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Sample records for enteritidis ft 13a

  1. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 13a: case-control investigation in Hertsmere, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, O; Milne, L; Kumar, S; Murray, D; Man, W; Georgiou, M; Verlander, N Q; de Pinna, E; McEvoy, M

    2007-07-01

    Cases of illness were reported to Hertsmere Borough Council among attendees of a children's charity event in June 2006. Initial laboratory investigation identified Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a as a possible cause of the outbreak. We carried out an unmatched case-control investigation. The population at risk included all individuals who attended the event. Self-completion questionnaires were sent to 53 presumptive cases and 212 randomly selected potential controls. Information was available for 49 cases and 128 controls (overall response rate=75%). We calculated odds ratios from single and multivariable analysis and tested for all two-way interactions. Risk factors for diarrhoea were eating egg mayonnaise bagels (OR=34.1, 95%CI 10.5 - 111.3) and drinking apple juice (OR=16.1, 95% CI 3.5 - 74.2). There was weak statistical evidence to suggest that the risk of diarrhoea after eating egg mayonnaise bagels was greater in the afternoon. No food samples were available to confirm which food item might have caused this outbreak. Eggs from Spain were used by the caterer. The ecology of salmonella, experience from previous outbreaks and epidemiological findings from this case-control investigation suggest that the most likely cause of the outbreak was contaminated eggs.

  2. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  3. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  4. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for differentiation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisner, Ornella; Guiomar, Raquel; Machado, Jorge; Menezes, José Cardoso; Lopes, João Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric techniques were used to discriminate five closely related Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage types, phage type 1 (PT1), PT1b, PT4b, PT6, and PT6a. Intact cells and outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts from bacterial cell membranes were subjected to FT-IR analysis in transmittance mode. Spectra were collected over a wavenumber range from 4,000 to 600 cm(-1). Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop calibration models based on preprocessed FT-IR spectra. The analysis based on OMP extracts provided greater separation between the Salmonella Enteritidis PT1-PT1b, PT4b, and PT6-PT6a groups than the intact cell analysis. When these three phage type groups were considered, the method based on OMP extract FT-IR spectra was 100% accurate. Moreover, complementary local models that considered only the PT1-PT1b and PT6-PT6a groups were developed, and the level of discrimination increased. PT1 and PT1b isolates were differentiated successfully with the local model using the entire OMP extract spectrum (98.3% correct predictions), whereas the accuracy of discrimination between PT6 and PT6a isolates was 86.0%. Isolates belonging to different phage types (PT19, PT20, and PT21) were used with the model to test its robustness. For the first time it was demonstrated that FT-IR analysis of OMP extracts can be used for construction of robust models that allow fast and accurate discrimination of different Salmonella Enteritidis phage types.

  5. 75 FR 18849 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation--Small... requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from...

  6. Increasing quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use...... of quinolone in food animals leads to increasing resistance in S. Enteritidis and that action should be taken to limit such use....

  7. Radiosensitivity study of salmonella enteritidis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gianotti, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D 10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens

  8. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens Using Elisa. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, C KilPatrick, AN Wise, MAA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need ...

  9. Fusion technology (FT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of tha fusion technology (FT) working group discusses the projects carried out by the participating institutes in the fields of 1) fuel injection and plasma heating, 2) magnetic field technology, and 3) systems investigations. (HK) [de

  10. Classification and structural analysis of live and dead salmonella cells using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and principle component analysis (PCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to detect Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis foodborne bacteria and distinguish between live and dead cells of both serotypes. Bacteria were loaded individually on the ZnSe Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) crystal surface and s...

  11. National surveillance of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial eggs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, H; Shimura, K; Yamazaki, Y; Eguchi, M; Nakamura, M

    2013-05-01

    A total of 105 033 eggs were collected across Japan from June 2010 to January 2011 and tested for Salmonella Enteritidis to provide data for the risk profiling of S. Enteritidis in eggs by the Food Safety Commission of Japan. S. Enteritidis isolates were recovered from three samples (20 eggs/sample) and these samples were different in regard to sampling period, grading and packaging centre and farm. The prevalence of S. Enteritidis in commercial eggs in Japan is estimated at ~0.003% which was a tenfold decrease in prevalence compared to similar surveillance in the mid 1990s. The decrease in the contamination in commercial eggs is considered a contributory factor in the decrease of foodborne diseases associated with S. Enteritidis in this period.

  12. Lactobacillus salivarius CTC2197 Prevents Salmonella enteritidis Colonization in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Mònica; Hugas, Marta; Badiola, Jose Ignacio; Monfort, Josep Maria; Garriga, Margarita

    1999-01-01

    A rifampin-resistant Lactobacillus salivarius strain, CTC2197, was assessed as a probiotic in poultry, by studying its ability to prevent Salmonella enteritidis C-114 colonization in chickens. When the probiotic strain was dosed by oral gavage together with S. enteritidis C-114 directly into the proventriculus in 1-day-old Leghorn chickens, the pathogen was completely removed from the birds after 21 days. The same results were obtained when the probiotic strain was also administered through t...

  13. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSPECIES ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS – ACTUALITIES AND IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis has been recently recognized as a prevalent cause of alimentary toxi-infection worldwide. Its widespread presence could be explained by intensification and globalization of traffic, global trade, and the rest of socioeconomic processes. However, no matter to global spreading of S. Enteritidis, there is unequal distribution of certain phage types (PT where PT 4 and 8 are predominant. Salmonella is considered as a cause of various diseases from acute enterocolitis to typhoid fever. All bacteria from this species have numerous virulence factors such as: adhesins, toxins, virulence plasmids, and cell wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Similar to other salmonella serotypes, S. Enteritidis has a virulence plasmid. It allows a bacterium to persist inside the reticuloendothelial cells, while strains without it are eliminated quickly. In the last few years several virulent S. Enteritidis strains of PT 4 were described and considered to be of the same origin. The domination of PT 4 is probably subjected to the resistance of certain strains to nitrofurantoin which is used in poultry rising. The increased significance of S. Enteritidis refers not only to its association with pandemic problems but to frequent reports about extraintestinal infectious processes caused by this bacterium. Taking into consideration that eggs are very important source of infection besides poultry meat, the advised efficient preventive measures, among others, should be some changes in poultry meat preparation, investigation of outbreak-related flocks and devastation of infected ones, as well as egg pasteurization.

  14. Saccharomyces boulardii prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daichao; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Dai, Changsong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is the predominant cause of serovar-associated food-borne outbreaks in many countries and causes significant clinical symptoms of liver injury, enteritis, and diarrheal diseases. Saccharomyces boulardii is used in clinical application for prophylaxis and the treatment of a variety of diseases caused by bacterial infection. We used a mouse model of Salmonella Enteritidis infection, which included pretreatment with S. boulardii, to reveal the protection mechanisms of S. boulardii against Salmonella Enteritidis infection, including the translocation of Salmonella Enteritidis to the liver 10 days after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, and the colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis and the formation of hepatic tissue lesions in mice after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge on the 10th day. Compared with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in mice, S. boulardii decreased Salmonella Enteritidis translocation to the liver by 96%, and 99% of Salmonella Enteritidis colonised the cecum on the 10th day. Saccharomyces boulardii also abated hepatic tissue injury caused by the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes by decreasing the translocation of Salmonella to the liver. These findings demonstrated that S. boulardii is an effective agent in the prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection in a mouse model.

  15. Inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis on raw poultry using microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda B. Pucciarelli

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated on fresh chicken was investigated using a microwave oven (800 w to determine the destruction of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chicken carcasses, in relation to the time of heating at two power settings: high (power level 10 and medium (power level 6; The relationship between heating time and temperature was also been studied. The destruction was 6.4 log cycles at time 95 sec for the high power level, and 5 log cycles at time 140 sec for medium power setting. After 110 sec for higher power level, no survival of Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in samples (100g, but at 140 sec for medium power level, these food pathogens were still present.Foi investigado o efeito do aquecimento por microondas sobre Salmonella Enteritidis inoculada em frangos frescos usando um forno de microondas doméstico (800 W para determinar a destruição da Salmonella Enteritidis isolada a partir de carcaças de frangos, em relação com o tempo de aquecimento a dois níveis de potência: alta (nível 10 e média ( nível 6; a relação entre tempo de aquecimento e temperatura também foi estudada. A destruição foi de 6 log em 95 s de tempo para o nível alto e 5 log em 140 s de tempo para o nível médio de potência. Depois de 110 s no nível de potência alta, não foi detectada sobrevivência de Salmonella Enteritidis em amostras de 100g de peso, porém, depois de 140 s a potência média, esse patôgeno nos alimentos ainda permanecia.

  16. Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculated to Cake and Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Dadalı

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated to the cake dough and a whole raw chicken was investigated. The cake dough was inoculated with 6.15 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis then, thermal treatment was applied at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The initial count of S. Enteritidis showed reductions 1.49 log-cfu/g, 2.06 log-cfu/g and 4.29 log-cfu/g in the samples from the cold point location from the geometric center of the cake at 5, 7 and 10 minutes of thermal treatment, respectively. Although S. Enteritidis is not detected at the end of 15 minutes of heat treatment, the center of the cake temperature has reached 85.69°C and the cake sample is uncooked and its sensory properties are not acceptable. The cake that is safe and favorable with the sensory properties to the consumers was obtained by heat treatment for 30 minutes. After the cold point of a whole raw chicken was inoculated with 7.29 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis, thermal treatment was applied at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The temperature at the cold point of 35 and 45 minutes heat-treated chickens reached 59.33 and 74.08°C, respectively, and 1.93 log-cfu/g and 5.33 log-cfu /g S. Enteritidis reduction caused in the samples respectively. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the whole chicken heat treated at 220°C for 60 minutes. The cakes, heat treated at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 30 minutes, were stored at two different storage temperatures as 4°C and 25°C for 72 hours. The whole chicken, heat treated at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 60 minutes, was stored at 4°C for 72 hours. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the cake and the whole chicken samples after the storage period.

  17. Myonecrosis in the leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørring, S; Kolmos, H J; Klareskov, B

    1994-01-01

    Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case of myonecr......Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case...

  18. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O 2 ), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10 1 -10 6 CFU/cm 2 ). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10 4 CFU/cm 2 inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO 2 mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Peter G.; Andersen, Gary L.; Walker, Richard L.

    2008-10-28

    Described herein is the identification of a novel Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis locus that serves as a marker for DNA-based identification of this bacterium. In addition, three primer pairs derived from this locus that may be used in a nucleotide detection method to detect the presence of the bacterium are also disclosed herein.

  20. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... challenge dose of Salmonella Enteritidis on detection of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) ... Two groups of specific-pathogen-free chickens were infected ... Since chickens may be exposed to variable quantities ... A second group of 8 hens was orally .... where presence of serum antibodies by most birds that.

  1. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need for a specific and sensitive serological screening test. For that purpose, four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed. These included ...

  2. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva EN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.

  3. Resistance of Salmonella enteritidis variety typhimurium to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norberg, A.N.; Maliska, C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations to kill microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and toxinfections is an example of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Food toxinfections are, amongus, produced mostly by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium. Due to the pauncity of information on the resistance to gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium this paper has the aim to define the 60-Cobalt gamma radiation lethal dose to these bacteria, in experimentally contaminated milk by samples recovered from our geographycal area. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml were irradiated with doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 Gy. Two samples of surving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.500 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were killed by doses of 1.100 Gy. It was concluded that the 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy. The surviving strains to smaller doses than 1.200 Gy when re-irradiated prompt the forthcoming of more radio-resistant germs. (author) [pt

  4. Breast abscess in a man due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brncic, Nada; Gorup, Lari; Strcic, Miroslav; Abram, Maja; Mustac, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellae can cause breast infection only exceptionally. A case of breast abscess in a 70-year-old man due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is reported. The infection was successfully treated with a combination of surgical and antibiotic treatment.

  5. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis Isolated from Wild Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a foodborne pathogen of global concern because of the high frequency isolated from foods and patients. Draft genomes of 64 S. Enteritidis strains from intestines and spleens of mice were reported. The availability of these genomes provides useful information on genomic dive...

  6. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enteritidis (1972–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermaine Khumalo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive use of antibiotics in livestock production, surveillance revealed an increase in Salmonella resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and public health. This serious threat to health care is further exacerbated by the limited epidemiological information about the common zoonotic agent, Salmonella enteritidis, required to determine antibiotic therapy. The aim was to characterise the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. enteritidis isolates across different timelines (1972–2005 with accompanying genetic changes being investigated. Thirty-seven stored S. enteritidis isolates were collected from the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Harare, with antimicrobial susceptibility determined against eight antibiotics. Plasmids were isolated to analyse any genetic variation. An overall significant increase in resistance (p < 0.05 to nalidixic acid (0% – 10%, ampicillin (14.3% – 50%, tetracycline (14.3% – 30% and erythromycin (71.4% – 100% was observed across the timeline. However, the highest rates of susceptibility were maintained for gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, kanamycin and chloramphenicol. We report an increase in multidrug resistance (MDR of 14.2% – 50% with an increase in resistotypes and plasmid profiles across the timeline. Eleven plasmid profiles were obtained in the 37 isolates studied with a minority of isolates (21.6%, 8/37 harbouring a 54 kb plasmid, commonly serovar-specific. A concerning increase in antimicrobial resistance to commonly administered drugs was observed across the timeline. The surge in MDR is of great concern and implies the need for consistent antimicrobial stewardship. No correlation was observed between the plasmid and antibiotic profiles.

  7. Dose-response effects in an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mintz, E. D.; Cartter, M. L.; Hadler, J. L.; Wassell, J. T.; Zingeser, J. A.; Tauxe, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ingested Salmonella enteritidis (SE) dose on incubation period and on the severity and duration of illness were estimated in a cohort of 169 persons who developed gastroenteritis after eating hollandaise sauce made from grade-A shell eggs. The cohort was divided into three groups based on self-reported dose of sauce ingested. As dose increased, median incubation period decreased (37 h in the low exposure group v. 21 h in the medium exposure group v. 17.5 h in the high exposure ...

  8. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-de la Peña Ma. Eugenia; Higuera-Iglesias Anjarath L.; Huertas-Jiménez Martha A.; Báez-Martínez Rosa; Morales-de León Josefina; Arteaga-Cabello Fernando; Rangel-Frausto Sigfrido; Ponce de León-Rosales Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS) que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (c...

  9. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  10. Parotid abscess due to salmonella enteritidis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V; Jensen, JoAnne D

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the parotid gland is rare. An instance in a 50-year-old man of Salmonella enteritidis parotiditis initially recognized by microbial culture of a fine needle aspiration cytology material is described. The identified predisposing factor was chronic alcoholic abuse. For the infection source, a carrier state of salmonella parotitis was postulated, which progressed to focal abscess and was subsequently complicated by bacteremia and hematogenous spread to the liver, spleen and lungs. Salmonella should be included in the differential consideration of head and neck abscesses in immunocompromised individuals and treated aggressively.

  11. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A.; Critchley, Alan T.; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 109 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days’ post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days’ post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days’ post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10-1). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there

  12. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan T; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 10 9 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days' post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days' post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days' post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10 -1 ). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there were

  13. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  14. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines "Controle de Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis em poedeiras comerciais com a utilização de vacinas inativadas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to assess three commercial inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines allowed in Brazil. Four hundred white light variety commercial laying hens were obtained at one-day-of age. At eight weeks old, the birds were divided into four groups with one hundred animals each. Birds from three groups (V1, V2 and V3 received different intramuscular vaccines, followed by a booster dose at 16 weeks of age. Birds from another group (CG were not vaccinated. When the laying hens were 20, 25 and 31 weeks old, 13 from each group were transferred to another room and were challenged by inoculating 2 mL neat culture of Salmonella Enteritidis. On the second day after each challenge, the caecal contents, spleen, liver and ovary of three birds from each group were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Twice a week a cloacal swab of each bird was taken and all eggs laid were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. After four consecutive negative cloacal swabs in all the groups, the birds were sacrificed so as to examine the liver, caecal contents and ovaries. Overall, the inactivated vaccine used in group V3 reduced Salmonella Enteritidis in the feces and eggs. A very small amount of Salmonella was found in the spleen, liver, ovary and caeca of the birds in the four groups during the whole experiment. In general, inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines was able to decrease the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the birds and in the eggs as well

  15. [Use of bacteriphages against Salmonella Enteritidis: a prevention tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristina; Marín, Clara; Catalá-Gregori, Pablo; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a highly prevalent disease still searching for preventive tools to avoid contamination level priority public health. The in vitro effect of bacteriophages against Salmonella enteritidis was evaluated as a prevention tool. Two tests with three concentrations of bacteriophages were conducted against two strains of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated in fresh faeces of laying hens. Each test had a positive control. Thus, four groups in each test were evaluated. Each experimental group included two replicates, and three plates were incubated per replicate. The concentrations tested were three: commercial solution (5 × 10(7) pfu/mL), and two dilutions (1/10 and 1/30). One of the strains tested was CECT 4300, a certified strain of Colección Española de Cultivo Tipo and the other a field isolated strain in a sacrificed hen farm. Both strains were inoculated at 1.3 × 10(5) cfu/g of faeces in each of the four groups. Isolation and identification of bacteria by ISO6579 was done at various times after inoculation: 1 minute, 24 hours and 7 days. In the first test, with certified strain, Salmonella was isolated in all groups at time 1 minute. After 24 hours, Salmonella was isolated in all groups except in one of the replicas treated with 1/10 dilution of bacteriophages, one of the other replica plate treated with 1/10 dilution, and two plates of the two replicas treated with the commercial solution. After 7 days, the bacteria were not isolated from any of the experimental groups. In the second test, with the field strain, Salmonella was isolated in all groups at time 1 minute. After 24 hours, Salmonella was isolated in all groups except in one of the replicas treated with 1/10 dilution of bacteriophages and the two replicas treated with the commercial solution. Salmonella was not isolated in any of the experimental groups at 7 days. The use of bacteriophages reduced Salmonella enteritidis isolates in faeces at 24 hours after the application, so it could be

  16. Food poisoning due to Salmonella Enteritidis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mamoru; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takahito

    2009-04-01

    A male in his early seventies complained of abdominal pain and diarrhea at 7h after ingesting a small piece of gratin from a box lunch prepared by a caterer. He was admitted to a hospital, but died 37 h later. Dozens of people who had eaten the same box lunch also complained of diarrhea. All of them recovered after medical treatment. A later investigation demonstrated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in the gratin from the box lunch. An autopsy revealed very severe typhloenteritis with edema and submucosal hemorrhage. The digestive tract contained fluid contents without foodstuffs. Bacteriological examination revealed SE in the contents of the lower ileum and large intestine. Based on these findings, we concluded that the cause of death was food poisoning due to SE. In this case, ingesting only a small piece of contaminated food caused fatal food poisoning due to SE. These results emphasize the importance of prevention against food poisoning due to Salmonella, particularly SE.

  17. Forankring af kvarterløft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazanti, B.

    Kvarterløft er et offentligt initiativ, der har til formål at forbedre sociale, bygningsmæssige og andre forhold i en afgrænset bydel. Kvarterløft er per definition tidsbegrænset til fem eller syv år. Mens et kvarterløft står på, er der ofte en mængde og mangfoldighed af aktiviteter og projekter....

  18. Efeitos da Salmonella Enteritidis experimentalmente inoculada na saúde gastrintestinal de perus Effects of experimentally inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis on the gastrointestinal health of turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Yoko Tanikawa de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de Salmonella Enteritidis sobre a colonização e o desenvolvimento do trato intestinal, a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso em perus. Um total de 135 perus de corte de 1 dia foi distribuído em três tratamentos: controle; perus oriundos de ovos inoculados com Salmonella Enteritidis via casca e perus desafiados com água de bebida com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aos 10, 20 e 28 dias, avaliaram-se as variáveis de desempenho e coletaram-se amostras para avaliação bacteriana, biometria e histomorfometria. Realizaram-se também, nos dias 1, 15 e 28 de idade, coletas de mecônio/excretas de todas as aves. A colonização intestinal aumentou durante a fase inicial quando Salmonella foi inoculada via casca. O intestino apresentou maior peso ao 1º, 10º e 28º dias quando Salmonella esteve presente, sem diferença no comprimento. Salmonella Enteritidis foi capaz de colonizar o trato intestinal, estabelecer infecção, reduzir o desempenho das aves e modificar as estruturas celulares do intestino. A contaminação da casca do ovo antes da incubação propiciou a ocorrência de infecções ao nascimento, e a frequência de isolamento de Salmonella Enteritidis persistiu até 28 dias de idade. A inoculação de Salmonella pela água de bebida gerou aves infectadas, porém com menor nível de infecção com o avançar da idade. O desempenho de aves inoculadas com Salmonella Enteritidis é menor e isso confirma potenciais prejuízos para a produção avícola.The effects of Salmonella Enteritidis on the colonization and development of the intestinal tract, feed conversion and weight gain were evaluated. A total of 135 day old turkeys were assigned to three treatments: control; turkeys from eggs inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis via shell and turkeys challenged with drinking water with Salmonella Enteritidis. At 10, 20 and 28 days, the performance variables were evaluated and samples were collected to perform bacterial

  19. Genetic diversity of human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakeri, S A; Yasin, R M; Koh, Y T; Puthucheary, S D; Thong, K L

    2003-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine clonal relationship and genetic diversity of the human strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from 1995 to 2002 from different parts of Malaysia. Antimicrobial susceptibility test, plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were applied to analyse 65 human isolates of S. Enteritidis obtained over an eight year period from different parts of Malaysia. Four nonhuman isolates were included for comparison. A total of 14 distinct XbaI-pulsed-field profiles (PFPs) were observed, although a single PFP X1 was predominant and this particular clone was found to be endemic in Malaysia. The incidence of drug resistant S. Enteritidis remained relatively low with only 37% of the strains analysed being resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. All except one resistant strain carried at least one plasmid ranging in size from 3.7 to 62 MDa giving nine plasmid profiles. The three isolates from raw milk and one from well-water had similar PFPs to that of the human isolates. Salmonella Enteritidis strains were more diverse than was previously thought. Fourteen subtypes were noted although one predominant clone persisted in Malaysia. The combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, plasmid profiling and antibiograms provided additional discrimination to the highly clonal strains of S. Enteritidis. This is the first report to assess the genotypes of the predominant clinical S. Enteritidis in different parts of the country. As S. Enteritidis is highly endemic in Malaysia, the data generated would be useful for tracing the source during outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the study area.

  20. Occurrence of purulent arthritis broilers vertically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J-Y; Kang, M-S; An, B-K; Song, E-A; Kwon, J-H; Kwon, Y-K

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) has been associated with morbidity and mortality in broiler chickens worldwide. The present study described purulent arthritis of broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis and investigated antibiograms and genetic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from epidemiologically related properties such as a hatchery and breeder farm in an attempt to elucidate the source of contamination. Clinical disease and mortality were observed in the affected broiler flock. Mortality was 5.8% until 12 d of age. The birds typically showed lameness with moderately swollen hock joints and footpads. The most prevalent lesions were severely purulent arthritis with polyserositis. Histopathology revealed moderate to severe inflammation in the synovial membrane of leg joints and visceral organs. When the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed against 7 isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis from broilers, and relevant hatchery and breeder farms by the disk diffusion method using 18 antimicrobial agents, isolates from broiler and breeder farms had the same antibiogram characterized by multiple drug resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline, whereas isolates from the hatchery were differently resistant to only nalidixic acid. Through the genetic analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzyme XbaI, Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from both broiler and breeder farms also showed the same PFGE pattern compared with the hatchery isolates resistant to nalidixic acid. As a result, the same PFGE profiles and antibiogram patterns among isolates from broilers and breeder farms provided direct evidence of vertical Salmonella Enteritidis transmission from the contaminated breeder farm to commercial broiler.

  1. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez-de la Peña Ma. Eugenia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  2. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Implicated in Infections of Avian and Human Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    An, Ran; Lin, Pengpeng; Bougouffa, Salim; Essack, Magbubah; Boxrud, David; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Vidovic, Sinisa

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a wide-host-range pathogen. Occasionally, it is involved in invasive infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four S Enteritidis strains obtained from human and avian hosts that had been involved in bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and primary infections.

  4. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the spleens of hens by bacterins that vary in fimbrial protein SefD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene sefD is part of operon sefABCD, and it is required for production of the SEF14 fimbria by Salmonella Enteritidis. We compared strains that varied in SefD content for their ability to reduce recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from the spleens of hens infected by parenteral challenge. The two bac...

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Implicated in Infections of Avian and Human Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    An, Ran

    2018-01-24

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a wide-host-range pathogen. Occasionally, it is involved in invasive infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four S Enteritidis strains obtained from human and avian hosts that had been involved in bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and primary infections.

  6. Colonization of marker and field strains of salmonella enteritidis and typhimurium in antibiotic treated and non-treated laying hen

    Science.gov (United States)

    In each of three trials, caged laying hens (76, 26, and 33 wk-of-age) were divided into 6 groups designated to receive either maker (nalidixic acid resistance) S. Enteritidis (SE-M), field S. Enteritidis (SE-F), or marker S. Typhimurium (ST-M), and half pretreated with vancomycin (VNC) (n=12). VNC t...

  7. Dose-response effects in an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, E D; Cartter, M L; Hadler, J L; Wassell, J T; Zingeser, J A; Tauxe, R V

    1994-02-01

    The effects of ingested Salmonella enteritidis (SE) dose on incubation period and on the severity and duration of illness were estimated in a cohort of 169 persons who developed gastroenteritis after eating hollandaise sauce made from grade-A shell eggs. The cohort was divided into three groups based on self-reported dose of sauce ingested. As dose increased, median incubation period decreased (37 h in the low exposure group v. 21 h in the medium exposure group v. 17.5 h in the high exposure group, P = 0.006) and greater proportions reported body aches (71 v. 85 v. 94%, P = 0.0009) and vomiting (21 v. 56 v. 57%, P = 0.002). Among 118 case-persons who completed a follow-up questionnaire, increased dose was associated with increases in median weight loss in kilograms (3.2 v. 4.5 v. 5.0, P = 0.0001), maximum daily number of stools (12.5 v. 15.0 v. 20.0, P = 0.02), subjective rating of illness severity (P = 0.0007), and the number of days of confinement to bed (3.0 v. 6.5 v. 6.5, P = 0.04). In this outbreak, ingested dose was an important determinant of the incubation period, symptoms and severity of acute salmonellosis.

  8. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawosz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz1, André Chwalibog2, Jacek Szeliga3, Filip Sawosz2, Marta Grodzik1, Marlena Rupiewicz1, Tomasz Niemiec1, Katarzyna Kacprzyk11Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Microbiology of Analytical Centre, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, PolandPurpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively, with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive, to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles.Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope.Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterial cell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis.Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano

  9. A hotel-based outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) in the United Kingdom, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, N; Murphy, L; Smith, A; Copeland, D

    2007-03-01

    An outbreak of food-borne Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 occurred in Cumbria, in north-west England, in the summer of 2006. Fifteen people, all with positive stool samples, met the case definition; three of these were admitted to hospital, including one patient who died. Preliminary investigations suggested a link to a meal served at a local hotel. A case control study was implemented, together with microbiological and environmental investigations. Fifteen microbiologically confirmed cases and 27 unmatched controls were included in the study, controls being randomly selected from people who had eaten at the hotel on the same day. The epidemiological evidence indicated a very strong association between infection and consumption of tiramisu made with raw shell eggs, although none were available for microbiological investigation. These results are in line with other salmonellosis outbreaks that have been associated with the use of raw shell eggs in food manufacturing and production. This paper highlights the continuing need for a greater awareness by those who work in the food industry of the health risks associated with the consumption of raw shell eggs.

  10. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  11. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose; Ferraro, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  12. Recurrent meningitis due to Salmonella enteritidis: A case report from Kashmir India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent bacterial meningitis in children is potentially life-threatening and induces psychological trauma to the patients through repeated hospitalization. Here we report a case of recurrent meningitis in a one month old baby. The CSF and blood culture grew Salmonella enteritidis. Injection ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were given for 3 weeks. Baby became symptomatically better and was afebrile at discharge. Twenty eight days after discharge baby got readmitted with complaints of fever and refusal of feeds. Blood and CSF culture again showed growth of Salmonella enteritidis. Physicians should be educated about the possibility of recurrence which may occur days or even weeks after apparent successful antibiotic treatment.

  13. Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Bruce Philip; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Bryant, Joshua; Johnson, Wesley D.; Paquette, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility, operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program, is a wind energy research site with multiple wind turbines scaled for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. The SWiFT site currently includes three variable-speed, pitch-regulated, three-bladed wind turbines. The six volumes of this manual provide a detailed description of the SWiFT wind turbines, including their operation and user interfaces, electrical and mechanical systems, assembly and commissioning procedures, and safety systems. Further dissemination only as authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE programmatic authority. 111 UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED RELEASE Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual (SAND2016-0746 ) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Site Supervisor Dave Mitchell (6121) Date Note: Document revision logs are found after the title page of each volume of this manual. iv

  14. DFT, FT-IR, FT-Raman and vibrational studies of 3-methoxyphenyl boronic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, N. R.; Hiremath, Sudhir M.; Hiremath, C. S.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the possible stable, geometrical molecular structure, experimental and theoretical FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods of 3-Methoxyphenyl boronic acid (3MPBA). FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000-400 cm-1 and 40000-50 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometric structure and vibrational wavenumbers of the title compound were searched by B3LYP hybrid density functional theory method with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. The Selectedexperimentalbandswereassignedandcharacterizedonthebasisofthescaledtheoreticalwavenumbersby their potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes obtained from VEDA 4 program. Finally, the predicted calculation results were applied to simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title compound, which show agreement with the observed spectra. Whereas, it is observed that, the theoretical frequencies are more than the experimental one for O-H stretching vibration modes of the title molecule.

  15. Acid and low temperature treatments on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated in pork and its subsequent survival in simulated gastric fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Quintão Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis in stored pork and in simulated gastric fluid (SGF. A culture of S. Enteritidis was subjected to acid treatment prior to inoculation into pork, stored under refrigeration at frozen temperatures and exposed to SGF. The S. Enteritidis CCS3 and ATCC 13076 strains previously subjected to acid treatment (at pH 4.0-5.0 were inoculated in pork and stored at 4°C and -18°C. Storage at 4ºC did not affect the populations of both S. Enteritidis strains. After 84 days at -18°C, the mean population of both CCS3 and ATCC strains were reduced by 0.8 and 1.5 log cycles, respectively. Prior acid treatment did not enhance the survival of both strains at low temperatures. After acid treatment and low temperature storage, S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 lost culturability after being exposed to SGF for 10 minutes. In contrast, S. Enteritidis CCS3 was tolerant until three hours of SGF exposure. S. Enteritidis CCS3 submitted to pH 4.0 was more tolerant to SGF exposure than when submitted to pH 4.5, 5.0 and without acid treatment. Therefore, this study indicates that exposure to an acidic and cold environment during processing enhanced the ability of S. Enteritidis to survive in the gastric environment of the human stomach, possibly increasing the risk of a Salmonella infection after consumption of pork.

  16. Heat transfer models for predicting Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs through supply chain distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, S; Simpson, R; Teixeira, A

    2007-11-01

    Egg and egg preparations are important vehicles for Salmonella enteritidis infections. The influence of time-temperature becomes important when the presence of this organism is found in commercial shell eggs. A computer-aided mathematical model was validated to estimate surface and interior temperature of shell eggs under variable ambient and refrigerated storage temperature. A risk assessment of S. enteritidis based on the use of this model, coupled with S. enteritidis kinetics, has already been reported in a companion paper published earlier in JFS. The model considered the actual geometry and composition of shell eggs and was solved by numerical techniques (finite differences and finite elements). Parameters of interest such as local (h) and global (U) heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, and apparent volumetric specific heat were estimated by an inverse procedure from experimental temperature measurement. In order to assess the error in predicting microbial population growth, theoretical and experimental temperatures were applied to a S. enteritidis growth model taken from the literature. Errors between values of microbial population growth calculated from model predicted compared with experimentally measured temperatures were satisfactorily low: 1.1% and 0.8% for the finite difference and finite element model, respectively.

  17. Public health investigations of Salmonella Enteritidis in catering raw shell eggs, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Surman-Lee, S; Greenwood, M; Bolton, F J; Elson, R; Mitchell, R T; Nichols, G N; Sagoo, S K; Threlfall, E J; Ward, L R; Gillespie, I A; O'Brien, S

    2007-06-01

    In response to a dramatic change in the epidemiology of Salmonella Enteritidis in England and Wales thought to be associated with raw shell eggs, the Health Protection Agency initiated public health investigations to establish the incidence of Salmonella contamination and origin of eggs used by catering premises implicated in outbreaks of Salm. Enteritidis. Between October 2002 and November 2004, 16 971 eggs were sampled and Salmonella were recovered from 3.4%. Salmonella was isolated from 5.5% and 6.3% of Spanish and eggs of unknown origin, respectively, used in catering premises linked to outbreaks, a level significantly higher than that (1.1%) found in nonLion Quality UK eggs sampled. The small sample of UK Lion Quality eggs tested (reflecting their lack of use in premises visited) did not contain Salmonella. Several phage types of Salm. Enteritidis other than phage type 4 (PT 4) were identified with nonUK eggs. Eggs from Spain were implicated as a major source of infection. Eggs were contaminated more frequently with Salmonella when shells were dirty and/or cracked, and stored at above 8 degrees C. The use of Spanish eggs by the catering sector has been identified as a consistent significant factor in many of the outbreaks caused by Salm. Enteritidis nonPT4 in England and Wales during 2002-2004. Advice to caterers and hospitals that raw shell eggs should not be used in food that will either not be cooked or only lightly cooked should be reinforced.

  18. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.

    2014-01-01

    serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil against Salmonella enteritidis in vitro and in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2010-01-01

    Nine essential oils were examined for antimicrobial activity against reference and clinical strains of Salmonella Enteritidis. Based on the size of the inhibition zone and the minimal inhibitory concentration, basil oil had the strongest antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria, and S. Enteritidis SE3 was the most sensitive strain to all the tested oils. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major constituents of the oil were linalool (64.35%), 1,8-cineole (12.28%), eugenol (3.21%), germacrene D (2.07%), alpha-terpineol (1.64%), and rho-cymene (1.03%). When applied in nham, a fermented pork sausage, experimentally inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE3 and stored at 4 degrees C, basil oil inhibited the bacterium in a dose-dependent fashion. Basil oil at a concentration of 50 ppm reduced the number of bacteria in the food from 5 to 2log cfu/g after storage for 3 d. An unmeasurable level of the bacterium in the food was observed at days 2 and 3 of storage when 100 and 150 ppm of basil oil was used, respectively. Sensory evaluation suggested that the addition of 100 but not of 150 ppm to nham would be acceptable to consumers. The results from this study confirm the potential use of basil oil as an antimicrobial agent to control S. Enteritidis in food.

  20. Efficacy of jatropha curcas plant extract against the survival of salmonella enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The use of plant-derived antimicrobials has shown to be effective at inhibiting microbial growth. Although Jatropha curcas is known to possess antimicrobial properties, its efficacy against Salmonella Enteritidis has not yet been investigated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was...

  1. Occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from poultry in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaderi, R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is recognized as one of the major food-borne pathogens with more than 2,500 serotypes worldwide. The present study addresses antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates in Iran. A collection of 151 Salmonella spp. isolates collected from poultry were serotyped to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Sixty-one Salmonella Enteritidis were subsequently tested against 30 antimicrobials. A high frequency of antimicrobial resistance was observed against nitrofurantoin (n=55, 90.2% followed by nalidixic acid (n=41, 67.2%, and cephalexin (n=23, 37.7%. Multi-drug resistance were observed in 35 (57.4% out of 61 isolates. Twenty-six antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed among the 61 Salmonella Enteritidis. All isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin, imipenem, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins. In conclusion, our results revealed that implementing new policies toward overuse of antimicrobial drugs in Iranian poultry industry are of great importance.

  2. [Bacteremia associated with mycotic aneurysm of the transversal aortic arch and myocarditis caused by Salmonella enteritidis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, L; Mesa, E; Rodríguez, J E; Sánchez, M P; Ugarte, J; Algora Weber, A; Dámaso, D; Daza, R M; Mendaza, P

    1989-02-01

    A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus had Salmonella enteritidis bacteremia associated with mycotic aneurysm of the transverse aortic arc and myocarditis. Antibiotic therapy with ampicillin and chloramphenicol was ineffective despite the fact that the microorganism was sensitive in vitro to those antimicrobials, and the patient had a progressive clinical deterioration which culminated in death.

  3. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Szeliga, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    -Au and nano-Pt respectively), with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive), to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles. Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano...... as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body....

  4. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.6 Egg... age required by § 118.4(a) is positive, you must divert eggs to treatment (defined in § 118.3) for the...

  5. Similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans and captive wild animals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony M; Ismail, Husna; Henton, Maryke M; Keddy, Karen H

    2014-12-15

    Salmonella is well recognized as an aetiological agent of gastrointestinal and diarrhoeal disease. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the commonest serotypes associated with foodborne illness. In South Africa, we compared Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans with gastroenteritis and strains isolated from captive wild animals, between June 2011 and July 2012. Bacteria were phenotypically characterized using standard microbiological techniques. Genotypic relatedness of isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. a diversity of 27 PFGE patterns amongst 196 human non-invasive isolates was shown; two PFGE patterns predominated and accounted for 74% of all human isolates. Human isolates showed a 12% prevalence rate for nalidixic acid resistance. Animal isolates from 5 different sources were investigated. With the exception of an isolate from a ground hornbill, all animal isolates (jaguar, crocodile, lion and poultry) showed PFGE pattern matches to a human isolate. Animal isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of nalidixic acid resistance in isolates from the lion and poultry source. Our data showed similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans and captive wild animals, suggesting a probable common source for strains from humans and animals.

  6. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  7. Virulence and metabolic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis sefD variants in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of a few pathogenic Salmonella enterica serotypes that have SEF14 fimbriae encoded by the sef operon, which consists of 4 co-transcribed genes sefABCD that are regulated by sefR. To explore the function of sefD within the infection pathway resulting in egg contamination...

  8. Preliminary Transcriptome Analysis of Mature Biofilm and Planktonic Cells of Salmonella Enteritidis Exposure to Acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Jia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has emerged as a well-recognized food-borne pathogen, with many strains able to form biofilms and thus cause cross-contamination in food processing environments where acid-based disinfectants are widely encountered. In the present study, RNA sequencing was employed to establish complete transcriptome profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis in the forms of planktonic and biofilm-associated cells cultured in Tryptic Soytone Broth (TSB and acidic TSB (aTSB. The gene expression patterns of S. Enteritidis significantly differed between biofilm-associated and planktonic cells cultivated under the same conditions. The assembled transcriptome of S. Enteritidis in this study contained 5,442 assembled transcripts, including 3,877 differentially expressed genes (DEGs identified in biofilm and planktonic cells. These DEGs were enriched in terms such as regulation of biological process, metabolic process, macromolecular complex, binding and transferase activity, which may play crucial roles in the biofilm formation of S. Enteritidis cultivated in aTSB. Three significant pathways were observed to be enriched under acidic conditions: bacterial chemotaxis, porphyrin-chlorophyll metabolism and sulfur metabolism. In addition, 15 differentially expressed novel non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs were identified, and only one was found to be up-regulated in mature biofilms. This preliminary study of the S. Enteritidis transcriptome serves as a basis for future investigations examining the complex network systems that regulate Salmonella biofilm in acidic environments, which provide information on biofilm formation and acid stress interaction that may facilitate the development of novel disinfection procedures in the food processing industry.

  9. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Adesiyun

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2% and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%. The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4% belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9% belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9% exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%, followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%, ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%, and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%.

  10. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, A; Carson, A; McAdoo, K; Bailey, C

    2000-11-01

    Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2%) and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%). The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4%) belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9%) belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9%) exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%), followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%), ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%), and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%).

  11. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiyun Abiodun

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2% and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%. The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4% belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9% belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9% exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%, followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%, ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%, and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%.

  12. Antimicrobial effect of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the antimicrobial effects of berry extracts obtained from four cultivars (Elliott, Darrow, Bluecrop and Duke) of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal conc...

  13. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis associated with consumption of eggs in a restaurant chain in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F Y; Morris, J G; Trump, D; Tilghman, D; Wood, P K; Jackman, N; Israel, E; Libonati, J P

    1988-10-01

    Salmonella enteritidis ser. enteritidis was isolated from patrons and employees of three restaurants in a restaurant chain in Maryland during August and September 1985. Isolates from all three restaurants had identical plasmid profiles; this profile was present in 13 of 40 randomly selected S. enteritidis isolates received by the Maryland state health department laboratory during a comparable time period. The outbreak in one restaurant resulted in at least 71 illnesses, with 17 persons known to have been hospitalized. Scrambled eggs served on a "breakfast bar" were implicated as the vehicle of transmission in this restaurant, with eggs a possible vehicle in another of the three restaurants. The data point out the risks associated with improper handling of eggs in food service establishments, provide further evidence for the observed association between S. enteritidis and eggs in the northeastern United States, and demonstrate the utility of plasmid analysis in investigation of outbreaks involving common Salmonella serotypes.

  15. Emergence of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks in broiler chickens in the Lebanon: epidemiological markers and competitive exclusion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Jurdi, L H; Talhouk, R; Qatanani, M; Eid, A; Sakr, W; Bouljihad, M; Spasojevic, R

    1999-12-01

    This study investigates the first emergence of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks among chickens in the Lebanon and identifies the epidemiological markers of selected recovered Enteritidis strains. In addition, the authors evaluate a competitive exclusion approach to control infection in broiler chickens by Enteritidis organisms which possess the prevalent identified markers. The basic procedure in this investigation involved recording signs and lesions in eleven broiler chicken flocks on eleven farms, and culturing livers, spleens, and caeca of ten randomly selected birds per flock for Salmonella isolation and serotyping. Furthermore, culturing for Salmonella and serotyping was attempted from the livers, spleens, caeca and oviduct swabs of ten hens in four broiler breeder flocks which provided hatching eggs for the broilers under study. The identification of epidemiological markers in recovered S. Enteritidis included the determination of drug-resistance patterns and plasmid profiling. The competitive exclusion was evaluated by spraying the microflora on day-old broilers in the hatchery, followed by a controlled oral challenge at three days of age, with 2.85 x 10(5) colony-forming units of S. Enteritidis organisms per bird. Exclusion was evaluated by culturing for S. Enteritidis in anal swabs, spleens, livers, and caeca of individual challenged birds treated with the microflora and in untreated challenged birds. A total of 112 invasive S. Enteritidis strains were recovered on eleven farms from individual organs of broiler chickens with typical signs and lesions of salmonellosis. The prevalent resistance to drugs in such strains was to furaltadone and gentamycin, a marker identified in 93 strains (83%), recovered from nine out of eleven farms. The same resistance pattern was present in S. Enteritidis strains recovered from breeders on one out of four farms. The prevalent plasmid profile in nine S. Enteritidis organisms selected randomly from a pool of 93 strains (one

  16. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  17. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  18. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  19. Effects of thermosonication on the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, W-S; Bhat, R; Rosma, A; Cheng, L-H

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of thermosonication and thermal treatment on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice were investigated at 50 and 60°C. Besides, nonlethal injury of Salm. Enteritidis after both treatments was also examined. The highest inactivation was attained with thermosonication at 60°C. The inactivation rate was different for both pathogens, and Salm. Enteritidis was found to be more sensitive to thermosonication than E. coli O157:H7. Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered in all treated samples, except those subjected to more than 5-min thermosonication at 60°C. It was found that the introduction of high-intensity ultrasound enhanced the inactivation of pathogens compared to thermal treatment alone. On the other hand, Salm. Enteritidis was detected in a number of samples following incubation in universal pre-enrichment broth, but no growth was detected after incubation in mango juice. Fruit juices are commonly heat treated to inactivate micro-organisms and enzymes. However, excessive heat treatments may result in undesirable changes in juice quality. Treatment by power ultrasound, a nonthermal technology, may be an alternative processing technique to pasteurize fruit juices. This study highlights the effectiveness of thermosonication in inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis infection alters the indigenous microbiota diversity in young layer chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Khine Zar Mon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Avian gastrointestinal tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors especially during the early post-hatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7 days post-infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and post-infection time-points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the gastrointestinal microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non

  1. Energy profile, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and FT-NMR) and DFT studies of 4-bromoisophthalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Thirunarayanan, S.; Mohan, S.

    2018-04-01

    The stable conformer of 4-bromoisophthalic acid (BIPA) has been identified by potential energy profile analysis. All the structural parameters of 4-bromoisophthalic acid are determined by B3LYP method with 6-311++G**, 6-31G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The fundamental vibrations are analysed with the use of FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) spectra. The harmonic vibrational frequencies are theoretically calculated and compared with experimental FTIR and FT-Raman frequencies. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been analysed and compared with theoretical 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energies are determined by B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method. The electron density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of BIPA molecule have been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with molecular electrostatic potential (MEP). Stability of the molecules arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalizations have been analysed by using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The thermodynamic properties and atomic natural charges of the compound are analysed and the reactive sites of the molecule are identified. The global and local reactivity descriptors are evaluated to analyse the chemical reactivity and site selectivity of molecule through Fukui functions.

  2. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  3. An FT-Raman, FT-IR, and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Stanozolol and Oxandrolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibebe Lemma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR and the Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman spectra of stanozolol and oxandrolone, and we have performed quantum chemical calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT with a B3LYP/6-31G (d, p level of theory. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were collected in a solid phase. The consistency between the calculated and experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman data indicates that the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p can generate reliable geometry and related properties of the title compounds. Selected experimental bands were assigned and characterized on the basis of the scaled theoretical wavenumbers by their total energy distribution. The good agreement between the experimental and theoretical spectra allowed positive assignment of the observed vibrational absorption bands. Finally, the calculation results were applied to simulate the Raman and IR spectra of the title compounds, which show agreement with the observed spectra.

  4. Validation of cooking methods using shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A L; Curtis, P A; Conner, D E; McKee, S R; Kerth, L K

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has long been associated with eggs, and more recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg has also become associated with eggs. This study was undertaken to determine whether Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg are effectively eliminated from eggs by various cooking methods. Seven cooking methods were chosen--hard and soft cooked, scrambled, over easy, sunny-side up, poached, and free poached--and a pan insert and the free-flowing method were used. Shell eggs, purchased from a grocery store, were inoculated with Salmonella and cooked. The cooked eggs were analyzed by USDA-approved methods for Salmonella recovery. Findings indicated that existing cooking methods for the hard-cooked, soft-cooked, and poaching methods were safe. However, the same was not true for the current sunny-side-up, over-easy, and scrambled egg cooking methods.

  5. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DE AMOSTRAS DE Salmonella Enteritidis ISOLADAS DE DIFERENTES FONTES ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Salmonella Enteritidis STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda A. Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Salmonella Enteritidis é descrita em amostras isoladas de galinhas saudáveis e doentes, casos esporádicos de gastrenterite humana relacionadas ao consumo de produtos contendo ovos, carne de frango, ovos bicados, farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura, fezes de suínos e alimentos. No período de 1995 a 1997 foi observado que 72,2% foram sensíveis, enquanto que 9,2% e 17,8% foram resistentes e intermediárias, respectivamente. Constatou-se resistência em 6,2% das isoladas do homem, 5,0% de carnes de frangos, 36,4% de alimentos, 4,2% de galinhas, 23,7% de ovos bicados, 5,7% de farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura e 13,3% de suínos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram elevada proporção de amostras com sensibilidade intermediária (18,1% do total e 100% de sensibilidade a seis princípios. Considerando as amostras resistentes, quinze (57,7% apresentaram resistência única a nove antimicrobianos. Quatro (15,4% (galinhas e ovos bicados apresentaram resistência dupla; resistência tripla foi detectada em uma amostra (3,8%, enquanto que seis (23,1% apresentaram seis perfis de multirresistência, frente a 4-9 drogas, identificados em amostras do homem, alimentos, galinhas e ovos bicados. Embora o índice de resistência aqui descrito possa ser considerado baixo, deve ser destacada a alta frequência de sensibilidade intermediária à tetraciclina, particularmente em amostras associadas a aves.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentos, galinhas, gastrenterite humana, multirresistência a antibióticos.
    Enteritidisin the period from 1995 to 1997 is described in strains isolated from healthy and ill chickens, human sporadic gastrenteritis outbreaks related to egg products consumption, poultry meats, broiler chicken pipped embryos, meat meal/aviculture environment, swine feces and foods (cheese, mayonnaise, cake mass, cake cover and bacon. It was observed that 72.2% were sensitive, whereas 9.2% and 17.8% were

  6. Energy balance in the ohmically heated FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.; Brusati, M.; Cilloco, F.

    1981-01-01

    A typical discharge in the FT Tokamak at 60 kG has been studied in detail in order to derive the power balance between the ohmic input and the plasma losses. Impurity and radiation losses together with ion and electron energy balance are discussed. A power transport term for electrons is derived which is ascribed to anomalous thermal conduction. This resulting thermal transport is compared with those derived from different proposed scalings

  7. Borgerdeltagelse i kvarterløft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Rapporten handler om borgerdeltagelse i den første fase af de syv første kvarterløft. Det vil sige det første ca. halvandet år, hvor kvarterløftorganisationen skulle på plads, borgerne skulle mobiliseres og deres idéer og ønsker bringes frem og omsættes til kvarterplaner. Datagrundlaget for analy...

  8. Characterization of chicken spleen transcriptome after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Matulova

    Full Text Available In this study we were interested in identification of new markers of chicken response to Salmonella Enteritidis infection. To reach this aim, gene expression in the spleens of naive chickens and those intravenously infected with S. Enteritidis with or without previous oral vaccination was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of splenic mRNA/cDNA. Forty genes with increased expression at the level of transcription were identified. The most inducible genes encoded avidin (AVD, extracellular fatty acid binding protein (EXFABP, immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1, chemokine ah221 (AH221, trappin-6-like protein (TRAP6 and serum amyloid A (SAA. Using cDNA from sorted splenic B-lymphocytes, macrophages, CD4, CD8 and γδ T-lymphocytes, we found that the above mentioned genes were preferentially expressed in macrophages. AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6 and SAA were induced also in the cecum of chickens orally infected with S. Enteritidis on day 1 of life or day 42 of life. Unusual results were obtained for the immunoglobulin encoding transcripts. Prior to the infection, transcripts coding for the constant parts of IgM, IgY, IgA and Ig light chain were detected in B-lymphocytes. However, after the infection, immunoglobulin encoding transcripts were expressed also by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Expression of AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6, SAA and all immunoglobulin genes can be therefore used for the characterization of the course of S. Enteritidis infection in chickens.

