 people who were involved in the referral advice. Narrative analysis was used to describe and create meanings out of the decision-making process. In all interviews, not following the referral advice was greatly influenced by close family members. Three main traits of how referral advice was understood emerged: convinced referral is not necessary, accepting referral advice but delayed by others, and passive and moving with the wind. The main reasons given for declining the referral advice included discrediting midwives' advice, citing previous successful deliveries despite referral advice; being afraid of undergoing surgery; lack of support for care of siblings at home; and high costs incurred during referral. Declining maternal referral advice centred around the pregnant women's position and their dependence on the family members around them, with a decreased ability to show autonomy. If they were socially and economically empowered, women could positively influence decision making during maternal referrals.

  5. Evidence-based first aid advice for paediatric burns in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Alice; Sarginson, Julia; Young, Amber

    2016-05-01

    Burn and scald injuries are common in children. First aid advice for paediatric burns is offered by a range of health organisations and charities in the UK. Despite this, children still present to emergency departments and burn services having received little or inadequate first aid. A survey was undertaken regarding the content and consistency of the advice given by a cross-section of UK health organisations involved in first aid prevention and education. The advice was subsequently examined to determine if it was evidence-based. Our study has demonstrated inconsistencies in the content of the first aid advice provided by the 21 organisations included in the study. Seventy-one percent of the information was only available online. The temperature, method and duration of cooling varied substantially, as did the advice recommended for the removal of clothing and jewellery and methods for covering the burn immediately after injury. Results from the literature review concluded the following based on available evidence; cool the burn with running tap water for 20min, remove clothing and jewellery and cover the burn with cling film or a clean non-adhesive dressing. This study highlights the lack of consistency between first aid guidance provided by health organisations and charities in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Advice networks in teams: the role of transformational leadership and members' core self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Peterson, Suzanne J

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the team-level factors promoting advice exchange networks in teams. Drawing upon theory and research on transformational leadership, team diversity, and social networks, we hypothesized that transformational leadership positively influences advice network density in teams and that advice network density serves as a mediating mechanism linking transformational leadership to team performance. We further hypothesized a 3-way interaction in which members' mean core self-evaluation (CSE) and diversity in CSE jointly moderate the transformational leadership-advice network density relationship, such that the relationship is positive and stronger for teams with low diversity in CSE and high mean CSE. In addition, we expected that advice network centralization attenuates the positive influence of network density on team performance. Results based on multisource data from 79 business unit management teams showed support for these hypotheses. The results highlight the pivotal role played by transformational leadership and team members' CSEs in enhancing team social networks and, ultimately, team effectiveness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Discharge against medical advice in a pediatric emergency center in the State of Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Abdulateef

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze cases that had left the Pediatric Emergency Center Al Sadd, Doha (PEC against medical advice, with the aim of developing policies to help reduce this occurrence. Methodology: All patients that were admitted to the main PEC observation room for treatment and/or investigation and subsequently left against medical advice from February 18, 2007 to June 18, 2007, were followed by a phone call, and a questionnaire, which was completed by the departmental patient representative. Results: 99,133 patients attended the facility during the study period. Of those, 106 left the facility against medical advice. Ninety-four guardians were successfully contacted. 90% of the cases were in children below 2 years of age. In 87% of the cases the mother was the main decision maker for leaving against medical advice. Domestic obligations were the leading cause of DAMA (discharge against medical advice, reported in 45% of the cases. Respondents reported that the consequences of DAMA were well explained by medical staff before they left the facility however, they had not met with the departmental patient representative during their stay. Conclusion:As the majority of DAMA cases occurred in infants, medical staff should address the concerns of this group early on in the course of treatment. Maintaining communication and providing support, in particular for mothers of higher risk groups may help to reduce the rate of DAMA cases.

  8. Friends with benefits, but without the sex: straight women and gay men exchange trustworthy mating advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Eric M; DelPriore, Danielle J; Butterfield, Max E; Hill, Sarah E

    2013-02-09

    Although research has made progress in elucidating the benefits exchanged within same- and opposite-sex friendships formed between heterosexual men and women, it is less clear why straight women and gay men form close relationships with one another. The current experiments begin to address this question by exploring a potential benefit hypothesized to be uniquely available to straight women and gay men in the context of these friendships: trustworthy mating advice. Experiment 1 revealed that straight women perceive mating-relevant advice from a gay man to be more trustworthy than similar advice offered by a straight man or woman. Experiment 2 demonstrated that gay men perceive mating advice offered by a straight woman to be more trustworthy than advice offered by a lesbian woman or another gay man. Overall, the results provide initial experimental evidence that relationships between gay men and straight women may be characterized by a mutual exchange of mating-relevant benefits in the absence of sexual interest or competition.

  9. Genetic test feedback with weight control advice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisel Susanne F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic testing for risk of weight gain is already available over the internet despite uncertain benefits and concerns about adverse emotional or behavioral effects. Few studies have assessed the effect of adding genetic test feedback to weight control advice, even though one of the proposed applications of genetic testing is to stimulate preventive action. This study will investigate the motivational effect of adding genetic test feedback to simple weight control advice in a situation where weight gain is relatively common. Methods/design First-year university students (n = 800 will be randomized to receive either 1 their personal genetic test result for a gene (FTO related to weight gain susceptibility in addition to a leaflet with simple weight control advice (‘Feedback + Advice’ group, FA, or 2 only the leaflet containing simple weight control advice (‘Advice Only’ group, AO. Motivation to avoid weight gain and active use of weight control strategies will be assessed one month after receipt of the leaflet with or without genetic test feedback. Weight and body fat will be measured at baseline and eight months follow-up. We will also assess short-term psychological reactions to the genetic test result. In addition, we will explore interactions between feedback condition and gene test status. Discussion We hope to provide a first indication of the clinical utility of weight-related genetic test feedback in the prevention context. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN91178663

  10. Friends with Benefits, but without the Sex: Straight Women and Gay Men Exchange Trustworthy Mating Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although research has made progress in elucidating the benefits exchanged within same- and opposite-sex friendships formed between heterosexual men and women, it is less clear why straight women and gay men form close relationships with one another. The current experiments begin to address this question by exploring a potential benefit hypothesized to be uniquely available to straight women and gay men in the context of these friendships: trustworthy mating advice. Experiment 1 revealed that straight women perceive mating-relevant advice from a gay man to be more trustworthy than similar advice offered by a straight man or woman. Experiment 2 demonstrated that gay men perceive mating advice offered by a straight woman to be more trustworthy than advice offered by a lesbian woman or another gay man. Overall, the results provide initial experimental evidence that relationships between gay men and straight women may be characterized by a mutual exchange of mating-relevant benefits in the absence of sexual interest or competition.

  11. Experience of dietary advice among Pakistani-born persons with type 2 diabetes in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerli, Rønnaug Aa; Lien, Marianne E; Wandel, Margareta

    2005-12-01

    Experience and implementation of dietary advice are influenced by various factors including ethnic, cultural and religious background. The aim is to explore how ethnic minority persons with diabetes experience dietary advice given by Norwegian health-workers, which strategies they have in response to the advice and how they explain their actions. In-depth interviews were performed with 15 Pakistani-born persons with type 2 diabetes living in Oslo. The analyses are based on the principles of Giorgi's interpretation of phenomenology. The participants expressed great concern to follow the advice. However, narratives about constraints were numerous. These concerned different life-situational factors, but more importantly they were related to communication problems arising from discontinuities between universalising medical knowledge and lay knowledge, as well as between different types of culturally defined lay knowledge. As a consequence, advice was generally experienced as inadequately based on the participant's food-cultural background, leaving the person with diabetes to do the translation between different levels of knowledge. In general health-workers would benefit from expanding their knowledge of the many positive aspects of their patients' cultural background, and apply their knowledge thereafter, whether it concerns (food)-culture or the impact of religion in everyday life.

  12. [Scientific advice by the national and European approval authorities concerning advanced therapy medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Nils; Schüssler-Lenz, Martina; Ziegele, Bettina; Reinhardt, Jens

    2015-11-01

    The aim of scientific advice is to support pharmaceutical developers in regulatory and scientific questions, thus facilitating the development of safe and efficacious new medicinal products. Recent years have shown that the development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) in particular needs a high degree of regulatory support. On one hand, this is related to the complexity and heterogeneity of this group of medicinal products and on the other hand due to the fact that mainly academic research institutions and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are developing ATMPs. These often have limited regulatory experience and resources. In 2009 the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) initiated the Innovation Office as a contact point for applicants developing ATMPs. The mandate of the Innovation Office is to provide support on regulatory questions and to coordinate national scientific advice meetings concerning ATMPs for every phase in drug development and especially with view to the preparation of clinical trial applications. On the European level, the Scientific Advice Working Party (SAWP) of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicinal Agency (EMA) offers scientific advice. This article describes the concepts of national and EMA scientific advice concerning ATMPs and summarizes the experience of the last six years.

  13. Low-temperature-active and salt-tolerant β-mannanase from a newly isolated Enterobacter sp. strain N18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jia; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-02-01

    A low-temperature-active and salt-tolerant β-mannanase produced by a novel mannanase-producer, Enterobacter sp. strain N18, was isolated, purified and then evaluated for its potential application as a gel-breaker in relation to viscosity reduction of guar-based hydraulic fracturing fluids used in oil field. The enzyme could lower the viscosity of guar gum solution by more than 95% within 10 min. The purified β-mannanase with molecular mass of 90 kDa displayed high activity in a broad range of pH and temperature: more than 70% of activity was retained in the pH range of 3.0-8.0 with the optimal pH 7.5, about 50% activity at 20°C with the optimal temperature 50°C. Furthermore, the enzyme retained >70% activity in the presence of 0.5-4.0 M NaCl. These properties implied that the enzyme from strain N18 had potential for serving as a gel-breaker for low temperature oil wells and other industrial fields, where chemical gel breakers were inactive due to low temperature. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a β-carbonic anhydrase from the soil bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Vullo, Daniela; Aşık, Aycan; Çolak, Dilşat Nigar; Supuran, Claudiu T; Çanakçı, Sabriye; Osman Beldüz, Ali

    2016-12-01

    A recombinant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the soil-dwelling bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13 was cloned and purified by Co(2+) affinity chromatography. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the new enzyme (denominated here B13-CA) belongs to the β-class CAs and to possess 95% homology with the ortholog enzyme from Escherichia coli encoded by the can gene, whereas its sequence homology with the other such enzyme from E. coli (encoded by the cynT gene) was of 33%. B13-CA was characterized kinetically as a catalyst for carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons. The enzyme shows a significant catalytic activity, with the following kinetic parameters at 20 °C and pH of 8.3: kcat of 4.8 × 10(5) s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.6 × 10(7) M(-1) × s(-1). This activity was potently inhibited by acetazolamide which showed a KI of 78.9 nM. Although only this compound was investigated for the moment as B13-CA inhibitor, further studies may reveal new classes of inhibitors/activators of this enzyme which may show biomedical or environmental applications, considering the posssible role of this enzyme in CaCO3 biomineralization processes.

