Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf
2010-01-01
We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find...
Entangled Polymer Melts in Extensional Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hengeller, Ludovica
Many commercial materials derived from synthetic polymers exhibit a complex response under different processing operations such as fiber formation, injection moulding,film blowing, film casting or coatings. They can be processed both in the solid or in the melted state. Often they may contain two...... or more different polymers in addition to additives, fillers or solvents in order to modify the properties of the final product. Usually, it is also desired to improve the processability. For example the supplement of a high molecular weight component improves the stability in elongational flows....... Understanding the behaviour of polymer melts and solutions in complex non-linearflows is crucial for the design of polymeric materials and polymer processes. Through rheological characterization, in shear and extensional flow, of model polymer systems,i.e. narrow molar mass distribution polymer melts...
Entangled Polymer Melts in Extensional Flow: Synthesis, Rheology, Neutron Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dorokhin, Andriy
This thesis contains 5 chapters and reprints in Appendices, combined of both published and unpublished materials. The first chapter is an introduction to the goals, methods and problem identification of the project of the entangled polymer melts in extensional flow, which is aimed to shed some li...
Crossover to entangled dynamics in polymer solutions and melts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schweizer, K.S.; Szamel, G.
1995-01-01
A statistical dynamical theory of the crossover from unentangled Rouse dynamics to entangled behavior is constructed for chain polymer solutions and melts. Both time and spatial crossovers in long chain fluids, and the degree of polymerization crossover for short polymers, are treated. The analysis is based on a microscopic theory of the perturbative dynamical corrections to Rouse theory arising from chain connectivity and intermolecular excluded volume forces. The dependence of crossover properties such as the plateau shear modulus and entanglement time and length scale on solution density, solvent quality, and chain statistical segment length are derived by combining the dynamical theory with equilibrium liquid state integral equation methods. Scaling relations are obtained which appear to be in general accord with most experiments on both solutions and melts. The physical origin of the predicted scaling behaviors is the fractional power law temporal decay of the entanglement friction memory function on intermediate time scales, and power law reduced density dependence of the equilibrium force correlations. The theory is also applied to compute the dependence of the chain normal mode relaxation times on polymer density and chain length. Favorable qualitative comparisons with recent neutron spin echo experiments are made. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
What is the Entanglement Length in a Polymer Melt?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grest, Gary S.; Kremer, Kurt; Putz, Mathias
1999-01-01
We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of very long model polymer chains analyzed by various experimentally relevant techniques. The segment motion of the chains is found to be in very good agreement with the reptation model. We also calculated the plateau modulus G 0 N . The predictions of the entanglement length N e from G 0 N and from the mean square displacement of the chain segments disagree by a factor of about 2.2(2), indicating an error in the prefactor in the standard formula for G 0 N . We show that recent neutron spin echo measurements were carried out for chain lengths which are too small to allow for a correct determination of N e
On the origin of brittle fracture of entangled polymer solutions and melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Manfred H.; Narimissa, Esmaeil; Huang, Qian
2018-01-01
A novel criterion for brittle fracture of entangled polymer liquids is presented: Crack initiation follows from rupture of primary C-C bonds, when the strain energy of an entanglement segment reaches the energy of the covalent bond. Thermal fluctuations lead to a short-time concentration...... of the strain energy on one C-C bond of the entanglement segment, and the chain ruptures. This limits the maximum achievable stretch of entanglement segments to a critical stretch of f(c)...
Concentrated Polymer Solutions are Different from Melts: Role of Entanglement Molecular Weight
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Qian; Mednova, Olga; Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2013-01-01
We compare viscoelastic properties of several polystyrene solutions and melts with the same number of entanglements. It is demonstrated that the modulus and time can be shifted such that the linear viscoelastic properties are identical provided the number of entanglements are identical. However...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padding, J T; Briels, W J
2011-01-01
For optimal processing and design of entangled polymeric materials it is important to establish a rigorous link between the detailed molecular composition of the polymer and the viscoelastic properties of the macroscopic melt. We review current and past computer simulation techniques and critically assess their ability to provide such a link between chemistry and rheology. We distinguish between two classes of coarse-graining levels, which we term coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) and coarse-grained stochastic dynamics (CGSD). In CGMD the coarse-grained beads are still relatively hard, thus automatically preventing bond crossing. This also implies an upper limit on the number of atoms that can be lumped together (up to five backbone carbon atoms) and therefore on the longest chain lengths that can be studied. To reach a higher degree of coarse-graining, in CGSD many more atoms are lumped together (more than ten backbone carbon atoms), leading to relatively soft beads. In that case friction and stochastic forces dominate the interactions, and action must be undertaken to prevent bond crossing. We also review alternative methods that make use of the tube model of polymer dynamics, by obtaining the entanglement characteristics through a primitive path analysis and by simulation of a primitive chain network. We finally review super-coarse-grained methods in which an entire polymer is represented by a single particle, and comment on ways to include memory effects and transient forces. (topical review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monkenbusch, M.; Wischnewski, A.; Willner, L.; Richter, D.
2004-01-01
Incoherent neutron-spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE) has been employed to directly determine the time-dependent mean-squared segment displacement 2 > of a polymer chain in the melt covering the transition from free to constraint Rouse relaxation along the virtual tube of the reptation model. The predicted transition of the time dependence of 2 > from 2 >∝t 1/2 to ∝t 1/4 is clearly corroborated by the incoherent NSE results
Entanglements in Conjugated Polymers
Xie, Renxuan; Lee, Youngmin; Aplan, Melissa; Caggiano, Nick; Gomez, Enrique; Colby, Ralph
Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and poly-((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT), are widely used as hole and electron transport materials in a variety of electronic devices. However, fundamental knowledge regarding chain entanglements and nematic-to-isotropic transition is still lacking and are crucial to maximize charge transport properties. A systematic melt rheology study on P3HT with various molecular weights and regio regularities was performed. We find that the entanglement molecular weight Me is 5.0 kg/mol for regiorandom P3HT, but the apparent Me for regioregular P3HT is significantly higher. The difference is postulated to arise from the presence of a nematic phase only in regioregular P3HT. Analogously, PFTBT shows a clear rheological signature of the nematic-to-isotropic transition as a reversible sharp transition at 278 C. Shearing of this nematic phase leads to anisotropic crystalline order in PFTBT. We postulate that aligning the microstructure will impact charge transport and thereby advance the field of conducting polymers. National Science Foundation.
Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Linear and Nonlinear Rheology of Entangled Polymer Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shabbir, Aamir; Goldansaz, Hadi; Hassager, Ole
2015-01-01
for a model system of pure poly(n-butyl acrylate), PnBA, homopolymer and four PnBA− poly(acrylic acid), PnBA−PAA, copolymers with different number of AA side groups. The copolymers are synthesized via hydrolysis of the pure PnBA homopolymer. Therefore, all polymers studied have the same backbone length...
On the microscopic approach to the nonlinear dynamics of entangled polymer melts
Stepanyan, R.; Slot, J.J.M.; Molenaar, J.
2004-01-01
A framework for a consistent description of the correlation effects along polymer chains subject to flow is proposed. The formalism shows how correlations between chain segments in the flow can be incorporated into a hierarchy of distribution functions for tangent vectors. The present description
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Kell; Kirkensgaard, Jacob JK; Hassager, Ole
Liquid bridges occur in a variety of situations in nature - yet our understanding of the dynamics and stability is very limited. Examples of liquid bridges are the process used byspiders to form draglines and the process used by cats lapping milk. We have an extendedprogram aiming to provide...... generic knowledge about the process in which macromolecular fluidfilaments are extended and stretched and show how the extensional properties are related to theproperties on individual molecules. We combine structural and rheological studies of a series ofmodel polymers with different composition...... and architectures. The project entails synthesizingmodel polymer systems of precisely known molecular architecture, subjecting these materials tocontrolled extensional flows and to measure the molecular deformation under controlled flowsituation by SANS. Neutron contrast is obtained using specific deuterium labeled...
Structure, entanglements and dynamics of polymer nanocomposites containing spherical nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karatrantos, A; Clarke, N; Composto, R J; Winey, K I
2014-01-01
We investigate the effect of nanoparticles on polymer structure, nanoparticle dynamics and topological constraints (entanglements) in polymer melts for nanoparticle loading above percolation threshold as high as 40.9% using stochastic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An increase in the number of entanglements (decrease of N e with 40.9% volume fraction of nanoparticles dispersed in the polymer matrix) in the nanocomposites is observed as evidenced by larger contour lengths of the primitive paths. Attraction between polymers and nanoparticles affects the entanglements in the nanocomposites and alters the primitive path. The diffusivity of small sized nanoparticles deviates significantly from the Stokes- Einstein relation
Viscosity of ring polymer melts
Pasquino, Rossana
2013-10-15
We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Viscosity of ring polymer melts
Pasquino, Rossana; Vasilakopoulos, Thodoris C.; Jeong, Youncheol; Lee, Hyojoon; Rogers, Simon A.; Sakellariou, Georgios; Allgaier, Jü rgen B.; Takano, Atsushi; Brá s, Ana Rita E; Chang, Taihyun; Gooß en, Sebastian; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Wischnewski, Andreas; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, Dieter R.; Rubinstein, Michael H.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris
2013-01-01
We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Identifying the primitive path mesh in entangled polymer liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukumaran, Sathish K.; Kremer, Kurt; Grest, Gary Stephen; Everaers, Ralf
2004-01-01
Similar to entangled ropes, polymer chains cannot slide through each other. These topological constraints, the so-called entanglements, dominate the viscoelastic behavior of high-molecular-weight polymeric liquids. Tube models of polymer dynamics and rheology are based on the idea that entanglements confine a chain to small fluctuations around a primitive path which follows the coarse-grained chain contour. To establish the microscopic foundation for these highly successful phenomenological models, we have recently introduced a method for identifying the primitive path mesh that characterizes the microscopic topological state of computer-generated conformations of long-chain polymer melts and solutions. Here we give a more detailed account of the algorithm and discuss several key aspects of the analysis that are pertinent for its successful use in analyzing the topology of the polymer configurations. We also present a slight modification of the algorithm that preserves the previously neglected self-entanglements and allows us to distinguish between local self-knots and entanglements between distant sections of the same chain. Our results indicate that the latter make a negligible contribution to the tube and that the contour length between local self-knots, N 1k is significantly larger than the entanglement length N e
Entanglement effects in model polymer networks
Everaers, R.; Kremer, K.
The influence of topological constraints on the local dynamics in cross-linked polymer melts and their contribution to the elastic properties of rubber elastic systems are a long standing problem in statistical mechanics. Polymer networks with diamond lattice connectivity (Everaers and Kremer 1995, Everaers and Kremer 1996a) are idealized model systems which isolate the effect of topology conservation from other sources of quenched disorder. We study their behavior in molecular dynamics simulations under elongational strain. In our analysis we compare the measured, purely entropic shear moduli G to the predictions of statistical mechanical models of rubber elasticity, making extensive use of the microscopic structural and topological information available in computer simulations. We find (Everaers and Kremer 1995) that the classical models of rubber elasticity underestimate the true change in entropy in a deformed network significantly, because they neglect the tension along the contour of the strands which cannot relax due to entanglements (Everaers and Kremer (in preparation)). This contribution and the fluctuations in strained systems seem to be well described by the constrained mode model (Everaers 1998) which allows to treat the crossover from classical rubber elasticity to the tube model for polymer networks with increasing strand length within one transparant formalism. While this is important for the description of the effects we try to do a first quantitative step towards their explanation by topological considerations. We show (Everaers and Kremer 1996a) that for the comparatively short strand lengths of our diamond networks the topology contribution to the shear modulus is proportional to the density of entangled mesh pairs with non-zero Gauss linking number. Moreover, the prefactor can be estimated consistently within a rather simple model developed by Vologodskii et al. and by Graessley and Pearson, which is based on the definition of an entropic
Entanglement probabilities of polymers: a white noise functional approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernido, Christopher C; Carpio-Bernido, M Victoria
2003-01-01
The entanglement probabilities for a highly flexible polymer to wind n times around a straight polymer are evaluated using white noise analysis. To introduce the white noise functional approach, the one-dimensional random walk problem is taken as an example. The polymer entanglement scenario, viewed as a random walk on a plane, is then treated and the entanglement probabilities are obtained for a magnetic flux confined along the straight polymer, and a case where an entangled polymer is subjected to the potential V = f-dot(s)θ. In the absence of the magnetic flux and the potential V, the entanglement probabilities reduce to a result obtained by Wiegel
Hoy, Robert S; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin
2009-09-01
Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length N_{e} which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for N_{e} from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.
Monitoring of polymer melt processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alig, Ingo; Steinhoff, Bernd; Lellinger, Dirk
2010-01-01
The paper reviews the state-of-the-art of in-line and on-line monitoring during polymer melt processing by compounding, extrusion and injection moulding. Different spectroscopic and scattering techniques as well as conductivity and viscosity measurements are reviewed and compared concerning their potential for different process applications. In addition to information on chemical composition and state of the process, the in situ detection of morphology, which is of specific interest for multiphase polymer systems such as polymer composites and polymer blends, is described in detail. For these systems, the product properties strongly depend on the phase or filler morphology created during processing. Examples for optical (UV/vis, NIR) and ultrasonic attenuation spectra recorded during extrusion are given, which were found to be sensitive to the chemical composition as well as to size and degree of dispersion of micro or nanofillers in the polymer matrix. By small-angle light scattering experiments, process-induced structures were detected in blends of incompatible polymers during compounding. Using conductivity measurements during extrusion, the influence of processing conditions on the electrical conductivity of polymer melts with conductive fillers (carbon black or carbon nanotubes) was monitored. (topical review)
Padding, J.T.; Briels, Willem J.
2004-01-01
We make a critical examination of how the entanglement molecular mass Me is determined from various measurable quantities. We are guided by reptation theory, where it is assumed that characteristic relaxations abruptly change and become equal to those of a chain moving in a Gaussian tube, as soon as
Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
2005-01-01
The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...
Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites.
Mangal, Rahul
2015-06-05
Nanoparticle-polymer composites, or polymer-nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.
Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites.
Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A
2015-01-01
Nanoparticle-polymer composites, or polymer-nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.
Arm retraction dynamics of entangled star polymers: A forward flux sampling method study
Zhu, Jian; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Wang, Zuowei
2017-07-01
The study of dynamics and rheology of well-entangled branched polymers remains a challenge for computer simulations due to the exponentially growing terminal relaxation times of these polymers with increasing molecular weights. We present an efficient simulation algorithm for studying the arm retraction dynamics of entangled star polymers by combining the coarse-grained slip-spring (SS) model with the forward flux sampling (FFS) method. This algorithm is first applied to simulate symmetric star polymers in the absence of constraint release (CR). The reaction coordinate for the FFS method is determined by finding good agreement of the simulation results on the terminal relaxation times of mildly entangled stars with those obtained from direct shooting SS model simulations with the relative difference between them less than 5%. The FFS simulations are then carried out for strongly entangled stars with arm lengths up to 16 entanglements that are far beyond the accessibility of brute force simulations in the non-CR condition. Apart from the terminal relaxation times, the same method can also be applied to generate the relaxation spectra of all entanglements along the arms which are desired for the development of quantitative theories of entangled branched polymers. Furthermore, we propose a numerical route to construct the experimentally measurable relaxation correlation functions by effectively linking the data stored at each interface during the FFS runs. The obtained star arm end-to-end vector relaxation functions Φ (t ) and the stress relaxation function G(t) are found to be in reasonably good agreement with standard SS simulation results in the terminal regime. Finally, we demonstrate that this simulation method can be conveniently extended to study the arm-retraction problem in entangled star polymer melts with CR by modifying the definition of the reaction coordinate, while the computational efficiency will depend on the particular slip-spring or slip
Wischnewski, A.; Richter, D.
2000-12-01
In a recent letter Pütz, Kremer and Grest claim that finite-chain-length effects have significant influence on the single-chain dynamic structure factor S(Q,t)/S(Q) measured by neutron-spin-echo (NSE) technique with regard to results obtained for a polyethylene (PE) melt with a molecular weight of Mw = 36000 g/mol. As a consequence of these finite-length effects, they assert the tube diameter, determined by this NSE measurement in the framework of the reptation model, to be too high by a factor of approx 1.5. We demonstrate that this is by no means the case.
Microscopic theory for dynamics in entangled polymer nanocomposites
Yamamoto, Umi
New microscopic theories for describing dynamics in polymer nanocomposites are developed and applied. The problem is addressed from two distinct perspectives and using two different theoretical approaches. The first half of this dissertation studies the long-time and intermediate-time dynamics of nanoparticles in entangled and unentangled polymer melts for dilute particle concentrations. Using a combination of mode-coupling, Brownian motion, and polymer physics ideas, the nanoparticle long-time diffusion coefficients is formulated in terms of multiple length-scales, packing microstructures, and spatially-resolved polymer density fluctuation dynamics. The key motional mechanism is described via the parallel relaxation of the force exerted on the particle controlled by collective polymer constraint-release and the particle self-motion. A sharp but smooth crossover from the hydrodynamic to the non-hydrodynamic regime is predicted based on the Stokes-Einstein violation ratio as a function of all the system variables. Quantitative predictions are made for the recovery of the Stokes-Einstein law, and the diffusivity in the crossover regime agrees surprisingly well with large-scale molecular dynamics simulations for all particle sizes and chain lengths studied. The approach is also extended to address intermediate-time anomalous transport of a single nanoparticle and two-particle relative diffusion. The second half of this dissertation focuses on developing a novel dynamical theory for a liquid of infinitely-thin rods in the presence of hard spherical obstacles, aiming at a technical and conceptual extension of the existing paradigm for entangled polymer dynamics. As a fundamental theoretical development, the two-component generalization of a first-principles dynamic meanfield approach is presented. The theory enforces inter-needle topological uncrossability and needlesphere impenetrability in a unified manner, leading to a generalized theory of entanglements that
High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers
Hayes, Keesha A.
2008-11-17
We use confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry to visualize motion of 250-300 nm. fluorescent tracer particles in entangled polymers subject to a rectilinear shear flow. Our results show linear velocity profiles in polymer solutions spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response of entangled polymers, and instead point to interfacial slip as an important source of strain loss. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
Stochastic entangled chain dynamics of dense polymer solutions.
Kivotides, Demosthenes; Wilkin, S Louise; Theofanous, Theo G
2010-10-14
We propose an adjustable-parameter-free, entangled chain dynamics model of dense polymer solutions. The model includes the self-consistent dynamics of molecular chains and solvent by describing the former via coarse-grained polymer dynamics that incorporate hydrodynamic interaction effects, and the latter via the forced Stokes equation. Real chain elasticity is modeled via the inclusion of a Pincus regime in the polymer's force-extension curve. Excluded volume effects are taken into account via the combined action of coarse-grained intermolecular potentials and explicit geometric tracking of chain entanglements. We demonstrate that entanglements are responsible for a new (compared to phantom chain dynamics), slow relaxation mode whose characteristic time scale agrees very well with experiment. Similarly good agreement between theory and experiment is also obtained for the equilibrium chain size. We develop methods for the solution of the model in periodic flow domains and apply them to the computation of entangled polymer solutions in equilibrium. We show that the number of entanglements Π agrees well with the number of entanglements expected on the basis of tube theory, satisfactorily reproducing the latter's scaling of Π with the polymer volume fraction φ. Our model predicts diminishing chain size with concentration, thus vindicating Flory's suggestion of excluded volume effects screening in dense solutions. The predicted scaling of chain size with φ is consistent with the heuristic, Flory theory based value.
Multiscale approach to equilibrating model polymer melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svaneborg, Carsten; Ali Karimi-Varzaneh, Hossein; Hojdis, Nils
2016-01-01
We present an effective and simple multiscale method for equilibrating Kremer Grest model polymer melts of varying stiffness. In our approach, we progressively equilibrate the melt structure above the tube scale, inside the tube and finally at the monomeric scale. We make use of models designed...
Wang, Shi-Qing; Zhao, Zhichen; Tsige, Mesfin; Zheng, Yexin
Fast melt deformation well above the glass transition temperature Tg is known to produce elastic stress in an entangled polymer due to the chain entropy loss at the length scale of the network mesh size. Here chains of high molecular weight are assumed to form an entanglement network so that such a polymer behaves transiently like vulcanized rubber capable of affine deformation. We consider quenching a melt-deformed glassy polymer to well below Tg to preserve the elastic stress. Upon heating such a sample to Tg, the sample can return to the shape it took before melt deformation. This is the basic principle behind the design of all polymer-based shape-memory materials. This work presents intriguing evidence based on both experiment and computer simulation that the chain network, deformed well above Tg, can drive the glassy polymer to undergo elastic yielding. Our experimental systems include polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate; the molecular dynamics simulation is based on Kremer-Grest bead-spring model. National Science Foundation (DMR-1444859 and DMR-1609977).
Distortion of chain conformation and reduced entanglement in polymer-graphene oxide nanocomposites
Weir, Michael; Boothroyd, Stephen; Johnson, David; Thompson, Richard; Coleman, Karl; Clarke, Nigel
Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are excellent candidates as filler materials in polymer nanocomposites due to their extraordinary physical properties and high aspect ratio. To explore the mechanism by which the filler affects the bulk properties of these unique systems, and to build understanding from the macromolecular level upwards, we use a combination of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and oscillatory rheology. Where a good dispersion is achieved in poly(methyl methacrylate)-graphene oxide (PMMA-GO) nanocomposites, we observe a reduction in the polymer radius of gyration with increasing GO concentration that is consistent with the predicted behavior of polymer melt chains at a solid interface. We use concepts from thin-film polymer physics to formulate a scaling relation for the reduction in entanglements caused by the GO interfaces. Using these scaling arguments, we utilize SANS results to directly estimate the changes to the elastic plateau modulus of the network of entangled polymer chains, and find a correlation with the measured bulk rheology. We present a direct link between interfacial confinement effects and the bulk polymer nanocomposite properties, whilst demonstrating a model system for measuring thin film polymer physics in the bulk.
Communication: A coil-stretch transition in planar elongational flow of an entangled polymeric melt
Nafar Sefiddashti, Mohammad H.; Edwards, Brian J.; Khomami, Bamin
2018-04-01
Virtual experimentation of atomistic entangled polyethylene melts undergoing planar elongational flow revealed an amazingly detailed depiction of individual macromolecular dynamics and the resulting effect on bistable configurational states. A clear coil-stretch transition was evident, in much the same form as first envisioned by de Gennes for dilute solutions of high polymers, resulting in an associated hysteresis in the configurational flow profile over the range of strain rates predicted by theory. Simulations conducted at steady state revealed bimodal distribution functions, in which equilibrium configurational states were simultaneously populated by relatively coiled and stretched molecules which could transition from one conformational mode to the other over a relatively long time scale at critical values of strain rates. The implication of such behavior points to a double-well conformational free energy potential with an activation barrier between the two configurational minima.
Dynamic dilution exponent in monodisperse entangled polymer solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shahid, T.; Huang, Qian; Oosterlinck, F.
2017-01-01
of concentration but also depends on the molar mass of the chains. While the proposed approach successfully explains the viscoelastic properties of a large number of semi-dilute solutions of polymers in their own oligomers, important discrepancies are found for semi-dilute entangled polymers in small-molecule......We study and model the linear viscoelastic properties of several entangled semi-dilute and concentrated solutions of linear chains of different molar masses and at different concentrations dissolved in their oligomers. We discuss the dilution effect of the oligomers on the entangled long chains....... In particular, we investigate the influence of both concentration and molar mass on the value of the effective dynamic dilution exponent determined from the level of the storage plateau at low and intermediate frequencies. We show that the experimental results can be quantitatively explained by considering...
Linking Polymer Dynamics to Melt Processing
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashish Lele
Linking Polymer Dynamics to Melt Processing. Ashish Lele. NaUonal Chemical Laboratory, Pune ak.lele@ncl.res.in www.cfpegroup.net. Mid-‐Year MeeUng July 2-‐3, 2010. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore ...
Catastrophic failure of polymer melts during extension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2013-01-01
Numerical flow modeling has been applied to study the break of monodisperse polymer melts during extension. These continuum mechanical based computations are within the ideas of the microstructural ’interchain pressure’ theory. Calculated breaks, a result of small initial sample imperfections, ag...
López-Barrón, Carlos R.; Zhou, Huaxing
2017-12-01
Aromatic π -π interactions between phenyl groups of adjacent chains in poly(4-vinylbiphenyl) (PVBP) have profound effects on the dynamics of this polymer. We report two unexpected nonlinear viscoelastic responses of PVBP when subjected to uniaxial flow. One is the unprecedented observation of extensional strain hardening (SH) in a barely entangled polymer melt. An even more intriguing finding is that SH of lightly (or even barely) entangled melts occurs at strain rates one order of magnitude below the coil-stretch transition predicted by Rouse theory (ɛ˙ H=0.5 /τR ).We postulate that this behavior is due to a molecular rearrangement mechanism (supported by x-ray diffraction measurements) that involves flow-induced π -π stacking of the phenyl groups, which results in an enhancement of the friction coefficient between polymer chains.
Molecular thermodynamics of polymer melts at interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theodorou, D.N.
1988-09-01
A lattice model is developed for the prediction of structure and thermodynamic properties at free polymer melt surfaces and polymer melt/solid interfaces. Density variations in the interfacial region are taken into account by introducing voids in the lattice, in the spirit of the equation of state theory of Sanchez and Lacombe. Intramolecular energy (chain stiffness) effects are explicitly incorporated. The model is derived through a rigorous statistical mechanical and thermodynamic analysis, which is based on the concept of availability. Two cases are considered: ''full equilibrium,'' whereby the interfacial polymer is taken as free to exchange heat, work and mass with a bulk polymer phase at given temperature and pressure; and ''restricted equilibrium,'' whereby a thin polymer film is allowed to equilibrate locally in response to ambient temperature and pressure, but in which chains do not necessarily have the same chemical potential as in the unconstrained bulk. Techniques are developed for calculating surface tension, adhesion tension, density profiles, chain shape, bond orientation, as well as the distribution of segments of various orders in the interfacial region. 28 refs., 6 figs
Adhesion at Entangled Polymer Interfaces: A Unified Approach..