  9. Plasmid fingerprinting and virulence gene detection among indigenous strains of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, S.U.; Schwarz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important frequently reported zoonotic pathogen and a common cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The highly conserved Serospecific plasmids (SSPs) and Salmonella plasmid virulence (Spv) genes have been shown to mediate extra-intestinal colonization and systemic infection. The objective of current study was to document the presence of SSPs and SpvB/SpvC genes prevailing in the indigenous population of serovar Enteritidis. A total of 48 epidemiologically unrelated strains of Salmonella enteritidis were included in the study. Preparation of plasmids DNA suitable for endonuclease digestion and separation of respective fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis followed previously described protocols. The plasmids of Escherichia coli V517, 1-kbp ladder, and lambda DNA HindIII fragments served as DNA size standards. Transfer of DNA fragments from agarose gels to nitrocellulose membranes was achieved by capillary blot procedure. An ECL labeled 3.6 kbp HindIII fragment of plasmid PRQ 51 was used as probe for SpvB/SpvC gene detection. Plasmid DNA fingerprinting revealed the presence of two different profiles of approximately 55 kbp and 90 kbp and were identified as virulence plasmids by DNA hybridization. The SpvB/SpvC genes were located on HindIII fragments of 3.6 kbp in each of the two types of virulence plasmids. The study confirms the presence of SSPs and SpvB/SpvC genes in indigenous strains of S. enteritidis isolated from Northern Punjab area of Pakistan and substantiate the previous data on such findings from other parts of the world. (author)

  10. Pulsed-field profile diversities of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Murakami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of pulsed-field profiles (PFPs within non-typhoidal Salmonella subtypes influences epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks. Therefore, determining the PFP diversity of each Salmonella serovar is important when evaluating current circulating strains. This study examined the PFP diversity of three important public health Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis (n=177, S. Infantis (n=205, and S. Corvallis (n=90, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Isolates were collected from several sources, primarily from chicken-derived samples, in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan between 1989 and 2005. S. Enteritidis isolates displayed 51 distinct PFPs (E-PFPs, with 92 (52.0% and 32 (18.1% isolates displaying types EPFP1 and E-PFP10, respectively. The 205 S. Infantis isolates showed 54 distinct PFPs (I-PFPs, with 87 (42.4% and 36 (17.6% isolates being I-PFP4 and I-PFP2, respectively. I-PFP18 was the dominant I-PFP of layer chicken isolates across a 5-year period. Fourteen distinct S. Corvallis PFPs were detected. Simpson’s index results for the genetic diversities of S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates were 0.70, 0.79, and 0.78, respectively. None of the EPFPs or I-PFPs of layer chicken isolates overlapped with those of broiler chicken isolates, and the dominant clonal lines existed for >10 years. In conclusion, limited PFP diversities were detected amongst S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates of primarily chicken-derived origins in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan. Therefore, it is important to take into account these limitations in PFP diversities in epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks.

  11. Pulsed-field profile diversities of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koichi; Noda, Tamie; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2017-08-16

    The diversity of pulsed-field profiles (PFPs) within non-typhoidal Salmonella subtypes influences epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks. Therefore, determining the PFP diversity of each Salmonella serovar is important when evaluating current circulating strains. This study examined the PFP diversity of three important public health Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars, S . Enteritidis (n=177), S . Infantis (n=205), and S . Corvallis (n=90), using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Isolates were collected from several sources, primarily from chicken-derived samples, in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan between 1989 and 2005. S . Enteritidis isolates displayed 51 distinct PFPs (E-PFPs), with 92 (52.0%) and 32 (18.1%) isolates displaying types E-PFP1 and E-PFP10, respectively. The 205 S . Infantis isolates showed 54 distinct PFPs (I-PFPs), with 87 (42.4%) and 36 (17.6%) isolates being I-PFP4 and I-PFP2, respectively. I-PFP18 was the dominant I-PFP of layer chicken isolates across a 5-year period. Fourteen distinct S . Corvallis PFPs were detected. Simpson's index results for the genetic diversities of S . Enteritidis, S . Infantis, and S . Corvallis isolates were 0.70, 0.79, and 0.78, respectively. None of the E-PFPs or I-PFPs of layer chicken isolates overlapped with those of broiler chicken isolates, and the dominant clonal lines existed for >10 years. In conclusion, limited PFP diversities were detected amongst S . Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates of primarily chicken-derived origins in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan. Therefore, it is important to take into account these limitations in PFP diversities in epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks.

  12. Differential Levels of Cecal Colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in Chickens Triggers Distinct Immune Kinome Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Swaggerty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause disease in numerous species. Salmonella-related infections originating from poultry and/or poultry products are a major cause of human foodborne illness with S. Enteritidis the leading cause worldwide. Despite the importance of Salmonella to human health and chickens being a reservoir, little is known of the response to infection within the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Using chicken-specific kinome immune peptide arrays we compared a detailed kinomic analysis of the chicken jejunal immune response in a single line of birds with high and low Salmonella loads. Four-day-old chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis (105 cfu and cecal content and a section of jejunum collected at three times: early [4–7 days post-infection (dpi], middle (10–17 dpi, and late (24–37 dpi. Salmonella colonization was enumerated and birds with the highest (n = 4 and lowest (n = 4 loads at each time were selected for kinomic analyses. Key biological processes associated with lower loads of Salmonella clustered around immune responses, including cell surface receptor signaling pathway, positive regulation of cellular processes, defense response, innate immune response, regulation of immune response, immune system process, and regulation of signaling. Further evaluation showed specific pathways including chemokine, Jak–Stat, mitogen activated protein kinase, and T cell receptor signaling pathways were also associated with increased resistance. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that it is possible to identify key mechanisms and pathways that are associated with increased resistance against S. Enteritidis cecal colonization in chickens. Therefore, providing a foundation for future studies to identify specific proteins within these pathways that are associated with resistance, which could provide breeders additional biomarkers to identify birds naturally

  13. Cosmography in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, S.; Cardone, V. F.; Farajollahi, H.; Ravanpak, A.

    2011-01-01

    Based only on the assumption that the Universe is homogenous and isotropic on large scales, cosmography is an ideal tool to investigate the cosmic expansion history in an almost model-independent way. Fitting the data on the luminosity distance and baryon acoustic oscillations allows to determine the confidence ranges for the cosmographic parameters hence giving some quantitative constraints that at whatever theory has to fulfill. As an application, we consider here the case of teleparallel gravity also referred to as f(T) gravity. To this end, we first work out analytical expressions to express the present day values of f(T) derivatives as a function of the cosmographic parameters, which hold under quite general and physically motivated conditions. We then use the constraints coming from cosmography to find out the confidence ranges for f(T) derivatives up to the fifth order and show how these can be used to check the viability of given teleparallel gravity models without the need to explicitly solve the second order dynamic equations.

  14. Production of recombinant flagellin to develop ELISA-based detection of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mirhosseini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food-borne diseases, caused by the pathogenic bacteria, are highly prevalent in the world. Salmonella is one of the most important bacterial genera responsible for this. Salmonella Enteritidis (SE is one of the non-typhoid Salmonellae that can be transmitted to human from poultry products, water, and contaminated food. In recent years, new and rapid detection methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR have been developed. In this study, recombinant FliC (rFliC was produced to be used as an antigen. The immunization was conducted in mice with the purified recombinant FliC (rFliC. The mice were subcutaneously immunized with rFliC and elicited significant rFliC specific serum IgG antibodies. An indirect ELISA system was established for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis. Our results confirmed that the recombinant flagellin can be one of the excellent indicators for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis.

  15. Emergence of new Salmonella Enteritidis phage types in Europe? Surveillance of infections in returning travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Yvonne

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among human Salmonella Enteritidis infections, phage type 4 has been the dominant phage type in most countries in Western Europe during the last years. This is reflected in Salmonella infections among Swedish travellers returning from abroad. However, there are differences in phage type distribution between the countries, and this has also changed over time. Methods We used data from the Swedish infectious disease register and the national reference laboratory to describe phage type distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in Swedish travellers from 1997 to 2002, and have compared this with national studies conducted in the countries visited. Results Infections among Swedish travellers correlate well with national studies conducted in the countries visited. In 2001 a change in phage type distribution in S. Enteritidis infections among Swedish travellers returning from some countries in southern Europe was observed, and a previously rare phage type (PT 14b became one of the most commonly diagnosed that year, continuing into 2002 and 2003. Conclusions Surveillance of infections among returning travellers can be helpful in detecting emerging infections and outbreaks in tourist destinations. The information needs to be communicated rapidly to all affected countries in order to expedite the implementation of appropriate investigations and preventive measures.

  16. The SPR detection of Salmonella enteritidis in food using aptamers as recongnition elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, W. T.; Du, X. W.; Pan, M. F.; Wang, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this experiment, a fast, accurate, non-destructive, unmarked and simple-operation detection method for Salmonella enteritidis in food was established by the BI-3000 plasma resonance biosensor (SPR). This article establishes a method of using nucleic acid aptamer as immune recognition element in SPR which can be employed to detect Salmonella enteritidis in food for the first time. The experimental conditions were screened and the experimental scheme was validated and applied. The best flow rate was 5μL/min, the best concentration of the aptamers was 180mM, and the best regenerating solution was the 20mM NaOH. This method had almost no cross-reactivity. Besides, we established a standard curve of Salmonella enteritidis and SPR signal, with the detection limit of 2 cfu/mL. Finally, we tested the samples of chicken, pork, shrimp and fish purchased from supermarkets. The method has the advantages of short time, low detection limit and easy operation, which can be used for a large number of food samples.

  17. Cross-Contamination and Biofilm Formation by Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Various Cutting Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Stéfani T A; Rossi, Bruna F; Bonsaglia, Erika C R; Castilho, Ivana G; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Fernandes, Ary; Rall, Vera L M

    2018-02-01

    Cross-contamination is one of the main factors related to foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to analyze the cross-contamination process of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from poultry to cucumbers, on various cutting board surfaces (plastic, wood, and glass) before and after washing and in the presence and absence of biofilm. Thus, 10 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were used to test cross-contamination from poultry to the cutting boards and from thereon to cucumbers. Moreover, these strains were evaluated as to their capacity to form biofilm on hydrophobic (wood and plastic) and hydrophilic materials (glass). We recovered the 10 isolates from all unwashed boards and from all cucumbers that had contacted them. After washing, the recovery ranged from 10% to 100%, depending on the board material. In the presence of biofilm, the recovery of salmonellae was 100%, even after washing. Biofilm formation occurred more on wood (60%) and plastic (40%) than glass (10%) boards, demonstrating that bacteria adhered more to a hydrophobic material. It was concluded that the cutting boards represent a critical point in cross-contamination, particularly in the presence of biofilm. Salmonella Enteritidis was able to form a biofilm on these three types of cutting boards but glass showed the least formation.

  18. Genetic and phenotypic evidence of the Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis human-animal interface in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio eRetamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a worldwide zoonotic agent that has been recognized as a very important food-borne bacterial pathogen, mainly associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this work was to determine genotypic and phenotypic evidence of S. Enteritidis transmission among seabirds, poultry and humans in Chile. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based virulotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Pathogenicity-associated phenotypes were determined with survival to free radicals, acidic pH, starvation, antimicrobial resistance, and survival within human dendritic cells. As result of PCR and PFGE assays, some isolates from the three hosts showed identical genotypic patterns, and through MLST it was determined that all of them belong to sequence type 11. Results of phenotypic assays showed diversity of survival capabilities among isolates. When results were analyzed according to bacterial host, statistical differences were identified in starvation and dendritic cells survival assays. In addition, isolates from seabirds showed the highest rates of resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. Overall, the very close genetic and phenotypic traits shown by isolates from humans, poultry and seabirds suggest the inter-species transmission of S. Enteritidis bacteria between hosts, likely through anthropogenic environmental contamination that determines infection of seabirds with bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for other susceptible organism, including humans.

  19. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the inactivation rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercially produced yogurt and to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behaviour of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples were inoculated with the mixture of three S. Enteritidis strains and stored at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 24 h. The number of salmonellae was determined every two hours. It was found that the number of bacteria decreased linearly with storage time in all samples. Storage temperature and pH of yogurt significantly influenced survival rate of S. Enteritidis (p bacteria was the most dynamic. The natural logarithm of mean inactivation rates of Salmonella calculated from primary model was fitted to two secondary models: linear and polynomial. Equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for prediction of inactivation rate of Salmonella in yogurt stored under temperature range from 5 to 25 degrees C; however, polynomial model gave the better fit to the experimental data.

  20. FECAL EXCRETION OF Salmonella Enteritidis IN BROILER LINES ROSS AND ISA LABEL EXCREÇÃO FECAL de Salmonella Enteritidis EM DUAS LINHAGENS DE FRANGOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adson Santa Cruz Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The invasive capacity and persistence of this pathogen, crop and ceca in apparently healthy birds of two broiler lines raised without growth promoter antibiotics in ration and originated from eggs inoculated eggshell and in allantoidal cavity with Salmonella Enteritidis. Histological and bacteriological exams from cecal and crop were performed with one, seven, 14 and 21 days of age after hatch in broilers of fast and slow growing rate. Bacterio-logical exams were performed fecal excretion with one, eigth, 22 and 35 days. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested, but the the infection reduced with age, and was more persistant in Ross broilers. The results were different for two lines. The pathogen was excreted from just one chick of ISA Label at 22 days of age and four Ross chicks until 35 days of age. In order, Salmonella was detected in 87.5% (14/16 and 38,1% (5/16 of ceca; in 81.2% (13/16 and 12.5% (2/16 of crops; in fast and slow growing rate lines, respectively. In apparent healthy organs, excepted the crop, an inflammatory process with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes. The slow growing rate line was effective to eliminate bacteria in the organism.

    Key-words: Ceca, crop, fecal excretion, inflammation.

    Avaliaram-se, neste estudo, a capacidade inva-siva, a persistência e a freqüência de excreção fecal da Salmonella Enteritidis em aves aparentemente saudáveis de duas linhagens de frango de corte, criadas sem antibióticos promotores de crescimento na ração e oriundas de ovos inoculados na casca ou na cavidade alantóide com Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4. Realizaram-se exames bacteriológicos das excretas com um, oito, 22 e 35 dias, e histológicos e bacteriológicos do inglúvio e ceco, com um, sete, quatorze e 21 dias pós-eclosão em frangos de crescimento rápido e lento. Salmonella

  1. Protracted outbreak of S. Enteritidis PT 21c in a large Hamburg nursing home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domke Paul-Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During August 2006, a protracted outbreak of Salmonella (S. Enteritidis infections in a large Hamburg nursing home was investigated. Methods A site visit of the home was conducted and food suppliers' premises tested for Salmonella. Among nursing home residents a cohort study was carried out focusing on foods consumed in the three days before the first part of the outbreak. Instead of relying on residents' memory, data from the home's patient food ordering system was used as exposure data. S. Enteritidis isolates from patients and suspected food vehicles were phage typed and compared. Results Within a population of 822 nursing home residents, 94 case patients among residents (1 fatality and 17 among staff members were counted 6 through 29 August. The outbreak peaked 7 through 9 August, two days after a spell of very warm summer weather. S. Enteritidis was consistently recovered from patients' stools throughout the outbreak. Among the food items served during 5 through 7 August, the cohort study pointed to afternoon cake on all three days as potential risk factors for disease. Investigation of the bakery supplying the cake yielded S. Enteritidis from cakes sampled 31 August. Comparison of the isolates by phage typing demonstrated both isolates from patients and the cake to be the exceedingly rare phage type 21c. Conclusion Cake (various types served on various days contaminated with S. Enteritidis were the likely vehicle of the outbreak in the nursing home. While the cakes were probably contaminated with low pathogen dose throughout the outbreak period, high ambient summer temperatures and failure to keep the cake refrigerated led to high pathogen dose in cake on some days and in some of the housing units. This would explain the initial peak of cases, but also the drawn out nature of the outbreak with cases until the end of August. Suggestions are made to nursing homes, aiding in outbreak prevention. Early outbreak detection is

  2. Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis causing mixed infections in febrile children in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García V

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanesa García,1 Inácio Mandomando,2,3 Joaquim Ruiz,4 Silvia Herrera-León,5 Pedro L Alonso,3,4 M Rosario Rodicio1 1Departamento de Biología Funcional, Área de Microbiología, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain; 2Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, 3Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique; 4ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 5Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain Background and purpose: Invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis, mostly caused by serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis of Salmonella enterica, has emerged as a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was the clinical and microbiological characterization of nontyphoidal salmonellosis episodes affecting febrile children in Mozambique. Patients and methods: The clinical records of the patients were evaluated, and S. enterica isolates were characterized with regard to serovar, phage type, antimicrobial resistance (phenotype/responsible genes, plasmid content, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. Results: Fifteen S. Typhimurium and 21 S. Enteritidis isolates were recovered from blood samples of 25 children, the majority with underlying risk factors. With regard to phage typing, most isolates were either untypeable or reacted but did not conform, revealing that a number of previously unrecognized patterns are circulating in Mozambique. Most isolates were multidrug-resistant, with nearly all of the responsible genes located on derivatives of serovar-specific virulence plasmids. ST313 and ST11 were the predominant sequence types associated with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively, and the uncommon ST1479 was also detected in S. Enteritidis. A distinct XbaI fragment of ~350 kb was associated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of

  3. Effect of hypoproteinemia (HP) upon FT4 and FT3 by kinetic radioligandassay (RLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottger, I.G.; Schneck, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    HP, especially hypoalbuminemia (HA), has been associated with false low FT4 by RLA, predominantly of the analogue tracer type. Based upon previous more favourable findings in severe nonthyroidal illness (NTI), this study was designed to study this problem in more detail. Two groups of patients with severe NTI (polytrauma) were selected on the basis of their total serum protein (TSP) concentration and studied during intensive-care. Group I: N = 25, TSP 5.9 g/dl (6.0 - 7.7), A/G: 1.5, sera: N = 76. I and II: low-dose heparin (i.v. 5000 U/24 h), non-detectable in the periphery. The RLA kits used were: FT4/T4 and FT3/T3 (kinetic two-tube), and TBG, Corning Medical, rT3, Serono, TSH, Henning-Berlin, TSP/electrophoresis standard technique. The findings indicate: 1. Typical findings for follow-up of severe NTI; 2. No detection of a significant effect of HP/HA upon these RLAs for FT4 and FT3; and 3. The inter-group differences are most likely due to more severe NT1 in I (R/sub x/, A/G, rT3)

  4. A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ekelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis. To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation.

  5. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation induces an adverse pregnancy outcome in the murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariángeles Noto Llana

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis are a significant health problem. Pregnancy, state of immunological tolerance, is a predisposing condition for the development of infections with intracellular pathogens. Salmonella species can cause pregnancy complications such as chorioamnionitis, transplacental fetal infection, pre term labor, abortions, neonatal and maternal septicemia. However, the specific mechanisms by which Salmonella infections trigger these alterations are not clear. In the present work, using a self-limiting enterocolitis murine model, we show that the ingestion of a low dose of S. Enteritidis at late stages of pregnancy (day 15 of gestation is sufficient to induce massive maternal infection. We found that Salmonella infection leads to 40% of pre term delivery, 33% of abortion and fetal growth restriction. Placental dysfunction during S. Enteritidis enterocolitis was confirmed through cellular infiltration and hypoxia markers (MPO activity and COX-1 and COX-2 expression, respectively. Apoptosis in placental tissue due to Salmonella infection was also evident at day 18 of gestation when investigated by morphometric procedure, DNA fragmentation and Fas/FasL expression. Also, the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-10 was up regulated in response to Salmonella not only in placenta, but also in amniotic fluid and maternal serum. Altogether, our results demonstrate that S. Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation causes detrimental effect on pregnancy outcome.

  6. Development of F.T. Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-19

    Virginia, 22217 5000, U.S.A*.ELMNNO NONOACSINN. End of Year Report on the contract 2 PERSONAL AU7I40R(S) P.J. Hda and M. Fl cm 3a TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME...to do, have .- considerable progress. The area in which we have .ated involves the zeolites. We have sorbed pyridine tc .- of -eolites ( acidic and...react-ion using F.T. Raman methods and then to eX.plore rmechaniszzs, types of acid sites involved and the role o.: temperature. -:olla-’-rators

  7. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  8. Constraining f(T) teleparallel gravity by big bang nucleosynthesis. f(T) cosmology and BBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, S. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Lambiase, G. [University of Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Cainaiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Sezione di Napoli, Fisciano (Italy); Saridakis, E.N. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, Athens (Greece); Baylor University, CASPER, Physics Department, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-09-15

    We use Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) observational data on the primordial abundance of light elements to constrain f(T) gravity. The three most studied viable f(T) models, namely the power law, the exponential and the square-root exponential are considered, and the BBN bounds are adopted in order to extract constraints on their free parameters. For the power-law model, we find that the constraints are in agreement with those obtained using late-time cosmological data. For the exponential and the square-root exponential models, we show that for reliable regions of parameters space they always satisfy the BBN bounds. We conclude that viable f(T) models can successfully satisfy the BBN constraints. (orig.)

  9. Constraining f(T) teleparallel gravity by big bang nucleosynthesis. f(T) cosmology and BBN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, S.; Lambiase, G.; Saridakis, E.N.

    2017-01-01

    We use Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) observational data on the primordial abundance of light elements to constrain f(T) gravity. The three most studied viable f(T) models, namely the power law, the exponential and the square-root exponential are considered, and the BBN bounds are adopted in order to extract constraints on their free parameters. For the power-law model, we find that the constraints are in agreement with those obtained using late-time cosmological data. For the exponential and the square-root exponential models, we show that for reliable regions of parameters space they always satisfy the BBN bounds. We conclude that viable f(T) models can successfully satisfy the BBN constraints. (orig.)

  10. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the world’s leading cause of food borne salmonellosis and illness in people is linked strongly to its contamination of eggs produced by otherwise healthy appearing hens. Salmonella Enteritidis is noted for generating exceptional strain heterogeneity despite having a clonal ...

  11. Difference in cellular damage and cell death in thermal death time disks and high hydrostatic pressure treated Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC13076) in liquid whole egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in membrane damage including leakage of intracellular UV-materials and loss of viability of Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC13076) in liquid whole egg (LWE) following thermal-death-time (TDT) disk and high hydrostatic pressure treatments were examined. Salmonella enteritidis was inoculated ...

  12. Influence of ethanol adaptation on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis survival in acidic environments and expression of acid tolerance-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) can encounter mild ethanol stress during its life cycle. However, adaptation to a stressful condition may affect bacterial resistance to subsequent stresses. Hence, this work was undertaken to investigate the influences of ethanol adapta...

  13. Sobrevivência de Salmonella enteritidis em Ovos Contaminados Artificialmente, Após Desinfecção e Armazenados em Diferentes Temperaturas Survival of Salmonella enteritidis in Eggs Artificially Contaminated, After Disinfection and Stored at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Barros

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a contaminação da casca e do conteúdo interno de ovos inoculados com Salmonella enterica sorovar enteritidis fagotipo 4, lavados com água de torneira (AT ou solução de amônia quaternária (AQ e armazenados a 8ºC e 25ºC. Duzentos e cinqüenta e dois ovos foram divididos em três grupos. Os tratamentos de cada grupo consistiram de imersão em AT, AQ a 25ºC e a 43ºC. Após a secagem natural, todos os grupos foram contaminados com solução de S. enteritidis. Seguindo-se a contaminação, cada grupo tratado foi estocado a 8ºC ou 25ºC, e a presença de S. enteritidis na casca e no conteúdo interno foi avaliada após zero, 24, 96 e 168 horas. A sanitização com AQ mostrou-se eficiente na redução de S. enteritidis nas cascas dos ovos. O armazenamento dos ovos a 8ºC demonstrou ser preponderante na redução e na ausência de S. enteritidis na casca. Nos ovos lavados com AT, o armazenamento a 25ºC permitiu a permanência da bactéria nas cascas até 168 horas. Não se detectou S. enteritidis no conteúdo interno dos ovos em nenhum dos grupos.The contamination of eggshell and internal content of eggs that were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis phagetype 4, washed with tap water (TW or quaternary ammonium compound (QA and stored at 8ºC and 25ºC was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty two eggs were distributed in three groups. Each treatment of the different groups was constituted by the immersion in TW, QA at 25ºC and at 43ºC. After natural dry, all groups were infected by a S. enteritidis solution. Following the challenge, each group was stored at 8ºC or at 25ºC, and the presence of S. enteritidis in the eggshell and internal content was evaluated after zero, 24, 96 and 168 hours. The use of QA demonstrated efficiency in S. enteritidis reduction of eggshell. The eggs stored at 8ºC revealed preponderancy in the reduction and the absence of S. enteritidis at the eggshell. In the TW washed eggs, the

  14. FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra of potassium 3-furoyltrifluoroborate salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iramain, Maximiliano A.; Davies, Lilian; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2018-04-01

    The potassium 3-furoyltrifluoroborate salt has been experimentally characterized by means of FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Here, the predicted FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra by using theoretical B3LYP/6-31G* and 6-311++G** calculations show very good correlations with the corresponding experimental ones. The solvation energies were predicted by using both levels of calculations. The NBO analyses reveal the high stability of the salt by using the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory while the AIM studies evidence the ionic characteristics of the salt in both media. The strong blue colour observed on the K atom by using the molecular electrostatic potential mapped suggests that this region act as typical electrophilic site. The gap values have revealed that the salt in gas phase is more reactive than in solution, as was reported in the literature while, the F13⋯H6 interaction together with the Ksbnd O bond observed by the studies of their charges could probably modulate the reactivities of this salt in aqueous solution. The force fields were computed with the SQMFF methodology and the Molvib program to perform the complete vibrational analysis. Then, the 39 vibration normal modes classified as 26 A'+ 13 A″ were completely assigned and their force constants are also reported.

  15. Biofilm formation by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from avian sources is partially related with their in vivo pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karen Apellanis; Furian, Thales Quedi; de Souza, Sara Neves; Menezes, Rafaela; de Lima, Diane Alves; Fortes, Flávia Bornancini Borges; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Moraes, Hamilton Luiz Souza; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2018-03-22

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are among the most prevalent serotypes isolated from salmonellosis outbreaks and poultry. Salmonella spp. have the capacity to form biofilms on several surfaces, which can favour survival in hostile environments, such as slaughterhouses. Salmonella strains present differences in pathogenicity. However, there is little information regarding the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from avian sources and their relationship to biofilm production. The aim of this study was to use a novel pathogenicity index and a biofilm production assay to evaluate their relationships within these serotypes. In addition, we detected the presence of the spiA and agfA genes in these strains. Biofilm formation was investigated at two temperatures (37 °C and 28 °C) using microtiter plate assay, and the results were compared with the individual pathogenicity index of each strain. PCR was used to detect spiA and agfA, virulence genes associated with biofilm production. S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium strains were capable of producing biofilm at 37 °C and 28 °C. Sixty-two percent and 59.5% of S. Enteritidis and 73.8% and 46.2% of S. Typhimurium produced biofilm at 37 °C and 28 °C, respectively. Biofilm production at 37 °C was significantly higher in both serotypes. Only S. Enteritidis was capable of adhering strongly at both temperatures. Biofilm production was related to pathogenicity index only at 28 °C for S. Enteritidis. spiA and agfA were found in almost all strains and were not statistically associated with biofilm production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from broiler carcasses Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Oliveira Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler carcasses between May 1995 and April 1996 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. Resistance to colistin, novobiocin, erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 100% of the isolates. The strains showed intermediate resistance at different levels to kanamycin (1.25%, enrofloxacin (3.75%, neomycin (3.75%, fosfomycin (20%, sulphonamides (86.25% and nitrofurantoin (90%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, sulphametrim and sulphazotrim was not found. Since resistance to antibiotics especially those introduced in the last decades, was detected, it is recommended that their use must be based on the results of resistance tests or minimum inhibitory concentration tests.Oitenta amostras de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango no período entre maio de 1995 a abril de 1996 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil foram testados para susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método de antibiograma. O antibiograma das amostras apresentou 100% de resistência a colistina, novobiocina, eritromicina e tetraciclina. Tiveram resistência em diferentes níveis a canamicina (1,25%, enrofloxacina (3,75%, neomicina (3,75%, fosfomicina (20%, sulfonamida (86,25% e nitrofurantoína (90% e por outro lado não apresentaram resistência a ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina, gentamicina, polimixina B, sulfametrim e sulfazotrim. A constatação de resistência a antibióticos, inclusive àqueles introduzidos na última década, enfatiza a necessidade de uso responsável de antibióticos, e com base em antibiograma ou concentração inibitória mínima.

  17. Comparative genomics identifies distinct lineages of S. Enteritidis from Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rikki M A; Hiley, Lester; Rathnayake, Irani U; Jennison, Amy V

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major cause of gastroenteritis and foodborne illness in Australia where notification rates in the state of Queensland are the highest in the country. S. Enteritidis is among the five most common serotypes reported in Queensland and it is a priority for epidemiological surveillance due to concerns regarding its emergence in Australia. Using whole genome sequencing, we have analysed the genomic epidemiology of 217 S. Enteritidis isolates from Queensland, and observed that they fall into three distinct clades, which we have differentiated as Clades A, B and C. Phage types and MLST sequence types differed between the clades and comparative genomic analysis has shown that each has a unique profile of prophage and genomic islands. Several of the phage regions present in the S. Enteritidis reference strain P125109 were absent in Clades A and C, and these clades also had difference in the presence of pathogenicity islands, containing complete SPI-6 and SPI-19 regions, while P125109 does not. Antimicrobial resistance markers were found in 39 isolates, all but one of which belonged to Clade B. Phylogenetic analysis of the Queensland isolates in the context of 170 international strains showed that Queensland Clade B isolates group together with the previously identified global clade, while the other two clades are distinct and appear largely restricted to Australia. Locally sourced environmental isolates included in this analysis all belonged to Clades A and C, which is consistent with the theory that these clades are a source of locally acquired infection, while Clade B isolates are mostly travel related.

  18. Septic arthritis of the adult ankle joint secondary to Salmonella enteritidis: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munigangaiah, Sudarshan

    2011-09-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy individuals is a rare phenomenon. However, septic arthritis of the native adult ankle joint in healthy patients has not been previously described in the published data. This is a case report of a 70-year-old farmer who presented with a 2-week history of a painful, swollen right ankle and an inability to bear weight. He had no history of ankle injury or any predisposing conditions. Joint aspirations were positive for Salmonella enteritidis that was successfully treated with right ankle arthrotomy and washout, along with a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotic therapy.

  19. Sepsis for Salmonella enteritidis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canas, Carlos Alberto; Ospina, Gustavo Adolfo; Ochoa, Maria Elena; Velez, Juan Diego

    2002-01-01

    We report a 28-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with multisystem involvement (central nervous system, kidney and hematological system), severe malnutrition, with therapy based in glucocorticoid. She developed sepsis by Salmonella enteritidis, organism isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood and stools. She developed a pulmonary abscess and respiratory failure. She received ciprofloxacin with improving. Several weeks after, she died due to sepsis. We discuss about the relation of SLE and salmonella infections, the risk factors, and the association with morbidity and mortality

  20. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Csaba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  1. The evaluation of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3) in the routine diagnosis of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.; Goebel, R.

    1985-01-01

    The validity of the free thyroid hormone parameters (FT 4 and FT 3 ) was verified in a random sample of 154 ambulatory patients with thyroid conditions. The ''euthyroid range'' of FT 4 was between 15.67 and 30.66 pmol/l; median 21.98 pmol/l. The distribution of the FT 4 readings peaked on the left and sloped to the right (log normal). In our laboratory, the ''euthyroid reference range'' of FT 4 is between 10-28 pmol/l. The ''euthyroid range'' of FT 3 extended from 4.6 to 9.7 pmol/l; median 6.63 pmol/l. The distribution of the readings was likewise log normal. The values of FT 4 and FT 3 are not significantly influenced by TBG concentration anomalies in otherwise healthy thyroid patients. For purposes of discrimination between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, FT 3 (95%) and FT 4 (90%) are better suited than the corresponding quotients for the free hormone fraction or the total hormone concentrations. On the other hand, the free hormone parameters are less suitable for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. These results were deduced theoretically from mathematical function analyses between the TBG-independent free hormone parameters and the TBG-dependent hormone concentrations. (orig.) [de

  2. Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de amostras clínicas e ambientais de frangos de corte e matrizes pesadas Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from clinical and environmental broiler chickens and breeders broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ribeiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from clinical and environmental poultry samples in the Southern Brazil during the years of 1999, 2000 and 2001 was evaluated. Among the 79 isolated samples, 64 (81% were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobial agents tested, showing 22 different resistance patterns. Tetracycline showed the highest percentage (64,5% of resistance among the antimicrobial agents used. Resistance to drugs at different levels was found as the following: ampicillin (1.2%, kanamycin (1.2%, ciprofloxacin (2.5%, enrofloxacin (8.8%, gentamicin (21.5%, streptomycin (20.2%, nitrofurantoin (26.6%, and nalidixic acid (30.4%. None of the S. Enteritidis strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, and polimycin B. Among the 64 S. Enteritidis strains that showed resistance, 43 (67.2% were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-one (32.8% strains were resistant to only one of the antimicrobial agents, 14 to tetracycline, three to nalidixic acid, three to nitrofurantoin, and one to gentamycin. These antimicrobial resistance levels suggest a high occurrence of tetracycline resistant S. Enteritidis strains and resistance to two or more antimicrobial agents.

  3. FTIR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and quantum chemical investigations of 3-acetylcoumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Sakiladevi, S.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2013-05-01

    3-Acetylcoumarin (3AC) was synthesised by a Knoevenagel reaction. Conformational analysis using the B3LYP method was also carried out to determine the most stable conformation of the compound. FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 3AC have been recorded in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. 1H and 13C NMR spectra have also been recorded. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum mechanical studies. The experimental vibrational frequencies were compared with the wavenumbers obtained theoretically from the DFT-B3LYP/B3PW91 gradient calculations employing the standard 6-31G**, high level 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets for optimised geometry of the compound. The frontier molecular orbital energies of the compound are determined by DFT method.

  4. Quantitative studies of the distribution pattern for Salmonella Enteritidis in the internal organs of chicken after oral challenge by a real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, G Z; Tian, W Y; Qian, N; Cheng, A C; Deng, S X

    2010-12-01

    This research was undertaken to identify and understand the regular distribution pattern for Salmonella Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) in the internal organs of chicken after oral challenge over a 3 wk period. We used a real-time, fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) to detect genomic DNA of S. enteritidis in the blood and the internal organs, including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, and gallbladder, from chicken after oral challenge at different time points. The results showed that the spleen was positive at 12 h post inoculation (PI), and the blood was at 14 h PI. The organism was detected in the liver and heart at 16 h PI, pancrea was positive at 20 h PI, and the final organ to show a positive results were the kidney and gallbladder at 22 h PI. The copy number of S. enteritidis DNA in each tissue reached a peak at 24 h-36 h PI, with the liver and spleen containing high concentrations of S. enteritidis, whereas the blood, heart, kidney, pancreas, and gallbladder had low concentrations. S. enteritidis populations began to decrease and were not detectable at 3 d PI, but were still present up to 12 d PI in the gallbladder, 2 wk for the liver, and 3 wk for the spleen without causing apparent symptoms. The results showed that the liver and spleen may be the primary sites for S. enteritidis setting itself up as a commensa over a long time after oral challenge. Interestingly, it may be the first time reported that the gallbladder is a site of carriage for S. enteritidis over a 12 d period. This study will help to understand the mechanisms of action of S. enteritidis infection in vivo.

  5. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and DFT calculations of melaminium perchlorate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Renganathan, N. G.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-08-01

    Melaminium perchlorate monohydrate (MPM), an organic material has been synthesized by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that MPM crystal belongs to triclinic system with space group P-1. FTIR and FT Raman spectra are recorded at room temperature. Functional group assignment has been made for the melaminium cations and perchlorate anions. Vibrational spectra have also been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Firefly (PC GAMESS) version 7.1 G. Vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with experimental values. The assignment of the bands has been made on the basis of the calculated PED. The Mulliken charges, HOMO-LUMO orbital energies are analyzed directly from Firefly program log files and graphically illustrated. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The theoretically constructed FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of MPM coincide with the experimental one. The chemical structure of the compound has been established by 1H and 13C NMR spectra. No detectable signal was observed during powder test for second harmonic generation.

  6. No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Kazuharu, E-mail: bamba@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, E-mail: felicia@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC) and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-11-25

    We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity.

  7. McVittie solution in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Jose Guzman, Maria [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-12-15

    We show that McVittie geometry, which describes a black hole embedded in a FLRW universe, not only solves the Einstein equations but also remains as a non-deformable solution of f(T) gravity. This search for GR solutions that survive in f(T) gravity is facilitated by a null tetrad approach. We also show that flat FLRW geometry is a consistent solution of f(T) dynamical equations not only for T = -6H{sup 2} but also for T = 0, which could be a manifestation of the additional degrees of freedom involved in f(T) theories. (orig.)

  8. McVittie solution in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Jose Guzman, Maria; Ferraro, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    We show that McVittie geometry, which describes a black hole embedded in a FLRW universe, not only solves the Einstein equations but also remains as a non-deformable solution of f(T) gravity. This search for GR solutions that survive in f(T) gravity is facilitated by a null tetrad approach. We also show that flat FLRW geometry is a consistent solution of f(T) dynamical equations not only for T = -6H 2 but also for T = 0, which could be a manifestation of the additional degrees of freedom involved in f(T) theories. (orig.)

  9. No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity

  10. Modeling the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium during the fermentation of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Derya; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Halkman, A Kadir

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, the two most important serovars of salmonellosis , during the fermentation of yogurt. The microorganisms were enumerated in milk throughout the fermentation process at three initial inoculum levels (3, 5 and 7 log CFU/mL). DMFit software was used in the fitting procedure of the data (IFR, Norwich, UK, Version 3.5). The data provided sigmoidal curves that were successfully displayed with the Baranyi model. The results showed that the initial inoculum level did not affect the growth for both pathogens; thus, the µ max values (maximum specific growth rate) did not significantly differ across all the contamination levels, ranging from 0.26 to 0.38 for S. Enteritidis and from 0.50 to 0.56 log CFU/g/h for S. Typhimurium ( P > 0.05). However, the µ max values significantly differed between the two serovars ( P fermentation process of milk even at a low contamination level. In addition, the models presented in this study can be used in quantitative risk assessment studies to estimate the threat to consumers.

  11. Four linked outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 infection--the continuing egg threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejidokun, O O; Killalea, D; Cooper, M; Holmyard, S; Cross, A; Kemp, C

    2000-06-01

    Four outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 4 occurred among guests at functions for which a single commercial caterer supplied food. Retrospective cohort studies were used to describe the epidemiology of three of these outbreaks and identify the vehicle(s) responsible. Of 172 guests at these three events, 47 fitted the clinical case definition for illness and 24 cases were confirmed to have S. enteritidis PT4 infection. Food containing raw egg was identified epidemiologically as the likely vehicle of infection in two of the three outbreaks (odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals 9.1 (2.2-39.9) and 6.9 (1.2-46.4)). Logistic regression analysis yielded OR = 10.7 (p = 0.0022) and OR = 9.3 (p = 0.015) for egg consumption in two of the outbreaks. These outbreaks highlighted the continuing need to remind the public and commercial caterers of the potential high risks of contracting salmonella from shell eggs. Education of caterers includes advice to obtain eggs and other products from reputable and identifiable suppliers.

  12. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G; Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A; Mun, J H; Om, A S

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 μm, 5 μm, 10 μm) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10 3 CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens

  13. Effect of ionization and nisin on the Bacillus strains and Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated Stearothermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzayen, Sarra

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of nisin (at 1000UI/g), and irradiation (at 1, 3 and 5kGy), against the growth of Salmonella enteritidis (106 ufc/ml) and Bacillus Stearothermophilus (10 6 ufc/ml), inoculated in turkey salami, was studied during storage at 4 degree for 21 days. Treatment of turkey salami with nisin at 1000UI/g did not show any antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis with 6.7 pour cent and 0.8 pour cent of reduction after 0 and 21 days of storage respectively, and seems to be insufficient to inhibit B. Stearothermophilus with 23 pour cent and 21 pour cent of reduction after 0 and 21 days of storage respectively. Antimicrobial activities of irradiation were better and proportional to irradiation doses; it shows a reduction of 27 pour cent, 55 pour cent and 67 pour cent by D1, D2 and D3 respectively. The combination of nisin with irradiation at 5kGy showed stronger antimicrobial activities than those obtained by its combination with the first and the second irradiation dose.

  14. Comparative analysis of core genome MLST and SNP typing within a European Salmonella serovar Enteritidis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Madison E; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Dallman, Timothy J; Zhou, Zhemin; Grant, Kathie; Maiden, Martin C J

    2018-06-02

    Multi-country outbreaks of foodborne bacterial disease present challenges in their detection, tracking, and notification. As food is increasingly distributed across borders, such outbreaks are becoming more common. This increases the need for high-resolution, accessible, and replicable isolate typing schemes. Here we evaluate a core genome multilocus typing (cgMLST) scheme for the high-resolution reproducible typing of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) isolates, by its application to a large European outbreak of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This outbreak had been extensively characterised using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based approaches. The cgMLST analysis was congruent with the original SNP-based analysis, the epidemiological data, and whole genome MLST (wgMLST) analysis. Combination of the cgMLST and epidemiological data confirmed that the genetic diversity among the isolates predated the outbreak, and was likely present at the infection source. There was consequently no link between country of isolation and genetic diversity, but the cgMLST clusters were congruent with date of isolation. Furthermore, comparison with publicly available Enteritidis isolate data demonstrated that the cgMLST scheme presented is highly scalable, enabling outbreaks to be contextualised within the Salmonella genus. The cgMLST scheme is therefore shown to be a standardised and scalable typing method, which allows Salmonella outbreaks to be analysed and compared across laboratories and jurisdictions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Comportamiento de peces dulceacuicolas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var. danysz, La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad Hernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 6 meses el comportamiento de 13 especies de peces de la fauna dulceacuícola cubana, que fueron puestas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var danyz en concentración de 10 8 ufc/mL. En la evaluación se utilizaron los alevinos y juveniles procedentes de reservorios naturales, de la Estación de Guanímar y de Manpostón, ubicadas en Batabanó, Gaunímar, Guajaibón y La Lisa (Ciudad de la Habana. Antes de los ensayos, los peces fueron sometidos a 15 días de adaptación al cautiverio. Durante las evaluaciones, se registraron los parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua de los acuarios, detectándose incremento en los valores de nitritos y nitratos después de 48 horas de haberse colocado el inóculo. Se registraron los valores extremos de talla y peso de los peces, que comparados con el grupo control no evidenciaron diferencias significativas y al finalizar el ensayo todos los peces presentaron aspecto físico normal; por lo que se determinó que la dosis utilizada de Salmonella enteritidis var. danysz fue inocua para las diferentes especies de peces.

  16. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G [National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 249 Seodun-dong, Suwon, Republic of Korea, 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A [Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Mun, J H; Om, A S [Department of Food and Nutrient, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: giyoungkim@rda.go.kr

    2008-03-15

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 {mu}m, 5 {mu}m, 10 {mu}m) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10{sup 3} CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens.

  17. Measurement of serum FT3 and FT4 in patients with chronic renal failure and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Qingling; Zhang Hui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid hormones in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and it's clinical significance. Methods: FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH levels were measured with radioimmunoassay for 42 CRF patients (42 CRF patients were subdivided into uremia and azotemia) and 18 cases of renal disease patients with a normal renal function. Results: Levels of FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH in uremia group and azotemia group were significantly lower than that of normal renal function group (P 3 , FT 4 and TSH in uremia group were remarkably lower than azotemia group (P 3 , FT 4 in patients with CRF can reflect the severity of renal function damage, and can also be an important prognosis index

  18. [Effect of selenium on serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH of rats with excessive intake of iodine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haiyan; Zhou, Yuping; Li, Li

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effect of selenium on the TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH level of rats with excessive intake of iodine. Wistar rats were divided into three groups by random:normal control, high iodine group and high iodine plus selenium group. Rats in the high iodine plus selenium group were lavaged with sodium selenite for 10 weeks. The levels of serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH were tested at different time of the experiment. There were no significant change on levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH (P > 0.05). The levels of TGAb and TMAb in the high iodine group were increased slowly (P iodine plus selenium group. Excessive intake of iodine might induce goiter, and selenium might have antagonistic effect on it.

  19. Investigation of In-Package Ozonation: The Effectiveness of Ozone to Inactive Salmonella enteritidis on Raw, Shell Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Donner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food production, handling, and distribution practices pose a constant threat to the quality and safety of food products. The objective of this research is to evaluate an innovative in-package ozonation process to reduce Salmonella enteritidis on raw, shell eggs. Previous research has shown that in-package ozonation eliminates contaminants from outside sources, reduces pathogens, and extends shelf life. In this study, raw, shell eggs were inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis and exposed to ozonation treatment. Microbial recoveries were then tested to determine bacterial reductions. Measurements included: relative humidity (34 percent at 5oC, surface temperatures (oC, ozone concentrations, bacterial reductions of Salmonella enteritidis, and quality assessment of eggs (Haugh Unit [HU], color, pH, and weight. After a 24-hour storage period, all treated samples indicated 3 log10 reductions on average (previous research has achieved up to 6log10. These results show effective in-package ozonation treatment reducing Salmonella enteritidis on raw, shell eggs without significant effect on measured egg quality over time. Benefits of in-package ozonation include no heating, low power requirements (less or equal to 50 Watts, short treatment time (seconds to minutes, and adaptability into existing processes. Given its ability to ensure the safety and longevity of food products, this technology has great potential for utilization in the food processing industry.

  20. Multidrug-resistance and presence of class 1 integrons in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, circulating in Armenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedrakyan, Anahit M.; Arakelova, K. A.; Zakaryan, Magdalina K.

    2014-01-01

    a rapid and large-scale penetration of antibiotic resistance genes into populations of S. Enteritidis, which complicates infection control. More rigorous regulations should be imposed on antibiotic use, together with a vigilant epidemiological surveillance, to prevent the emergence and spread of MDR S...

  1. Immunological evaluation of the intestinal mucosa of broiler chicks treated with Lactobacillus Spp. and challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Okamoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the antibody production by intestinal mucosa of broilers chicks were orally inoculated with Lactobacillus spp. at one and/or 21 days of age, and subsequently challenged with Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica, serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. A total number of 288 drug-free broiler chicks was divided into 6 groups (groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, according to age at Lactobacillus spp. inoculation and SE challenge. The intestinal mucosa immune response was determined as the production of immunoglobulin A against S. Enteritidis, and evaluated by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA technique in intestinal washing fluid. Groups treated with Lactobacillus spp. presented higher IgA production only when the chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis at 21 days of age. Nevertheless, the expected stimulus for intestinal mucosa antibody production induced by Lactobacillus spp was observed in only some of the treated groups, demonstrating that the protocol utilized in the present experiment resulted in few beneficial effects for chicks, particularly during the first days of life.

  2. Expression of cytokines in chicken peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBCs exposed to probiotic strains and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Husáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL-1β, LITAF, iNOS, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP1-ß, and K60 were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs. The PMBCs were isolated from the chicken blood and in vitro exposed to the probiotic strains E. faecium AL41, E. faecium H31, L. fermentum AD1, and infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE147. The PMBCs were evaluated for mRNA expression levels at 24 h and 48 h post infection (p.i. using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The level of expression of IL-1ß and MIP1-ß was upregulated (P S. Enteritidis + E. faecium AL41 group 48 h p.i. compared to 24 h p.i. Similarly, expression of LITAF was upregulated (P S. Enteritidis (SE group 48 h p.i. In PMBCs treated with E. faecium H31 and S. Enteritidis expression of IL-1ß (P P P E. faecium AL41 demonstrated the highest immunostimulatory effect on expression of selected cytokines by chicken PMBCs after Salmonella infection. It is supposed that the differences in cytokine induction within SE groups are related to lymphocytes isolated from different animals.

  3. Emergence and clonal dissemination of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causing salmonellosis in Mauritius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, Mohammad I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hyytiae-Trees, Eija

    2014-01-01

    or closely related to blood and exudate isolates, indicating that, besides gastroenteritis, the same strain caused invasive infections. Control of S. Enteritidis by poultry breeders would lower the financial burden associated with morbidity in humans caused by this organism in Mauritius....

  4. Effect of Enterococcus faecium EF 55 on morphometry and proliferative activity of intestinal mucosa in broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševčíková Zuzana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on chickens, as well as its influence on proliferative activity of epithelial intestinal cells after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4. Moreover, the length and area of duodenal and jejunal villi of the birds were examined.

  5. Recovery of salmonella serovar enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  6. Multiplication in egg yolk and survival in egg albumen of genetically and phenotypically characterized Salmonella Enteritidis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent the multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis to high levels during storage is an important practice for reducing the risk of egg-transmitted human illness. The efficacy of egg refrigeration for achieving this goal depends on the location of contamination, the ...

  7. Signature-tagged mutagenesis screening revealed a novel smooth-to-rough transition determinant of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Guo, Rongxian; Tang, Peipei; Kang, Xilong; Yin, Junlei; Wu, Kaiyue; Geng, Shizhong; Li, Qiuchun; Sun, Jun; Xu, Xiulong; Zhou, Xiaohui; Gan, Junji; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan; Pan, Zhiming

    2017-03-03

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) has emerged as one of the most important food-borne pathogens for humans. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a component of the outer membrane, is responsible for the virulence and smooth-to-rough transition in S. Enteritidis. In this study, we screened S. Enteritidis signature-tagged transposon mutant library using monoclonal antibody against somatic O 9 antigen (O 9 MAb) and O 9 factor rabbit antiserum to identify novel genes that are involved in smooth-to-rough transition. A total of 480 mutants were screened and one mutant with transposon insertion in rfbG gene had smooth-to-rough transition phenotype. In order to verify the role of rfbG gene, an rfbG insertion or deletion mutant was constructed using λ-Red recombination system. Phenotypic and biological analysis revealed that rfbG insertion or deletion mutants were similar to the wild-type strain in growth rate and biochemical properties, but the swimming motility was reduced. SE Slide Agglutination test and ELISA test showed that rfbG mutants do not stimulate animals to produce agglutinating antibody. In addition, the half-lethal dose (LD 50 ) of the rfbG deletion mutant strain was 10 6.6 -fold higher than that of the parent strain in a mouse model when injected intraperitoneally. These data indicate that the rfbG gene is involved in smooth-to-rough transition, swimming motility and virulence of S. Enteritidis. Furthermore, somatic O-antigen antibody-based approach to screen signature-tagged transposon mutants is feasible to clarify LPS biosynthesis and to find suitable markers in DIVA-vaccine research.