  15. Conversion of cheese whey into a fucose- and glucuronic acid-rich extracellular polysaccharide by Enterobacter A47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Alves, Vítor D; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-09-20

    Cheese whey was used as the sole substrate for the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by Enterobacter A47. An EPS concentration of 6.40 g L(-1) was reached within 3.2 days of cultivation, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 2.00 g L(-1) d(-1). The produced EPS was mainly composed of glucuronic acid (29 mol%) and fucose (29 mol%), with lower contents of glucose and galactose (21 mol% each) and a total acyl groups content of 32 wt.%. The polymer had an average molecular weight of 1.8×10(6) Da, with a polydispersity index of 1.2, and an intrinsic viscosity of 8.0 dL g(-1). EPS aqueous solutions (1.0 wt.% in 0.01 M NaCl, at pH 8.0) presented a shear thinning behavior with a viscosity of the first Newtonian plateau approaching 0.1 Pas. This novel glucuronic acid-rich polymer possesses interesting rheological properties, which, together with its high content of glucuronic acid and fucose, two bioactive sugar monomers, confers it a great potential for use in high-value applications, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial activity evaluation and comparison of methods of susceptibility for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacter spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenchoski, Daniele Zendrini; Dambrozio, Angélica Marim Lopes; Vivan, Ana Carolina Polano; Schuroff, Paulo Alfonso; Burgos, Tatiane das Neves; Pelisson, Marsileni; Perugini, Marcia Regina Eches; Vespero, Eliana Carolina

    The production of KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) is the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenem agents in enterobacterias. In this context, forty KPC-producing Enterobacter spp. clinical isolates were studied. It was evaluated the activity of antimicrobial agents: polymyxin B, tigecycline, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem, and was performed a comparison of the methodologies used to determine the susceptibility: broth microdilution, Etest ® (bioMérieux), Vitek 2 ® automated system (bioMérieux) and disc diffusion. It was calculated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each antimicrobial and polymyxin B showed the lowest concentrations for broth microdilution. Errors also were calculated among the techniques, tigecycline and ertapenem were the antibiotics with the largest and the lower number of discrepancies, respectively. Moreover, Vitek 2 ® automated system was the method most similar compared to the broth microdilution. Therefore, is important to evaluate the performance of new methods in comparison to the reference method, broth microdilution. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of regulated genes conferring resistance to high concentrations of glyphosate in a new strain of Enterobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yun-Yan; Gai, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Tuan-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity. Most plants and microbes are sensitive to glyphosate. However, transgenic-resistant crops that contain a modified epsps obtained from the resistant microbes have been commercially successful and therefore, new resistance genes and their adaptive regulatory mechanisms are of great interest. In this study, a soil-borne, glyphosate-resistant bacterium was selected and identified as Enterobacter. The EPSPS in this strain was found to have been altered to a resistant one. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the glyphosate were screened using microarray techniques. Under treatment, argF, sdhA, ivbL, rrfA-H were downregulated, whereas the transcripts of speA, osmY, pflB, ahpC, fusA, deoA, uxaC, rpoD and a few ribosomal protein genes were upregulated. Data were verified by quantitative real-time PCR on selected genes. All transcriptional changes appeared to protect the bacteria from glyphosate and associated osmotic, acidic and oxidative stresses. Many DEGs may have the potential to confer resistance to glyphosate alone, and some may be closely related to the shikimate pathway, reflecting the complex gene interaction network for glyphosate resistance. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteomic and biochemical basis for enhanced growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics and biochemical analyses were used to unravel the basis for higher growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium compared to soluble. Proteomic analysis using 2-DE, MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS revealed the involvement of nine proteins. Down-regulation of fructose bisphosphate aldolase with decreased concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate indicated diminished glycolysis. However, up-regulation of phosphoglycerate mutase, increase in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase suggested induction of Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. These pathways generate sufficient energy from gluconic acid, which is also used for biosynthesis as indicated by up-regulation of elongation factor Tu, elongation factor G and protein disulfide isomerase. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulting from organic acid oxidation leads to overexpressed manganese superoxide dismutase and increased activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Thus the organism uses gluconate instead of glucose for energy, while alleviating extra ROS formation by oxidative defense enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe community-acquired Enterobacter pneumonia: a plea for greater awareness of the concept of health-care-associated pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with Enterobacter community-acquired pneumonia (EnCAP) were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU). Our primary aim was to describe them as few data are available on EnCAP. A comparison with CAP due to common and typical bacteria was performed. Methods Baseline clinical, biological and radiographic characteristics, criteria for health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) were compared between each case of EnCAP and thirty age-matched typical CAP cases. A univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with ENCAP. Their outcome was also compared. Results In comparison with CAP due to common bacteria, a lower leukocytosis and constant HCAP criteria were associated with EnCAP. Empiric antibiotic therapy was less effective in EnCAP (20%) than in typical CAP (97%) (p < 0.01). A delay in the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy (3.3 ± 1.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.6 days; p < 0.01) and an increase in duration of mechanical ventilation (8.4 ± 5.2 vs. 4.0 ± 4.3 days; p = 0.01) and ICU stay were observed in EnCAP patients. Conclusions EnCAP is a severe infection which is more consistent with HCAP than with typical CAP. This retrospectively suggests that the application of HCAP guidelines should have improved EnCAP management. PMID:21569334

  20. Screening and Characterization of Cold-Active β-Galactosidase Producing Psychrotrophic Enterobacter ludwigii from the Sediments of Arctic Fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikkunju, Aneesa P; Sainjan, Neethu; Silvester, Reshma; Joseph, Ajith; Rahiman, Mujeeb; Antony, Ally C; Kumaran, Radhakrishnan C; Hatha, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Low-temperature-tolerant microorganisms and their cold-active enzymes could be an innovative and invaluable tool in various industrial applications. In the present study, bacterial isolates from the sediment samples of Kongsfjord, Norwegian Arctic, were screened for β-galactosidase production. Among the isolates, KS25, KS85, KS60, and KS92 have shown good potential in β-galactosidase production at 20 °C. 16SrRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the relatedness of the isolates to Enterobacter ludwigii. The optimum growth temperature of the isolate was 25 °C. The isolate exhibited good growth and enzyme production at a temperature range of 15-35 °C, pH 5-10. The isolate preferred yeast extract and lactose for the maximum growth and enzyme production at conditions of pH 7.0, temperature of 25 °C, and agitation speed of 100 rpm. The growth and enzyme production was stimulated by Mn 2+ and Mg 2+ and strongly inhibited by Zn 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Cu + . β-Galactosidases with high specific activity at low temperatures are very beneficial in food industry to compensate the nutritional problem associated with lactose intolerance. The isolate exhibited a remarkable capability to utilize clarified whey, an industrial pollutant, for good biomass and enzyme yield and hence could be well employed in whey bioremediation.

  1. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the β-carbonic anhydrase from the newly discovered bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Vullo, Daniela; Aşık, Aycan; Çolak, Dilşat Nigar; Çanakçı, Sabriye; Beldüz, Ali Osman; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-04-01

    The genome of the newly identified bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13 encodes for a β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), EspCA. This enzyme was recently cloned, and characterized kinetically by this group (J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2016, 31). Here we report an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates of this enzyme. The best EspCA inhibitors were some sulfanylated sulfonamides with elongated molecules, metanilamide, 4-aminoalkyl-benzenesulfonamides, acetazolamide, and deacetylated methazolamide (KIs in the range of 58.7-96.5nM). Clinically used agents such as methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, zonisamide, sulthiame, sulpiride, topiramate and valdecoxib were slightly less effective inhibitors (KIs in the range of 103-138nM). Saccharin, celecoxib, dichlorophenamide and many simple benzenesulfonamides were even less effective as EspCA inhibitors, with KIs in the range of 384-938nM. Identification of effective inhibitors of this bacterial enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the physiological role(s) of the β-class CAs in bacterial pathogenicity/virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enterobacter asburiae KE17 association regulates physiological changes and mitigates the toxic effects of heavy metals in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S-M; Radhakrishnan, R; You, Y-H; Khan, A-L; Lee, K-E; Lee, J-D; Lee, I-J

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the role played by Enterobacter asburiae KE17 in the growth and metabolism of soybeans during copper (100 μm Cu) and zinc (100 μm Zn) toxicity. When compared to controls, plants grown under Cu and Zn stress exhibited significantly lower growth rates, but inoculation with E. asburiae KE17 increased growth rates of stressed plants. The concentrations of plant hormones (abscisic acid and salicylic acid) and rates of lipid peroxidation were higher in plants under heavy metal stress, while total chlorophyll, carotenoid content and total polyphenol concentration were lower. While the bacterial treatment reduced the abscisic acid and salicylic acid content and lipid peroxidation rate of Cu-stressed plants, it also increased the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and total polyphenol. Moreover, the heavy metals induced increased accumulation of free amino acids such as aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glycine, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid, while E. asburiae KE17 significantly reduced concentrations of free amino acids in metal-affected plants. Co-treatment with E. asburiae KE17 regulated nutrient uptake by enhancing nitrogen content and inhibiting Cu and Zn accumulation in soybean plants. The results of this study suggest that E. asburiae KE17 mitigates the effects of Cu and Zn stress by reprogramming plant metabolic processes. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Production of FucoPol by Enterobacter A47 using waste tomato paste by-product as sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Sevrin, Chantal; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M