Wool, Richard
2006-03-01
A unified theory of fracture of polymer interfaces was developed which was based on the Rigidity Percolation model of fracture [R.P. Wool, J.Polym.Sci. Part A: Polym Phys., 43,168(2005)]. The polymer fractured critically when the normalized entanglement density p, approached the percolation threshold pc. The fracture energy was found to be G1c ˜ [p-pc]. When applied to interfaces of width X, containing an areal density σ of chains, each contributing L chain entanglements, the percolation term p ˜ σL/X and the percolation threshold was related to σc, Lc, or Xc. For welding of A/A symmetric interfaces, p = σL/X, and pc Lc/M 0, such that when σ/X ˜1/M for randomly distributed chain ends, p˜L ˜ (t/M)^1/2, G/G* = (t/τ*)^1/2, where the weld time τ* ˜ M. When the chain ends are segregated to the surface, σ is constant with time and G/G* = [t/τ*]^1/4. For sub-Tg welding, there exists a surface mobile layer (due to the critical Lindemann Atom fraction) of depth X ˜ 1/δT^ν such that G ˜ δT-2ν, where the critical exponent v = 0.8. For incompatible A/B interfaces of Helfand width d, normalized width w = d/Rge, and entanglement density Nent ˜ d/Le, p ˜ d such that, G1c ˜ [d-dc], G1c ˜ [w-1], and G ˜ [Nent-Nc]. For incompatible A/B interfaces reinforced by an areal density σ of compatibilizer chains, L and X are constant, p ˜ σ, pc ˜σc, such that G1c ˜ [σ-σc], which is in excellent agreement with experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koga, Tadanori; Li Chunhua; Endoh, Maya K; Narayanan, Suresh; Lurio, Laurence; Sinha, Sunil K
2011-01-01
The dynamics of polymer chains near the surface of a melt and within thin films remains a subject of inquiry along with the nature of the glass transition in these systems. Recent studies show that the properties of the free surface region are crucial in determining the anomalous glass transition temperature (T g ) reduction of polymer thin films. In this study, by embedding 'dilute' gold nanoparticles in polystyrene (PS) thin films as 'markers', we could successfully probe the diffusive Brownian motion which tracks the local viscosity both at the free surface and within the rest of the single PS thin film far above bulk T g . The technique used was X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy with resonance-enhanced X-rays that allows us to independently measure the motion in the regions of interest at the nanometer scale. We found the presence of the surface reduced viscosity layer in entangled PS thin films at T>>T g .
Stress-Strain Relation of Tire Rubber Consist of Entangled Polymers, Fillers and Crosslink
Hagita, Katsumi; Bito, Y.; Minagawa, Y.; Omiya, M.; Morita, H.; Doi, M.; Takano, H.
2009-03-01
We presented a preliminary result of large scale coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation of filled polymer melts with Sulfur-crosslink under an uni-axial deformation by using the Kremer-Grest Model. The size of simulation box under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is set to about 66nm to consider length of entangled polymer chains, size and structure of fillers, and non-uniform distribution of crosslink. We put 640 polymer chains of 1024 particles and 32 fillers into the PBC box. Each filler consists of 1280 particles of the C1280 fullerene structure. A repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the particles. Here, the particles of the fillers are chosen to be the same as the particles of the polymers and the diameter of the filler is about 15nm. The distribution of the fillers used in this simulation is provided by the result of 2d pattern RMC analysis for 2D-USAXS experiments at SPring-8. Sulfur crosslink are randomly distributed in the system. It is found that stress-strain curves estimated by applying a certain uni-axial deformation to the system in simulations are in good agreement with those in experiments. It is successful to show difference on the S-S curve between existence / absence of fillers and qualitative dependence of attractive force between polymer and filler.
Molecular dynamics simulation study of nonconcatenated ring polymers in a melt. II. Dynamics
Halverson, Jonathan D.; Lee, Won Bo; Grest, Gary S.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Kremer, Kurt
2011-05-01
Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the dynamic properties of melts of nonconcatenated ring polymers and compared to melts of linear polymers. The longest rings were composed of N = 1600 monomers per chain which corresponds to roughly 57 entanglement lengths for comparable linear polymers. The ring melts were found to diffuse faster than their linear counterparts, with both architectures approximately obeying a D ˜ N-2.4 scaling law for large N. The mean-square displacement of the center-of-mass of the rings follows a sub-diffusive behavior for times and distances beyond the ring extension , neither compatible with the Rouse nor the reptation model. The rings relax stress much faster than linear polymers, and the zero-shear viscosity was found to vary as η0 ˜ N1.4 ± 0.2 which is much weaker than the N3.4 behavior of linear chains, not matching any commonly known model for polymer dynamics when compared to the observed mean-square displacements. These findings are discussed in view of the conformational properties of the rings presented in the preceding paper [J. D. Halverson, W. Lee, G. S. Grest, A. Y. Grosberg, and K. Kremer, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 204904 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3587137.
Single-molecule study on polymer diffusion in a melt state: Effect of chain topology
Habuchi, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Susumu; Yamamoto, Takuya; Vá cha, Martin; Tezuka, Yasuyuki
2013-01-01
We report a new methodology for studying diffusion of individual polymer chains in a melt state, with special emphasis on the effect of chain topology. A perylene diimide fluorophore was incorporated into the linear and cyclic poly(THF)s, and real-time diffusion behavior of individual chains in a melt of linear poly(THF) was measured by means of a single-molecule fluorescence imaging technique. The combination of mean squared displacement (MSD) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis demonstrated the broad distribution of diffusion coefficient of both the linear and cyclic polymer chains in the melt state. This indicates the presence of spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the polymer diffusion which occurs at much larger time and length scales than those expected from the current polymer physics theory. We further demonstrated that the cyclic chains showed marginally slower diffusion in comparison with the linear counterparts, to suggest the effective suppression of the translocation through the threading-entanglement with the linear matrix chains. This coincides with the higher activation energy for the diffusion of the cyclic chains than of the linear chains. These results suggest that the single-molecule imaging technique provides a powerful tool to analyze complicated polymer dynamics and contributes to the molecular level understanding of the chain interaction. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Single-molecule study on polymer diffusion in a melt state: Effect of chain topology
Habuchi, Satoshi
2013-08-06
We report a new methodology for studying diffusion of individual polymer chains in a melt state, with special emphasis on the effect of chain topology. A perylene diimide fluorophore was incorporated into the linear and cyclic poly(THF)s, and real-time diffusion behavior of individual chains in a melt of linear poly(THF) was measured by means of a single-molecule fluorescence imaging technique. The combination of mean squared displacement (MSD) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis demonstrated the broad distribution of diffusion coefficient of both the linear and cyclic polymer chains in the melt state. This indicates the presence of spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the polymer diffusion which occurs at much larger time and length scales than those expected from the current polymer physics theory. We further demonstrated that the cyclic chains showed marginally slower diffusion in comparison with the linear counterparts, to suggest the effective suppression of the translocation through the threading-entanglement with the linear matrix chains. This coincides with the higher activation energy for the diffusion of the cyclic chains than of the linear chains. These results suggest that the single-molecule imaging technique provides a powerful tool to analyze complicated polymer dynamics and contributes to the molecular level understanding of the chain interaction. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Phase separation of comb polymer nanocomposite melts.
Xu, Qinzhi; Feng, Yancong; Chen, Lan
2016-02-07
In this work, the spinodal phase demixing of branched comb polymer nanocomposite (PNC) melts is systematically investigated using the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. To verify the reliability of the present method in characterizing the phase behavior of comb PNCs, the intermolecular correlation functions of the system for nonzero particle volume fractions are compared with our molecular dynamics simulation data. After verifying the model and discussing the structure of the comb PNCs in the dilute nanoparticle limit, the interference among the side chain number, side chain length, nanoparticle-monomer size ratio and attractive interactions between the comb polymer and nanoparticles in spinodal demixing curves is analyzed and discussed in detail. The results predict two kinds of distinct phase separation behaviors. One is called classic fluid phase boundary, which is mediated by the entropic depletion attraction and contact aggregation of nanoparticles at relatively low nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. The second demixing transition occurs at relatively high attraction strength and involves the formation of an equilibrium physical network phase with local bridging of nanoparticles. The phase boundaries are found to be sensitive to the side chain number, side chain length, nanoparticle-monomer size ratio and attractive interactions. As the side chain length is fixed, the side chain number has a large effect on the phase behavior of comb PNCs; with increasing side chain number, the miscibility window first widens and then shrinks. When the side chain number is lower than a threshold value, the phase boundaries undergo a process from enlarging the miscibility window to narrowing as side chain length increases. Once the side chain number overtakes this threshold value, the phase boundary shifts towards less miscibility. With increasing nanoparticle-monomer size ratio, a crossover of particle size occurs, above which the phase separation
Lattice cluster theory for polymer melts with specific interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Wen-Sheng; Freed, Karl F.
2014-01-01
Despite the long-recognized fact that chemical structure and specific interactions greatly influence the thermodynamic properties of polymer systems, a predictive molecular theory that enables systematically addressing the role of chemical structure and specific interactions has been slow to develop even for polymer melts. While the lattice cluster theory (LCT) provides a powerful vehicle for understanding the influence of various molecular factors, such as monomer structure, on the thermodynamic properties of polymer melts and blends, the application of the LCT has heretofore been limited to the use of the simplest polymer model in which all united atom groups within the monomers of a species interact with a common monomer averaged van der Waals energy. Thus, the description of a compressible polymer melt involves a single van der Waals energy. As a first step towards developing more realistic descriptions to aid in the analysis of experimental data and the design of new materials, the LCT is extended here to treat models of polymer melts in which the backbone and side groups have different interaction strengths, so three energy parameters are present, namely, backbone-backbone, side group-side group, and backbone-side group interaction energies. Because of the great algebraic complexity of this extension, we retain maximal simplicity within this class of models by further specializing this initial study to models of polymer melts comprising chains with poly(n-α-olefin) structures where only the end segments on the side chains may have different, specific van der Waals interaction energies with the other united atom groups. An analytical expression for the LCT Helmholtz free energy is derived for the new model. Illustrative calculations are presented to demonstrate the degree to which the thermodynamic properties of polymer melts can be controlled by specific interactions
Molecular dynamics simulation study of nonconcatenated ring polymers in a melt. I. Statics
Halverson, Jonathan D.; Lee, Won Bo; Grest, Gary S.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Kremer, Kurt
2011-05-01
Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the structural properties of melts of nonconcatenated ring polymers and compared to melts of linear polymers. The longest rings were composed of N = 1600 monomers per chain which corresponds to roughly 57 entanglement lengths for comparable linear polymers. For the rings, the radius of gyration squared, , was found to scale as N4/5 for an intermediate regime and N2/3 for the larger rings indicating an overall conformation of a crumpled globule. However, almost all beads of the rings are "surface beads" interacting with beads of other rings, a result also in agreement with a primitive path analysis performed in the next paper [J. D. Halverson, W. Lee, G. S. Grest, A. Y. Grosberg, and K. Kremer, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 204905 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3587138. Details of the internal conformational properties of the ring and linear polymers as well as their packing are analyzed and compared to current theoretical models.
Wetting of polymer melts on coated and uncoated steel surfaces
Vera, Julie; Contraires, Elise; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Larochette, Mathieu; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane
2017-07-01
A comparative study of the wetting of three different commercial polymer melts on various coated and uncoated steel surfaces is described in this report. The wettability of steel and coatings (three different titanium nitride coatings, TiN, TiNOx, TiNOy, a chromium coating, CrN, and a diamond-like carbon coating, DLC) used for mold in polymer processing is determined at different temperatures between 25 °C and 120 °C. Contact angle measurements of melted polypropylene (PP), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polycarbonate (PC) on steel and on the different coatings were performed to investigate the wetting behavior under closer-to-processing conditions. Recommendations for good measurement conditions were proposed. Moreover, the surface free energy of each melt polymer was determined. The works of adhesion between all polymers and all substrates were established. Among all tested polymers, the lowest value of the works of adhesion is calculated for ABS and for PC thereafter, and the highest value is calculated for PP. These results will be particularly important for such applications as determining the extent to which these polymers can contribute to the replication quality in injection molding.
Multiscale simulations of star polymer melts
Liu, L.
2014-01-01
Depending on the architecture, polymers are observed to show different dynamical and rheological properties. The results obtained from this work will not only contribute to a fundamental understanding of the character of star polymeric systems, but also possibly help to design industrial
Reversed Extension Flow of Polymer melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann
2007-01-01
The measurement of the startup of uni axial elongational flow (potentially until steady state) followed by reversed bi axial flow, both with a constant elongational rate was made possible using a Filament Stretching Rheometer (FSR). The filament stretching rheometer rheometer is surrounded...... by a thermostated environment and allows measurements on polymeric melts and liquids from room temperatures until 200 °C. In the experiments the Hencky strain at which the stress becomes zero (the recovery strain) of the reversed flow can be identified....
Flow and Failure in Extension of Monodisperse Polymer Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.
is commonly referred to be of either brittle (e.g. cohesive type) or of liquid (e.g. necking type) nature. Here the focus will be on monodisperse polymers, to study numerically the sample flow dynamics in dual wind-up extensional rheometers. The computations are within the ideas of the microstructural......It is well known that failure or rupture phenomenon appears in the extension of polymer melts. These appear not only as failure in extension rheometers, but also as sharkskin, developments of holes in thin polymeric films etc. Sometime these ruptures appear spontaneous as well. The rupture...... 'interchain pressure' theory based on the molecular stress function constitutive model for the polymer melt flow. The purpose is twofold. Primarily to present to what extend the experimentally observed failure, appearing during or after (e.g. as a spontaneous failure) extension, can be explained within...
Transient Cooperative Processes in Dewetting Polymer Melts.
Chandran, Sivasurender; Reiter, Günter
2016-02-26
We compare the high velocity dewetting behavior, at elevated temperatures, of atactic polystyrene (aPS) and isotactic polystyrene (iPS) films, with the zero shear bulk viscosity (η_{bulk}) of aPS being approximately ten times larger than iPS. As expected, for aPS the apparent viscosity of the films (η_{f}) derived from high-shear dewetting is less than η_{bulk}, displaying a shear thinning behavior. Surprisingly, for iPS films, η_{f} is always larger than η_{bulk}, even at about 50 °C above the melting point, with η_{f}/η_{bulk} following an Arrhenius behavior. The corresponding activation energy of ∼160±10 kJ/mol for iPS films suggests a cooperative motion of segments which are aligned and agglomerated by fast dewetting.
Melting point of polymers under high pressure Part I: Influence of the polymer properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seeger, Andreas; Freitag, Detlef; Freidel, Frank; Luft, Gerhard
2004-01-01
The pressure dependence of the melting point of various polymers including homo- and copolymers (HDPE, LDPE, PP and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA)) was investigated under nitrogen atmosphere up to 330 MPa within a high pressure differential thermal analysis cell designed by our group. The properties of the polymers (vinylacetate content, melt flow index, molecular weight, isotactic index, crystallinity, density, and frequency of branching) have been correlated with the change of the melting point under pressure (dT m /dp). It could be shown that the melting point always increases linearly with pressure up to 330 MPa. The pressure dependence was found to be in the range of 11-17 K/(100 MPa). From these results it is possible to approximate dT m /dp using the enthalpy of fusion of the polymers at ambient pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steenbakkers, Rudi J A; Schieber, Jay D; Tzoumanekas, Christos; Li, Ying; Liu, Wing Kam; Kröger, Martin
2014-01-01
We present a method to map the full equilibrium distribution of the primitive-path (PP) length, obtained from multi-chain simulations of polymer melts, onto a single-chain mean-field ‘target’ model. Most previous works used the Doi–Edwards tube model as a target. However, the average number of monomers per PP segment, obtained from multi-chain PP networks, has consistently shown a discrepancy of a factor of two with respect to tube-model estimates. Part of the problem is that the tube model neglects fluctuations in the lengths of PP segments, the number of entanglements per chain and the distribution of monomers among PP segments, while all these fluctuations are observed in multi-chain simulations. Here we use a recently proposed slip-link model, which includes fluctuations in all these variables as well as in the spatial positions of the entanglements. This turns out to be essential to obtain qualitative and quantitative agreement with the equilibrium PP-length distribution obtained from multi-chain simulations. By fitting this distribution, we are able to determine two of the three parameters of the model, which govern its equilibrium properties. This mapping is executed for four different linear polymers and for different molecular weights. The two parameters are found to depend on chemistry, but not on molecular weight. The model predicts a constant plateau modulus minus a correction inversely proportional to molecular weight. The value for well-entangled chains, with the parameters determined ab initio, lies in the range of experimental data for the materials investigated. (paper)
High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers
Hayes, Keesha A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Cohen, Itai; Archer, Lynden A.
2008-01-01
spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response
An empirical model for the melt viscosity of polymer blends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrescu, V.
1981-01-01
On the basis of experimental data for blends of polyethylene with different polymers an empirical equation is proposed to describe the dependence of melt viscosity of blends on component viscosities and composition. The model ensures the continuity of viscosity vs. composition curves throughout the whole composition range, the possibility of obtaining extremum values higher or lower than the viscosities of components, allows the calculation of flow curves of blends from the flow curves of components and their volume fractions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2011-09-01
Full Text Available To modify the rheological properties of certain commercial polymers, a set of block copolymers were synthesized through oxyanionic polymerization of 2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate to the chain ends of commercial prepolymers, namely poly(ethylene oxide (PEO, poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(propylene oxide-block-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO, and poly(propylene oxide (PPO. The formed block copolymers were analysed with size exclusion chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in order to confirm block formation. Thermal characterization of the resulting polymers was done with differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal transition points were also confirmed with rotational rheometry, which was primarily used to measure melt strength properties of the resulting block co-polymers. It was observed that the synthesised poly[2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate]-block (PDM affected slightly the thermal transition points of crystalline PEO-block but the influence was stronger on amorphous PPO-blocks. Frequency sweeps measured above the melting temperatures for the materials confirmed that the pre-polymers (PEO and PEO-PPO-PEO behave as Newtonian fluids whereas polymers with a PDM block structure exhibit clear shear thinning behaviour. In addition, the PDM block increased the melt viscosity when compared with that one of the pre-polymer. As a final result, it became obvious that pre-polymers modified with PDM were in entangled form, in the melted state as well in the solidified form.
Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow
Hayes, Keesha A.
2010-05-11
Time-dependent shear stress versus shear rate, constitutive curve, and velocity profile measurements are reported in entangled polymer solutions during start-up of steady shear flow. By combining confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we determine the time-dependent velocity profile in polybutadiene and polystyrene solutions seeded with fluorescent 150 nm silica and 7.5 μm melamine particles. By comparing these profiles with time-dependent constitutive curves obtained from experiment and theory, we explore the connection between transient nonmonotonic regions in the constitutive curve for an entangled polymer and its susceptibility to unstable flow by shear banding [Adams et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 067801-4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow. We also report that interfacial slip plays an important role in the steady shear flow behavior of entangled polymers at shear rates above the reciprocal terminal relaxation time but has little, if any, effect on the shape of the velocity profile. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
The mechanism of fracture for entangled polymer liquids in extensional flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Qian; Yu, Liyun; Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad
In uniaxial extensional flow of entangled polymer liquids, different rupture modes may happen, including necking and fracture. Malkin andPetrie [1] proposed a ''master curve'' dividing the flow behavior into four zones based on the stretch rate: (I) Flow zone; (II) Transition zone; (III) Rubbery...... curve in Zone IV. However, with faster rate, a constant critical strain is observed, which is not shown in the original master curve. The value of the constant critical strain seems to be related to themaximum stretch ratio of the polymer chain (determined by Me), but not influenced by Z. The results...
Thermodynamics and local structure of vinyl polymer melts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yethiraj, A.; Curro, J.G.; Rajasekaran, J.J.
1995-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation results are reported for the site-site pair correlations and equation of state of model vinyl polymer melts. The molecules are freely jointed hard chains with a hard sphere side-group attached to every other backbone bead. The local structure and pressure are investigated as a function of the diameter of the side group for melt-like densities. The intramolecular correlation functions are well represented by a single chain model where excluded volume interactions are included for beads separated by four bonds or less and neglected otherwise. The intermolecular correlation functions show interesting packing effects. The side group shields the backbone beads from approaching each other, to a degree that increases with increasing diameter of the side group. The polymer reference interaction site model integral equation theory is in good agreement with the simulation results for the pair correlation functions. At fixed volume fraction, the pressure is found to be a non-monotonic function of the size of the side group. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Anisotropy of the monomer random walk in a polymer melt: local-order and connectivity effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernini, S; Leporini, D
2016-01-01
The random walk of a bonded monomer in a polymer melt is anisotropic due to local order and bond connectivity. We investigate both effects by molecular-dynamics simulations on melts of fully-flexible linear chains ranging from dimers (M = 2) up to entangled polymers (M = 200). The corresponding atomic liquid is also considered a reference system. To disentangle the influence of the local geometry and the bond arrangements, and to reveal their interplay, we define suitable measures of the anisotropy emphasising either the former or the latter aspect. Connectivity anisotropy, as measured by the correlation between the initial bond orientation and the direction of the subsequent monomer displacement, shows a slight enhancement due to the local order at times shorter than the structural relaxation time. At intermediate times—when the monomer displacement is comparable to the bond length—a pronounced peak and then decays slowly as t −1/2 , becoming negligible when the displacement is as large as about five bond lengths, i.e. about four monomer diameters or three Kuhn lengths. Local-geometry anisotropy, as measured by the correlation between the initial orientation of a characteristic axis of the Voronoi cell and the subsequent monomer dynamics, is affected at shorter times than the structural relaxation time by the cage shape with antagonistic disturbance by the connectivity. Differently, at longer times, the connectivity favours the persistence of the local-geometry anisotropy, which vanishes when the monomer displacement exceeds the bond length. Our results strongly suggest that the sole consideration of the local order is not enough to understand the microscopic origin of the rattling amplitude of the trapped monomer in the cage of the neighbours. (paper)
Dell, Zachary E.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.
2017-04-01
We develop a segment-scale, force-based theory for the breakdown of the unentangled Rouse model and subsequent emergence of isotropic mesoscopic localization and entropic elasticity in chain polymer liquids in the absence of ergodicity-restoring anisotropic reptation or activated hopping motion. The theory is formulated in terms of a conformational N-dynamic-order-parameter generalized Langevin equation approach. It is implemented using a universal field-theoretic Gaussian thread model of polymer structure and closed at the level of the chain dynamic second moment matrix. The physical idea is that the isotropic Rouse model fails due to the dynamical emergence, with increasing chain length, of time-persistent intermolecular contacts determined by the combined influence of local uncrossability, long range polymer connectivity, and a self-consistent treatment of chain motion and the dynamic forces that hinder it. For long chain melts, the mesoscopic localization length (identified as the tube diameter) and emergent entropic elasticity predictions are in near quantitative agreement with experiment. Moreover, the onset chain length scales with the semi-dilute crossover concentration with a realistic numerical prefactor. Distinctive novel predictions are made for various off-diagonal correlation functions that quantify the full spatial structure of the dynamically localized polymer conformation. As the local excluded volume constraint and/or intrachain bonding spring are softened to allow chain crossability, the tube diameter is predicted to swell until it reaches the radius-of-gyration at which point mesoscopic localization vanishes in a discontinuous manner. A dynamic phase diagram for such a delocalization transition is constructed, which is qualitatively consistent with simulations and the classical concept of a critical entanglement degree of polymerization.
Entanglement of conjugated polymer chains influences molecular self-assembly and carrier transport
Zhao, Kui
2013-06-26
The influence of polymer entanglement on the self-assembly, molecular packing structure, and microstructure of low-Mw (lightly entangled) and high-Mw (highly entangled) poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and the carrier transport in thin-film transistors, are investigated. The polymer chains are gradually disentangled in a marginal solvent via ultrasonication of the polymer solution, and demonstrate improved diffusivity of precursor species (coils, aggregates, and microcrystallites), enhanced nucleation and crystallization of P3HT in solution, and self-assembly of well-ordered and highly textured fibrils at the solid-liquid interface. In low-Mw P3HT, reducing chain entanglement enhances interchain and intrachain ordering, but reduces the interconnectivity of ordered domains (tie molecules) due to the presence of short chains, thus deteriorating carrier transport even in the face of improving crystallinity. Reducing chain entanglement in high-Mw P3HT solutions increases carrier mobility up to ≈20-fold, by enhancing interchain and intrachain ordering while maintaining a sufficiently large number of tie molecules between ordered domains. These results indicate that charge carrier mobility is strongly governed by the balancing of intrachain and interchain ordering, on the one hand, and interconnectivity of ordered domains, on the other hand. In high-Mw P3HT, intrachain and interchain ordering appear to be the key bottlenecks to charge transport, whereas in low-Mw P3HT, the limited interconnectivity of the ordered domains acts as the primary bottleneck to charge transport. Conjugated polymer chains of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are gradually disentangled in solution and trends in carrier transport mechanisms in organic thin film transistors for low- and high-molecular weight P3HT are investigated. While intrachain and interchain ordering within ordered domains are the key bottlenecks to charge transport in high-Mw P3HT films, the limited interconnectivity of ordered
Entanglement of conjugated polymer chains influences molecular self-assembly and carrier transport
Zhao, Kui; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Li, Ruipeng; Su, Yisong; Amassian, Aram
2013-01-01
The influence of polymer entanglement on the self-assembly, molecular packing structure, and microstructure of low-Mw (lightly entangled) and high-Mw (highly entangled) poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and the carrier transport in thin-film transistors, are investigated. The polymer chains are gradually disentangled in a marginal solvent via ultrasonication of the polymer solution, and demonstrate improved diffusivity of precursor species (coils, aggregates, and microcrystallites), enhanced nucleation and crystallization of P3HT in solution, and self-assembly of well-ordered and highly textured fibrils at the solid-liquid interface. In low-Mw P3HT, reducing chain entanglement enhances interchain and intrachain ordering, but reduces the interconnectivity of ordered domains (tie molecules) due to the presence of short chains, thus deteriorating carrier transport even in the face of improving crystallinity. Reducing chain entanglement in high-Mw P3HT solutions increases carrier mobility up to ≈20-fold, by enhancing interchain and intrachain ordering while maintaining a sufficiently large number of tie molecules between ordered domains. These results indicate that charge carrier mobility is strongly governed by the balancing of intrachain and interchain ordering, on the one hand, and interconnectivity of ordered domains, on the other hand. In high-Mw P3HT, intrachain and interchain ordering appear to be the key bottlenecks to charge transport, whereas in low-Mw P3HT, the limited interconnectivity of the ordered domains acts as the primary bottleneck to charge transport. Conjugated polymer chains of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are gradually disentangled in solution and trends in carrier transport mechanisms in organic thin film transistors for low- and high-molecular weight P3HT are investigated. While intrachain and interchain ordering within ordered domains are the key bottlenecks to charge transport in high-Mw P3HT films, the limited interconnectivity of ordered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, M.; Ceperley, D.; Frisch, H.L.; Kalos, M.H.
1982-01-01
We report additional results on a simple model of polymers, namely the diffusion in concentrated polymer systems and the static properties of one long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains. It is found, for the polymer sizes and time scales amenable to our computer calculations, that there is as yet no evidence for a ''reptation'' regime in a melt. There is some indication of reptation in the case of a single chain moving through fixed obstacles. No statistically significant effect of the change, from excluded volume behavior of the long chain to ideal behavior as the shorter chains grow, is observed
Extensional viscosity for polymer melts measured in the filament stretching rheometer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Anders; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
2003-01-01
A new filament stretching rheometer has been constructed to measure the elongational viscosity of polymer melts at high temperatures. Two polymer melts, a LDPE and a LLDPE, were investigated with this rheometer. A constant elongational rate has been obtained by an iterative application of the Orr...