  8. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp: growth, survival and cross-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Ana L; de Castro, M Fernanda P M; Rezende, Ana C B

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes to grow or survive in mango pulp stored at -20°C, 4°C, 10°C and 25°C, as well as to cross-contaminate mangoes by means of a knife contaminated with different levels of these pathogens. At 25°C lag phase durations of 19 h and 7.2 h and generation times of 0.66 and 1.44 were obtained, respectively, for S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. At 10°C only the growth of L. monocytogenes was observed. At 4°C both bacteria survived for 8 days. At -20°C S. Enteritidis was able to survive for 5 months while L. monocytogenes survived for 8 months. Cross-contamination was observed for knives contaminated with 10⁶, 10⁵ and 10⁴ CFU mL⁻¹ of S. Enteritidis and 10⁶ and 10⁵ CFU mL⁻¹ of L. monocytogenes. Both microorganisms can grow well in mango pulp at 25°C, thus lower temperatures for the maintenance of the pulps are crucial to avoid growth of these microorganisms. A refrigeration temperature of 10°C will avoid only the growth of S. Enteritidis. Thus good handling practices should be rigidly enforced to avoid any contamination as even at refrigeration and freezing temperatures survival of these pathogens may occur. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Quark stars in f(T, T)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta)

    2017-02-15

    We derive a working model for the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation for quark star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models. We consider f(T, T)-gravity for a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental tetrad vierbein from which the metric tensor can be derived. We impose a linear f(T) parameter, namely taking f = αT(r) + βT(r) + φ and investigate the behaviour of a linear energy-momentum tensor trace, T. We also outline the restrictions which modified f(T, T)-gravity imposes upon the coupling parameters. Finally we incorporate the MIT bag model in order to derive the mass-radius and mass-central density relations of the quark star within f(T, T)-gravity. (orig.)

  10. The influence of the cage system and colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis on the microbial gut flora of laying hens studied by T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Mølbak, Lars; Bjerrum, Lotte Bjerrum

    2011-01-01

    is not known, and different microbiota may demonstrate different resistance towards colonization with Salmonella. To investigate this, ileal and caecal samples from two experimental studies where laying hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis and housed in different systems (conventional cage...

  11. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Dhakal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L. is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w. FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm−1 and FT-IR 1140 cm−1 with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively.

  12. Inhibition of the early stage of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis biofilm development on stainless steel by cell-free supernatant of a Hafnia alvei culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorianopoulos, Nikos G; Giaouris, Efstathios D; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Nychas, George-John E

    2010-03-01

    Compounds present in Hafnia alvei cell-free culture supernatant cumulatively negatively influence the early stage of biofilm development by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on stainless steel while they also reduce the overall metabolic activity of S. Enteritidis planktonic cells. Although acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) were detected among these compounds, the use of several synthetic AHLs was not able to affect the initial stage of biofilm formation by this pathogen.

  13. FTIR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and quantum chemical investigations of 3-acetylcoumarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Sakiladevi, S; Marchewka, M K; Mohan, S

    2013-05-15

    3-Acetylcoumarin (3AC) was synthesised by a Knoevenagel reaction. Conformational analysis using the B3LYP method was also carried out to determine the most stable conformation of the compound. FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 3AC have been recorded in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm(-1), respectively. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra have also been recorded. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum mechanical studies. The experimental vibrational frequencies were compared with the wavenumbers obtained theoretically from the DFT-B3LYP/B3PW91 gradient calculations employing the standard 6-31G(**), high level 6-311++G(**) and cc-pVTZ basis sets for optimised geometry of the compound. The frontier molecular orbital energies of the compound are determined by DFT method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of Salmonella enteritidis Using a Miniature Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, J R; Kim, G; Kothapalli, A; Morgan, M T; Ess, D

    2007-01-01

    The frequent outbreaks of foodborne illness demand rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Unfortunately, conventional methods for pathogen detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors have been widely adapted as an analysis tool for the study of various biological binding reactions. SPR biosensors could detect antibody-antigen bindings on the sensor surface by measuring either a resonance angle or refractive index value. In this study, the feasibility of a miniature SPR sensor (Spreeta, TI, USA) for detection of Salmonella enteritidis has been evaluated. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized on the gold sensor surface by using neutravidin. Salmonella could be detected by the Spreeta biosensor at concentrations down to 10 5 cfu/ml

  15. Colonisation of poultry by Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 is reduced by combined administration of Lactobacillus salivarius 59 and Enterococcus faecium PXN-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alun; Adams, Martin; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J

    2017-02-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis remains a significant issue within the poultry industry and one potential solution is to use probiotic bacteria to prevent Salmonella colonisation through competitive exclusion (CE). We demonstrate that combined administration of Lactobacillus salivarius 59 and Enterococcus faecium PXN33 were effective competitive excluders of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 in poultry. Two models were developed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic where birds received Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 by a) oral gavage and b) sentinel bird to bird transmission. A statistically significant (p<0.001) 2 log reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 colonisation was observed in the ileum, caecum and colon at day 43 using combined administration of the two probiotic bacteria. However, no Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 colonisation reduction was observed when either probiotic was administered individually. In the sentinel bird model the combined probiotic administered at days 12 and 20 was more effective than one-off or double administrations at age 1 and 12days. In vitro cell free culture supernatant studies suggest the mechanism of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 inhibition was due to a reduction in pH by the probiotic bacteria. Our current study provides further evidence that probiotics can significantly reduce pathogenic bacterial colonisation in poultry and that mixed preparation of probiotics provide superior performance when compared to individual bacterial preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spherically symmetric static spacetimes in vacuum f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2011-01-01

    We show that Schwarzschild geometry remains as a vacuum solution for those four-dimensional f(T) gravitational theories behaving as ultraviolet deformations of general relativity. In the gentler context of three-dimensional gravity, we also find that the infrared-deformed f(T) gravities, like the ones used to describe the late cosmic speed up of the Universe, have as the circularly symmetric vacuum solution a Deser-de Sitter or a Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli-like spacetime with an effective cosmological constant depending on the infrared scale present in the function f(T).

  17. Noether symmetry approach in f(T, B) teleparallel cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    We consider the cosmology derived from f(T, B) gravity where T is the torsion scalar and B = (2)/(e)∂{sub μ}(eT{sup μ}) a boundary term. In particular we discuss how it is possible to recover, under the same standard, the teleparallel f(T) gravity, the curvature f(R) gravity, and the teleparallel-curvature f(R, T) gravity, which are particular cases of f(T, B). We adopt the Noether Symmetry Approach to study the related dynamical systems and to find cosmological solutions. (orig.)

  18. Static solutions with spherical symmetry in f(T) theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tower

    2011-01-01

    The spherically symmetric static solutions are searched for in some f(T) models of gravity theory with a Maxwell term. To do this, we demonstrate that reconstructing the Lagrangian of f(T) theories is sensitive to the choice of frame, and then we introduce a particular frame based on the conformally Cartesian coordinates. In this particular frame, the existence conditions of various solutions are presented. Our results imply that only a limited class of f(T) models can be solved in this frame. For more general models, the search for spherically symmetric static solutions is still an open and challenging problem, hopefully solvable in other frames.

  19. Surto alimentar por Salmonella Enteritidis no Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis in northwest of S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaku

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 1993 ocorreu um surto alimentar em escola, com 211 afetados. Os dados epidemiológicos levantados por entrevista de amostragem de afetados e não afetados mostraram que os sintomas predominantes foram diarréia, febre (77,7%, dor abdominal (67,7%, vômito (65,8%, calafrios (54,5% e cefaléia (44,5%. A mediana de incubação foi de 17 horas, com limites entre 3 e 29 horas. A duração da doença foi de 3 a 4 dias. O alimento consumido foi um tipo de patê, mistura de molho de maionese preparada com ovos crus com batata cozida, passado em pão. A análise de material biológico (3 coproculturas e de restos de alimentos revelou a presença do mesmo microrganismo, a Salmonella Enteritidis. No caso dos alimentos, o número encontrado desta bactéria por gramo de produto era compatível com a quantidade de células necessária para desencadear a doença (10(4e 10(5/g. O antibiograma de todas as cepas isoladas revelou o mesmo padrão de sensibilidade. As falhas no preparo do alimento relacionadas com o levantamento indicam a possibilidade de contaminação endógena dos ovos; contaminação cruzada - o surto afetou três períodos escolares, sendo que para cada um o alimento foi preparado em separado - e as condições de manutenção do alimento após preparo e até o consumo. A observação por uma semana seguida das 3 merendeiras envolvidas, através de coprocultura, não indicaram que as mesmas fossem portadoras assintomáticas desta bactéria ou que tivessem sido envolvidas no surto em questão.A foodborne outbreak which affected 211 persons occurred, in a School, in 1993. The epidemiological data obtained by interviewing the affected and non affected persons sampled showed as predominant symptoms: diarrhoea, fever (77.7%, abdominal cramps (67.7%, vomiting (65.8%, hot-and-cold sensations (54.5% and headache (44.5%. The median incubation period was of 17 hours, the limits being 3 and 29 hours. The disease period was of from 3 to 4 days. The food

  20. Data Sources for NetZero Ft Carson Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Table of values used to parameterize and evaluate the Ft Carson NetZero integrated Model with published reference sources for each value. This dataset is associated...

  1. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County 5ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — 5ft cartographic contour file for Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It includes indexes for 10, 25,...

  2. Mapping Discrimination Experienced by Indonesian Trans* FtM Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Danny; Pratama, Mario Prajna

    2017-01-01

    This work sought to document how Indonesian trans* FtM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace, and health care institutions. Objectives were (1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FtM individuals in Indonesia, and (2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FtM community. In-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents. Findings revealed that respondents experienced othering through rejection, misidentification, harassment, "correction," and bureaucratic discrimination across the five preestablished domains. Health care and a lack of information emerged as areas of particular concern for respondents. This work calls for health care that is sensitive to the needs of trans* FtM people coupled with high-quality information to alleviate the cycles through which discrimination is sustained.

  3. Characterization of Momordica charantia Ussing FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Keseru

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, because earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout, the present investigation was carried to characterized a principal components of plant using FT-IR technique

  4. New static solutions in f(T) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daouda, M.H.; Rodrigues, Manuel E. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Houndjo, M.J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    We consider the equations of motion of an anisotropic space-time in f(T) theory, where T is the torsion. New spherically symmetric solutions of black holes and wormholes are obtained with a constant torsion and for the cases for which the radial pressure is proportional to a real constant, to some algebraic functions f(T) and their derivatives f{sub T}(T), or vanishes identically. (orig.)

  5. Studies on the effects of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in culture medium and in black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M F P M; Rezende, A C B; Benato, E A; Valentini, S R T; Furlani, R P Z; Tfouni, S A V

    2011-04-01

    The effect of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis inoculated in culture medium and in black pepper grains (Piper nigrum), as well as on the reduction of the microbial load of the dried and moisturized product, was verified. The postfumigation effect was verified in inoculated samples with 0.92 and 0.97 water activity (a(w)) exposed to 6 g/m(3) phosphine for 72 h, dried to 0.67 a(w), and stored for 24, 48, and 72 h. No decreases were observed in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in culture medium when fumigant concentrations up to 6 g/m(3) were applied for 48 h at 35°C. However, the colonies showed reductions in size and atypical coloration as the phosphine concentration increased. No reduction in Salmonella counts occurred on the inoculated dried samples after fumigation. On the other hand, when phosphine at concentrations of 6 g/m(3) was applied on moisturized black pepper for 72 h, decreases in Salmonella counts of around 80% were observed. The counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacterium populations of the dried and moisturized black pepper were not affected by the fumigant treatment. The results of the postfumigation studies indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis was absent in the fumigated grains after drying and storage for 72 h, indicating a promising application for this technique. It was concluded that for Salmonella Enteritidis control, phosphine fumigation could be applied to black pepper grains before drying and the producers should rigidly follow good agricultural practices, mainly during the drying process, in order to avoid product recontamination. Additional work is needed to confirm the findings with more Salmonella serotypes and strains.

  6. Changes in population of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in experimentally contaminated milk depending on temperature and acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić-Savić Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella bacteria are among the most frequent causes of food poisoning, and milk and milk products are food items through which these bacteria can be transmitted. More recent data indicate that the infective dose of Salmonella is very small - up to 101/g/ml food. The preservation of Salmonella in milk depends on the acidity, temperature and the duration of storage. The objective of the work was to examine the survival of Salmonella in milk depending on the changes of the total number of bacteria, pH and temperature. In the study, 0.1 ml of 24-hour bouillon culture of S. enteritidis was inoculated in raw collective milk (104 cfu/ml and in marketed pasteurized milk (102 cfu/ml each. The examined milk samples were maintained at room temperature and at a temperature of 7oC. At the beginning of the examinations, after 24h, 48h, 72h, after 7, 14 and 21 days, decimal solutions were made from the milk, and, following incubation, the number of S. enteritidis was determined (Rambach agar, the total number of bacteria (base for total number of bacteria by multiplying the number of grown colonies and the corresponding solution, and the milk pH was measured. There was a bigger reduction of S. enteritidis at room temperature because the pH value dropped more swiftly. The lowest pH at which S. enteritidis was isolated from experimentally contaminated milk was 3.88. The results of the examinations show that Salmonella can adapt to biochemical processes during milk acid fermentation of soft cheeses. No Salmonella bacteria were isolated from experimentally contaminated pasterurized milk at both maintenance temperatures after seven days of investigations.

  7. Immunological changes at point-of-lay increase susceptibility to Salmonella enterica Serovar enteritidis infection in vaccinated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Johnston

    Full Text Available Chicken eggs are the main source of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. S. Enteritidis infects the oviduct and ovary of the chicken leading to infection of developing eggs. Therefore, control in poultry production is a major public health priority. Vaccination of hens has proved successful in control strategies in United Kingdom leading to a 70% drop in human cases since introduced. However, as hens reach sexual maturity they become immunosuppressed and it has been postulated this leads to increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection. In this study we define the changes to the systemic and reproductive tract-associated immune system of hens throughout sexual development by flow cytometry and histology and determine changes in susceptibility to experimental S. Enteritidis challenge in naive and vaccinated hens. Changes to both systemic and local immune systems occur in chickens at sexual development around 140 days of age. The population of several leukocyte classes drop, with the greatest fall in CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Within the developing reproductive tract there an organised structure of lymphocytic aggregates with γδ-T lymphocytes associated with the mucosa. At point-of-lay, this organised structure disappears and only scattered lymphocytes remain. Protection against Salmonella challenge is significantly reduced in vaccinated birds at point-of-lay, coinciding with the drop in CD4+ lymphocytes. Susceptibility to reproductive tract infection by Salmonella increased in vaccinated and naïve animals at 140 and 148 days of age. We hypothesise that the drop in γδ-T lymphocytes in the tract leads to decreased innate protection of the mucosa to infection. These findings indicate that systemic and local changes to the immune system increase the susceptibility of hens to S. Enteritidis infection. The loss of protective immunity in vaccinated birds demonstrates that Salmonella control should not rely on vaccination alone

  8. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut micro...

  9. A review of the FT distillate pathway in GHGenius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) distillates products are now used throughout the world as a commercial fuel. However, lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from FT distillates fuels are higher than diesel fuel produced from crude oil. This paper provided details of a lifecycle analysis of FT distillates pathways created for GHGenius, a model used to analyze emissions from a variety of combustion sources. The study examined values reported in tests conducted by major oil and gas operators and described the conversion technologies typically used at FT distillates production facilities. Summaries of reports on FT distillates emissions were also provided. Three primary factors were identified that contributed to different results reported for FT distillates emissions: (1) the efficiency of the conversion process; (2) the allocation procedure used in the conventional oil refinery for the emissions of individual products; and (3) the emissions associated with natural gas production. The GHGenius model was used to quantify the impact of the 3 main factors. An alternative system expansion methodology was used to compare crude oil diesel pathways with a high efficiency, low gas leak scenario in order to achieve high values reported by some oil and gas operators. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Radiotherapy combined with Tegafur (FT-207s) for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yoshiro

    1981-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has anti-tumor effects as an anti-metabolite, but it cannot pass the Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB). FT-207 a masked-compound of 5-FU, is easily lipid soluble and is able to pass the BBB. Twenty eight patients of primary brain tumor and 8 patients of metastatic brain tumor were treated with irradiation combined with 750 mg of FT-207 suppository. Twenty four patients of primary brain tumor were treated only with irradiation as control. The mean survival time was 20.4 +- 11.8 months for the combined therapy group and 17.6 +- 8.6 months for the control. The concentration of FT-207 and 5-FU in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was investigated after administration of 750 mg of FT-207 suppository per annum. The maximum concentration of FT-207 and of 5-FU in serum was 20.4 +- 11.8 mcg/ml and 0.06 +- 0.02 mcg/ml, respectively. There were observed several side effects, such as anorexia, nausea, exanthema and etc. These side effects were not so great as to interrupt the therapy at the dose level of 750 mg of FT-207. However, at the dose of 1500 mg, one case showed disturbance of consciousness, to which attention should be called. (author)

  11. Effect of coffee filtrate, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and caffeine on Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis survival in ground chicken breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletta, Anne B; Were, Lilian M

    2012-02-01

    The antimicrobial effect of roasted coffee filtrate (CF) and dicarbonyls on Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in raw ground chicken breast meat (GCB) was investigated. Coffee was brewed and filtered before addition to GCB. Coffee filtrate with and without added caffeine, methylglyoxal, and/or glyoxal was added to GCB and then inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis. Ground chicken samples were stomached with peptone water at days 1, 3, 5, and 7, plated on XLD agar with a TSA overlay, and Salmonella survivors were enumerated. CF alone gave less than a 1 Log reduction in all runs compared to control GCB with no treatment. Methylglyoxal (2.28 mg/g GCB) had the greatest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in GCB with average Log reductions of 2.27 to 3.23, respectively, over the 7 d duration of the experiment compared to control GCB with no treatment. A 1 Log reduction was observed in GCB with CF, 0.93 mg glyoxal, and 1 mg caffeine/g chicken compared to the control and GCB with only CF. Heat-produced coffee compounds could potentially reduce Salmonella in retail ground chicken and chicken products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to acidified Sodium chlorite or tri-sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, K; Yadav, Ajit S; Saxena, Gaurav K

    2015-12-01

    Thermal inactivation of normal and starved cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to different concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was investigated. Inoculated skin was pretreated with different concentration of ASC or TSP, packaged in bags, and then immersed in a circulating water bath at 60 to 68 °C. The recovery medium was Hektoen enteric agar. D-values, determined by linear regression, for normal cells on chicken skin, were 2.79, 1.17 and 0.53 min whereas D-values for starved cells were 4.15, 1.83 and 0.66 at 60, 64 and 68 °C, respectively. z-values for normal cells were 3.54 and for starved cells were 2.29. Pretreatment of Salmonella Enteritidis cells with 0 to 200 ppm of ASC or 0 to 1.0 % TSP resulted in lower D-values at all temperatures. Sensory results indicated no significance differences for control and treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that pretreatment of chicken skin with ASC or TSP increased sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis to heat without affecting organoleptic quality of chicken meat.

  13. National outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b in England, September to December 2009: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmohamed, K; Zenner, D; Little, C; Lane, C; Wain, J; Charlett, A; Adak, B; Morgan, D

    2011-04-14

    We conducted an unmatched retrospective case–control study to investigate an upsurge of non-travel-related sporadic cases of infection with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 14b with antimicrobial resistance to nalidixic acid and partial resistance to ciprofloxacin (S. Enteritidis PT 14b NxCp(L)) that was reported in England from 1 September to 31 December 2009. We analysed data from 63 cases and 108 controls to determine whether cases had the same sources of infection as those found through investigation of 16 concurrent local foodborne outbreaks in England and Wales. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and sex identified food consumption at restaurants serving Chinese or Thai cuisine (odds ratio (OR): 4.4; 95% CI: 1.3–14.8; p=0.02), egg consumed away from home (OR: 5.1; 95% CI: 1.3–21.2; p=0.02) and eating vegetarian foods away from home (OR: 14.6; 95% CI: 2.1–99; p=0.006) as significant risk factors for infection with S. Enteritidis PT 14b NxCp(L). These findings concurred with those from the investigation of the16 outbreaks, which identified the same Salmonella strain in eggs from a specified source outside the United Kingdom. The findings led to a prohibition of imports from this source, in order to control the outbreak.

  14. Vectorial competence of larvae and adults of Alphitobius diaperinus in the transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffer, Andreia M; Kuttel, Javier; Martins, Lidiane M; Pedroso, Antonio Carlos; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2010-06-01

    The ingestion of food products originating from poultry infected with Salmonella spp. is one of the major causes of food poisoning in humans. The control of poultry salmonellosis is particularly difficult since birds are asymptomatic and numerous factors may expedite the maintenance of bacteria in poultry production facilities. The aim of the study was to determine the vectorial capacity of adults and larvae of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in the experimental transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 to 1-day-old specific pathogen-free White Leghorn chicks. Adult insects and larvae were starved for 1 day, fed for 24 h or 7 days on sterile ration that had been treated with Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4, and the levels of bacterial infection were determined. Infected adult insects and larvae were fed to groups of day-old chicks, after which bacteria were recovered from cecum, liver, and spleen samples over a 7-day period. Infected larvae were more efficient than adult insects in transmitting Salmonella Enteritidis to chicks. Higher concentrations of bacteria could be reisolated from the cecum, liver, and spleen of chicks that had ingested infected larvae compared with those that had ingested infected adults. The control of A. diaperinus, and particularly of the larvae, represents a critical factor in the reduction of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms.

  15. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from food and human samples by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiling, (GTG5-PCR and ERIC-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fardsanei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of human salmonellosis in many countries. The major objective of this study was to investigate genetic diversity among Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different origins (food and human by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC -PCR, as well as to assess their plasmid profiling and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 30 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 15 from food samples (chicken, lamb, beef and duck meats and 15 from clinical samples were collected in Tehran. Identification of isolates as Salmonella was confirmed by using conventional standard biochemical and serological tests. Multiplex-PCR was used for serotyping of isolates to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 agents founds drug resistance patterns among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. No resistance was observed to cephalexin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or meropenem, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The highest resistance (96.7% was observed to nitrofurantoin. Seven plasmid profiles (P1–P7 were detected, and a 68-kb plasmid was found in all isolates. Two different primers; ERIC and (GTG5 were used for genotyping, which each produced four profiles. The majority of clinical and food isolates fell into two separate common types (CTs with a similar percentage of 95% by ERIC-PCR. Using primer (GTG5, 29 isolates incorporated in three CTs with 70% of isolates showing a single banding pattern. Limited genetic diversity among human and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis may indicate that contaminated foods were possibly the source of human salmonellosis. These results confirmed that ERIC-PCR genotyping has limited discriminatory power for Salmonella Enteritidis of different origin.

  16. Determination of serum free thyroxine concentration (FT4) by means of fT4-fraction and total thyroxine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.

    1985-01-01

    A new equilibrium assay for the determination of serum free thyroxine was evaluated in 514 patients. The assay comprises a two-vial-procedure to measure total thyroxine and free thyroxine fraction by use of monoclonal antibodies. Free thyroxine concentrations are calculated from fT 4 -fraction and total thyroxine concentration readings. In euthyroidism the average free thyroxine fraction (%fT 4 ) was 0.011%, in hyperthyroidism this fraction was elevated, in hypothyroidism it was below normal. In patients with TBG anomalies, TBG values were inversely correlated with fT 4 fraction readings. The 'euthyroid reference range' of FT 4 (SPAC ET) was between 0.70 to 1.78ng/dl. This euthyroid range of FT 4 was determined from TT 4 concentrations measured by T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 MONO) which were 30% above TT 4 values measured by conventional T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 POLY; polyclonal antibodies). However, a different euthyroid range of FT 4 between 0.55 to 1.30 ng/dl was observed as well as by other investigators when conventional T 4 -RIA measurements were used for calculation of FT 4 values. Our results indicate that calculated FT 4 concentration values are highly dependent on the methods used for determination of total thyroxine concentrations. Precision and reproducability of this two vial equilibrium assay did not meet the requirements mandatory for the application as a clinical routine diagnostic procedure, and its general use for this purpose can as yet not be recommended. (Author)

  17. FT-Raman and FT-Infrared investigations of archaeological artefacts from Foeni Neolithic site (Banat, Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Cîntă Pînzaru; Dana Pop; Loredana Nemeth

    2008-01-01

    An impressive collection of chert artefacts from the Foeni Neolithic archaeological site (Timiş County, Banat region, Romania) is hosted by the Banat Museum in Timişoara. A representative set of seven specimens was non-destructively investigated using FT-Raman and ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. The research was carried out for checking if these readily-available, non-destructive, fast, and cheap methods, which do not require preliminary sample preparation could provide significant information for ch...

  18. FT-Raman and FT-IR studies of 1:2.5 piroxicam: β-cyclodextrin inclusion compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoluzza, A.; Rossi, M.; Taddei, P.; Redenti, E.; Zanol, M.; Ventura, P.

    1999-05-01

    The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of amorphous 1:2.5 piroxicam (P): β-cyclodextrin (βCD) inclusion compound (PβCD) are presented and discussed in comparison with the spectra of the three main modifications of piroxicam (α,β and monohydrate). In the 1700-1200 cm -1 FT-Raman spectrum of 1:2.5 PβCD inclusion compound the bands of βCD are weak and covered by those stronger of piroxicam, differently from the FT-IR spectrum where the bands of βCD are stronger, so covering a large part of the spectrum. Typical FT-Raman marker bands are assigned for the characterization of the three modifications of piroxicam. The FT-Raman spectrum of 1:2.5 PβCD inclusion compound predominantly shows the bands at about 1465 and 1400 cm -1 of the monohydrate, indicating that piroxicam assumes the zwitterionic structure stabilized by interaction with βCD via electrostatic and hydrogen bonds. The dipolar character of 1:2.5 PβCD inclusion compound improves the solubility and the dissolution rate of piroxicam and thus its rate of absorption.

  19. CLINICAL AND ANATOMOHISTOPATOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TWO BROILER ORIGINATED FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED EGGS WITH Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4 ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E ANATOMOHISTOPATOLÓGICOS DE PINTOS DE CORTE ORIUNDOS DE OVOS INOCULADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE COM Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Andrade

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the invasive capacity of Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis phagotipe 4 of avian origin, in two broiler lines, two experiments were carried out. The experiment 1 was done with Ross line (fast growing rate and experiment 2 was done with ISA Label (slow growing rate. In two experiments the same 1.5 X 102 UFC/0,1mL de Salmonella Enteritidis phagotipe 4 was inoculated in egg through the eggshell or albume at the incubation to averiguate the clinical signs, the macro and microscopical lesions and mortality rate until three weeks of age. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested general clinical signs allied to intestinal disfunction were more pronounced in Ross broilers. The mortality observed was 25.0% (15/60 in Ross and just 1.7% (1/60 ISA Label broilers during three weeks. Onphalitis, enteritis, pericarditis, perihepatitis constituted the main macroscopic lesions in Ross. At histological exam, inflamatory process observed with infiltrates of mononuclear cells with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes in heart, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca and liver. It is possible to conclude the gastrointestinal tract, invaded organs of both genetic lines, but ISA Label was resistant to infection compared to Ross lines.

    KEY WORDS: Chickens, colonization, infection, invasion, genetic resistance, organs.

    Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a capacidade invasiva e os efeitos da Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis fagotipo 4 de origem aviária, inoculada in ovo de linhagens de frango de corte. O experimento 1 foi realizado com a linhagem Ross (crescimento rápido e o experimento 2 com a

  20. Phase portraits of general f(T) cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A.; El Hanafy, W.; Nashed, G. G. L.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2018-02-01

    We use dynamical system methods to explore the general behaviour of f(T) cosmology. In contrast to the standard applications of dynamical analysis, we present a way to transform the equations into a one-dimensional autonomous system, taking advantage of the crucial property that the torsion scalar in flat FRW geometry is just a function of the Hubble function, thus the field equations include only up to first derivatives of it, and therefore in a general f(T) cosmological scenario every quantity is expressed only in terms of the Hubble function. The great advantage is that for one-dimensional systems it is easy to construct the phase space portraits, and thus extract information and explore in detail the features and possible behaviours of f(T) cosmology. We utilize the phase space portraits and we show that f(T) cosmology can describe the universe evolution in agreement with observations, namely starting from a Big Bang singularity, evolving into the subsequent thermal history and the matter domination, entering into a late-time accelerated expansion, and resulting to the de Sitter phase in the far future. Nevertheless, f(T) cosmology can present a rich class of more exotic behaviours, such as the cosmological bounce and turnaround, the phantom-divide crossing, the Big Brake and the Big Crunch, and it may exhibit various singularities, including the non-harmful ones of type II and type IV. We study the phase space of three specific viable f(T) models offering a complete picture. Moreover, we present a new model of f(T) gravity that can lead to a universe in agreement with observations, free of perturbative instabilities, and applying the Om(z) diagnostic test we confirm that it is in agreement with the combination of SNIa, BAO and CMB data at 1σ confidence level.

  1. Critical role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in regulating the avian heterophil response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKogut

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently up-regulated 30-180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. The present study was designed to delineate the role of GSK-3β in regulating the innate function of chicken heterophils in response to S. Enteritidis exposure. Using a specific GSK-3β ELISA assay, 30 min after infection with S. Enteritidis, heterophils had a significant decrease in total GSK-3β, but a significant increase in phosphorylated GSK-3 (Ser9. By 60 min post-infection, there was no difference in the amount of phosphorylated GSK-3β (Ser9 in either the uninfected and infected heterophils. S. Enteritidis interaction with heterophils alters GSK-3 activity by stimulating phosphorylation at Ser9 and that peaks by 30 min post-infection. Further, inhibition of GSK3β with lithium chloride resulted in a significant decrease in NF-κB activation and expression of IL-6, but induces a significant increase in the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Using a phospho-specific antibody array confirmed the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9 as well as the phosphorylation of the downstream cytokine-activated intracellular signaling pathway involved in stimulating immune responses, IκB, the IκB subunit IKK-β, and the NF-κB subunits p105, p65, and c-Rel. Our data revealed that the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9 is responsible for inducing and controlling an innate response to the bacteria. Our findings suggest that the repression of GSK-3 activity is beneficial to the host cell and may act as a target for treatment in controlling intestinal colonization in chickens. Further experiments will define the in vivo modulation of GSK-3 as a potential alternative to antibiotics in salmonella and other intestinal bacterial infections.

  2. Clinical significance of changes of serum FT3, FT4 and SIL-2R levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2R levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: Serum FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 55 patients with hyperthyroidism both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum FT 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2 levels were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2R levels is valuable for treatment outcome prediction in patients with hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  3. Red Seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down Regulate Virulence Factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and Induce Immune Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Borza, Tudor; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn S; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars toward multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis and two, Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC), were found to exhibit such properties. Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE) of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively). However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG) suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1) associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high

  4. Red seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down regulate virulence factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and induce immune responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima eKulshreshtha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars towards multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis. Spread plate assay revealed that Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG and Chondrus crispus (CC (1%, w/v significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 mg/ml to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively. However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1 associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high degree of conservation, these results

  5. Subtyping Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from different sources by using sequence typing based on virulence genes and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenyun; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Ribot, Efrain M; Knabel, Stephen J; Dudley, Edward G

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne salmonellosis in the United States. Two major food vehicles for S. Enteritidis are contaminated eggs and chicken meat. Improved subtyping methods are needed to accurately track specific strains of S. Enteritidis related to human salmonellosis throughout the chicken and egg food system. A sequence typing scheme based on virulence genes (fimH and sseL) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)-CRISPR-including multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (designated CRISPR-MVLST)-was used to characterize 35 human clinical isolates, 46 chicken isolates, 24 egg isolates, and 63 hen house environment isolates of S. Enteritidis. A total of 27 sequence types (STs) were identified among the 167 isolates. CRISPR-MVLST identified three persistent and predominate STs circulating among U.S. human clinical isolates and chicken, egg, and hen house environmental isolates in Pennsylvania, and an ST that was found only in eggs and humans. It also identified a potential environment-specific sequence type. Moreover, cluster analysis based on fimH and sseL identified a number of clusters, of which several were found in more than one outbreak, as well as 11 singletons. Further research is needed to determine if CRISPR-MVLST might help identify the ecological origins of S. Enteritidis strains that contaminate chickens and eggs.

  6. Identification of a novel gene in ROD9 island of Salmonella Enteritidis involved in the alteration of virulence-associated genes expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susmita; Ray, Shilpa; Ryan, Daniel; Sahu, Bikash; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis), one of the causative agents for non-typhoidal gastrointestinal diseases in humans is an intracellular bacterium and mechanism for its invasion into host cells is critical to cause infection. The virulence of the pathogen is explained by the expression of genes located on its pathogenicity islands, mostly encoded under SPI-1 and SPI-2. However, S. Typhimurium SL1344, despite sharing ∼98% of its genome with S. Enteritidis P125109, lacks few regions of differences (ROD) that are hypothesized to impart virulence potential to S. Enteritidis. In this study, we created different mutants in the ROD9 island of S. Enteritidis, also referred as SPI-19 and identified a novel locus, SEN1005, encoding a hypothetical protein that is involved in its pathogenesis. ΔSEN1005 displayed significantly reduced entry into cultured epithelial cells as well as uptake by macrophages and failed to cause acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice at day 3 post-infection (p.i.). Additionally, the global transcriptome analysis revealed a highly repressed SPI-1 and other down-regulated genes responsible for flagellar assembly, chemotaxis and motility in the mutant which correlated with decreased invasion and abated inflammation as compared to the wild-type. Therefore, our findings revealed that ΔSEN1005 was attenuated in vitro as well as in vivo and we propose this hypothetical protein to play a role in altering the expression of genes involved in Salmonella virulence.

  7. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  8. Designing of primers for detection of salmonella typhimirium and enteritidis by heminested PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben salem, Issam

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella are the main responsible agent for the frequent food borne gastrointestinal diseases. In Tunisia, this pathogen is considered one of the most important causes of toxiinfections and its detection using classical methods is laborious and requires a large amount of time for revelation. To solve this problem, we developed a rapid molecular technique for the detection of the invA virulence gene sequence which is found in the majority of Salmonella spp. This technique is a hemi nested PCR amplification using specific primers designed and by bioinformatics tools. The detection method consisted of pre-enrichment of the sample in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by a total DNA extraction step prior to single tube hemi nested PCR amplification. This method was found highly specific and sensitive to detect low levels of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella enteritidis (1cfu/ 25g) in naturally contaminated spicy sausage (merguez) samples. These results can benefit the public health agencies concerning microbiological and quality aspects of the commercial and traditional merguez meat production in Tunisia. (Author)

  9. Effect of acidified drinking water on the recovery of Salmonella enteritidis from broiler crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila LAF de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop is a known source of Salmonella contamination during broiler carcass processing. The effect of drinking water acidification by lactic acid or citric acid or a combination of those with cupric sulfate and d-limonene in the reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE recovered from the crop of broilers was evaluated. Treatments were administered during 8 hours of preslaughter fasting period (Experiments I and II and during the last 32 hours of preslaughter (Experiment III. It was observed that acidification reduced water intake when treatments began at preslaughter feed withdrawal, and affected the possible reducing effect of these acids on SE recovering (Experiments I and II. Water intake during preslaughter feed withdrawal was not affected when treatment began 32 hours before slaughter (Experiment III. Treatments reduced SE recovering from crop (p<0.05. In Experiment III, 0.470% of lactic acid reduced the number of recovered SE in 99%. This study suggested that the addition of organic acids in the drinking water 24 hours before beginning the preslaughter feed withdrawal might reduce crop SE colonization and might be an important strategy to reduce SE contamination of broiler products during processing.

  10. Promoting crystallisation of the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 pilin SefD using deuterium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing; Garnett, James A.; Lee, Wei-chao; Lin, Jing; Salgado, Paula; Taylor, Jonathan; Xu, Yingqi; Lambert, Sebastian; Cota, Ernesto [Centre for Structural Biology and Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Matthews, Steve, E-mail: s.j.matthews@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Structural Biology and Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The benefits of D{sub 2}O in screening for crystallisation was explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structures of the SefD pilin in both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O reveal differences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallisation improvements are explained by altered interactions in D{sub 2}O crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D{sub 2}O is useful additive in sparse-matrix screening for crystallisation. -- Abstract: The use of heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as a solvent is commonplace in many spectroscopic techniques for the study of biological macromolecules. A significant deuterium isotope effect exists where hydrogen-bonding is important, such as in protein stability, dynamics and assembly. Here we illustrate the use of D{sub 2}O in additive screening for the production of reproducible diffraction-quality crystals for the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 (SEF14) putative tip adhesin, SefD.

  11. Ground water as the source of an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kovačić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In September 2014, an outbreak of gastroenteritis was reported to the Public Health Institute of Šibenik and Knin County in Croatia. The outbreak occurred in the County center of Šibenik, a town with 50,000 inhabitants, and it lasted for 12 days. An epidemiological investigation suggested a nearby water spring as the source of the outbreak. Due to the temporary closure of the public water supply system, the inhabitants started to use untreated water from a nearby spring. Microbiological analysis revealed that the outbreak was caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis that was isolated from stool samples of the patients and ground water. The isolates were further analysed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using XbaI, which revealed an identical macrorestriction profile. Although 68 cases were reported, it was estimated that the actual number of affected persons was more than several hundred. In order to prevent further spread of disease, public advice was released immediately after the first epidemiological indication and a warning sign was placed at the incriminated water source, after microbiological confirmation. It is necessary to regularly monitor microbiological quality of ground water especially in urban areas and provide adequate education and awareness to the inhabitants regarding the risk of using untreated ground water.

  12. Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on lettuces used by minimally processed vegetable industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Josete Bailardi; Hessel, Claudia Titze; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2017-01-30

    Washing and disinfection methods used by minimally processed vegetable industries of Southern Brazil were reproduced in laboratory in order to verify their effectiveness to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 (SE86) on lettuce. Among the five industries investigated, four carried out washing with potable water followed by disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite during different immersion times. The washing procedure alone decreased approximately 1 log CFU/g of SE86 population and immersion times of 1, 2, 5, and 15 minutes in disinfectant solution demonstrated reduction rates ranging from 2.06±0.10 log CFU/g to 3.01±0.21 log CFU/g. Rinsing alone was able to reduce counts from 0.12±0.63 log CFU/g to 1.90±1.07 log CFU/g. The most effective method was washing followed by disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite for 15 minutes and final rinse with potable water, reaching 5.83 log CFU/g of reduction. However, no statistical differences were observed on the reduction rates after different immersion times. A time interval of 1 to 2 minutes may be an advantage to the minimally vegetable processed industries in order to optimize the process without putting at risk food safety.

  13. Violation of causality in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otalora, G. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Reboucas, M.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    In the standard formulation, the f(T) field equations are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations, and thus the theory does not inherit the causal structure of special relativity. Actually, even locally violation of causality can occur in this formulation of f(T) gravity. A locally Lorentz covariant f(T) gravity theory has been devised recently, and this local causality problem seems to have been overcome. The non-locality question, however, is left open. If gravitation is to be described by this covariant f(T) gravity theory there are a number of issues that ought to be examined in its context, including the question as to whether its field equations allow homogeneous Goedel-type solutions, which necessarily leads to violation of causality on non-local scale. Here, to look into the potentialities and difficulties of the covariant f(T) theories, we examine whether they admit Goedel-type solutions. We take a combination of a perfect fluid with electromagnetic plus a scalar field as source, and determine a general Goedel-type solution, which contains special solutions in which the essential parameter of Goedel-type geometries, m{sup 2}, defines any class of homogeneous Goedel-type geometries. We show that solutions of the trigonometric and linear classes (m{sup 2} < 0 and m = 0) are permitted only for the combined matter sources with an electromagnetic field matter component. We extended to the context of covariant f(T) gravity a theorem which ensures that any perfect-fluid homogeneous Goedel-type solution defines the same set of Goedel tetrads h{sub A}{sup μ} up to a Lorentz transformation. We also showed that the single massless scalar field generates Goedel-type solution with no closed time-like curves. Even though the covariant f(T) gravity restores Lorentz covariance of the field equations and the local validity of the causality principle, the bare existence of the Goedel-type solutions makes apparent that the covariant formulation of f(T) gravity

  14. Astrophysical flows near f(T) gravity black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ayyesha K.; Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Baglica Campus, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we study the accretion process for fluids flowing near a black hole in the context of f(T) teleparallel gravity. Specifically, by performing a dynamical analysis by a Hamiltonian system, we are able to find the sonic points. After that, we consider different isothermal test fluids in order to study the accretion process when they are falling onto the black hole. We find that these flows can be classified according to the equation of state and the black hole features. Results are compared in f(T) and f(R) gravity. (orig.)

  15. Organic Scintillator Detector Response Simulations with DRiFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Madison Theresa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pinilla, Maria Isabel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, Jr., Clell Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sood, Avneet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Accurate detector modeling is a requirement to design systems in many non-proliferation scenarios; by determining a Detector’s Response Function (DRF) to incident radiation, it is possible characterize measurements of unknown sources. DRiFT is intended to post-process MCNP® output and create realistic detector spectra. Capabilities currently under development include the simulation of semiconductor, gas, and (as is discussed in this work) scintillator detector physics. Energy spectra and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) trends for incident photon and neutron radiation have been reproduced by DRiFT.

  16. Coupling FT Raman and FT SERS microscopy with TLC plates for in situ identification of chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudin, J. P.; Beljebbar, A.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Angiboust, J. F.; Manfait, M.

    1995-11-01

    Direct analysis of sub-femtogram quantities of chemical compounds on thin layer chromatography plates has been made possible by associating Fourier transform Raman microspectroscopy with SERS spectroscopy. The interfacing elements of the FT Raman microscope system are discussed and optimised such that a lateral resolution on the micron scale is achieved in the sample plane. Micro-FT SERS results obtained from a model biological molecule indicate preservation of molecular conformation upon adsorption at the SERS active surface. With NIR radiation it is thus possible to analyse plates with or without fluorescence indicators.

  17. Generalized second law of thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K.; Abdolmaleki, A., E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: AAbdolmaleki@uok.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) modified teleparallel gravity. We consider a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the Hubble horizon. For two viable f(T) models containing f(T) = T+μ{sub 1}((−T)){sup n} and f(T) = T−μ{sub 2}T(1−e{sup βT{sub 0}/T}), we first calculate the effective equation of state and deceleration parameters. Then, (we investigate the null and strong energy conditions and conclude that a sudden future singularity appears in both models. Furthermore, using a cosmographic analysis we check the viability of two models. Finally, we examine the validity of the GSL and find that for both models it) is satisfied from the early times to the present epoch. But in the future, the GSL is violated for the special ranges of the torsion scalar T.

  18. Model FT631 moisture/density combined gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Dai Zhude; Zhang Jianguo; Zhang Enshang; Huang Jiling; Meng Qingbao

    1990-01-01

    Model FT631 Moisture/Density Combined Gauge has been developed, with which both water content and density, the two parameters of measured medium (soil), are obtained in one act of measurement at the same time. A China patent has been taken for this invention

  19. Vibrational microspectroscopy of food. Raman vs. FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Løkke, Mette Marie; Micklander, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    . The high spatial resolution makes it possible to study areas down to approximately 10x10 mum with FT-IR microspectroscopy and approximately 1 x 1 mum with Raman microspectroscopy. This presentation highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the two microspectroscopic techniques when applied...

  20. Analysis of organophosphorus pesticides using FT-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Ando, Hiroaki

    1988-01-01

    A rapid and highly selective method of the identification of 23 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides was develop by using 31 P FT-NMR with 1 H complete decoupling method. Chemical shifts referenced by 85 % H 3 PO 4 were within -4 to 100 ppm, and there was no overlapping among the organophosphorus pesticides used in this experiment. (author)

  1. Determination of cellulose I crystallinity by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Two new methods based on FT-Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other, using a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in semicrystalline cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the...

  2. Textural Properties of Agarose Gels described by FT-Rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, C.O.; Venema, P.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2008-01-01

    Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear was used to determine the non-linear rheological properties of agarose gels. The analysis was performed with the characteristic functions method based on FT-Rheology, that gives access to a physical interpretation of the non-linear regime. This analysis was then

  3. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study was conducted in 78 Danish broiler houses (analytical units) on 42 farms. In spring 1997, all these broiler houses had been infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8, and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, definitive-type 66, by day-old chicks del...... soap and water for washing hands in the anteroom, hygiene barriers when removing dead broilers, gravel alongside the broiler house, systematic checks of indoor rodent-bait depots, and combined surface and pulse-fogging disinfection....

  4. Technical Capability Upgrades to the NASA Langley Research Center 8 ft. by 15 ft. Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornblom, Mark N.; Beverly, Joshua; O'Connell, Joseph J.; Duncan, Dwight L.

    2016-01-01

    The 8 ft. by 15 ft. thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC), housed in Building 1250 at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and managed by the Systems Integration and Test Branch within the Engineering Directorate, has undergone several significant modifications to increase testing capability, safety, and quality of measurements of articles under environmental test. Significant modifications include: a new nitrogen distribution manifold for supplying the shroud and other cold surfaces to liquid nitrogen temperatures; a new power supply and distribution system for accurately controlling a quartz IR lamp suite; a suite of contamination monitoring sensors for outgassing measurements and species identification; a new test article support system; signal and power feed-throughs; elimination of unnecessary penetrations; and a new data acquisition and control commanding system including safety interlocks. This paper will provide a general overview of the LaRC 8 ft. by 15 ft. TVAC chamber, an overview of the new technical capabilities, and will illustrate each upgrade in detail, in terms of mechanical design and predicted performance. Additionally, an overview of the scope of tests currently being performed in the chamber will be documented, and sensor plots from tests will be provided to show chamber temperature and pressure performance with actual flight hardware under test.

  5. Technical Capability Upgrades to the NASA Langley Research Center 6 ft. by 6 ft. Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornblom, Mark N.; Beverly, Joshua; O'Connell, Joseph J.; Mau, Johnny C.; Duncan, Dwight L.

    2014-01-01

    The 6 ft. by 6 ft. thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC), housed in Building 1250 at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and managed by the Systems Integration and Test Branch within the Engineering Directorate, has undergone several significant modifications to increase testing capability, safety, and quality of measurements of articles under environmental test. Significant modifications include: a new nitrogen thermal conditioning unit for controlling shroud temperatures from -150degC to +150degC; two horizontal auxiliary cold plates for independent temperature control from -150degC to +200degC; a suite of contamination monitoring sensors for outgassing measurements and species identification; signal and power feed-throughs; new pressure gauges; and a new data acquisition and control commanding system including safety interlocks. This presentation will provide a general overview of the LaRC 6 ft. by 6 ft. TVAC chamber, an overview of the new technical capabilities, and illustrate each upgrade in detail, in terms of mechanical design and predicted performance. Additionally, an overview of the scope of tests currently being performed in the chamber will be documented, and sensor plots from tests will be provided to show chamber temperature and pressure performance with actual flight hardware under test.

  6. Postharvest transfer and survival of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis on living lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, J A; Kuhn, D D; Welbaum, G E; Ponder, M A

    2014-02-01

    The potential for postharvest transfer of Salmonella to 'living lettuce' is not well understood. In this study, the transfer of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (6 log CFU g(-1) ) from worker hands or contaminated roots to leaves of living lettuce was quantified. Transfer rates of Salmonella from contaminated gloves to sequentially handled lettuce heads ranged from 94% to head 1, 82% to head 2 and 69% to head 3. On average, 2.9 ± 0.1 log CFU g(-1) (64%) Salmonella was transferred from inoculated roots to leaves resulting from typical postharvest handling activities for living lettuce. Salmonella persisted on leaves stored at recommended storage temperatures (4°C) and increased 0.5 log CFU g(-1) when stored at temperature abuse conditions (12°C). Salmonella increased 1.6 log CFU g(-1) on roots after 18-day storage at 12°C, emphasizing the need to maintain temperature control to reduce the risk of human illness. Hydroponically grown lettuce packaged in plastic clamshells with intact roots, marketed as 'living lettuce', is increasing in popularity due to its extended shelf life. This study demonstrates the transfer of Salmonella from contaminated worker hands and contaminated roots to leaves where it persisted at 4°C for 18 day. Temperature abuse (12°C) increased Salmonella on roots and leaves. These findings suggest that failure to maintain temperatures below 12°C can pose a risk for consumers purchasing living lettuce at markets where recommended storage temperatures are not maintained. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis traced to cream cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Tai Goh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper describes the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations conducted during an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in Singapore.Methods: A case-control study was undertaken to identify the vehicle of transmission. Microbiological testing was performed on faecal, food and environmental samples. Isolates of Salmonella were further characterized by phage typing and ribotyping.Results: There were 216 gastroenteritis cases reported from 20 November to 4 December 2007. The causative agent was identified as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis for 14 out of 20 cases tested. The vehicle of transmission was traced to cream cakes produced by a bakery and sold at its retail outlets (P < 0.001, OR = 143.00, 95% Cl = 27.23–759.10. More than two-thirds of the 40 Salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized cases, food samples and asymptomatic food handlers were of phage type 1; the others reacted but did not conform to any phage type. The phage types correlated well with their unique antibiograms. The ribotype patterns of 22 selected isolates tested were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The dendrogram of the strains from the outbreak showed distinct clustering and correlation compared to the non-outbreak strains, confirming a common source of infection.Discussion: The cream cakes were likely contaminated by one of the ingredients used in the icing. Cross-contamination down the production line and subsequent storage of cakes at ambient temperatures for a prolonged period before consumption could have resulted in the outbreak.

  8. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Indiana and Enteritidis from chickens in Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    Full Text Available A total of 310 Salmonella isolates were isolated from 6 broiler farms in Eastern China, serotyped according to the Kauffmann-White classification. All isolates were examined for susceptibility to 17 commonly used antimicrobial agents, representative isolates were examined for resistance genes and class I integrons using PCR technology. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. There were two serotypes detected in the 310 Salmonella strains, which included 133 Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates and 177 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates. Antimicrobial sensitivity results showed that the isolates were generally resistant to sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline and trimethoprim, and 95% of the isolates sensitive to amikacin and polymyxin. Among all Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates, 108 (81.2% possessed the blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr resistance genes. The detected carriage rate of class 1 integrons was 66.5% (206/310, with 6 strains carrying gene integron cassette dfr17-aadA5. The increasing frequency of multidrug resistance rate in Salmonella was associated with increasing prevalence of int1 genes (rs = 0.938, P = 0.00039. The int1, blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr positive Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates showed five major patterns as determined by PFGE. Most isolates exhibited the common PFGE patterns found from the chicken farms, suggesting that many multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana prevailed in these sources. Some isolates with similar antimicrobial resistance patterns represented a variety of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana genotypes, and were derived from a different clone.