    2017-03-01

    Out-of-specification tomato paste, a by-product from the tomato processing industry, was used as the sole substrate for cultivation of the bacterium Enterobacter A47 and production of FucoPol, a value-added fucose-rich extracellular polysaccharide. Among the different tested fed-batch strategies, pH-stat, DO-stat and continuous substrate feeding, the highest production (8.77gL -1 ) and overall volumetric productivity (2.92gL -1 d -1 ) were obtained with continuous substrate feeding at a constant flow rate of 11gh -1 . The polymer produced had the typical FucoPol composition (37mol% fucose, 27mol% galactose, 23mol% glucose and 12mol% glucuronic acid, with an acyl groups content of 13wt%). The average molecular weight was 4.4×10 6 Da and the polydispersity index was 1.2. This study demonstrated that out-of-specification tomato paste is a suitable low-cost substrate for the production of FucoPol, thus providing a route for the valorization of this by-product into a high-value microbial product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08: A potential microbial strain for high rate hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Namita; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar; Huntemann, Marcel; Deshpande, Shweta; Han, James; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Szeto, Ernest; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Chertkov, Olga; Daligault, Hajnalka; Davenport, Karen; Gu, Wei; Munk, Christine; Zhang, Xiaojing; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Xu, Yan; Quintana, Beverly; Reitenga, Krista; Kunde, Yulia; Green, Lance; Erkkila, Tracy; Han, Cliff; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Lang, Elke; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; Das, Debabrata

    2013-12-20

    Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08 belongs to Phylum: Proteobacteria, Class: Gammaproteobacteria, Order: Enterobacteriales, Family: Enterobacteriaceae. The organism was isolated from the leaves of a local plant near the Kharagpur railway station, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. It has been extensively studied for fermentative hydrogen production because of its high hydrogen yield. For further enhancement of hydrogen production by strain development, complete genome sequence analysis was carried out. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome was linear, 4.67 Mbp long and had a GC content of 56.01%. The genome properties encode 4,393 protein-coding and 179 RNA genes. Additionally, a putative pathway of hydrogen production was suggested based on the presence of formate hydrogen lyase complex and other related genes identified in the genome. Thus, in the present study we describe the specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence as well as discuss the putative pathway of hydrogen production by this organism.

  5. Multi-time series RNA-seq analysis of Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 during growth in lignin-amended medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana, Roberto; Chaput, Gina; Markillie, Lye Meng; Mitchell, Hugh; Gaffrey, Matt; Orr, Galya; DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Yang, Shihui

    2017-10-19

    The production of lignocellulosic-derived biofuels is a highly promising source of alternative energy, but it has been constrained by the lack of a microbial platform capable to efficiently degrade this recalcitrant material and cope with by-products that can be toxic to cells. Species that naturally grow in environments where carbon is mainly available as lignin are promising for finding new ways of removing the lignin that protects cellulose for improved conversion of lignin to fuel precursors. Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 is a facultative anaerobic Gammaproteobacteria isolated from tropical rain forest soil collected in El Yunque forest, Puerto Rico under anoxic growth conditions with lignin as sole carbon source. Whole transcriptome analysis of SCF1 during E.lignolyticus SCF1 lignin degradation was conducted on cells grown in the presence (0.1%, w/w) and the absence of lignin, where samples were taken at three different times during growth, beginning of exponential phase, midexponential phase and beginning of stationary phase. Lignin-amended cultures achieved twice the cell biomass as unamended cultures over three days, and in this time degraded 60% of lignin. Transcripts in early exponential phase reflected this accelerated growth. A complement of laccases, aryl-alcohol dehydrogenases, and peroxidases were most up-regulated in lignin amended conditions in mid-exponential and early stationary phases compared to unamended growth. The association of hydrogen production by way of the formate hydrogenlyase complex with lignin degradation suggests a possible value added to lignin degradation in the future.

  6. Structural basis of enzymatic activity for the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Gu

    Full Text Available Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an "open-closed" mechanism involving a pocket of 8 × 8 × 15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer.

  7. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujira Jitrwung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR. Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol.

  8. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitrwung, Rujira; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR). Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol) and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol. PMID:25970750

  9. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Enterobacter sp. SA187, a Plant Multi-Stress Tolerance Promoting Endophytic Bacterium

    KAUST Repository

    Andres-Barrao, Cristina

    2017-10-20

    Enterobacter sp. SA187 is an endophytic bacterium that has been isolated from root nodules of the indigenous desert plant Indigofera argentea. SA187 could survive in the rhizosphere as well as in association with different plant species, and was able to provide abiotic stress tolerance to Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome sequence of SA187 was obtained by using Pacific BioScience (PacBio) single-molecule sequencing technology, with average coverage of 275X. The genome of SA187 consists of one single 4,429,597 bp chromosome, with an average 56% GC content and 4,347 predicted protein coding DNA sequences (CDS), 153 ncRNA, 7 rRNA, and 84 tRNA. Functional analysis of the SA187 genome revealed a large number of genes involved in uptake and exchange of nutrients, chemotaxis, mobilization and plant colonization. A high number of genes were also found to be involved in survival, defense against oxidative stress and production of antimicrobial compounds and toxins. Moreover, different metabolic pathways were identified that potentially contribute to plant growth promotion. The information encoded in the genome of SA187 reveals the characteristics of a dualistic lifestyle of a bacterium that can adapt to different environments and promote the growth of plants. This information provides a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant-microbe interaction and could be further exploited to develop SA187 as a biological agent to improve agricultural practices in marginal and arid lands.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Enterobacter sp. SA187, a Plant Multi-Stress Tolerance Promoting Endophytic Bacterium

    KAUST Repository

    Andres-Barrao, Cristina; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Alam, Intikhab; Zé licourt, Axel de; Eida, Abdul Aziz; Bokhari, Ameerah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Hirt, Heribert; Saad, Maged

    2017-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. SA187 is an endophytic bacterium that has been isolated from root nodules of the indigenous desert plant Indigofera argentea. SA187 could survive in the rhizosphere as well as in association with different plant species, and was able to provide abiotic stress tolerance to Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome sequence of SA187 was obtained by using Pacific BioScience (PacBio) single-molecule sequencing technology, with average coverage of 275X. The genome of SA187 consists of one single 4,429,597 bp chromosome, with an average 56% GC content and 4,347 predicted protein coding DNA sequences (CDS), 153 ncRNA, 7 rRNA, and 84 tRNA. Functional analysis of the SA187 genome revealed a large number of genes involved in uptake and exchange of nutrients, chemotaxis, mobilization and plant colonization. A high number of genes were also found to be involved in survival, defense against oxidative stress and production of antimicrobial compounds and toxins. Moreover, different metabolic pathways were identified that potentially contribute to plant growth promotion. The information encoded in the genome of SA187 reveals the characteristics of a dualistic lifestyle of a bacterium that can adapt to different environments and promote the growth of plants. This information provides a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant-microbe interaction and could be further exploited to develop SA187 as a biological agent to improve agricultural practices in marginal and arid lands.

  11. Ethylene induced plant stress tolerance by Enterobacter sp. SA187 is mediated by 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel de Zélicourt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several plant species require microbial associations for survival under different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we show that Enterobacter sp. SA187, a desert plant endophytic bacterium, enhances yield of the crop plant alfalfa under field conditions as well as growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro, revealing a high potential of SA187 as a biological solution for improving crop production. Studying the SA187 interaction with Arabidopsis, we uncovered a number of mechanisms related to the beneficial association of SA187 with plants. SA187 colonizes both the surface and inner tissues of Arabidopsis roots and shoots. SA187 induces salt stress tolerance by production of bacterial 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMBA, known to be converted into ethylene. By transcriptomic, genetic and pharmacological analyses, we show that the ethylene signaling pathway, but not plant ethylene production, is required for KMBA-induced plant salt stress tolerance. These results reveal a novel molecular communication process during the beneficial microbe-induced plant stress tolerance.

  12. Bioremoval of lead using Pennisetum purpureum augmented with Enterobacter cloacae-VITPASJ1: A pot culture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anamika; Belgaonkar, Priyanka; Raman, Aditya S; Banu, Sofia; Osborne, Jabez W

    2017-06-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal discharged into the ecosystem from various industries. Biological remediation strategies have been effective in the bioremoval of lead. In our current study, a phytobacterial system using Pennisetum purpureum along with lead-resistant bacterium (LRB) was employed for the uptake of lead. The LRB was obtained from lead-contaminated sites. The isolate VITPASJ1 was found to be highly tolerant to lead and was identified as an effective plant growth-promoting bacterium. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed VITPASJ1 to be the closest neighbour of Enterobacter cloacae. The lead-resistant gene pbrA in the plant and the bacterium were amplified using a specific primer. The uptake of lead was studied by phytoremediation and rhizoremediation set-ups where the soil was supplemented with various concentrations of lead (50, 100, 150 mg/kg). The plants were uprooted at regular intervals, and the translocation of lead into the plant was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The root length, shoot height and chlorophyll content were found to be higher in the rhizoremediation set-up when compared to the phytoremediation set-up. The scanning electron microscopic micrographs gave a clear picture of increased tissue damage in the root and shoot of the phytoremediation set-up as compared to the rhizoremediation set-up with LRB.

  13. Characterization of a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene from an environmental heavy metal resistance Enterobacter sp. isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chia-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants found in polluted areas. We have identified a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene (hmtp) via fosmid library and in vitro transposon mutagenesis from an Enterobacter sp. isolate. This gene is believed to participate in the bacterium's heavy metal resistance traits. The complete gene was identified, cloned, and expressed in a suitable Escherichia coli host cell. E. coli W3110, RW3110 (zntA::Km), GG48 (ΔzitB::Cm zntA::Km), and GG51 (ΔzitB::Cm) were used to study the possible effects of this gene for heavy metal (cadmium and zinc in particular) resistance. Among the E. coli strains tested, RW3110 and GG48 showed more sensitivity to cadmium and zinc compared to the wild-type E. coli W3110 and strain GG51. Therefore, strains RW3110 and GG48 were chosen for the reference hosts for further evaluation of the gene's effect. The results showed that expression of this heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene could increase the ability for zinc and cadmium resistance in the tested microorganisms.