Viscoelasticity, nonlinear shear start-up, and relaxation of entangled star polymers
Snijkers, Frank
2013-07-23
We report on a detailed rheological investigation of well-defined symmetric entangled polymer stars of low functionality with varying number of arms, molar mass of the arms, and solvent content. Emphasis is placed on the response of the stars in simple shear, during start-up, and for relaxation upon flow cessation. To reduce experimental artifacts associated with edge fracture (primarily) and wall slip, we employ a homemade cone-partitioned plate fixture which was successfully implemented in recent studies. Reliable data for these highly entangled stars could be obtained for Weissenberg numbers below 300. The appearance of a stress overshoot during start-up with a corresponding strain approaching a value of 2 suggests that in the investigated shear regime the stars orient but do not stretch. This is corroborated by the fact that the empirical Cox-Merx rule appears to be validated, within experimental error. On the other hand, the (shear) rate dependent steady shear viscosity data exhibit a slope smaller than the convective constraint release slope of -1 (for linear polymers) for the investigated range of rates. The broadness of the stress overshoot reflects the broad linear relaxation spectrum of the stars. The initial stress relaxation rate, reflecting the initial loss of entanglements due to the action of convective constraint release in steady shear flow, increases with Weissenberg number. More importantly, when compared against the relevant rates for comb polymers with relatively short arms, the latter are slower at larger Weissenberg numbers. At long times, the relaxation data are consistent with the linear viscoelastic data on these systems. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sumpter, B.G.; Noid, D.W.; Voth, G.A.; Wunderlich, B.
1990-01-01
Molecular dynamics-based computer simulations are presented for the interaction of one and two infrared (IR) laser beams with a model polymer surface. When a single laser beam system is studied over a wide range of intensities, only melting of the polymer, or melting followed by bond dissociation, is observed for up to 100 picoseconds. In contrast, the two-laser simulation results exhibit a marked difference in the energy absorption behavior of the irradiated polymer which, in turn, results in multiple bond dissociations. The results for the one- and two-laser cases studied can be divided into four different classes of physical behavior: (a) the polymer remains in the solid state; (b) the polymer crystal melts; (c) the polymer ablates, but with significant melting (charring); or (d) the polymer ablates with minimal melting. Damage to the model polymer crystal from absorption of energy from either one or two lasers occurs through a mechanism that involves the competition between the absorption of energy and internal energy redistribution. The rate of energy loss from the absorption site(s) relative to the rate of absorption of energy from the radiation field determines rather the polymer melts or ablates (low absorption rates lead to melting or no change and high rates lead to ablation). A sufficiently large rate of energy absorption is only obtainable through the use of two lasers. Two lasers also significantly decrease the total laser intensity required to cause polymer crystal melting. The differences between the one- and two-laser cases are studied by adapting novel signal/subspace techniques to analyze the dynamical changes in the mode spectrum of the polymer as it melts
Segregation of chain ends to polymer melt surfaces and interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, W.; Zhao, X.; Rafailovich, M.H.; Sokolov, J.; Composto, R.J.; Smith, S.D.; Satkowski, M.; Russell, T.P.; Dozier, W.D.; Mansfield, T.
1993-01-01
The conformation of polymer chains in the melt near an impenetrable boundary has recently been studied by molecular dynamics and off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Both types of calculations show an enhancement of the chain end density within a distance of approximately two polymer segment lengths of the interface relative to the bulk. In the absence of preferential interactions between monomers and the interface, the segregation arises from minimizing the loss of conformational entropy near an impenetrable boundary; i.e., by positioning an end near the surface, only one unit rather than two is reflected. In order to obtain an experimental measure of this effect, monodisperse polystyrene (PS) chains of molecular weight 63 000 with short blocks of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) at each end were prepared. The block length was kept as short as possible, while yet producing sufficient neutron scattering contrast in order to minimize any preferential surface segregation due to isotopic effects. The synthesis was carried out via living anionic polymerization of a purified styrene monomer in cyclohexane at 60 C, utilizing sec-butyllithium as the initiator. The process was terminated using degassed methanol
Influence of entanglements on glass transition temperature of polystyrene
Ougizawa, Toshiaki; Kinugasa, Yoshinori
2013-03-01
Chain entanglement is essential behavior of polymeric molecules and it seems to affect many physical properties such as not only viscosity of melt state but also glass transition temperature (Tg). But we have not attained the quantitative estimation because the entanglement density is considered as an intrinsic value of the polymer at melt state depending on the chemical structure. Freeze-drying method is known as one of the few ways to make different entanglement density sample from dilute solution. In this study, the influence of entanglements on Tg of polystyrene obtained by the freeze-dried method was estimated quantitatively. The freeze-dried samples showed Tg depression with decreasing the concentration of precursor solution due to the lower entanglement density and their depressed Tg would be saturated when the almost no intermolecular entanglement was formed. The molecular weight dependence of the maximum value of Tg depression was discussed.
Hu, Hanlin
2015-06-17
The solution-processing of conjugated polymers, just like commodity polymers, is subject to solvent and molecular weight-dependent solubility, interactions and chain entanglements within the polymer, all of which can influence the crystallization and microstructure development in semi-crystalline polymers and consequently affect charge transport and optoelectronic properties. Disentanglement of polymer chains in marginal solvents was reported to work via ultrasonication, facilitating the formation of photophysically ordered polymer aggregates. In this contribution, we explore how a wide range of technologically relevant solvents and formulations commonly used in organic electronics influence chain entanglement and the aggregation behaviour of P3HT using a combination of rheological and spectrophotometric measurements. The specific viscosity of the solution offers an excellent indication of the degree of entanglements in the solution, which is found to be related to the solubility of P3HT in a given solvent. Moreover, deliberately disentangling the solution in the presence of solvophobic driving forces, leads consistently to formation of photophysically visible aggregates which is indicative of local and perhaps long range order in the solute. We show for a broad range of solvents and molecular weights that disentanglement ultimately leads to significant ordering of the polymer in the solid state and a commensurate increase in charge transport properties. In doing so we demonstrate a remarkable ability to tune the microstructure which has important implications for transport properties. We discuss its potential implications in the context of organic photovoltaics.
Hu, Hanlin; Zhao, Kui; Fernandes, Nikhil J.; Boufflet, Pierre; Bannock, James Henry; Yu, Liyang; de Mello, John C; Stingelin, Natalie; Heeney, Martin; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Amassian, Aram
2015-01-01
The solution-processing of conjugated polymers, just like commodity polymers, is subject to solvent and molecular weight-dependent solubility, interactions and chain entanglements within the polymer, all of which can influence the crystallization and microstructure development in semi-crystalline polymers and consequently affect charge transport and optoelectronic properties. Disentanglement of polymer chains in marginal solvents was reported to work via ultrasonication, facilitating the formation of photophysically ordered polymer aggregates. In this contribution, we explore how a wide range of technologically relevant solvents and formulations commonly used in organic electronics influence chain entanglement and the aggregation behaviour of P3HT using a combination of rheological and spectrophotometric measurements. The specific viscosity of the solution offers an excellent indication of the degree of entanglements in the solution, which is found to be related to the solubility of P3HT in a given solvent. Moreover, deliberately disentangling the solution in the presence of solvophobic driving forces, leads consistently to formation of photophysically visible aggregates which is indicative of local and perhaps long range order in the solute. We show for a broad range of solvents and molecular weights that disentanglement ultimately leads to significant ordering of the polymer in the solid state and a commensurate increase in charge transport properties. In doing so we demonstrate a remarkable ability to tune the microstructure which has important implications for transport properties. We discuss its potential implications in the context of organic photovoltaics.
Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Rinaldi, Carlos
2016-11-09
We report observations of breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation for the rotational diffusivity of polymer-grafted spherical nanoparticles in polymer melts. The rotational diffusivity of magnetic nanoparticles coated with poly(ethylene glycol) dispersed in poly(ethylene glycol) melts was determined through dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements of the collective rotation of the magnetic nanoparticles due to imposed time-varying magnetic torques. These measurements clearly demonstrate the existence of a critical molecular weight for the melt polymer, below which the Stokes-Einstein relation accurately describes the rotational diffusivity of the polymer-grafted nanoparticles and above which the Stokes-Einstein relation ceases to apply. This critical molecular weight was found to correspond to a chain contour length that approximates the hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles.
Creep measurements confirm steady flow after stress maximum in extension of branched polymer melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Román Marín, José Manuel; Huang, Qian
2013-01-01
We provide conclusive evidence of nonmonotonic mechanical behavior in the extension of long-chain branched polymer melts. While nonmonotonic behavior is known to occur for solids, for the case of polymeric melts, this phenomenon is in direct contrast with current theoretical models. We rule out t...
Masubuchi, Yuichi; Pandey, Ankita; Amamoto, Yoshifumi; Uneyama, Takashi
2017-11-01
Although it has not been frequently discussed, contributions of the orientational cross-correlation (OCC) between entangled polymers are not negligible in the relaxation modulus. In the present study, OCC contributions were investigated for 4- and 6-arm star-branched and H-branched polymers by means of multi-chain slip-link simulations. Owing to the molecular-level description of the simulation, the segment orientation was traced separately for each molecule as well as each subchain composing the molecules. Then, the OCC was calculated between different molecules and different subchains. The results revealed that the amount of OCC between different molecules is virtually identical to that of linear polymers regardless of the branching structure. The OCC between constituent subchains of the same molecule is significantly smaller than the OCC between different molecules, although its intensity and time-dependent behavior depend on the branching structure as well as the molecular weight. These results lend support to the single-chain models given that the OCC effects are embedded into the stress-optical coefficient, which is independent of the branching structure.
Frey, S; Weysser, F; Meyer, H; Farago, J; Fuchs, M; Baschnagel, J
2015-02-01
We present molecular-dynamics simulations for a fully flexible model of polymer melts with different chain length N ranging from short oligomers (N = 4) to values near the entanglement length (N = 64). For these systems we explore the structural relaxation of the supercooled melt near the critical temperature T c of mode-coupling theory (MCT). Coherent and incoherent scattering functions are analyzed in terms of the idealized MCT. For temperatures T > T c we provide evidence for the space-time factorization property of the β relaxation and for the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) of the α relaxation, and we also discuss deviations from these predictions for T ≈ T c. For T larger than the smallest temperature where the TTSP holds we perform a quantitative analysis of the dynamics with the asymptotic MCT predictions for the late β regime. Within MCT a key quantity, in addition to T c, is the exponent parameter λ. For the fully flexible polymer models studied we find that λ is independent of N and has a value (λ = 0.735 ) typical of simple glass-forming liquids. On the other hand, the critical temperature increases with chain length toward an asymptotic value T c (∞) . This increase can be described by T c (∞) - T c(N) ∼ 1/N and may be interpreted in terms of the N dependence of the monomer density ρ, if we assume that the MCT glass transition is ruled by a soft-sphere-like constant coupling parameter Γ c = ρ c T c (-1/4), where ρ c is the monomer density at T c. In addition, we also estimate T c from a Hansen-Verlet-like criterion and MCT calculations based on structural input from the simulation. For our polymer model both the Hansen-Verlet criterion and the MCT calculations suggest T c to decrease with increasing chain length, in contrast to the direct analysis of the simulation data.
Low-Frequency Internal Friction Study on the Structural Changes in Polymer Melts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue-Bang, Wu; Qiao-Ling, Xu; Shu-Ying, Shang; Jia-Peng, Shui; Chang-Song, Liu; Zhen-Gang, Zhu
2008-01-01
With the help of the low-frequency internal friction method, we investigate the structural properties of polymer melts, such as amorphous polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and semi-crystalline poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). An obvious peak of relaxation type is found in each of the internal friction curves. The peak temperature T p follows the relation T p ≈ (1.15 – 1.18) T g for PS and PMMA melts, while it follows T p ≈ 1.22T m for PEO melt, with T g being the glass transition temperature and T m the melting temperature. Based on the analysis of the features of this peak, it is found that this peak is related to the liquid-liquid transition temperature T u of polymer melts. Mechanism of the liquid-liquid transition is suggested to be thermally-activated collective relaxation through cooperation. This finding may be helpful to understand the structural changes in polymer melts. In addition, the internal friction technique proves to be effective in studying dynamics in polymer melts
Gupta, Simerdeep Singh; Solanki, Nayan; Serajuddin, Abu T M
2016-02-01
Most cellulosic polymers cannot be used as carriers for preparing solid dispersion of drugs by hot melt extrusion (HME) due to their high melt viscosity and thermal degradation at high processing temperatures. Three HME-grade hydroxypropyl methylcelluloses, namely Affinisol™ HPMC HME 15 cP, Affinisol™ HPMC HME 100 cP, and Affinisol™ HPMC HME 4 M, have recently been introduced by The Dow Chemical Co. to enable the preparation of solid dispersion at lower and more acceptable processing temperatures. In the present investigation, physicochemical properties of the new polymers relevant to HME were determined and compared with that of Kollidon(®) VA 64. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), moisture sorption, rheology, and torque analysis by melt extrusion were applied. PXRD and mDSC showed that the Affinisol™ polymers were amorphous in nature. According to TGA, the onset of degradation for all polymers was >220°C. The Affinisol™ polymers exhibited less hygroscopicity than Kollidon(®) VA 64 and another HPMC polymer, Methocel™ K100LV. The complex viscosity profiles of the Affinisol™ polymers as a function of temperature were similar. The viscosity of the Affinisol™ polymers was highly sensitive to the shear rate applied, and unlike Kollidon(®) VA 64, the viscosity decreased drastically when the angular frequency was increased. Because of the very high shear rate encountered during melt extrusion, Affinisol™ polymers showed capability of being extruded at larger windows of processing temperatures as compared to that of Kollidon(®) VA 64.
Jung, Haejong; Yu, Seunggun; Bae, Nam-Seok; Cho, Suk Man; Kim, Richard Hahnkee; Cho, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Ihn; Jeong, Beomjin; Ryu, Ji Su; Hwang, Junyeon; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min; Park, Cheolmin
2015-07-22
Design of materials to be heat-conductive in a preferred direction is a crucial issue for efficient heat dissipation in systems using stacked devices. Here, we demonstrate a facile route to fabricate polymer composites with directional thermal conduction. Our method is based on control of the orientation of fillers with anisotropic heat conduction. Melt-compression of solution-cast poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and graphene nanoflake (GNF) films in an L-shape kinked tube yielded a lightweight polymer composite with the surface normal of GNF preferentially aligned perpendicular to the melt-flow direction, giving rise to a directional thermal conductivity of approximately 10 W/mK at 25 vol % with an anisotropic thermal conduction ratio greater than six. The high directional thermal conduction was attributed to the two-dimensional planar shape of GNFs readily adaptable to the molten polymer flow, compared with highly entangled carbon nanotubes and three-dimensional graphite fillers. Furthermore, our composite with its density of approximately 1.5 g/cm(3) was mechanically stable, and its thermal performance was successfully preserved above 100 °C even after multiple heating and cooling cycles. The results indicate that the methodology using an L-shape kinked tube is a new way to achieve polymer composites with highly anisotropic thermal conduction.
A control scheme for filament stretching rheometers with application to polymer melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Román Marín, José Manuel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Javier Alvarez, Nicolas
2013-01-01
We propose a new control scheme to maintain a constant strain rate of the mid-filament diameter in a filament stretching rheometer for polymer melts. The scheme is cast as a velocity algorithm and consists of a feed-back and a feed-forward contribution. The performance of the controller is demons......We propose a new control scheme to maintain a constant strain rate of the mid-filament diameter in a filament stretching rheometer for polymer melts. The scheme is cast as a velocity algorithm and consists of a feed-back and a feed-forward contribution. The performance of the controller...
Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics
Kim, Daniel
2012-01-01
Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Production of micron-sized polymer particles for additive manufacturing by melt emulsification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fanselow, Stephanie; Schmidt, Jochen; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Peukert@fau.de [Institute of Particle Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstrasse 4, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2016-03-09
Melt emulsification is an advanced top-down approach that permits to produce spherical particles and thus widens the availability of polymer feed materials for additive manufacturing. In the process the polymer is molten in a continuous phase and droplet breakup is realized in a rotor-stator-device. The stabilization of the newly formed surfaces is quite challenging. Therefore, a new method to identify an appropriate emulsifier by measuring the interfacial tension between the polymer and continuous phase using a high pressure / high temperature cell is presented. The obtained powders are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by a Zimmermann tensile strength tester to determine the powder flowability. The processability of the polymer powders for additive manufacturing is investigated and demonstrated by building single layers by laser beam melting.
Rheology of multiphase polymer systems using novel "melt rigidity" evaluation approach
Kracalik, Milan
2015-04-01
Multiphase polymer systems like blends, composites and nanocomposites exhibit complex rheological behaviour due to physical and also possibly chemical interactions between individual phases. Up to now, rheology of heterogeneous polymer systems has been usually described by evaluation of viscosity curve (shear thinning phenomenon), storage modulus curve (formation of secondary plateau) or plotting information about damping behaviour (e.g. Van Gurp-Palmen-plot). On the contrary to evaluation of damping behaviour, "melt rigidity" approach has been introduced for description of physical network of rigid particles in polymer matrix as relation of ∫G'/∫G" over specific frequency range. This approach has been experimentally proved for polymer nanocomposites in order to compare shear flow characteristics with elongational flow field. In this contribution, LDPE-clay nanocomposites with different dispersion grades (physical networks) have been prepared and characterized by both conventional as well as novel "melt rigidity" approach.
On the burst of branched polymer melts during inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Yu, Kaijia
2008-01-01
Two molten low-density polyethylene melts, shaped as plates, have been inflated into a circular cylinder during isothermal conditions. Lowering the inflation rates allow the plates to be inflated into a larger volume of the cylinder before bursting. Numerical simulations of the inflations have been...
Small angle neutron scattering form polymer melts: structural investigation and phase behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertugrul, O.
2004-01-01
The Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) techniques have been used to study the structural properties and phase behavior of polymer melts. A model based on Random Phase Approximation (RPA) is proposed to predict the experimental data. By fitting the model to data we could be able to obtain radius of gyration (a measure of size of a polymer) and phase transition for the sample. (author)
Snijkers, F.; Kirkwood, K. M.; Vlassopoulos, D.; Leal, L. G.; Nikopoulou, A.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Coppola, S.
2016-01-01
We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.
Snijkers, F.
2016-03-31
We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.
Melted flux liquids in high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, D.R.
1989-01-01
A theory of the entangles flux liquids which arise in the new high-T c superconductors is reviewed. New physics appears because of the weak interplanar couplings and high critical temperatures in these materials. Flux line wandering melts the conventional Abrikosov flux lattice over large portions of the phase diagram and leads to a novel entangled vortex state. The authors suggest that a heavily entangled flux liquid could exhibit glassy behavior on experimental time scales, in analogy with viscoelastic behavior in dense polymer melts
Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity of Linear and Branched polymer melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
2005-01-01
About 40 years ago interest in the measurement of elongational viscosity of polymer melts started to grow. Here we present measurements of transient (and steady) uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the FSR, of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight......-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements.The measurements on the bi-disperse PS...... melts have demonstrated that both the transient and steady elongational viscosity is quite sensitive to polydispersity. Bi-disperse PS resembles the behaviour of mono-disperse melts only at elongational rates larger then the inverse of maximal time constant of the smallest molecule. As observed in Boger...
Inflation of polymer melts into elliptic and circular cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Christensen, Jens Horslund; Gøttsche, Søren
2000-01-01
A thin sheet (membrane) of the polymeric material is clamped between a Teflon-coated thermostated plate and a thermostated aluminium cylinder. By applying thermostated air through the plate, the polymer membrane deforms into an elliptic or a circular cylinder. The position of the top of the infla......A thin sheet (membrane) of the polymeric material is clamped between a Teflon-coated thermostated plate and a thermostated aluminium cylinder. By applying thermostated air through the plate, the polymer membrane deforms into an elliptic or a circular cylinder. The position of the top...
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
2017-01-01
Although 3D printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, the strength of printed parts often does not rival that of traditionally-manufactured parts. The fused-filament fabrication method involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion of the molten viscoelastic material to fabricate a three-dimensional object. The strength of the welds between layers is controlled by interdiffusion and entanglement of the melt across the interface. However, diffusio...
Melt dispersion of thermoplastic polystyrene in polymer polyols
2009-01-01
Polystyrene is dispersed into a polyol via a mechanical dispersion process. A stabilizer is present to stabilize the dispersed polymer particles. The stabilizer includes a copolymer of (1) from 10 to 70% by weight of a branched polyol which has a molecular weight of from 4000 to 20,000, from 0.2 to
Influence of Flame Retardants on the Melt Dripping Behaviour of Thermoplastic Polymers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melissa Matzen
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Melt flow and dripping of the pyrolysing polymer melt can be both a benefit and a detriment during a fire. In several small-scale fire tests addressing the ignition of a defined specimen with a small ignition source, well-adjusted melt flow and dripping are usually beneficial to pass the test. The presence of flame retardants often changes the melt viscosity crucially. The influence of certain flame retardants on the dripping behaviour of four commercial polymers, poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT, polypropylene (PP, polypropylene modified with ethylene-propylene rubber (PP-EP and polyamide 6 (PA 6, is analysed based on an experimental monitoring of the mass loss due to melt dripping, drop size and drop temperature as a function of the furnace temperature applied to a rod-shaped specimen. Investigating the thermal transition (DSC, thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition, as well as the viscosity of the polymer and collected drops completes the investigation. Different mechanisms of the flame retardants are associated with their influence on the dripping behaviour in the UL 94 test. Reduction in decomposition temperature and changed viscosity play a major role. A flow limit in flame-retarded PBT, enhanced decomposition of flame-retarded PP and PP-EP and the promotion of dripping in PA 6 are the salient features discussed.
Modelling of the isothermal replication of surface microstructures in polymer melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard
2005-01-01
boundary condition. This allows an investigation of the effect of the rheological properties of the polymer melt on the ability of the material to fill small structures in a mould surface. Series of isothermal compression moulding experiments were performed with a polycarbonate (PC) and a polystyrene (PS...
Scaling of mesoscale simulations of polymer melts with the bare friction coefficient
Kindt, P.; Kindt, P.; Briels, Willem J.
2005-01-01
Both the Rouse and reptation model predict that the dynamics of a polymer melt scale inversely proportional with the Langevin friction coefficient (E). Mesoscale Brownian dynamics simulations of polyethylene validate these scaling predictions, providing the reptational friction (E)R=(E)+(E)C is
Viscoelastic characterization of polymer melts with a new membrane inflation rheometer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Christensen, Jens Horslund; Gøttsche, Søren
1999-01-01
The constitutive equation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) has been obtained from experimental measurements of membrane inflation in a cylinder using finite element simulations, based on the 3D Lagrangian Integral Method. The polymer melt rheology of HIPS is modelled as a single integral model...
Non-local viscosity of polymer melts approaching their glassy state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter
2010-01-01
The nonlocal viscosity kernels of polymer melts have been determined by means of equilibrium molecular dynamics upon cooling toward the glass transition. Previous results for the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient and the value of the glass transition temperature are confirmed...
Numerical simulation of viscoelastic layer rearrangement in polymer melts using OpenFOAM®
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Köpplmayr, Thomas, E-mail: tkoepplmayr@gmail.com; Mayrhofer, Elias [Institute of Polymer Extrusion and Compounding, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)
2015-05-22
In addition to their shear-thinning behavior, polymer melts are characterized by first and second normal stress differences, which cause secondary motions. Polymer coextrusion processes involve viscoelastic two-phase flows that influence layer formation. Using polymer melts with different pigmentation makes visible the layers deformed by second normal stress differences. We used a new solver for the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox which handles viscoelastic two-phase flows. A derivative of the volume-of-fluid (VoF) methodology was employed to describe the interface. Different types of polymer melt, such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were investigated. In a coextrusion process, the less viscous phase usually tends to encapsulate the more viscous one. However, the different viscoelastic properties of the melts also influence interface deformation. The materials were characterized by small-amplitude oscillatory-shear rheometry, and a multimode Giesekus model was used to fit shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus. Our simulations also took interfacial tension into account. Experimental observations and corresponding numerical simulations were found to be in good accordance.
Numerical simulation of viscoelastic layer rearrangement in polymer melts using OpenFOAM®
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Köpplmayr, Thomas; Mayrhofer, Elias
2015-01-01
In addition to their shear-thinning behavior, polymer melts are characterized by first and second normal stress differences, which cause secondary motions. Polymer coextrusion processes involve viscoelastic two-phase flows that influence layer formation. Using polymer melts with different pigmentation makes visible the layers deformed by second normal stress differences. We used a new solver for the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox which handles viscoelastic two-phase flows. A derivative of the volume-of-fluid (VoF) methodology was employed to describe the interface. Different types of polymer melt, such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were investigated. In a coextrusion process, the less viscous phase usually tends to encapsulate the more viscous one. However, the different viscoelastic properties of the melts also influence interface deformation. The materials were characterized by small-amplitude oscillatory-shear rheometry, and a multimode Giesekus model was used to fit shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus. Our simulations also took interfacial tension into account. Experimental observations and corresponding numerical simulations were found to be in good accordance
Flow-induced correlation effects within a linear chain in a polymer melt
Stepanyan, R.; Slot, J.J.M.; Molenaar, J.; Tchesnokov, M.A.
2005-01-01
A framework for a consistent description of the flow-induced correlation effects within a linear polymer chain in a melt is proposed. The formalism shows how correlations between chain segments in the flow can be incorporated into a hierarchy of distribution functions for tangent vectors. The
Solvent-free porous framework resulted from 3D entanglement of 1D zigzag coordination polymer
Kole, Goutam Kumar Umar
2010-01-01
A solvent-free porous metal organic framework is constructed by the 3D entanglement of 1D zigzag coordination polymeric chains. The role of solvents and the effect of reaction conditions on such unique entanglement are addressed. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
Solvent-free porous framework resulted from 3D entanglement of 1D zigzag coordination polymer
Kole, Goutam Kumar Umar; Cairns, Amy J.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Vittal, Jagadese J.
2010-01-01
A solvent-free porous metal organic framework is constructed by the 3D entanglement of 1D zigzag coordination polymeric chains. The role of solvents and the effect of reaction conditions on such unique entanglement are addressed. © 2010 The Royal
Melt dispersion of thermoplastic polystyrene in polymer polyols
2009-01-01
Polystyrene is dispersed into a polyol via a mechanical dispersion process. A stabilizer is present to stabilize the dispersed polymer particles. The stabilizer includes a copolymer of (1) from 10 to 70% by weight of a branched polyol which has a molecular weight of from 4000 to 20,000, from 0.2 to about 1.2 polymerizable ethylenically unsaturated groups per molecule and from about 3 to about 8 hydroxyl groups per molecule with (2) from 30 to 90% by weight of styrene or a mixture of styrene a...
Integral equation theory study on the phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts.