  9. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Luo, Li; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-05-08

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) -like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha.

  11. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  12. FT-NIR: A Tool for Process Monitoring and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoccia, Domenico; Lutz, Holger; Cohen, Yvan; Jerphagnon, Thomas; Jenelten, Urban

    2018-03-30

    With ever-increasing pressure to optimize product quality, to reduce cost and to safely increase production output from existing assets, all combined with regular changes in terms of feedstock and operational targets, process monitoring with traditional instruments reaches its limits. One promising answer to these challenges is in-line, real time process analysis with spectroscopic instruments, and above all Fourier-Transform Near Infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR). Its potential to afford decreased batch cycle times, higher yields, reduced rework and minimized batch variance is presented and application examples in the field of fine chemicals are given. We demonstrate that FT-NIR can be an efficient tool for improved process monitoring and optimization, effective process design and advanced process control.

  13. Constraining f(T) gravity in the Solar System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Lorenzo [Ministero dell' Istruzione dell' Università e della Ricerca (M.I.U.R), Viale Unità di Italia 68, 70125 Bari (Italy); Radicella, Ninfa [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, Fisciano (Italy); Ruggiero, Matteo Luca, E-mail: lorenzo.iorio@libero.it, E-mail: ninfa.radicella@sa.infn.it, E-mail: matteo.ruggiero@polito.it [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of f(T) theories of gravity, we solve the field equations for f(T)=T+α T{sup n} in the weak-field approximation and for spherical symmetry spacetime. Since f(T)=T corresponds to Teleparallel Gravity, which is equivalent to General Relativity, the non linearity of the Lagrangian are expected to produce perturbations of the general relativistic solutions, parameterized by α. Hence, we use the f(T) solutions to model the gravitational field of the Sun and exploit data from accurate radio-tracking of spacecrafts orbiting Mercury and Saturn to infer preliminary bounds on the model parameter α and on the cosmological constant Λ.

  14. In vivo release of FT-207 from irradiation polymerized composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huaijiang; Kou Qinghe; Song Juzhong; Peng Tao; Chen Xiaohui; Zhang Dexi

    1999-01-01

    Polymer-drugs composite with long periods of controlled slow release was made by radiation induced polymerization in room temperature. In experiment in vivo, the composite was implanted subcutaneously the back of rabbits. The concentration of 1-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil (FT-207) was determined by HPLC. The results of test showed that the concentration of serum drug is 1.0 μg/mL after 1 week in the polymer-drug composites group. The drug concentration of tissue surrounding the composites is 76.2 +- 10.4 μg/mL. The drug concentration in the far organ (e.g.the lung 1.2 +- 0.5 μg/mL) is lower than the tissue surrounding the composite. The serum drug is higher and shorter time by the routine methods. The serum concentration of FT-207 is lower an retarded by implanted

  15. Applications of FT-IR spectrophotometry in cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Hoang, Vu Dang; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a brief background to the application of infrared spectroscopy, including Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, in biological fluids. It is not meant to be complete or exhaustive but to provide the reader with sufficient background for selected applications in cancer diagnostics. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a fast and nondestructive analytical method. The infrared spectrum of a mixture serves as the basis to quantitate its constituents, and a number of common clinical chemistry tests have proven to be feasible using this approach. This review focuses on biomedical FT-IR applications, published in the period 2009-2013, used for early detection of cancer through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  16. FT-IR spectroscopy of lipoproteins—A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Balarin, Maja; Kosović, Marin; Gamulin, Ozren; Brnjas-Kraljević, Jasminka

    2009-08-01

    FT-IR spectra, in the frequency region 4000-600 cm -1, of four major lipoprotein classes: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and two subclasses of high density lipoproteins (HDL 2 and HDL 3) were analyzed to obtain their detailed spectral characterization. Information about the protein domain of particle was obtained from the analysis of amide I band. The procedure of decomposition and curve fitting of this band confirms the data already known about the secondary structure of two different apolipoproteins: apo A-I in HDL 2 and HDL 3 and apo B-100 in LDL and VLDL. For information about the lipid composition and packing of the particular lipoprotein the well expressed lipid bands in the spectra were analyzed. Characterization of spectral details in the FT-IR spectrum of natural lipoprotein is necessary to study the influence of external compounds on its structure.

  17. MICROENCAPSULATION OF INDIGENOUS POULTRY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA PROBIOTIC ON THE COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION AGAINST Salmonella enteritidis AND Escherichia coli IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Sonia Indri Pradipta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB probiotic isolated from chickens’ gastrointestinal tract on Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis ATCC 13076 and Escherichia coli EPEC. Probiotic of LAB used were Streptococcus thermophilus strain Kp-2, Lactobacillus murinus strain Ar-3, and Pediococcus acidilactici strain Kd-6. Microencapsulation were conducted by spray drying with inlet/outlet temperatures of 160/80°C using maltodextrin and skim milk powder (20% w/v as coating materials. Competitive exclusion test was conducted in vitro using well diffusion method. Variable measured in this study was the clear zone observed. The data of clear zone among treatments were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA one way followed by Duncan multiple range test (DMRT; except the data of clear zone resulted by probiotic before and after microencapsulation that was analyzed using t-test. The result showed that the ability of each strain against pathogen was decreased after being encapsulated. S. thermophilus before and after microencapsulation had the same antagonistic ability against E. coli and S. enteritidis (P>0.05. Microencapsulation process with spray drying method decreased antagonistic ability of probiotic against pathogenic bacteria both in single and multi strain.

  18. Komposisi Kimia dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Kemangi (Ocimum americanum L. Terhadap Bakteri Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, dan Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kadarohman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of basil oil (Ocimum americanum L. against Escherichia coli, Shigellasonnei and Salmonella enteritidis have been determined. Basil oils were isolated from leaves and stems of basil (Ocimum americanumL. with percolation method and analyzed by FTIR and GC-MS spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of basil oils were obtained byAgar diffusion method with various concentration (v/v 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% with ethanol p.a. as negative control, thiamfenicol, andtetracycline 500 mg as positive control. The produces essential oils from leaves and stems of basil by percolation are 1.06 and 0.22%,respectively. There are 22 components of basil oil were identifi ed, with a major component are citral (35.58% and neral (29.56% .Basil oil has not effectively against Escherichia coli and Shigella sonnei but effectively against Salmonella enteritidis at concentration 8 and 10%, with inhibition zone diameter are 10.25 and 10.93 mm respectively.

  19. Immune response of chicken gut to natural colonization by gut microflora and to Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens.

  20. Laser Spark Formamide Decomposition Studied by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferus, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 44 (2011), s. 12132-12141 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FT-IR spectroscopy * high-power laser * induced dielectric-breakdown Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.946, year: 2011

  1. Generalized Noether symmetry in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni Sadjadi, H.

    2012-01-01

    We consider modified teleparallel gravity (f(T) gravity), as a framework to explain the present accelerated expansion of the universe. The matter component is assumed to be cold dark matter. To find the explicit form of the function f, we utilize generalized Noether theorem and use generalized vector fields as variational symmetries of the corresponding Lagrangian. We study the cosmological consequences of the obtained results.

  2. Wormholes in a viable f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics (CAMP), Islamabad (Pakistan); Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakstan (Kazakhstan)); Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakstan (Kazakhstan))

    2013-01-15

    In this paper, we derive some new exact solutions of static wormholes in f(T) gravity. We discuss independent cases of the pressure components including isotropic and anisotropic pressure. Lastly we consider radial pressure satisfying a barotropic equation of state. We also check the behavior of null energy condition (NEC) for each case and observe that it is violated for the anisotropic case, while it is satisfied for isotropic and barotropic cases. (orig.)

  3. Completely automated open-path FT-IR spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter R; Shao, Limin; Leytem, April B

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric analysis by open-path Fourier-transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry has been possible for over two decades but has not been widely used because of the limitations of the software of commercial instruments. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of the hardware and software that constitutes a contemporary OP/FT-IR spectrometer. We then describe advances that have been made in our laboratory that have enabled many of the limitations of this type of instrument to be overcome. These include not having to acquire a single-beam background spectrum that compensates for absorption features in the spectra of atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide. Instead, an easily measured "short path-length" background spectrum is used for calculation of each absorbance spectrum that is measured over a long path-length. To accomplish this goal, the algorithm used to calculate the concentrations of trace atmospheric molecules was changed from classical least-squares regression (CLS) to partial least-squares regression (PLS). For calibration, OP/FT-IR spectra are measured in pristine air over a wide variety of path-lengths, temperatures, and humidities, ratioed against a short-path background, and converted to absorbance; the reference spectrum of each analyte is then multiplied by randomly selected coefficients and added to these background spectra. Automatic baseline correction for small molecules with resolved rotational fine structure, such as ammonia and methane, is effected using wavelet transforms. A novel method of correcting for the effect of the nonlinear response of mercury cadmium telluride detectors is also incorporated. Finally, target factor analysis may be used to detect the onset of a given pollutant when its concentration exceeds a certain threshold. In this way, the concentration of atmospheric species has been obtained from OP/FT-IR spectra measured at intervals of 1 min over a period of many hours with no operator intervention.

  4. Technology development for iron F-T catalysts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this work were twofold. The first objective was to design and construct a pilot plant for preparing precipitated iron oxide F-T precursors and demonstrate that the rate of production from this plant is equivalent to 100 lbs/day of dried metal oxide. Secondly, these precipitates were to be used to prepare catalysts capable of achieving 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion with {le} 5 mole percent selectivity to methane + ethane.

  5. Computer simulation of FT-NMR multiple pulse experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, A.; Pouzard, G.

    1989-04-01

    Using the product operator formalism in its real form, SIMULDENS expands the density matrix of a scalar coupled nuclear spin system and simulates analytically a large variety of FT-NMR multiple pulse experiments. The observable transverse magnetizations are stored and can be combined to represent signal accumulation. The programming language is VAX PASCAL, but a MacIntosh Turbo Pascal Version is also available.

  6. Computer simulation of FT-NMR multiple pulse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouche, A.; Pouzard, G.

    1989-01-01

    Using the product operator formalism in its real form, SIMULDENS expands the density matrix of a scalar coupled nuclear spin system and simulates analytically a large variety of FT-NMR multiple pulse experiments. The observable transverse magnetizations are stored and can be combined to represent signal accumulation. The programming language is VAX PASCAL, but a MacIntosh Turbo Pascal Version is also available. (orig.)

  7. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to the consumption of frozen beefburgers received from a food bank and originating from Poland: northern France, December 2014 to April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gabrielle; Pihier, Nathalie; Vanbockstael, Caroline; Le Hello, Simon; Cadel Six, Sabrina; Fournet, Nelly; Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-10-06

    A prolonged outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmed S. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015. On 2 March 2015 a second notification of S. Enteritidis cases in the Somme reinitiated investigations that confirmed a link with food bank A and with consumption of frozen beefburgers from the same Polish producer. In the face of a possible persistent source of contamination, all frozen beefburgers distributed by food bank A and from the same origin were blocked on 3 March 2015. Microbiological analyses confirmed contamination by S. Enteritidis of frozen beefburgers from a second lot remaining in cases' homes. A second recall was initiated on 6 March 2015 and all frozen beefburgers from the Polish producer remain blocked after analyses identified additional contaminated lots over several months of production. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  8. Mathematical modeling and validation of growth of Salmonella Enteritidis and background microorganisms in potato salad – one-step kinetic analysis and model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to examine the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in potato salad caused by cross-contamination and temperature abuse, and develop mathematical models to predict its growth. The growth of SE was investigated under constant temperature conditions (8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, a...

  9. Highly expressed amino acid biosynthesis genes revealed by global gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis during growth in whole egg are not essential for this growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Dzuiga; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    , di/oligopeptide transport system, biotin synthesis, ferrous iron transport system, and type III secretion system. Significant downregulation of 15 genes related to formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) and trehalose metabolism was observed. The results suggested that S. Enteritidis is starved for amino...

  10. Impact of Skip a Day and Every Day Feeding Programs on the Colonization Rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in Broiler Breeder Pullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of feeding programs in the colonization rate after challenge with Salmonella enteritidis was investigated. Broiler breeder pullets from were vaccinated at 19 d of incubation with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1), or a vector HVT (vHVT) + Infectious bursal disease (...

  11. Development of a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Salmonella ser. Enteritidis from egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella ser. Enteritidis is a major public health concern worldwide. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel simple, easy-to-operate detection technology that amplifies DNA with high speed, efficiency, and specificity under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was t...

  12. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis DNA from Environmental Substrates and Quantification of Organisms by Using a General Internal Procedural Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Zijlstra, C.; Donnikov, M.; Vos, de R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares five commercially available DNA extraction methods with respect to DNA extraction efficiency of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from soil, manure, and compost and uses an Escherichia coli strain harboring a plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein as a general

  13. Simultaneous Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes at a Very Low Level Using Simultaneous Enrichment Broth and Multichannel SPR Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Tsuji, Sachiko; Kitaoka, Hayato; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Mitsuru; Honjoh, Ken-Ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2017-10-01

    Detection of foodborne pathogens at very low levels is still a challenge. A custom-built multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and simultaneous enrichment broth (SEB) were used to develop a simultaneous detection method for 3 important foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157:H7), Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes, at a very low level. These 3 foodborne pathogens at a very low level (14, 6, and 28 CFU/25 g (mL) for O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes, respectively) were inoculated in SEB and incubated at 37 ˚C for 24 h. Sample prepared from the simultaneous enrichment culture was analyzed using the multichannel SPR biosensor and sensor chip immobilized with polyclonal antibodies specific to each of the target pathogens. O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes in chicken were detected simultaneously at an inoculum dose of 14, 6, and 28 CFU/25 g, respectively. Our method using a custom-built multichannel SPR biosensor and enrichment in SEB is expected as a rapid and simultaneous detection method for low levels of O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes in food. Our method is expected as a rapid and simultaneous detection method for pathogens at very low levels. It has great potential for safety control of food and microbiological detection applications. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Yerba mate enhances probiotic bacteria growth in vitro but as a feed additive does not reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Francisco; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Zhang, Nan; Yard, Carrie; Crilly, Nate; Harte, Federico; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tea known to have beneficial effects on human health and antimicrobial activity against some foodborne pathogens. Thus, the application of yerba mate as a feed additive for broiler chickens to reduce Salmonella colonization was evaluated. The first in vitro evaluation was conducted by suspending Salmonella Enteritidis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in yerba mate extract. The in vivo evaluations were conducted using preventative and horizontal transmission experiments. In all experiments, day-of-hatch chicks were treated with one of the following 1) no treatment (control); 2) ground yerba mate in feed; 3) probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus; 9:1 administered once on day of hatch by gavage); or 4) both yerba mate and probiotic treatments. At d 3, all chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (preventative experiment) or 5 of 20 chicks (horizontal transmission experiment). At d 10, all birds were euthanized, weighed, and cecal contents enumerated for Salmonella. For the in vitro evaluation, antimicrobial activity was observed against Salmonella and the same treatment enhanced growth of LAB. For in vivo evaluations, none of the yerba mate treatments significantly reduced Salmonella Enteritidis colonization, whereas the probiotic treatment significantly reduced Salmonella colonization in the horizontal transmission experiment. Yerba mate decreased chicken BW and decreased the performance of the probiotic treatment when used in combination. In conclusion, yerba mate had antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and enhanced the growth of LAB in vitro, but in vivo yerba mate did not decrease Salmonella Enteritidis colonization.

  15. Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1 gene in Brachypodium and wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lv

    Full Text Available The phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a critical event in the life cycle of flowering plants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT plays a central role in the regulation of this transition by integrating signals from multiple flowering pathways in the leaves and transmitting them to the shoot apical meristem. In this study, we characterized FT homologs in the temperate grasses Brachypodium distachyon and polyploid wheat using transgenic and mutant approaches. Downregulation of FT1 by RNAi was associated with a significant downregulation of the FT-like genes FT2 and FT4 in Brachypodium and FT2 and FT5 in wheat. In a transgenic wheat line carrying a highly-expressed FT1 allele, FT2 and FT3 were upregulated under both long and short days. Overexpression of FT1 caused extremely early flowering during shoot regeneration in both Brachypodium and hexaploid wheat, and resulted in insufficient vegetative tissue to support the production of viable seeds. Downregulation of FT1 transcripts by RNA interference (RNAi resulted in non-flowering Brachypodium plants and late flowering plants (2-4 weeks delay in wheat. A similar delay in heading time was observed in tetraploid wheat plants carrying mutations for both FT-A1 and FT-B1. Plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-B1 flowered later than plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-A1, which corresponded with higher transcript levels of FT-B1 relative to FT-A1 in the early stages of development. Taken together, our data indicate that FT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of flowering in Brachypodium and wheat, and that this role is associated with the simultaneous regulation of other FT-like genes. The differential effects of mutations in FT-A1 and FT-B1 on wheat heading time suggest that different allelic combinations of FT1 homoeologs could be used to adjust wheat heading time to improve adaptation to changing environments.

  16. Characterization and identification of microorganisms by FT-IR microspectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Thi, N. A.; Kirschner, C.; Naumann, D.

    2003-12-01

    We report on a novel FT-IR approach for microbial characterization/identification based on a light microscope coupled to an infrared spectrometer which offers the possibility to acquire IR-spectra of microcolonies containing only few hundred cells. Microcolony samples suitable for FT-IR microspectroscopic measurements were obtained by a replica technique with a stamping device that transfers spatially accurate cells of microcolonies growing on solid culture plates to a special, IR-transparent or reflecting stamping plate. High quality spectra could be recorded either by applying the transmission/absorbance or the reflectance/absorbance mode of the infrared microscope. Signal to noise ratios higher than 1000 were obtained for microcolonies as small as 40 μm in diameter. Reproducibility levels were established that allowed species and strain identification. The differentiation and classification capacity of the FT-IR microscopic technique was tested for different selected microorganisms. Cluster and factor analysis methods were used to evaluate the complex spectral data. Excellent discrimination between bacteria and yeasts, and at the same time Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains was obtained. Twenty-two selected strains of different species within the genus Staphylococcus were repetitively measured and could be grouped into correct species cluster. Moreover, the results indicated that the method allows also identifications at the subspecies level. Additionally, the new approach allowed spectral mapping analysis of single colonies which provided spatially resolved characterization of growth heterogeneity within complex microbial populations such as colonies.

  17. Thermodynamics and cosmological reconstruction in f(T , B) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Zubair, M.; Abbas, G.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, it was formulated a teleparallel theory called f(T , B) gravity which connects both f(T) and f(R) under suitable limits. In this theory, the function in the action is assumed to depend on the torsion scalar T and also on a boundary term related with the divergence of torsion, B = 2∇μTμ. In this work, we study different features of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology in this theory. First, we show that the FLRW equations can be transformed to the form of Clausius relation TˆhSeff = - dE + WdV, where Tˆh is the horizon temperature and Seff is the entropy which contains contributions both from horizon entropy and an additional entropy term introduced due to the non-equilibrium. We also formulate the constraint for the validity of the generalised second law of thermodynamics (GSLT). Additionally, using a cosmological reconstruction technique, we show that both f(T , B) and - T + F(B) gravity can mimic power-law, de-Sitter and ΛCDM models. Finally, we formulate the perturbed evolution equations and analyse the stability of some important cosmological solutions.

  18. Changes of serum FT3, FT4, sTSH, TRAb, TGA and TMA concentrations in Graves' patients treated with 131I and clinical significances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenwei; Wei Liqin; Zhao Jie; Ma Qingjie; Sun Hui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significances of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , sTSH, TRAb, TGA and TMA concentration changes in Graves' patients before and after, 131 I treatment. Methods: The serum FT 3 , FT 4 , sTSH; TRAb, TGA and TMA concentrations before treatment, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after therapy in 172 Graves' patients and 43 normal controls were obtained by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay technique. Results: FT 3 and FT 4 concentrations showed an obvious decrease 3 months after treatment, while sTSH and TRAb had remarkable high values, as TGA and TMA demonstrated a trend to increase. FT 3 , FT 4 and sTSH concentrations were close to control group 6 months after treatment, TRAb had a decline trend. All the six indexes approached to normal 18 months after treatment. Conclusion: It is of great of significance for the Graves' patients to accept the developmental observation of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , and sTSH, TRAb, TGA and TMA concentrations before and after 131 I therapy, which provides a great of positive information for therapy guiding, observation and prognosis. (authors)

  19. Tipificación fágica de aislados de Salmonella enteritidis de muestras clínicas, alimentarias y avícolas en Chile Phage typing of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from clinical, food, and poultry samples in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Prat

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1994 Chile ha sido afectado por una extensa epidemia de infecciones por Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis. Para conocer la diversidad de fuentes infectantes, el posible origen de la epidemia y las relaciones epidemiológicas entre aislados clínicos, alimentarios y avícolas, se realizó la tipificación fágica de 310 muestras de S. enteritidis de origen clínico recolectadas entre los años 1975 y 1996 junto con 47 aislados alimentarios obtenidos durante brotes de S. enteritidis y 27 cepas aisladas en estudios de vigilancia de establecimientos de avicultura. En total, en las muestras clínicas se identificaron 13 fagotipos, dos aislados no pudieron tipificarse y uno se consideró atípico. Los tipos fágicos que se identificaron con mayor frecuencia fueron el 1 (56,8% y el 4 (31,3%, seguidos de los tipos 8 (4,8% y 28 (1,9%. La presencia regional y temporal de estos fagotipos indica que ha habido cambios importantes en su distribución: en los primeros años de recolección solo se registraron los fagotipos 8 y 28, que desaparecieron hacia 1980 para reaparecer de forma aislada en 1996. A partir de la expansión paulatina de S. enteritidis que se inició en 1988, se empezaron a aislar en las zonas central y sur del país fagos del tipo 4, que no se habían encontrado anteriormente en Chile. En 1991 emergió como predominante en la zona norte el fagotipo 1, tampoco registrado previamente. En los aislados alimentarios se identificaron solamente los tipos 1 y 4, que fueron también los más comunes en los aislados avícolas. La tipificación fágica de S. enteritidis es de utilidad para orientar el análisis epidemiológico de las infecciones por este agente patológico.Since 1994 an extensive epidemic of infections with Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis has affected Chile. In order to understand the diversity of infective sources, the possible origin of the epidemic, and the epidemiological relationships between clinical, food, and

  20. Characterisation of 1,3-diammonium propylselenate monohydrate by XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, DSC and DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, S.; Arjunan, V.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Atalay, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    The crystals of 1,3-diammonium propylselenate monohydrate (DAPS) were prepared and characterised X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy, and DFT/B3LYP methods. It comprises protonated propyl ammonium moieties (diammonium propyl cations), selenate anions and water molecule which are held together by a number of hydrogen bonds and form infinite chains. The XRD data confirm the transfer of two protons from selenic acid to 1,3-diaminopropane molecule. The DAPS complex is stabilised by the presence of O-H···O and N-H···O hydrogen bonds and the electrostatic interactions as well. The N···O and O···O bond distances are 2.82-2.91 and 2.77 Å, respectively. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 1,3-diammonium propyl selenate monohydrate are recorded and the complete vibrational assignments have been discussed. The geometry is optimised by B3LYP method using 6-311G, 6-311+G and 6-311+G* basis sets and the energy, structural parameters, vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities are determined. Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) data were also presented to analyse the possibility of the phase transition. Complete natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis is carried out to analyse the intramolecular electronic interactions and their stabilisation energies. The electrostatic potential of the complex lies in the range +1.902e × 10-2 to -1.902e × 10-2. The limits of total electron density of the complex is +8.43e × 10-2 to -8.43e × 10-2.

  1. FT-Raman and FT-Infrared investigations of archaeological artefacts from Foeni Neolithic site (Banat, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cîntă Pînzaru

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An impressive collection of chert artefacts from the Foeni Neolithic archaeological site (Timiş County, Banat region, Romania is hosted by the Banat Museum in Timişoara. A representative set of seven specimens was non-destructively investigated using FT-Raman and ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. The research was carried out for checking if these readily-available, non-destructive, fast, and cheap methods, which do not require preliminary sample preparation could provide significant information for characterizing the mineral composition of chert artefacts. Based on vibrational data, it was confirmed that the raw material was represented by microcrystalline quartz and moganite, with local concentrations of accessory minerals (calcite, dolomite, and clay minerals. In spite of their wide macroscopic heterogeneity (colour, transparency, based on single point FT-Raman measurements the chert artefacts could not be assigned to distinctive groups of raw silica materials, in order to provide specific arguments for provenance studies. However, the presence of specific accessory minerals (dolomite, illite pointed to distinctive genetic conditions in the case of one lithic material. Sets of measurements (mapping are required for statistically characterizing each artefact specimen. IR data were less significant, due to the rough surface texture of the specimens in contact with the ZnSe crystal of the ATR-FT-IR module. However, illite was identified based solely on its contribution to the IR spectrum. This pioneering study on chert artefacts from Romania based on optical spectroscopic methods shows that there are good premises for a systematic investigation of highly-valuable museum collections, in particular in terms of chert geology.

  2. Antimicrobial activity optimization of nisin, ascorbic acid and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA against Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongpanga Sangcharoen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a commercial bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and widely used as a natural preservative in the food industry. However, while nisin alone cannot inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, it can in combination with a chelating agent or organic acid. This study combined nisin with some chelating agents, weak organic acids and their salts to inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076. The combinations of nisin (2000 parts per million; ppm and ascorbic acid (2000 ppm or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA; 7400 ppm showed significant inhibitory effects on the target strain. Due to regulatory limits, the second part of the study reduced the concentrations of nisin, ascorbic acid and EDTA to 500 ppm, 2000 ppm and 250 ppm, respectively. The mixture of nisin, ascorbic acid and EDTA showed the highest inhibitory effect with a reduction number of 3.41 log colony forming units (p < 0.05. To minimize the growth of S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to investigate the combined effect of nisin (0–500 ppm, ascorbic acid (0–2000 ppm, and EDTA (0–250 ppm on the target strain growth. Among the three factors, nisin had a higher antimicrobial effect than ascorbic acid or EDTA, while an increase in nisin resulted in a decrease in S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 growth. The optimum concentration was 500 ppm nisin with 1515 ppm ascorbic acid and 250 ppm EDTA. Under these conditions, the growth of S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 predicted by the model was 24.99%. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Ascorbic acid, Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA, Nisin, Salmonella enteritidis

  3. Genetic analysis and CRISPR typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from different sources revealed potential transmission from poultry and pig to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuchun; Wang, Xin; Yin, Kequan; Hu, Yachen; Xu, Haiyan; Xie, Xiaolei; Xu, Lijuan; Fei, Xiao; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2018-02-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent serotypes in Salmonella isolated from poultry and the most commonly reported cause of human salmonellosis. In this study, we aimed to assess the genetic diversity of 329 S. Enteritidis strains isolated from different sources from 2009 to 2016 in China. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing was used to characterize these 262 chicken clinical isolates, 38 human isolates, 18 pig isolates, six duck isolates, three goose isolates and two isolates of unknown source. A total of 18 Enteritidis CRISPR types (ECTs) were identified, with ECT2, ECT8 and ECT4 as the top three ECTs. CRISPR typing identified ECT2 as the most prevalent ECT, which accounted for 41% of S. Enteritidis strains from all the sources except duck. ECT9 and ECT13 were identified in both pig and human isolates and revealed potential transmission from pig to human. A cluster analysis distributed 18 ECTs, including the top three ECTs, into four lineages with LI as the predominant lineage. Forty-eight out of 329 isolates were subjected to whole genome sequence typing, which divided them into four clusters, with Cluster I as the predominant cluster. Cluster I included 92% (34/37) of strains located in LI identified from the CRISPR typing, confirming the good correspondence between both typing methods. In addition, the CRISPR typing also revealed the close relationship between ECTs and isolated areas, confirming that CRISPR spacers might be obtained by bacteria from the unique phage or plasmid pools in the environment. However, further analysis is needed to determine the function of CRISPR-Cas systems in Salmonella and the relationship between spacers and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Combining Lactic Acid Spray with Near-Infrared Radiation Heating To Inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Almond and Pine Nut Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of near-infrared radiation (NIR) heating combined with lactic acid (LA) sprays for inactivating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on almond and pine nut kernels and to elucidate the mechanisms of the lethal effect of the NIR-LA combined treatment. Also, the effect of the combination treatment on product quality was determined. Separately prepared S. Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and non-PT 30 S. Enteritidis cocktails were inoculated onto almond and pine nut kernels, respectively, followed by treatments with NIR or 2% LA spray alone, NIR with distilled water spray (NIR-DW), and NIR with 2% LA spray (NIR-LA). Although surface temperatures of nuts treated with NIR were higher than those subjected to NIR-DW or NIR-LA treatment, more S. Enteritidis survived after NIR treatment alone. The effectiveness of NIR-DW and NIR-LA was similar, but significantly more sublethally injured cells were recovered from NIR-DW-treated samples. We confirmed that the enhanced bactericidal effect of the NIR-LA combination may not be attributable to cell membrane damage per se. NIR heat treatment might allow S. Enteritidis cells to become permeable to applied LA solution. The NIR-LA treatment (5 min) did not significantly (P > 0.05) cause changes in the lipid peroxidation parameters, total phenolic contents, color values, moisture contents, and sensory attributes of nut kernels. Given the results of the present study, NIR-LA treatment may be a potential intervention for controlling food-borne pathogens on nut kernel products. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L.; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M.; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest

  6. Risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in commercial poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morales-Barrera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Exp 1 consisted of 2 trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Exp 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighted and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of FITC-D to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics and SH infection. In both trials of Exp 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05. In Exp 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. In contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest Proteobacteria. The results of the present study

  7. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M; Latorre, Juan D; Mahaffey, Brittany D; Teague, Kyle D; Graham, Lucas E; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Baxter, Mikayla F A; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest

  8. The epidemiology of travel-related Salmonella Enteritidis in Ontario, Canada, 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Mary-Kathryn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases in the number of salmonellosis cases due to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE in 2010 and 2011 prompted a public health investigation in Ontario, Canada. In this report, we describe the current epidemiology of travel-related (TR SE, compare demographics, symptoms and phage types (PTs of TR and domestically-acquired (DA cases, and estimate the odds of acquiring SE by region of the world visited. Methods All incident cases of culture confirmed SE in Ontario obtained from isolates and specimens submitted to public health laboratories were included in this study. Demographic and illness characteristics of TR and DA cases were compared. A national travel survey was used to provide estimates for the number of travellers to various destinations to approximate rates of SE in travellers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of acquiring SE when travelling to various world regions. Results Overall, 51.9% of SE cases were TR during the study period. This ranged from 35.7% TR cases in the summer travel period to 65.1% TR cases in the winter travel period. Compared to DA cases, TR cases were older and were less likely to seek hospital care. For Ontario travellers, the adjusted odds of acquiring SE was the highest for the Caribbean (OR 37.29, 95% CI 17.87-77.82 when compared to Europe. Certain PTs were more commonly associated with travel (e.g., 1, 4, 5b, 7a, Atypical than with domestic infection. Of the TR cases, 88.9% were associated with travel to the Caribbean and Mexico region, of whom 90.1% reported staying on a resort. Within this region, there were distinct associations between PTs and countries. Conclusions There is a large burden of TR illness from SE in Ontario. Accurate classification of cases by travel history is important to better understand the source of infections. The findings emphasize the need to make travellers, especially to the Caribbean, and health professionals who provide advice to

  9. VT 10 ft Contour Lines generated from bare earth lidar - Chittenden

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ElevationContours_CN10T (10ft contours) was extracted from ElevationContours_CN2T (2ft contours), which was generated by USGS from the 2004...

  10. Performance Monitoring of a Nearshore Berm at Ft. Myers Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Figure 14. Establishing a temporary benchmark. ERDC/CHL TR-13-11 28 Visually estimated vegetation/ toe -of- dune line, MHHW line (identified...sediment samples were taken at the toe of the dune (where present), backbeach, high tide line, mean sea level, low tide line, and then at approximately...2-ft, 4-ft, 6-ft, and 8-ft water depths. In the berm area, surface sediment samples were taken at the toe of the dune (where present), backbeach

  11. An outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 34a infection associated with a Chinese restaurant in Suffolk, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgoub Hamid

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 30th July 2002, the Suffolk Communicable Disease Control Team received notifications of gastrointestinal illness due to Salmonella Enteritidis in subjects who had eaten food from a Chinese restaurant on 27th July. An Outbreak Control Team was formed resulting in extensive epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations. Methods Attempts were made to contact everybody who ate food from the restaurant on 27th July and a standard case definition was adopted. Using a pre-designed proforma information was gathered from both sick and well subjects. Food specific attack rates were calculated and two-tailed Fisher's exact test was used to test the difference between type of food consumed and the health status. Using a retrospective cohort design univariate Relative Risks and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated for specific food items. Results Data was gathered on 52 people of whom 38 developed gastrointestinal symptoms; 16 male and 22 female. The mean age was 27 years. The mean incubation period was 30 hours with a range of 6 to 90 hours. Food attack rates were significantly higher for egg, special and chicken fried rice. Relative risk and the Confidence interval for these food items were 1.97 (1.11–3.48, 1.56 (1.23–1.97 and 1.48 (1.20–1.83 respectively. Interviews with the chef revealed that many eggs were used in the preparation of egg-fried rice, which was left at room temperature for seven hours and was used in the preparation of the other two rice dishes. Of the 31 submitted stool specimens 28 tested positive for S Enteritidis phage type 34a and one for S Enteritidis phage type 4. Conclusion In the absence of left over food available for microbiological examination, epidemiological investigation strongly suggested the eggs used in the preparation of the egg-fried rice as the vehicle for this outbreak. This investigation highlights the importance of safe practices in cooking and handling of eggs in

  12. FT4 Data Analysis Summary (SSI-ARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Douglas R.; Gong, Chester; Reardon, Scott Edward; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    Standards for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) systems are currently being developed under the auspices of the RTCA Special Committee 228 (SC-228). To support the development of these standards, a series of flight tests has been conducted at NASAs Armstrong Flight Research Center (NASA-AFRC). The fourth in this series of flight test activities (Flight Test 4, or simply FT4) was conducted during the Spring and Summer of 2016. FT4 supported the objectives of numerous organizations working toward UAS DAA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) and UAS DAA Radar MOPS. The summary provided herein is limited to the objectives, analysis and conclusions of the NASA Ames Research Center (NASA-ARC) SSI team toward the refinement of UAS DAA MOPS. This document provides a high-level overview of FT4 and the SSI-ARC objectives, a summary of the data analysis methodology and recommendations for UAS DAA MOPS refinements based on the data analysis results. A total of 72 encounters were flown to support SSI-ARC objectives. Test results were generally consistent with acceptable UAS DAA system performance and will be considered in broader SC-228 requirements validation efforts. Observed alert lead times indicated acceptable UAS DAA alerting performance. Effective interoperability between the UAS DAA system and the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) was observed with one notable exception: TCAS Resolutions Advisories (RA) were observed in the absence of any DAA alert on two occasions, indicating the need for alert parameter refinement. Findings further indicated the need for continued work in the areas of DAA Well Clear Recovery logic and alert stability for Mode-C-only intruders. Finally, results demonstrated a high level of compliance with a set of evaluation criteria designed to provide anecdotal evidence of acceptable UAS DAA system performance.

  13. Differentiation of Leishmania species by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Josafá C.; Mittmann, Josane; Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Raniero, Leandro

    2015-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease caused by protozoa that belong to the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Sand fly. The disease is endemic in 88 countries Desjeux (2001) [1] (16 developed countries and 72 developing countries) on four continents. In Brazil, epidemiological data show the disease is present in all Brazilian regions, with the highest incidences in the North and Northeast. There are several methods used to diagnose leishmaniasis, but these procedures have many limitations, are time consuming, have low sensitivity, and are expensive. In this context, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis has the potential to provide rapid results and may be adapted for a clinical test with high sensitivity and specificity. In this work, FT-IR was used as a tool to investigate the promastigotes of Leishmaniaamazonensis, Leishmaniachagasi, and Leishmaniamajor species. The spectra were analyzed by cluster analysis and deconvolution procedure base on spectra second derivatives. Results: cluster analysis found four specific regions that are able to identify the Leishmania species. The dendrogram representation clearly indicates the heterogeneity among Leishmania species. The band deconvolution done by the curve fitting in these regions quantitatively differentiated the polysaccharides, amide III, phospholipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. L. chagasi and L. major showed a greater biochemistry similarity and have three bands that were not registered in L. amazonensis. The L. amazonensis presented three specific bands that were not recorded in the other two species. It is evident that the FT-IR method is an indispensable tool to discriminate these parasites. The high sensitivity and specificity of this technique opens up the possibilities for further studies about characterization of other microorganisms.

  14. FT Raman microscopy of untreated natural plant fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Webster, D.

    1997-11-01

    The application of FT-Raman microscopy to the non-destructive analysis of natural plant fibres is demonstrated with samples of flax, jute, ramie, cotton, kapok, sisal and coconut fibre. Vibrational assignments are proposed and characteristic features of each material are presented. Samples were not pre-treated chemically before analysis and were used directly from their respective storage collection; the adaptation of the Raman microscopic technique to the identification of specimens of natural fibres in archaeological burial sites is explored for its forensic potential.

  15. Efeito da microbiota cecal e do Lactobacillus salivarius inoculados in ovo em aves desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis Effect of cecal microflora and Lactobacillus salivarius in ovo administration used on chicken previously challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Andreatti Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Ovos embrionados provenientes de matrizes pesadas foram inoculados na câmara de ar com microbiota cecal total, microbiota cecal diluída e cultura de Lactobacillus salivarius, no 18º dia de incubação. Dois dias após o nascimento, as aves foram desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis (SE e, cinco dias após o desafio, avaliou-se a presença da bactéria no fígado e ceco. O efeito de exclusão competitiva, após o desafio com SE, somente foi observado pela ausência da bactéria no fígado das aves tratadas in ovo com L. salivarius. A inoculação in ovo de microbiota cecal indefinida ou diluída não reduziu a colonização de SE no fígado e no ceco das aves, incluindo, neste último, também o tratamento com L. salivarius. Nenhum dos tratamentos in ovo determinou índice de eclodibilidade superior a 65%.Commercial 18-day-old incubating chicken embryos were inoculated with total or diluted cecal microbiota and Lactobacillus salivarius cultures directly into the inner air sac. Two days after hatching, the chicks were challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE, and five days later the presence of bacteria in cecum and liver was evaluated. The competitive exclusion effect was determined by the search for SE in the liver of chicks treated in ovo with L. salivarius and challenged with SE. The in ovo inoculation of total or diluted cecal microbiota, in addition to the L. salivarius treatment did not significantly decrease the colonization of SE in liver and cecum. All treatments resulted in hatchability of 65% or less.

  16. A label-free ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of viable Salmonella enteritidis using enzyme-induced cascade two-stage toehold strand-displacement-driven assembly of G-quadruplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hui; Ma, Suzhen; Men, Shuai; Li, Qingzhou; Yang, Xin; Wang, Hongning; Zhang, Anyun

    2016-06-15

    The harm of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis ) to public health mainly by contaminating fresh food and water emphasizes the urgent need for rapid detection techniques to help control the spread of the pathogen. In this assay, an newly designed capture probe complex that contained specific S. enteritidis-aptamer and hybridized signal target sequence was used for viable S. enteritidis recognition directly. In the presence of the target S. enteritidis, single-stranded target sequences were liberated and initiated the replication-cleavage reaction, producing numerous G-quadruplex structures with a linker on the 3'-end. And then, the sensing system took innovative advantage of quadratic linker-induced strand-displacement for the first time to release target sequence in succession, leading to the cyclic reuse of the target sequences and cascade signal amplification, thereby achieving the successive production of G-quadruplex structures. The fluorescent dye, N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX, binded to these G-quadruplex structures and generated significantly enhanced fluorescent signals to achieve highly sensitive detection of S. enteritidis down to 60 CFU/mL with a linear range from 10(2) to 10(7)CFU/mL. By coupling the cascade two-stage target sequences-recyclable toehold strand-displacement with aptamer-based target recognition successfully, it is the first report on a novel non-label, modification-free and DNA extraction-free ultrasensitive fluorescence biosensor for detecting viable S. enteritidis directly, which can discriminate from dead S. enteritidis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic network for monitoring travellers' diarrhoea and detection of an outbreak caused by Salmonella enteritidis among overseas travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, K; Inouye, S; Okabe, N; Taniguchi, K; Izumiya, H; Watanabe, H; Matsumoto, Y; Yokota, T; Hashimoto, S; Sagara, H

    1999-12-01

    The Traveller's Diarrhoea Network, by which the Infectious Disease Surveillance Center is electronically connected with two major airport quarantine stations and three infectious disease hospitals, was launched in February 1988 in Japan. The data on travellers' diarrhoea detected is reported weekly by e-mail. Two clusters of infection among travellers returning from Italy were reported by two airport quarantine stations at the end of September 1998. A total of 12 salmonella isolates from 2 clusters were examined. All were identified as Salmonella enteritidis, phage type 4 and showed identical banding patterns on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A case-control study showed that the scrambled eggs served at the hotel restaurant in Rome were the likely source of this outbreak. This outbreak could not have been detected promptly and investigated easily without the e-mail network. International exchange of data on travellers' diarrhoea is important for preventing and controlling food-borne illnesses infected abroad.

  18. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure........ Enteritidis, and C. jejuni was faster in manure with rearing of fly larvae than in manure without larvae; an 8 log10 reduction of all three test bacteria was observed within four days in manure with larvae; compared to manure without larvae where a 1 to 2 log10 was observed. We found no sign of propagation...

  19. Plasmidotipia y evaluación in vitro de la virulencia de cepas de Salmonella enteritidis de origen aviar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío Toro

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar a nivel biológico y molecular cepas de Salmonella entérica, subespecie entérica serotipo Enteritidis (Salmonella enteritidis se obtuvieron y confirmaron bioquímica y serológicamente treinta cepas aisladas de aves clínicamente sanas. Las cepas fueron evaluadas mediante plasmidotipia y determinación de virulencia in vitro evaluando susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, actividad hemaglutinante manosa resistente y manosa sensible como indicativo de la presencia de adhesinas fimbriales y capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos. La extracción de plásmidos se realizó por la técnica de lisis alcalina. Se obtuvieron perfiles de restricción con las enzimas PstI y SmaI. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por la prueba de difusión de disco en agar. La actividad hemaglutinante en presencia y en ausencia de manosa fue evaluada frente a glóbulos rojos de ave, bovino, equino, humano (A+ y ovino. La capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos se determinó valorando la viabilidad de las cepas 24 horas después de la ingestión por macrófagos de línea de origen murino. Veintinueve cepas (96.6% mostraron un plasmido cuyo tamaño corresponde al plasmido de virulencia asociado a serotipo. Veintisiete cepas (90% mostraron dos o más plasmidos. Perfiles de restricción realizados con las enzimas Pst I y Sma I permitieron establecer una alta asociación entre las cepas. Se determinó resistencia a uno o más antimicrobianos en catorce cepas de S. enteritidis (46.6%, se observó resistencia a oxitetraciclina, sulfatrimetroprim, estreptomicina y cloranfenicol. Ninguna cepa mostró resistencia a gentamicina y kanamicina. Se detectó actividad hemaglutinante manosa sensible como indicativo de adhesinas fimbriales tipo I en once cepas (36.6% de las treinta evaluadas. La totalidad de las cepas sobrevivieron en el interior de macrófagos de línea J774A.1 y fueron viables 24 horas después de la

  20. Use of FT-NIR Spectroscopy for Bovine Colostrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Navrátilová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transformation near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR in combination with partial least squares (PLS method were used to determine the content of total solids, fat, non-fatty solids, lactose and proteins in bovine colostrum. Spectra of 90 samples were measured in the reflectance mode with a transflectance cuvette in the 10000-4000 cm-1 spectral ranges with 100 scans. Calibration was performed and statistical values of correlation coefficients (R and standard error of calibration values (SEC were computed for total solids (0.986 and 0.919, respectively, fat (0.997 and 0.285, respectively, non-fatty solids (0.995 and 0.451, respectively, lactose (0.934 and 0.285, respectively and protein (0.999 and 0.149, respectively. The calibration models developed were verified by cross validation. It follows from the study that FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used to determine the components of bovine colostrum.

  1. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens. PMID:21555397

  2. Measurement of serum FT/sub 4/ in pregnancy and binding protein abnormalities by different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, H; Wenzel, K W

    1985-11-01

    In serum of pregnant women in the 3rd trimester, the majority of FT/sub 4/ methods compared in the present study yielded FT/sub 4/ concentrations in the lower parts of normal ranges or beyond the lower normal border lines. In TBG deficiency, serum FT/sub 4/ as measured by six FT/sub 4/ kits was found to be in the manufacturer-specified normal ranges and did not show clearly recognizable systematic differences between single kits or kit groups with different methodological principles. considerable kit-dependent differences of measured FT/sub 4/ were found in euthyroid patients with TBG excess; all values were, however, in the respective normal ranges. In dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia, labelled analogue kits yielded falsely elevated FT/sub 4/ concentrations, while FT/sub 4/ measured by non-analogue methods was normal in agreement with the euthyroid status of the patient.

  3. FTIR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR, UV-visible and quantum chemical investigations of 2-amino-4-methylbenzothiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Sakiladevi, S; Rani, T; Mythili, C V; Mohan, S

    2012-03-01

    The FT-IR (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) spectral measurements and complete assignments of the observed spectra of 2-amino-4-methylbenzothiazole (2A4MBT) have been proposed. Ab initio and DFT calculations have been performed and the structural parameters of the compound were determined from the optimised geometry with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets and giving energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, depolarisation ratios, IR intensities and Raman activities. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-visible spectrum of the compound was also recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO, LUMO and band gap energies were measured by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The geometric parameters, energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities, Raman activities chemical shifts and absorption wavelengths were compared with the available experimental data of the molecule. The influences of methyl and amino groups on the skeletal modes and on the proton chemical shifts have been investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Do TSH, FT3, and FT4 Impact BAT Visualization of Clinical FDG-PET/CT Images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Nishii

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We retrospectively analyzed activated BAT visualization on FDG-PET/CT in patients with various conditions and TH levels to clarify the relationships between visualization of BAT on FDG-PET/CT and the effect of TH. Methods. Patients who underwent clinical FDG-PET/CT were reviewed and we categorized patients into 5 groups: (i thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW group; (ii recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH group; (iii hypothyroidism group; (iv hyperthyroidism group; and (v BAT group. A total of sixty-two FDG-PET/CT imaging studies in fifty-nine patients were performed. To compare each group, gender; age; body weight; serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels; and outside temperature were evaluated. Results. No significant visualization of BAT was noted in any of the images in the THW, rhTSH, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism groups. All patients in the BAT group were in a euthyroid state. When the BAT-negative and BAT-positive patient groups were compared, it was noted that the minimum and maximum temperature on the day of the PET study and maximum temperature of the one day before the PET study were significantly lower in BAT-positive group than in all those of other groups. Conclusions. Elevated TSH condition before RIT, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism did not significantly impact BAT visualization of clinical FDG-PET/CT images.

  5. Experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) and theoretical study of alkali metal 2-aminobenzoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonowicz, M.; Świsłocka, R.; Regulska, E.; Lewandowski, W.

    2008-09-01

    The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium on the electronic system of the 2-aminobenzoic acid was studied by the methods of molecular spectroscopy. The vibrational (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and NMR ( 1H and 13C) spectra for 2-aminobenzoic acid and its alkali metal salts were recorded. The assignment of vibrational spectra was done on the basis of literature data, theoretical calculations and our previous experience. Characteristic shifts of bands and changes in intensities of bands along the metal series were observed. The changes of chemical shifts of protons ( 1H NMR) and carbons ( 13C NMR) in the series of studied alkali metal 2-aminobenzoates were observed too. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by B3LYP method using 6-311++G ∗∗ basis set. Geometric aromaticity indices, dipole moments and energies were also calculated. The theoretical wavenumbers and intensities of IR and Raman spectra were obtained. The calculated parameters were compared to experimental characteristic of studied compounds.

  6. Do TSH, FT3, and FT4 Impact BAT Visualization of Clinical FDG-PET/CT Images?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Ryuichi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Mizutani, Youichi; Terada, Tamasa; Kiyohara, Syogo; Wakamatsu, Hideyuki; Fujita, Seigo; Higashi, Tatsuya; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Saga, Tsuneo; Hirai, Toshinori

    2018-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed activated BAT visualization on FDG-PET/CT in patients with various conditions and TH levels to clarify the relationships between visualization of BAT on FDG-PET/CT and the effect of TH. Patients who underwent clinical FDG-PET/CT were reviewed and we categorized patients into 5 groups: (i) thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) group; (ii) recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) group; (iii) hypothyroidism group; (iv) hyperthyroidism group; and (v) BAT group. A total of sixty-two FDG-PET/CT imaging studies in fifty-nine patients were performed. To compare each group, gender; age; body weight; serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels; and outside temperature were evaluated. No significant visualization of BAT was noted in any of the images in the THW, rhTSH, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism groups. All patients in the BAT group were in a euthyroid state. When the BAT-negative and BAT-positive patient groups were compared, it was noted that the minimum and maximum temperature on the day of the PET study and maximum temperature of the one day before the PET study were significantly lower in BAT-positive group than in all those of other groups. Elevated TSH condition before RIT, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism did not significantly impact BAT visualization of clinical FDG-PET/CT images.