  14. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms and population structure of Enterobacter cloacae non-susceptible to Ertapenem in North-Eastern France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGuillard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone (FQ agents are a potential resort to treat infection due to Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase and susceptible to FQ. In a context of increase of non-susceptibility to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae, we characterized FQ resistance mechanisms in 75 Enterobacter cloacae isolates non-susceptible to ertapenem in North-Eastern France in 2012 and describe the population structure by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST.Among them, 14.7% (12/75 carried a carbapenemase-encoding gene. Except one isolate producing VIM-1, the carbapenemase-producing isolates carried the well-known IncL/M pOXA48a plasmid. Most of the isolates (59/75 harbored at least a FQ-R determinant. qnr genes were predominant (40%, 30/75. The MLST study revealed that E. cloacae isolates’ clonality was wide (24 different STs. The more widespread STs were ST74, ST101, ST110, ST114 and ST133. Carbapenem MICs were higher for E. cloacae ST74 than for other E. cloacae isolates. PMQR determinants were more often observed in E. cloacae ST74 isolates. These findings showed that (i pOXA-48a is spreading in North-Eastern France, (ii qnr is preponderant in E. cloacae, (iii E. cloacae comprised a large amount of lineages spreading in North-Eastern France and (iv FQ as an alternative to β-lactams to treat ertapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae are compromised.

  15. Nurse provision of healthy lifestyle advice to people who are overweight or obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Ashley; James, Carole; Snodgrass, Suzanne; Plotnikoff, Ronald; Guest, Maya; Ashby, Samantha; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Collins, Clare

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a regional area in Australia to measure nurses' perceptions, practices, and knowledge in regard to providing healthy lifestyle advice to people who are overweight or obese. Responses were compared between geographic regions. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Of the 79 nurse participants, 68% considered that provision of healthy lifestyle advice was within their scope of practice. Only 28% reported frequently estimating body mass index in the practice setting. Nurses often recommended increasing activity levels (44%), but recommended reducing daily caloric intake less often (25%). Nurses' knowledge about weight management was variable and the proportion of correct answers to knowledge items ranged from 33-99%. Nurses have many opportunities to deliver healthy lifestyle advice in a range of practice settings. The variation in practices and knowledge of nurses indicates a need for improved healthy lifestyle education for undergraduate and practicing nurses. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Market cycle position in the quality of property managers’ advice in Victoria Island, Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasidat Adejoke Oladapo

    2016-10-01

    The findings underscore managers’ consideration of market cycle in that locality for a period of ten years while given advice but that most managers’ emphasis was on market value trends. Market outcome trends had earlier been noted as a misleading and deceptive form of market performance and managers must be careful in its usage. The managers’ rating further revealed lack of knowledge and application of the market cycle indicators; and that managers lack data storage and applied research credibility which could bear on their quality of advice on when to let, purchase or sell, start a new development or convert existing- use, or wait for ripe period. The second analysis inferred that there was no significant agreement at 5% level in the ranking of the variables managers considered while giving advice to their clients; an evidence of lack of cooperation among managers in the study area.

  17. Sistem Advice Planing Online Dengan Framework Codeigniter Berbasis Web Bootstrap (Studi Kasus: Kabupaten Probolinggo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Ainol Yaqin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The information system in the form of Integrated Advice Planning by using CodeIgniter Framework and based on  Framework Bootstrap one of system which gives responsive form. The system is a service as one of solution for e-Government. Advice Planning service is the optimization of public services in the licensing sector and the optimization of agency management. The licensing service is in the form of design consultation and the location of the building in accordance with the Spatial and Regional Plan within a Local Government. Licensing process that must be fulfilled by prospective investors either individually or on behalf of the company and supporting infrastructure around the investment location. The services provided by the Information System have provided Advice Planning application submission online. The system is expected to provide convenience for the community in the region and create a friendly, the comfortable, the transparent and cheap of interaction between the government and the community.

  18. Parents’ Primary Professional Sources of Parenting Advice Moderate Predictors of Parental Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A.; McKasson, Sarah; Hoy, Guenevere; DeJong, William

    2016-01-01

    Despite the risk it poses to children’s mental and physical health, approval and use of corporal punishment (CP) remains high in the United States. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we examined potential predictors of attitudes supportive of CP while assessing the moderating effects of parents’ (N=500) chosen primary professional source of advice regarding child discipline: pediatricians (47.8%), religious leaders (20.8%), mental health professionals (MHPs) (n=18.4%), or other identified professionals (13.0%). We conducted a random-digit-dial telephone survey among parents ages 18 and over within New Orleans, LA. The main outcome measure was derived from the Attitudes Toward Spanking scale (ATS). The main “predictors” were: perceived injunctive norms (i.e., perceived approval of CP by professionals; and by family and friends), perceived descriptive norms of family and friends regarding CP, and expected outcomes of CP use. We used multivariate OLS models to regress ATS scores on the predictor variables for each subset of parents based on their chosen professional source of advice. Perceived approval of CP by professionals was the strongest predictor of parental attitudes supportive of CP, except for those seeking advice from MHPs. Perceived injunctive and descriptive norms of family and friends were important, but only for those seeking advice from pediatricians or religious leaders. Positive expected outcomes of CP mattered, but only for those seeking advice from religious leaders or MHPs. In conclusion, the strength and relevance of variables predicting attitudes toward CP varied according to the professional from which the parent was most likely to seek advice. PMID:28529440

  19. Parents' Primary Professional Sources of Parenting Advice Moderate Predictors of Parental Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; McKasson, Sarah; Hoy, Guenevere; DeJong, William

    2017-02-01

    Despite the risk it poses to children's mental and physical health, approval and use of corporal punishment (CP) remains high in the United States. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we examined potential predictors of attitudes supportive of CP while assessing the moderating effects of parents' (N=500) chosen primary professional source of advice regarding child discipline: pediatricians (47.8%), religious leaders (20.8%), mental health professionals (MHPs) (n=18.4%), or other identified professionals (13.0%). We conducted a random-digit-dial telephone survey among parents ages 18 and over within New Orleans, LA. The main outcome measure was derived from the Attitudes Toward Spanking scale (ATS). The main "predictors" were: perceived injunctive norms (i.e., perceived approval of CP by professionals; and by family and friends), perceived descriptive norms of family and friends regarding CP, and expected outcomes of CP use. We used multivariate OLS models to regress ATS scores on the predictor variables for each subset of parents based on their chosen professional source of advice. Perceived approval of CP by professionals was the strongest predictor of parental attitudes supportive of CP, except for those seeking advice from MHPs. Perceived injunctive and descriptive norms of family and friends were important, but only for those seeking advice from pediatricians or religious leaders. Positive expected outcomes of CP mattered, but only for those seeking advice from religious leaders or MHPs. In conclusion, the strength and relevance of variables predicting attitudes toward CP varied according to the professional from which the parent was most likely to seek advice.

  20. The effect of pre-travel advice on sexual risk behavior abroad: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croughs, Mieke; Remmen, Roy; Van den Ende, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Travelers often have casual sex abroad and the risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI) associated with casual travel sex is considered to be threefold higher compared to the risk of casual sex in the home country. Consequently, international guidelines recommend including STI advice in the pre-travel consultation. We performed a systematic review on the effect of a pre-travel STI intervention on sexual risk behavior abroad. In September 2012, a systematic analysis and meta-analysis of peer reviewed literature were performed on the relation between pre-travel STI advice for travelers and sexual risk behavior abroad. Primary outcome measure consisted of the number of travelers with a new sexual partner abroad; secondary outcome measure entailed the proportion of consistent condom use. Six studies were identified for inclusion in the review, of which three clinical trials on the effect of a motivational intervention compared to standard pre-travel STI advice qualified for the meta-analysis. Two of these trials were performed in US marines deployed abroad and one in visitors of a travel clinic. The extensive motivational training program of the marines led to a reduction in sexual risk behavior, while the brief motivational intervention in the travel clinic was not superior to standard advice. The meta-analysis established no overall effect on risk behavior abroad. No clinical trials on the effect of a standard pre-travel STI discussion were found, but a cohort study reported that no relation was found between the recall of a nonstructured pre-travel STI discussion and sexual risk behavior, while the recall of reading the STI information appeared to be related to more consistent condom use. Motivational pre-travel STI intervention was not found to be superior to standard STI advice, while no clinical trials on the effect of standard pre-travel STI advice were found. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  1. Effects of yoga, strength training and advice on back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Bergström, Gunnar; Jensen, Irene; Hagberg, Jan; Kwak, Lydia

    2017-03-29

    Among the working population, non-specific low-back pain and neck pain are one of the most common reasons for sickness absenteeism. The aim was to evaluate the effects of an early intervention of yoga - compared with strength training or evidence-based advice - on sickness absenteeism, sickness presenteeism, back and neck pain and disability among a working population. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 159 participants with predominantly (90%) chronic back and neck pain. After screening, the participants were randomized to kundalini yoga, strength training or evidence-based advice. Primary outcome was sickness absenteeism. Secondary outcomes were sickness presenteeism, back and neck pain and disability. Self-reported questionnaires and SMS text messages were completed at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months. The results did not indicate that kundalini yoga and strength training had any statistically significant effects on the primary outcome compared with evidence-based advice. An interaction effect was found between adherence to recommendations and sickness absenteeism, indicating larger significant effects among the adherers to kundalini yoga versus evidence-based advice: RR = 0.47 (CI 0.30; 0.74, p = 0.001), strength training versus evidence-based advice: RR = 0.60 (CI 0.38; 0.96, p = 0.032). Some significant differences were also found for the secondary outcomes to the advantage of kundalini yoga and strength training. Guided exercise in the forms of kundalini yoga or strength training does not reduce sickness absenteeism more than evidence-based advice alone. However, secondary analyses reveal that among those who pursue kundalini yoga or strength training at least two times a week, a significantly reduction in sickness absenteeism was found. Methods to increase adherence to treatment recommendations should be further developed and applied in exercise interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01653782, date of registration: June, 28

  2. Why do women not adhere to advice on maternal referral in rural Tanzania? Narratives of women and their family members

    OpenAIRE

    Pembe, Andrea B.; Mbekenga, Columba K.; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In most low-income countries, many women with high-risk pregnancies and complications do not reach the referral hospitals despite the provision of referral advice. Objective: To explore how antenatal maternal referral advice is understood and handled in a rural Tanzanian community. Methods: Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with six women who did not go to hospital and 13 people who were involved in the referral advice. Narrative analysis was used to describe ...

  3. Justice on the line? A comparison of telephone and face-to-face \\ud advice in social welfare legal aid

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact on legal advice of the major shift to telephone-only services in social welfare legal aid, which took place in April 2013. An empirical study comparing telephone and face-to-face advice reveals that face-to-face contact has considerable advantages in the advice interview. Based on interviews and observations with housing law clients, their lawyers and advisers, the findings of this qualitative study demonstrate that clients and lawyers often find it easier t...