Zhao, Lei; Li, Yi-Gui; Zhong, Chongli
2007-10-21
The polymer reference interaction site model theory is used to investigate phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts. Two kinds of spinodal curves were obtained: classic fluid phase boundary for relatively low nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength and network phase boundary for relatively high nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. The network phase boundaries are much more sensitive with nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength than the fluid phase boundaries. The interference among the arm number, arm length, and nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength was systematically investigated. When the arm lengths are short, the network phase boundary shows a marked shift toward less miscibility with increasing arm number. When the arm lengths are long enough, the network phase boundaries show opposite trends. There exists a crossover arm number value for star polymer nanocomposite melts, below which the network phase separation is consistent with that of chain polymer nanocomposite melts. However, the network phase separation shows qualitatively different behaviors when the arm number is larger than this value.
Bridging the Gap between Polymer Melts and Solutions in Extensional Rheology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Qian; Hengeller, Ludovica; Alvarez, Nicolas J.
2015-01-01
Since its inception, the tube model of polymer dynamics has undergone several modifications to account for observed experimental trends. One trend that has yet to be captured by a modified version of the tube model is the observed experimental difference between concentrated polymer solutions...... per chain and are diluted in the same solvent (oligomeric styrene). We show that the difference in nonlinear rheological behavior between polystyrene melts reported by Bach et al.1 and polystyrene solutions reported by Bhattacharjee et al.2 and Sridhar et al.3 can be bridged by changing...... the polystyrene concentration. The results presented represent a unique benchmark for all future modifications to the tube model....
Measurement of elongational viscosity of polymer melts using SER Universal Testing Platform
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Filip, Petr; Švrčinová, Petra
2012-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 1 (2012), s. 14776 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1307; GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : elongational viscosity * SER Universal Testing Platform * polymer melts * LDPE Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2012 http://www.ar.ethz.ch/TMPPDF/23074299892.48/ApplRheol_22_14776.pdf
Shakirov, T.; Paul, W.
2018-04-01
What is the thermodynamic driving force for the crystallization of melts of semiflexible polymers? We try to answer this question by employing stochastic approximation Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the complete thermodynamic equilibrium information for a melt of short, semiflexible polymer chains with purely repulsive nonbonded interactions. The thermodynamics is obtained based on the density of states of our coarse-grained model, which varies by up to 5600 orders of magnitude. We show that our polymer melt undergoes a first-order crystallization transition upon increasing the chain stiffness at fixed density. This crystallization can be understood by the interplay of the maximization of different entropy contributions in different spatial dimensions. At sufficient stiffness and density, the three-dimensional orientational interactions drive the orientational ordering transition, which is accompanied by a two-dimensional translational ordering transition in the plane perpendicular to the chains resulting in a hexagonal crystal structure. While the three-dimensional ordering can be understood in terms of Onsager theory, the two-dimensional transition can be understood in terms of the liquid-hexatic transition of hard disks. Due to the domination of lateral two-dimensional translational entropy over the one-dimensional translational entropy connected with columnar displacements, the chains form a lamellar phase. Based on this physical understanding, orientational ordering and translational ordering should be separable for polymer melts. A phenomenological theory based on this understanding predicts a qualitative phase diagram as a function of volume fraction and stiffness in good agreement with results from the literature.
Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers.
Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter
2017-01-01
Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying in a larger scale. In this study, the feasibility of hot melt extrusion for continuous manufacturing of co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations was examined, challenging the fact that amino acids melt with degradation at high temperatures. Furthermore, the need for an addition of a polymer in this process was evaluated. After a polymer screening via the solvent evaporation method, co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine was prepared by a melting-solvent extrusion process without and with copovidone. The obtained products were characterized with respect to their solid-state properties, non-sink dissolution behavior, and stability. Results were compared to those of spray-dried formulations with the same compositions and to spray-dried indomethacin-copovidone. Overall, stable co-amorphous systems could be prepared by extrusion without or with copovidone, which exhibited comparable molecular interaction properties to the respective spray-dried products, while phase separation was detected by differential scanning calorimetry in several cases. The formulations containing indomethacin in combination with arginine and copovidone showed enhanced dissolution behavior over the formulations with only copovidone or arginine. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Hassager, Ole
2010-01-01
to the flow in the non-linear flow regime. This has allowed highly elastic measurements within the limit of pure orientational stress, as the time of the flow was considerably smaller than the Rouse time. A Doi-Edwards [J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2 74, 1818-1832 (1978)] type of constitutive model...... with the assumption of pure configurational stress was accurately able to predict the startup as well as the reversed flow behavior. This confirms that this commonly used theoretical picture for the flow of polymeric liquids is a correct physical principle to apply. c 2010 The Society of Rheology. [DOI: 10.1122/1.3496378]...
Alternative polymer separation technology by centrifugal force in a melted state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrovszky, Károly; Ronkay, Ferenc
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Waste separation should take place at high purity. • Developed a novel, alternative separation method, where the separation occurred in a melted state by centrifugal forces. • Possibility of separation two different plastics into neat fractions. • High purity fractions were established at granulates and also at prefabricated blend. • Results were verified by DSC, optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: In order to upgrade polymer waste during recycling, separation should take place at high purity. The present research was aimed to develop a novel, alternative separation opportunity, where the polymer fractions were separated by centrifugal force in melted state. The efficiency of the constructed separation equipment was verified by two immiscible plastics (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; low density polyethylene, LDPE), which have a high difference of density, and of which large quantities can also be found in the municipal solid waste. The results show that the developed equipment is suitable not only for separating dry blended mixtures of PET/LDPE into pure components again, but also for separating prefabricated polymer blends. By this process it becomes possible to recover pure polymer substances from multi-component products during the recycling process. The adequacy of results was verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement as well as optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy
Alternative polymer separation technology by centrifugal force in a melted state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobrovszky, Károly; Ronkay, Ferenc, E-mail: ronkay@pt.bme.hu
2014-11-15
Highlights: • Waste separation should take place at high purity. • Developed a novel, alternative separation method, where the separation occurred in a melted state by centrifugal forces. • Possibility of separation two different plastics into neat fractions. • High purity fractions were established at granulates and also at prefabricated blend. • Results were verified by DSC, optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: In order to upgrade polymer waste during recycling, separation should take place at high purity. The present research was aimed to develop a novel, alternative separation opportunity, where the polymer fractions were separated by centrifugal force in melted state. The efficiency of the constructed separation equipment was verified by two immiscible plastics (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; low density polyethylene, LDPE), which have a high difference of density, and of which large quantities can also be found in the municipal solid waste. The results show that the developed equipment is suitable not only for separating dry blended mixtures of PET/LDPE into pure components again, but also for separating prefabricated polymer blends. By this process it becomes possible to recover pure polymer substances from multi-component products during the recycling process. The adequacy of results was verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement as well as optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.
On the relationship between two popular lattice models for polymer melts
Subramanian, Gopinath; Shanbhag, Sachin
2008-10-01
A mapping between two well known lattice bond-fluctuation models for polymers [I. Carmesin and K. Kremer, Macromolecules 21, 2819 (1988); J. S. Shaffer, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4205 (1994)] is investigated by performing primitive path analysis to identify the average number of monomers per entanglement. Simulations conducted using both models, and previously published data are compared in an attempt to establish relationships between molecular weight, lengthscale, and timescale. Using these relationships, an examination of the self-diffusion coefficient yields excellent agreement not only between the two models, but also with experimental data on polystyrene, polybutadiene, and polydimethylsiloxane. However, it is shown that even with the limited set of criteria examined in this paper, a true mapping between these two models is elusive. Nevertheless, a practical guide to convert between models is provided.
Viscoelasticity, nonlinear shear start-up, and relaxation of entangled star polymers
Snijkers, Frank; Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos
2013-01-01
in recent studies. Reliable data for these highly entangled stars could be obtained for Weissenberg numbers below 300. The appearance of a stress overshoot during start-up with a corresponding strain approaching a value of 2 suggests that in the investigated
Mokrane, Aoulaiche; Boutaous, M'hamed; Xin, Shihe
2018-05-01
The aim of this work is to address a modeling of the SLS process at the scale of the part in PA12 polymer powder bed. The powder bed is considered as a continuous medium with homogenized properties, meanwhile understanding multiple physical phenomena occurring during the process and studying the influence of process parameters on the quality of final product. A thermal model, based on enthalpy approach, will be presented with details on the multiphysical couplings that allow the thermal history: laser absorption, melting, coalescence, densification, volume shrinkage and on numerical implementation using FV method. The simulations were carried out in 3D with an in-house developed FORTRAN code. After validation of the model with comparison to results from literature, a parametric analysis will be proposed. Some original results as densification process and the thermal history with the evolution of the material, from the granular solid state to homogeneous melted state will be discussed with regards to the involved physical phenomena.
Oscillatory Shear Rheology in Examining the Drug-Polymer Interactions Relevant in Hot Melt Extrusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aho, Johanna; Edinger, Magnus; Botker, Johan
2016-01-01
The flow properties of drug-polymer mixtures have a significant influence on their processability when using techniques such as hot melt extrusion (HME). Suitable extrusion temperature and screw speed to be used in laboratory scale HME were evaluated for mixtures containing 30% of paracetamol (PRC...... of the drug substances. Consecutively, the mixtures were extruded, and the maximum plasticizing weight fraction of each drug was determined by means of rheological measurements. IBU was found to have an efficient plasticizing functionality, decreasing the viscosity of the mixtures even above its apparent...
Numerical studies of the polymer melt flow in the extruder screw channel and the forming tool
Ershov, S. V.; Trufanova, N. M.
2017-06-01
To date, polymer compositions based on polyethylene or PVC is widely used as insulating materials. These materials processing conjugate with a number of problems during selection of the rational extrusion regimes. To minimize the time and cost when determining the technological regime uses mathematical modeling techniques. The paper discusses heat and mass transfer processes in the extruder screw channel, output adapter and the cable head. During the study were determined coefficients for three rheological models based on obtained viscosity vs. shear rate experimental data. Also a comparative analysis of this viscosimetric laws application possibility for studying polymer melt flow during its processing on the extrusion equipment was held. As a result of numerical study the temperature, viscosity and shear rate fields in the extruder screw channel and forming tool were obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Sumpter, Bobby G.
2014-01-01
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are used to probe the dynamic phenomena of polymer melts confined in nanopores. The simulation results show excellent agreement in the values obtained for the normalized coherent single chain dynamic structure factor, (S(Q,Δt))/(S(Q,0)) . In the bulk configuration, both simulations and experiments confirm that the polymer chains follow Rouse dynamics. However, under confinement, the Rouse modes are suppressed. The mean-square radius of gyration 〈R g 2 〉 and the average relative shape anisotropy 〈κ 2 〉 of the conformation of the polymer chains indicate a pancake-like conformation near the surface and a bulk-like conformation near the center of the confining cylinder. This was confirmed by direct visualization of the polymer chains. Despite the presence of these different conformations, the average form factor of the confined chains still follows the Debye function which describes linear ideal chains, which is in agreement with small angle neutron scattering experiments (SANS). The experimentally inaccessible mean-square displacement (MSD) of the confined monomers, calculated as a function of radial distance from the pore surface, was obtained in the simulations. The simulations show a gradual increase of the MSD from the adsorbed, but mobile layer, to that similar to the bulk far away from the surface
Hsieh, Min-Kang; Lin, Shiang-Tai
2009-12-01
Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the initial structural development in poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) when quenched below its melting point. The development of local ordering has been observed in our simulations. The thermal properties, such as the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm), determined from our simulations are in reasonable agreement with experimental values. It is found that, between these two temperatures, the number of local structures quickly increases during the thermal relaxation period soon after the system is quenched and starts to fluctuate afterwards. The formation and development of local structures is found to be driven mainly by the torsional and van der Waals forces and follows the classical nucleation-growth mechanism. The variation of local structures' fraction with temperature exhibits a maximum between Tg and Tm, resembling the temperature dependence of the crystallization rate for most polymers. In addition, the backbone torsion distribution for segments within the local structures preferentially reorganizes to the trans-gauche-gauche-trans (t-g-g-t) conformation, the same as that in the crystalline state. As a consequence, we believe that such local structural ordering could be the baby nuclei that have been suggested to form in the early stage of polymer crystallization.
Molecular characteristics of stress overshoot for polymer melts under start-up shear flow.
Jeong, Sohdam; Kim, Jun Mo; Baig, Chunggi
2017-12-21
Stress overshoot is one of the most important nonlinear rheological phenomena exhibited by polymeric liquids undergoing start-up shear at sufficient flow strengths. Despite considerable previous research, the fundamental molecular characteristics underlying stress overshoot remain unknown. Here, we analyze the intrinsic molecular mechanisms behind the overshoot phenomenon using atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of entangled linear polyethylene melts under shear flow. Through a detailed analysis of the transient rotational chain dynamics, we identify an intermolecular collision angular regime in the vicinity of the chain orientation angle θ ≈ 20° with respect to the flow direction. The shear stress overshoot occurs via strong intermolecular collisions between chains in the collision regime at θ = 15°-25°, corresponding to a peak strain of 2-4, which is an experimentally well-known value. The normal stress overshoot appears at approximately θ = 10°, at a corresponding peak strain roughly equivalent to twice that for the shear stress. We provide plausible answers to several basic questions regarding the stress overshoot, which may further help understand other nonlinear phenomena of polymeric systems.
Computer simulations of supercooled polymer melts in the bulk and in confined geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baschnagel, J; Varnik, F
2005-01-01
We survey results of computer simulations for the structure and dynamics of supercooled polymer melts and films. Our survey is mainly concerned with features of a coarse grained polymer model-a bead-spring model-in the temperature regime above the critical glass temperature T c of the ideal mode-coupling theory (MCT). We divide our discussion into two parts: a part devoted to bulk properties and a part dealing with thin films. The discussion of the bulk properties focuses on two aspects: a comparison of the simulation results with MCT and an analysis of dynamic heterogeneities. We explain in detail how the analyses are performed and what results may be obtained, and we critically assess their strengths and weaknesses. In discussing the application of MCT we also present first results of a quantitative comparison which does not rely on fits, but exploits static input from the simulation to predict the relaxation dynamics. The second part of this review is devoted to extensions of the simulations from the bulk to thin films. We explore in detail the influence of the boundary condition, imposed by smooth or rough walls, on the structure and dynamics of the polymer melt. Geometric confinement is found to shift the glass transition temperature T g (or T c in our case) relative to the bulk. We compare our and other simulation results for the T g shift with experimental data, briefly survey some theoretical ideas for explaining these shifts and discuss related simulation work on the glass transition of confined liquids. Finally, we also present some technical details of how to perform fits to MCT and give a brief introduction to another approach to the glass transition based on the potential energy landscape of a liquid. (topical review)
Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow
Hayes, Keesha A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Qi, Haibo; Cohen, Itai; Archer, Lynden A.
2010-01-01
-4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow
Singh, Satya Pal
2018-05-01
This paper work presents the results of Monte Carlo simulation performed for ultra thin short chained polymer films near melt, under strong confinement. Thin polymer films get ruptured when annealed above their glass transition temperatures. The pattern formations are generally explained on the basis of spinodal mechanism, if the thickness of the film is of the order of few tens of nanometers i.e. film seems to tear apart in strips. The free end segments of the chains are more dynamic and coalescence into one another. This process seems to dominate over the spinodal waves resulting into a different type of dynamics. Polymer chains with 30 monomers are taken. 160, 200 and 240 chains are taken for three different cases of the studies. The three cases correspond to three different thickness of the films with 8, 10 and 12 layers of chains along direction perpendicular to the confining substrates. The bottom surface has affinity to monomers, whereas the upper surface has hard wall interaction with the monomers. Different time micrographs of the films are plotted along with density distributions of the monomers to explore the process.
Skvortsov, A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Fleer, G.J.
2013-01-01
In the melt polymer conformations are nearly ideal according to Flory's ideality hypothesis. Silberberg generalized this statement for chains in the interfacial region. We check the Silberberg argument by analyzing the conformations of a probe chain end-grafted at a solid surface in a sea of
Habuchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Tezuka, Yasuyuki
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of cyclic polymers and a protocol for characterizing their diffusive motion in a melt state at the single molecule level. An electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA-CF) process is used
Sum-frequency spectroscopic studies: I. Surface melting of ice, II. Surface alignment of polymers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Xing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2000-01-01
Surface vibrational spectroscopy via infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) has been established as a useful tool to study the structures of different kinds of surfaces and interfaces. This technique was used to study the (0001) face of hexagonal ice (Ih). SFG spectra in the O-H stretch frequency range were obtained at various sample temperatures. For the vapor(air)/ice interface, the degree of orientational order of the dangling OH bonds at the surface was measured as a function of temperature. Disordering sets in around 200 K and increases dramatically with temperature, which is strong evidence of surface melting of ice. For the other ice interfaces (silica/OTS/ice and silica/ice), a similar temperature dependence of the hydrogen bonded OH stretch peak was observed; the free OH stretch mode, however, appears to be different from that of the vapor (air)/ice interface due to interactions at the interfaces. The technique was also used to measure the orientational distributions of the polymer chains on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface. Results show that the polymer chains at the surface appear to be well aligned by rubbing, and the adsorbed liquid crystal molecules are aligned, in turn, by the surface polymer chains. A strong correlation exists between the orientational distributions of the polymer chains and the liquid crystal molecules, indicating that the surface-induced bulk alignment of a liquid crystal film by rubbed polymer surfaces is via an orientational epitaxy-like mechanism. This thesis also contains studies on some related issues that are crucial to the above applications. An experiment was designed to measure SFG spectra in both reflection and transmission. The result confirms that SFG in reflection is generally dominated by the surface contribution. Another issue is the motional effect due to fast orientational motion of molecules at a surface or interface. Calculations show that the effect is significant if the molecular orientation varies
Li, Shu; Tian, Yiwei; Jones, David S; Andrews, Gavin P
2016-02-01
The aim of this article was to construct a T-ϕ phase diagram for a model drug (FD) and amorphous polymer (Eudragit® EPO) and to use this information to understand the impact of how temperature-composition coordinates influenced the final properties of the extrudate. Defining process boundaries and understanding drug solubility in polymeric carriers is of utmost importance and will help in the successful manufacture of new delivery platforms for BCS class II drugs. Physically mixed felodipine (FD)-Eudragit(®) EPO (EPO) binary mixtures with pre-determined weight fractions were analysed using DSC to measure the endset of melting and glass transition temperature. Extrudates of 10 wt% FD-EPO were processed using temperatures (110°C, 126°C, 140°C and 150°C) selected from the temperature-composition (T-ϕ) phase diagrams and processing screw speed of 20, 100 and 200rpm. Extrudates were characterised using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), optical, polarised light and Raman microscopy. To ensure formation of a binary amorphous drug dispersion (ADD) at a specific composition, HME processing temperatures should at least be equal to, or exceed, the corresponding temperature value on the liquid-solid curve in a F-H T-ϕ phase diagram. If extruded between the spinodal and liquid-solid curve, the lack of thermodynamic forces to attain complete drug amorphisation may be compensated for through the use of an increased screw speed. Constructing F-H T-ϕ phase diagrams are valuable not only in the understanding drug-polymer miscibility behaviour but also in rationalising the selection of important processing parameters for HME to ensure miscibility of drug and polymer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ch. Cherif
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A stable and reproducible bi-component melt spinning process on an industrial scale incorporating Phase Change Material (PCM into textile fibres has been successfully developed and carried out using a melt spinning machine. The key factor for a successful bi-component melt spinning process is that a deep insight into the thermal and rheological behaviour of PCM using Difference Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, and an oscillatory rheological investigation. PCM is very sensitive to the temperature and residence time of the melt spinning process. It is found that the optimal process temperature of PCM is 210 °C. The textile-physical properties and the morphology of the melt spun and further drawn bi-component core and sheath fibres (bico fibres were investigated and interpreted. The heat capacities of PCM incorporated in bico fibres were also determined by means of DSC. The melt spun bico fibres integrating PCM provide a high latent heat of up to 22 J/g, which is three times higher than that of state-of-the-art fibres, which were also obtained using the melt spinning process. Therefore, they have the potential to be used as smart polymer fibres for textile and other technical applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Jeongha; Kim, Jinseong; Baig, Chunggi, E-mail: cbaig@unist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-07-15
We present detailed results for the structural and rheological properties of unknotted and unconcatenated ring polyethylene (PE) melts under shear and elongation flows via direct atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Short (C{sub 78}H{sub 156}) and long (C{sub 400}H{sub 800}) ring PE melts were subjected to planar Couette flow (PCF) and planar elongational flow (PEF) across a wide range of strain rates from linear to highly nonlinear flow regimes. The results are analyzed in detail through a direct comparison with those of the corresponding linear polymers. We found that, in comparison to their linear analogs, ring melts possess rather compact chain structures at or near the equilibrium state and exhibit a considerably lesser degree of structural deformation with respect to the applied flow strength under both PCF and PEF. The large structural resistance of ring polymers against an external flow field is attributed to the intrinsic closed-loop configuration of the ring and the topological constraint of nonconcatenation between ring chains in the melt. As a result, there appears to be a substantial discrepancy between ring and linear systems in terms of their structural and rheological properties such as chain orientation, the distribution of chain dimensions, viscosity, flow birefringence, hydrostatic pressure, the pair correlation function, and potential interaction energies. The findings and conclusions drawn in this work would be a useful guide in future exploration of the characteristic dynamical and relaxation mechanisms of ring polymers in bulk or confined systems under flowing conditions.
Relaxation of entangled model H-shaped polymers a SANS investigation
Heinrich, M; Richter, D; Straube, E; Wiedenmann, A
2002-01-01
This study is related to the understanding of rheology of long-chain branched polymers. A model compound for long-chain branching (H-shaped architecture) was investigated in elongational flow as a function of time after a step strain to lambda=2. The experiments were performed in a strain rig with temperature and strain-rate control. The structure factor was measured after specific relaxation times intimately connected to the microscopic hierarchy of the polymer structure. The correlation hole effect and the quenched disorder in the scattering were described in a random phase approximation approach. This approach, already used for permanent rubber-elastic networks, has been modified to permit the observation of strain locally along the faster-relaxing arms. The data roughly follow the time scale of linear-shear rheology from which shift factors were derived. They confirm that bridge and arm relaxations can be treated in a decoupled, hierarchical way in time, although details of the analysis remain unsolved. (...
Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force
Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.
2013-04-01
Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.
Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in polymer nanocomposites.
Kalathi, Jagannathan T; Kumar, Sanat K; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S
2015-05-28
Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. We examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in the polymer melt, as in the case of a polymer-solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, the effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Thus, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect.
Tian, Yiwei; Jones, David S; Donnelly, Conor; Brannigan, Timothy; Li, Shu; Andrews, Gavin P
2018-04-02
Current experimental methodologies used to determine the thermodynamic solubility of an API within a polymer typically involves establishing the dissolution/melting end point of the crystalline API within a physical mixture or through the use of the glass transition temperature measurement of a demixed amorphous solid dispersion. The measurable "equilibrium" points for solubility are normally well above the glass transition temperature of the system, meaning extrapolation is required to predict the drug solubility at pharmaceutically relevant temperatures. In this manuscript, we argue that the presence of highly viscous polymers in these systems results in experimental data that exhibits an under or overestimated value relative to the true thermodynamic solubility. In previous work, we demonstrated the effects of experimental conditions and their impact on measured and predicted thermodynamic solubility points. In light of current understanding, we have developed a new method to limit error associated with viscosity effects for application in small-scale hot-melt extrusion (HME). In this study, HME was used to generate an intermediate (multiphase) system containing crystalline drug, amorphous drug/polymer-rich regions as well as drug that was molecularly dispersed in polymer. An extended annealing method was used together with high-speed differential scanning calorimetry to accurately determine the upper and lower boundaries of the thermodynamic solubility of a model drug-polymer system (felodipine and Soluplus). Compared to our previously published data, the current results confirmed our hypothesis that the prediction of the liquid-solid curve using dynamic determination of dissolution/melting end point of the crystalline API physical mixture presents an underestimation relative to the thermodynamic solubility point. With this proposed method, we were able to experimentally measure the upper and lower boundaries of the liquid-solid curve for the model system. The
Habuchi, Satoshi
2016-09-26
We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of cyclic polymers and a protocol for characterizing their diffusive motion in a melt state at the single molecule level. An electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA-CF) process is used for the synthesis of the cyclic poly(tetrahydrofuran) (poly(THF)). The diffusive motion of individual cyclic polymer chains in a melt state is visualized using single molecule fluorescence imaging by incorporating a fluorophore unit in the cyclic chains. The diffusive motion of the chains is quantitatively characterized by means of a combination of mean-squared displacement (MSD) analysis and a cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis. The cyclic polymer exhibits multiple-mode diffusion which is distinct from its linear counterpart. The results demonstrate that the diffusional heterogeneity of polymers that is often hidden behind ensemble averaging can be revealed by the efficient synthesis of the cyclic polymers using the ESA-CF process and the quantitative analysis of the diffusive motion at the single molecule level using the MSD and CDF analyses.
Thermodynamic scaling of dynamics in polymer melts: predictions from the generalized entropy theory.
Xu, Wen-Sheng; Freed, Karl F
2013-06-21
Many glass-forming fluids exhibit a remarkable thermodynamic scaling in which dynamic properties, such as the viscosity, the relaxation time, and the diffusion constant, can be described under different thermodynamic conditions in terms of a unique scaling function of the ratio ρ(γ)∕T, where ρ is the density, T is the temperature, and γ is a material dependent constant. Interest in the scaling is also heightened because the exponent γ enters prominently into considerations of the relative contributions to the dynamics from pressure effects (e.g., activation barriers) vs. volume effects (e.g., free volume). Although this scaling is clearly of great practical use, a molecular understanding of the scaling remains elusive. Providing this molecular understanding would greatly enhance the utility of the empirically observed scaling in assisting the rational design of materials by describing how controllable molecular factors, such as monomer structures, interactions, flexibility, etc., influence the scaling exponent γ and, hence, the dynamics. Given the successes of the generalized entropy theory in elucidating the influence of molecular details on the universal properties of glass-forming polymers, this theory is extended here to investigate the thermodynamic scaling in polymer melts. The predictions of theory are in accord with the appearance of thermodynamic scaling for pressures not in excess of ~50 MPa. (The failure at higher pressures arises due to inherent limitations of a lattice model.) In line with arguments relating the magnitude of γ to the steepness of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential, the abrupt, square-well nature of the lattice model interactions lead, as expected, to much larger values of the scaling exponent. Nevertheless, the theory is employed to study how individual molecular parameters affect the scaling exponent in order to extract a molecular understanding of the information content contained in the exponent. The chain
Effective transformation of PCDTBT nanorods into nanotubes by polymer melts wetting approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fakhra Aziz
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In the present study, p-type conducting polymer of poly [N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole] (PCDTBT has been explored for nanostructures. A novel approach has been adopted to transform nanorods into nanotubes by altering template-wetting methods. PCDTBT nanorods are fabricated by infiltrating porous alumina template with various solution concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml. Upon thermal annealing PCDTBT beyond its melting point, the nanorods are transformed into nanotubes. The morphological and optical investigations reveal that the nanorods prepared with a concentration of 10 mg/ml are longer, denser, well-arranged and red shifted as compared to other nanorods. The PCDTBT nanotubes of the same concentration prepared at 300 °C are found the best among all other nanotubes with improved length, density and alignment as compared to their nanorod counterparts. Furthermore, the optical spectra of the nanotubes demonstrate broad spectral region, augmented absorption intensity and significant red-shift. The changes observed in Raman shift indicate improvement in molecular arrangement of the nanotubes. Optimization of the solution concentration and annealing temperature leads to improvement of PCDTBT nanostructures. PCDTBT nanotubes, with better molecular arrangement and broad optical spectrum, can be exploited in the state-of-the-art photovoltaic devices.