  7. Radiosynthesis of (S)-["1"8F]T1: The first PET radioligand for molecular imaging of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasamkan, Jiradanai; Fischer, Steffen; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Ludwig, Friedrich-Alexander; Scheunemann, Matthias; Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Vajragupta, Opa; Brust, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recent pharmacologic data revealed the implication of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in nicotine and drug addiction. To image α3β4 nAChRs in vivo, we aimed to establish the synthesis of a ["1"8F]-labelled analog of the highly affine and selective α3β4 ligand (S)-3-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)quinuclidine ((S)-T1). (S)-["1"8F]T1 was synthesized from ethynyl-4-["1"8F]fluorobenzene (["1"8F]5) and (S)-azidoquinuclidine by click reaction. After a synthesis time of 130 min (S)-["1"8F]T1 was obtained with a radiochemical yield (non-decay corrected) of 4.3±1.3%, a radiochemical purity of >99% and a molar activity of >158 GBq/μmol. The brain uptake and the brain-to-blood ratio of (S)-["1"8F]T1 in mice at 30 min post injection were 2.02 (SUV) and 6.1, respectively. According to an ex-vivo analysis, the tracer remained intact (>99%) in brain. Only one major radiometabolite was detected in plasma and urine samples. In-vitro autoradiography on pig brain slices revealed binding of (S)-["1"8F]T1 to brain regions associated with the expression of α3β4 nAChRs, which could be reduced by the α3β4 nAChR selective drug AT-1001. These findings make (S)-["1"8F]T1 a potential tool for the non-invasive imaging of α3β4 nAChRs in the brain by PET. - Highlights: • (S)-["1"8F]T1 is a promising α3ß4 nAChR ligand for PET imaging. • The novel radioligand (S)-["1"8F]T1 was synthesized by click reaction. • The potential of (S)-["1"8F]T1 was shown by in vitro autoradiography and in vivo evaluation in mice.

  8. Suitability of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, combined with computerized gel analysis, in library typing of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garaizar, J.; Lopez-Molina, N.; Laconcha, I.

    2000-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica (n = 212) of different serovars and phage types were used to establish a library typing computerized system for serovar Enteritidis on the basis of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR), or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate...... showed an intercenter reproducibility value of 93.3%. The high reproducibility of PFGE combined with the previously determined high discrimination directed its use for library typing. The use of PFGE with enzymes XbaI, BlnI, and SpeI for library typing of serovar Enteritidis was assessed with GelCompar 4.......0 software, Three computer libraries of PFGE DNA profiles were constructed, and their ability to recognize new DNA profiles was analyzed. The results obtained pointed out that the combination of PFGE with computerized analysis could be suitable in long-term epidemiological comparison and surveillance...

  9. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly De Jesús Huertas Méndez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B–containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli.

  10. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Méndez, Nataly De Jesús; Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Gómez Chimbi, Anyelith Katherine; Hernández, Edith; Leal Castro, Aura Lucia; Melo Diaz, Javier Mauricio; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo

    2017-03-12

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B-containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli .

  11. Evaluation of two loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in artificially contaminated ready-to-eat fresh products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Birmpa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effectiveness of two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assays was evaluated. Samples of romaine lettuce, strawberries, cherry tomatoes, green onions and sour berries were inoculated with known dilutions (100-108 CFU/g of produce of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. With LAMP assay, pathogens can be detected in less than 60 min. The limits of detection of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes depended on the food sample tested and on the presence of enrichment step. After enrichment steps, all food samples were found positive even at low initial pathogen levels. The developed LAMP, assays, are expected to become a valuable, robust, innovative, powerful, cheap and fast monitoring tool, which can be extensively used for routine analysis, and screening of contaminated foods by the food industry and the Public Food Health Authorities.

  12. Hydrogenated fullerenes in space: FT-IR spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Barbary, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes are found in circumstellar and interstellar environments. But the determination structures for the detected bands in the interstellar and circumstellar space are not completely understood so far. For that purpose, the aim of this article is to provide all possible infrared spectra for C 20 and C 60 fullerenes and their hydrogenated fullerenes. Density Functional theory (DFT) is applied using B3LYP exchange-functional with basis set 6–31G(d, p). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is found to be capable of distinguishing between fullerenes, mono hydrogenated fullerenes and fully hydrogenated fullerenes. In addition, deposition of one hydrogen atom outside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes is found to be distinguished by forming H 2 molecule at peak around 4440 cm −1 . However, deposition of one hydrogen atom inside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes cannot be distinguished. The obtained spectral structures are analyzed and are compared with available experimental results.

  13. Observational information for f(T) theories and dark torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-01-17

    In the present work we analyze and compare the information coming from different observational data sets in the context of a sort of f(T) theories. We perform a joint analysis with measurements of the most recent type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO), Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB), Gamma-Ray Bursts data (GRBs) and Hubble parameter observations (OHD) to constraint the only new parameter these theories have. It is shown that when the new combined BAO/CMB parameter is used to put constraints, the result is different from previous works. We also show that when we include Observational Hubble Data (OHD) the simpler {Lambda}CDM model is excluded to one sigma level, leading the effective equation of state of these theories to be of phantom type. Also, analyzing a tension criterion for SNe Ia and other observational sets, we obtain more consistent and better suited data sets to work with these theories.

  14. Determination of nutritional parameters of yoghurts by FT Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Baranowska, Maria; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman

    2018-05-01

    FT-Raman quantitative analysis of nutritional parameters of yoghurts was performed with the help of partial least squares models. The relative standard errors of prediction for fat, lactose and protein determination in the quantified commercial samples equalled to 3.9, 3.2 and 3.6%, respectively. Models based on attenuated total reflectance spectra of the liquid yoghurt samples and of dried yoghurt films collected with the single reflection diamond accessory showed relative standard errors of prediction values of 1.6-5.0% and 2.7-5.2%, respectively, for the analysed components. Despite a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio in the obtained spectra, Raman spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, constitutes a fast and powerful tool for macronutrients quantification in yoghurts. Errors received for attenuated total reflectance method were found to be relatively higher than those for Raman spectroscopy due to inhomogeneity of the analysed samples.

  15. Study of the deuterated albumin by FT-IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoenescu, Daniela; Sahini, V.E.

    2000-01-01

    The albumin is a protein from the soluble or corpuscular protein class, which exists in cells, in dissolved state or in form of a hydrated gel. Proteins are essential constituents beside water, inorganic salts, lipids, carbon hydrates, vitamins, enzymes. The albumin is also a protein soluble in water and in diluted electrolyte solutions (acids, bases and salts). The investigation of the vibration isotopic effect has a great importance both for the diatomic molecules and for the polyatomic molecules. This paper is the first from a series of works which are intended to study the physico-chemical properties of the deuterated albumin and of the albumin solutions in heavy water by an isotopic exchange method. To put in evidence H-D exchange, the FT-IR spectroscopy is used when the deuterated albumin has different layer thickness. It is also of interest to elucidate the isotopic exchange between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in bovine serum albumin macromolecules. (authors)

  16. 3D-FT MRI of the facial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, N.; Raybaud, C.; Poncet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced 3D-FT MRI of the intrapetrous facial nerve was obtained in 38 patients with facial nerve disease, using a 1.0 T magnet and fast gradient-echo acquisition sequences. Contiguous millimetric sections were obtained, which could be reformatted in any desired plane. Acutely ill patients, were examined within the first 2 months, included: 24 with Bell's palsy and 6 with other acute disorders (Herpes zoster, trauma, neuroma, meningeal metastasis, middle ear granuloma). Six patients investigated more than a year after the onset of symptoms included 3 with congenital cholesteatoma, 2 with neuromas and one with a chronic Bell's palsy. The lesion was found incidentally in two cases (a suspected neurofibroma and a presumed drop metastasis from an astrocytoma). Patients with tumours had nodular, focally-enhancing lesions, except for the leptomeningeal metastasis in which the enhancement was linear. Linear, diffuse contrast enhancement of the facial nerve was found in trauma, and in the patient with a middle ear granuloma. Of the 24 patients with an acute Bell's palsy 15 exhibited linear contrast enhancement of the facial nerve. Three of these were lost to follow-up, but correlation of clinical outcome and contrast enhancement showed that only 4 of the 11 patients who made a complete recovery and all 10 patients with incomplete recovery demonstrated enhancement. Possible explanations for these findings are suggested by pathological data from the literature. 3D-FT imaging of the facial nerve thus yields direct information about the of the nerve condition and defines the morphological abnormalities. It can also demonstrate contrast enhancement which seems to have some prognostic value in acute idiopathic Bell's palsy. (orig.)

  17. 3D-FT MRI of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, N. (Neuroradiology, Hopital Nord, 13 Marseille (France)); Raybaud, C. (Neuroradiology, Hopital Nord, 13 Marseille (France)); Poncet, M. (Neuroradiology, Hopital Nord, 13 Marseille (France))

    1994-08-01

    Contrast-enhanced 3D-FT MRI of the intrapetrous facial nerve was obtained in 38 patients with facial nerve disease, using a 1.0 T magnet and fast gradient-echo acquisition sequences. Contiguous millimetric sections were obtained, which could be reformatted in any desired plane. Acutely ill patients, were examined within the first 2 months, included: 24 with Bell's palsy and 6 with other acute disorders (Herpes zoster, trauma, neuroma, meningeal metastasis, middle ear granuloma). Six patients investigated more than a year after the onset of symptoms included 3 with congenital cholesteatoma, 2 with neuromas and one with a chronic Bell's palsy. The lesion was found incidentally in two cases (a suspected neurofibroma and a presumed drop metastasis from an astrocytoma). Patients with tumours had nodular, focally-enhancing lesions, except for the leptomeningeal metastasis in which the enhancement was linear. Linear, diffuse contrast enhancement of the facial nerve was found in trauma, and in the patient with a middle ear granuloma. Of the 24 patients with an acute Bell's palsy 15 exhibited linear contrast enhancement of the facial nerve. Three of these were lost to follow-up, but correlation of clinical outcome and contrast enhancement showed that only 4 of the 11 patients who made a complete recovery and all 10 patients with incomplete recovery demonstrated enhancement. Possible explanations for these findings are suggested by pathological data from the literature. 3D-FT imaging of the facial nerve thus yields direct information about the of the nerve condition and defines the morphological abnormalities. It can also demonstrate contrast enhancement which seems to have some prognostic value in acute idiopathic Bell's palsy. (orig.)

  18. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis brain abscess mimicking meningitis after surgery for glioblastoma multiforme: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, L?a; Dubourg, Gr?gory; Graillon, Thomas; Honnorat, Estelle; Lepidi, Hubert; Drancourt, Michel; Seng, Piseth; Stein, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Salmonella brain abscess associated with brain tumor is rare. Only 11 cases have been reported to date. Here we report a case of brain abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mimicking post-surgical meningitis in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. Case presentation A 60-year-old Algerian woman was admitted through an emergency department for a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting, and behavioral disorders. Surgery for cerebral tumor excision was per...

  19. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis brain abscess mimicking meningitis after surgery for glioblastoma multiforme: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Léa; Dubourg, Grégory; Graillon, Thomas; Honnorat, Estelle; Lepidi, Hubert; Drancourt, Michel; Seng, Piseth; Stein, Andreas

    2016-07-07

    Salmonella brain abscess associated with brain tumor is rare. Only 11 cases have been reported to date. Here we report a case of brain abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mimicking post-surgical meningitis in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. A 60-year-old Algerian woman was admitted through an emergency department for a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting, and behavioral disorders. Surgery for cerebral tumor excision was performed and histopathological analysis revealed glioblastoma multiforme. On the seventh day post-surgery, she presented a sudden neurological deterioration with a meningeal syndrome, confusion, and fever of 39.8°C. Her cerebrospinal fluid sample and blood cultures were positive for S. enterica Enteritidis. She was treated with ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. On the 17th day post-surgery, she presented a new neurological disorder and purulent discharge from the surgical wound. Brain computed tomography revealed a large cerebral abscess located at the operative site. Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed and microbial cultures of surgical deep samples were positive for the same S. enterica Enteritidis isolate. She recovered and was discharged 6 weeks after admission. In this case report, a brain abscess was initially diagnosed as Salmonella post-surgical meningitis before the imaging diagnosis of the brain abscess. The diagnosis of brain abscess should be considered in all cases of non-typhoidal Salmonella meningitis after surgery for brain tumor. Surgical brain abscess drainage followed by prolonged antibiotic treatment remains a major therapeutic option.

  20. Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis PT14b gastroenteritis at a restaurant in England: the use of molecular typing to achieve a successful prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatt, C; Nicholds-Trainor, D; Scrivener, A; Suleman, S; Harvey, M; Dallman, T; Hawker, J; Sibal, B

    2017-10-01

    To describe an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 14b in people who had eaten at a restaurant, and the investigation and subsequent prosecution of the food business operator (FBO). The local health protection team and environmental health department formed an outbreak control team to investigate the outbreak. Epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental investigations were undertaken. Epidemiological investigations involved case finding and interviews. Microbiological investigation: stool samples from the suspected cases and environmental samples from the implicated food business were investigated. Salmonella isolates obtained were subjected to multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profiling and whole genome sequencing. In addition, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hygiene swab tests were used to verify the quality of cleaning procedures and data loggers were used to determine the water temperature of the mechanical dishwasher. Fifteen cases of illness where the causative agent was shown to be S. enteritidis PT14b were identified, all of whom had eaten at the same restaurant. S. enteritidis PT14b was also identified from three of the 11 food and environmental samples taken at the restaurant and found to have the same MLVA profile as the cases. A case for prosecution was built and the FBO was successfully prosecuted in July 2015. This investigation highlighted that the use of molecular typing as part of thorough epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental investigations can present a robust case for prosecution against restaurants which pose a risk to public health. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. APTES Functionalized Iron Oxide-Silver Magnetic Hetero-Nanocomposites for Selective Capture and Rapid Removal of Salmonella enteritidis from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Vu Thi; Dinh, Ngo Xuan; Lan, Hoang; Tam, Le Thi; Huy, Tran Quang; Tuan, Pham Anh; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic nanomaterials, as a promising platform for the fast and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens, have attracted increasing interest from researchers in recent years. In this work, by utilizing a two-step synthetic technique consisting of co-precipitation and subsequent hydrothermal reaction, followed by functionalization steps with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and the antibody against Salmonella enteritidis, antibody-conjugated Fe3O4-Ag@APTES hetero-nanocomposites were successfully prepared. Due to the specific antibody, the developed Fe3O4-Ag@APTES@SE-Ab conjugates are capable of selectively capturing S. enteritidis at a low concentration of about 101 CFU/mL. Moreover, the prepared magnetic conjugates also revealed that the S. enteritidis could be rapidly removed from water solution in 20 min by using an external magnetic field with a removal efficiency obtained of ˜ 91.36%. These results indicated that the Fe3O4-Ag@APTES@SE-Ab conjugates are promising for the rapid selective capture and removal of bacterial pathogens from aqueous environments, and can be used for improving the detection quality of pathogens in water samples using immunosensor-based diagnostic tests.

  2. A Weibull model to describe antimicrobial kinetics of oregano and lemongrass essential oils against Salmonella Enteritidis in ground beef during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; Soares, Rodrigo de Araújo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in in vitro experiments, and inoculated in ground bovine meat during refrigerated storage (4±2 °C) for 6 days was evaluated. The Weibull model was tested to fit survival/inactivation bacterial curves (estimating of p and δ parameters). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for both EOs on S. Enteritidis was 3.90 μl/ml. The EO concentrations applied in the ground beef were 3.90, 7.80 and 15.60 μl/g, based on MIC levels and possible activity reduction by food constituents. Both evaluated EOs in all tested levels, showed antimicrobial effects, with microbial populations reducing (p≤0.05) along time storage. Evaluating fit-quality parameters (RSS and RSE) Weibull models are able to describe the inactivation curves of EOs against S. Enteritidis. The application of EOs in processed meats can be used to control pathogens during refrigerated shelf-life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High pressure treatments on the inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis and the physicochemical, rheological and color characteristics of sliced vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alba, María; Montiel, Raquel; Bravo, Daniel; Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita

    2012-06-01

    The effect of high pressure (HP) on Salmonella Enteritidis in sliced dry-cured ham stored under temperature abuse (8°C) during 60d was investigated. After treatment, reductions of S. Enteritidis were 1.06, 2.54 and 4.32 log units in ham treated at 400, 500 and 600MPa for 5min at 12°C, compared to non-pressurized samples. After 60d, counts of S. Enteritidis in ham treated at 400 and 500MPa were 2.56 and 2.66 log units lower than in non-treated ham, whereas the pathogen was only detected after enrichment in ham treated at 600MPa. Lipid oxidation increased with storage and pressurization, whereas total free amino acid contents were similar in HP and control samples after 60d. Dry-cured ham treated at the highest pressures exhibited lower shear resistance, whereas the maximum force to compress the sample was slightly changed. Color (L*, a* and b*) varied with pressurization and storage. Changes induced by HP in dry-cured ham were attenuated during storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Significance of changes of serum FT3, FT4, s-TSH, TGA, TPO-Ab levels in patients with non-Graves' hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lindi; Xu Changde; Xu Huogen; Wang Wei; Zhang Jie; Nie Shufen; Gu Zhenqi; Zeng Jihua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of thyroid-related hormones (FT 3 , FT 4 , s-TSH, TGA, TPO-Ab) levels in patients with Graves' and non-Graves' hyperthyroidism. Methods: Serum FT 3 , FT 4 , TGA, TPO-Ab (with RIA) and s-TSH (with IRMA) were determined in 43 patients with non-Graves' hyperthyroidism, 29 patients with Graves' disease and 40 controls. Results: In both groups of hyperthyroid patients, the serum levels of FT 3 (15.01 ± 11.01 pg/ml in the non - Graves' group and 15.23 ± 9.57pg/ml in the Graves' group), FT 4 (38.30 ± 19.82, 38.87 ± 17.39pg/ml), TGA(33.89 ± 22. 43%, 49.72 ± 20.55% ) and TPO-Ab (1319.24 ± 1037.78, 2023.24 ± 621.00IU/ml) were significantly higher than those (FT 3 , 6.76 ± 2.01pg/ml, FT 4 16.16 ± 2.58pg/ml, TGA 6.76 ± 2.01%, TPO-Ab 0.01 ± 0.01IU/ml) in the controls (all P 3 , FT 4 and s-TSH levels in both groups were not significantly different from each other. Conclusion: In this study, serum TGA and TPO -Ab levels were lower in patients with non-Graves' hyperthyroidism than those in patients with Graves' disease. (authors)

  5. Comparative FT-Raman, FT-IR and colour shifts spectroscopic evaluation of gamma irradiated experimental models of oil paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, M.M.; Virgolici, M.; Cutrubinis, M.; Moise, I.V.; Ponta, C.C.; Negut, C.D.; Stanculescu, I.R.; Bucharest University

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The present study follows the changes of gamma irradiated historic pigments and experimental models of oil paintings with non-destructive and non-contact spectroscopic analytical techniques which are the only ones accepted by the conservators/restorers community. Molecular structure characterization was performed by FT-IR / Raman spectroscopy using a Bruker Vertex 70 class equipped with two mobile probes: a MIR fibre module for MIR probes (with LN2 cooled detector) and a Raman RAM II module (LN2 Ge detector) with a RAMPROBE fibre. Colour was measured by a portable reflectance spectrophotometer (Miniscan XE Plus, HunterLab) in diffuse/8 deg geometry with a beam diameter of 4 mm and specular component included. Correlations between colour shifts and changes in molecular structure induced by gamma irradiation were further investigated.

  6. FT-IR, FT-Raman, and DFT computational studies of melaminium nitrate molecular-ionic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanak, Hasan; Marchewka, Mariusz K.

    2013-02-01

    The experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of melaminium nitrate were studied. The Raman and infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the melaminium nitrate and its deuterated analogue were recorded in the solid phase. Molecular geometry and vibrational frequency values of melaminium nitrate in the electronic ground state were calculated using the density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated results show that the optimized geometry can well reproduce the crystal structure, and the theoretical vibrational frequency values show good agreement with experimental values. The NBO analysis reveals that the N-H···O and N-H···N intermolecular interactions significantly influence crystal packing in this molecule.

  7. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital An outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Eugenia Chávez-de la Peña

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  8. Motor pathway excitability in ATP13A2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zittel, S; Kroeger, J; van der Vegt, J P M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe excitability of motor pathways in Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (PARK9), an autosomal recessive nigro-striatal-pallidal-pyramidal neurodegeneration caused by a mutation in the ATP13A2 gene, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Five members of a Chilean family...... with an ATP13A2 mutation (one affected mutation carrier (MC) with a compound heterozygous mutation, 4 asymptomatic MC with a single heterozygous mutation) and 11 healthy subjects without mutations were studied. We measured motor evoked potentials (MEP), the contralateral silent period (cSP), short interval....... RESULTS: CSP duration was increased in the symptomatic ATP13A2 MC. The iSP measurements revealed increased interhemispheric inhibition in both the compound heterozygous and the heterozygous MC. CONCLUSION: A compound heterozygous mutation in the ATP13A2 gene is associated with increased intracortical...

  9. 3-Iodobenzaldehyde: XRD, FT-IR, Raman and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandraju Sadolalu Chidan; Parlak, Cemal; Tursun, Mahir; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Rhyman, Lydia; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Alswaidan, Ibrahim A; Keşan, Gürkan; Chandraju, Siddegowda; Quah, Ching Kheng

    2015-06-15

    The structure of 3-iodobenzaldehyde (3IB) was characterized by FT-IR, Raman and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The conformational isomers, optimized geometric parameters, normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of 3IB were examined using density functional theory (DFT) method, with the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) functional and the 6-311+G(3df,p) basis set for all atoms except for iodine. The LANL2DZ effective core basis set was used for iodine. Potential energy distribution (PED) analysis of normal modes was performed to identify characteristic frequencies. 3IB crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/c with the O-trans form. There is a good agreement between the theoretically predicted structural parameters, and vibrational frequencies and those obtained experimentally. In order to understand halogen effect, 3-halogenobenzaldehyde [XC6H4CHO; X=F, Cl and Br] was also studied theoretically. The free energy difference between the isomers is small but the rotational barrier is about 8kcal/mol. An atypical behavior of fluorine affecting conformational preference is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogenated fullerenes in space: FT-IR spectra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Barbary, A. A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-10

    Fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes are found in circumstellar and interstellar environments. But the determination structures for the detected bands in the interstellar and circumstellar space are not completely understood so far. For that purpose, the aim of this article is to provide all possible infrared spectra for C{sub 20} and C{sub 60} fullerenes and their hydrogenated fullerenes. Density Functional theory (DFT) is applied using B3LYP exchange-functional with basis set 6–31G(d, p). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is found to be capable of distinguishing between fullerenes, mono hydrogenated fullerenes and fully hydrogenated fullerenes. In addition, deposition of one hydrogen atom outside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes is found to be distinguished by forming H{sub 2} molecule at peak around 4440 cm{sup −1}. However, deposition of one hydrogen atom inside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes cannot be distinguished. The obtained spectral structures are analyzed and are compared with available experimental results.

  11. Statistical analysis of the Ft. Calhoun reactor coolant pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, Carolyn D.

    1998-01-01

    In engineering science, statistical quality control techniques have traditionally been applied to control manufacturing processes. An application to commercial nuclear power plant maintenance and control is presented that can greatly improve plant safety. As a demonstration of such an approach to plant maintenance and control, a specific system is analyzed: the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) of the Ft. Calhoun nuclear power plant. This research uses capability analysis, Shewhart X-bar, R-charts, canonical correlation methods, and design of experiments to analyze the process for the state of statistical control. The results obtained show that six out of ten parameters are under control specifications limits and four parameters are not in the state of statistical control. The analysis shows that statistical process control methods can be applied as an early warning system capable of identifying significant equipment problems well in advance of traditional control room alarm indicators Such a system would provide operators with ample time to respond to possible emergency situations and thus improve plant safety and reliability. (author)

  12. Statistical analysis of the Ft. Calhoun reactor coolant pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Bimal; Heising, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    In engineering science, statistical quality control techniques have traditionally been applied to control manufacturing processes. An application to commercial nuclear power plant maintenance and control is presented that can greatly improve plant safety. As a demonstration of such an approach, a specific system is analyzed: the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) of the Ft. Calhoun nuclear power plant. This research uses capability analysis, Shewhart X-bar, R charts, canonical correlation methods, and design of experiments to analyze the process for the state of statistical control. The results obtained show that six out of ten parameters are under control specification limits and four parameters are not in the state of statistical control. The analysis shows that statistical process control methods can be applied as an early warning system capable of identifying significant equipment problems well in advance of traditional control room alarm indicators. Such a system would provide operators with ample time to respond to possible emergency situations and thus improve plant safety and reliability. (Author)

  13. Breast cancer diagnosis using FT-RAMAN spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Criollo, Carlos J. T.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.

    2005-04-01

    In this study FT-RAMAN spectra of breast tissue from 35 patients were obtained and separated into nine groups for histopathologic analysis, which are as follows: normal breast tissue, fibrocystic condition, in situ ductal carcinoma, in situ ductal carcinoma with necrosis, infiltrate ductal carcinoma, infiltrate inflammatory ductal carcinoma, infiltrate medullar ductal carcinoma, infiltrate colloid ductal carcinoma, and infiltrate lobular carcinoma. Using spectrum averages taken from each group a qualitative analysis was performed to compare these molecular compositions to those known to be present in abnormal concentrations in pathological situations, e.g. the development of desmoplastic lesions with a stroma of dense collagen in tumoral breast tissues which substitute adipose stroma of non-diseased breast tissue. The band identified as amino acids, offered basis for observation in the existence of alterations in the proteins, thus proving Raman Spectroscopic capacity in identification of primary structures of proteins; secondary protein structure was also identified through the peptic links, Amide I and Amide III, which have also been identified by various authors. Alterations were also identified in the peaks and bandwidths of nucleic acids demonstrating the utilization of Raman Spectroscopy in the analysis of the cells nucleus manifestations. All studies involving Raman Spectroscopy and breast cancer have shown excellent result reliability and therefore a basis for the technical theory.

  14. Dam methylation participates in the regulation of PmrA/PmrB and RcsC/RcsD/RcsB two component regulatory systems in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Hernán Sarnacki

    Full Text Available The absence of Dam in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes a defect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS pattern associated to a reduced expression of wzz gene. Wzz is the chain length regulator of the LPS O-antigen. Here we investigated whether Dam regulates wzz gene expression through its two known regulators, PmrA and RcsB. Thus, the expression of rcsB and pmrA was monitored by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting using fusions with 3×FLAG tag in wild type (wt and dam strains of S. Enteritidis. Dam regulated the expression of both rcsB and pmrA genes; nevertheless, the defect in LPS pattern was only related to a diminished expression of RcsB. Interestingly, regulation of wzz in serovar Enteritidis differed from that reported earlier for serovar Typhimurium; RcsB induces wzz expression in both serovars, whereas PmrA induces wzz in S. Typhimurium but represses it in serovar Enteritidis. Moreover, we found that in S. Enteritidis there is an interaction between both wzz regulators: RcsB stimulates the expression of pmrA and PmrA represses the expression of rcsB. Our results would be an example of differential regulation of orthologous genes expression, providing differences in phenotypic traits between closely related bacterial serovars.

  15. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3% broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, since two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4 (20/21 and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21. Twenty-two (88% strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1 and S. Hadar (n: 3 isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP, and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3% cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4 (20/21 e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21. Vinte e duas (88% cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1 e S. Hadar (n: 3, apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorr

  16. The effect of milk fat globules on adherence and internalization of Salmonella Enteritidis to HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Griffiths, M; Khursigara, C M; Corredig, M

    2012-12-01

    Milk fat globules were extracted from bovine and goat milk and incubated with HT-29 human adenocarcinoma cells to assess the attachment and internalization of Salmonella Enteritidis. Because the expression of bacterial adhesins is highly affected by the presence of antibiotic, the attachment was studied with and without antibiotic in the cell growth medium. Although no inhibitory effect of the fat globules was observed in the presence of the antibiotic, milk fat globules significantly inhibited the binding and internalization of Salmonella in medium free of antibiotic. The fat globules from both bovine and goat milk markedly reduced bacterial binding and invasion compared with controls, and the cells treated with goat milk-derived fat globules demonstrated greater protective properties than those derived from bovine milk. The effect of heat treatment on bovine fat globules was also investigated, and it was shown that the fat globules from heated milk had a higher degree of inhibition than those from unheated milk. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers.

  18. Effect of operating conditions in production of diagnostic Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody in different bioreactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz-Tamis, Duygu; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Elibol, Murat; Deliloglu-Gurhan, Saime Ismet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, different cultivation systems such as roller bottles (RB), 5-L stirred-tank bioreactor (STR), and disposable bioreactors were used to cultivate hybridoma for lab-scale production of Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb). Hybridoma cell line was cultivated in either serum-containing or serum-free medium (SFM) culture conditions. In STR, MAb production scaled up to 4 L, and production capabilities of the cells were also evaluated in different featured production systems. Moreover, the growth parameters of the cells in all production systems such as glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production, and also MAb productivities were determined. Collected supernatants from the reactors were concentrated by a cross-flow filtration system. In conclusion, cells were not adapted to SFM in RB and STR. Therefore, less MAb titer in both STR and RB systems with SFM was observed compared to the cultures containing fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium. A higher MAb titer was gained in the membrane-aerated system compared to those in STR and RB. Although the highest MAb titer was obtained in the static membrane bioreactor system, the highest productivity was obtained in STR operated in semicontinuous mode with overlay aeration.

  19. A Mexican restaurant-associated outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis type 34 infections traced to a contaminated egg farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, M M; Sweat, L B; Carter, S L; Watson, C B; Holloway, J T; Manning, R; Altekruse, S F; Blake, P A

    1999-04-01

    In May 1996, the Georgia Division of Public Health was notified about a cluster of persons with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Waycross, Georgia. A matched pair case-control study to determine risk factors for illness found a statistically significant association of SE infection with a history of having eaten at Restaurant A during the 5 days before onset of illness (relative risk = 13 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3-62, P 1.46, P = 0.034) was found to be significantly associated with SE infection. An environmental investigation found evidence of suboptimal food storage and cooking temperatures at Restaurant A; cross contamination of foods may have contributed to the low attributable risk identified for chile rellenos. Five of 37 Restaurant A food and environment specimens yielded SE strains. All five positive specimens were from chiles rellenos. Of the seven outbreak-associated strains (six patient isolates and one food isolate from Restaurant A) for which phage typing was conducted, all were phage type 34. A FDA traceback investigation through Restaurant A's single-egg supplier identified the potential source as three interrelated farms in South Carolina. Environmental culture from one of these farms yielded SE phage type 34. As a result of this outbreak, FDA helped institute a statewide egg quality-assurance programme in South Carolina to minimize SE contamination of eggs.

  20. Sensitivity to disinfection of bacterial indicator organisms for monitoring the Salmonella Enteritidis status of layer farms after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, I; Ducatelle, R; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Reu, K

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluated Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus hirae as potential indicator organisms for the possible Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) presence in layer farms after cleaning and disinfection by comparing their susceptibility to disinfection. A quantitative suspension disinfection test according to European Standard EN1656 was performed using disinfection products CID20 and Virocid (both from CID Lines, Ieper, Belgium). In a preliminary test, the sensitivity to both disinfection products was compared between ATCC strains of SE, E. coli, En. faecalis, and En. hirae. The sensitivity of SE to disinfection was most comparable to that of E. coli. A second disinfection test compared the elimination of E. coli to SE ATCC strains as well as field strains. Results showed no significant effect regarding the strain (P > 0.05 for CID20 and Virocid), meaning that no difference was detected in sensitivity toward disinfection. When comparing the sensitivity in general at species level for all concentrations of disinfectant used, no significant difference was found between E. coli and SE in sensitivity to Virocid (P > 0.05). In conclusion, because of its similar response to disinfection in a suspension disinfection test, E. coli could be used as an indicator for possible Salmonella presence after cleaning and disinfection.

  1. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed interesterification for bulky fats modification with FT-IR/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Lai, Xuxin; Zhang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for bulky fat modification. The reaction was conducted between palm stearin and coconut oil (70/30, w/w) with the catalysis of Lipozyme TL IM at 70°C in a batch reactor...

  2. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing procedures in controlling the adherence of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus to domestic kitchen surfaces Eficiência dos procedimentos de limpeza e de sanitização no controle da adesão de Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis e Staphylococcus aureus em superfícies usadas em cozinhas domésticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Dias Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing procedures in controlling Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Pseudomonasfluorescens adhered to granite and stainless steel was evaluated. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in the adherence of pure cultures of these microorganisms to stainless steel. The numbers of P. fluorescens and S. Enteritidis adhered to granite were greater (p 0.05 between the surfaces. However, a significant difference was observed (p A eficiência dos procedimentos de limpeza e sanitização no controle de Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis e Pseudomonasfluorescens aderidas em granito e aço inoxidável foi avaliada. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na adesão destes microrganismos quando em cultura pura, em aço inoxidável. O número de células aderidas de P. fluorescens e S. Enteritidis foi maior (p 0,05 entre as superfícies. Entretanto, observou-se uma diferença (p < 0,05 entre as soluções sanitizantes utilizadas. Hipoclorito de sódio e ácido peracético apresentaram maior ação bactericida (p < 0,05 que o composto de amônia quaternária. Observou-se que S. aureus apresentou menor resistência à ação desses sanitizantes. Os resultados mostram a importância da adequada realização dos procedimentos de limpeza e sanitização para evitar a adesão bacteriana e formação de biofilme.

  4. Engineering Plant Immunity via CRISPR/Cas13a System

    KAUST Repository

    Aljedaani, Fatimah R.

    2018-05-01

    Viral diseases constitute a major threat to the agricultural production and food security throughout the world. Plants cope with the invading viruses by triggering immune responses and small RNA interference (RNAi) systems. In prokaryotes, CRISPR/Cas systems function as an adaptive immune system to provide bacteria with resistance against invading phages and conjugative plasmids. Interestingly, CRISPR/Cas9 system was shown to interfere with eukaryotic DNA viruses and confer resistance against plant DNA viruses. The majority of the plant viruses have RNA genomes. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the newly discovered CRISPR/Cas13a immune system, that targets and cleaves single stranded RNA (ssRNA) in prokaryotes, to provide resistance against RNA viruses in plants. Here, I employ the CRISPR/Cas13a system for molecular interference against Turnip Mosaic Virus (TuMV), a plant RNA virus. The results of this study established the CRISPR/Cas13a as a molecular interference machinery against RNA viruses in plants. Specifically, my data show that the CRISPR/Cas13a machinery is able to interfere with and degrade the TuMV (TuMV-GFP) RNA genome. In conclusion, these data indicate that the CRISPR/Cas13 systems can be employed for engineering interference and durable resistance against RNA viruses in diverse plant species.

  5. Sobrevivencia de Salmonella enteritidis em ovos artificialmente contaminados e submetidos a diferentes tipos de cocção e em alimentos preparados a base de ovos e consumidos sem tratamento termico

    OpenAIRE

    Magaly Ananias Afonso

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: Determinou-se a sobrevivência de Salmonella enteritidis em ovos artificialmente, contaminados e submetidos à cocção em chama de gás e forno de microondas (FMO), e, em alimentos preparados com ovos contaminados c submetidos a diferentes temperaturas de armazenagem. Foi utilizado Salmonella enteritidis patogênico, fagotipo 28 isolado de aves e ovos brancos de galinhas comerciais. Os alimentos contaminados com aproximadamente 106 a 108 UFC e examinados foram: ovos cozidos em água ...

  6. Comprehensive comparison of two protein family of P-ATPases (13A1 and 13A3) in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigh, Samin

    2017-06-01

    The P-type ATPases (P-ATPases) are present in all living cells where they mediate ion transport across membranes on the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Different ions which are transported by these pumps are protons like calcium, sodium, potassium, and heavy metals such as manganese, iron, copper, and zinc. Maintenance of the proper gradients for essential ions across cellular membranes makes P-ATPases crucial for cell survival. In this study, characterization of two families of P-ATPases including P-ATPase 13A1 and P-ATPase 13A3 protein was compared in two different insect species from different orders. According to the conserved motifs found with MEME, nine motifs were shared by insects of 13A1 family but eight in 13A3 family. Seven different insect species from 13A1 and five samples from 13A3 family were selected as the representative samples for functional and structural analyses. The structural and functional analyses were performed with ProtParam, SOPMA, SignalP 4.1, TMHMM 2.0, ProtScale and ProDom tools in the ExPASy database. The tertiary structure of Bombus terrestris as a sample of each family of insects were predicted by the Phyre2 and TM-score servers and their similarities were verified by SuperPose server. The tertiary structures were predicted via the "c3b9bA" model (PDB Accession Code: 3B9B) in P-ATPase 13A1 family and "c2zxeA" model (PDB Accession Code: 2ZXE) in P-ATPase 13A3 family. A phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA 6.06 software using the Neighbor-joining method. According to the results, there was a high identity of P-ATPase families so that they should be derived from a common ancestor however they belonged to separate groups. In protein-protein interaction analysis by STRING 10.0, six common enriched pathways of KEGG were identified in B. terrestris in both families. The obtained data provide a background for bioinformatic studies of the function and evolution of other insects and organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Application of predictive models to assess the influence of thyme essential oil on Salmonella Enteritidis behaviour during shelf life of ready-to-eat turkey products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possas, Arícia; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Valero, Antonio; García-Gimeno, Rosa M; Duarte, Marta C T

    2017-01-02

    Consumers' demand for ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat is attributed to its convenience and healthy properties. However, as cooked meat product it is subjected to post-process contamination, thus allowing presence and growth of microbial pathogens, such as Salmonella spp.. The aim of this study was to include a natural antimicrobial, thyme essential oil (TEO), on RTE turkey products in order to evaluate its effectiveness throughout the shelf life. To do so, the effect of four different formulations of cooked RTE turkey products on Salmonella Enteritidis behaviour was investigated. Products' slices were surface inoculated with S. Enteritidis (ca. 4 to 5logcfu/g), subsequently stored at 10 and 25°C and microbiologically analysed during 18 and 12days, respectively. Predictive microbiology models fitted to count data were used to evaluate microbial behaviour. Results showed that S. Enteritidis behaviour on RTE turkey products slices during storage was strongly dependent on temperature. The pathogen was able to grow on slices at all tested conditions during storage at 25°C and no statistical differences were detected (p>0.05) between growth parameters. At 10°C, different behaviour patterns were observed. The application of TEO led to higher Salmonella inactivation rates on a product exempt of chemical preservatives. The addition of this novel antimicrobial on meat products or its incorporation on meat active packaging systems as a part of hurdle technology could increase RTE turkey products safety while satisfying the demand of more natural foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  9. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO.

  10. Factors affecting thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ODA 99-30581-13 in shell egg contents and use of heat-ozone combinations for egg pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-02-01

    Infection of laying hens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis leads to deposition of the pathogen into the albumen or yolk of forming eggs. Heat treatment can inactivate internalized Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs, but factors such as the nature and location of contamination may influence the efficacy of thermal treatments. In the current research, natural contamination was mimicked by introducing small inocula of Salmonella Enteritidis into different locations of shell eggs and incubating inoculated eggs. These pathogen-containing eggs were heated at 57°C for 40 min, and temperature within eggs was monitored at the locations of inocula. Comparison of inactivation at equivalent internal temperatures revealed similar levels of lethality regardless of inoculum location. Refrigeration between incubation and heat treatment did not increase thermal resistance of cells in albumen but decreased cell inactivation in yolk. Sequential application of heat and gaseous ozone allows for the development of a process capable of decontaminating shell eggs with minimal thermal treatment and impact on egg quality. Inoculated eggs were subjected to (i) an immersion heating process similar to that used in commercial pasteurization or (ii) immersion heating, at reduced duration, followed by vacuum (50.8 kPa) and treatment with ozone gas (maximum 160 g/m(3)) under pressure (∼187.5 kPa). All treatments tested produced greater than 5-log inactivation, which is required for "pasteurization" processes. Differences were observed in the visual quality of eggs depending on treatment parameters. Application of ozone subsequent to heating allows for a significant reduction in heating time without decreasing process lethality.

  11. Visualisation of morphological interactionof diamond and silver nanoparticles with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria Monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Mitura, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Currently, medicine intensively searches for methods to transport drugs to a target (sick) point within the body. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of silver or diamond nanoparticles with Salmonella Enteritidis (G-) or Listeria...... monocytogenes (G+), to reveal possibilities of constructing nanoparticle-bacteria vehicles. Diamond nanoparticles (nano-D) were produced by the detonation method. Hydrocolloids of silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were produced by electric non-explosive patented method. Hydrocolloids of nanoparticles (200 microl...

  12. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Andreatti Filho R.L.; Crocci A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL) e congelada (MCC) sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL...

  13. Salmonella meningitis and septicaemia in an non-immunocompromised adult, associated with a cluster of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 14b, Ireland, November 2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OhAiseadha, C O

    2010-01-01

    We report a fatal case of meningitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b in a middle-aged man who had no history or findings to suggest he was immunocompromised. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Salmonella meningitis in an adult in Ireland, and the first case of meningitis in an adult caused by phage type 14b. This case was associated with a nationwide cluster of salmonellosis which is still under investigation at the time of writing.

  14. Characterization of additives typically employed in EPDM formulations by using FT-IR of gaseous pyrolyzates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Beck Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was employed to investigate the gaseous pyrolysis products of ethylene - propylene - diene rubber (EPDM. The objective was to evaluate the potential of FT-IR analysis of gaseous pyrolyzates (PY-G/FT-IR for characterization of EPDM additives. Two EPDM formulations, containing additives typically employed in EPDM rubbers, were analyzed. Initially, gaseous pyrolysis products from paraffin oil, stearic acid, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline, tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (TMTM, tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT were characterized separately, and their main absorptions were identified. Subsequently, the gaseous pyrolysis products of raw, unvulcanized, and vulcanized EPDM formulations were analyzed. The similarities observed in the FT-IR spectra of unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM show that the vulcanization process does not interfere with the pyrolysis products. The identification of the functional groups of the studied additives was possible in both unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM samples, without solvent extraction. Results also demonstrate that the PY-G/FT-IR technique can identify additives containing sulfur in concentrations as low as 1.4 phr (1.26% in both unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM. However, the method showed some limitation due to overlapping and to similarities of TMTM and TMTD PY-G/FT-IR spectra, which could not be distinguished from each other. The PY-G/FT-IR technique is a faster and cheaper alternative to the sophisticated techniques usually applied to detection of additives in rubbers.

  15. Measurement of serum free thyroxine using fT4(fraction) determined by solidphase radioimmunoassay: First clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Walter, H.; Moll, E.; Boerner, W.

    1983-01-01

    The novel solidphase RIA SPAC ET permits the simultaneous determination of TF 4 , TT 4 and fT 4 -fraction. The duration until the complete results of this assay can be obtained is a little bit less than for parallel radioimmunologic FT 4 - and TT 4 -determinations. The results of our quality control survey indicate that the precision of the precommercial kits tested should be improved. In addition, the normal range of FT 4 from 5.5 pg/ml to 12.5 pg/ml should be adapted in the final assay version of the approximately 30% higher normal ranges which are common with alternative FT 4 -radioimunoassays. In comparison to FT 4 -I, TT 4 /TBG-ratio and other FT 4 -radioimmunoassays, the diagnostic accuracy of FT 4 determined by SPAC ET is equally good. Estrogen-mediated TBG elevations on oral contraceptives are well compensated. In pregnancy, the known tendency towards lower FT 4 levels can be seen with the beginning of the second trimester. While there are no changes of FT 4 levels on medication with acetylosalicyclic acid, a slight tendency towards lower FT 4 determined by SPAC ET can be seen on therapy with phenytoin. Under treatment with heparin, FT 4 by SPAC ET is elevated. This is more reasonable than the decreases of FT 4 concentrations observed with radioimmunoassays using FT 4 analogues as tracers. RIA SPAC ET is an interesting alternative to routinely used direct and indirect methods for determination of free thyroxine. (orig.) [de

  16. Molecular Characterization of FT and FD homologs from Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai forma koshunensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, regulation of flowering is a vital process for successful reproduction. To date, the molecular mechanism of flowering is well studied in the model plant, Arabidopsis, in which key genes such as FLOWERING LOCUST (FTor FD have been identified to regulate flowering. However, the flowering mechanisms are still largely unknown in fruit trees like loquat. To this end, we first cloned one FT- and two FD-like genes from the loquat (E. deflexa Nakai f. koshunensis and referred to as EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2 are conserved during the evolution process. EdFT is mainly expressed in reproductive tissues (e.g. flower buds, flowers and fruits, while EdFD1 and EdFD2 are mainly expressed in apical buds including leaf buds and flower buds. EdFT is localized in the whole cell, while EdFD1 or EdFD2 is localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2 in Arabidopsis results in early flowering. In addition, we have also revealed that the EdFT interacts with both EdFD1 and EdFD2. Overall, these data suggest that the EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2 are the functional homologs of FT and FD, respectively, which might act together to regulate loquat flowering through a similar mechanism found in Arabidopsis.

  17. Is FT3 by radioligandassay (RLA) superior in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (HT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottger, I.G.; Pabst, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    Based upon our routine experience with more than 50,000/15,000 patients having been examined by FT4/FT3 RLA the authors reported a comparable clinical value of routine parameters for free thyroid hormones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of FT3 by RLA in borderline HT (BHT) in more detail. Two groups of patients were studied prospectively: group I: BHT, 48 sera, HT was suspected on grounds of clinical, scintigraphical and ultrasonic findings, no therapy. Subgroup Ia: negative TRH test (TSH before and after 200 ..mu..g TRH i.v. 0.8 mU/1), T4, FT4, T4/TBG ratio and T3 in the normal range (NR), 22 sera. Subgroup Ib: T3 (NR: 1.6 - 3.6 pmol/1): 3.7 - 3.9 and/or FT4 and/or T4/TBG ratio elevated, 26 sera. Group II: thyroid ablated patients with thyroid carcinoma on TSH-suppressive 1-T4 medication (200 ..mu..g/day) with a negative TRH test, no obvious symptoms of HT, T3 normal. RLAs employed routinely: FT4/T4 and FT3/T3 (kinetic, two-tube), and TBG, Corning Medical, TSH, Henning-Berlin. Group I: T3 levels were in the middle to upper NR, 9 (19 %) of Ib being elevated, T3/TBG was predominantly at the upper limit of the NR, 20 (42%) of this group and 5 (10%) of Ia being increased. 29 (60%) of the FT3 levels in I and 8 (17%) in Ia were elevated up to 15 and 13 pmol/l, respectively. Group II: the T3/TBG ratio was increased in 13 (11%) and the FT3 concentration up to 14 pmol/l in 57 (50%) sera.

  18. Is FT3 by radioligandassay (RLA) superior in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (HT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottger, I.G.; Pabst, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Based upon our routine experience with more than 50,000/15,000 patients having been examined by FT4/FT3 RLA the authors reported a comparable clinical value of routine parameters for free thyroid hormones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of FT3 by RLA in borderline HT (BHT) in more detail. Two groups of patients were studied prospectively: group I: BHT, 48 sera, HT was suspected on grounds of clinical, scintigraphical and ultrasonic findings, no therapy. Subgroup Ia: negative TRH test (TSH before and after 200 μg TRH i.v. 0.8 mU/1), T4, FT4, T4/TBG ratio and T3 in the normal range (NR), 22 sera. Subgroup Ib: T3 (NR: 1.6 - 3.6 pmol/1): 3.7 - 3.9 and/or FT4 and/or T4/TBG ratio elevated, 26 sera. Group II: thyroid ablated patients with thyroid carcinoma on TSH-suppressive 1-T4 medication (200 μg/day) with a negative TRH test, no obvious symptoms of HT, T3 normal. RLAs employed routinely: FT4/T4 and FT3/T3 (kinetic, two-tube), and TBG, Corning Medical, TSH, Henning-Berlin. Group I: T3 levels were in the middle to upper NR, 9 (19 %) of Ib being elevated, T3/TBG was predominantly at the upper limit of the NR, 20 (42%) of this group and 5 (10%) of Ia being increased. 29 (60%) of the FT3 levels in I and 8 (17%) in Ia were elevated up to 15 and 13 pmol/l, respectively. Group II: the T3/TBG ratio was increased in 13 (11%) and the FT3 concentration up to 14 pmol/l in 57 (50%) sera

  19. Functional correlates of TSH, fT3 and fT4 in Alzheimer disease: a F-18 FDG PET/CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Ursini, Francesco; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Barbagallo, Gaetano; Martorana, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo; Tavolozza, Mario; Schillaci, Orazio

    2017-07-24

    The present study was aimed to investigate the relationships between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), freeT3 (fT3) and freeT4 (fT4) and brain glucose consumption as detectable by means of 2-deoxy-2-(F-18) fluoro-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in a selected population with Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated 87 subjects (37 males and 50 females, mean age 70 (±6) years old) with AD. All of them were subjected to TSH, fT3 and fT4 assay and to cerebrospinal fluid amyloid (Aβ1-42) and tau [phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) and total-tau (t-tau)] assay prior PET/CT examination. Values for TSH, fT3 and fT4 were in the normal range. The relationships were evaluated by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) using age, sex, MMSE, scholarship and CSF values of amyloid and tau as covariates. We found a significant positive correlation between TSH values and cortical glucose consumption in a wide portion of the anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally (BA32) and left frontal lobe (BA25) (p FWE-corr <0.001; p FDRcorr <0.000; cluster extent 66950). No significant relationships were found between cortical F-18 FDG uptake and T3 and T4 serum levels. The results of our study suggest that a cortical dysfunction in anterior cingulate and frontal lobes may affect serum values of TSH in AD patients.

  20. In Vitro Development of Ciprofloxacin Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Indiana Isolates from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Chuan-Zhen; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Gu, Xi-Xi; Li, Wan; Yang, Ling; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2017-09-01

    Difference in the development of resistance may be associated with the epidemiological spread and drug resistance of different Salmonella enterica serovar strains. In the present study, three susceptible S. enterica serovars, Typhimurium (ST), Enteritidis (SE), and Indiana (SI) strains, were subjected to stepwise selection with increasing ciprofloxacin concentrations. The results indicated that the mutation frequencies of the SI group were 10 1 -10 4 higher and developed resistance to ciprofloxacin more rapidly compared with the ST and SE groups. Ciprofloxacin accumulation in the SI strain was also higher than the other two strains in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor. The development of ciprofloxacin resistance was quite different among the three serovar strains. In SI, increasing AcrAB-TolC efflux pump expression and single or double mutations in gyrA with or without a single parC mutation (T57S) were found in the development of ciprofloxacin resistance. In SE, an increase in the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump regulatory gene ramA gradually decreased as resistant bacteria developed; then resistance resulted from gyrA D87G and gyrB E466D mutations and/or in other active efflux pumps besides AcrAB-TolC. For ST, ramA expression increased rapidly along with gyrA D87 N and/or gyrB S464F mutations. In conclusion, persistent use of ciprofloxacin may aggravate the resistance of different S. enterica serovars and prudent use of the fluoroquinolones is needed. The quicker resistance and higher mutation frequency of the SI isolates present a potential public health threat.