  4. Advice to stay active or structured exercise in the management of sciatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Matt; Hartvigsen, Jan; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence on comparative effectiveness of advice to stay active versus supervised structured exercise in the management of sciatica. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Conservative management of sciatica usually includes...... comparing advice with exercise. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Pain and disability data were extracted for all time points and converted to a common 0 to 100 scale. Data were pooled with a random effects model for short; intermediate...

  5. Advice : virtual sales assistant for the complete customer service process in digital markets

    OpenAIRE

    García Serrano, Ana María; Rodrigo Aguado, Luis; Hernández Diego, Josefa; Martínez Fernández, Paloma; Calle Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2002-01-01

    El trabajo presenta las principales características del proyecto ADVICE (IST 1999-11305), un proyecto de investigación cuyo principal objetivo es el desarrollo de un asistente virtual para las tiendas electrónicas que imite el comportamiento de un vendedor humano. This work present the main features of the ADVICE (IST 1999-11305) project, a research project whose main aim is to develop a virtual assistant for e-shops that imitates the behaviour of a human vendor.

  6. Maternal perceptions of advice on sleep in young children: How, what, and when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Rosalind E M; Gardani, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Parental knowledge on sleep hygiene in children may be a contributing factor for sleep difficulties in preschoolers. As sleep is crucial for healthy development, it is important to understand how parental knowledge can be improved. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of advice available in the United Kingdom (UK) on sleep in young children. This study employed constructivist grounded theory methodology. Participants were recruited via social media and a previously constructed participant database. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed. Fourteen mothers were interviewed independently, whilst one mother was interviewed together with her husband. Themes relating to how UK mothers wish advice on sleep to be formulated, what they believe it should include and when they would like to receive it, were identified from the data. Specifically, this study suggests that UK mothers value experience and thus recommends that advice be made through collaboration projects involving both professionals and parents. It also suggests that advice should be readily available and given to expecting parents prior to the arrival of their baby as well as at regular follow-ups. In addition, the participating mothers wanted advice to be balanced and non-judgemental. This study looks at the views of mainly White British mothers currently residing within the United Kingdom. Thus, it may not represent the views of everyone in the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, it still makes important recommendations for practice. For example, relationships between health professionals and parents need to be improved and information on different sleeping practices widely dispersed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Poor sleep is common in young children. Young children's sleep quality can be affected by parental behaviours. Parents lack knowledge of sleep in young children. What does this study add? According to this study: It would

  7. Multidrug efflux systems in Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae obtained from wholesome broiler carcasses Sistemas de efluxo multidroga em Escherichia coli e Enterobacter cloacae obtidas de carcaças de frangos sadios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida S. Moreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are present in the intestines of man and animals as commensals or are important disease causing agents. Bacteria bearing multidrug efflux systems (MDR are able to survive adverse ecological niches. Multiresistant Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates from wholesome broiler carcasses were investigated for the presence of MDR. Lowering of Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for antimicrobials in the presence of a proton-motive force (PMF uncoupler was tested as a potential display of the MDR phenotype. PCR amplification of the genes encoding AcrA and AcrB, components of a MDR system was performed. Diversity of each species was ascertained by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE of DNA digested with endonuclease XbaI. For all the isolates, except E. coli 1 and E. cloacae 9, lowering of MIC or of the growth rate in the presence of antimicrobials was observed, indicating a PMF dependent resistance mechanism. Expected products of DNA amplification with acrAB derived primers was obtained with all E. coli strains and with two of the five E. cloacae strains. Dendrogram generated shows diverse pulsetypes, confirming the genetic diversity among the strains. An important issue and related public health is the fact that different models and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance are present in a small number of non-pathogenic strains and isolated from the same origin. These may be sources of resistance genes to others microorganisms, among them, pathogenic strains.Os membros da família Enterobacteriaceae estão presentes no intestino do homem e dos animais como comensais ou agentes causadores de doença importantes. Bactérias multirresistentes podem possuir sistemas de efluxo multidrogas (MDR sendo capazes de sobreviver em nichos ecológicos adversos. Escherichia coli e Enterobacter cloacae, multirresistentes, isoladas de frangos sadios foram investigadas quanto à presença de MDR. A diminuição da

  8. Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de la resistencia enzimática a las cefalosporinas de tercera generación en Enterobacter spp. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bertona

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacter spp. es un patógeno intrahospitalario que presenta múltiples mecanismos de resistencia a los antibióticos b-lactámicos. Se caracterizaron fenotípica y genotípicamente las diferentes b-lactamasas presentes en 27 aislamientos consecutivos e ininterrumpidos de Enterobacter spp. (25 Enterobacter cloacae y 2 Enterobacter aerogenes. También se evaluó la habilidad de diferentes métodos fenotípicos para detectar b-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE en estos microorganismos. En 15/27 aislamientos (63% se observó resistencia a las cefalosporinas de tercera generación. En 12 de los aislamientos resistentes se detectó un alto nivel de producción de cefalosporinasa cromosómica, siendo 6 de ellos también productores de PER-2. Dicha resistencia en los 3 aislamientos restantes se debió exclusivamente a la presencia de BLEE, PER-2 en 2 de ellos y CTX-M-2 en un caso. Sólo CTX-M-2 se detectó con todas las cefalosporinas probadas en los ensayos de sinergia, utilizando el método de difusión, mientras que cefepima mejoró la detección de PER-2 en 7/8 aislamientos productores de esta BLEE, 4/8 utilizando la prueba de doble disco y 7/8 comparando discos de cefepima con y sin el agregado de ácido clavulánico. El método de dilución empleado solo detectó 1/9 BLEE al comparar las cefalosporinas con y sin el agregado de inhibidor.Enterobacter spp. are becoming increasingly frequent nosocomial pathogens with multiple resistance mechanism to b-lactam antibiotics. We carried out the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of beta-lactamases in 27 Enterobacter spp. (25 Enterobacter cloacae y 2 Enterobacter aerogenes, as well as the ability of different extended spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL screening methods. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was observed in 15/27 (63% isolates. Twelve resistant isolates produced high level chromosomal encoded AmpC b-lactamase; 6 of them were also producers of PER-2. Resistance to third

  9. Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Hianna Almeida Câmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, José Cláudio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20 days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20 days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings

  10. Multi-time series RNA-seq analysis of Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 during growth in lignin-amended medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Roberto; Chaput, Gina; Markillie, Lye Meng; Mitchell, Hugh; Gaffrey, Matt; Orr, Galya; DeAngelis, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    The production of lignocellulosic-derived biofuels is a highly promising source of alternative energy, but it has been constrained by the lack of a microbial platform capable to efficiently degrade this recalcitrant material and cope with by-products that can be toxic to cells. Species that naturally grow in environments where carbon is mainly available as lignin are promising for finding new ways of removing the lignin that protects cellulose for improved conversion of lignin to fuel precursors. Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 is a facultative anaerobic Gammaproteobacteria isolated from tropical rain forest soil collected in El Yunque forest, Puerto Rico under anoxic growth conditions with lignin as sole carbon source. Whole transcriptome analysis of SCF1 during E.lignolyticus SCF1 lignin degradation was conducted on cells grown in the presence (0.1%, w/w) and the absence of lignin, where samples were taken at three different times during growth, beginning of exponential phase, mid-exponential phase and beginning of stationary phase. Lignin-amended cultures achieved twice the cell biomass as unamended cultures over three days, and in this time degraded 60% of lignin. Transcripts in early exponential phase reflected this accelerated growth. A complement of laccases, aryl-alcohol dehydrogenases, and peroxidases were most up-regulated in lignin amended conditions in mid-exponential and early stationary phases compared to unamended growth. The association of hydrogen production by way of the formate hydrogenlyase complex with lignin degradation suggests a possible value added to lignin degradation in the future.

  11. Characterization of Exoelectrogenic Bacteria Enterobacter Strains Isolated from a Microbial Fuel Cell Exposed to Copper Shock Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cuijie; Li, Jiangwei; Qin, Dan; Chen, Lixiang; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Hongbo; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms capable of generating electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained increasing interest. Here fourteen exoelectrogenic bacterial strains were isolated from the anodic biofilm in an MFC before and after copper (Cu) shock load by Hungate roll-tube technique with solid ferric (III) oxide as an electron acceptor and acetate as an electron donor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they were all closely related to Enterobacter ludwigii DSM 16688T within the Enterobacteriaceae family, although these isolated bacteria showed slightly different morphology before and after Cu shock load. Two representative strains R2B1 (before Cu shock load) and B4B2 (after Cu shock load) were chosen for further analysis. B4B2 is resistant to 200 mg L−1 of Cu(II) while R2B1 is not, which indicated the potential selection of the Cu shock load. Raman analysis revealed that both R2B1 and B4B2 contained c-type cytochromes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that strain R2B1 had the capacity to transfer electrons to electrodes. The experimental results demonstrated that strain R2B1 was capable of utilizing a wide range of substrates, including Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, cellulose, acetate, citrate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol and lactose to generate electricity, with the highest current density of 440 mA·m−2 generated from LB-fed MFC. Further experiments indicated that the bacterial cell density had potential correlation with the current density. PMID:25412475

  12. In Vivo Evolution of Bacterial Resistance in Two Cases of Enterobacter aerogenes Infections during Treatment with Imipenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Nadège; Maigre, Laure; Santini, Sébastien; Pinet, Elizabeth; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Davin-Régli, Anne-Véronique; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Masi, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are a major concern worldwide. Changes in membrane permeability, including decreased influx and/or increased efflux of antibiotics, are known as key contributors of bacterial MDR. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand molecular mechanisms that link membrane permeability to MDR in order to design new antimicrobial strategies. In this work, we describe genotype-phenotype correlations in Enterobacter aerogenes, a clinically problematic and antibiotic resistant bacterium. To do this, series of clinical isolates have been periodically collected from two patients during chemotherapy with imipenem. The isolates exhibited different levels of resistance towards multiple classes of antibiotics, consistently with the presence or the absence of porins and efflux pumps. Transport assays were used to characterize membrane permeability defects. Simultaneous genome-wide analysis allowed the identification of putative mutations responsible for MDR. The genome of the imipenem-susceptible isolate G7 was sequenced to closure and used as a reference for comparative genomics. This approach uncovered several loci that were specifically mutated in MDR isolates and whose products are known to control membrane permeability. These were omp35 and omp36, encoding the two major porins; rob, encoding a global AraC-type transcriptional activator; cpxA, phoQ and pmrB, encoding sensor kinases of the CpxRA, PhoPQ and PmrAB two-component regulatory systems, respectively. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of membrane alterations relative to mutational steps in the evolution of MDR of a recognized nosocomial pathogen.