Grzywacz, Piotr; Qin, Jian; Morse, David C
2007-12-01
Attempts to use coarse-grained molecular theories to calculate corrections to the random-phase approximation (RPA) for correlations in polymer mixtures have been plagued by an unwanted sensitivity to the value of an arbitrary cutoff length, i.e., by an ultraviolet (UV) divergence. We analyze the UV divergence of the inverse structure factor S(-1)(k) predicted by a "one-loop" approximation similar to that used in several previous studies. We consider both miscible homopolymer blends and disordered diblock copolymer melts. We show, in both cases, that all UV divergent contributions can be absorbed into a renormalization of the values of the phenomenological parameters of a generalized self-consistent field theory (SCFT). This observation allows the construction of an UV convergent theory of corrections to SCFT phenomenology. The UV-divergent one-loop contribution to S(-1)(k) is shown to be the sum of (i) a k -independent contribution that arises from a renormalization of the effective chi parameter, (ii) a k-dependent contribution that arises from a renormalization of monomer statistical segment lengths, (iii) a contribution proportional to k(2) that arises from a square-gradient contribution to the one-loop fluctuation free energy, and (iv) a k-dependent contribution that is inversely proportional to the degree of polymerization, which arises from local perturbations in fluid structure near chain ends and near junctions between blocks in block copolymers.
Effect of polymer melt wall slip on the flow balance of profile extrusion dies
Carneiro, Olga S.; Ferrás, Luís L.; Pinho, Fernando T.; Nóbrega, João M.
2013-04-01
This work describes the implementation of the wall slip boundary condition in an in-house developed 3D numerical code based on the Finite Volume Method. For this purpose, several phenomenological models relating the velocity and the shear stress at the wall were implemented. This new feature is verified using a simple case study, by comparing the numerical results with those obtained through the corresponding analytical solution. Then, the potentialities of the new code are illustrated performing flow simulations of a polymer melt in a complex flow channel. The results obtained show that the slip at the wall influences the flow distribution at the die flow channel outlet. Therefore, and to assess the relevance of slippage in the optimal die geometry, the automatic optimization of a die flow channel, required for the production of a specific thermoplastic profile, is performed using both the no-slip and slip boundary conditions, together with two alternative optimization strategies. It is shown that slip favors the flow balance of the dies and also other issues of its performance.
Rheological Model for Describing Viscometric Flows of Melts of Branched Polymers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Merzlikina, D.A.; Pyshnograi, G.; Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr
2016-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 3 (2016), s. 652-659 ISSN 1062-0125 Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 15-4-04003 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : rheology * polymer melts * mesoscopic approach * rheological equation of state * viscometric fl ows Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/8/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10891-016-1423-7.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10891-016-1423-7&token2=exp=1481193683~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F8%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10891-016-1423-7.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs10891-016-1423-7*~hmac=cb34c324456883ecc6fc41d3feb0677836d7c454728829b5e085aac5ce7de417
Skvortsov, A M; Leermakers, F A M; Fleer, G J
2013-08-07
In the melt polymer conformations are nearly ideal according to Flory's ideality hypothesis. Silberberg generalized this statement for chains in the interfacial region. We check the Silberberg argument by analyzing the conformations of a probe chain end-grafted at a solid surface in a sea of floating free chains of concentration φ by the self-consistent field (SCF) method. Apart from the grafting, probe chain and floating chains are identical. Most of the results were obtained for a standard SCF model with freely jointed chains on a six-choice lattice, where immediate step reversals are allowed. A few data were generated for a five-choice lattice, where such step reversals are forbidden. These coarse-grained models describe the equilibrium properties of flexible atactic polymer chains at the scale of the segment length. The concentration was varied over the whole range from φ = 0 (single grafted chain) to φ = 1 (probe chain in the melt). The number of contacts with the surface, average height of the free end and its dispersion, average loop and train length, tail size distribution, end-point and overall segment distributions were calculated for a grafted probe chain as a function of φ, for several chain lengths and substrate∕polymer interactions, which were varied from strong repulsion to strong adsorption. The computations show that the conformations of the probe chain in the melt do not depend on substrate∕polymer interactions and are very similar to the conformations of a single end-grafted chain under critical conditions, and can thus be described analytically. When the substrate∕polymer interaction is fixed at the value corresponding to critical conditions, all equilibrium properties of a probe chain are independent of φ, over the whole range from a dilute solution to the melt. We believe that the conformations of all flexible chains in the surface region of the melt are close to those of an appropriate single chain in critical conditions, provided
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lozovoi, A.; Mattea, C.; Stapf, S.; Herrmann, A.; Rössler, E. A.; Fatkullin, N.
2016-01-01
A simple and fast method for the investigation of segmental diffusion in high molar mass polymer melts is presented. The method is based on a special function, called proton dipolar-correlation build-up function, which is constructed from Hahn Echo signals measured at times t and t/2. The initial rise of this function contains additive contributions from both inter- and intramolecular magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. The intermolecular contribution depends on the relative mean squared displacements (MSDs) of polymer segments from different macromolecules, while the intramolecular part reflects segmental reorientations. Separation of both contributions via isotope dilution provides access to segmental displacements in polymer melts at millisecond range, which is hardly accessible by other methods. The feasibility of the method is illustrated by investigating protonated and deuterated polybutadiene melts with molecular mass 196 000 g/mol at different temperatures. The observed exponent of the power law of the segmental MSD is close to 0.32 ± 0.03 at times when the root MSD is in between 45 Å and 75 Å, and the intermolecular proton dipole-dipole contribution to the total proton Hahn Echo NMR signal is larger than 50% and increases with time.
Transient extensional viscosity of polymer melts in the filament stretching rheometer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Bach, Anders; Bastian, Heike
2002-01-01
In many polymer processing operations, the polymer molecules becomes highly elongated and the extensional viscosity becomes an inportant parameter in estimating properties during and after the process.......In many polymer processing operations, the polymer molecules becomes highly elongated and the extensional viscosity becomes an inportant parameter in estimating properties during and after the process....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman Eid; Mamlook, Rustom
2008-01-01
In this study, the factors (i.e. weight fractions, crystallization temperatures and interaction such as hydrogen bonding) affecting melting, crystallinity, interaction parameters and miscibility of polymer blends (PB) have been studied by implementation of a fuzzy set. The interaction parameters were calculated using the Nishi-Wang equation, which is based on the Flory-Huggins theory. The values of interaction parameters χ 12 were negative for all blend compositions suggesting that χ 12 depends on the volume fraction (Φ) of the polymer. The various characteristics for the case study was synthesized and converted into relative weights w.r.t fuzzy set method. The fuzzy set analysis for the case study reveal increase as confirmed by the experimental data. The application of the fuzzy set methodology offers reasonable prediction and assessment for detecting yield in polymer blends
Jia, Ding
2017-12-01
The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.
Mitra, Amitava; Li, Li; Marsac, Patrick; Marks, Brian; Liu, Zhen; Brown, Chad
2016-05-30
Amorphous solid dispersion formulations have been widely used to enhance bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In these formulations, polymer is included to physically stabilize the amorphous drug by dispersing it in the polymeric carrier and thus forming a solid solution. The polymer can also maintain supersaturation and promote speciation during dissolution, thus enabling better absorption as compared to crystalline drug substance. In this paper, we report the use of hot melt extrusion (HME) to develop amorphous formulations of a poorly soluble compound (FaSSIF solubility=1μg/mL). The poor solubility of the compound and high dose (300mg) necessitated the use of amorphous formulation to achieve adequate bioperformance. The effect of using three different polymers (HPMCAS-HF, HPMCAS-LF and copovidone), on the dissolution, physical stability, and bioperformance of the formulations was demonstrated. In this particular case, HPMCAS-HF containing HME provided the highest bioavailability and also had better physical stability as compared to extrudates using HPMCAS-LF and copovidone. The data demonstrated that the polymer type can have significant impact on the formulation bioperformance and physical stability. Thus a thorough understanding of the polymer choice is imperative when designing an amorphous solid dispersion formulation, such that the formulation provides robust bioperformance and has adequate shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: otfried.guehne@uibk.ac.at; Toth, Geza [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque-Basque Foundation for Science, Alameda Urquijo 36, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain); ICFO-Institute of Photonic Sciences, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)
2009-04-15
How can one prove that a given quantum state is entangled? In this paper we review different methods that have been proposed for entanglement detection. We first explain the basic elements of entanglement theory for two or more particles and then entanglement verification procedures such as Bell inequalities, entanglement witnesses, the determination of nonlinear properties of a quantum state via measurements on several copies, and spin squeezing inequalities. An emphasis is given to the theory and application of entanglement witnesses. We also discuss several experiments, where some of the presented methods have been implemented.
Parikh, Tapan; Gupta, Simerdeep Singh; Meena, Anuprabha K; Vitez, Imre; Mahajan, Nidhi; Serajuddin, Abu T M
2015-07-01
Determination of drug-polymer miscibility is critical for successful development of solid dispersions. This report details a practical method to predict miscibility and physical stability of drug with various polymers in solid dispersion and, especially, in melt extrudates by applying a film-casting technique. Mixtures of itraconazole (ITZ) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP), Kollidon(®) VA 64, Eudragit(®) E PO, and Soluplus(®) were film-casted, exposed to 40°C/75% RH for 1 month and then analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry, and polarized light microscopy (PLM). ITZ had the highest miscibility with HPMCP, being miscible at drug to polymer ratio of 6:4 (w/w). There was a downward trend of lower miscibility with Soluplus(®) (miscible at 3:7, w/w, and a few microcrystals present at 4:6, w/w), Kollidon(®) VA 64 (2:8, w/w) and Eudragit(®) E PO (casting and hot-melt extrusion (HME) using a twin screw extruder. For ITZ-Soluplus(®) mixtures, HME at 4:6 (w/w) resulted in a single phase, whereas drug crystallization was observed at higher drug load. HME of ITZ-Kollidon(®) VA 64 mixtures also correlated well with the miscibility predicted by film casting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Delaney, Kevin D.; Kennedy, Jonathan David; Bissacco, Giuliano
2012-01-01
Understanding interfacial characteristics between a polymer and its associated tool surface is critical to successful optimization of processes such as injection moulding, embossing and extrusion used to produce polymer parts. One of the factors characterizing the strength of the polymer-tool int......Understanding interfacial characteristics between a polymer and its associated tool surface is critical to successful optimization of processes such as injection moulding, embossing and extrusion used to produce polymer parts. One of the factors characterizing the strength of the polymer...... the results of an experimental study aimed at determining the effect of selected tool surface characteristics on the work of adhesion, by measuring contact angles of polymer droplets on the surfaces. The experimental set-up, selection of test parameters and main challenges faced to date are described...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Mortensen, Kell; Bach, Anders
2012-01-01
We use small-angle neutron scattering to measure the molecular stretching in polystyrene melts undergoing steady elongational flow at large stretch rates. The radius of gyration of the central segment of a partly deuterated polystyrene molecule is, in the stretching direction, increasing...... exhibited by the linear polystyrene melt....
Nakamura, Issei
2014-05-29
We studied the thermodynamic properties of ion solvation in polymer blends and block copolymer melts and developed a dipolar self-consistent field theory for polymer mixtures. Our theory accounts for the chain connectivity of polymerized monomers, the compressibility of the liquid mixtures under electrostriction, the permanent and induced dipole moments of monomers, and the resultant dielectric contrast among species. In our coarse-grained model, dipoles are attached to the monomers and allowed to rotate freely in response to electrostatic fields. We demonstrate that a strong electrostatic field near an ion reorganizes dipolar monomers, resulting in nonmonotonic changes in the volume fraction profile and the dielectric function of the polymers with respect to those of simple liquid mixtures. For the parameter sets used, the spatial variations near an ion can be in the range of 1 nm or larger, producing significant differences in the solvation energy among simple liquid mixtures, polymer blends, and block copolymers. The solvation energy of an ion depends substantially on the chain length in block copolymers; thus, our theory predicts the preferential solvation of ions arising from differences in chain length.
Mohammed, Noorullah Naqvi; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Singh, Abhilasha; Deng, Weibin; Murthy, Narasimha S; Pinto, Elanor; Tewari, Divya; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A
2012-12-01
The objective of this research work was to evaluate Klucel™ hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) EF and ELF polymers, for solubility enhancement as well as to address some of the disadvantages associated with solid dispersions. Ketoprofen (KPR), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug with poor solubility, was utilized as a model compound. Preliminary thermal studies were performed to confirm formation of a solid solution/dispersion of KPR in HPC matrix and also to establish processing conditions for hot-melt extrusion. Extrudates pelletized and filled into capsules exhibited a carrier-dependent release with ELF polymer exhibiting a faster release. Tablets compressed from milled extrudates exhibited rapid release owing to the increased surface area of the milled extrudate. Addition of mannitol (MNT) further enhanced the release by forming micro-pores and increasing the porosity of the extrudates. An optimized tablet formulation constituting KPR, MNT, and ELF in a 1:1:1 ratio exhibited 90% release in 15 min similar to a commercial capsule formulation. HPC polymers are non-ionic hydrophilic polymers that undergo polymer-chain-length-dependent solubilization and can be used to enhance solubility or dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Dissolution/release rate could be tailored for rapid-release applications by selecting a suitable HPC polymer and altering the final dosage form. The release obtained from pellets was carrier-dependent and not drug-dependent, and hence, such a system can be effectively utilized to address solubility or precipitation issues with poorly soluble drugs in the gastrointestinal environment.
Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2011-02-04
We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.
Melocchi, Alice; Parietti, Federico; Maroni, Alessandra; Foppoli, Anastasia; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Zema, Lucia
2016-07-25
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3D printing technique based on the deposition of successive layers of thermoplastic materials following their softening/melting. Such a technique holds huge potential for the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products and is currently under extensive investigation. Challenges in this field are mainly related to the paucity of adequate filaments composed of pharmaceutical grade materials, which are needed for feeding the FDM equipment. Accordingly, a number of polymers of common use in pharmaceutical formulation were evaluated as starting materials for fabrication via hot melt extrusion of filaments suitable for FDM processes. By using a twin-screw extruder, filaments based on insoluble (ethylcellulose, Eudragit(®) RL), promptly soluble (polyethylene oxide, Kollicoat(®) IR), enteric soluble (Eudragit(®) L, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate) and swellable/erodible (hydrophilic cellulose derivatives, polyvinyl alcohol, Soluplus(®)) polymers were successfully produced, and the possibility of employing them for printing 600μm thick disks was demonstrated. The behavior of disks as barriers when in contact with aqueous fluids was shown consistent with the functional application of the relevant polymeric components. The produced filaments were thus considered potentially suitable for printing capsules and coating layers for immediate or modified release, and, when loaded with active ingredients, any type of dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Entanglement in miscible blends
Watanabe, Hiroshi
2010-03-01
The entanglement length Le of polymer chains (corresponding to the entanglement molecular weight Me) is not an intrinsic material parameter but changes with the interaction with surrounding chains. For miscible blends of cis-polyisoprene (PI) and poly(tert-butyl styrene) (PtBS), changes of Le on blending was examined. It turned out that the Le averaged over the number fractions of the Kuhn segments of the components (PI and PtBS) satisfactorily describes the viscoelastic behavior of pseudo-monodisperse blends in which the terminal relaxation time is the same for PI and PtBS.
Morse, David C; Chung, Jun Kyung
2009-06-14
The self-consistent field (SCF) approach to the thermodynamics of dense polymer liquids is based on the idea that short-range correlations in a polymer liquid are almost independent of how monomers are connected into polymers over larger scales. Some limits of this idea are explored in the context of a perturbation theory for symmetric polymer blends. We consider mixtures of two structurally identical polymers, A and B, in which the AB monomer pair interaction differs slightly from the AA and BB interactions by an amount proportional to a parameter alpha. An expansion of the free energy to first order in alpha yields an excess free energy of mixing per monomer of the form alphaz(N)phi(A)phi(B) in both lattice and continuum models, where z(N) is a measure of the number of intermolecular near neighbors per monomer in a one-component (alpha=0) reference liquid with chains of length N. The quantity z(N) decreases slightly with increasing N because the concentration of intramolecular near neighbors is slightly higher for longer chains, creating a slightly deeper intermolecular correlation hole. We predict that z(N)=z(infinity)[1+betaN(-1/2)], where N is an invariant degree of polymerization and beta=(6/pi)(3/2) is a universal coefficient. This and related predictions about the slight N dependence of local correlations are confirmed by comparison to simulations of a continuum bead-spring model and to published lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a renormalized one-loop theory for blends correctly describes this N dependence of local liquid structure. We also propose a way to estimate the effective interaction parameter appropriate for comparisons of simulation data to SCF theory and to coarse-grained theories of corrections to SCF theory, which is based on an extrapolation of perturbation theory to the limit N-->infinity.
A Phase of Liposomes with Entangled Tubular Vesicles
Chiruvolu, Shivkumar; Warriner, Heidi E.; Naranjo, Edward; Idziak, Stefan H. J.; Radler, Joachim O.; Plano, Robert J.; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.; Safinya, Cyrus R.
1994-11-01
An equilibrium phase belonging to the family of bilayer liposomes in ternary mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), water, and geraniol (a biological alcohol derived from oil-soluble vitamins that acts as a cosurfactant) has been identified. Electron and optical microscopy reveal the phase, labeled Ltv, to be composed of highly entangled tubular vesicles. In situ x-ray diffraction confirms that the tubule walls are multilamellar with the lipids in the chain-melted state. Macroscopic observations show that the Ltv phase coexists with the well-known L_4 phase of spherical vesicles and a bulk L_α phase. However, the defining characteristic of the Ltv phase is the Weissenberg rod climbing effect under shear, which results from its polymer-like entangled microstructure.
Entangled entanglement: A construction procedure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uchida, Gabriele, E-mail: Gabriele.Uchida@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Computer Science, Währinger Strasse 29, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bertlmann, Reinhold A., E-mail: Reinhold.Bertlmann@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiesmayr, Beatrix C., E-mail: Beatrix.Hiesmayr@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)
2015-10-30
The familiar Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states can be rewritten by entangling the Bell states for two qubits with a third qubit state, which is dubbed entangled entanglement. We show that in a constructive way we obtain all eight independent GHZ states that form the simplex of entangled entanglement, the magic simplex. The construction procedure allows a generalization to higher dimensions both, in the degrees of freedom (considering qudits) as well as in the number of particles (considering n-partite states). Such bases of GHZ-type states exhibit a cyclic geometry, a Merry Go Round, that is relevant for experimental and quantum information theoretic applications.
A review on melt-state viscoelastic properties of polymer nanocomposites
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Hyoung, JC
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The mixing of polymer matrices with nanoparticles to form composite materials has been an area of great research interest. The mechanical and rheological properties of such composite materials are directly related to the properties of the matrix...
Hagita, Katsumi; Murashima, Takahiro; Takano, Hiroshi; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro
2017-12-01
We proposed a thinning approximation (TA) for estimation of the two-dimensional (2D) wide-angle scattering patterns from Kremer-Grest polymer melts under shear. In the TA, extra particles are inserted at the middle of bonds for fine-graining of the coarse-grained polymers. For the case without the TA, spots corresponding to the orientation of bonds at a high shear rate are difficult to observe because the bond length of successive particles is comparable to the distance between neighboring particles. With the insertion of the extra particles, a ring pattern originating from the neighboring particles can be moved to a wide-angle region. Thus, we can observe the spots at high shear rates. We also examined the relationship between 2D scattering patterns and the Weissenberg number, which is defined as the product of the shear rate and the longest relaxation time. It is confirmed that the relationship for coarse-grained polymers with the TA is consistent with that of the all-atomistic model of polyethylene.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitsuru Tanahashi
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to fabricate various types of inorganic nanoparticle-filled polymers (filler/polymer nanocomposites by a mechanical or chemical approach. However, these approaches require modification of the nanofiller surfaces and/or complicated polymerization reactions, making them unsuitable for industrial-scale production of the nanocomposites. The author and coworkers have proposed a simple melt-compounding method for the fabrication of silica/polymer nanocomposites, wherein silica nanoparticles without surface modification were dispersed through the breakdown of loose agglomerates of colloidal nano-silica spheres in a kneaded polymer melt. This review aims to discuss experimental techniques of the proposed method and its advantages over other developed methods.
Tanahashi, Mitsuru
2010-01-01
Many attempts have been made to fabricate various types of inorganic nanoparticle-filled polymers (filler/polymer nanocomposites) by a mechanical or chemical approach. However, these approaches require modification of the nanofiller surfaces and/or complicated polymerization reactions, making them unsuitable for industrial-scale production of the nanocomposites. The author and coworkers have proposed a simple melt-compounding method for the fabrication of silica/polymer nanocomposites, wherein silica nanoparticles without surface modification were dispersed through the breakdown of loose agglomerates of colloidal nano-silica spheres in a kneaded polymer melt. This review aims to discuss experimental techniques of the proposed method and its advantages over other developed methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eggen, Svein; Kjær, Erik Michael
2001-01-01
The bubble inflation technique has been used for some time as a rheological characterization method for polymeric materials. Recently, this technique has been modified to the inflation of a polymeric sheet into a circular cylinder. In this work, the experimental inflation of sheets (or membranes......) of polymeric melts into a circular cylinder is modelled numerically to obtain the general extensional properties of the material....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilze ELKSNITE
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Modification of properties of conventional thermoplastics with thermotropic liquid crystal polymers, from one hand, allows decrease their viscosities, substantially facilitating processing conditions, and, from another hand, allows increase their exploitation properties. Orientation of the labile structure of liquid crystal polymer in extrusion or injection moulding causes specific reinforcement (so-called self-reinforcement to occur in the blends containing liquid crystal polymer. Up to now the effect of self-reinforcement is mostly investigated in the blends, containing considerable amount of liquid crystal polymer. In this research the effect of minor amounts of liquid crystalline co-polyester modifier on the properties of polyethylene is investigated. Various compositions of laboratory synthesized hydroxybenzoic acid /polyethylene terephtalate copolymer containing polyethylene composites have been manufactured by thermoplastic blending. It has been observed that 1 modulus of elasticity, yield strength and ultimate strength increase with raising the content of liquid crystalline modifier; 2 void content in the investigated polyethylene/liquid crystal copolymer composites is not greater that 1 %; 3 addition of liquid crystalline co-polyester modifier improves arrangement of PE crystalline phase.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.483
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zubov, Alexandr; Sin, Gürkan
2018-01-01
Abstract Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a fully biodegradable bioplastic with promising market potential. The paper deals with systematic development and analysis of the modeling framework allowing direct mapping between PLLA production process conditions and rheological properties of the polymer ...
Competition of the connectivity with the local and the global order in polymer melts and crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernini, S.; Puosi, F.; Barucco, M.; Leporini, D., E-mail: dino.leporini@df.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi,” Università di Pisa, Largo B.Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)
2013-11-14
The competition between the connectivity and the local or global order in model fully flexible chain molecules is investigated by molecular-dynamics simulations. States with both missing (melts) and high (crystal) global order are considered. Local order is characterized within the first coordination shell (FCS) of a tagged monomer and found to be lower than in atomic systems in both melt and crystal. The role played by the bonds linking the tagged monomer to FCS monomers (radial bonds), and the bonds linking two FCS monomers (shell bonds) is investigated. The detailed analysis in terms of Steinhardt's orientation order parameters Q{sub l} (l = 2 − 10) reveals that increasing the number of shell bonds decreases the FCS order in both melt and crystal. Differently, the FCS arrangements organize the radial bonds. Even if the molecular chains are fully flexible, the distribution of the angle formed by adjacent radial bonds exhibits sharp contributions at the characteristic angles θ ≈ 70°, 122°, 180°. The fractions of adjacent radial bonds with θ ≈ 122°, 180° are enhanced by the global order of the crystal, whereas the fraction with 70° ≲ θ ≲ 110° is nearly unaffected by the crystallization. Kink defects, i.e., large lateral displacements of the chains, are evidenced in the crystalline state.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ritesh Fule
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Invasive antifungal infections are reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunogenic patients worldwide. Posaconazole is a most promising antifungal agent against all types of invasive infections with high % of cure rate. The marketed suspension formulation has low bioavailability and is needed to be taken with food. In this paper, PCZ hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion (SD with immediate release and improved bioavailability was prepared using Soluplus (Sol as primary carrier for solubilization. Surfactants such as PEG 400, Lutrol F27, Lutrol F68, and TPGS are also used in combination with Soluplus to improve the physicochemical performance of the formulation when it comes in contact with GI (gastrointestinal fluid. Drug-polymer miscibility of SD was investigated using advanced techniques. In the in vivo study, the AUC(0–72 and Cmax of PCZ/Soluplus were 11.5 and 11.74 time higher than those of pure PCZ. The formulation of the extrudate SD had an AUC(0–72 and Cmax higher than those with the commercial capsule (Noxafil. Molecular dynamic (MD simulation studies were carried out using in silico molecular modelling to understand the drug-polymer intermolecular behaviour. The results of this research ensure enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of PCZ prepared by HME compared with the PCZ suspension.
Flow of Polymer Melts in Plane- and Axi-symmetric Converging Dies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauridsen, Carsten Linding; Kjær, Erik Michael; Haudrum, Jan
1997-01-01
The extensional flow has considerable influence on the pressure loss in converging flows, which are present in both extrusion and injection moulding. Both plane- and axi-symmetric converging flows have been studied with LDPE, HDPE and PS. The transient extensional viscosities are determined in al...... for the LDPE and the PS melts. Further more, the pressure losses are characterised with the Deborah number in which the characteristic time of the material is shear rate dependent and the characteristic rime of the now is Hencky strain rate dependent....
Flow of Polymer Melts in Plane- and Axi-Symmetric Converging Dies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauridsen, Carsten Linding; Kjær, Erik Michael; Haudrum, Jan
1998-01-01
The extensional flow has considerable influence on the pressure loss in converging flows, which are present in both extrusion and injection moulding. Both plane- and axi-symmetric converging flows have been studied with LDPE, HDPE and PS. The transient extensional viscosities are determined in al...... are comparable for the LDPE and the PS melts. Furthermore, the pressure losses are characterized with the Deborah number in which the characteristic time of the material is shear rate dependent and the characteristic time of the flow is Hencky strain rate dependent....
Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas
2017-01-01
Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying......, and stability. Results were compared to those of spray-dried formulations with the same compositions and to spray-dried indomethacin-copovidone. Overall, stable co-amorphous systems could be prepared by extrusion without or with copovidone, which exhibited comparable molecular interaction properties...... to the respective spray-dried products, while phase separation was detected by differential scanning calorimetry in several cases. The formulations containing indomethacin in combination with arginine and copovidone showed enhanced dissolution behavior over the formulations with only copovidone or arginine....
String-like collective motion in the α- and β-relaxation of a coarse-grained polymer melt
Pazmiño Betancourt, Beatriz A.; Starr, Francis W.; Douglas, Jack F.
2018-03-01
Relaxation in glass-forming liquids occurs as a multi-stage hierarchical process involving cooperative molecular motion. First, there is a "fast" relaxation process dominated by the inertial motion of the molecules whose amplitude grows upon heating, followed by a longer time α-relaxation process involving both large-scale diffusive molecular motion and momentum diffusion. Our molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained glass-forming polymer melt indicate that the fast, collective motion becomes progressively suppressed upon cooling, necessitating large-scale collective motion by molecular diffusion for the material to relax approaching the glass-transition. In each relaxation regime, the decay of the collective intermediate scattering function occurs through collective particle exchange motions having a similar geometrical form, and quantitative relationships are derived relating the fast "stringlet" collective motion to the larger scale string-like collective motion at longer times, which governs the temperature-dependent activation energies associated with both thermally activated molecular diffusion and momentum diffusion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Wen-Sheng, E-mail: wsxu@uchicago.edu [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Freed, Karl F., E-mail: freed@uchicago.edu [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2016-06-07
Telechelic polymers are chain macromolecules that may self-assemble through the association of their two mono-functional end groups (called “stickers”). A deep understanding of the relation between microscopic molecular details and the macroscopic physical properties of telechelic polymers is important in guiding the rational design of telechelic polymer materials with desired properties. The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for strongly interacting, self-assembling telechelic polymers provides a theoretical tool that enables establishing the connections between important microscopic molecular details of self-assembling polymers and their bulk thermodynamics. The original LCT for self-assembly of telechelic polymers considers a model of fully flexible linear chains [J. Dudowicz and K. F. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064902 (2012)], while our recent work introduces a significant improvement to the LCT by including a description of chain semiflexibility for the bonds within each individual telechelic chain [W.-S. Xu and K. F. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 024901 (2015)], but the physically associative (or called “sticky”) bonds between the ends of the telechelics are left as fully flexible. Motivated by the ubiquitous presence of steric constraints on the association of real telechelic polymers that impart an additional degree of bond stiffness (or rigidity), the present paper further extends the LCT to permit the sticky bonds to be semiflexible but to have a stiffness differing from that within each telechelic chain. An analytical expression for the Helmholtz free energy is provided for this model of linear telechelic polymer melts, and illustrative calculations demonstrate the significant influence of the stiffness of the sticky bonds on the self-assembly and thermodynamics of telechelic polymers. A brief discussion is also provided for the impact of self-assembly on glass-formation by combining the LCT description for this extended model of telechelic polymers with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Wen-Sheng; Freed, Karl F.
2016-01-01
Telechelic polymers are chain macromolecules that may self-assemble through the association of their two mono-functional end groups (called “stickers”). A deep understanding of the relation between microscopic molecular details and the macroscopic physical properties of telechelic polymers is important in guiding the rational design of telechelic polymer materials with desired properties. The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for strongly interacting, self-assembling telechelic polymers provides a theoretical tool that enables establishing the connections between important microscopic molecular details of self-assembling polymers and their bulk thermodynamics. The original LCT for self-assembly of telechelic polymers considers a model of fully flexible linear chains [J. Dudowicz and K. F. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064902 (2012)], while our recent work introduces a significant improvement to the LCT by including a description of chain semiflexibility for the bonds within each individual telechelic chain [W.-S. Xu and K. F. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 024901 (2015)], but the physically associative (or called “sticky”) bonds between the ends of the telechelics are left as fully flexible. Motivated by the ubiquitous presence of steric constraints on the association of real telechelic polymers that impart an additional degree of bond stiffness (or rigidity), the present paper further extends the LCT to permit the sticky bonds to be semiflexible but to have a stiffness differing from that within each telechelic chain. An analytical expression for the Helmholtz free energy is provided for this model of linear telechelic polymer melts, and illustrative calculations demonstrate the significant influence of the stiffness of the sticky bonds on the self-assembly and thermodynamics of telechelic polymers. A brief discussion is also provided for the impact of self-assembly on glass-formation by combining the LCT description for this extended model of telechelic polymers with
Rastogi, Sanjay
2013-03-01
Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) having average molar mass greater than a million g/mol is an engineering polymer. Due to its light-weight, high abrasion resistance and biocompatibility it is used for demanding applications such as body armour, prostheses etc. At present, because of its high melt viscosity to achieve the uniaxial/biaxial properties in the form of fibers/films the polymer is processed via solution route where nearly 95wt% of the solvent is used to process 5wt% of the polymer. In past several attempts have been made to process the polymer without using any solvent. However, compared to the solvent processing route the achieved mechanical properties were rather poor. Here we show that by controlled synthesis it is feasible to obtain UHMWPE that could be processed free of solvent to make uniaxial tapes and biaxial films, having unprecedented mechanical properties, exceeding that of the solution spun fibers. We address some of the fundamental aspects of chemistry, physics, rheology and processing for the development of desired morphological features to achieve the ultimate mechanical properties in tapes and films. The paper will also address the metastable melt state obtained on melting of the disentangled crystals and its implication on rheology in linear and nonlinear viscoelastic region. Solid state NMR studies will be applied to establish disentangled state in solid state to the polymerisation conditions. References: Macromolecules 2011, 44(14), 5558-5568; Nature Materials 2005, 4, 635-641; Phys Rev Lett 2006, 96(21), 218303-218205. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Dutch Polymer Institute.
The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... entanglement between the two atoms changes periodically and undergoes the entanglement sudden death (ESD) and sudden birth at some time. The entanglement properties between the field and the atom insidethe cavity are dependent on the photon number. Most interestingly, the entanglement between the field and ...
Studying entanglement-assisted entanglement transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu Liyi
2004-01-01
In this paper, we study catalysis of entanglement transformations for n-level pure entangled states. We propose an algorithm of finding the required catalystic entanglement. We introduce several examples by way of demonstration. We evaluate the lower and upper bound of the required inequalities for deciding whether there are m-level appropriate catalyst states for entanglement transformations for two n-level pure entangled states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127 (China); College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Bai, Chao [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127 (China); Hu, Huai-Ming, E-mail: ChemHu1@NWU.EDU.CN [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127 (China); Yuan, Fei; Xue, Gang-Lin [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127 (China)
2017-05-15
Eight Zn(II)-based coordination polymers, namely, [Zn{sub 2}L{sub 2}(2,2’-bipy)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (1), [Zn{sub 2}L{sub 2}(phen)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [ZnL(phen)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (3), [Zn{sub 3}L{sub 3}(4,4’-bipy)]{sub n} (4), [Zn{sub 2}L{sub 2}(4,4’-bipy){sub 2}]{sub n} [Zn{sub 2}L{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O (5), [Zn{sub 4}L{sub 4}(bpp){sub 2}]{sub n} (6), [ZnL(bbi){sub 0.5}]{sub n} (7), [ZnL(bpz)]{sub n} (8) (H{sub 2}L=4,4’-([1,2-phenylenebis-(methylene)]bis(oxy))dibenzoic acid, 2,2’-bipy =2,2’-bipyridine, phen =1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4’-bpy=4,4’-bipyridine, bpp =1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane, bbi=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)butane, bpz=3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl-4,4′-bipyrazole), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1–8 display various coordination motifs with different entangled forms and conformations due to the effect of the assistant N-donor ligands. The photoluminescent properties of compounds 1–8 in solid state were studied. Interestingly, 3 exhibits highly efficient luminescent sensing for Cu{sup 2+} cations and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions, as well as detection ability for the different organic solvents and nitro explosives. These results indicated that it could be utilized as a multi-responsive luminescent sensor. Furthermore, compound 3 also shows good chemical resistance to both acidity and alkalinity solutions with pH ranging from 2 to 13. Thus, multi-photofunctionality and fluorescent response to pH have been combined in the 3, which is the first example in the Zn-based hybrid materials. - Graphical abstract: Eight new Zn(II)-based coordination polymers constructed from a flexible V-shaped long bicarboxylic acid and different N-donor ligands have been hydrothermally synthesized through fixing the metal salts and the solvent systems. The photoluminescent properties of complexes 1−8 in solid state were studied. Interestingly, 3 exhibits highly efficient luminescent sensing for Cu{sup 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jun; Bai, Chao; Hu, Huai-Ming; Yuan, Fei; Xue, Gang-Lin
2017-01-01
Eight Zn(II)-based coordination polymers, namely, [Zn 2 L 2 (2,2’-bipy)] n ·nH 2 O (1), [Zn 2 L 2 (phen)] n ·nH 2 O (2), [ZnL(phen)(H 2 O)] n (3), [Zn 3 L 3 (4,4’-bipy)] n (4), [Zn 2 L 2 (4,4’-bipy) 2 ] n [Zn 2 L 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] n ·2nH 2 O (5), [Zn 4 L 4 (bpp) 2 ] n (6), [ZnL(bbi) 0.5 ] n (7), [ZnL(bpz)] n (8) (H 2 L=4,4’-([1,2-phenylenebis-(methylene)]bis(oxy))dibenzoic acid, 2,2’-bipy =2,2’-bipyridine, phen =1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4’-bpy=4,4’-bipyridine, bpp =1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane, bbi=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)butane, bpz=3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl-4,4′-bipyrazole), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1–8 display various coordination motifs with different entangled forms and conformations due to the effect of the assistant N-donor ligands. The photoluminescent properties of compounds 1–8 in solid state were studied. Interestingly, 3 exhibits highly efficient luminescent sensing for Cu 2+ cations and CrO 4 2- anions, as well as detection ability for the different organic solvents and nitro explosives. These results indicated that it could be utilized as a multi-responsive luminescent sensor. Furthermore, compound 3 also shows good chemical resistance to both acidity and alkalinity solutions with pH ranging from 2 to 13. Thus, multi-photofunctionality and fluorescent response to pH have been combined in the 3, which is the first example in the Zn-based hybrid materials. - Graphical abstract: Eight new Zn(II)-based coordination polymers constructed from a flexible V-shaped long bicarboxylic acid and different N-donor ligands have been hydrothermally synthesized through fixing the metal salts and the solvent systems. The photoluminescent properties of complexes 1−8 in solid state were studied. Interestingly, 3 exhibits highly efficient luminescent sensing for Cu 2+ cations and CrO 4 2- anions, as well as detection ability for the different organic solvents and nitro explosives, in which indicates it could be
Feng, Wei; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenke
2017-02-28
Understanding the relationship between polymer chain conformation as well as the chain composition within the single crystal and the mechanical properties of the corresponding single polymer chain will facilitate the rational design of high performance polymer materials. Here three model systems of polymer single crystals, namely poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), polyethylene (PE), and nylon-66 (PA66) have been chosen to study the effects of chain conformation, helical (PEO) versus planar zigzag conformation (PE, PA66), and chain composition (PE versus PA66) on the mechanical properties of a single polymer chain. To do that, steered molecular dynamics simulations were performed on those polymer single crystals by pulling individual polymer chains out of the crystals. Our results show that the patterns of force-extension curve as well as the chain moving mode are closely related to the conformation of the polymer chain in the single crystal. In addition, hydrogen bonds can enhance greatly the force required to stretch the polymer chain out of the single crystal. The dynamic breaking and reformation of multivalent hydrogen bonds have been observed for the first time in PA66 at the single molecule level.
Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics
Kim, Daniel; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A.
2012-01-01
Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has
The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Entanglement is an important resource for quantum information processing. [1–3] and also one of the most important nonclassical properties in quantum theory. ... consideration, which consists of two entangled two-level atoms A and B with ...
Charcterization of multipartite entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chong, Bo
2006-01-01
In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle τ (T) to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle τ (T) from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)
Charcterization of multipartite entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chong, Bo
2006-06-23
In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)
Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio
2013-05-01
Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grest, Gary S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-09-01
Coupled length and time scales determine the dynamic behavior of polymers and polymer nanocomposites and underlie their unique properties. To resolve the properties over large time and length scales it is imperative to develop coarse grained models which retain the atomistic specificity. Here we probe the degree of coarse graining required to simultaneously retain significant atomistic details a nd access large length and time scales. The degree of coarse graining in turn sets the minimum length scale instrumental in defining polymer properties and dynamics. Using polyethylene as a model system, we probe how the coarse - graining scale affects the measured dynamics with different number methylene group s per coarse - grained beads. Using these models we simulate polyethylene melts for times over 500 ms to study the viscoelastic properties of well - entangled polymer melts and large nanoparticle assembly as the nanoparticles are driven close enough to form nanostructures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allahverdyan, A.E.; Khrennikov, A.; Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
2005-01-01
For two classical Brownian particles an analog of continuous-variable quantum entanglement is presented: The common probability distribution of the two coordinates and the corresponding coarse-grained velocities cannot always be prepared via mixing of any factorized distributions referring to the two particles separately. This is possible for particles which have interacted in the past, but do not interact at present. Three factors are crucial for the effect: (1) separation of time scales of coordinate and momentum which motivates the definition of coarse-grained velocities; (2) the resulting uncertainty relations between the coordinate of the Brownian particle and the change of its coarse-grained velocity; (3) the fact that the coarse-grained velocity, though pertaining to a single Brownian particle, is defined on a common context of two particles. The Brownian entanglement is a consequence of a coarse-grained description and disappears for a finer resolution of the Brownian motion. Analogies with the quantum situation are discussed, as well as possibilities of experimental realization of the effect in examples of macroscopic Brownian motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjiivanov, L.; Todorov, I.
2015-01-01
Expository paper providing a historical survey of the gradual transformation of the 'philosophical discussions' between Bohr, Einstein and Schrödinger on foundational issues in quantum mechanics into a quantitative prediction of a new quantum effect, its experimental verification and its proposed (and loudly advertised) applications. The basic idea of the 1935 paper of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) was reformulated by David Bohm for a finite dimensional spin system. This allowed John Bell to derive his inequalities that separate the prediction of quantum entanglement from its possible classical interpretation. We reproduce here their later (1971) version, reviewing on the way the generalization (and mathematical derivation) of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations (due to Weyl and Schrödinger) needed for the passage from EPR to Bell. We also provide an improved derivation of the quantum theoretic violation of Bell's inequalities. Soon after the experimental confirmation of the quantum entanglement (culminating with the work of Alain Aspect) it was Feynman who made public the idea of a quantum computer based on the observed effect
Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.
Remote entanglement distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, B.C.; Gour, G.; Meyer, D.A.
2005-01-01
Full text: Shared bipartite entanglement is a crucial shared resource for many quantum information tasks such as teleportation, entanglement swapping, and remote state preparation. In general different nodes of a quantum network share an entanglement resource, such as ebits, that are consumed during the task. In practice, generating entangled states is expensive, but here we establish a protocol by which a quantum network requires only a single supplier of entanglement to all nodes who, by judicious measurements and classical communication, provides the nodes with a unique pair wise entangled state independent of the measurement outcome. Furthermore, we extend this result to a chain of suppliers and nodes, which enables an operational interpretation of concurrence. In the special case that the supplier shares bipartite states with two nodes, and such states are pure and maximally entangled, our protocol corresponds to entanglement swapping. However, in the practical case that initial shared entanglement between suppliers and nodes involves partially entangled or mixed states, we show that general local operations and classical communication by all parties (suppliers and nodes) yields distributions of entangled states between nodes. In general a distribution of bipartite entangled states between any two nodes will include states that do not have the same entanglement; thus we name this general process remote entanglement distribution. In our terminology entanglement swapping with partially entangled states is a particular class of remote entanglement distribution protocols. Here we identify which distributions of states that can or cannot be created by remote entanglement distribution. In particular we prove a powerful theorem that establishes an upper bound on the entanglement of formation that can be produced between two qubit nodes. We extend this result to the case of a linear chain of parties that play the roles of suppliers and nodes; this extension provides
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Knots and topological entanglements play an important role in the statistical mechanics of polymers. While topological entanglement is a global property, it is possible to study the size of a knotted region both numerically and analytically. It can be shown that long-range repulsive interactions, as well as entropy ...
Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation
Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens
2016-01-01
Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.
Entanglement branching operator
Harada, Kenji
2018-01-01
We introduce an entanglement branching operator to split a composite entanglement flow in a tensor network which is a promising theoretical tool for many-body systems. We can optimize an entanglement branching operator by solving a minimization problem based on squeezing operators. The entanglement branching is a new useful operation to manipulate a tensor network. For example, finding a particular entanglement structure by an entanglement branching operator, we can improve a higher-order tensor renormalization group method to catch a proper renormalization flow in a tensor network space. This new method yields a new type of tensor network states. The second example is a many-body decomposition of a tensor by using an entanglement branching operator. We can use it for a perfect disentangling among tensors. Applying a many-body decomposition recursively, we conceptually derive projected entangled pair states from quantum states that satisfy the area law of entanglement entropy.
Application to the radiation processing of polymer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshii, Fumio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment
2003-02-01
Polypropylene (PP) and biodegradable polymer (blend of poly ({epsilon}-caploracton) 30/polybutylenesuccynate 70), PHB02 were irradiated with an electron beam to improve processability for production of thin film and foam. The processability of the polymer was improved due to enhancement of melt strength with irradiation at the dose range between 10 and 100 kGy. Increase of melt strength is due to entanglement of branch structure formed by irradiation. Possibility of high-speed production of thin film and production of foam have been achieved by this process. The soil degradation test showed that biodegradable polymer film buried in the soil was almost entirely degraded (97%) after two months and completely degraded after two and a half months. In the case of foam samples, 65% degradation was achieved after four months. Radiation crosslinked water-soluble polymer form hydrogel, which absorb much water. The hydrogel prepared by irradiation of polymer in aqueous solution was applied as dressing for healing of wound. In order to evaluate the healing effect of the polyethylene oxide (PEO) hydrogel dressing, wounds formed on the back of marmots were covered by the hydrogel. The healing under the wet environment of the hydrogel dressing had three advantages, compared with that of gauze dressing, which gives a dry environment: (1) enhancement of healing rate, (2) facilitation for changing the dressing, i.e. the hydrogel can be peeled off without any damage to the regenerated skin surface, and (3) hydrogel dressing material does not remain stuck on the wound. (author)
Application to the radiation processing of polymer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshii, Fumio
2003-01-01
Polypropylene (PP) and biodegradable polymer (blend of poly (ε-caploracton) 30/polybutylenesuccynate 70), PHB02 were irradiated with an electron beam to improve processability for production of thin film and foam. The processability of the polymer was improved due to enhancement of melt strength with irradiation at the dose range between 10 and 100 kGy. Increase of melt strength is due to entanglement of branch structure formed by irradiation. Possibility of high-speed production of thin film and production of foam have been achieved by this process. The soil degradation test showed that biodegradable polymer film buried in the soil was almost entirely degraded (97%) after two months and completely degraded after two and a half months. In the case of foam samples, 65% degradation was achieved after four months. Radiation crosslinked water-soluble polymer form hydrogel, which absorb much water. The hydrogel prepared by irradiation of polymer in aqueous solution was applied as dressing for healing of wound. In order to evaluate the healing effect of the polyethylene oxide (PEO) hydrogel dressing, wounds formed on the back of marmots were covered by the hydrogel. The healing under the wet environment of the hydrogel dressing had three advantages, compared with that of gauze dressing, which gives a dry environment: (1) enhancement of healing rate, (2) facilitation for changing the dressing, i.e. the hydrogel can be peeled off without any damage to the regenerated skin surface, and (3) hydrogel dressing material does not remain stuck on the wound. (author)
Entanglement without nonlocality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt-Horsman, C.; Vedral, V.
2007-01-01
We consider the characterization of entanglement from the perspective of a Heisenberg formalism. We derive a two-party generalized separability criterion, and from this describe a physical understanding of entanglement. We find that entanglement may be considered as fundamentally a local effect, and therefore as a separate computational resource from nonlocality. We show how entanglement differs from correlation physically, and explore the implications of this concept of entanglement for the notion of classicality. We find that this understanding of entanglement extends naturally to multipartite cases
Criales Escobar, Luis Ernesto
One of the most frequently evolving areas of research is the utilization of lasers for micro-manufacturing and additive manufacturing purposes. The use of laser beam as a tool for manufacturing arises from the need for flexible and rapid manufacturing at a low-to-mid cost. Laser micro-machining provides an advantage over mechanical micro-machining due to the faster production times of large batch sizes and the high costs associated with specific tools. Laser based additive manufacturing enables processing of powder metals for direct and rapid fabrication of products. Therefore, laser processing can be viewed as a fast, flexible, and cost-effective approach compared to traditional manufacturing processes. Two types of laser processing techniques are studied: laser ablation of polymers for micro-channel fabrication and selective laser melting of metal powders. Initially, a feasibility study for laser-based micro-channel fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via experimentation is presented. In particular, the effectiveness of utilizing a nanosecond-pulsed laser as the energy source for laser ablation is studied. The results are analyzed statistically and a relationship between process parameters and micro-channel dimensions is established. Additionally, a process model is introduced for predicting channel depth. Model outputs are compared and analyzed to experimental results. The second part of this research focuses on a physics-based FEM approach for predicting the temperature profile and melt pool geometry in selective laser melting (SLM) of metal powders. Temperature profiles are calculated for a moving laser heat source to understand the temperature rise due to heating during SLM. Based on the predicted temperature distributions, melt pool geometry, i.e. the locations at which melting of the powder material occurs, is determined. Simulation results are compared against data obtained from experimental Inconel 625 test coupons fabricated at the National
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Shen, Bo; Kornfield, Julie A.
2017-01-01
Presence of an ultra high molecular weight (UHMw) fraction in flowingpolymer melts is known to facilitate formation of oriented crystalline structures significantly. The UHMw fraction manifests itself as a minor tail in the molar mass distribution and is hardly detectable in the canonical...... a clear increase in extensional stress that is directly correlated with the crystalline orientation of the quenched samples. Extensional rheology, particularly, in combination with linear creep measurements, thus, enables the conformational evolution of the UHMw-tail to be studied and linked...
Molecular scale modeling of polymer imprint nanolithography.
Chandross, Michael; Grest, Gary S
2012-01-10
We present the results of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of two different nanolithographic processes, step-flash imprint lithography (SFIL), and hot embossing. We insert rigid stamps into an entangled bead-spring polymer melt above the glass transition temperature. After equilibration, the polymer is then hardened in one of two ways, depending on the specific process to be modeled. For SFIL, we cross-link the polymer chains by introducing bonds between neighboring beads. To model hot embossing, we instead cool the melt to below the glass transition temperature. We then study the ability of these methods to retain features by removing the stamps, both with a zero-stress removal process in which stamp atoms are instantaneously deleted from the system as well as a more physical process in which the stamp is pulled from the hardened polymer at fixed velocity. We find that it is necessary to coat the stamp with an antifriction coating to achieve clean removal of the stamp. We further find that a high density of cross-links is necessary for good feature retention in the SFIL process. The hot embossing process results in good feature retention at all length scales studied as long as coated, low surface energy stamps are used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chien, A; DeTeresa, S; Thompson, L; Cohenour, R; Balazs, B; Maxwell, R S
2006-01-01
Crystallization in a series of variable crosslink density poly(dimethyl-diphenyl) siloxanes random block copolymers reinforced through a mixture of precipitated and fumed silica fillers has been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The silicone composite studied was composed of 94.6 mol% Dimethoylsiloxane, 5.1 mol% diphenylsiloxane, and 0.3 mol% methyl-vinyl siloxane (which formed crosslinking after a peroxide cure). The polymer was filled with a mixture of 21.6 wt. % fumed silica and 4.0 wt. % precipitated silica previously treated with 6.8 wt. % ethoxy-endblocked siloxane processing aid. The base composite was characterized by a molecular weight between crosslinks in the polymer network of ∼24 kDa and an overall molecular weight (including the influence of the silica fillers) between crosslinks of ∼11 kDa. Molecular weight between crosslinks and filler-polymer interaction strength were then modified by exposure to γ-irradiation in either air or vacuum. The unirradiated material exhibited crystallization at -80 C as measured by DSC with a 16% crystallization as measured by XRD. Isothermal DMA experiments illustrated that crystallization at -85 C occurred over a 1.8 hour period in silica-filled systems and 2.2-2.6 hours in unfilled systems. The onset of crystallization typically occurred after a 30-minute incubation/nucleation period. The crystallization kinetics were dependent on crosslink density. Changes in molecular weight of a factor of two did not, however, change the amount of crystallization. Irradiation in vacuum resulted in faster overall crystallization rates compared to air irradiation for the same crosslink density, likely due to a reduction in the interaction between the polymer chains and the silica filler surface. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry contrasted the crystallization and melting behavior of pure PDMS versus the PDMS/PDPS base copolymer and helped
1990-05-25
Ingenieria Quimica, 12 de octubre 1842, 8000 Bahia Blanca, Argentina. P-36 BRANCHING KINETICS OF EPOXY POLYMERIZATION OF 1,4-BUTANEDIOL DIGLYCIDYL ETHER...OF ENTANGLED POLYMERS IN MELTS L-6 J. des Cloizeaux (France) 14:45-15:05 THE CONCEPT OF INTRINSIC CHAIN STRESS IN L-7 POLYMER NETWORKS J.J. Weiner, J...RELATION TO DIFFUSIVE TRANSPORT A.M. Weiss, K. Adler, A.J. Grodzinsky, M.L. Yarmush (Israel, USA) 15:05-15:25 DIFFUSION BEHAVIOUR IN SOLUTIONS OF L-25
Polymer dynamics: Floored by the rings
McLeish, Tom
2008-12-01
The tube model can explain how mutually entangled polymer chains move and interact, but it relies on the loose ends of chains to generate relaxation. Ring polymers have no ends - so how do they relax?
Structure and Dynamics of Polymers in Cylindrical Nanoconfinement: A Molecular Dynamics Study
Pressly, James; Riggleman, Robert; Winey, Karen
The structure and dynamics of polymers under nanoconfinement is critical for understanding how polymers behave in applications from hydraulic fracking to fabricating integrated circuits. We previously used simulations to explore the effect of the diameter of cylindrical pores (d = 10-40 σ, where σ is the unit length in reduced units) on polymer end-to-end distance (Ree,perp, Ree,par) , entanglement density, melt diffusion coefficient (D), and local relaxation time (τperp, τpar) at fixed polymer chain length (N = 350). These studies found D, Ree,par, and τperp increased with increasing confinement while entanglement density, Ree,perp, and τpar decreased. Experiments also found that D increased but to a lesser extent. Here, we examine the molecular weight dependence of these properties using N = 25, 50, 100, 200, 350, and 500 confined to pores of diameter 14 σ to examine a range of confinements. Our preliminary results show that as N increases D and Ree,par, increase as well, relative to the unconfined state, while entanglement density and Ree,perp decrease, consistent with our previous work. Interestingly, τ is shown to be independent of chain length indicating the impact of confinement imposed by reducing pore diameter is distinct from that imposed by increasing chain length.