  1. Generation of a gene cassette for genetically engineered Salmonella Enteritidis in the specific region of the sipC gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghasemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salmonellosis is an infection caused by eating contaminated food with Salmonella, and it can occur in humans and other animals. Salmonella has acquired the ability to create the infection due to the presence of several virulence genes. One of the virulence genes of salmonella is sipC gene that coding the SipC protein. The aim of this study was creating the gene cassette to genetically engineered Salmonella enteritidis in the specific region of the sipC gene. Methods: In this study, after DNA extraction from Salmonella, the upstream and downstream regions of the sipC gene was amplified based on PCR method. The PCR products were cloned with T/A cloning method and they were inserted into the pGEM vector. In order to generate the final gene cassette, each of the upstream and downstream regions of the sipC gene was subcloned into the pET32 vector, and cloning accuracy was assessed by PCR and enzyme digestion methods. Results: Amplification of the 320 bp upstream and 206 bp downstream of sipC gene was successful by PCR method. T/A cloning of these fragments were caused the formation of two pGEM-up and pGEM-down recombinant vectors. Results that were confirmed the sub-cloning accuracy indicate the formation of the final pET32-up-down gene cassette. Conclusion: The generated gene cassette in this study was considered as a multi-purpose cassette that is able to specific gene manipulation of Salmonella sipC gene by homologous recombination matched. This gene cassette has the necessary potential for sipC gene deletion or insertion of any useful gene instead of sipC gene.

  2. Transcriptional profiling avian beta-defensins in chicken oviduct epithelial cells before and after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R Hartford

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE colonizes the ovary and oviduct of chickens without causing overt clinical signs which can lead to SE-contamination of the content and membrane of shell-eggs as well as hatchery eggs. The organism utilizes the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-2 encoded type III secretion system (T3SS-2 to promote persistence in the oviduct of laying hens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was carried out to determine the expression profiles of 14 known avian beta defensins (AvBDs in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC before and after infections with a wild type SE strain and T3SS mutant SE strains carrying an inactivated sipA or pipB gene. Results Based on the expression levels in uninfected COEC, AvBDs can be loosely grouped into three categories with AvBD4-5 and AvBD9-12 being constitutively expressed at high levels; AvBD1, AvBD3, and AvBD13-14 at moderate levels; and AvBD2 and AvBD6-8 at minimal levels. Infection with the wild type SE strain temporarily repressed certain highly expressed AvBDs and induced the expression of minimally expressed AvBDs. The pipB mutant, compared to the wild type strain, had reduced suppressive effect on the expression of highly expressed AvBDs. Moreover, the pipB mutant elicited significantly higher levels of the minimally expressed AvBDs than the wild type SE or the sipA mutant did. Conclusion Chicken oviduct epithelial cells express most of the known AvBD genes in response to SE infection. PipB, a T3SS-2 effector protein, plays a role in dampening the β-defensin arm of innate immunity during SE invasion of chicken oviduct epithelium.

  3. Transcriptional profiling avian beta-defensins in chicken oviduct epithelial cells before and after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebers, Katie L; Zhang, C Yan; Zhang, M Zhenyu; Bailey, R Hartford; Zhang, Shuping

    2009-07-30

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) colonizes the ovary and oviduct of chickens without causing overt clinical signs which can lead to SE-contamination of the content and membrane of shell-eggs as well as hatchery eggs. The organism utilizes the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-2 encoded type III secretion system (T3SS-2) to promote persistence in the oviduct of laying hens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to determine the expression profiles of 14 known avian beta defensins (AvBDs) in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) before and after infections with a wild type SE strain and T3SS mutant SE strains carrying an inactivated sipA or pipB gene. Based on the expression levels in uninfected COEC, AvBDs can be loosely grouped into three categories with AvBD4-5 and AvBD9-12 being constitutively expressed at high levels; AvBD1, AvBD3, and AvBD13-14 at moderate levels; and AvBD2 and AvBD6-8 at minimal levels. Infection with the wild type SE strain temporarily repressed certain highly expressed AvBDs and induced the expression of minimally expressed AvBDs. The pipB mutant, compared to the wild type strain, had reduced suppressive effect on the expression of highly expressed AvBDs. Moreover, the pipB mutant elicited significantly higher levels of the minimally expressed AvBDs than the wild type SE or the sipA mutant did. Chicken oviduct epithelial cells express most of the known AvBD genes in response to SE infection. PipB, a T3SS-2 effector protein, plays a role in dampening the beta-defensin arm of innate immunity during SE invasion of chicken oviduct epithelium.

  4. An exploratory study of human teeth enamel by using Ft-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afishah Alias; Siti Rahayu Mohd Hashim; Mihaly, Judith; Julyannie Wajir; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Unaffected , affected and heavily affected teeth enamel were studied by using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The 14 permanent teeths enamel surface were measured randomly, resulting in total n = 43 FT-Raman spectra. The results obtained from FT-Raman spectra of heavily affected, affected and unaffected tooths enamel surfaces did not show any significant difference. In this study, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare the intensity between the categories of enamel as well as the surfaces of teeth samples. (author)

  5. Observational constraints on f(T) gravity from varying fundamental constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Rafael C.; Bonilla, Alexander [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Pan, Supriya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Pontificia Universidad de Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); National Technical University of Athens, Physics Division, Athens (Greece); Baylor University, CASPER, Physics Department, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We use observations related to the variation of fundamental constants, in order to impose constraints on the viable and most used f(T) gravity models. In particular, for the fine-structure constant we use direct measurements obtained by different spectrographic methods, while for the effective Newton constant we use a model-dependent reconstruction, using direct observational Hubble parameter data, in order to investigate its temporal evolution. We consider two f(T) models and we quantify their deviation from Λ CDM cosmology through a sole parameter. Our analysis reveals that this parameter can be slightly different from its Λ CDM value, however, the best-fit value is very close to the Λ CDM one. Hence, f(T) gravity is consistent with observations, nevertheless, as every modified gravity, it may exhibit only small deviations from Λ CDM cosmology, a feature that must be taken into account in any f(T) model-building. (orig.)

  6. Der Einsatz von Online-Datenbanken für Objektinnovationen im Systemgeschäft

    OpenAIRE

    Noch, Rainer

    1990-01-01

    Der Einsatz von Online-Datenbanken für Objektinnovationen im Systemgeschäft. - Augsburg : FGM-Verl., 1990. - 62, LVII S. - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diplomarb. - (Arbeitspapiere zur Schriftenreihe Schwerpunkt Marketing ; 31)

  7. Overexpression of PaFT gene in the wild orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarti, Endang; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Rizal, Rinaldi; Slamet, Agus; Utami, Bekti S.; Bestari, Ida A.; Aziz-Purwantoro, Moeljopawiro, S.; Jang, Soenghoe; Machida, Y.; Machida, C.

    2015-09-01

    To shorten vegetative stage and induce transition from vegetative to reproductive stage in orchids, we overexpressed Phalaenopsis amabilis Flowering LocusT (PaFT) gene under the control of Ubiquitin promoter into protocorm of Indonesian Wild Orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume. The dynamic expression of vegetative gene Phalaenopsis Homeobox1 (POH1) and flowering time gene PaFT has been analyzed. Accumulation of mRNA was detected in shoot and leaves of both transgenic and non transgenic plants by using Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) with specific gene primers for POH1 and PaFT in 24 months old plants. To analyze the POH1 and PaFT genes, three pairs of degenerate primers PaFT degF1R1, F2R2 and F3R3 that amplified 531 bp PaFT cDNA were used. We detected 700 bp PaFTcDNA from leaves and shoots of transgenic plants, but not in NT plants. POH1 mRNA was detected in plants. PaFT protein consists of Phospatidyl Ethanolamine-Binding Protein (PEBP) in interval base 73-483 and CETS family protein at base 7-519, which are important motif for transmembrane protein. We inserted Ubipro::PaFT/pGAS101 into P. amabilis protocorm using Agrobacterium. Analysis of transgenic plants showed that PaFTmRNA was accumulated in leaves of 12 months after sowing, although it is not detected in non transgeic plants. Compare to the wild type (NT plants), ectopic expression of PaFT shows alter phenotype as follows: 31% normal, 19% with short-wavy leaves, 5% form rosette leaves and 45% produced multishoots. Analysis of protein profiles of trasgenic plants showed that a putative PaFT protein (MW 19,7 kDa) was produced in 1eaves and shoots.This means that at 12 months, POH1 gene expression gradually decreased/negatively regulated, the expression of PaFT gene was activated, although there is no flower initiation yet. Some environmental factors might play a role to induce inflorescens. This experiment is in progress.

  8. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatti Filho R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL e congelada (MCC sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL ou MCC. Houve redução da colonização do ceco no período de 12 dias após o desafio nos grupos tratados com MCL e MCC, o que não ocorreu no grupo-controle positivo. Não houve variação entre os tratamentos com MCL e MCC quanto às características pesquisadas. A S. Enteritidis reduziu o ganho de peso médio nas aves inoculadas. Os tratamentos com MCL e MCC minimizaram a redução de peso nos grupos infectados.

  9. Effect of microwave treatment on structure of binders based on sodium carboxymethyl starch: FT-IR, FT-Raman and XRD investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarska, Karolina; Grabowska, Beata; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Bobrowski, Artur; Cukrowicz, Sylwia

    2018-06-01

    The paper deals with the influence of the microwave treatment on sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and XRD analysis data of native potato starch and three different carboxymethyl starches (CMS-Na) with various degree of substitution (DS) before and after exposition to microwave radiation have been compared. FT-IR studies showed that polar groups present in CMS-Na structure take part in the formation of new hydrogen bonds network after water evaporation. However, these changes depend on DS value of the modified starch. The FT-Raman study confirmed that due to the impact on the samples by microwave, the changes of intensity in the characteristic bands associated with the crystalline regions in the sample were noticed. The X-ray diffraction data for microwave treated CMS-Na samples have been compared with the diffractograms of initial materials and analysis of XRD patterns confirmed that microwave-treated samples exhibit completely amorphous structure. Analysis of structural changes allows to state that the binding of sand grains in moulding sand with CMS-Na polymeric binder consists in the formation of hydrogen bonds networks (physical cross-linking).

  10. Effect of microwave treatment on structure of binders based on sodium carboxymethyl starch: FT-IR, FT-Raman and XRD investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarska, Karolina; Grabowska, Beata; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Bobrowski, Artur; Cukrowicz, Sylwia

    2018-06-15

    The paper deals with the influence of the microwave treatment on sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and XRD analysis data of native potato starch and three different carboxymethyl starches (CMS-Na) with various degree of substitution (DS) before and after exposition to microwave radiation have been compared. FT-IR studies showed that polar groups present in CMS-Na structure take part in the formation of new hydrogen bonds network after water evaporation. However, these changes depend on DS value of the modified starch. The FT-Raman study confirmed that due to the impact on the samples by microwave, the changes of intensity in the characteristic bands associated with the crystalline regions in the sample were noticed. The X-ray diffraction data for microwave treated CMS-Na samples have been compared with the diffractograms of initial materials and analysis of XRD patterns confirmed that microwave-treated samples exhibit completely amorphous structure. Analysis of structural changes allows to state that the binding of sand grains in moulding sand with CMS-Na polymeric binder consists in the formation of hydrogen bonds networks (physical cross-linking). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vibrational spectra (FT-IR, FT-Raman), frontier molecular orbital, first hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis and thermodynamics properties of Piroxicam by HF and DFT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S.; Gunasekaran, S.; Srinivasan, S.

    2015-03-01

    The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-Hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(2-pyridinyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide (Piroxicam) have been recorded in the region 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1 respectively. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of piroxicam in the ground state have been calculated by Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies are scaled and they are compared with experimental obtained by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of the title compound has been made on the basis of the calculated potential energy distribution (PED). The electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) are also performed. The linear polarizability (α) and the first order hyper polarizability (β) values of the title compound have been computed. The molecular stability arising from hyper conjugative interaction, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  12. TG/FT-IR characterization of additives typically employed in EPDM formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Beck Sanches

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermogravimetric analysis coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR is a very popular technique for rubbers characterization. It involves analyses of the base polymer and additives. Ethylene–propylene–diene (EPDM rubbers are frequently investigated by TG/FT-IR; however, the focus has been the degradation temperature range of the polymer. In this study, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubber and its additives were investigated by TG/FT-IR, without solvent extraction, and in a wide temperature range. Initially, the additives were individually characterized. TG/FT-IR identified the characteristic groups of all the additives analyzed and distinguished them from each other. Afterwards, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubbers were investigated without prior extraction.TG/FT-IR detected absorptions due to the additives tetramethylthiuram monosulfide and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. Both of these sulfur-containing additives were present in the EPDM formulation at concentrations of 0.7 phr (0.63 wt %. The TG/FT-IR technique had some limitations, because not all the additives in EPDM rubber were detected. Paraffin oil, stearic acid and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline functional groups were not observed in either the unvulcanized or vulcanized EPDM. Nevertheless, in addition to the ability of this method to detect sulfur-containing groups, the lack of a pre-extraction reduces the time and effort required for additive analysis in rubbers.

  13. Developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Ahmed, Arif; Islam, Annana; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Because of the increasing importance of heavy and unconventional crude oil as an energy source, there is a growing need for petroleomics: the pursuit of more complete and detailed knowledge of the chemical compositions of crude oil. Crude oil has an extremely complex nature; hence, techniques with ultra-high resolving capabilities, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), are necessary. FT-ICR MS has been successfully applied to the study of heavy and unconventional crude oils such as bitumen and shale oil. However, the analysis of crude oil with FT-ICR MS is not trivial, and it has pushed analysis to the limits of instrumental and methodological capabilities. For example, high-resolution mass spectra of crude oils may contain over 100,000 peaks that require interpretation. To visualize large data sets more effectively, data processing methods such as Kendrick mass defect analysis and statistical analyses have been developed. The successful application of FT-ICR MS to the study of crude oil has been critically dependent on key developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation and data processing methods. This review offers an introduction to the basic principles, FT-ICR MS instrumentation development, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics and is intended for readers having no prior experience in this field of study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENGHAMBAT PENGERJAAN TUGAS AKHIR SKRIPSI MAHASISWA PENDIDIKAN TEKNIK OTOMOTIF FT UNY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Siswanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian ini ialah mengetahui dan mendeskripsikan secara faktual, akurat dan sistematis tentang 1 Implementasi pedoman penulisan tugas akhir skripsi mahasiswa FT UNY di Jurusan PT. Otomotif dan 2 Faktor-faktor yang menjadi penghambat dalam pengerjaan tugas akhir skripsi mahasiswa PT. Otomotif FT UNY Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif. Objek penelitian ialah Koordinator tugas akhir skripsi, dosen pembimbing, dan mahasiswa PT. Otomotif FT UNY. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara dan dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data yang dipergunakan ialah metode analisis deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 1 Implementasi pedoman penulisan tugas akhir skripsi di jurusan PT. Otomotif FT UNY dilakukan dengan pembentukan koordinator tugas akhir skripsi, pembagian tahapan-tahapan pengerjaan skripsi yang terdiri dari pengajuan judul, bimbingan, pengambilan data penelitian, dan ujian TAS sampai dengan pengeluaran nilai TAS. Semua dosen PT. Otomotif FT UNY melaksanakan bimbingan tugas akhir skripsi sesuai dengan pedoman penulisan tugas akhir skripsi. Jurusan PT. Otomotif FT UNY juga melakukan bimbingan klasikal bagi mahasiswa yang akan/sedang mengerjakan tugas akhir skripsi, 2 Faktor-faktor yang menjadi penghambat dalam pengerjaan tugas akhir skripsi yaitu kesulitan dalam menemukan permasalahan yang akan diangkat menjadi judul penelitian, mahasiswa fokus mengerjakan proyek akhir (mahasiswa angkatan 2008 ke bawah, fokus laporan KKN PPL, mengulang banyak mata kuliah, tidak rutin bimbingan dengan dosen, kesulitan dalam menulis karya tulis ilmiah.

  15. 基于FrFT-MUSIC的空时频算法%Space-time-frequency Algorithm Based on FrFT-MUSIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张声杰; 刘梅

    2011-01-01

    针对传统时频分析方法难以对星载分布式合成孔径雷达(SAR)系统中地面目标速度进行准确估计的问题,提出了分数阶傅里叶变换(FrFT)-多重信号分类(MUSIC)空时频方法.利用FrFT获得信号向量并构造空时频分布矩阵;应用该分布矩阵替代传统MUSIC算法中的协方差矩阵,从而求得FrFT- MUSIC空时频谱,通过对谱函数进行搜索估计目标速度.仿真实验表明,该方法的目标速度估计精度高,抗噪声能力强.%The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT)-multipIe signal classification (MUSIC) space-time-frequency algorithm is proposed to solve the problem that it is difficult for the traditional time-frequency analysis method to accurately estimate the ground targets' azimuth speed which is coupled with spaceborne distributed synthetic aperture radar" (SAR). The signal vector is obtained and the space-time-frequency distribution matrix is formed by FrFT. Then, this distribution matrix is used instead of the traditional MUSIC covariance matrix to construct FrFT- MUSIC spectral function. Target speed is estimated by searching. Simulation results show that this algorithm has a high accuracy of parameter estimation and strong resistance to noise.

  16. Energy partitioning and thyroid hormone levels during Salmonella enteritidis infections in pullets with high or low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerden, E; Van Den Brand, H; Heetkamp, M J W; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B

    2006-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate whether feed efficiency, as measured by residual feed intake as a phenotypic trait, affects energy partitioning in pullets that have received Salmonella inoculation as an immune challenge. In each of 8 trials, energy partitioning was measured during 5 wk in 15-wk-old efficient (R-) and nonefficient (R+) pullets, which were housed per efficiency group in 2 identical climate respiration chambers. After 1 wk of adaptation, the pullets in 4 trials were orally inoculated with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella enteritidis; pullets in the remaining trials were not inoculated and served as controls. Heat production was calculated from continuous recordings of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production. Energy and N partitioning were recorded on a weekly basis. Blood samples for analyses on thyroid hormones were taken at 16, 17, and 19 wk of age. There were no interactions between efficiency type and Salmonella treatment or Salmonella treatment effects in energy partitioning, except for a short-term increase in heat production in inoculated pullets. Nonefficient pullets had higher gross energy and ME intake, higher estimated ME for maintenance, lower ME:gross energy ratio, and higher total heat production and nonactivity-related heat production compared with R- pullets. Triiodothyronine levels in R+ pullets were higher at 16 and 17 wk but were lower at 19 wk of age compared with R- pullets. Thyroxine levels were higher in R- at 16 wk and showed interactions between efficiency type and Salmonella treatment at 17 and 19 wk of age. Body weights and spleen weights did not differ between efficiency groups. Nonefficient pullets had higher heart, liver, and ovary weights and more large yellow follicles than R- pullets. There were no Salmonella effects on body and organ weights. We conclude that R+ pullets have a faster running energy metabolism and that they put more resources into organ development than R- pullets. Inoculation with Salmonella has a

  17. Effect of dietary Bacillus coagulans supplementation on growth performance and immune responses of broiler chickens challenged by Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Wenrui; Shao, Yujing; Gong, Xiuyan; Wu, Yuanyuan; Geng, Yanqiang; Wang, Zhong; Guo, Yuming

    2018-04-11

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protective efficacy of dietary Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) supplementation in birds receiving Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments with 2 levels of dietary B. coagulans (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 levels of SE challenge (0 or 1 × 109 SE between d 9 to 11). Results showed that SE infection did not affect growth performance, but caused intestinal inflammation and barrier function impairment by reducing intestinal goblet cells and beneficial bacteria numbers, increasing cecal Salmonella colonization and liver Salmonella invasion, downregulating jejunal mucin-2 (at 7 and 17 d post-infection, DPI), TLR2 (at 7 and 17 DPI), TLR4 (at 17 DPI), TNFSF15 (at 7 and 17 DPI) gene mRNA levels, and upregulating jejunal IFN-γ mRNA levels (at 17 DPI) compared to uninfected birds. Moreover, SE infection also elevated the concentration of jejunal anti-Salmonella IgA and sera anti-Salmonella IgG compared to uninfected birds. However, chickens received B. coagulans diets showed significant increase in body weight gain and weight gain to feed intake ratio from d 15 to 21, alkaline phosphatase activity (at 7 DPI), cecal Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium numbers (at 7 DPI; at 17 DPI), villous height: crypt ratio (at 17 DPI), and goblet cell numbers (at 7 and 17 DPI), whereas exhibiting reduced jejunal crypt depth (at 17 DPI), cecal Escherichia coli (at 7, 17, and 31 DPI), and Salmonella (at 7 and 17 DPI) levels compared with the non-supplemented birds, regardless of SE infection. In addition, B. coagulans supplement upregulated lysozyme mRNA levels (at 17 DPI), downregulated IFN-γ mRNA levels (at 7 and 17 DPI), showed an increased trend in Fowlicidin-2 mRNA levels (at 7 DPI) and a reduced trend in liver Salmonella load compared to the non-supplemented control. These data indicated that B. coagulans has a protective effect in SE infected

  18. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical;Irradiacao de ovo liquido, congelado e ovo, gema e clara em po: reducao da populacao de Salmonella enteritidis e aspectos sensoriais e fisico-quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-07-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  19. Low FT3: a possible marker of frailty in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoli A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aldo Bertoli,1 Alessia Valentini,1 Maria Assunta Cianfarani,1 Elena Gasbarra,2 Umberto Tarantino,2 Massimo Federici1 1Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy Introduction: Frailty is associated with a functional decline of multiple physiological systems, of which they may be a cause or consequence. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid hormone modifications in elderly frail subjects and its relationship with frailty.Study population and methods: An observational study was carried out at the University Hospital “Tor Vergata” in Rome among ambulatory and hospitalized patients. The study population consisted of 112 elderly subjects: 62 were hospitalized following hip fracture and 50 control subjects were outpatients. Participating patients received a multidimensional geriatric evaluation. The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe Frailty Instrument (SHARE-FI was used to assess the degree of frailty. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3, and free thyroxine (FT4 were measured to evaluate thyroid status.Results: FT3, but not FT4, was significantly correlated with Frailty score, both in patients with hip fracture and in patients from the control group. In the entire study population, FT3 under normal limits is effective in discriminating frail/prefrail subjects from nonfrail subjects.Discussion: The reduction in serum concentrations of FT3 is a clear manifestation of stress associated with fractures. Numerous preexisting factors, such as the fracture patients’ nutritional status, sarcopenia, disability and comorbidities, which characterize the condition of frailty and influence its pathogenesis, are strongly correlated with FT3 values, suggesting the existence of latent nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS.Conclusion: We conclude that measuring

  20. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes during storage of fermented green table olives in brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Lyra, Efstathia; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-10-01

    The survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes during the storage of fermented green table olives cv. Halkidiki in brine was studied in parallel with the evolution of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts and pH. The olives were previously fermented with a starter culture (a potential probiotic strain of Lactobacillus pentosus B281--starter process) or with the indigenous microbiota (control). After the end of fermentation, olives were placed in brine, inoculated with a cocktail of 5 strains of E. coli O157:H7, 5 strains of L. monocytogenes and 4 strains of S. Enteritidis, with a final concentration in the brine of ca. 7.0 log CFU/ml, and subsequently packaged in polyethylene pouches and stored at 20 °C. The population of E. coli O157:H7 reduced gradually and was detected in the brine until the 27th day of storage in both cases (i.e., starter and control process), and on olive fruits until the 19th and 16th days of storage in the starter and control process, respectively. S. Enteritidis population showed also a decrease and it was detected until the 21st day of storage in both brine and olive fruits in both cases. The population of L. monocytogenes declined during storage and it was detected until the 31st day of storage in both brine and olive fruits in both cases, showing a longer survival period in comparison to the other two studied pathogens. The presence of the potential probiotic starter did not affect the pathogen survival. The results demonstrated that even though the growth of the pathogenic strains was not supported, they may survive for a long period in a stressful environment of a fermented product with low pH value (4.2) and high salt concentration (6.0%). These results are a valuable contribution to risk assessment studies related to ready to eat foods in general. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intensity interferometry at the X13A undulator beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskin, E.; McNulty, I.; Yang, L.; Randall, K.J.; Johnson, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    We are constructing a soft x-ray intensity interferometer and an undulator based beamline to demonstrate intensity interferometry in the x-ray region. The 10-period soft x-ray undulator at the NSLS provides the necessary coherent flux; the X13A beamline is designed to preserve the spatial coherence of the bright x-ray beam and provide sufficient temporal coherence using a horizontally deflecting spherical grating monochromator. Using the interferometer, which consists of an array of small slits, a wedge-shaped beamsplitter and two fast microchannel plate detectors, we expect to measure the spatial coherence of the undulator beam and therefore the size of the source in the vertical plane. Details of the bean-dine design and the interferometer experiment are discussed

  2. Spectroscopic investigation (FT-IR, FT-Raman), HOMO-LUMO, NBO, and molecular docking analysis of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a potential anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Islam, S. S.; Ahmad, Hilal; Prabaharan, A.

    2018-02-01

    Nitrosourea plays an important role in the treatment of cancer. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, also known as ENU, (chemical formula C3H7N3O2), is a highly potent mutagen. The chemical is an alkylating agent and acts by transferring the ethyl group of ENU to nucleobases (usually thymine) in nucleic acids. The molecular structure of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea has been elucidated using experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) and theoretical (DFT) techniques. APT charges, Mulliken atomic charges, Natural bond orbital, Electrostatic potential, HOMO-LUMO and AIM analysis were performed to identify the reactive sites and charge transfer interactions. Furthermore, to evaluate the anticancer activity of ENU molecular docking studies were carried out against 2JIU protein.

  3. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Beer fermentation: monitoring of process parameters by FT-NIR and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvia; Amigo, José Manuel; Lyndgaard, Christian Bøge; Foschino, Roberto; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2014-07-15

    This work investigates the capability of Fourier-Transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to monitor and assess process parameters in beer fermentation at different operative conditions. For this purpose, the fermentation of wort with two different yeast strains and at different temperatures was monitored for nine days by FT-NIR. To correlate the collected spectra with °Brix, pH and biomass, different multivariate data methodologies were applied. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and locally weighted regression (LWR) were used to assess the relationship between FT-NIR spectra and the abovementioned process parameters that define the beer fermentation. The accuracy and robustness of the obtained results clearly show the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis, to be used as a quality control tool in the beer fermentation process. FT-NIR spectroscopy, when combined with LWR, demonstrates to be a perfectly suitable quantitative method to be implemented in the production of beer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Study of alkaline lignin from Arundo donax linn based on FT Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting-ting; Ma, Jian-feng; Guo, Si-qin; Xu, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Arundo donax linn, as a perennial energy crop, has promising application prospect. In the present study, Fourier transform Raman (FT Raman) spectroscopy was applied to determine the structural information of materials, milled wood lignin (MWL), and alkaline lignins (AL, under different treated time) from A. donax stem nondestructively. The results indicated that, extractable compounds in A. donax had negative contribution to the Raman spectra without rising new Raman peaks. FT Raman spectrum of MWL indicated that MWL from A. donax was HGS type lignins. Compared with the spectra of MWL from wood materials, the peak at 1173 cm(-1) was much higher in intensity for the MWL from A. donax stem, which may be assigned to hydroxycinnamic acid by analyzing the standard. With respect to FT Raman spectra of ALs, the relatively highest intensity of 1173 cm(-1) was found in alkaline lignin (AL2), which was treated for 40 min by alkaline. Moreover, the peak of coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde (1630 cm(-1)) was lowest in intensity while the band attributed to coniferyl alcohol/sinapyl alcohol (1660 cm(-1)) was almost disappeared in AL2. It could be inferred that AL2 demonstrated a highest content of phenolic acid, which may improve its potential application, such as for antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the results obtained by FT Raman spectra were verified by two dimensional heteronuclear singlequantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Above all, FT Raman spectroscopy provided alternative safe, rapid, accurate, and nondestructive technology for lignin structure determination.

  6. FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV spectra and DFT calculations on monomeric and dimeric structure of 2-amino-5-bromobenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Cinar, Mehmet

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic transition analysis of 2-amino-5-bromobenzoic acid (2A5BrBA) were presented for the ground state using experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the regions of 400-4000 cm(-1) and 50-4000 cm(-1), respectively. There are four conformers, C1, C2, C3 and C4 for this molecule. The geometrical parameters, energies and wavenumbers have been obtained for all four conformers. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of 2A5BrBA as the C1 form. The complete assignments of fundamental vibrations were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. Raman activities calculated by DFT method have been converted to the corresponding Raman intensities using Raman scattering theory. The UV spectra of investigated compound were recorded in the region of 200-400 nm for ethanol and water solutions. The electronic properties were evaluated with help of time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) theoretically and results were compared with experimental observations. The thermodynamic properties of the studied compound at different temperatures were calculated, revealing the correlations between standard heat capacity, standard entropy, standard enthalpy changes and temperatures. The observed and the calculated geometric parameters, vibrational wavenumbers and electronic transitions were compared with observed data and found to be in good agreement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spontaneous atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in a/a ma ft/ma ft/J flaky tail mice appear early after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalini Kypriotou

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in human profilaggrin gene have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV, and as a major predisposition factor for atopic dermatitis (AD. Similarly, flaky tail (a/a ma ft/ma ft/J mice were described as a model for IV, and shown to be predisposed to eczema. The aim of this study was to correlate the flaky tail mouse phenotype with human IV and AD, in order to dissect early molecular events leading to atopic dermatitis in mice and men, suffering from filaggrin deficiency. Thus, 5-days old flaky tail pups were analyzed histologically, expression of cytokines was measured in skin and signaling pathways were investigated by protein analysis. Human biopsies of IV and AD patients were analyzed histologically and by real time PCR assays. Our data show acanthosis and hyperproliferation in flaky tail epidermis, associated with increased IL1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP expression, and Th2-polarization. Consequently, NFκB and Stat pathways were activated, and IL6 mRNA levels were increased. Further, quantitative analysis of late epidermal differentiation markers revealed increased Small proline-rich protein 2A (Sprr2a synthesis. Th2-polarization and Sprr2a increase may result from high TSLP expression, as shown after analysis of 5-days old K14-TSLP tg mouse skin biopsies. Our findings in the flaky tail mouse correlate with data obtained from patient biopsies of AD, but not IV. We propose that proinflammatory cytokines are responsible for acanthosis in flaky tail epidermis, and together with the Th2-derived cytokines lead to morphological changes. Accordingly, the a/a ma ft/ma ft/J mouse model can be used as an appropriate model to study early AD onset associated with profilaggrin deficiency.

  8. Some aspects of reconstruction using a scalar field in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Soumya [Indian Institute of Technology, Centre for Theoretical Studies, Kharagpur (India); Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida, MSD (Malta); Farrugia, Gabriel [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida, MSD (Malta)

    2017-12-15

    General relativity characterizes gravity as a geometric property exhibited on spacetime by massive objects, while teleparallel gravity achieves the same results at the level of equations, by taking a torsional perspective of gravity. Similar to the f(R) theory teleparallel gravity can also be generalized to f(T), with the resulting field equations being inherently distinct from f(R) gravity in that they are second order, while in the former case they turn out to be fourth order. In the present case, a minimally coupled scalar field is investigated in the f(T) gravity context for several forms of the scalar field potential. A number of new f(T) solutions are found for these potentials. Their respective state parameters are also being examined. (orig.)

  9. Determination of Free Fatty Acid by FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Esterification Reaction for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djéssica Tatiana Raspe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate calibration to determine the percentage of free fatty acids (FFA in samples obtained by the esterification of FFA in vegetable oils. The analytical method used as calibration matrix samples of the reaction medium of esterification of oleic acid in soybean oil in proportions of 0.3 to 40 wt% (by weight of oleic acid obtained under different experimental conditions and utilized the partial least squares (PLS regression. The efficiency of the method was tested to predict the content of FFA in reactions of esterification of oleic acid in soybean oil catalysed by KSF clay and Amberlyst 15 commercial resin, both in a batch mode. Good Correlations were observed between the FT-NIR/PLS method and the reference method (AOCS. The results confirm that FT-NIR spectroscopy, in combination with multivariate calibration, is a promising technique for monitoring esterification reaction for biodiesel production.

  10. A perturbative approach to neutron stars in f(T, T)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta)

    2017-05-15

    We derive a Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation in neutron star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models using a perturbative approach. In our approach f(T, T)-gravity is considered to be a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental vierbein which can be used to relate inertial and global coordinates. A linear function f = T(r) + T(r) + χh(T, T) + O(χ{sup 2}) is taken as the Lagrangian density for the gravitational action. Finally we impose the polytropic equation of state of neutron star upon the derived equations in order to derive the mass profile and mass-central density relations of the neutron star in f(T, T)-gravity. (orig.)

  11. Analytic rotating black-hole solutions in N-dimensional f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashed, G.G.L. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, Cairo (Egypt); Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group (ERG), Cairo (Egypt); El Hanafy, W. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group (ERG), Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    A non-diagonal vielbein ansatz is applied to the N-dimension field equations of f(T) gravity. An analytical vacuum solution is derived for the quadratic polynomial f(T)=T+εT{sup 2} and an inverse relation between the coupling constant ε and the cosmological constant Λ. Since the induced metric has off-diagonal components, it cannot be removed by a mere coordinate transformation, the solution has a rotating parameter. The curvature and torsion scalars invariants are calculated to study the singularities and horizons of the solution. In contrast to general relativity, the Cauchy horizon differs from the horizon which shows the effect of the higher order torsion. The general expression of the energy-momentum vector of f(T) gravity is used to calculate the energy of the system. Finally, we have shown that this kind of solution satisfies the first law of thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) gravitational theories. (orig.)

  12. FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil and quantum models of fatty acids triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, K. V.; Antonova, E. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Dvoretskiy, K. N.; Grechukhina, O. N.; Vasilyeva, L. M.; Rybakov, A. V.; Likhter, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    FT-IR spectra of grape seed oil and glycerol were registered in the 650-4000 cm-1 range. Molecular models of glycerol and some fatty acids that compose the oil under study - linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids - as well as their triglycerides were developed within B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional model. A vibrating FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil was modeled on the basis of calculated values of vibrating wave numbers and IR intensities of the fatty acids triglycerides and with regard to their percentage. Triglyceride spectral bands that were formed by glycerol linkage vibrations were revealed. It was identified that triglycerol linkage has a small impact on the structure of fatty acids and, consequently, on vibrating wave numbers. The conducted molecular modeling became a basis for theoretical interpretation on 10 experimentally observed absorption bands in FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil.

  13. Controle da infecção por Salmonella Enteritidis em frangos de corte com ácidos orgânicos e mananoligossacarídeo

    OpenAIRE

    Bassan,Joana Darc Lopes; Flôres,Maristela Lovato; Antoniazzi,Taiane; Bianchi,Eloisa; Kuttel,Javier; Trindade,Michele Martins

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ação de dois ácidos orgânicos (ácido fórmico e ácido propiônico) e de um mananoligossacarídeo (MOS) adicionados à dieta no controle da infecção intestinal por Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) em frangos de corte. Neste estudo de 39 dias, foram utilizadas 150 aves, de um dia de idade, da linhagem Cobb, lote misto, livre de SE, divididas em seis tratamentos (T) com 25 animais cada, em que: T1 (ausência de infecção), T2 (ácidos orgânicos e ausência de infecção), ...

  14. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 outbreak associated with eggs in a large prison, London 2009: an investigation using cohort and case/non-case study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A R; Ruggles, R; Young, Y; Clark, H; Reddell, P; Verlander, N Q; Arnold, A; Maguire, H

    2013-05-01

    In September 2009, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis affected 327 of 1419 inmates at a London prison. We applied a cohort design using aggregated data from the kitchen about portions of food distributed, aligned this with individual food histories from 124 cases (18 confirmed, 106 probable) and deduced the exposures of those remaining well. Results showed that prisoners eating egg cress rolls were 26 times more likely to be ill [risk ratio 25.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 15.5-42.8, Pinvestigation was strengthened by environmental and microbiological investigations. This paper outlines an approach to investigations in large complex settings where aggregate data for exposures may be available, and led to the development of guidelines for the management of future gastrointestinal outbreaks in prison settings.

  15. AKTIP/Ft1, a New Shelterin-Interacting Factor Required for Telomere Maintenance.

    KAUST Repository

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Raffa, Grazia D; Galati, Alessandra; Raimondo, Domenico; Rizzo, Angela; La Torre, Mattia; Micheli, Emanuela; Ciapponi, Laura; Cenci, Giovanni; Cundari, Enrico; Musio, Antonio; Biroccio, Annamaria; Cacchione, Stefano; Gatti, Maurizio; Saggio, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes from incomplete replication, degradation and detection as DNA breaks. Mammalian telomeres are protected by shelterin, a multiprotein complex that binds the TTAGGG telomeric repeats and recruits a series of additional factors that are essential for telomere function. Although many shelterin-associated proteins have been so far identified, the inventory of shelterin-interacting factors required for telomere maintenance is still largely incomplete. Here, we characterize AKTIP/Ft1 (human AKTIP and mouse Ft1 are orthologous), a novel mammalian shelterin-bound factor identified on the basis of its homology with the Drosophila telomere protein Pendolino. AKTIP/Ft1 shares homology with the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating (UEV) enzymes and has been previously implicated in the control of apoptosis and in vesicle trafficking. RNAi-mediated depletion of AKTIP results in formation of telomere dysfunction foci (TIFs). Consistent with these results, AKTIP interacts with telomeric DNA and binds the shelterin components TRF1 and TRF2 both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of AKTIP- depleted human primary fibroblasts showed that they are defective in PCNA recruiting and arrest in the S phase due to the activation of the intra S checkpoint. Accordingly, AKTIP physically interacts with PCNA and the RPA70 DNA replication factor. Ft1-depleted p53-/- MEFs did not arrest in the S phase but displayed significant increases in multiple telomeric signals (MTS) and sister telomere associations (STAs), two hallmarks of defective telomere replication. In addition, we found an epistatic relation for MST formation between Ft1 and TRF1, which has been previously shown to be required for replication fork progression through telomeric DNA. Ch-IP experiments further suggested that in AKTIP-depleted cells undergoing the S phase, TRF1 is less tightly bound to telomeric DNA than in controls. Thus, our results collectively

  16. AKTIP/Ft1, a New Shelterin-Interacting Factor Required for Telomere Maintenance.

    KAUST Repository

    Burla, Romina

    2015-06-25

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes from incomplete replication, degradation and detection as DNA breaks. Mammalian telomeres are protected by shelterin, a multiprotein complex that binds the TTAGGG telomeric repeats and recruits a series of additional factors that are essential for telomere function. Although many shelterin-associated proteins have been so far identified, the inventory of shelterin-interacting factors required for telomere maintenance is still largely incomplete. Here, we characterize AKTIP/Ft1 (human AKTIP and mouse Ft1 are orthologous), a novel mammalian shelterin-bound factor identified on the basis of its homology with the Drosophila telomere protein Pendolino. AKTIP/Ft1 shares homology with the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating (UEV) enzymes and has been previously implicated in the control of apoptosis and in vesicle trafficking. RNAi-mediated depletion of AKTIP results in formation of telomere dysfunction foci (TIFs). Consistent with these results, AKTIP interacts with telomeric DNA and binds the shelterin components TRF1 and TRF2 both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of AKTIP- depleted human primary fibroblasts showed that they are defective in PCNA recruiting and arrest in the S phase due to the activation of the intra S checkpoint. Accordingly, AKTIP physically interacts with PCNA and the RPA70 DNA replication factor. Ft1-depleted p53-/- MEFs did not arrest in the S phase but displayed significant increases in multiple telomeric signals (MTS) and sister telomere associations (STAs), two hallmarks of defective telomere replication. In addition, we found an epistatic relation for MST formation between Ft1 and TRF1, which has been previously shown to be required for replication fork progression through telomeric DNA. Ch-IP experiments further suggested that in AKTIP-depleted cells undergoing the S phase, TRF1 is less tightly bound to telomeric DNA than in controls. Thus, our results collectively

  17. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E Walworth

    Full Text Available In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora', which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT. Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5 gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2, a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5, and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1, may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1, LEAFY-like (VcLFY, APETALA1-like (VcAP1, CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1, and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of

  18. Designing means and specifications for model FT-619 kidney function instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongding

    1988-04-01

    In this paper, it is pointed out that the model FT-619 Kidney Function Equipment is a new cost-effective nuclear medicine instrument, which takes the leading position in China. The performance of the model FT-619,especially the lead collimated scintillation detector has reached the same level as the advanced equipment in the world market. It is also described in this article in detail that the design of the lead collimator and the shielding as well as the detection efficiency have achieved the optimum level and that a comparison has been made with foreign products

  19. Aeroderivative Pratt & Whitney FT8-3 gas turbine – an interesting solution for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel-Gicu TALIF

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate load electric power stations become more and more interesting for theelectric power market in Romania. In this context, the Combined Cycle Power Plants came as a veryattractive solution. This paper presents the results of a study regarding the use of the aeroderivativePratt & Whitney FT8-3 gas turbine, available in Romania, for the electric power generation in aCombined Cycle Power Plant. It is also analyzed the Combined Heat in Power generation with FT8-3gas turbine when saturated steam or hot water are required.

  20. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora'), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of these

  1. M4FT-15LL0806062-LLNL Thermodynamic and Sorption Data FY15 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    This progress report (Milestone Number M4FT-15LL0806062) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within Work Package Number FT-15LL080606. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  2. M4FT-16LL080302052-Update to Thermodynamic Database Development and Sorption Database Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences; Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Akima Infrastructure Services, LLC; Atkins-Duffin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Global Security

    2016-08-16

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080302052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Argillite Disposal R&D Work Package Number FT-16LL08030205. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  3. Survival and Filamentation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 at Low Water Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, K. L.; Jørgensen, F.; Legan, J. D.; Cole, M. B.; Porter, J.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Humphrey, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    In this study we investigated the long-term survival of and morphological changes in Salmonella strains at low water activity (aw). Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 survived at low aw for long periods, but minimum humectant concentrations of 8% NaCl (aw, 0.95), 96% sucrose (aw, 0.94), and 32% glycerol (aw, 0.92) were bactericidal under most conditions. Salmonella rpoS mutants were usually more sensitive to bactericidal levels of NaCl, sucrose, and glycerol. At a lethal aw, incubation at 37°C resulted in more rapid loss of viability than incubation at 21°C. At aw values of 0.93 to 0.98, strains of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium formed filaments, some of which were at least 200 μm long. Filamentation was independent of rpoS expression. When the preparations were returned to high-aw conditions, the filaments formed septa, and division was complete within approximately 2 to 3 h. The variable survival of Salmonella strains at low aw highlights the importance of strain choice when researchers produce modelling data to simulate worst-case scenarios or conduct risk assessments based on laboratory data. The continued increase in Salmonella biomass at low aw (without a concomitant increase in microbial count) would not have been detected by traditional microbiological enumeration tests if the tests had been performed immediately after low-aw storage. If Salmonella strains form filaments in food products that have low aw values (0.92 to 0.98), there are significant implications for public health and for designing methods for microbiological monitoring. PMID:10742199

  4. Oral immunisation of laying hens with the live vaccine strains of TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T reduces internal egg contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantois, Inne; Ducatelle, Richard; Timbermont, Leen; Boyen, Filip; Bohez, Lotte; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; van Immerseel, Filip

    2006-09-11

    Eggs are a major source of human infections with Salmonella. Therefore controlling egg contamination in laying hen flocks is one of the main targets for control programmes. A study was carried out to assess the effect of oral vaccination with TAD Salmonella vac E, TAD Salmonella vac T and with both vaccines TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T, on colonization of the reproductive tract and internal egg contamination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis. Three groups of 30 laying hens were vaccinated at 1 day, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with either one of the vaccine strains, or a combination of both vaccine strains, while a fourth group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 0.5 ml containing 5 x 10(7)cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The number of oviducts from which Salmonella was isolated, was significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the non-vaccinated hens at 3 weeks post-challenge. Significantly less egg contents were Salmonella positive in the birds vaccinated with TAD Salmonella vac E or TAD Salmonella vac T (12/105 batches of eggs in both groups) than in the unvaccinated birds (28/105 batches of eggs). Internal egg contamination in the hens vaccinated with both TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T was even more reduced, as over the whole experiment, only one batch of eggs was positive. In conclusion, these data indicate that vaccination of laying hens with these live vaccines could be considered as a valuable tool in controlling internal egg contamination.

  5. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  6. The hidden flat like universe. Starobinsky-like inflation induced by f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hanafy, W. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, El Sherouk (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group, Giza (Egypt); Nashed, G.G.L. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, El Sherouk (Egypt); Ain Shams University, Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-06-15

    We study a single-fluid component in a flat like universe (FLU) governed by f(T) gravity theories, where T is the teleparallel torsion scalar. The FLU model, regardless of the value of the spatial curvature k, identifies a special class of f(T) gravity theories. Remarkably, FLU f(T) gravity does not reduce to teleparallel gravity theory. In large Hubble spacetime the theory is consistent with the inflationary universe scenario and respects the conservation principle. The equation of state evolves similarly in all models k = 0,±1. We study the case when the torsion tensor consists of a scalar field, which enables to derive a quintessence potential from the obtained f(T) gravity theory. The potential produces Starobinsky-like model naturally without using a conformal transformation, with higher orders continuously interpolate between Starobinsky and quadratic inflation models. The slow-roll analysis shows double solutions, so that for a single value of the scalar tilt (spectral index) n{sub s} the theory can predict double tensor-to-scalar ratios r of E-mode and B-mode polarizations. (orig.)

  7. The hidden flat like universe. Starobinsky-like inflation induced by f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hanafy, W.; Nashed, G.G.L.

    2015-01-01

    We study a single-fluid component in a flat like universe (FLU) governed by f(T) gravity theories, where T is the teleparallel torsion scalar. The FLU model, regardless of the value of the spatial curvature k, identifies a special class of f(T) gravity theories. Remarkably, FLU f(T) gravity does not reduce to teleparallel gravity theory. In large Hubble spacetime the theory is consistent with the inflationary universe scenario and respects the conservation principle. The equation of state evolves similarly in all models k = 0,±1. We study the case when the torsion tensor consists of a scalar field, which enables to derive a quintessence potential from the obtained f(T) gravity theory. The potential produces Starobinsky-like model naturally without using a conformal transformation, with higher orders continuously interpolate between Starobinsky and quadratic inflation models. The slow-roll analysis shows double solutions, so that for a single value of the scalar tilt (spectral index) n s the theory can predict double tensor-to-scalar ratios r of E-mode and B-mode polarizations. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of Fungal Deterioration in Liquidambar orientalis Mill. heartwood by FT-IR and light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nural Yilgor; Dilek Dogu; Roderquita Moore; Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal

    2013-01-01

    The chemical and morphological changes in heartwood specimens of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. caused by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and the brown-rot fungi Tyromyces palustris and Gloeophyllum trabeum were studied by wet chemistry, FT-IR, GC-MS analyses, and photo-...

  9. Assessment of Azithromycin in Pharmaceutical Formulation by Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR Transmission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Mallah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and economical method for azithromycin quantification in solid tablet and capsule formulations has been developed by applying Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR transmission spectroscopy for regular quality monitoring. The newly developed method avoids the sample preparation, except grinding for pellet formation and does not involve consumption of any solvent as it absolutely eliminates the need of extraction. KBr pellets were employed for the appraisal of azithromycin while acquiring spectra of standards as well as samples on FT-IR. By selecting the FT-IR carbonyl band (C=O in the region 1,744–1,709 cm−1 the calibration model was developed based on simple Beer’s law. The excellent regression coefficient (R2 0.999 was accomplished for calibration set having standard error of calibration equal to 0.01 mg. The current work exposes that transmission FT-IR spectroscopy can definitely be applied to determine the exact amount of azithromycin to control the processing and quality of solid formulations with reduced cost and short analysis time.

  10. Non-trivial frames for f(T) theories of gravity and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Some conceptual issues concerning f(T) theories - a family of modified gravity theories based on absolute parallelism - are analyzed. Due to the lack of local Lorentz invariance, the autoparallel frames satisfying the field equations are evasive to an a priori physical understanding. We exemplify this point by working out the vierbein (tetrad) fields for closed and open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies.

  11. The Fast Intelligent Tracking (F!T) tube: A CRT without a shadow mask

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, A.H.; Brink, van den H.B.; Budzelaar, F.P.M.; Engelaar, P.J.; Holtslag, A.H.M.; IJzerman, W.L.; Krijn, M.P.C.M.; Lieshout, van P.J.G.; Notari, A.; Willemsen, O.H.

    2003-01-01

    The F!T tube is a new type of CRT without a shadow mask. The primary function of the mask, color selection, is taken over by an electronic control system that guides the electron beams over the correct phosphor lines. The position of the beams is detected by means of dedicated structures on the

  12. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-06

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes.

  13. Near-wall effects in improved plasma confinement regimes in tokamak FT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnikov, V.N.; D'yachenko, V.V.; Esipov, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Transition to the regime of improved plasma confinement (H-mode) revealed in experiments on low hybrid heating in tokamak ft-2 is analyzed. Main attention is paid to processes, taking place in near-wall region. The data are correlated with results of experiments in large tokamaks

  14. Non-trivial frames for f(T) theories of gravity and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fiorini, Franco, E-mail: franco@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-08-03

    Some conceptual issues concerning f(T) theories - a family of modified gravity theories based on absolute parallelism - are analyzed. Due to the lack of local Lorentz invariance, the autoparallel frames satisfying the field equations are evasive to an a priori physical understanding. We exemplify this point by working out the vierbein (tetrad) fields for closed and open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies.

  15. Synthetic Fischer-Tropsch (FT) JP-5/JP-8 Aviation Turbine Fuel Elastomer Compatibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muzzell, Pat; Stavinoha, Leo; Chapin, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    ... to seal performance may arise, possibly leading to fuel leakage. The key objective of this study was to compare and contrast the material compatibility of nitrile coupons and O-rings with selected petroleum-derived fuels, Fisher-Tropsch (FT...

  16. The application of FT-IR spectrum method in photocuring process for polyester acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jin; Lu Xianliang; Zhang Zhenli

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes that the UV curing process of polyester acrylate can be monitored by measuring the degree of double bonds conversion with FT-IR spectroscopy. The various factors effect the UV curing rate. The relation between the curing rate and the concentration of photoinitiator, crosslinking agent, UV light intensity was discussed. (author)

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transient MaFT expression in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-Li; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Li-Qun; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Hai; Su, Chao; Qian, Yong-Hua; Jiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation assay in mulberry (Morus alba L.), various infiltration methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strains, and bacterial concentrations were tested in mulberry seedlings. Compared with LBA4404, GV3101 harboring pBE2133 plasmids presented stronger GUS signals at 3 days post infiltration using syringe. Recombinant plasmids pBE2133:GFP and pBE2133:GFP:MaFT were successfully constructed. Transient expression of MaFT:GFP protein was found in leaves, petiole (cross section), and shoot apical meristem (SAM) of mulberry according to the GFP signal. Moreover, MaFT:GFP mRNA was also detected in leaves and SAM via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. An efficient transient transformation system could be achieved in mulberry seedlings by syringe using A. tumefaciens GV3101 at the OD600 of 0.5. The movement of MaFT expression from leaves to SAM might trigger the precocious flowering of mulberry.