  13. Biological characterization of lead-enhanced exopolysaccharide produced by a lead resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain P2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Pandey, Anju; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2012-09-01

    A lead resistant bacterial strain isolated from effluent of lead battery manufacturing company of Goa, India has been identified as Enterobacter cloacae strain P2B based on morphological, biochemical characters, FAME profile and 16S rDNA sequence data. This bacterial strain could resist lead nitrate up to 1.6 mM. Significant increase in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was observed as the production increased from 28 to 108 mg/L dry weight when exposed to 1.6 mM lead nitrate in Tris buffered minimal medium. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy of this EPS revealed presence of several functional groups involved in metal binding viz. carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups along with glucuronic acid. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis of alditol-acetate derivatives of acid hydrolysed EPS produced in presence of 1.6 mM lead nitrate demonstrated presence of several neutral sugars such as rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose, which contribute to lead binding hydroxyl groups. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometric analysis of this lead resistant strain exposed to 1.6 mM lead nitrate interestingly revealed mucous EPS surrounding bacterial cells which sequestered 17 % lead (as weight %) extracellularly and protected the bacterial cells from toxic effects of lead. This lead resistant strain also showed multidrug resistance. Thus these results significantly contribute to better understanding of structure, function and environmental application of lead-enhanced EPSs produced by bacteria. This lead-enhanced biopolymer can play a very important role in bioremediation of several heavy metals including lead.

  14. Characterization of exoelectrogenic bacteria enterobacter strains isolated from a microbial fuel cell exposed to copper shock load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijie Feng

    Full Text Available Microorganisms capable of generating electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs have gained increasing interest. Here fourteen exoelectrogenic bacterial strains were isolated from the anodic biofilm in an MFC before and after copper (Cu shock load by Hungate roll-tube technique with solid ferric (III oxide as an electron acceptor and acetate as an electron donor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they were all closely related to Enterobacter ludwigii DSM 16688T within the Enterobacteriaceae family, although these isolated bacteria showed slightly different morphology before and after Cu shock load. Two representative strains R2B1 (before Cu shock load and B4B2 (after Cu shock load were chosen for further analysis. B4B2 is resistant to 200 mg L-1 of Cu(II while R2B1 is not, which indicated the potential selection of the Cu shock load. Raman analysis revealed that both R2B1 and B4B2 contained c-type cytochromes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that strain R2B1 had the capacity to transfer electrons to electrodes. The experimental results demonstrated that strain R2B1 was capable of utilizing a wide range of substrates, including Luria-Bertani (LB broth, cellulose, acetate, citrate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol and lactose to generate electricity, with the highest current density of 440 mA·m-2 generated from LB-fed MFC. Further experiments indicated that the bacterial cell density had potential correlation with the current density.

  15. "Relinquish the reins": persuasion and consensus in the discourse of pregnancy and childbirth advice literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ornaith

    2015-03-01

    Popular pregnancy and childbirth advice books constitute an important source of information for pregnant women. These texts shape women's perceptions of pregnancy, childbirth and the medical care they will receive during this time. This article reports on a study of the enactment of power relations between pregnant women and their medical caregivers in the discourse of pregnancy and childbirth advice literature and its implications for practice. The study focuses on the discursive positioning of women in relation to medical personnel through a critical discourse analysis of two popular advice books, one in English and one in French. The article suggests that through the use of a number of key discursive strategies, pregnant women are constructed as under the control of the medical institution in these texts. However, this control is not achieved by an overt oppressive discourse, instead it is achieved through persuasion and consensus by generating the consent of pregnant women to comply with medical norms. The medical institution is represented in these texts as a dominant force while women are constructed as powerless recipients of medical care. Medical professionals should firstly consider whether the power relations represented in these texts correspond to those enacted in clinics and delivery rooms. Secondly, caregivers should be cautious about recommending popular pregnancy and childbirth advice books to women as the relationship between pregnant women and their caregivers may be undermined by the negative power asymmetry enacted in these texts. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, G.; Heemink, A.; Lu, S.; Segers, A.; Weber, K.; Lin, H.X.

    2016-01-01

    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain,

  17. Competing infant feeding information in mothers' networks: advice that supports v. undermines clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Lynn, Freda B; Williams, Natalie A; Schafer, Ellen J

    2016-05-01

    To identify the social contextual factors, specifically the presence of information that supports v. undermines clinical recommendations, associated with infant feeding behaviours among mothers in low-income areas. Cross-sectional survey evaluating social support networks and social relationships involved in providing care to the infant along with feeding beliefs and practices. Out-patient paediatric and government-funded (Women, Infants, and Children) clinics in an urban, low-income area of the south-eastern USA. Eighty-one low-income mothers of infants between 0 and 12 months old. Most mothers reported receiving both supportive and undermining advice. The presence of breast-feeding advice that supports clinical recommendations was associated with two infant feeding practices that are considered beneficial to infant health: ever breast-feeding (OR=6·7; 95% CI 1·2, 38·1) and not adding cereal in the infant's bottle (OR=15·9; 95% CI 1·1, 227·4). Advice that undermines clinical recommendations to breast-feed and advice about solid foods were not associated with these behaviours. Efforts to facilitate optimal infant feeding practices may focus on increasing information supportive of clinical recommendations while concentrating less on reducing the presence of undermining information within mothers' networks. Cultural norms around breast-feeding may be stronger than the cultural norms around the introduction of solid foods in mothers' social environments; thus, additional efforts to increase information regarding introduction of solid foods earlier in mothers' infant care career may be beneficial.

  18. 17 CFR 202.2 - Pre-filing assistance and interpretative advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filings with the Commission may receive advice of a general nature as to the preparation thereof..., except in connection with matters under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 and certain matters under the Investment Company Act of 1940, at one of its regional offices. [25 FR 6736, July 15...

  19. The influential role of personal advice networks on general practitioners' performance: a social capital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calciolari, Stefano; González-Ortiz, Laura G; Lega, Federico

    2017-08-08

    In several health systems of advanced countries, reforms have changed primary care in the last two decades. The literature has assessed the effects of a variety of interventions and individual factors on the behavior of general practitioners (GPs). However, there has been a lack of investigation concerning the influence of the resources embedded in the GPs' personal advice networks (i.e., social capital) on GPs' capacity to meet defined objectives. The present study has two goals: (a) to assess the GPs' personal advice networks according to the social capital framework and (b) to test the influence of such relationships on GPs' capacity to accomplish organizational goals. The data collection relied on administrative data provided by an Italian local health authority (LHA) and a survey administered to the GPs of the selected LHA. The GPs' personal advice networks were assessed through an ad-hoc instrument and interpreted as egocentric networks. Multivariate regression analyses assessed two different performance measures. Social capital may influence the GPs' capacity to meet targets, though the influence differs according to the objective considered. In particular, the higher the professional heterogeneity of a GP personal advice network, the lower her/his capacity is to meet targets of prescriptive appropriateness. Our findings might help to design more effective primary care reforms depending on the pursued goals. However, further research is needed.

  20. Home care nursing advice for patients with head and neck cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemund Sister

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Please feel free to print and use this article to support patients and their families. You may wish to translate or alter this depending on your local needs. If you are only using one section, remember to include the introduction. The advice contained in this article is aimed to support patients who have limited access to hospital care and equipment.

  1. Why do older adults avoid seeking financial advice? : Adviser anxiety in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, Harry; Henkens, Kene; Hershey, D.A.

    Why is it that many people fail to seek retirement planning advice when doing so is clearly indicated? Distrust of financial intermediaries is often presented as the common answer. But this paper shows that trust issues are only part of the answer; an appreciable proportion of individuals experience

  2. Advice on the disposal of radioactive by-products arising in the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyermann, M.; Goergner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the current legislation in the GDR advice is given on the classification and disposal of radioactive by-products from the utilization of nuclear energy with special emphasis on the different procedures for products which require a disposal licence by the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection and those which do not need such an authorization. (author)

  3. Program of medical advice in radioprotection of the Argentinean nuclear regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Di Trano, J.L.; Dubher, D.; Michelin, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this program is to have a system with the aim of guaranteing an appropriate medical response in the case of radiological or nuclear accidents and to offer medical advice in aspects related to the biological effects of ionizing radiations

  4. Advice about Work-Related Issues to Peers and Employers from Head and Neck Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory and descriptive study is to contribute to the sparse return-to-work literature on head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Interview participants were asked to reflect upon their work-related experience with cancer by answering two specific questions: (1) What advice

  5. Scientific advice and public policy: expert advisers' and policymakers' discourses on boundary work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Robertus

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on considerable variety and diversity among discourses on their own jobs of boundary workers of several major Dutch institutes for science-based policy advice. Except for enlightenment, all types of boundary arrangements/work in the Wittrock-typology (Social knowledge and public

  6. Procedural advice on self-assessment and task selection in learner-controlled education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, Bettine; Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Taminiau, E. M. C., Corbalan, G., Kester, L., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, March). Procedural advice on self-assessment and task selection in learner-controlled education. Presentation at the ICO Springschool, Niederalteich, Germany.

  7. Procedural advice on self-assessment and task selection in learner-controlled education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, Bettine; Kester, Liesbeth; Corbalan, Gemma; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Taminiau, E. M. C., Kester, L., Corbalan, G., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, July). Procedural advice on self-assessment and task selection in learner-controlled education. Paper presented at the Junior Researchers of EARLI Conference 2010, Frankfurt, Germany.

  8. Response Scales in Voting Advice Applications : Do Different Designs Produce Different Outcomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, M.; Louwerse, T.

    2016-01-01

    Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) represent popular election campaign tools in many countries, enabling voters to discover which party or candidate provides the best match with their political preferences. This article examines the effects of design choices on these tools by focusing on the response

  9. Response Scales in Voting Advice Applications: Do Different Designs Produce Different Outcomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, Martin; Louwerse, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) represent popular election campaign tools in many countries, enabling voters to discover which party or candidate provides the best match with their political preferences. This article examines the effects of design choices on these tools by focusing on the response

  10. Regular surveillance for Li-fraumeni syndrome: advice, adherence and perceived benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.M. Lammens (Chantal); E.M.A. Bleiker (Eveline); N.K. Aaronson (Neil); A. Wagner (Anja); R.H. Sijmons (Rolf); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); A.H.J.T. Vriends (Anette); M.W.G. Ruijs (Marielle); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); L. Spruijt (Liesbeth); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); A. Cats (Annemieke); T. Nagtegaal; S. Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLi Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome characterized by a high risk of developing various types of cancer from birth through late adulthood. Clinical benefits of surveillance for LFS are limited. The aim of this study is to investigate which advice for regular

  11. Regular surveillance for Li-fraumeni syndrome: advice, adherence and perceived benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, C.R.M.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Wagner, A.; Sijmons, R.H.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Vriends, A.H.J.T.; Ruijs, M.W.G.; van Os, T.A.M.; Spruijt, L.; Gómez García, E.B.; Cats, A.; Nagtegaal, T.; Verhoef, S.