Li, Zhen; Lee, Hee Sun; Darve, Eric; Karniadakis, George Em
2017-01-01
Memory effects are often introduced during coarse-graining of a complex dynamical system. In particular, a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for the coarse-grained (CG) system arises in the context of Mori-Zwanzig formalism. Upon a pairwise decomposition, GLE can be reformulated into its pairwise version, i.e., non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). GLE models the dynamics of a single coarse particle, while DPD considers the dynamics of many interacting CG particles, with both CG systems governed by non-Markovian interactions. We compare two different methods for the practical implementation of the non-Markovian interactions in GLE and DPD systems. More specifically, a direct evaluation of the non-Markovian (NM) terms is performed in LE-NM and DPD-NM models, which requires the storage of historical information that significantly increases computational complexity. Alternatively, we use a few auxiliary variables in LE-AUX and DPD-AUX models to replace the non-Markovian dynamics with a Markovian dynamics in a higher dimensional space, leading to a much reduced memory footprint and computational cost. In our numerical benchmarks, the GLE and non-Markovian DPD models are constructed from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star-polymer melts. Results show that a Markovian dynamics with auxiliary variables successfully generates equivalent non-Markovian dynamics consistent with the reference MD system, while maintaining a tractable computational cost. Also, transient subdiffusion of the star-polymers observed in the MD system can be reproduced by the coarse-grained models. The non-interacting particle models, LE-NM/AUX, are computationally much cheaper than the interacting particle models, DPD-NM/AUX. However, the pairwise models with momentum conservation are more appropriate for correctly reproducing the long-time hydrodynamics characterised by an algebraic decay in the velocity autocorrelation function.
Multiscale simulations of PS-SiO2 nanocomposites: from melt to glassy state.
Mathioudakis, I G; Vogiatzis, G G; Tzoumanekas, C; Theodorou, D N
2016-09-28
The interaction energetics, molecular packing, entanglement network properties, segmental dynamics, and elastic constants of atactic polystyrene-amorphous silica nanocomposites in the molten and the glassy state are studied via molecular simulations using two interconnected levels of representation: (a) a coarse-grained one, wherein each polystyrene repeat unit is mapped onto a single "superatom" and the silica nanoparticle is viewed as a solid sphere. Equilibration at all length scales at this level is achieved via connectivity-altering Monte Carlo simulations. (b) A united-atom (UA) level, wherein the polymer chains are represented in terms of a united-atom forcefield and the silica nanoparticle is represented in terms of a simplified, fully atomistic model. Initial configurations for UA molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are obtained by reverse mapping well-equilibrated coarse-grained configurations. By analysing microcanonical UA MD trajectories, the polymer density profile is studied and the polymer is found to exhibit layering in the vicinity of the nanoparticle surface. An estimate of the enthalpy of mixing between polymer and nanoparticles, derived from the UA simulations, compares favourably against available experimental values. The dynamical behaviour of polystyrene (in neat and filled melt systems) is characterized in terms of bond orientation and dihedral angle time autocorrelation functions. At low concentration in the molten polymer matrix, silica nanoparticles are found to cause a slight deceleration of the segmental dynamics close to their surface compared to the bulk polymer. Well-equilibrated coarse-grained long-chain configurations are reduced to entanglement networks via topological analysis with the CReTA algorithm, yielding a slightly lower density of entanglements in the filled than in the neat systems. UA melt configurations are glassified by MD cooling. The elastic moduli of the resulting glassy nanocomposites are computed through an
Plugge, Stephan; Zazunov, Alex; Sodano, Pasquale; Egger, Reinhold
2015-06-01
We study the concurrence of entanglement between two quantum dots in contact to Majorana bound states on a floating superconducting island. The distance between the Majorana states, the charging energy of the island, and the average island charge are shown to be decisive parameters for the efficiency of entanglement generation. We find that long-range entanglement with basically distance-independent concurrence is possible over wide parameter regions, where the proposed setup realizes a "Majorana entanglement bridge." We also study the time-dependent concurrence obtained after one of the tunnel couplings is suddenly switched on, which reveals the time scales for generating entanglement. Accurate analytical expressions for the concurrence are derived both for the static and the time-dependent cases. Our results indicate that entanglement formation in interacting Majorana devices can be fully understood in terms of an interplay of elastic cotunneling (also referred to as "teleportation") and crossed Andreev reflection processes.
Geometric multipartite entanglement measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.
2007-01-01
Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive
Remarks on entanglement swapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Daegene
2004-01-01
In two partially entangled states, entanglement swapping by Bell measurement will yield the weaker entanglement of the two. This scheme is optimal because the average entanglement cannot increase under local operation and classical communication. However, for more than two states, this scheme does not always yield the weakest link. We consider projective measurements other than Bell-type measurement and show, numerically, that while Bell measurement may not be unique, it is indeed optimal among these projective measurements. We also discuss the non-uniqueness of Bell measurements. (letter to the editor)
Maximally multipartite entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio
2008-06-01
We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.
Solar, M; Binder, K; Paul, W
2017-05-28
Molecular dynamics simulations of a chemically realistic model for 1,4-polybutadiene in a thin film geometry confined by two graphite walls are presented. Previous work on melts in the bulk has shown that the model faithfully reproduces static and dynamic properties of the real material over a wide temperature range. The present work studies how these properties change due to nano-confinement. The focus is on orientational correlations observable in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and on the local intermediate incoherent neutron scattering function, F s (q z , z, t), for distances z from the graphite walls in the range of a few nanometers. Temperatures from about 2T g down to about 1.15T g , where T g is the glass transition temperature in the bulk, are studied. It is shown that weakly attractive forces between the wall atoms and the monomers suffice to effectively bind a polymer coil that is near the wall. For a wide regime of temperatures, the Arrhenius-like adsorption/desorption kinetics of the monomers is the slowest process, while very close to T g the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-like α-relaxation takes over. The α-process is modified only for z≤1.2 nm due to the density changes near the walls, less than expected from studies of coarse-grained (bead-spring-type) models. The weakness of the surface effects on the glass transition in this case is attributed to the interplay of density changes near the wall with the torsional potential. A brief discussion of pertinent experiments is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daniell, M.L.
2000-09-01
The motivation of this thesis was to create higher-order entanglements. The first experimental observation of a four-photon entanglement was presented in the experiment of this thesis. And the visibility of this entanglement was 0.79+-0.06, which is sufficient to make claims of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics. This therefore lays a foundation for experiments showing the nonlocality of teleportation, and the purification of entanglement. The work of this thesis brings together a lot of earlier work done by the Zeilinger Group, and lays a foundation for future experiments. Earlier experiments such as teleportation together with entanglement swapping, which are 'complete teleportation' in as much as the state teleported is entirely undefined, can be combined and re-done with this four-photon entanglement. This result would be the first demonstration of complete, nonlocal teleportation. Also this experiment can be slightly modified and used to perform the first experimental quantum purification of entanglement, which is of vital importance to the fields of quantum information, and also is interesting for fundamental experiments on entanglement. Another direct application of this experiment is to perform the first 'event-ready' testing of Bell's Inequality. Here the four-photon entanglement can be used as a source of entangled photons, whereby the photons have no common source. This would enable an even more stringent testing of Bells theorem. Finally this experiment can be used for the demonstration and investigation of many practical, directly applicable quantum information schemes. For instance quantum cryptography, error correction, and computing. (author)
Edge-Induced Shear Banding in Entangled Polymeric Fluids.
Hemingway, Ewan J; Fielding, Suzanne M
2018-03-30
Despite decades of research, the question of whether solutions and melts of highly entangled polymers exhibit shear banding as their steady state response to a steadily imposed shear flow remains controversial. From a theoretical viewpoint, an important unanswered question is whether the underlying constitutive curve of shear stress σ as a function of shear rate γ[over ˙] (for states of homogeneous shear) is monotonic, or has a region of negative slope, dσ/dγ[over ˙]<0, which would trigger banding. Attempts to settle the question experimentally via velocimetry of the flow field inside the fluid are often confounded by an instability of the free surface where the sample meets the outside air, known as "edge fracture." Here we show by numerical simulation that in fact even only very modest edge disturbances-which are the precursor of full edge fracture but might well, in themselves, go unnoticed experimentally-can cause strong secondary flows in the form of shear bands that invade deep into the fluid bulk. Crucially, this is true even when the underlying constitutive curve is monotonically increasing, precluding true bulk shear banding in the absence of edge effects.
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2015-03-01
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro
2015-01-01
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2015-03-10
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.
Mutual preservation of entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veitia, Andrzej; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wong, Chee Wei
2012-01-01
We study a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings (JC) model where two entangled pairs of two-level atoms interact indirectly. We show that there exist initial states of the qubit system so that two entangled pairs are available at all times. In particular, the minimum entanglement in the pairs as a function of the initial state is studied. Finally, we extend our findings to a model consisting of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. We use a non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to obtain the steady-state density matrix for the qubits. We show that the multi-mode model also displays dynamical preservation of entanglement. -- Highlights: ► Entanglement dynamics is studied in a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model. ► We show that for certain initial states, the atoms remain entangled at all times. ► We extend the results to the case of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. ► The model suggest that indirect interaction may help to preserve entanglement.
Study of the weathering of high melt strength polypropylene (HMS-PP)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliani, Washington L.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Otaguro, Harumi; Lima, Luis F.C.P.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br
2007-07-01
One of the reasons for the good acceptance of the commercial PP is the fact that market requires products with features of 'engineering plastics' with prices in the range of commodities. High melt strength polypropylene (HMSPP) grades are produced by radiation process and have improved rheology for melt blow processes. The melt strength (MS) properties of a polymer increase with molecular weight and with long chain branching due to the increase in the entanglement level. The main scope of this study was to evaluate the stability of HMS-PP prepared by gamma radiation with doses of 12.5, 20 kGy in comparison with virgin PP. Many variables influence the rate of degradation of polymers by photo-oxidation. The irradiance and permeability to oxygen are the most important factors but other factors such as temperature and moisture have also influenced the degradation rates. Polypropylenes are sensitive to oxidation due to the presence of the tertiary carbon atom. Therefore, effective stabilization against oxidation (thermo and photo oxidation) is required. The samples submitted to the natural aging for a period of six months were characterized by: tensile test, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM analysis showed particular aspects of cracks on the surface. The loss of tensile strength is associated to the presence of fractures. The results showed that pronounced oxidation followed by chain scission occur at the initial periods of weathering exposition of the HMS-PP. (author)
Study of the weathering of high melt strength polypropylene (HMS-PP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliani, Washington L.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Otaguro, Harumi; Lima, Luis F.C.P.; Lugao, Ademar B.
2007-01-01
One of the reasons for the good acceptance of the commercial PP is the fact that market requires products with features of 'engineering plastics' with prices in the range of commodities. High melt strength polypropylene (HMSPP) grades are produced by radiation process and have improved rheology for melt blow processes. The melt strength (MS) properties of a polymer increase with molecular weight and with long chain branching due to the increase in the entanglement level. The main scope of this study was to evaluate the stability of HMS-PP prepared by gamma radiation with doses of 12.5, 20 kGy in comparison with virgin PP. Many variables influence the rate of degradation of polymers by photo-oxidation. The irradiance and permeability to oxygen are the most important factors but other factors such as temperature and moisture have also influenced the degradation rates. Polypropylenes are sensitive to oxidation due to the presence of the tertiary carbon atom. Therefore, effective stabilization against oxidation (thermo and photo oxidation) is required. The samples submitted to the natural aging for a period of six months were characterized by: tensile test, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM analysis showed particular aspects of cracks on the surface. The loss of tensile strength is associated to the presence of fractures. The results showed that pronounced oxidation followed by chain scission occur at the initial periods of weathering exposition of the HMS-PP. (author)
Modelling Polymer Deformation and Welding Behaviour during 3D Printing
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
2016-11-01
3D printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The most common method, fused deposition modelling, involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion of the material to fabricate a three-dimensional object. The key to the ensuring strength at the weld between these layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, as the printed layer cools towards the glass transition temperature, the time available for diffusion is limited. In addition, the extrusion process significantly deforms the polymer micro-structure prior to welding and consequently affects how the polymers "re-entangle" across the weld. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal printing process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and amorphous polymer rheology have on the ultimate weld structure. In particular, we incorporate both the stretch and orientation of the polymer using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine how the melt flows through the nozzle and is deposited onto the build plate. We then address how this deformation relaxes and contributes to the thickness and structure of the weld. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and Georgetown University.
Multiple-copy entanglement transformation and entanglement catalysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan Runyao; Feng Yuan; Li Xin; Ying Mingsheng
2005-01-01
We prove that any multiple-copy entanglement transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052315 (2002)] can be implemented by a suitable entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566 (1999)]. Furthermore, we show that the combination of multiple-copy entanglement transformation and the entanglement-assisted one is still equivalent to the pure entanglement-assisted one. The mathematical structure of multiple-copy entanglement transformations then is carefully investigated. Many interesting properties of multiple-copy entanglement transformations are presented, which exactly coincide with those satisfied by the entanglement-assisted ones. Most interestingly, we show that an arbitrarily large number of copies of state should be considered in multiple-copy entanglement transformations
Holographic Entanglement Entropy
Rangamani, Mukund
2016-01-01
We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...
Entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)
2009-03-15
Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)
Entanglement in neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Blasone, M.
2009-01-01
Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)
Witnessing entanglement by proxy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bäuml, Stefan; Bruß, Dagmar; Kampermann, Hermann; Huber, Marcus; Winter, Andreas
2016-01-01
Entanglement is a ubiquitous feature of low temperature systems and believed to be highly relevant for the dynamics of condensed matter properties and quantum computation even at higher temperatures. The experimental certification of this paradigmatic quantum effect in macroscopic high temperature systems is constrained by the limited access to the quantum state of the system. In this paper we show how macroscopic observables beyond the mean energy of the system can be exploited as proxy witnesses for entanglement detection. Using linear and semi-definite relaxations we show that all previous approaches to this problem can be outperformed by our proxies, i.e. entanglement can be certified at higher temperatures without access to any local observable. For an efficient computation of proxy witnesses one can resort to a generalised grand canonical ensemble, enabling entanglement certification even in complex systems with macroscopic particle numbers. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre
2012-01-01
keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...
Transplanckian entanglement entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Darwin; Chu, C.-S.; Lin Fengli
2004-01-01
The entanglement entropy of the event horizon is known to be plagued by the UV divergence due to the infinitely blue-shifted near horizon modes. In this Letter we calculate the entanglement entropy using the transplanckian dispersion relation, which has been proposed to model the quantum gravity effects. We show that, very generally, the entropy is rendered UV finite due to the suppression of high energy modes effected by the transplanckian dispersion relation
Multipartite entanglement and firewalls
Luo, Shengqiao; Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas
2017-03-01
Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a "firewall" inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. Using the multipartite entanglement measure called negativity, we identify an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entanglement and perhaps eliminate the need for a firewall. Specifically, we constructed a toy model for black hole decay which has different entanglement behavior than that assumed by AMPS. We discuss the additional steps that would be needed to bring lessons from our toy model to our understanding of realistic black holes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kivotides, Demosthenes, E-mail: demosthenes.kivotides@strath.ac.uk
2017-02-12
An asymptotically exact method for the direct computation of turbulent polymeric liquids that includes (a) fully resolved, creeping microflow fields due to hydrodynamic interactions between chains, (b) exact account of (subfilter) residual stresses, (c) polymer Brownian motion, and (d) direct calculation of chain entanglements, is formulated. Although developed in the context of polymeric fluids, the method is equally applicable to turbulent colloidal dispersions and aerosols. - Highlights: • An asymptotically exact method for the computation of polymer and colloidal fluids is developed. • The method is valid for all flow inertia and all polymer volume fractions. • The method models entanglements and hydrodynamic interactions between polymer chains.
The use of radiation for the production of high melt strength polypropylene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lugao, A.B.; Cardoso, E.C.L.; Hustzler, B.; Tokumoto, S.; Mendes, A.N.F.
2001-01-01
PP suffers from low melt strength, i.e., the melted PP does not exhibits an increase in resistance to stretching during elongation. It is well known that the melt-strength properties of a polymer increase with molecular weight and with long chain branching due to the increase in the entanglement level (high melt strength PP-HMSPP). In spite of been the most fast growing polymeric commodity nowadays those new grades of PP and its development have been barely studied and its general chemical characterization have been even less studied with few exceptions. HMSPP as proposed by Montell patents are produced by low temperature and low dose irradiation of high molecular weight isotatica PP in N 2 atmosphere. So the well-known reactions would be mostly degradation and crosslinking. Degradation however is supposed to be the first and more intense reaction a the initial steps as already shown. So, according to Montell patents, another reaction is likely to occur, branching or T links competing with crosslinkings or H links. Radical are likely to decay very fast in amorphous phase, but under annealing the radicals entrapped in the crystal phase is likely to move to the boundary and react. The group of professor Silverman has already hypothesized in T links formation and also studied the radical decay of PP. It is easy to understand the difficulties in differentiate Hs from Ts links and even these links if in very small amount from the bulk or from virgin polymer, as the Ts links and even these links if in very small amount from the bulk or from virgin polymer, as the chemical groups and links are chemically speaking essentially the same
Entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Xin-Hua; Guo Jie-Rong; Nie Jian-Jun; Jia Jin-Ping
2006-01-01
The proposals on entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states are presented.In these proposals,the entanglement between two coherent states,|α〉and |-α〉,with the same amplitude but a phase difference of π is utilized as a quantum channel.The processes of the entanglement diversion and the teleportation are achieved by using the 5050 symmetric beam splitters,the phase shifters and the photodetectors with the help of classical information.
Device-independent entanglement certification of all entangled states
Bowles, Joseph; Šupić, Ivan; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Acín, Antonio
2018-01-01
We present a method to certify the entanglement of all bipartite entangled quantum states in a device-independent way. This is achieved by placing the state in a quantum network and constructing a correlation inequality based on an entanglement witness for the state. Our method is device-independent, in the sense that entanglement can be certified from the observed statistics alone, under minimal assumptions on the underlying physics. Conceptually, our results borrow ideas from the field of s...
Manipulating continuous variable photonic entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plenio, M.B.
2005-01-01
I will review our work on photonic entanglement in the continuous variable regime including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states. The feasibility and efficiency of various entanglement purification protocols are discussed this context. (author)
Dimension of ring polymers in bulk studied by Monte-Carlo simulation and self-consistent theory.
Suzuki, Jiro; Takano, Atsushi; Deguchi, Tetsuo; Matsushita, Yushu
2009-10-14
We studied equilibrium conformations of ring polymers in melt over the wide range of segment number N of up to 4096 with Monte-Carlo simulation and obtained N dependence of radius of gyration of chains R(g). The simulation model used is bond fluctuation model (BFM), where polymer segments bear excluded volume; however, the excluded volume effect vanishes at N-->infinity, and linear polymer can be regarded as an ideal chain. Simulation for ring polymers in melt was performed, and the nu value in the relationship R(g) proportional to N(nu) is decreased gradually with increasing N, and finally it reaches the limiting value, 1/3, in the range of N>or=1536, i.e., R(g) proportional to N(1/3). We confirmed that the simulation result is consistent with that of the self-consistent theory including the topological effect and the osmotic pressure of ring polymers. Moreover, the averaged chain conformation of ring polymers in equilibrium state was given in the BFM. In small N region, the segment density of each molecule near the center of mass of the molecule is decreased with increasing N. In large N region the decrease is suppressed, and the density is found to be kept constant without showing N dependence. This means that ring polymer molecules do not segregate from the other molecules even if ring polymers in melt have the relationship nu=1/3. Considerably smaller dimensions of ring polymers at high molecular weight are due to their inherent nature of having no chain ends, and hence they have less-entangled conformations.
Cosmological quantum entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Menicucci, Nicolas C
2012-01-01
We review recent literature on the connection between quantum entanglement and cosmology, with an emphasis on the context of expanding universes. We discuss recent theoretical results reporting on the production of entanglement in quantum fields due to the expansion of the underlying spacetime. We explore how these results are affected by the statistics of the field (bosonic or fermionic), the type of expansion (de Sitter or asymptotically stationary), and the coupling to spacetime curvature (conformal or minimal). We then consider the extraction of entanglement from a quantum field by coupling to local detectors and how this procedure can be used to distinguish curvature from heating by their entanglement signature. We review the role played by quantum fluctuations in the early universe in nucleating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures through their conversion into classical density anisotropies during and after inflation. We report on current literature attempting to account for this transition in a rigorous way and discuss the importance of entanglement and decoherence in this process. We conclude with some prospects for further theoretical and experimental research in this area. These include extensions of current theoretical efforts, possible future observational pursuits, and experimental analogues that emulate these cosmic effects in a laboratory setting. (paper)
Optimization of entanglement witnesses
Lewenstein, M.; Kraus, B.; Cirac, J. I.; Horodecki, P.
2000-11-01
An entanglement witness (EW) is an operator that allows the detection of entangled states. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such operators to be optimal, i.e., to detect entangled states in an optimal way. We show how to optimize general EW, and then we particularize our results to the nondecomposable ones; the latter are those that can detect positive partial transpose entangled states (PPTES's). We also present a method to systematically construct and optimize this last class of operators based on the existence of ``edge'' PPTES's, i.e., states that violate the range separability criterion [Phys. Lett. A 232, 333 (1997)] in an extreme manner. This method also permits a systematic construction of nondecomposable positive maps (PM's). Our results lead to a sufficient condition for entanglement in terms of nondecomposable EW's and PM's. Finally, we illustrate our results by constructing optimal EW acting on H=C2⊗C4. The corresponding PM's constitute examples of PM's with minimal ``qubit'' domains, or-equivalently-minimal Hermitian conjugate codomains.
Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2009-01-01
Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.
Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2009-06-01
Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.
Phenomenology of polymer solution dynamics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Phillies, George D. J
2011-01-01
... solutions, not dilute solutions or polymer melts. From centrifugation and solvent dynamics to viscosity and diffusion, experimental measurements and their quantitative representations are the core of the discussion...
Universal entanglement transformations without communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dam, Wim van; Hayden, Patrick
2003-01-01
We show that in the presence of finite catalysts, any pure bipartite entangled state can be converted into any other, to unlimited accuracy, without the use of any communication, quantum or classical. We call this process embezzling entanglement because it involves removing a small amount of entanglement from the catalyst in a physically unnoticeable way
Quantum Statistics and Entanglement Problems
Trainor, L. E. H.; Lumsden, Charles J.
2002-01-01
Interpretations of quantum measurement theory have been plagued by two questions, one concerning the role of observer consciousness and the other the entanglement phenomenon arising from the superposition of quantum states. We emphasize here the remarkable role of quantum statistics in describing the entanglement problem correctly and discuss the relationship to issues arising from current discussions of intelligent observers in entangled, decohering quantum worlds.
Deriving covariant holographic entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
2016-11-07
We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.
Images in quantum entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowden, G J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2009-08-28
A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction {psi}{sub O} plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: {psi}= 1/{radical}2 ({psi}{sub O}{+-}{psi}{sub I} ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle {nu}{sub 123} entanglement, two-particle entanglements {nu}{sub 12}, {nu}{sub 13}, {nu}{sub 23} and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters {nu}{sub 12}, {nu}{sub 13}, {nu}{sub 23}, {nu}{sub 123} and {phi}{sub 123} are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function ({alpha}{sub 1}, {beta}{sub 1}), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.
Images in quantum entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowden, G J
2009-01-01
A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction Ψ O plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: Ψ= 1/√2 (Ψ O ±Ψ I ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle ν 123 entanglement, two-particle entanglements ν 12 , ν 13 , ν 23 and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters ν 12 , ν 13 , ν 23 , ν 123 and φ 123 are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function (α 1 , β 1 ), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.
Multipartite entanglement and frustration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G
2010-01-01
Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.
Multipartite entanglement and frustration
Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.
2010-02-01
Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.
Multipartite entanglement and frustration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.facchi@ba.infn.it
2010-02-15
Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
John C Baez; Vicary, Jamie
2014-01-01
Maldacena and Susskind have proposed a correspondence between wormholes and entanglement, dubbed ER=EPR. We study this in the context of three-dimensional topological quantum field theory (TQFT), where we show that the formation of a wormhole is the same process as creating a particle–antiparticle pair. A key feature of the ER=EPR proposal is that certain apparently entangled degrees of freedom turn out to be the same. We name this phenomenon ‘fake entanglement’, and show how it arises in our TQFT model. (paper)
Multi-particle entanglement via two-party entanglement
Brassard, Gilles; Mor, Tal
2001-09-01
Entanglement between n particles is a generalization of the entanglement between two particles, and a state is considered entangled if it cannot be written as a mixture of tensor products of the n particles' states. We present the key notion of semi-separability, used to investigate n-particle entanglement by looking at two-party entanglement between its various subsystems. We provide necessary conditions for n-particle separability (that is, sufficient conditions for n-particle entanglement). We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions in the case of pure states. By surprising examples, we show that such conditions are not sufficient for separability in the case of mixed states, suggesting entanglement of a strange type.
Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.
Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu
2006-10-20
We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.
Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-01-01
We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work in one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of sites as a function...... of the geometry of the configuration and the strength of the interactions. As our measure of entanglement we use the logarithmic negativity, supplemented by an algorithmic check for bound entanglement where appropiate. The short-range entanglement is found to grow approximately linearly with the group sizes...
Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue.
Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J; Alfano, Robert R
2016-12-20
Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.
Experimental test of entangled histories
Cotler, Jordan; Duan, Lu-Ming; Hou, Pan-Yu; Wilczek, Frank; Xu, Da; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Zu, Chong
2017-12-01
Entangled histories arise when a system partially decoheres in such a way that its past cannot be described by a sequence of states, but rather a superposition of sequences of states. Such entangled histories have not been previously observed. We propose and demonstrate the first experimental scheme to create entangled history states of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) type. In our experiment, the polarization states of a single photon at three different times are prepared as a GHZ entangled history state. We define a GHZ functional which attains a maximum value 1 on the ideal GHZ entangled history state and is bounded above by 1 / 16 for any three-time history state lacking tripartite entanglement. We have measured the GHZ functional on a state we have prepared experimentally, yielding a value of 0 . 656 ± 0 . 005, clearly demonstrating the contribution of entangled histories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2013-04-15
Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2013-01-01
Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears
Facets of tripartite entanglement
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantum mechanical correlations between results of measurments on entangled ..... It is interesting that motivation underpinning Einstein locality is not the relativistic re- quirement of no faster-than-light signalling but rather a consideration related .... of the relevant studies see, for instance, D Home, Conceptual foundations.