  18. Utility Assessment Report for SPIDERS Phase 2: Ft. Carson (Rev 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Kevin P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the Utility Assessment Report (UAR) for the Phase 2 operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD). The UAR for Phase 2 shows that the SPIDERS system was able to meet the requirements of the Implementation Directive at Ft. Carson.

  19. Advanced sampling techniques for hand-held FT-IR instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Weber, Chris; Levy, Dustin

    2013-05-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenging ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, extreme reliability, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the HazMatID™ Elite, a FT-IR instrument designed to balance the portability advantages of a handheld device with the performance challenges associated with miniaturization. In this paper, special focus will be given to the HazMatID Elite's sampling interfaces optimized to collect and interrogate different types of samples: accumulated material using the on-board ATR press, dispersed powders using the ClearSampler™ tool, and the touch-to-sample sensor for direct liquid sampling. The application of the novel sample swipe accessory (ClearSampler) to collect material from surfaces will be discussed in some detail. The accessory was tested and evaluated for the detection of explosive residues before and after detonation. Experimental results derived from these investigations will be described in an effort to outline the advantages of this technology over existing sampling methods.

  20. 1064nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression...

  1. Antioxidant activity and FT-IR analysis of Datura innoxia and Datura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Determination of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in terms of total antioxidant assay, ABTS assay, DPPH assay and in-vitro lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity were determined along with the FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis of the ...

  2. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E.; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora (‘VcFT-Aurora’), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in ‘VcFT-Aurora’. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all

  3. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  4. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  5. The serologic response to Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected chickens, followed by an indirect lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacteriologic examinations through a one-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Feld, Niels Christian; Carstensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Three groups of 100 individually marked salmonella-free chickens were followed for a period of 53 wk. The chickens were infected as day olds by crop instillation of 101 colony-forming units: one group with Salmonella enteritidis and a second group with Salmonella typhimurium. A third group was kept...... in surveillance programs, in particular to detect flocks in early stages of infection before a measurable serologic response has been raised....

  6. Changes in thermo-tolerance and survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 in chicken breast meat after exposure to sequential stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Adma Nadja Ferreira de; Souza, Geany Targino de; Schaffner, Donald; Oliveira, Tereza C Moreira de; Maciel, Janeeyre Ferreira; Souza, Evandro Leite de; Magnani, Marciane

    2017-06-19

    This study assessed changes in thermo-tolerance and capability to survive to simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 inoculated in chicken breast meat following exposure to stresses (cold, acid and osmotic) commonly imposed during food processing. The effects of the stress imposed by exposure to oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil (OVEO) on thermo-tolerance were also assessed. After exposure to cold stress (5°C for 5h) in chicken breast meat the test strains were sequentially exposed to the different stressing substances (lactic acid, NaCl or OVEO) at sub-lethal amounts, which were defined considering previously determined minimum inhibitory concentrations, and finally to thermal treatment (55°C for 30min). Resistant cells from distinct sequential treatments were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The exposure to cold stress did not result in increased tolerance to acid stress (lactic acid: 5 and 2.5μL/g) for both strains. Cells of S. Typhimurium PT4 and S. Enteritidis PT4 previously exposed to acid stress showed higher (pthermo-tolerance in both strains. The cells that survived the sequential stress exposure (resistant) showed higher tolerance (pthermo-tolerance and enhance the survival under gastrointestinal conditions of S. Enteritidis PT4 and S. Typhimurium PT4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A dual mechanism involved in membrane and nucleic acid disruption of AvBD103b, a new avian defensin from the king penguin, against Salmonella enteritidis CVCC3377.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Xi, Di; Mao, Ruoyu; Zhang, Yong; Guan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    The food-borne bacterial gastrointestinal infection is a serious public health threat. Defensins are evolutionarily conserved innate immune components with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity that do not easily induce resistance. AvBD103b, an avian defensin with potent activity against Salmonella enteritidis, was isolated from the stomach contents of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). To elucidate further the antibacterial mechanism of AvBD103b, its effect on the S. enteritidis CVCC3377 cell membrane and intracellular DNA was researched. The cell surface hydrophobicity and a N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine uptake assay demonstrated that AvBD103b treatment increased the cell surface hydrophobicity and outer membrane permeability. Atomic absorption spectrometry, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that AvBD103b treatment can lead to the release of the cellular contents and cell death through damage of the membrane. DNA gel retardation and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that AvBD103b interacted with DNA and intercalated into the DNA base pairs. A cell cycle assay demonstrated that AvBD103b affected cellular functions, such as DNA synthesis. Our results confirmed that AvBD103b exerts its antibacterial activity by damaging the cell membrane and interfering with intracellular DNA, ultimately causing cell death, and suggested that AvBD103b may be a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics against S. enteritidis.

  8. Curcumin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex: stability, solubility, characterisation by FT-IR, FT-Raman, X-ray diffraction and photoacoustic spectroscopy, and food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolim, Camila Sampaio; Moriwaki, Cristiane; Nogueira, Ana Claudia; Sato, Francielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Neto, Antônio Medina; Matioli, Graciette

    2014-06-15

    Curcumin was complexed with β-CD using co-precipitation, freeze-drying and solvent evaporation methods. Co-precipitation enabled complex formation, as indicated by the FT-IR and FT-Raman techniques via the shifts in the peaks that were assigned to the aromatic rings of curcumin. In addition, photoacoustic spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, with the disappearance of the band related to aromatic rings, by Gaussian fitting, and modifications in the spectral lines, respectively, also suggested complex formation. The possible complexation had an efficiency of 74% and increased the solubility of the pure colourant 31-fold. Curcumin-β-CD complex exhibited a sunlight stability 18% higher than the pure colourant. This material was stable to pH variations and storage at -15 and 4°C. With an isothermal heating at 100 and 150°C for 2h, the material exhibited a colour retention of approximately 99%. The application of curcumin-β-CD complex in vanilla ice creams intensified the colour of the products and produced a great sensorial acceptance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acid-base properties, FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy and computational study of 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Procházková, Markéta; Sevčík, Richard; Pazdera, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We report the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy for 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine (PyPi). Single crystals of PyPi suitable for X-ray structural analysis were obtained. The acid-base properties are also reported. PyPi supported on a weak acid cation-exchanger in the single protonated form and this system can be used efficiently as the solid supported analogue of 4-N,N-dimethyl-aminopyridine. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule and with the molecular electrostatic potential map was applied for the reactivity assessment of PyPi molecule toward proton, electrophiles and nucleopholes as well. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of PyPi is 17.46 times that of urea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ab initio and DFT study of hydrogen bond interactions between ascorbic acid and dimethylsulfoxide based on FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazazari, Naser; Zatikyan, Ashkhen L.; Markarian, Shiraz A.

    2013-06-01

    The hydrogen bonding of 1:1 complexes formed between L-ascorbic acid (LAA) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) has been studied by means of ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Solutions of L-ascorbic acid (AA) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been studied by means of both FT-IR (4000-220 cm-1) and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and DFT methods have been used to determine the structure and energies of stable conformers of various types of L-AA/DMSO complexes in gas phase and solution. The basis sets 6-31++G∗∗ and 6-311+G∗ were used to describe the structure, energy, charges and vibrational frequencies of interacting complexes in the gas phase. The optimized geometric parameters and interaction energies for various complexes at different theories have been estimated. Binding energies have been corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE) and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the structures have been calculated to obtain the stable forms of the complexes. The self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) has been used to calculate the effect of DMSO as the solvent on the geometry, energy and charges of complexes. The solvent effect has been studied using the Onsager models. It is shown that the polarity of the solvent plays an important role on the structures and relative stabilities of different complexes. The results obtained show that there is a satisfactory correlation between experimental and theoretical predictions.

  11. Molecular vibrational investigation [FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and NMR] on Bis(thiourea) Nickel chloride using HF and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S.; Sundararajan, R. S.; Ramachandraraja, C.; Ramalingam, S.; Durga, R.

    2015-03-01

    In the present research work, the FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra of the Bis(thiourea) Nickel chloride (BTNC) were recorded and analyzed. The observed fundamental frequencies in finger print and functional group regions were assigned according to their uniqueness region. The computational calculations were carried out by HF and DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results were tabulated. The present organo-metallic compound was made up of covalent and coordination covalent bonds. The modified vibrational pattern of the complex molecule associated with ligand group was analyzed. Furthermore, the 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectral data were calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their spectra were simulated and the chemical shifts linked to TMS were compared. A investigation on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies were carried out. The kubo gap of the present compound was calculated related to HOMO and LUMO energies which confirm the occurring of charge transformation between the base and ligand. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. The NLO properties related to Polarizability and hyperpolarizability based on the finite-field approach were also discussed.

  12. Spectroscopic [FT-IR and FT-Raman] and theoretical [UV-Visible and NMR] analysis on α-Methylstyrene by DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Joseph Prince, J.; Ramalingam, S.; Periandy, S.

    2015-05-01

    In the present research work, the FT-IR, FT-Raman and 13C and 1H NMR spectra of the α-Methylstyrene were recorded. The observed fundamental frequencies in finger print as well as functional group regions were assigned according to their uniqueness region. The Gaussian computational calculations are carried out by HF and DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results were tabulated. The impact of the presence of vinyl group in phenyl structure of the compound is investigated. The modified vibrational pattern of the molecule associated vinyl group was analyzed. Moreover, 13C NMR and 1H NMR were calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP methods and the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their spectra were simulated and the chemical shifts linked to TMS were compared. A study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies were carried out. The kubo gap of the present compound was calculated related to HOMO and LUMO energies which confirm the occurring of charge transformation between the base and ligand. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. The NLO properties related to Polarizability and hyperpolarizability based on the finite-field approach were also discussed.

  13. Prediction of purine derivatives, creatinine and total nitrogen concentrations in urine by FT-Near-lnfrared Reflectance spectroscopy (FT-NIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Piani, B.; Toso, B.; Stefanon, B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an alternative method for the determination of purine derivatives (PD, which include allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine), creatinine and total nitrogen (N) concentrations in urine. About 180 urine samples from cattle, buffaloes and rabbit were collected and analyzed for PD by HPLC, creatinine by spectrophotometry and N by Kjeldahl method. The urine samples were then analyzed by Fourier Transformed Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (FT-NIR) to find conformity between this technique and the HPLC and colorimetric methods. FT-NIR can predict allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, creatinine, total N and sum of N in both allantoin and uric acid with a satisfactory level of accuracy: the determination coefficient (r 2 ) of validation ranged from 0.888% for uric acid to 0.982% for total N. The coefficients of determination for allantoin, creatinine and sum of N in both allantoin and uric acid were 0.92, 0.894 and 0.90%, respectively. Hypoxanthine and xanthine in urine samples were not detectable by NIRS, probably because of their low concentrations, and therefore they were not considered for instrumental calibration. (author)

  14. Evaluation of a setting reaction pathway in the novel composite TiHA-CSD bone cement by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Czechowska, Joanna; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Zofia

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a setting reaction pathway in a novel, surgically handy implant material, based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) and titanium doped hydroxyapatite (TiHA). The previous studies confirmed superior biological properties of TiHA in comparison to the undoped hydroxyapatite (HA) what makes it highly attractive for future medical applications. In this study the three types of titanium modified HA powders: untreated, calcined at 800 °C, sintered at 1250 °C and CSH were used to produce bone cements. The Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were applied to evaluate processes taking place during the setting of the studied materials. Our results undoubtedly confirmed that the reaction pathways and the phase compositions differed significantly for set cements and were dependent on the initial heat treatment of TiHA powder. Final materials were multiphase composites consisting of calcium sulfate dihydrate, bassanite, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and calcium titanate (perovskite). The FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements performed after the incubation of the cement samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF), indicate on high bioactive potential of the obtained bone cements.

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies of (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and DFT) 4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) butan-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, P; Gunasekaran, S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 4000-50 cm(-1) and 4000-450 cm(-1) respectively for 4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) butan-2-one (abbreviated as 4MNBO) molecule. Theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method using 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The difference between the observed and calculated wavenumber value of most of the fundamentals were very small. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The UV-Vis spectrum was recorded in the methanol solution. The energy, wavelength and oscillator's strength were calculated by Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) and matched to the experimental findings. The intramolecular contacts have been interpreted using natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. Thermodynamic properties of 4MNBO at different temperature have been calculated. The molecular electrostatic potential surface (MESP) and Frontier molecular orbital's (FMO's) analysis were investigated using theoretical calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular vibrational investigation [FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and NMR] on Bis(thiourea) Nickel chloride using HF and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S; Sundararajan, R S; Ramachandraraja, C; Ramalingam, S; Durga, R

    2015-03-05

    In the present research work, the FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra of the Bis(thiourea) Nickel chloride (BTNC) were recorded and analyzed. The observed fundamental frequencies in finger print and functional group regions were assigned according to their uniqueness region. The computational calculations were carried out by HF and DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results were tabulated. The present organo-metallic compound was made up of covalent and coordination covalent bonds. The modified vibrational pattern of the complex molecule associated with ligand group was analyzed. Furthermore, the (13)C NMR and (1)H NMR spectral data were calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their spectra were simulated and the chemical shifts linked to TMS were compared. A investigation on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies were carried out. The kubo gap of the present compound was calculated related to HOMO and LUMO energies which confirm the occurring of charge transformation between the base and ligand. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. The NLO properties related to Polarizability and hyperpolarizability based on the finite-field approach were also discussed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and characterizations of SnO2 nanopowder and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and NMR) analysis using HF and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeshamariam, A; Ramalingam, S; Bououdina, M; Jayachandran, M

    2014-01-24

    In this work, pure and singe phase SnO2 Nano powder is successfully prepared by simple sol-gel combustion route. The photo luminescence and XRD measurements are made and compared the geometrical parameters with calculated values. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded and the fundamental frequencies are assigned. The optimized parameters and the frequencies are calculated using HF and DFT (LSDA, B3LYP and B3PW91) theory in bulk phase of SnO2 and are compared with its Nano phase. The vibrational frequency pattern in nano phase gets realigned and the frequencies are shifted up to higher region of spectra when compared with bulk phase. The NMR and UV-Visible spectra are simulated and analyzed. Transmittance studies showed that the HOMO-LUMO band gap (Kubo gap) is reduced from 3.47 eV to 3.04 eV while it is heated up to 800°C. The Photoluminescence spectra of SnO2 powder showed a peak shift towards lower energy side with the change of Kubo gap from 3.73 eV to 3.229 eV for as-prepared and heated up to 800°C. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and NMR) first order hyperpolarizability and HOMO-LUMO analysis of dansyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, M.; Cinar, M.; Kurt, M.; Poiyamozhi, A.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of dansyl chloride (DC) have been recorded in the regions 400-4000 and 50-4000 cm-1, respectively. The spectra have been interpreted in terms of fundamentals modes, combination and overtone bands. The structure of the molecule has been optimized and the structural characteristics have been determined by density functional theory (B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) as basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated for most stable conformer and were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. The infrared and Raman spectra have also been predicted from the calculated intensities. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-600 nm and the electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Nonlinear optical and thermodynamic properties were interpreted. All the calculated results were compared with the available experimental data of the title molecule.

  19. FT-Raman, FT-IR spectra and total energy distribution of 3-pentyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one: DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, S; Saleem, H; Erdogdu, Y; Rajarajan, G; Thanikachalam, V

    2011-11-01

    FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded for 3-pentyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one (PDPO) sample in solid state. The equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared and the Raman scattering intensities were computed using DFT/6-31G(d,p) level. Results obtained at this level of theory were used for a detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra, based on the total energy distribution (TED) of the normal modes. Molecular parameters such as bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles were calculated and compared with X-ray diffraction data. This comparison was good agreement. The intra-molecular charge transfer was calculated by means of natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). Hyperconjugative interaction energy was more during the π-π* transition. Energy gap of the molecule was found using HOMO and LUMO calculation, hence the less band gap, which seems to be more stable. Atomic charges of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen were calculated using same level of calculation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum computational studies, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis) profiling, natural hybrid orbital and molecular docking analysis on 2,4 Dibromoaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Christina Susan; Prasana, Johanan Christian; Muthu, S.; Rizwana B, Fathima; Raja, M.

    2018-05-01

    The research exploration will comprise of investigating the molecular structure, vibrational assignments, bonding and anti-bonding nature, nonlinear optical, electronic and thermodynamic nature of the molecule. The research is conducted at two levels: First level employs the spectroscopic techniques - FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis characterizing techniques; at second level the data attained experimentally is analyzed through theoretical methods using and Density Function Theories which involves the basic principle of solving the Schrodinger equation for many body systems. A comparison is drawn between the two levels and discussed. The probability of the title molecule being bio-active theoretically proved by the electrophilicity index leads to further property analyzes of the molecule. The target molecule is found to fit well with Centromere associated protein inhibitor using molecular docking techniques. Higher basis set 6-311++G(d,p) is used to attain results more concurrent to the experimental data. The results of the organic amine 2, 4 Dibromoaniline is analyzed and discussed.

  1. Quantum mechanical, spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV) and normal coordinates analysis on 3-([2-(diaminomethyleneamino) thiazol-4-yl] methylthio)-N'-sulfamoylpropanimidamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, S.; Uma Maheswari, J.; Sundius, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Famotidine (3-([2-(diaminomethyleneamino) thiazol-4-yl] methylthio)-N'-sulfamoylpropanimidamide) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and it is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD/GORD). Quantum chemical calculations of the equilibrium geometry of famotidine in the ground state were carried out using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) with the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. In addition, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman activities were calculated at the same level of theory. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectrum of the drug is also reported. Theoretical simulations of the FT-IR, and FT-Raman spectra of the title compound have been calculated. Good correlations between the experimental 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts and calculated GIAO shielding tensors were found. The results of the energy and oscillator strength calculations by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) supplement the experimental findings. Total and partial density of state (TDOS and PDOS) and also overlap population density of state (COOP or OPDOS) diagrams analysis were presented. The dipole moment, linear polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability values were also computed. The linear polarizability and first order hyperpolarizabilities of the studied molecule indicate that the compound is a good candidate for nonlinear optical materials.

  2. Determination of alkaloids in capsules, milk and ethanolic extracts of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) by ATR-FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Schütze, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Fourier transform (FT) infrared spectroscopy using a diamond composite ATR crystal and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy techniques were applied for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the most important alkaloids in poppy capsules. Most of the characteristic Raman signals of the alkaloids can be identified in poppy milk isolated from unripe capsules. But also poppy extracts present specific bands relating clearly to the alkaloid fraction. Raman spectra obtained by excitation with a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm show no disturbing fluorescence effects; therefore the plant tissue can be recorded without any special preparation. The used diamond ATR technique allows to measure very small sample amounts (5-10 microL or 2-5 mg) without the necessity to perform time-consuming pre-treatments. When applying cluster analysis a reliable discrimination of "low-alkaloid" and "high-alkaloid" poppy single-plants can be easily achieved. The examples presented in this study provide clear evidence of the benefits of Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy in efficient quality control, forensic analysis and high-throughput evaluation of poppy breeding material.

  3. Collaborative Student Laboratory Exercise Using FT-IR Spectroscopy for the Kinetics Study of a Biotin Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Jhaque; Ackroyd, Nathan C.; Ho, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of N-methoxycarbonyl-2-imidazolidone, an analogue of biotin, was conducted by organic chemistry students and confirmed using FT-IR and H NMR. Spectroscopy students used FT-IR to measure the rate of hydrolysis of the product and determined the rate constant for the reaction using the integrated rate law. From the magnitude of the rate…

  4. Hubungan Kadar FT4 dengan Gejala Klinis yang Terkait Efek Simpatis berdasarkan Indek Wayne pada Nagari Koto Salak Kabupaten Dharmasraya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Kurniawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPeningkatan aktivitas saraf simpatis dapat terjadi pada keadaan hipertiroid dan sebaliknya pada hipotiroid. Pengukuran kadar hormon tiroid dilakukan dengan mengukur kadar FT4, FT3, TSH, dll. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi hubungan kadar FT4 dengan gejala klinis yang terkait efek simpatis di Nagari Koto Salak Kabupaten Dharmasraya. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian cross sectional study. Hasil penelitian didapatkan subjek dengan peningkatan kadar FT4 12,96%. Subjek dengan gejala klinis palpitasi, penurunan berat badan, nervous, berkeringat lebih dan tremor jari halus dengan persentase berturut-turut adalah 42,59%, 38,89%, 46,30%, 25,93% dan 44,44%. Analisis bivariat dengan menggunakan uji statistik chi-square diperoleh hasil tidak ada hubungan hubungan kadar FT4 dengan 5 gejala klinis yang terkait efek simpatis berdasarkan indeks Wayne (p > 0.05. Penelitian ini masih sederhana dan belum bisa menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara kadar FT4 dengan gejala klinis yang terkait efek simpatis. Sebaiknya untuk penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan dapat memiliki jumlah sampel yang banyak dan cakupan gejala klinis lain yang terlibat dalam aktivitas saraf simpatis yang lebih luas sehingga dapat lebih lengkap dan spesifik.Kata kunci: Kadar FT4, efek simpatis, gejala klinis AbstractIncreased sympathetic nerve activity may occur in the state of hyperthyroidism and conversely in hypothyroidism. Measurement of thyroid hormone levels is done by measuring the levels of FT4, FT3, TSH, etc. The objective of this study was to identify the relation between FT4 levels and the clinical symptoms of sympathetic effects in Nagari Koto Salak Kabupaten Dharmasraya. This research used cross sectional study design. According to the research found that subjects with elevated levels of FT4 12.96%. There are subjects with clinical symptoms of palpitations, weight loss, nervousness, sweating more and fine finger tremor by the following

  5. The effect of heparin administration on the FT4-levels and on an unspecific peripheral thyroid parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eber, B.; Borkenstein, J.; Leb, G.

    1984-01-01

    Heparin produces changes in FT 4 -levels both in vivo and in vitro as determined by commercial kits. Methods utilising the principle of equilibrium dialysis show significant increases whereas methods using T 4 -tracer analogue techniques reveal marked decreases in FT 4 -values. Possible clinical side-effects of heparin administration such as heparin-induced hyperthyroidism and tachyarrhythmias are discussed. The present results confirm the FT 4 -decreasing effect of in vivo and in vitro administration of heparin with FT 4 -RIAs based on the tracer analogue technique; however, the unspecific peripheral thyroid parameter of systolic time-intervals did not reveal any tendency towards hyperthyroidism. Also the discrepant results dependent on the method used, indicate that, following heparin administration FT 4 -levels do not reflect that hormone concentration is relevant to the metabolism of the whole body. (orig.) [de

  6. Signal-to-noise ratio of FT-IR CO gas spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Clausen, Sønnik

    1999-01-01

    in emission and transmission spectrometry, an investigation of the SNR in CO gas spectra as a function of spectral resolution has been carried out. We present a method to (1) determine experimentally the SNR at constant throughput, (2) determine the SNR on the basis of measured noise levels and Hitran......The minimum amount of a gaseous compound which can be detected and quantified with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the measured gas spectra. In order to use low-resolution FT-IR spectrometers to measure combustion gases like CO and CO2...... simulated signals, and (3) determine the SNR of CO from high to low spectral resolutions related to the molecular linewidth and vibrational-rotational lines spacing. In addition, SNR values representing different spectral resolutions but scaled to equal measurement times were compared. It was found...

  7. Analysis of Polyadipate Ester Content in PVC Plastics by Means of FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2006-01-01

    Plasticizers are needed in flexible PVC (PolyVinylChloride) products. There is serious concern that commonly used phthalate esters may harm life reproduction systems. To avoid the problems, instead adipate di-esters (AEs) of C8 to C10 alcohols are used as higher prized alternatives; e.g. di-2......-ethylhexyl adipate or DEHA [103-23-1], also known as Adimoll or di-octyl adipate, DOA. A widely used plasticizer in food (cling) films is DEHA, often in combination with polymers, epoxidized soya-bean oil, etcetera. DEHA also occurs in children toys. We have previously shown that the presence of phthalate...... esters in PVC can be rapidly analyzed by Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser. Here in this project we report a similar study. The aim was to find out whether FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the presence of adipate esters (AEs) as plasticizers...

  8. Aplicação de FT-MIR e FT-NIR ao estudo de reação de cura de sistemas epoxídicos FT-IR MIR and FT-NIR applied to the study of reaction of epoxy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedita M. V. Romão

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A reação de cura entre amostras de resina epoxídica (EP e compostos à base de mercaptana (SH, amino-fenol e amina modificada foi estudada nas regiões espectrais do infravermelho médio (MIR e próximo (NIR. Observou-se, basicamente, que a espectroscopia FT-NIR evidencia melhor as alterações espectrométricas ocorridas durante as reações estudadas, permitindo detectar, inclusive, o agente de cura em menor proporção no sistema epoxídico.The cure reaction of epoxy resin (EP and curing agents based on polymercaptans (SH, amine-phenol and modified amine was studied in the MIR and NIR spectral regions. It was observed that the FT-NIR shows better the spectrometric changes of the reactions studied, which makes it possible to detect the curing agent in lower contents in epoxide systems.

  9. Prediction of the lifetime of nitrile-butadiene rubber by FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Toshio

    2005-12-01

    A quantitative measurement method with FT-IR was proposed for a thermal degradation analysis of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR). An NBR film was prepared as a model sample on a barium fluoride (BaF2) crystal plate, which was subjected to a heat treatment. The absorbances of various functional groups were measured directly by FT-IR after thermal degradation at high temperatures. By measuring the absorbances, it was possible to readily determine quantitatively each of the functional groups after the degradation of NBR. By assuming that the NBR lifetime was the point at which the absorbance of a carbon-carbon double bond reaches 45% of that prior to thermal treatment, a method for predicting the lifetime of NBR heated below 150 degrees C was proposed, by using an Arrhenius plot of the heating time versus heating temperature.

  10. Detection of creatinine enriched on a surface imprinted polystyrene film using FT-ATR-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, K

    2006-01-01

    The surface of polystyrene (PS) was chemically modified by coating a thin layer of polyaniline (PANI) by oxidizing aniline using ammonium persulfate. Affinity sites for creatinine, a clinically relevant molecule, were created in the coated layer by adding creatinine as print molecules during the oxidation. The imprinted layer adsorbed creatinine was compared to non-imprinted surface reflecting the creation of creatinine-specific sites on the surface. The equilibrium was attained rapidly, indicating that a material of this kind is suitable for sensing applications. The adsorbed creatinine on the surface was detected using the technique of Fourier transform attenuated total internal reflection infra red spectroscopy (FT-ATR-IR). The results show that molecularly imprinted surface can enrich molecules of interest and the enriched molecules can be detected using FT-IR.

  11. Application of FT-IR Classification Method in Silica-Plant Extracts Composites Quality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicu, A.; Drumea, V.; Mihaiescu, D. E.; Purcareanu, B.; Florea, M. A.; Trică, B.; Vasilievici, G.; Draga, S.; Buse, E.; Olariu, L.

    2018-06-01

    Our present work is concerned with the validation and quality testing efforts of mesoporous silica - plant extracts composites, in order to sustain the standardization process of plant-based pharmaceutical products. The synthesis of the silica support were performed by using a TEOS based synthetic route and CTAB as a template, at room temperature and normal pressure. The silica support was analyzed by advanced characterization methods (SEM, TEM, BET, DLS and FT-IR), and loaded with Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis standardized extracts. Further desorption studies were performed in order to prove the sustained release properties of the final materials. Intermediate and final product identification was performed by a FT-IR classification method, using the MID-range of the IR spectra, and statistical representative samples from repetitive synthetic stages. The obtained results recommend this analytical method as a fast and cost effective alternative to the classic identification methods.

  12. Dielectric and FT-Raman spectroscopic approach to molecular identification of breast tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hakam, Rasha; Khalil, Safaa; Mahani, Ragab

    2015-01-01

    FT-Raman spectra and dielectric properties of benign and malignant women breast tissues in vitro were investigated. FT-Raman spectra for the malignant tissues showed a remarkably decrease in the lipid/protein ratio. Dielectric properties of women breast tissues measured in the low frequency range (42-10(6)Hz) were interpreted in spite of electrode polarization effect. Experimental results showed a contrast between the dielectric properties of malignant (Grade II) and benign tissues within the frequency range studied. The permittivity of malignant to normal breast tissue was found to be 160:1 while it could be 1.3:1 for fibrocystic breast tissues. These findings could contribute to distinguish between two breast tissues. The differences in spectral features between benign and malignant tissues may lead to breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. FINAL DESIGN REVIEW REPORT Subcritical Experiments Gen 2, 3-ft Confinement Vessel Weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    A Final Design Review (FDR) of the Subcritical Experiments (SCE) Gen 2, 3-ft. Confinement Vessel Weldment was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on September 14, 2017. The review was a focused review on changes only to the confinement vessel weldment (versus a system design review). The changes resulted from lessons-learned in fabricating and inspecting the current set of confinement vessels used for the SCE Program. The baseline 3-ft. confinement vessel weldment design has successfully been used (to date) for three (3) high explosive (HE) over-tests, two (2) fragment tests, and five (5) integral HE experiments. The design team applied lessons learned from fabrication and inspection of these vessel weldments to enhance fit-up, weldability, inspection, and fitness for service evaluations. The review team consisted of five (5) independent subject matter experts with engineering design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and inspection experience. The

  14. Study of the Pyrrol/Diphenylamine Copolymer by FT-IR spectroscopy and conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Perez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze the physical properties of the copolymer formed by the electrochemical deposition of the polydiphenylamine (PDPA on polypyrrole (Ppy and Ppy on PDPA, in different conditions, through the characterization of the materials formed by the resonant Raman, FT-IR and conductivity techniques. The interactions among the species which are present in the new copolymer structure and the changes in electronic conductivity, were verified. The copolymer was also synthesized electrochemically in the presence of iodide species and the material was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and conductivity. The role of the dopant was studied in the process of charge transfer between the copolymer-dopant, acting in the stabilization of the species in the polymer backbone and the increase of the electronic conductivity.

  15. Preliminary study of corrosion mechanisms of actinides alloys: calibration of FT-IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnien, Veronique; Cadignan, Marx; Faivret, Olivier; Rosa, Gaelle

    2008-01-01

    In situ analyzes of gaseous atmospheres could be performed by FT-IR spectroscopy in order to study the corrosion reactions of actinides. Nevertheless experimental conditions and the nature of studied species have a strong effect on IR absorption laws. Thus a prior calibration of our set-up is required to obtain an accurate estimation of gas concentration. For this purpose, the behavior of several air pure gases has been investigated according to their concentration from IR spectra. Reproducible results revealed subsequent increases of the most significant peak areas with gas pressure and small deviations from Beer Lambert's law. This preliminary work allowed to determine precise absorption laws for each studied pure gas in our in situ experimental conditions. Besides our FT-IR set-up was well suitable to quantitative analysis of gaseous atmosphere during corrosion reactions. Finally the effect of foreign gas will be investigated through more complex air mixtures to obtain a complete calibration network. (authors)

  16. 17 CFR 240.13a-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.13a-20 Section 240.13a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-20 Plain English presentation of...

  17. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR

    OpenAIRE

    Pornprasit, Rattapol; Pornprasit, Philaiwan; Boonma, Pruet; Natwichai, Juggapong

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. In this work, mechanical properties of selected rubber materials, that is, natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), were evaluated using a near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Here, NR/NBR and NR/EPDM blends were first prepared. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-...

  18. Unlocking Ft: Modeling thermodynamic controls and isotope fractionation factors in nutrient limited environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhan, J. L.; Giannetta, M.; Sanford, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, reactive transport principles have expanded from early applications, largely based in contaminant hydrology, to a wide range of biologically mediated redox environments including marine sedimentary diagenesis, terrestrial metal ore deposits, soils, and critical zone weathering profiles. A common observation across this diversity of systems is that they often function under energetically limited conditions in comparison to those typical of contaminated aquifers subject to engineered remediation techniques. As a result, the kinetic rate expressions traditionally employed within reactive transport frameworks to simulate microbially mediated redox transformations have required modification. This was recognized in a series of seminal papers by Jin and Bethke (2005, 2007) in which the authors expanded upon a Monod rate law to include a thermodynamic potential factor `Ft' which exerts a limitation on the overall rate based on the thermodynamic driving force of the electron transfer reaction. This new rate expression is now commonly implemented within many of the major reactive transport software packages, though appropriate application has yet to be thoroughly demonstrated. Notably, the characteristically large partitioning of stable isotopes during microbially mediated reactions, which is extensively utilized to identify and quantify these redox transformations, has yet to be simulated under conditions in which the Ft term may be expected to exert a significant mass dependent influence. Here, we develop a series of simplified simulations for the microbially mediated reduction of sulfate based on the datasets reported by Jin and Bethke, and apply appropriate mass-bias within the Ft term to consider the extent to which the resulting isotopic fractionation is consistent with that observed in energetically limited systems. We show that the Ft term can exert a significant influence on the observed fractionation factor under common environmental conditions

  19. S. Afr. J, Anim. Sci 4, 55-60(1974) EVIDENCE FOR A FT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci 4, 55-60(1974). EVIDENCE FOR A FT,JNCTIONAL ROLE OF THE PINEAL IN BOVINES. M.lf{.M. llryes, B.K. Knight and R.B. Symington. RreiptofnSr.e.T3. Deprtment of Amtomy, Univasity of Rhodesh, &lisbury, Rhodesia. ONOIIIMING;. BEWYSE VIR 'N .FI,,NKSIONELE ROL VAN DIE EPIFISE TN DIE BEES. Dat die epifisc ...

  20. Can f(T) gravity theories mimic ΛCDM cosmic history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The f(T) modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function f(T) by demanding a background ΛCDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat ΛCDM (the radiation ere with ω{sub eff} = (1/3), matter and de Sitter eras with ω{sub eff} = 0 and ω{sub eff} = −1, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with Ω{sub 0r} = 1 and the matter dominate during the matter phases when Ω{sub 0m} = 1. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the ΛCDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function f(T) which mimics cosmic expansion history.

  1. Molecular orientation in aligned electrospun polyimide nanofibers by polarized FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoqi; Jiang, Shaohua; Fang, Hong; Hu, Xiaowu; Duan, Gaigai; Hou, Haoqing

    2018-07-05

    Quantitative explanation on the improved mechanical properties of aligned electrospun polyimide (PI) nanofibers as the increased imidization temperatures is highly required. In this work, polarized FT-IR spectroscopy is applied to solve this problem. Based on the polarized FT-IR spectroscopy and the molecular model in the fibers, the length of the repeat unit of PI molecule, the angle between the fiber axis and the symmetric stretching direction of carbonyl group on the imide ring, and the angle between the PI molecular axis and fiber axis are all investigated. The Mark-Howink equation is used to calculate the number-average molar mass of PI molecules. The orientation states of PI molecules in the electrospun nanofibers are studied from the number-average molar mass of PI molecules and the average fiber diameter. Quantitative analysis of the orientation factor of PI molecules in the electrospun nanofibers is performed by polarized FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Concepts for the assay of unbound thyroxine (FT4) and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odstrchel, G.; Hertl, W.; Ward, F.B.; Travis, K.; Lindner, R.E.; Mason, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Two new concepts for the assay of thyroid related substances are presented. One assay (FT 4 ) is based on a kinetic measurement of T 4 as it desorbs from binder proteins onto solid-phase T 4 antibody. This reaction can be described by a second order rate equation; r = k (IMA) (FT 4 ). The assay is rapid (2 hours) and gives good agreement (sigma = 0.92) with equilibrium dialysis and a normal range of 0.9 - 2.3 ng/dl. This assay uses a small sample size (25 μl) and is unaffected by drugs such as aspirin and dilantin. Pregnant and estrogen treated women gave normal FT 4 values. A new method for the measurement of functionally active TEG is also presented. In this case the labeled T 4 is partitioned between bovine serum albumin and the patient's samples. The complex is then removed from solution by solid-phase anti-TBG. A curve remiscent of an immunoradiometric assay is obtained. The assay has a sensitivity of 4 μg/ml and is unaffected by aspirin, dilantin or the patient's T 4 concentrations. Correlation with 'rocket' electrophoresis is 0.90. The normal range was 20 +- 7 μg/ml with pregnant women giving values greater than 30 μg/ml. Five hereditary deficient patients gave a value equivalent to zero TBG concentration. (orig.) [de

  3. Hand dryer noise in public restrooms exceeds 80 dBA at 10 ft (3 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Salzhauer Berkowitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High airflow hand dryers are found in many public restrooms today. These dryers offer quick and clean hand drying, and are seen as being an environment-friendly alternative to paper towels. However, many new hand dryers are loud, exposing individuals using the facilities as well as those employees who clean the facilities to potentially dangerous noise. Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea, resulting in varying degrees of noise-induced hearing loss. This study examined the intensity (in dBA of the noise produced by the air dryers in campus restrooms. Hand dryer peak and average noise was measured with a sound level meter at 2.5 ft, 5 ft, and 10 ft from the dryer. Noise measurements did not decrease as predicted by the inverse-square law, probably because of the reverberative surfaces found in the restrooms. The small sample of hand dryers tested was mostly found to be producing more noise than the manufacturer claimed they would; indeed, none of the dryers would be safe for an 8-h workday exposure. While hand dryers do reduce paper trash, they pose as a different sort of hazard to our environment and population.

  4. High performance gamma-ray spectrometer for runaway electron studies on the FT-2 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevelev, A.E., E-mail: Shevelev@cycla.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Khilkevitch, E.M.; Lashkul, S.I.; Rozhdestvensky, V.V.; Altukhov, A.B.; Chugunov, I.N.; Doinikov, D.N.; Esipov, L.A.; Gin, D.B.; Iliasova, M.V.; Naidenov, V.O.; Nersesyan, N.S.; Polunovsky, I.A.; Sidorov, A.V. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Kiptily, V.G. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon X14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-11

    A gamma-ray spectrometer based on LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator has been used for measurements of hard X-ray emission generated by runaway electrons in the FT-2 tokamak plasmas. Using of the fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) has allowed extending count rate range of the spectrometer by a factor of 10. A developed digital processing algorithm of the detector signal recorded with a digitizer sampling rate of 250 MHz has provided a pulse height analysis at count rates up to 10{sup 7} s{sup −1}. A spectrum deconvolution code DeGaSum has been applied for inferring the energy distribution of runaway electrons escaping from the plasma and interacting with materials of the FT-2 limiter in the vacuum chamber. The developed digital signal processing technique for LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) spectrometer has allowed studying the evolution of runaways energy distribution in the FT-2 plasma discharges with time resolution of 1–5 ms.

  5. Monitoring wine aging with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basalekou Marianthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oak wood has commonly been used in wine aging but recently other wood types such as Acacia and Chestnut, have attracted the interest of the researchers due to their possible positive contribution to wine quality. However, only the use of oak and chestnut woods is approved by the International Enological Codex of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. In this study Fourier Transform (FT-mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with Discriminant Analysis was used to differentiate wines aged in barrels made from French oak, American oak, Acacia and Chestnut and in tanks with oak chips, over a period of 12 months. Two red (Mandilaria, Kotsifali and two white (Vilana, Dafni native Greek grape varieties where used to produce four wines. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded on a Zinc Selenide (ZnSe window after incubation at 40 °C for 30 min. A complete differentiation of the samples according to both the type of wood used and the contact time was achieved based on their FT-IR spectra.

  6. New observational constraints on f(T) cosmology from radio quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); Biesiada, Marek; Zheng, Xiaogang [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); University of Silesia, Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland)

    2017-08-15

    Using a new recently compiled milliarcsecond compact radio data set of 120 intermediate-luminosity quasars in the redshift range 0.46 < z < 2.76, whose statistical linear sizes show negligible dependence on redshifts and intrinsic luminosity and thus represent standard rulers in cosmology, we constrain three viable and most popular f(T) gravity models, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallel gravity. Our analysis reveals that constraining power of the quasars data (N = 120) is comparable to the Union2.1 SN Ia data (N = 580) for all three f(T) models. Together with other standard ruler probes such as cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements, the present value of the matter density parameter Ω{sub m} obtained by quasars is much larger than that derived from other observations. For one of the models considered (f{sub 1}CDM) a small but noticeable deviation from ΛCDM cosmology is present, while in the framework of f{sub 3}CDM the effective equation of state may cross the phantom divide line at lower redshifts. These results indicate that intermediate-luminosity quasars could provide an effective observational probe comparable to SN Ia at much higher redshifts, and f(T) gravity is a reasonable candidate for the modified gravity theory. (orig.)

  7. FY17 Accomplishments - Testing Facilities and Capabilities at SWiFT, SNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) facility operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has, in support of the Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) research program, acquired measurements of wind turbine wake dynamics under various atmospheric conditions and while interacting with a downstream wind turbine. SNL researchers, in collaboration with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers, installed a customized LIDAR system created by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in one of the SWiFT wind turbines (Figure 1) and operated that turbine with intentional yaw-versus-winddirection misalignment to study the behavior of the turbine wake under numerous combinations of atmospheric conditions and turbine yaw offsets. The DTU-customized LIDAR provided detailed measurements of the wake’s shape and location at many distances downwind of the turbine (Figure 2). These measurements will benefit wind energy researchers looking to understand wind turbine wake behavior and improve modeling and simulation of wake dynamics, including the “wake steering” affect that is observed when turbine yaw offset is controlled. During the test campaign, two SWiFT wind turbines were operated at the same time to observe the influence of the turbines on each other as the wake of the upwind turbine was observed sweeping over and interacting with the downwind turbine.

  8. Characterization of prepared In2O3 thin films: The FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible investigation and optical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerdoss, I Joseph; Jeyakumar, S Johnson; Ramalingam, S; Jothibas, M

    2015-08-05

    In this original work, the Indium oxide (In2O3) thin film is deposited cleanly on microscope glass substrate at different temperatures by spray pyrolysis technique. The physical properties of the films are characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and AFM measurements. The spectroscopic investigation has been carried out on the results of FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible. XRD analysis exposed that the structural transformation of films from stoichiometric to non-stoichiometric orientation of the plane vice versa and also found that, the film is polycrystalline in nature having cubic crystal structure with a preferred grain orientation along (222) plane. SEM and AFM studies revealed that, the film with 0.1M at 500°C has spherical grains with uniform dimension. The complete vibrational analysis has been carried out and the optimized parameters are calculated using HF and DFT (CAM-B3LYP, B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 3-21G(d,p) basis set. Furthermore, NMR chemical shifts are calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) technique. The molecular electronic properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, molecular electrostatic potential energy (MEP) analysis and Polarizability first order hyperpolarizability calculations are performed by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The energy excitation on electronic structure is investigated and the assignment of the absorption bands in the electronic spectra of steady compound is discussed. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies showed the enhancement of energy gap by the addition of substitutions with the base molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) at different temperatures are calculated and interpreted in gas phase. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR studies and ab initio-HF, DFT-B3LYP vibrational analysis of 4-chloro-2-fluoroaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, M; Anitha Rexalin, D

    2012-10-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of 4-chloro-2-fluoroaniline (CFA) have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been investigated with the help of ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule are calculated by the Gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The first order hyperpolarizability (β(0)) of this novel molecular system and related properties (β, α(0) and Δα) of CFA are calculated using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and HF/6-311++G(d,p) methods on the finite-field approach. The calculated results also show that the CFA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The result confirms the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The HOMO-LUMO energies UV-vis spectral analysis and MEP are performed by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) approach. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of CFA is also reported based on total energy distribution (TED). The difference between the observed and scaled wave number values of the most of the fundamentals is very small. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectroscopic [FT-IR and FT-Raman] and molecular modeling (MM) study of benzene sulfonamide molecule using quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, K. S.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.

    2016-07-01

    The spectroscopic and molecular modeling (MM) study includes, FT-IR, FT-Raman and 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectra of the Benzene sulfonamide were recorded for the analysis. The observed experimental and theoretical frequencies (IR and Raman) were assigned according to their distinctive region. The present study of this title molecule have been carried out by hybrid computational calculations of HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods with 6-311+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results are tabulated. The structural modifications of the compound due to the substitutions of NH2 and SO2 were investigated. The minimum energy conformers of the compound were studied using conformational analysis. The alternations of the vibrational pattern of the base structure related to the substitutions were analyzed. The thermodynamic parameters (such as zero-point vibrational energy, thermal energy, specific heat capacity, rotational constants, entropy, and dipole moment) of Benzene sulfonamide have been calculated. The donor acceptor interactions of the compound and the corresponding UV transitions are found out using NBO analysis. The NMR spectra were simulated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP methods and the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their spectra were simulated and the chemical shifts related to TMS were compared. A quantum computational study on the electronic and optical properties absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by HF and DFT methods. The energy gap of the present compound was calculated related to HOMO and LUMO energies which confirm the occurring of charge transformation between the base and ligand group. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase and

  11. The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, dispersive Raman and NMR) study of ethyl-6-chloronicotinate molecule by combined density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Calisir, Zuhre; Kurt, Mustafa; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ethyl-6-chloronicotinate (E-6-ClN) molecule is recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1) (FT-IR, FT-Raman and dispersive Raman, respectively) in the solid phase. ((1))H and ((13))C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are recorded in DMSO solution. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule are obtained for two possible isomers (S1 and S2) from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. The geometry of the molecule is fully optimized, vibrational spectra are calculated and fundamental vibrations are assigned on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. ((1))H and ((13))C NMR chemical shifts are calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strengths, wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, are performed by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Total and partial density of state and overlap population density of state diagrams analysis are presented for E-6-ClN molecule. Furthermore, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential, and thermodynamic features are performed. In addition to these, reduced density gradient of the molecule is performed and discussed. As a conclusion, the calculated results are compared with the experimental spectra of the title compound. The results of the calculations are applied to simulate the vibrational spectra of the molecule, which show excellent agreement with the observed ones. The theoretical and tentative results will give us a detailed description of the structural and physicochemical properties of the molecule. Natural bond orbital analysis is done to have more information stability of the molecule arising from charge delocalization, and to reveal the information regarding charge transfer within the molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-visible, and NMR spectroscopy and vibrational properties of the labdane-type diterpene 13-epi-sclareol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando E; Leyton, Patricio; Paipa, Carolina; Fortuna, Mario; Brandán, Silvia A

    2015-03-05

    In this work, FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and NMR spectroscopies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to study the structural and vibrational properties of the labdane-type diterpene 13-epi-sclareol using the hybrid B3LYP method together with the 6-31G(∗) basis set. Three stable structures with minimum energy found on the potential energy curves (PES) were optimized, and the corresponding molecular electrostatic potentials, atomic charges, bond orders, stabilization energies and topological properties were computed at the same approximation level. The complete assignment of the bands observed in the vibrational spectrum of 13-epi-sclareol was performed taking into account the internal symmetry coordinates for the three structures using the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology at the same level of theory. In addition, the force constants were calculated and compared with those reported in the literature for similar compounds. The predicted vibrational spectrum and the calculated (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR chemical shifts are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. The theoretical UV-Vis spectra for the most stable structure of 13-epi-sclareol demonstrate a better correlation with the corresponding experimental spectrum. The study of the three conformers by means of the theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) revealed different H bond interactions and a strong dependence of the interactions on the distance between the involved atoms. Furthermore, the natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations showed the characteristics of the electronic delocalization for the two six-membered rings with chair conformations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectroscopic [FT-IR and FT-Raman] and theoretical [UV-Visible and NMR] analysis on α-Methylstyrene by DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, N; Joseph Prince, J; Ramalingam, S; Periandy, S

    2015-05-15

    In the present research work, the FT-IR, FT-Raman and (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra of the α-Methylstyrene were recorded. The observed fundamental frequencies in finger print as well as functional group regions were assigned according to their uniqueness region. The Gaussian computational calculations are carried out by HF and DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results were tabulated. The impact of the presence of vinyl group in phenyl structure of the compound is investigated. The modified vibrational pattern of the molecule associated vinyl group was analyzed. Moreover, (13)C NMR and (1)H NMR were calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP methods and the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their spectra were simulated and the chemical shifts linked to TMS were compared. A study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies were carried out. The kubo gap of the present compound was calculated related to HOMO and LUMO energies which confirm the occurring of charge transformation between the base and ligand. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. The NLO properties related to Polarizability and hyperpolarizability based on the finite-field approach were also discussed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular structure, electronic properties, NLO, NBO analysis and spectroscopic characterization of Gabapentin with experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Leena; Karabacak, Mehmet; Narayan, V.; Cinar, Mehmet; Prasad, Onkar

    2013-05-01

    Gabapentin (GP), structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), mimics the activity of GABA and is also widely used in neurology for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. It exists in zwitterionic form in solid state. The present communication deals with the quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of GP using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In view of the fact that amino acids exist as zwitterions as well as in the neutral form depending on the environment (solvent, pH, etc.), molecular properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP have been analyzed. The fundamental vibrational wavenumbers as well as their intensities were calculated and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The electric dipole moment, polarizability and the first hyperpolarizability values of the GP have been calculated at the same level of theory and basis set. The nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior of zwitterionic and neutral form has been compared. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using TD-DFT method. The thermodynamic properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP at different temperatures have been calculated.

  15. Urea, Uric Acid, Prolactin and fT4 Concentrations in Aqueous Humor of Keratoconus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachon, Tanja; Stachon, Axel; Hartmann, Ulrike; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2017-06-01

    Keratoconus is a noninflammatory disease of the cornea associated with progressive thinning and conical shape. Metabolic alterations in the urea cycle, with changes in collagen fibril stability, oxidative stress, thyroid hormones and prolactin with regulatory effect on biosynthesis and biomechanical stability of corneal stroma, may all play a role in keratoconus etiology. Our purpose was to determine urea, uric acid, prolactin and free thyroxin (fT4) concentrations in human aqueous humor (hAH) of keratoconus and cataract patients. hAH was collected from 100 keratoconus (penetrating keratoplasty) (41.9 ± 14.9 years, 69 males) and 100 cataract patients (cataract surgery) (71.2 ± 12.4 years, 58 males). Urea, uric acid, prolactin and fT4 concentrations were measured by Siemens clinical chemistry or immunoassay system. For statistical analysis, a generalized linear model (GLM) was used. Urea concentration was 11.88 ± 3.03 mg/dl in keratoconus and 16.44 ± 6.40 mg/dl in cataract patients, uric acid 2.04 ± 0.59 mg/dl in keratoconus and 2.18 ± 0.73 mg/dl in cataract groups. Prolactin concentration was 3.18 ± 0.34 ng/ml in keratoconus and 3.33 ± 0.32 ng/ml in cataract patients, fT4 20.57 ± 4.76 pmol/l in KC and 19.06 ± 3.86 pmol/l in cataract group. Urea concentration was effected through gender (p = 0.039), age (p = 0.001) and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Uric acid concentration was not effected through any of the analyzed parameters (p > 0.056). Prolactin and fT4 concentration were effected only through diagnosis (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006). Urea and prolactin concentrations are decreased, fT4 concentration is increased in aqueous humor of keratoconus patients, and uric acid concentration remains unchanged. Urea concentration in aqueous humor is also increased in older and male patients. Therefore, metabolic disorder and hormonal balance may both have an impact on keratoconus development. Further studies are necessary to assess the specific impact.