    2010-01-01

    Li Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome characterized by a high risk of developing various types of cancer from birth through late adulthood. Clinical benefits of surveillance for LFS are limited. The aim of this study is to investigate which advice for regular surveillance, if

  12. Oxytocin facilitation of acceptance of social advice is dependent upon the perceived trustworthiness of individual advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ruixue; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Weihua; Ma, Xiaole; Xu, Xiaolei; Kou, Juan; Gao, Zhao; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin may increase social cohesion by making us more willing to trust others and/or to conform to their opinions. Here we investigated whether intranasal oxytocin can influence acceptance of advice given on solving everyday social problems by either individual expert (psychologist) or non-expert advisors with or without influencing their perceived likeability or trustworthiness. In a double-blind, between-subject, placebo-control design study in 160 male and female subjects, intranasal oxytocin (24IU) only significantly enhanced acceptance of advice given by female psychologists who were rated as the most trustworthy advisors. However, oxytocin itself did not alter either trustworthiness or likeability ratings. The oxytocin effect on acceptance of the female psychologist's advice was not maintained after a week, with subjects mainly reverting to their original solutions. These findings suggest that while oxytocin can transiently increase acceptance of advice from the most trustworthy individuals this is because it makes subjects more likely to conform to their opinions rather than enhancing their perceived trustworthiness or likeability. Thus in every day contexts oxytocin may primarily promote social cohesion by facilitating conformity towards the opinions of the most trusted individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Lifestyle advice with or without pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of adding pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to a structured lifestyle advice program. METHODS: This was a single-blinded randomized trial of women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage ≥ II. Participants were randomized...

  14. 41 CFR 105-50.202-7 - Technical information and advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical information... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF SPECIAL... Services Administration § 105-50.202-7 Technical information and advice. GSA will provide technical...

  15. 39 CFR 762.41 - Advice of non-receipt or loss, destruction, or mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Center, P.O. Box 14963, St. Louis, MO 63182, describing the Disbursement Postal Money Order, stating the...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.41 Advice of non-receipt or loss, destruction...

  16. Evaluation of a telephone advice nurse in a nursing faculty managed pediatric community clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Richard; Humphreys, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Nurse-managed health centers face increasing obstacles to financial viability. Efficient use of clinic resources and timely and appropriate patient care are necessary for sustainability. A registered nurse with adequate education and support can provide high-quality triage and advice in community-based practice sites. The purpose of this program evaluation was to examine the effect of a telephone advice nurse service on parent/caregiver satisfaction and access to care. A quasi-experimental separate pre-post sample design study investigated parent/caregiver satisfaction with a telephone advice nurse in an urban pediatric nurse-managed health center. The clinic medical information system was used to retrieve client visit data prior to the service and in the first year of the program. Statistically significant differences were found on two items from the satisfaction with the advice nurse survey: the reason for calling (P decision making (P nurse may increase both parent/caregiver and provider satisfaction and access to care.

  17. Pharmacist advice is accepted more for medical than for surgical patients in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Olsen, Inger; Thisted, Anette Rehn

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists' advice may reduce medication errors in the emergency department (ED). However, pharmacists' recommendations are of little value if not acknowledged by physicians. The aim of the present study was to analyze how often and which categories of pharmacist recommendations were taken...

  18. Different roles of electromagnetic field experts when giving policy advice : an expert consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B; Petersen, Arthur C; Lebret, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The overall evidence for adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels of exposure normally experienced by the public is generally considered weak. However, whether long-term health effects arise remains uncertain and scientific policy advice is therefore given against

  19. Adaptive Advice in Learning With a Computer-Based Knowledge Management Simulation Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemkuil, Hendrik H.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the long tradition of game-based learning, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the instructional design of educational games. An important issue is the support that learners can be given in a game to enhance their learning. One recommended type of support is “advice,” which

  20. Different roles of electromagnetic field experts when giving policy advice: an expert consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, P.; Knol, A.B.; Petersen, A.C.; Lebret, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The overall evidence for adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels of exposure normally experienced by the public is generally considered weak. However, whether long-term health effects arise remains uncertain and scientific policy advice is therefore given against

  1. Graph-Based Specification and Simulation of Featherweight Java with Around Advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staijen, T.; Rensink, Arend

    In this paper we specify an operational run-time semantics of Assignment Featherweight Java -- a minimal subset of Java with assignments -- with around advice, using graph transformations. We introduce a notion of correctness of our specification with respect to an existing semantics and claim a

  2. [New model of doctor-nurse communication based on electronic medical advice platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Ding, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a new model of the communication between doctors and nurses, with the aid of the electronic medical advice platform. This model has achieved good results in improving doctor and nurse's co-working efficiency, treating patients safely, preventing medical accidents, reducing medical errors and so on.

  3. Parenting an Overweight or Obese Teen: Issues and Advice from Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Feldman, Shira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study addresses: (1) what challenges parents of overweight adolescents face and (2) what advice parents of overweight adolescents have for other parents. Design: One-on-one interviews were conducted with parents of overweight or previously overweight adolescents. Setting: Medical clinic at the University of Minnesota.…

  4. Some Advice about the Water Strategy of China to Keep the Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These models are as following: model of the cost of water transfer, model of the water price and the model of desalination plant construction cost. All the models are based on the forecast of the water demand and supply of China in 2025. Based on the result of these models, we propose some advice about the water strategy ...

  5. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  6. Identificação de enterobactérias em macacos-prego-galego (Sapajus flavius mantidos em cativeiro no estado da Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodhya Cardoso Ramalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p177 O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e identificar enterobactérias presentes em duas populações de macaco-prego-galego (Sapajus flavius mantidas em cativeiro. O estudo foi realizado com 12 animais, seis do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS, em Cabedelo-PB, e seis do Zoológico de João Pessoa. A coleta das amostras de fezes foi realizada diretamente na ampola retal com o auxílio de swabs estéreis e processadas para o isolamento das bactérias em meios seletivos, seguida da identificação por provas bioquímicas. As frequências observadas nas amostras do CETAS foram de: 80% (4/5 para Salmonella spp.; 20% (1/5 para Shigella spp.; e 20% (1/5 para Enterobacter spp. Já no zoológico, a frequência observada foi de 100% (3/3 para Salmonella spp. Devido ao fato de que essas enterobactérias são possíveis causadoras de infeções, há necessidade de melhorar o monitoramento da saúde desses animais, com investigações periódicas em unidades do CETAS e em zoológicos. Simultaneamente, constata-se a necessidade de monitorar a saúde dos profissionais que lidam diretamente com esses animais, por meio de exames periódicos, bem como a adoção de medidas de biossegurança adequadas para evitar a transmissão desses patógenos.

  7. Advice on malaria and yellow fever prevention provided at travel agencies in Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G; Garcia-Jasso, Carlos A; Springer, Chelsea A; Lane, Jenna K; Su, Bonny S; Hidalgo, Idania S; Goodrich, Mary R; Deichsel, Emily L; White, A C; Cabada, Miguel M

    2015-01-01

    Travelers receive medical advice from a variety of sources, including travel agencies. The aim of this study is to describe the quality of pre-travel advice provided by travel agencies in Cuzco to travelers interested in visiting malaria and yellow fever endemic areas. Trained medical students posed as tourists and visited travel agencies in Cuzco requesting travel advice for a trip to the southern Amazon of Peru, recording advice regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever. A total of 163 registered travel agencies were included in the study. The mean proposed tour duration was 6.8 days (±1.4 days) with a median time to departure of 3 days and a median tour cost of 805 US dollars (USD) [interquartile range (IQR) 580-1,095]. Overall, 45% employees failed to mention the risk for any illness. Eighteen percent of the employees acknowledged risk of malaria and 53% risk of yellow fever. However, 36% denied malaria risk and 2% denied risk of yellow fever in the region. The price of tours from travel agencies that did not mention any health risk was significantly lower [1,009.6 ± 500.5 vs 783.9 ± 402 USD, t (152) = 3, p yellow fever (100%) were able to provide at least one recommendation for prevention. However, advice was not always accurate or spontaneously volunteered. Only 7% of the employees provided both correct scheduling and location information for administration of the yellow fever vaccine. The majority of registered travel agencies in Cuzco did not provide sufficient and accurate information regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever to travelers inquiring about trips to the southern Amazon of Peru. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  8. Joint influence of individual choices, parenting practices, and physician advice on adolescent obesity, Nebraska, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongmei; Kim, Jungyoon; Su, Dejun; Xu, Liyan; Chen, Li-Wu; Huang, Terry T-K

    2014-10-09

    Reducing childhood obesity remains a public health priority given its high prevalence and its association with increased risk of adult obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the joint influence of multiple risk factors on adolescent overweight status. We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of adolescents aged 12 to 19 years in fall 2008 in a Midwestern city in Nebraska. On the basis of survey data for 791 youths aged 12 to 18 years, we conducted latent class analysis to group youths by the joint occurrence of dietary behavior, physical activity, parenting practices, and physician advice. We then examined the association between the groups and overweight status by using logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parent and family information. Youths were clustered into 3 groups. Group I (52%) were youths with healthy dietary behavior and physical activity, less permissive parenting practices, and physician advice; Group II (30%) were youths with moderately healthy dietary behavior and physical activity, less permissive parenting practices, and no physician advice; and Group III (18%) were youths with unhealthy dietary behavior and physical activity, permissive parenting practices, and physician advice. Youths in Groups I and II were less likely to be overweight than youths in Group III. Youths with healthier behavior and less permissive parenting practices were less likely to be overweight. Study findings highlight the need to address obesity risk factors among youths with unhealthy dietary behavior, inadequate exercise, permissive parenting practices, and some physician advice. Tailored interventions should be used to target youths with different obesity risk factors.