  16. Drift and transmission FT-IR spectroscopy of forest soils: an approach to determine decomposition processes of forest litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberhauer, G.; Gerzabek, M.H.

    1999-06-01

    A method is described to characterize organic soil layers using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The applicability of FT-IR, either dispersive or transmission, to investigate decomposition processes of spruce litter in soil originating from three different forest sites in two climatic regions was studied. Spectral information of transmission and diffuse reflection FT-IR spectra was analyzed and compared. For data evaluation Kubelka Munk (KM) transformation was applied to the DRIFT spectra. Sample preparation for DRIFT is simpler and less time consuming in comparison to transmission FT-IR, which uses KBr pellets. A variety of bands characteristics of molecular structures and functional groups has been identified for these complex samples. Analysis of both transmission FT-IR and DRIFT, showed that the intensity of distinct bands is a measure of the decomposition of forest litter. Interferences due to water adsorption spectra were reduced by DRIFT measurement in comparison to transmission FT-IR spectroscopy. However, data analysis revealed that intensity changes of several bands of DRIFT and transmission FT-IR were significantly correlated with soil horizons. The application of regression models enables identification and differentiation of organic forest soil horizons and allows to determine the decomposition status of soil organic matter in distinct layers. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it may be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of decomposition dynamics in forest soils. (author)

  17. High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging of Human Tissue Sections towards Improving Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter L.; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis. PMID:25650759

  18. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyyarikkandy, Muhammed Shafeekh; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne

    2017-11-09

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC) followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD), Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR) in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages ( p < 0.05). Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression ( p < 0.05). Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  19. Effectiveness of superheated steam for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30, and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-03-02

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of superheated steam (SHS) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and in-shell pistachios and to determine the effect of superheated steam heating on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Almonds and in-shell pistachios inoculated with four foodborne pathogens were treated with saturated steam (SS) at 100 °C and SHS at 125, 150, 175, and 200 °C for various times. Exposure of almonds and pistachios to SHS for 15 or 30s at 200 °C achieved >5l og reductions among all tested pathogens without causing significant changes in color values or texture parameters (P>0.05). For both almonds and pistachios, acid and peroxide values (PV) following SS and SHS treatment for up to 15s and 30s, respectively, were within the acceptable range (PV<1.0 meq/kg). These results show that thermal application of 200 °C SHS treatment for 15s and 30s did not affect the quality of almonds and pistachios, respectively. Therefore, SHS treatment is a very promising alternative technology for the tree nuts industry by improving inactivation of foodborne pathogens on almonds and pistachios while simultaneously reducing processing time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Shafeekh Muyyarikkandy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST, and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD, Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages (p < 0.05. Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression (p < 0.05. Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  1. New Diagnosis of AIDS Based on Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica Enteritidis (A Meningitis in a Previously Immunocompetent Adult in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Elton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella meningitis is a rare manifestation of meningitis typically presenting in neonates and the elderly. This infection typically associates with foodborne outbreaks in developing nations and AIDS-endemic regions. We report a case of a 19-year-old male presenting with altered mental status after 3-day absence from work at a Wisconsin tourist area. He was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with a GCS of 8. The patient was intubated and a presumptive diagnosis of meningitis was made. Treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone, vancomycin, acyclovir, dexamethasone, and fluid resuscitation. A lumbar puncture showed cloudy CSF with Gram negative rods. He was admitted to the ICU. CSF culture confirmed Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica Enteritidis (A. Based on this finding, a 4th-generation HIV antibody/p24 antigen test was sent. When this returned positive, a CD4 count was obtained and showed 3 cells/mm3, confirming AIDS. The patient ultimately received 38 days of ceftriaxone, was placed on elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (Genvoya for HIV/AIDS, and was discharged neurologically intact after a 44-day admission.

  2. Gyrokinetic full f analysis of electric field dynamics and poloidal velocity in the FT2-tokamak configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leerink, S.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Nora, M.; Ogando, F.

    2008-01-01

    The ELMFIRE gyrokinetic simulation code has been used to perform full f simulations of the FT-2 tokamak. The dynamics of the radial electric field and the creation of poloidal velocity in the presence of turbulence are presented.

  3. Application of FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy to Characterize Waste and Bio-Fuels for Pyrolysis and Gasification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalisz, S.; Svoboda, Karel; Robak, Z.; Baxter, D.; Andersen, L. K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2008), s. 51-52 ISSN 1733-4381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ft-Iir spectroscopy * bio-fuels * gasification Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. FT-IR imaging for quantitative determination of liver fat content in non-alcoholic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, K; Maslak, E; Chlopicki, S; Baranska, M

    2015-08-07

    In this work we apply FT-IR imaging of large areas of liver tissue cross-section samples (∼5 cm × 5 cm) for quantitative assessment of steatosis in murine model of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD). We quantified the area of liver tissue occupied by lipid droplets (LDs) by FT-IR imaging and Oil Red O (ORO) staining for comparison. Two alternative FT-IR based approaches are presented. The first, straightforward method, was based on average spectra from tissues and provided values of the fat content by using a PLS regression model and the reference method. The second one – the chemometric-based method – enabled us to determine the values of the fat content, independently of the reference method by means of k-means cluster (KMC) analysis. In summary, FT-IR images of large size liver sections may prove to be useful for quantifying liver steatosis without the need of tissue staining.

  5. Aerial Survey of Vessel Usage and Marine Animal Occurrence between Ft. Pierce and Key West Florida, 1992-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An aerial survey between Ft Pierce and Key West Florida was performed aboard US Coast Guard helicopters and fixed wing aircraft from September 1992 through March...

  6. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy on breast cancer serum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Movaghar, Afshin Fayyaz; Elmi, Maryam Mitra; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nikbakhsh, Novin

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer is regarded as the most malignant tumor among women throughout the world. Therefore, early detection and proper diagnostic methods have been known to help save women's lives. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with PCA-LDA analysis, is a new technique to investigate the characteristics of serum in breast cancer. In this study, 43 breast cancer and 43 healthy serum samples were collected, and the FT-IR spectra were recorded for each one. Then, PCA analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the spectral data. The results showed that there were differences between the spectra of the two groups. Discriminating wavenumbers were associated with several spectral differences over the 950-1200 cm- 1(sugar), 1190-1350 cm- 1 (collagen), 1475-1710 cm- 1 (protein), 1710-1760 cm- 1 (ester), 2800-3000 cm- 1 (stretching motions of -CH2 & -CH3), and 3090-3700 cm- 1 (NH stretching) regions. PCA-LDA performance on serum IR could recognize changes between the control and the breast cancer cases. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PCA-LDA analysis for 3000-3600 cm- 1 (NH stretching) were found to be 83%, 84%, 74% for the control and 80%, 76%, 72% for the breast cancer cases, respectively. The results showed that the major spectral differences between the two groups were related to the differences in protein conformation in serum samples. It can be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy, together with multivariate data analysis, is able to discriminate between breast cancer and healthy serum samples.

  7. Masculine Chest-Wall Contouring in FtM Transgender: a Personal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Russo, Giulia; Tanini, Sara; Innocenti, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Chest-wall contouring surgery is one of the first steps in sexual reassignment in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals that contributes to strengthening of the self-image and facilitates living in the new gender role. The main goal is to masculinize the chest by removing the female contour. Chest contour, scar placement, scar shape, scar length, nipple-areola position, nipple size and the areola size are the key points. Between July 2013 and June 2016, 25 FtM transgender patients underwent surgical procedures to create a masculine chest-wall contour. In our study, we just considered 16 patients who have undergone chest surgery with the double incision method. The patients' survey revealed a high satisfaction rate with the aesthetic result. In our group, no complications occurred, and two patients have undergone supplementary surgery for axillary dog-ear revision and nipple reconstruction. The authors propose a new technical approach and indications for FtM transgender patients' surgery. A longer scar that emphasizes the pectoralis muscle, a smaller nipple and a resized and refaced areola are the key points of our technique to give a masculine appearance to the chest. The scars are permanent, but most of them will fade and the patients are enthusiastic with their new "male" chest appearance. The high level of satisfaction, the great aesthetic result and the low rate of complications suggest to us the use of this technique in medium- and large-size breasts. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Fluorescence, aggregation properties and FT-IR microspectroscopy of elastin and collagen fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos

    2014-10-01

    Histological and histochemical observations support the hypothesis that collagen fibers can link to elastic fibers. However, the resulting organization of elastin and collagen type complexes and differences between these materials in terms of macromolecular orientation and frequencies of their chemical vibrational groups have not yet been solved. This study aimed to investigate the macromolecular organization of pure elastin, collagen type I and elastin-collagen complexes using polarized light DIC-microscopy. Additionally, differences and similarities between pure elastin and collagen bundles (CB) were investigated by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. Although elastin exhibited a faint birefringence, the elastin-collagen complex aggregates formed in solution exhibited a deep birefringence and formation of an ordered-supramolecular complex typical of collagen chiral structure. The FT-IR study revealed elastin and CB peptide NH groups involved in different types of H-bonding. More energy is absorbed in the vibrational transitions corresponding to CH, CH2 and CH3 groups (probably associated with the hydrophobicity demonstrated by 8-anilino-1-naphtalene sulfonic acid sodium salt [ANS] fluorescence), and to νCN, δNH and ωCH2 groups of elastin compared to CB. It is assumed that the α-helix contribution to the pure elastin amide I profile is 46.8%, whereas that of the B-sheet is 20% and that unordered structures contribute to the remaining percentage. An FT-IR profile library reveals that the elastin signature within the 1360-1189cm(-1) spectral range resembles that of Conex-Toray aramid fibers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. FT-IR spectroscopic studies of protein secondary structures for breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamancheva, I; Simonova, D.; Milev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Roughly 14 million new cancer cases and 8 million cancer deaths have occurred worldwide in 2012. At least 30 % of all cancer cases and 40 % of the cancer deaths should be avoided by improving the early detection. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has shown many advantages as a tool for the detection of cancer over the traditional methods such as histopathological analysis, X-ray transmission, ultrasonic and computer tomography techniques. With the aim to establish the FT-IR spectroscopy as an alternative method for the diagnosis of human cancers, we have made several studies to examine in details the spectroscopic properties of normal and carcinomatous tissues. Human breast tissues were obtained immediately after surgical breast resection with the informed patient's consent. In our studies we made extensive use of Fourier self-deconvolution, second-order derivatization, difference spectra, curve-fitting procedures and quantitative determinations according to Beer's law. Cancer is a multi-step process. Characteristic differences in both the frequencies and the intensity ratios of several bands have been revealed. Considerable differences have been found in the spectral patterns. The most important and informative region in the mid-IR for determination of protein secondary structure is the amide I and amide II region. The bands between 1730 and 1600 cm -1 are highly sensitive to conformational changes. Considerable changes were observed in the A1735/A1652 absorbance ratio, which provides a measure for the content of a- helix and P-sheet domains. Our investigations have shown that the major biomarker peaks are in the amide I and amide II regions. In the so called 'fingerprint region' many molecular constituents such as lipids, phospholipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, carbohydrates and metabolites may overlap and the quantitative interpretation is impossible. The spectrum may therefore reflect only the average biochemical composition.; key words

  10. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh-Sadat Jafarzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm. Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness.

  11. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness.

  12. Quantification and spatial distribution of salicylic acid in film tablets using FT-Raman mapping with multivariate curve resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Haslet Eksi-Kocak; Sibel Ilbasmis Tamer; Sebnem Yilmaz; Merve Eryilmaz; Ismail Hakkı Boyaci; Ugur Tamer

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a rapid and sensitive method for quantification and spatial distribution of salicylic acid in film tablets using FT-Raman spectroscopy with multivariate curve resolution (MCR). For this purpose, the constituents of film tablets were identified by using FT-Raman spectroscopy, and then eight different concentrations of salicylic acid tablets were visualized by Raman mapping. MCR was applied to mapping data to expose the active pharmaceutical ingredients in the presenc...

  13. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.; Sharabi, N. D.

    2008-11-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (Authors)

  14. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mariri, A; Sharabi, N D [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic), Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

    2008-11-15

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (Authors)

  15. Study on the bywalled plasma near the FT-2 tokamak limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnikov, V.N.; Gerasimenko, G.V.; Esipov, L.A.; Levitskij, A.N.; Sakharov, I.E.; Shatalin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Results od investigation into the bywalled plasma near the FT-2 tokamak limiter, conducted using the ternary probe method are presented. Plasma charged particle concentration radial profiles, results of measuring the electron temperature and azimuthal electric field are presented. It is shown, that at l > 2mm, where l is the distance up to the limiter, concentration practically does not depend on the longitudinal coordinate and near the limiter (l < 20 mm) a sharp drop of plasma charged particle concentration measured values (∼ 2-fold) is observed. Neoclassical mechanism of filling the depletion area (the probe shade) is confirmed

  16. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis for studying Clostridium cell response to conversion of enzymatically hydrolyzed hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Nescerecka, Alina; Tihomirova, Kristina; Mezule, Linda; Juhna, Talis

    2013-07-01

    Grass hay is one of assailable cellulose containing non-food agricultural wastes that can be used as a carbohydrate source by microorganisms producing biofuels. In this study three Clostridium strains Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium tetanomorphum, capable of producing acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) were adapted to convert enzymatically hydrolyzed hay used as a growth media additive. The results of growth curves, substrate degradation kinetics and FT-IR analyses of bacterial biomass macromolecular composition showed diverse strain-specific cell response to the growth medium composition.

  17. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maiara S.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.; Ferreira, Antonio G.; Boffo, Elisangela F.; Figueira, Glyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as 'quebra-pedras' in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, 1 H HR-MAS NMR and 1 H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques. (author)

  18. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR Techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara S. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as "quebra-pedras" in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, ¹H HR-MAS NMR and ¹H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques.

  19. Matrix isolation FT-IR spectroscopy and molecular orbital study of sarcosine methyl ester

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, R.

    2004-01-01

    N-methylglycine methyl ester (sarcosine-Me) has been studied by matrix isolation FT-IR spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations undertaken at the DFT/B3LYP and MP2 levels of theory with the 6-311++G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis set, respectively. Twelve different conformers were located in the potential energy surface of the studied compound, with the ASC conformer being the ground conformational state. This form is analogous to the dimethylglycine methyl ester most stable conformer and...

  20. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maiara S.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Boffo, Elisangela F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Figueira, Glyn M., E-mail: maiarassantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2012-07-01

    The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as 'quebra-pedras' in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, {sup 1}H HR-MAS NMR and {sup 1}H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques. (author)

  1. Spherically Symmetric Geometries in f(T) and f(R) Gravitational Theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Using the well know relation between Ricci scalar, R, and torsion scalar, T, that is, R=-T-2∇_αT"α, we show that, for any spherically symmetric spacetime whose (i) scalar torsion vanishing, that is, T=T_μ_ν"αS_α"μ"ν=0 or (ii) total derivative term, that is, ∇_αT"α with T"α is the contraction of the torsion, vanishing, or (iii) the combination of scalar torsion and total derivative term vanishing, could be solution for f(T) and f(R) gravitational theories.

  2. Clinical study of FT-207 suppository for head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomioka, Masashi; Usami, Masami; Sakamoto, Ayako

    1982-01-01

    Futraful suppository 1.5g per day was administered to 33 patients with head and neck malignancies. Among 33 cases which entered into the study, 16 cases were evaluated. Out of 16 evaluable cases, complete responses (CRs) were obtained in 4 cases and partial responses (PRs) in 7 cases. An overall response rate including 4 CRs and 7 PRs was 68.8%. Side effects due to FT-207 suppository were developed in 14 cases out of 33 patients (42.4%) Side effects such as anal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, pigmentation, exanthema and nail change were observed. No severe side effect was encountered. (author)

  3. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.; Sharabi, N. D.

    2010-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (author)

  4. [Application of FT-IR pattern recognition method for the quality control of pharmaceutical ingredients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgos, József; Kóger, Péter; Zelkó, Romána

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics have proven their effectiveness for both qualitative and quantitative analyses in different fields like agriculture, food, chemical and oil industry. Furier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) plate is a fast identification instrument. It is suitable for analysis of solid and liquid phase, too. Associated with chemometrics, it would be a powerful tool for the pharmaceutical wholesalers to detect the insufficient quality of pharmaceutical ingredients. In the present study beside the review of the infra red technology, pharmaceutical ingredients were examined with the help of our spectra library.

  5. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maiara S.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Boffo, Elisangela F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Figueira, Glyn M., E-mail: maiarassantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2012-07-01

    The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as 'quebra-pedras' in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, {sup 1}H HR-MAS NMR and {sup 1}H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques. (author)

  6. Using FT-IR Spectroscopy to Elucidate the Structures of Ablative Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The composition and structure of an ablative polymer has a multifaceted influence on its thermal, mechanical and ablative properties. Understanding the molecular level information is critical to the optimization of material performance because it helps to establish correlations with the macroscopic properties of the material, the so-called structure-property relationship. Moreover, accurate information of molecular structures is also essential to predict the thermal decomposition pathways as well as to identify decomposition species that are fundamentally important to modeling work. In this presentation, I will describe the use of infrared transmission spectroscopy (FT-IR) as a convenient tool to aid the discovery and development of thermal protection system materials.

  7. Thermodynamics in f(T Gravity with Nonminimal Coupling to Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Azizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we study the thermodynamics behavior of the field equations for the generalized f(T gravity with arbitrary coupling between matter and the torsion scalar. In this regard, we explore the verification of the first law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe in two different perspectives, namely, the nonequilibrium and equilibrium descriptions of thermodynamics. Furthermore, we investigate the validity of the second law of thermodynamics for both descriptions of this scenario with the assumption that the temperature of matter inside the horizon is similar to that of horizon.

  8. Pentalum SpiDAR Deployment at SWiFT FY17.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westergaard, Carsten [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pol, Suhas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pereira, Tassia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Castillo, Ricardo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Texas Tech University ( TTU ) research group is actively studying the wake development of wind turbines, as part of developing innovative wake control strategies to improve the performance of wind farms. Recently, the team received a set of five new gro und lidars to perform field measurements at the Sandia National Laboratories SWiFT site. This document describes tests details including configurations, timeframe, hardware, and the required collaboration from the Sandia team. This test plan will facili tate the coordination between both TTU and the Sandia team in terms of site accessibility, staff training, and data sharing to meet the specific objectives of the tests.

  9. A Controlled-Environment Chamber for Atmospheric Chemistry Studies Using FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    necessary and identify by block number) FELD GROUP SUB-GROUP i >Chamber, controlled environment; long-path cell ; 07 04 FT-IR; Hydrazine decay...modification doubles the useable path length of the original multipass cell described by White (Reference 8). The pattern of images formed on the nesting...system is shown in Figure 13. 24 z C C02, Ibm, El4 944 C3 ta) caC E-4- 252 14 $4 41) 41) 0. 0 04 04 4 41) ~0 to 0.0 V-4 (A q14 0~ 1% 4-r4 $4 0 u P416 4 4

  10. Inflorescence Development and the Role of LsFT in Regulating Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Ding, Yunyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Yan, Shuangshuang; Luo, Chen; Jiang, Xiaotang; Ge, Danfeng; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2018-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important leafy vegetable that is consumed during its vegetative growth. The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is induced by high temperature, which has significant economic effect on lettuce production. However, the progression of floral transition and the molecular regulation of bolting are largely unknown. Here we morphologically characterized the inflorescence development and functionally analyzed the FLOWERING LOCUS T (LsFT) gene during bolting regulation in lettuce. We described the eight developmental stages during floral transition process. The expression of LsFT was negatively correlated with bolting in different lettuce varieties, and was promoted by heat treatment. Overexpression of LsFT could recover the late-flowering phenotype of ft-2 mutant. Knockdown of LsFT by RNA interference dramatically delayed bolting in lettuce, and failed to respond to high temperature. Therefore, this study dissects the process of inflorescence development and characterizes the role of LsFT in bolting regulation in lettuce. PMID:29403510

  11. Inflorescence Development and the Role of LsFT in Regulating Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Ding, Yunyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Yan, Shuangshuang; Luo, Chen; Jiang, Xiaotang; Ge, Danfeng; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important leafy vegetable that is consumed during its vegetative growth. The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is induced by high temperature, which has significant economic effect on lettuce production. However, the progression of floral transition and the molecular regulation of bolting are largely unknown. Here we morphologically characterized the inflorescence development and functionally analyzed the FLOWERING LOCUS T (LsFT) gene during bolting regulation in lettuce. We described the eight developmental stages during floral transition process. The expression of LsFT was negatively correlated with bolting in different lettuce varieties, and was promoted by heat treatment. Overexpression of LsFT could recover the late-flowering phenotype of ft-2 mutant. Knockdown of LsFT by RNA interference dramatically delayed bolting in lettuce, and failed to respond to high temperature. Therefore, this study dissects the process of inflorescence development and characterizes the role of LsFT in bolting regulation in lettuce.

  12. QM/MM methodology, docking and spectroscopic (FT-IR/FT-Raman, NMR, UV) and Fukui function analysis on adrenergic agonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma Maheswari, J.; Muthu, S.; Sundius, Tom

    2015-02-01

    The Fourier transform infrared, FT-Raman, UV and NMR spectra of Ternelin have been recorded and analyzed. Harmonic vibrational frequencies have been investigated with the help of HF with 6-31G (d,p) and B3LYP with 6-31G (d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO method. The polarizability (α) and the first hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using DFT quantum mechanical calculations. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptors such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in Ternelin. Finally the calculated results were compared to simulated infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which show good agreement with observed spectra. Molecular docking studies have been carried out in the active site of Ternelin and reactivity with ONIOM was also investigated.

  13. FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible spectral investigations and ab initio computations of anti-epileptic drug: Vigabatrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Bismi; Joe, I. Hubert

    2013-10-01

    Vibrational analysis of anti-epileptic drug vigabatrin, a structural GABA analog was carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers were studied using density functional theory method. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of VEDA.4 program. Vibrational spectra, natural bond orbital analysis and optimized molecular structure show clear evidence for the effect of electron charge transfer on the activity of the molecule. Predicted electronic absorption spectrum from TD-DFT calculation has been compared with the UV-vis spectrum. The Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges and the HOMO-LUMO energy were also calculated. Good consistency is found between the calculated results and experimental data for the electronic absorption as well as IR and Raman spectra. The blue-shifting of the Csbnd C stretching wavenumber reveals that the vinyl group is actively involved in the conjugation path. The NBO analysis confirms the occurrence of intramolecular hyperconjugative interactions resulting in ICT causing stabilization of the system.

  14. FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible spectral investigations and ab initio computations of anti-epileptic drug: vigabatrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Bismi; Joe, I Hubert

    2013-10-01

    Vibrational analysis of anti-epileptic drug vigabatrin, a structural GABA analog was carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers were studied using density functional theory method. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of VEDA.4 program. Vibrational spectra, natural bond orbital analysis and optimized molecular structure show clear evidence for the effect of electron charge transfer on the activity of the molecule. Predicted electronic absorption spectrum from TD-DFT calculation has been compared with the UV-vis spectrum. The Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges and the HOMO-LUMO energy were also calculated. Good consistency is found between the calculated results and experimental data for the electronic absorption as well as IR and Raman spectra. The blue-shifting of the C-C stretching wavenumber reveals that the vinyl group is actively involved in the conjugation path. The NBO analysis confirms the occurrence of intramolecular hyperconjugative interactions resulting in ICT causing stabilization of the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of milk product type and its initial contamination on the efficiency of different methods for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Antunović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates differences in efficacy of isolating pathogenic bacteria Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 between conventional cultivation (ISO method and immunomagnetic separation (IMS method related to the types of dairy products and initial numbers of bacteria. Different milk products (dairy pudding- vanilla or chocolate; a mixture of yoghurt and pudding; solid, liquid and fruit yoghurt; AB culture - with or without fruit; cheese spread were intentionally contaminated with different numbers (≈10 and ≈30 of live cells of the observed bacteria per mL. The obtained results showed that the classical ISO procedure still represents an equally adequate method for the detection of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes in dairy products as well as the IMS method. However, the ISO method was found to be inefficient for determination of E. coli O157:H7 when the initial contamination was low (≈10 live cells per mL. In such cases, even the IMS method appeared to be inefficient when used for fermented dairy product analysis. Fermented dairy products in contrast to the non-fermented ones, still represent a challenge for the development of routine detection methods, especially for S. Enteritidis, whilst the detection of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 has improved by introducing the IMS method. The largest difference in the ability to detect bacteria in dairy product samples with reference to the initial number of bacteria by both methods was in the detection of E. coli O157:H7. The choice of broth (non-selective fluid broth vs. selective fluid broth did not matter in the in the detection of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes by applying the IMS procedure. However, for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 the application of modified tripton-soya broth with novobiocin (mTSB+Nb has proved to be superior when compared to using the buffered peptone water (BPW. The presented results may be of importance as

  16. Numerical analysis of air effect on the powder flow dynamics in the FT4 Powder Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The FT4 powder rheometer of Freeman Technology is widely used nowadays in industry for characterisation of particle flow under dynamic conditions of shear strain rate. It measures the work (termed flow energy required to penetrate a rotating impeller into a powder bed. However, little is known about its underlying powder mechanics, i.e. the relationship between the flow energy and the prevailing local shear stress. This has recently been studied, but only for very simple and ideal systems amenable to analysis by DEM. We analyse the effect of gas flow through the powder bed on the flow behaviour of cohesionless particles in FT4 by DEM-CFD simulation. The results show that the relative particle velocities induced by the mean shear speed, is of the same order as that produced by the root of granular temperature. The shear stress in both cases with and without gas flow could be quantified by the inertial number. The flow energy correlates well with the shear stress in front of the blade, and both increase with the inertial number and could be significantly reduced by the upward gas flow.

  17. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  18. Metabolomic screening using ESI-FT MS identifies potential radiation-responsive molecules in mouse urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Susumu; Kawai, Hidehiko; Izumi, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Fumio; Kamiya, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    The demand for establishment of high-throughput biodosimetric methods is increasing. Our aim in this study was to identify low-molecular-weight urinary radiation-responsive molecules using electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FT MS), and our final goal was to develop a sensitive biodosimetry technique that can be applied in the early triage of a radiation emergency medical system. We identified nine metabolites by statistical comparison of mouse urine before and 8 h after irradiation. Time-course analysis showed that, of these metabolites, thymidine and either thymine or imidazoleacetic acid were significantly increased dose-dependently 8 h after radiation exposure; these molecules have already been reported as potential radiation biomarkers. Phenyl glucuronide was significantly decreased 8 h after radiation exposure, irrespective of the dose. Histamine and 1-methylhistamine were newly identified by MS/MS and showed significant, dose-dependent increases 72 h after irradiation. Quantification of 1-methylhistamine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis also showed a significant increase 72 h after 4 Gy irradiation. These results suggest that urinary metabolomics screening using ESI-FT MS can be a powerful tool for identifying promising radiation-responsive molecules, and that urinary 1-methylhistamine is a potential radiation-responsive molecule for acute, high-dose exposure.

  19. Chemical characterization of synthetic cannabinoids by electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kill, Jade B; Oliveira, Izabela F; Tose, Lilian V; Costa, Helber B; Kuster, Ricardo M; Machado, Leandro F; Correia, Radigya M; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Vasconcellos, Géssica A; Vaz, Boniek G; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-09-01

    The synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) represent the most recent advent of the new psychotropic substances (NPS) and has become popularly known to mitigate the effects of the Δ(9)-THC. The SCs are dissolved in organic solvents and sprayed in a dry herbal blend. However, little information is reported on active ingredients of SCs as well as the excipients or diluents added to the herbal blend. In this work, the direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry technique (ESI-FT-ICR MS) was applied to explore the chemical composition of nine samples of herbal extract blends, where a total of 11 SCs (UR-144, JWH-073, XLR-11, JWH-250, JWH-122, AM-2201, AKB48, JWH-210, JWH-081, MAM-2201 and 5F-AKB48) were identified in the positive ionization mode, ESI(+), and other 44 chemical species (saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, sugars, flavonoids, etc.) were detected in the negative ionization mode, ESI(-). Additionally, CID experiments were performed, and fragmentation pathways were proposed to identify the connectivity of SCs. Thus, the direct infusion ESI-FT-ICR MS technique is a powerful tool in forensic chemistry that enables the rapid and unequivocal way for the determination of molecular formula, the degree of unsaturation (DBE-double bond equivalent) and exact mass (<1ppm) of a total of 55 chemical species without the prior separation step. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of FT NIR Spectroscopy in the Determination of Basic Physical and Chemical Properties of Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Procházková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop calibration models for determination of water activity and the content of fat, dry matter, salt, non collagen muscle protein and pH in dry cooked sausages. Samples (n = 42 were scanned in FT-NIR Analyzer and simultaneously analyzed by standard methods. The spectra were measured in the reflectance mode with a compressive cell between 10 000 and 4 000 cm-1, averaging 100 scans. Calibration models were developed using the partial least squares (PLS method. These calibration models were checked later by crossvalidation. The following statistical values were obtained: R (correlation coefficient = 0.997 and SEC (standard error of calibration = 0.002 for water activity, R = 0.966 and SEC = 0.023 for pH, R = 0.995 and SEC = 0.970 for dry matter content, R = 0.995 and SEC = 0.045 for salt content, R = 0.965 and SEC = 0.652 for non collagen muscle protein, R = 0.996 and SEC = 0.559 for fat content. The results of the study showed that FT-NIR is a suitable method for rapid analysis of physical and chemical properties of sausages.

  1. Physicochemical characterization of Lavandula spp. honey with FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Ofélia; Santos, António J A; Paixão, Vasco; Estevinho, Letícia M

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy in the prediction of the chemical composition of Lavandula spp. monofloral honey. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were performed for the quantitative estimation and the results were correlated with those obtained using reference methods. Good calibration models were obtained for electrical conductivity, ash, total acidity, pH, reducing sugars, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), proline, diastase index, apparent sucrose, total flavonoids content and total phenol content. On the other hand, the model was less accurate for pH determination. The calibration models had high r 2 (ranging between 92.8% and 99.9%), high residual prediction deviation - RPD (ranging between 4.2 and 26.8) and low root mean square errors. These results confirm the hypothesis that FT-Raman is a useful technique for the quality control and chemical properties' evaluation of Lavandula spp honey. Its application may allow improving the efficiency, speed and cost of the current laboratory analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattapol Pornprasit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. In this work, mechanical properties of selected rubber materials, that is, natural rubber (NR, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR, nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM, were evaluated using a near infrared (NIR spectroscopy technique. Here, NR/NBR and NR/EPDM blends were first prepared. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-NIR spectrometer and fitted with an integration sphere working in a diffused reflectance mode. The spectra were correlated with hardness and tensile properties. Partial least square (PLS calibration models were built from the spectra datasets with preprocessing techniques, that is, smoothing and second derivative. This indicated that reasonably accurate models, that is, with a coefficient of determination [R2] of the validation greater than 0.9, could be achieved for the hardness and tensile properties of rubber materials. This study demonstrated that FT-NIR analysis can be applied to determine hardness and tensile values in rubbers and rubber blends effectively.

  3. Chemical fingerprinting of Arabidopsis using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzsás, András; Sundberg, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a fast, sensitive, inexpensive, and nondestructive technique for chemical profiling of plant materials. In this chapter we discuss the instrumental setup, the basic principles of analysis, and the possibilities for and limitations of obtaining qualitative and semiquantitative information by FT-IR spectroscopy. We provide detailed protocols for four fully customizable techniques: (1) Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS): a sensitive and high-throughput technique for powders; (2) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy: a technique that requires no sample preparation and can be used for solid samples as well as for cell cultures; (3) microspectroscopy using a single element (SE) detector: a technique used for analyzing sections at low spatial resolution; and (4) microspectroscopy using a focal plane array (FPA) detector: a technique for rapid chemical profiling of plant sections at cellular resolution. Sample preparation, measurement, and data analysis steps are listed for each of the techniques to help the user collect the best quality spectra and prepare them for subsequent multivariate analysis.

  4. Study of Car Acceleration and Deceleration Characteristics at Dangerous Route FT050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N.; Prasetijo, J.; Daniel, B. D.; Abdullah, M. A. E.; Ismail, I.

    2018-04-01

    Individual vehicle acceleration and deceleration are important to generate vehicles speed profile. This study covered acceleration and deceleration characteristics of passenger car in Federal Route FT050 Jalan Batu Pahat-Ayer Hitam that was the top ranking dangerous road. Global Positioning System was used to record 10 cars speed to develop speed profile with clustering zone. At the acceleration manoeuver, the acceleration rate becomes lower as the drivers get near to desired speed. While, at deceleration manoeuver, vehicles with high speed needs more time to stop compare to low speed vehicle. This is because, the drivers need to accelerate more from zero speed to achieve desired speed and drivers need more distance and time to stop their vehicles. However, it was found out that 30% to 50% are driving in dangerous condition that was proven in clustering acceleration and deceleration speed profile. As conclusion, this excessive drivers are the factor that creating high risk in rear-end collision that inline FT050 as dangerous road in Malaysia

  5. Modelling of SOEC-FT reactor: Pressure effects on methanation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Haoran; Ni, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical study on combined SOEC-FT reactor in pressurized condition. • Effects of operating pressure on co-electrolysis and CH_4 production are studied. • The lower limit temperature of the FT section is dependent on the operating pressure. • The CH_4 production can be improved at higher voltage due to the current increase. • Effects of higher exchange current density is predicted at different temperature. - Abstract: In this paper a numerical model is developed for a novel reactor combining a Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell (SOEC) section with a Fischer Tropsch like section for methane production under pressurized & temperature-gradient condition. Governing equations for mass, momentum, charge transport are solved with Finite Element Method. The chemical reaction kinetics of reversible water gas shift reaction and reversible methanation reaction in Ni/YSZ cathode are fully considered. The model is validated by comparing simulation results with experimental data. Parametric simulations are conducted to understand the physical-chemical processes in the reactor with a focus on the pressure effect. It is predicted that the optimal operating pressure is around 3 bar, beyond which the CH_4 conversion ratio (2.5 times enhanced than 1 bar operating) cannot be further increased. It is also found that it is feasible to operate the pressurized SOEC at a lower temperature for CH_4 production with improved catalyst activity.

  6. Identification of Reactive and Refractory Components of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W. T.; Podgorski, D. C.; Osborne, D. M.; Corbett, J.; Chanton, J.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen is an often overlooked but potentially significant bioavailable component of dissolved organic matter. Studies of bulk DON turnover have been reported, but the compositions of the reactive and refractory components of DON are largely unknown. Here we show the unique ability of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) coupled to ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to identify the reactive and refractory components of DON. Figure 1 is an isolated 0.30 m/z window from an ultrahigh resolution APPI FT-ICR mass spectrum of DON in surface waters draining an agricultural area in South Florida. Using this optimized, negative-ion APPI strategy we have been able to identify the reactive and refractory components of DON in these nitrogen-rich waters. Similar results were observed with samples from soil porewaters in sedge-dominated fens and sphagnum-dominated bogs within the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands (GLAP) of northern Minnesota. Surprisingly, microbes appear to initially use similar enzymatic pathways to degrade DON and DOC, often with little release of nitrogen. Figure 1. Isolated 0.30 m/z window at nominal mass 432 from negative-ion APPI FT-ICR mass spectrum of DOM from waters draining an agricultural area in South Florida. Peaks marked contain nitrogen.

  7. FT-IR and X-ray spectroscopic investigations of Na-diclofenac-cyclodextrins interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratu, I.; Astilean, S.; Ionesc, Corina; Indrea, E.; Huvenne, J. P.; Legrand, P.

    1998-01-01

    The association of DCF-Na (the salt of the 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]-phenyl-acetic acid) with β-CD (cyclodextrin) in some therapeutic formulas can contribute to the optimisation of the physico-chemical and pharmaceutical properties of the parent drug. The understanding of the interaction between DCF with β-CD represents the objective of this study. FT-IR spectroscopy is one of the methods which clarify the nature of these interactions in complexes of such type. Therefore the changes in FT-IR spectra of binary dispersed systems DCF/ β-CD in physical mixture and coprecipitate from methanol (molar ratios: 1/1, 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 7/4) were analysed. The analysis of the broadening of the X-ray powder diffraction line has been applied to investigate the average effective crystallite size, the mean square of the microstrain caused by distortions within β-CD crystallite and the fault probability in the binary dispersed DCF/ β-CD coprecipitate system.

  8. Human and Bovine Dentin Composition and Its Hybridization Mechanism Assessed by FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. S. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the human and bovine dentin and their interactions with adhesive systems. Ten human (H molars and ten bovine (B teeth were prepared exposing the dentin and then each specimen was divided into two parts. The resulted forty dentin segments were treated either with the total-etch one bottle adhesive (Prime & Bond 2.1, PB or with the single-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno III, X and divided into four groups: HPB (control, HX, BPB, and BX. Each group was analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy before and after the adhesive treatment. Six regions of the Raman spectrum were analyzed and the integrated areas of organic and inorganic peaks were calculated. Bovine untreated specimens showed higher peak area of PO4 3−ν2  content than in human specimens. Human untreated specimens had higher peak areas of PO4 3−ν4 and CO3 2−ν1  contents than in bovine specimens. The peak areas of amide III, CH2, and amide I contents were higher in human than in bovine specimens (before treatments. Treated dentin showed no significant statistical differences between the adhesives for both inorganic and organic contents considering the same substrate. However, the differences found between human and bovine specimens after adhesives application show a reduced accuracy of these substrates as a substitute to the human specimens.

  9. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in N-salicylideneaniline: FT-IR spectrum and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi-Tekyeh, Zainab; Dastani, Najmeh

    2015-12-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of N-salicylideneaniline (SAn) and its deuterated analogue (D-SAn) are recorded, and the theoretical calculations are performed on their molecular structures and vibrational frequencies. The same calculations are performed for SAn in different solutions using the polarizable conductor continuum model (CPCM) method. Comparisons between the spectra obtained and the corresponding theoretical calculations are used to assign the vibrational frequencies for these compounds. The spectral behavior of SAn upon deuteration is also used to distinguish the positions of OH vibrational frequencies. The hydrogen bond strength of SAn is investigated by applying the atoms-in-molecules (AIM) theory, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, and geometry calculations. The harmonic vibrational frequencies of SAn are calculated at B3LYP and X3LYP levels of theory using 6-31G*, 6-311G**, and 6-311++G** basis sets. The AIM results support a medium hydrogen bonding in SAn. The observed νOH/νOD and γOH/γOD for SAn appear at 2940/2122 and 830/589 cm-1, respectively.

  10. FT-IR emissivity measurements of Nb melt using an electrostatic levitation furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Okada, J.T.; Kumar, M.V.; Paradis, P.-F.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Since molten Nb has a high melting point, its thermal properties were measured using FT-IR combined with an electrostatic levitator. • The measured ε_T of molten Nb at the melting temperature in this study was 0.29, and the C_p was calculated as 41.9 J ⋅ mol"−"1 ⋅ K"−"1. - Abstract: Total hemispherical emissivity (ε_T) and constant pressure heat capacity (C_p) of molten Nb, which has a high melting point, was measured using FT-IR combined with an electrostatic levitator. In order to heat the sample to temperatures higher than 2000 °C and avoid chemical reactions between the sample and a crucible, a containerless method was needed. By applying these methods, the measured ε_T of molten Nb at the melting temperature was 0.29, and the C_p was calculated as 41.9 J ⋅ mol"−"1 ⋅ K"−"1. Both data showed good agreement with the literature values. In addition, the result was compared with the Drude model and the difference of emissivity between Zr and Nb was discussed.

  11. Development of a method for determination of fatty acid using FT-IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a new methodology has been developed for determination of fatty acids in biological systems using FT-IR spectroscopy. For this method is not necessary chromophore reagent or pre sample preparation. Palmitic acid was chosen as standard, because it is found in several biological systems. The FT-IR spectrum of palmitic acid showed two absorption bands in the region of 2852 and 2920 cm-1 attributed to CH stretching. The results for these bands showed that the Beer-Lambert Law was followed in wide range of concentration of palmitic acid (14 to 257 mmol L-1. Potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN6] was used as internal standard. Several interferents were tested and only cholesterol, ferric chloride (higher concentration, mixture of amino acids for the band at 2919 cm-1 (higher concentration and triglyceride could be interferent if they appear in high concentration. Thus, this new methodology has advantage to be not expensive and simple.

  12. FT-IR microspectroscopy characterization of supports for enzyme immobilization in biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaccio, M.; Della Ventura, B.; Gabrovska, K.; Marinov, I.; Godjevargova, T.; Mita, D. G.; Lepore, M.

    2010-04-01

    The investigation of materials suitable for enzyme immobilization in biosensing applications has a widespread interest. There are many studies on physico-chemical properties of these materials at macroscopic level but few studies have been devoted to examine and correlate these properties at microscopic level. FT-IR spectroscopy with Micro-Attenuated Total Reflection (Micro-ATR) approach can be extremely useful for understanding a variety of aspects of materials which can be used for optimising immobilization procedures. Moreover, this experimental approach is particularly simple to use (no sample preparation is required) and minimally invasive. Using a Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector and a micro-ATR element we investigated different materials used for immobilization procedures with various enzymes widely used for biosensing in environmental and clinical applications. In particular, composite membranes constituted by a chemically modified poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) membrane plus layers of tethered chitosan of different molecular weight have been examined. Also silica gel matrices without and with glucose oxidase have been investigated. Spectra have been analysed and the contribution of principal functional groups has been evidenced.

  13. Evaluation of a Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and related ELISA for respective induction and assessment of acquired immunity to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea in Awassi Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Assi, Chibli A Abou; Shaib, Houssam; Hamadeh, Shadi; Murtada, Muhammad; Mahmoud, Ghassan; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Iyer, Archana; Harakeh, Steve; Kumosani, Taha

    2015-05-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an experimental Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) bacterin and an indirect ELISA system to assess quantitatively the acquired immunity in Awassi ewes to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea (EP) dried roots. Four treatments of the ewes were included in the experimental design, with 6 ewes/treatment. The first treatment (T1) had the controls that were non-vaccinated and non-treated with EP. The T2 ewes were only treated with EP. The T3 and T4 ewes were vaccinated at D1 (initiation of trial) and D10, while the T4 ewes were additionally administered the EP dried roots. Blood was collected from the jugular vein of all ewes at D1, D10, D21 and D45. The construction of the vaccine and the ELISA are detailed within the manuscript. The ELISA was able to detect quantitatively the significant acquired primary and secondary immunity to the vaccine in T3 and T4 ewes, compared to their low level of background immunities at initiation of the experiment (p0.05) in T1 control ewes, and in the T2 ewes that were given only the (EP) (p>0.05). Moreover, the ELISA was able to uncover the significant seroconversion of secondary immune response in T4 ewes at D21 compared to that at D10 (pewes. This is the first work in literature that reports the need to supplement the vaccination by the experimental SE bacterin with daily oral intake of 250mg of EP-dried roots, effective the first vaccination day and up to 21 days, for obtaining a statistically significant seroconversion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection and enumeration of Salmonella enteritidis in homemade ice cream associated with an outbreak: comparison of conventional and real-time PCR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, K H; Valentin-Bon, I E; Brackett, R E

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a significant cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Consumption of undercooked eggs and egg-containing products has been the primary risk factor for the disease. The importance of the bacterial enumeration technique has been enormously stressed because of the quantitative risk analysis of SE in shell eggs. Traditional enumeration methods mainly depend on slow and tedious most-probable-number (MPN) methods. Therefore, specific, sensitive, and rapid methods for SE quantitation are needed to collect sufficient data for risk assessment and food safety policy development. We previously developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the direct detection and enumeration of SE and, in this study, applied it to naturally contaminated ice cream samples with and without enrichment. The detection limit of the real-time PCR assay was determined with artificially inoculated ice cream. When applied to the direct detection and quantification of SE in ice cream, the real-time PCR assay was as sensitive as the conventional plate count method in frequency of detection. However, populations of SE derived from real-time quantitative PCR were approximately 1 log higher than provided by MPN and CFU values obtained by conventional culture methods. The detection and enumeration of SE in naturally contaminated ice cream can be completed in 3 h by this real-time PCR method, whereas the cultural enrichment method requires 5 to 7 days. A commercial immunoassay for the specific detection of SE was also included in the study. The real-time PCR assay proved to be a valuable tool that may be useful to the food industry in monitoring its processes to improve product quality and safety.

  15. The Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peach CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologous Genes PpCO and PpFT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Flowering is an essential stage of plant growth and development. The successful transition to flowering not only ensures the completion of plant life cycles, it also serves as the basis for the production of economically important seeds and fruits. CONSTANS (CO and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT are two genes playing critical roles in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. Through homology-based cloning and rapid-amplifications of cDNA ends (RACE, we obtained full-lengths cDNA sequences of Prunus persica CO (PpCO and Prunus persica FT (PpFT from peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and investigated their functions in flowering time regulation. PpCO and PpFT showed high homologies to Arabidopsis CO and FT at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. We showed that PpCO and PpFT were nucleus-localized and both showed transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells, consistent with their potential roles as transcription activators. Moreover, we established that the over-expression of PpCO could restore the late flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, and the late flowering defect of the Arabidopsis ft-1 mutant can be rescued by the over-expression of PpFT, suggesting functional conservations of CO and FT genes in peach and Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that PpCO and PpFT are homologous genes of CO and FT in peach and they may function in regulating plant flowering time.

  16. 29 CFR 779.382 - May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Hotels and Motels § 779.382 May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments. A hotel or motel establishment may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act...

  17. 29 CFR 779.386 - Restaurants may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restaurants may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments... Service Establishments Restaurants and Establishments Providing Food and Beverage Service § 779.386 Restaurants may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments. (a) A restaurant may qualify as an exempt retail or...

  18. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a delays flowering time in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yupeng; Chen, Li; Liu, Xiujie; Guo, Chen; Sun, Shi; Wu, Cunxiang; Jiang, Bingjun; Han, Tianfu; Hou, Wensheng

    2018-01-01

    Flowering is an indication of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth and has considerable effects on the life cycle of soya bean (Glycine max). In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically induce targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a, an integrator in the photoperiod flowering pathway in soya bean. The soya bean cultivar Jack was transformed with three sgRNA/Cas9 vectors targeting different sites of endogenous GmFT2a via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Site-directed mutations were observed at all targeted sites by DNA sequencing analysis. T1-generation soya bean plants homozygous for null alleles of GmFT2a frameshift mutated by a 1-bp insertion or short deletion exhibited late flowering under natural conditions (summer) in Beijing, China (N39°58', E116°20'). We also found that the targeted mutagenesis was stably heritable in the following T2 generation, and the homozygous GmFT2a mutants exhibited late flowering under both long-day and short-day conditions. We identified some 'transgene-clean' soya bean plants that were homozygous for null alleles of endogenous GmFT2a and without any transgenic element from the T1 and T2 generations. These 'transgene-clean' mutants of GmFT2a may provide materials for more in-depth research of GmFT2a functions and the molecular mechanism of photoperiod responses in soya bean. They will also contribute to soya bean breeding and regional introduction. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of FT-Fuels. 4 Different Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M. [Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden); Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Larsen, U.; Lundorf, P.; Ivarsson, A.; Schramm, J. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-11-15

    This paper deals with aspects concerning the life cycle aspects regarding Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels. Four different scenarios are being analysed based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) figures. The results etc presented below emanates from a project undertaken by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels (IEA/AMF). The project has been carried out as an IEA/AMF annex, number XXXI, with financial support from the USA, Finland and Denmark. Some important results from the scenario studies based on the evaluated LCA data are: Production and use of GTL fuel has the potential of contributing about the same or slightly less greenhouse gas to the atmosphere than production and use of conventional diesel; Production and use of CTL emits more than twice as much greenhouse gases compared to traditional fuels; Production and use of BTL reduces the emissions of greenhouse gases by 60-90 %; To substitute 15 % of the EU 15 countries fuel consumption would an area of 310 000 km2 be cultivated with Salix. This corresponds to an area of the size of Poland. It would also require 122 FTplants of 1,6 GW; Theoretically, it is possible supply the worlds need for energy with biomass. However, planning the production, the localization of plants, building the infrastructure, this will take time and requires heavy long-term investments; The demand for Natural gas is increasing and there is no way for the US to meet an increased demand from supplying the vehicle fleet with F-T fuels from domestic reserves. With the political situation in the Middle East and in Venezuela, it doesn't seem likely that this solution will ease the US problems with reducing their oil dependences. The IEA/AMF project has also included emission tests on road vehicles fuelled by FT-Gasoline. These tests have been performed by The Technical University of Denmark and will be presented in another presentation at the ISAF XVI, 'Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled

  20. Reconstruction from scalar-tensor theory and the inhomogeneous equation of state in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta)

    2017-12-15

    General relativity (GR) characterizes gravity as a geometric properly exhibited as curvature on spacetime. Teleparallelism describes gravity through torsional properties, and can reproduce GR at the level of equations. Similar to f(R) gravity, on taking a generalization, f(T) gravity can produce various modifications its gravitational mechanism. The resulting field equations are inherently distinct to f(R) gravity in that they are second order. In the present work, f(T) gravity is examined in the cosmological context with a number of solutions reconstructed by means of an auxiliary scalar field. To do this, various forms of the Hubble parameter are considered with an f(T) Lagrangian emerging for each instance. In addition, the inhomogeneous equation of state (EoS) is investigated with a particular Hubble parameter model used to show how this can be used to reconstruct the f(T) Lagrangian. Observationally, the auxiliary scalar field and the exotic terms in the FRW field equations give the same results, meaning that the variation in the Hubble parameter may be interpreted as the need to reformulate gravity in some way, as in f(T) gravity. (orig.)