  9. Advice about Work-Related Issues to Peers and Employers from Head and Neck Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory and descriptive study is to contribute to the sparse return-to-work literature on head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Interview participants were asked to reflect upon their work-related experience with cancer by answering two specific questions: (1) What advice would you give someone who has been newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer? (2) What advice would you give to employers of these people? Data were gathered through 10 individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with HNC clinic patients at a regional cancer center's head and neck clinic in Ontario, Canada. A constant comparative method of theme development was used. Codes identified in and derived from the data were discussed by research team members until consensus was reached. Codes with similar characteristics were grouped together and used to develop overarching themes. Work-related advice for peers focused on personal self-care and interactions within workplaces. Work-related advice to employers focused on demonstrating basic human values as well as the importance of communication. The study results suggest HNC clinic patients should be proactive with employers and help to set reasonable expectations and provide a realistic plan for work to be successfully completed. HNC clinic patients should develop communication skills to effectively disclose their cancer and treatment to employers. In this exploratory study, HNC clinic patients' advice was solution-focused underscoring the importance of self-care and pro-active communication and planning with employers. Employers were advised to demonstrate core human values throughout all phases of the work disability episode beginning at diagnosis.

  10. A survey of footwear advice, beliefs and wear habits in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Kade L; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion recommends cushioned and supportive footwear for people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, little is known about the footwear advice people receive from healthcare professionals, or the beliefs and footwear habits of people with knee OA. This study aimed to determine i) what types of shoes people are advised to wear for their knee OA and by whom; ii) establish which types of shoes people with knee OA believe are best for managing their knee OA symptoms and (iii) which shoes they wear most often. 204 people with symptomatic knee OA completed an online survey. The survey comprised 14 questions asking what footwear advice people had received for their knee OA and who they received it from, individual beliefs about optimal footwear styles for their knee OA symptoms and the types of footwear usually worn. Only one third (n = 69, 34%) of participants reported receiving footwear advice for their knee OA, and this was most frequently received from a podiatrist (n = 47, 68%). The most common advice was to wear sturdy/supportive shoes (n = 96, 47%) or shoes with arch supports (n = 84, 41%). These were also amongst the shoe styles that participants believed were best for their knee OA (n = 157 (77%) and n = 138 (68%) respectively). The type of shoes most frequently worn were athletic (n = 131, 64%) and sturdy/supportive shoes (n = 116, 57%). Most people with knee OA who completed our survey had not received advice about footwear for their knee OA symptoms. Our participants typically believed that sturdy/supportive shoes were best for their knee OA and this shoe style was most frequently worn, which is reflective of expert opinion. Future research is needed to confirm whether sturdy/supportive shoes are indeed optimal for managing symptoms of knee OA.

  11. 78 FR 23954 - U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. TA-131-037 and TA-2104-029] U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing.... TA-131-037 and TA-2104-029, U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice...

  12. A qualitative study of English community pharmacists' experiences of providing lifestyle advice to patients with cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Kirsty; Pattison, Helen; Langley, Chris; Powell, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Background - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression is modifiable through lifestyle behaviors. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to facilitate self-management of cardiovascular health however research shows varied pharmacist engagement in providing lifestyle advice. Objective - This study explored community pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of providing lifestyle advice to patients with CVD. Methods - Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen pharmacists (1 superm...

  13. Whether power holders construe their power as responsibility or opportunity influences their tendency to take advice from others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, F.R.C.; Scheepers, D.; Ellemers, N.; Sassenberg, Kai; Scholl, Annika

    Empirical evidence suggests that power elicits a generic tendency to disregard advice. We examined different responses power holders may show in their tendency to take advice depending on the construal of power. We report a field study and an experiment among managers and other powerful

  14. 75 FR 65031 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty...-2104-027, U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES: November 10, 2010: Deadline...

  15. Evaluating Health Advice in a Web 2.0 Environment: The Impact of Multiple User-Generated Factors on HIV Advice Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Joseph B; Jang, Jeong-Woo; Hanna Edwards, Ashley A

    2018-01-01

    Unlike traditional media, social media systems often present information of different types from different kinds of contributors within a single message pane, a juxtaposition of potential influences that challenges traditional health communication processing. One type of social media system, question-and-answer advice systems, provides peers' answers to health-related questions, which yet other peers read and rate. Responses may appear good or bad, responders may claim expertise, and others' aggregated evaluations of an answer's usefulness may affect readers' judgments. An experiment explored how answer feasibility, expertise claims, and user-generated ratings affected readers' assessments of advice about anonymous HIV testing. Results extend the heuristic-systematic model of persuasion (Chaiken, 1980) and warranting theory (Walther & Parks, 2002). Information that is generally associated with both systematic and heuristic processes influenced readers' evaluations. Moreover, content-level cues affected judgments about message sources unexpectedly. When conflicting cues were present, cues with greater warranting value (consensus user-generated ratings) had greater influence on outcomes than less warranted cues (self-promoted expertise). Findings present a challenge to health professionals' concerns about the reliability of online health information systems.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of US practitioners who provide pre-travel advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelman, Laura; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Chen, Lin H; Quinn, Emily; Yanni, Emad; Wilson, Mary E; Benoit, Christine; Karchmer, Adolf W; Ooi, Winnie W; Jentes, Emily S; Hamer, Davidson H

    2014-01-01

    As international travel increases, many health care professionals are being asked to provide pre-travel advice. We designed an anonymous web-based survey to assess the extent to which primary care providers (PCPs) provide travel medicine advice and how their understanding and delivery of itinerary-specific advice and management compare with that of travel medicine specialists. We surveyed randomly selected US PCPs registered in the Pri-Med Institute (now pmiCME) database and US travel medicine specialists from the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM), American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) yellow fever (YF) vaccine provider mailing lists. SAS software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) was used for all analyses. Of 14,932 e-mails sent to valid e-mail addresses, 902 yielded complete or partially completed surveys (6.0% response rate). Eighty percent of respondents personally provided pre-travel advice (95% of travel medicine specialists versus 73% of PCPs). About two thirds of PCPs (68%) providing pre-travel consultations saw travelers per year whereas 30% of travel medicine specialists saw travelers per year. More travel medicine specialists (59%) than PCPs (18%) saw >500 travelers per year. Familiarity with travel-specific vaccines (YF, Japanese encephalitis) and provision of written educational materials increased as volume of travelers increased. Familiarity with antimalarial side effects and malaria resistance patterns, and knowledge scores based on brief pre-travel scenarios were higher in travel medicine specialists, ASTMH or ISTM certificate holders, and respondents who saw more pre-travel patients. Many PCP survey participants provided pre-travel advice, but most saw few travelers. Volume of travelers and holding an ASTMH or ISTM certificate had the greatest influence on knowledge of travel medicine and provision of appropriate advice and recommendations. Creating easily

  17. Leaving against medical advice of addicted to drugs in a Department of Infectious Diseases: Economical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia González

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Giving up health recommendations and care against medical advice is a setback that may happen in daily health work. In a pilot study made at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, Spain, during the first five months in 1998, the incidence of leaving against medical advice was 12,3 times higher than the mean in that hospital (7,03% vs 0,57%. Patients involved in this kind of event were drug abusers with acute infectious problems in a HIV primary infection or a multiple drug dependency. 42% of this patients returned to the hospital in the next 15 days. The research group thought out to study this problem under this hypothesis: Leaving against medical advice, besides having harmful consequences for the patient and the public health, produces an increase in the cost and the stay of the patient in hospital.The main objective of the research was to set up the economic the deviation in the cost/stay of a group of patients that had left against medical advice or in a regular process. It is a prospective and observational study. We studied 284 drug abusers staying in the Department of Infectious Diseases between Oct, 1st, 1999 and Sept, 30th, 2000. The research variables were: 1. Sociodemographic: Initials, , age, sex, and history number. 2. Clinical: Leaving medical diagnosis, returning medical diagnosis. 3. Administrative: Group of Related Diagnosis (GRD, admission date, leaving date, returning date and estimated cost of the episode. All episodes were grouped by kind of leaving and GRD. The cost/stay was calculated adjusted to GRD, and the deviations inside GRD were analyzed in the regular leaving group and the leaving against medical advice group.Results: Around 90% admission episodes were grouped in 6 GRD: 714 (47.92%, 541 (8.85%, 709 (8.85%, 710 (7,81%, 101 (7,29% y 715 (7,29%. The Pneumonia in HIV (GRD 714 caused the majority of the admissions. Global deviation adjusted to cost/stay was 29,44% (more expensive

  18. HSE Advice

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

      var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-152/CERN-MOVIE-2011-152-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', '', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-152/CERN-MOVIE-2011-152-posterframe-480x360-at-30-percent.jpg', '1388277', true, '');   You can also download the presentation for future reference.

  19. Encouraging Advice.

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Allyson

    1990-01-01

    Allyson Clay’s "Traces of a City in the Spaces Between Some People" is a series of twenty diptychs contrasting fabricated faux finishing with expressionist painting and text. The fabricated paint applications evoke city surfaces like concrete and granite; they also evoke modernist painting.  Unlike modernist painting, however, the faux surfaces are decorative and mechanically painted. The choice to have the surfaces fabricated serves to disrupt the egoism of modern abstraction and the im...

  20. Exploitation of the Medfly Gut Microbiota for the Enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique: Use of Enterobacter sp. in Larval Diet-Based Probiotic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios A Augustinos

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a pest of worldwide substantial economic importance, as well as a Tephritidae model for sterile insect technique (SIT applications. The latter is partially due to the development and utilization of genetic sexing strains (GSS for this species, such as the Vienna 8 strain, which is currently used in mass rearing facilities worldwide. Improving the performance of such a strain both in mass rearing facilities and in the field could significantly enhance the efficacy of SIT and reduce operational costs. Recent studies have suggested that the manipulation of gut symbionts can have a significant positive effect on the overall fitness of insect strains. We used culture-based approaches to isolate and characterize gut-associated bacterial species of the Vienna 8 strain under mass rearing conditions. We also exploited one of the isolated bacterial species, Enterobacter sp., as dietary supplement (probiotic to the larval diet, and we assessed its effects on fitness parameters under the standard operating procedures used in SIT operational programs. Probiotic application of Enterobacter sp. resulted in improvement of both pupal and adult productivity, as well as reduced rearing duration, particularly for males, without affecting pupal weight, sex ratio, male mating competitiveness, flight ability and longevity under starvation.