Multipartite entangled quantum states: Transformation, Entanglement monotones and Application
Cui, Wei
Entanglement is one of the fundamental features of quantum information science. Though bipartite entanglement has been analyzed thoroughly in theory and shown to be an important resource in quantum computation and communication protocols, the theory of entanglement shared between more than two parties, which is called multipartite entanglement, is still not complete. Specifically, the classification of multipartite entanglement and the transformation property between different multipartite states by local operators and classical communications (LOCC) are two fundamental questions in the theory of multipartite entanglement. In this thesis, we present results related to the LOCC transformation between multipartite entangled states. Firstly, we investigate the bounds on the LOCC transformation probability between multipartite states, especially the GHZ class states. By analyzing the involvement of 3-tangle and other entanglement measures under weak two-outcome measurement, we derive explicit upper and lower bound on the transformation probability between GHZ class states. After that, we also analyze the transformation between N-party W type states, which is a special class of multipartite entangled states that has an explicit unique expression and a set of analytical entanglement monotones. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for a known upper bound of transformation probability between two N-party W type states to be achieved. We also further investigate a novel entanglement transformation protocol, the random distillation, which transforms multipartite entanglement into bipartite entanglement ii shared by a non-deterministic pair of parties. We find upper bounds for the random distillation protocol for general N-party W type states and find the condition for the upper bounds to be achieved. What is surprising is that the upper bounds correspond to entanglement monotones that can be increased by Separable Operators (SEP), which gives the first set of
Probabilistic Teleportation of the Three-Particle Entangled State viaEntanglement Swapping
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
路洪
2001-01-01
A scheme of teleportation of a three-particle entangled state via entanglement swapping is proposed. It is shown that if a two-particle entangled state and a three-particle entangled state (both are not maximum entangled states) are used as quantum channels, probabilistic teleportation of the three-particle entangled state can be realized.
Entanglement reactivation in separable environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pirandola, Stefano
2013-01-01
Combining two entanglement-breaking channels into a correlated-noise environment restores the distribution of entanglement. Surprisingly, this reactivation can be induced by the injection of separable correlations from the composite environment. In any dimension (finite or infinite), we can construct classically correlated ‘twirling’ environments which are entanglement-breaking in the transmission of single systems but entanglement-preserving when two systems are transmitted. Here entanglement is simply preserved by the existence of decoherence-free subspaces. Remarkably, even when such subspaces do not exist, a fraction of the input entanglement can still be distributed. This is found in separable Gaussian environments, where distillable entanglement is able to survive the two-mode transmission, despite being broken in any single-mode transmission by the strong thermal noise. In the Gaussian setting, entanglement restoration is a threshold process, occurring only after a critical amount of correlations has been injected. Such findings suggest new perspectives for distributing entanglement in realistic environments with extreme decoherence, identifying separable correlations and classical memory effects as physical resources for ‘breaking entanglement-breaking’. (paper)
Braiding transformation, entanglement swapping, and Berry phase in entanglement space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Jingling; Ge Molin; Xue Kang
2007-01-01
We show that braiding transformation is a natural approach to describe quantum entanglement by using the unitary braiding operators to realize entanglement swapping and generate the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as well as the linear cluster states. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary R i,i+1 (θ,φ) matrix, where φ=ωt is time-dependent while θ is time-independent. This in turn allows us to investigate the Berry phase in the entanglement space
The entanglement purification for entangled multi-particle states
Ye, Liu; Guo Guang Can
2002-01-01
We present two purification schemes for nonmaximally entangled states. We first show that two parties, Alice and Bob, start with shared less-entangled three-particle states to probabilistically produce a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state by Bell state measurements and positive operator valued measure (POVM) or a unitary transformation. Then, by a straightforward generalization of the schemes, the purification of a multi-particle entangled state can be realized. 25 Refs. --- 35 --- AN
Entanglement between two interacting CFTs and generalized holographic entanglement entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mollabashi, Ali; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss behaviors of entanglement entropy between two interacting CFTs and its holographic interpretation using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We explicitly perform analytical calculations of entanglement entropy between two free scalar field theories which are interacting with each other in both static and time-dependent ways. We also conjecture a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy between two interacting N=4 super Yang-Mills theories by introducing a minimal surface in the S 5 direction, instead of the AdS 5 direction. This offers a possible generalization of holographic entanglement entropy
Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Metwally, N., E-mail: nmohamed31@gmail.com
2014-12-15
The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.
Entangled network and quantum communication
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Metwally, Nasser, E-mail: Nmetwally@gmail.com [Math. Dept., Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Math. Dept., College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)
2011-11-21
A theoretical scheme is introduced to generate entangled network via Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction. The dynamics of entanglement between different nodes, which is generated by direct or indirect interaction, is investigated. It is shown that, the direction of (DM) interaction and the locations of the nodes have a sensational effect on the degree of entanglement. The minimum entanglement generated between all the nodes is quantified. The upper and lower bounds of the entanglement depend on the direction of DM interaction, and the repetition of the behavior depends on the strength of DM. The generated entangled nodes are used as quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation, where it is shown that the fidelity of teleporting unknown information between the network members depends on the locations of the members.
Quantum entanglement via nilpotent polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandilara, Aikaterini; Akulin, Vladimir M.; Smilga, Andrei V.; Viola, Lorenza
2006-01-01
We propose a general method for introducing extensive characteristics of quantum entanglement. The method relies on polynomials of nilpotent raising operators that create entangled states acting on a reference vacuum state. By introducing the notion of tanglemeter, the logarithm of the state vector represented in a special canonical form and expressed via polynomials of nilpotent variables, we show how this description provides a simple criterion for entanglement as well as a universal method for constructing the invariants characterizing entanglement. We compare the existing measures and classes of entanglement with those emerging from our approach. We derive the equation of motion for the tanglemeter and, in representative examples of up to four-qubit systems, show how the known classes appear in a natural way within our framework. We extend our approach to qutrits and higher-dimensional systems, and make contact with the recently introduced idea of generalized entanglement. Possible future developments and applications of the method are discussed
Hyperspherical entanglement entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowker, J S
2010-01-01
The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.
Hyperspherical entanglement entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.u [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)
2010-11-05
The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.
Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement
Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.
2015-01-01
The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.
Global entanglement in multiparticle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, David A.; Wallach, Nolan R.
2002-01-01
We define a polynomial measure of multiparticle entanglement which is scalable, i.e., which applies to any number of spin-(1/2) particles. By evaluating it for three particle states, for eigenstates of the one dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet and on quantum error correcting code subspaces, we illustrate the extent to which it quantifies global entanglement. We also apply it to track the evolution of entanglement during a quantum computation
Gravity as Quantum Entanglement Force
Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai
2010-01-01
We conjecture that the total quantum entanglement of matter and vacuum in the universe tends to increase with time, like entropy, and that an effective force is associated with this tendency. We also suggest that gravity and dark energy are types of quantum entanglement forces, similar to Verlinde's entropic force, and give holographic dark energy with an equation of state comparable to current observational data. This connection between quantum entanglement and gravity could give some new in...
Experimental Entanglement Distribution by Separable States
Vollmer, Christina E.; Schulze, Daniela; Eberle, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2013-12-01
Distribution of entanglement between macroscopically separated parties is crucial for future quantum information networks. Surprisingly, it has been theoretically shown that two distant systems can be entangled by sending a third system that is not entangled with either of them. Here, we experimentally distribute entanglement and successfully prove that our transmitted light beam is indeed not entangled with the parties’ local systems. Our work demonstrates an unexpected variant of entanglement distribution and improves the understanding necessary to engineer multipartite quantum networks.
Error exponents for entanglement concentration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Masahito; Koashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Keiji; Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Winter, Andreas
2003-01-01
Consider entanglement concentration schemes that convert n identical copies of a pure state into a maximally entangled state of a desired size with success probability being close to one in the asymptotic limit. We give the distillable entanglement, the number of Bell pairs distilled per copy, as a function of an error exponent, which represents the rate of decrease in failure probability as n tends to infinity. The formula fills the gap between the least upper bound of distillable entanglement in probabilistic concentration, which is the well-known entropy of entanglement, and the maximum attained in deterministic concentration. The method of types in information theory enables the detailed analysis of the distillable entanglement in terms of the error rate. In addition to the probabilistic argument, we consider another type of entanglement concentration scheme, where the initial state is deterministically transformed into a (possibly mixed) final state whose fidelity to a maximally entangled state of a desired size converges to one in the asymptotic limit. We show that the same formula as in the probabilistic argument is valid for the argument on fidelity by replacing the success probability with the fidelity. Furthermore, we also discuss entanglement yield when optimal success probability or optimal fidelity converges to zero in the asymptotic limit (strong converse), and give the explicit formulae for those cases
Entanglement in a parametric converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Su-Yong; Qamar, Shahid; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk, E-mail: zubairy@physics.tamu.edu
2008-07-28
In this paper, we consider a parametric converter as a source of entangled radiation. We examine recently derived conditions (Hillery and Zubairy 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 050503, Duan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) for determining when the two output modes in a parametric converter are entangled. We show that for different initial field states, the two criteria give different conditions that ensure that the output states are entangled. We also present an input-output calculation for the entanglement of the output field.
Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shih, Yanhua
1999-01-01
The project 'Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation' concerns a series of experimental and theoretical investigations on multi-photon entangled states and the applications, for example...
Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing
Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander
2017-05-16
Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.
Partial recovery of entanglement in bipartite-entanglement transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani; Vatan, Farrokh
2002-01-01
Any deterministic bipartite-entanglement transformation involving finite copies of pure states and carried out using local operations and classical communication (LOCC) results in a net loss of entanglement. We show that for almost all such transformations, partial recovery of lost entanglement is achievable by using 2x2 auxiliary entangled states, no matter how large the dimensions of the parent states are. For the rest of the special cases of deterministic LOCC transformations, we show that the dimension of the auxiliary entangled state depends on the presence of equalities in the majorization relations of the parent states. We show that genuine recovery is still possible using auxiliary states in dimensions less than that of the parent states for all patterns of majorization relations except only one special case
Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement
Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.
2009-02-01
We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.
Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, 00185 Roma (Italy)
2009-02-06
We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.
Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G
2009-01-01
We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics
Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bougouffa, Smail; Ficek, Zbigniew
2012-01-01
The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four-qubit system and we demonstrate the conditions under which the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of non-zero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. Complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes, with transfer to the other pairs being limited to 50%. We find that complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of qubits may take place if the initial state is not the maximally entangled state and the atoms couple to the cavity modes with unequal strengths. Depending on the ratio between the coupling strengths, optimal entanglement can be created between the atoms and one of the cavity modes.
Generic entangling through quantum indistinguishability
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
quantum systems (methods such as entanglement swapping [5] fall in this ... continued till the particles anti-bunch, in which case they are entangled. 2. .... in the context of the scattering of ballistic electrons from a magnetic impurity in a semi-.
Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.
2007-01-01
We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control of t...
Entanglement entropy and duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radičević, Ðorđe [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)
2016-11-22
Using the algebraic approach to entanglement entropy, we study several dual pairs of lattice theories and show how the entropy is completely preserved across each duality. Our main result is that a maximal algebra of observables in a region typically dualizes to a non-maximal algebra in a dual region. In particular, we show how the usual notion of tracing out external degrees of freedom dualizes to a tracing out coupled to an additional summation over superselection sectors. We briefly comment on possible extensions of our results to more intricate dualities, including holographic ones.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mc
2012-07-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2190 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name McLaren_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 High dimensional... entanglement M. McLAREN1,2, F.S. ROUX1 & A. FORBES1,2,3 1. CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 2. School of Physics, University of the Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7602, Matieland 3. School of Physics, University of Kwazulu...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nomura, Yasunori [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Salzetta, Nico, E-mail: nsalzetta@berkeley.edu [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-12-10
We study the Hilbert space structure of classical spacetimes under the assumption that entanglement in holographic theories determines semiclassical geometry. We show that this simple assumption has profound implications; for example, a superposition of classical spacetimes may lead to another classical spacetime. Despite its unconventional nature, this picture admits the standard interpretation of superpositions of well-defined semiclassical spacetimes in the limit that the number of holographic degrees of freedom becomes large. We illustrate these ideas using a model for the holographic theory of cosmological spacetimes.
Schweizer, Ken
2012-02-01
A major goal in polymer nanocomposite research is to understand and predict how the chemical and physical nature of individual polymers and nanoparticles, and thermodynamic state (temperature, composition, solvent dilution, filler loading), determine bulk assembly, miscibility and properties. Microscopic PRISM theory provides a route to this goal for equilibrium disordered mixtures. A major prediction is that by manipulating the net polymer-particle interfacial attraction, miscibility is realizable via the formation of thin thermodynamically stable adsorbed layers, which, however, are destroyed by entropic depletion and bridging attraction effects if interface cohesion is too weak or strong, respectively. This and related issues are quantitatively explored for miscible mixtures of hydrocarbon polymers, silica nanospheres, and solvent using x-ray scattering, neutron scattering and rheology. Under melt conditions, quantitative agreement between theory and silica scattering experiments is achieved under both steric stabilization and weak depletion conditions. Using contrast matching neutron scattering to characterize the collective structure factors of polymers, particles and their interface, the existence and size of adsorbed polymer layers, and their consequences on microstructure, is determined. Failure of the incompressible RPA, accuracy of PRISM theory, the nm thickness of adsorbed layers, and qualitative sensitivity of the bulk modulus to interfacial cohesion and particle size are demonstrated for concentrated PEO-silica-ethanol nanocomposites. Temperature-dependent complexity is discovered when water is the solvent, and nonequilibrium effects emerge for adsorbing entangled polymers that strongly impact structure. By varying polymer chemistry, the effect of polymer-particle attraction on the intrinsic viscosity is explored with striking non-classical effects observed. This work was performed in collaboration with S.Y.Kim, L.M.Hall, C.Zukoski and B.Anderson.
Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel
2008-01-01
channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...
Squashed entanglement in infinite dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirokov, M. E.
2016-01-01
We analyse two possible definitions of the squashed entanglement in an infinite-dimensional bipartite system: direct translation of the finite-dimensional definition and its universal extension. It is shown that the both definitions produce the same lower semicontinuous entanglement measure possessing all basis properties of the squashed entanglement on the set of states having at least one finite marginal entropy. It is also shown that the second definition gives an adequate lower semicontinuous extension of this measure to all states of the infinite-dimensional bipartite system. A general condition relating continuity of the squashed entanglement to continuity of the quantum mutual information is proved and its corollaries are considered. Continuity bound for the squashed entanglement under the energy constraint on one subsystem is obtained by using the tight continuity bound for quantum conditional mutual information (proved in the Appendix by using Winter’s technique). It is shown that the same continuity bound is valid for the entanglement of formation. As a result the asymptotic continuity of the both entanglement measures under the energy constraint on one subsystem is proved.
Graphical Classification of Entangled Qutrits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kentaro Honda
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A multipartite quantum state is entangled if it is not separable. Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in many applications of quantum information theory, such as quantum teleportation. Stochastic local quantum operations and classical communication (SLOCC cannot essentially change quantum entanglement without destroying it. Therefore, entanglement can be classified by dividing quantum states into equivalence classes, where two states are equivalent if each can be converted into the other by SLOCC. Properties of this classification, especially in the case of non two-dimensional quantum systems, have not been well studied. Graphical representation is sometimes used to clarify the nature and structural features of entangled states. SLOCC equivalence of quantum bits (qubits has been described graphically via a connection between tripartite entangled qubit states and commutative Frobenius algebras (CFAs in monoidal categories. In this paper, we extend this method to qutrits, i.e., systems that have three basis states. We examine the correspondence between CFAs and tripartite entangled qutrits. Using the symmetry property, which is required by the definition of a CFA, we find that there are only three equivalence classes that correspond to CFAs. We represent qutrits graphically, using the connection to CFAs. We derive equations that characterize the three equivalence classes. Moreover, we show that any qutrit can be represented as a composite of three graphs that correspond to the three classes.
Melt electrospinning of biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds
Karchin, Ari; Simonovsky, Felix I.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Sanders, Joan E.
2014-01-01
Electrospinning from the melt, in contrast to from solution, is an attractive tissue engineering scaffold manufacturing process as it allows for the formation of small diameter fibers while eliminating potentially cytotoxic solvents. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on scaffold formation via melt electrospinning. This is likely due to the technical challenges related to the need for a well-controlled high temperature setup and the difficulty in developing an appropriate polymer. In this paper, a biodegradable and thermally stable polyurethane (PU) is described specifically for use in melt electrospinning. Polymer formulations of aliphatic PUs based on (CH2)4-content diisocyanates, polycaprolactone (PCL), 1,4-butanediamine and 1,4-butanediol (BD) were evaluated for utility in the melt electrospinning process. The final polymer formulation, a catalyst-purified PU based on 1,4-butane diisocyanate, PCL and BD in a 4/1/3 molar ratio with a weight-average molecular weight of about 40 kDa, yielded a nontoxic polymer that could be readily electrospun from the melt. Scaffolds electrospun from this polymer contained point bonds between fibers and mechanical properties analogous to many in vivo soft tissues. PMID:21640853
Entanglement in a Dimerized Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain
Hao, Xiang; Zhu, Shiqun
2008-01-01
The entanglement properties in an antiferromagnetic dimerized Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain are investigated. The entanglement gap, which is the difference between the ground-state energy and the minimal energy that any separable state can attain, is calculated to detect the entanglement. It is found that the entanglement gap can be increased by varying the alternation parameter. Through thermal energy, the witness of the entanglement can determine a characteristic temperature below that an entan...
Local cloning of entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.
2010-01-01
We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.
Zero modes and entanglement entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2017-04-26
Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.
Slow Images and Entangled Photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swordy, Simon
2007-01-01
I will discuss some recent experiments using slow light and entangled photons. We recently showed that it was possible to map a two dimensional image onto very low light level signals, slow them down in a hot atomic vapor while preserving the amplitude and phase of the images. If time remains, I will discuss some of our recent work with time-energy entangled photons for quantum cryptography. We were able to show that we could have a measurable state space of over 1000 states for a single pair of entangled photons in fiber.
Teleportation of Squeezed Entangled State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Li-Yun; ZHOU Nan-Run
2007-01-01
Based on the coherent entangled state |α, x＞ we introduce the squeezed entangled state (SES). Then we propose a teleportation protocol for the SES by using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state |η＞as a quantum channel.The calculation is greatly simplified by virtue of the Schmidt decompositions of both |α, x＞and |η＞. Any bipartite states that can be expanded in terms of |α, x＞may be teleported in this way due to the completeness of |α, x＞.
Bound entanglement and local realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Zukowski, Marek; Gnacinski, Piotr
2002-01-01
We show using a numerical approach, which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local realism, that the bound entangled state presented in Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)] admits a local and realistic description. We also find the lowest possible amount of some appropriate entangled state that must be ad-mixed to the bound entangled state so that the resulting density operator has no local and realistic description and as such can be useful in quantum communication and quantum computation
Brush-Like Polymers: New Design Platforms for Soft, Dry Materials with Unique Property Relations
Daniel, William Francis McKemie, Jr.
comparatively small increase in the rigidity of the strands. The end result is an architectural disentangled melt with an entanglement plateau modulus as much as three orders of magnitude lower than typical linear polymers and a broadly expanded potential for extensibility once crosslinked.
Gaussian entanglement revisited
Lami, Ludovico; Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo
2018-02-01
We present a novel approach to the separability problem for Gaussian quantum states of bosonic continuous variable systems. We derive a simplified necessary and sufficient separability criterion for arbitrary Gaussian states of m versus n modes, which relies on convex optimisation over marginal covariance matrices on one subsystem only. We further revisit the currently known results stating the equivalence between separability and positive partial transposition (PPT) for specific classes of Gaussian states. Using techniques based on matrix analysis, such as Schur complements and matrix means, we then provide a unified treatment and compact proofs of all these results. In particular, we recover the PPT-separability equivalence for: (i) Gaussian states of 1 versus n modes; and (ii) isotropic Gaussian states. In passing, we also retrieve (iii) the recently established equivalence between separability of a Gaussian state and and its complete Gaussian extendability. Our techniques are then applied to progress beyond the state of the art. We prove that: (iv) Gaussian states that are invariant under partial transposition are necessarily separable; (v) the PPT criterion is necessary and sufficient for separability for Gaussian states of m versus n modes that are symmetric under the exchange of any two modes belonging to one of the parties; and (vi) Gaussian states which remain PPT under passive optical operations can not be entangled by them either. This is not a foregone conclusion per se (since Gaussian bound entangled states do exist) and settles a question that had been left unanswered in the existing literature on the subject. This paper, enjoyable by both the quantum optics and the matrix analysis communities, overall delivers technical and conceptual advances which are likely to be useful for further applications in continuous variable quantum information theory, beyond the separability problem.
Entangled Bessel-Gaussian beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
McLaren, M
2012-10-01
Full Text Available by performing a Bell-type experiment and showing a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, we use quantum state tomography to indicate higher-dimensional entanglement in terms of BG modes....
Gaussian entanglement distribution via satellite
Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert
2015-02-01
In this work we analyze three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme, the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the tradeoff between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.
Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Marshall
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.
Quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shih, Y.H.
2001-01-01
One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. The ''ghost'' interference and the ''ghost'' image experiments demonstrated the astonishing nonlocal behavior of an entangled photon pair. Even though we still have questions in regard to fundamental issues of the entangled quantum systems, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in quantum information and quantum computation. Quantum teleportation is one of the hot topics. We have demonstrated a quantum teleportation experiment recently. The experimental results proved the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that the complete set of Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a quantum state can thus occur with certainty in principle. (orig.)
Entanglement scaling in lattice systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Audenaert, K M R [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Cramer, M [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Eisert, J [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)
2007-05-15
We review some recent rigorous results on scaling laws of entanglement properties in quantum many body systems. More specifically, we study the entanglement of a region with its surrounding and determine its scaling behaviour with its size for systems in the ground and thermal states of bosonic and fermionic lattice systems. A theorem connecting entanglement between a region and the rest of the lattice with the surface area of the boundary between the two regions is presented for non-critical systems in arbitrary spatial dimensions. The entanglement scaling in the field limit exhibits a peculiar difference between fermionic and bosonic systems. In one-spatial dimension a logarithmic divergence is recovered for both bosonic and fermionic systems. In two spatial dimensions in the setting of half-spaces however we observe strict area scaling for bosonic systems and a multiplicative logarithmic correction to such an area scaling in fermionic systems. Similar questions may be posed and answered in classical systems.
Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua
2007-01-01
We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case
McCarty, J; Clark, A J; Copperman, J; Guenza, M G
2014-05-28
Structural and thermodynamic consistency of coarse-graining models across multiple length scales is essential for the predictive role of multi-scale modeling and molecular dynamic simulations that use mesoscale descriptions. Our approach is a coarse-grained model based on integral equation theory, which can represent polymer chains at variable levels of chemical details. The model is analytical and depends on molecular and thermodynamic parameters of the system under study, as well as on the direct correlation function in the k → 0 limit, c0. A numerical solution to the PRISM integral equations is used to determine c0, by adjusting the value of the effective hard sphere diameter, dHS, to agree with the predicted equation of state. This single quantity parameterizes the coarse-grained potential, which is used to perform mesoscale simulations that are directly compared with atomistic-level simulations of the same system. We test our coarse-graining formalism by comparing structural correlations, isothermal compressibility, equation of state, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies, and potential energy and entropy using both united atom and coarse-grained descriptions. We find quantitative agreement between the analytical formalism for the thermodynamic properties, and the results of Molecular Dynamics simulations, independent of the chosen level of representation. In the mesoscale description, the potential energy of the soft-particle interaction becomes a free energy in the coarse-grained coordinates which preserves the excess free energy from an ideal gas across all levels of description. The structural consistency between the united-atom and mesoscale descriptions means the relative entropy between descriptions has been minimized without any variational optimization parameters. The approach is general and applicable to any polymeric system in different thermodynamic conditions.
Entanglement distribution in quantum networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perseguers, Sebastien
2010-01-01
This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a
Entanglement distribution in quantum networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perseguers, Sebastien
2010-04-15
This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a
Estimating localizable entanglement from witnesses
Amaro, David; Müller, Markus; Pal, Amit Kumar
2018-01-01
Computing localizable entanglement for noisy many-particle quantum states is difficult due to the optimization over all possible sets of local projection measurements. Therefore, it is crucial to develop lower bounds, which can provide useful information about the behaviour of localizable entanglement, and which can be determined by measuring a limited number of operators, or by performing least number of measurements on the state, preferably without performing a full state tomography. In thi...
Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses
Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2009-01-01
We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic c...
Entanglement as a signature of quantum chaos.
Wang, Xiaoguang; Ghose, Shohini; Sanders, Barry C; Hu, Bambi
2004-01-01
We explore the dynamics of entanglement in classically chaotic systems by considering a multiqubit system that behaves collectively as a spin system obeying the dynamics of the quantum kicked top. In the classical limit, the kicked top exhibits both regular and chaotic dynamics depending on the strength of the chaoticity parameter kappa in the Hamiltonian. We show that the entanglement of the multiqubit system, considered for both the bipartite and the pairwise entanglement, yields a signature of quantum chaos. Whereas bipartite entanglement is enhanced in the chaotic region, pairwise entanglement is suppressed. Furthermore, we define a time-averaged entangling power and show that this entangling power changes markedly as kappa moves the system from being predominantly regular to being predominantly chaotic, thus sharply identifying the edge of chaos. When this entangling power is averaged over all states, it yields a signature of global chaos. The qualitative behavior of this global entangling power is similar to that of the classical Lyapunov exponent.
Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. → We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. → We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. → We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.
Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com
2016-09-15
We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.
Quantum entanglement of identical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Yu
2003-01-01
We consider entanglement in a system with a fixed number of identical particles. Since any operation should be symmetrized over all the identical particles and there is the precondition that the spatial wave functions overlap, the meaning of identical-particle entanglement is fundamentally different from that of distinguishable particles. The identical-particle counterpart of the Schmidt basis is shown to be the single-particle basis in which the one-particle reduced density matrix is diagonal. But it does not play a special role in the issue of entanglement, which depends on the single-particle basis chosen. The nonfactorization due to (anti)symmetrization is naturally excluded by using the (anti)symmetrized basis or, equivalently, the particle number representation. The natural degrees of freedom in quantifying the identical-particle entanglement in a chosen single-particle basis are occupation numbers of different single-particle basis states. The entanglement between effectively distinguishable spins is shown to be a special case of the occupation-number entanglement
Thermodynamic entanglement of magnonic condensates
Yuan, H. Y.; Yung, Man-Hong
2018-02-01
Over the past decade, significant progress has been achieved to create Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of magnetic excitations, i.e., magnons, at room temperature, which is a novel quantum many-body system with a strong spin-spin correlation, and contains potential applications in magnonic spintronics. For quantum information science, the magnonic condensates can become an attractive source of quantum entanglement, which plays a central role in most of the quantum information processing tasks. Here we theoretically study the entanglement properties of a magnon gas above and below the condensation temperature. We show that the thermodynamic entanglement of the spins is a manifestation of the off-diagonal long-range order; the entanglement of the condensate does not vanish, even if the spins are separated by an infinitely long distance, which is fundamentally distinct from the normal magnetic ordering below the Curie temperature. In addition, the phase-transition point occurs when the derivative of the entanglement changes abruptly. These results provide a theoretical foundation for a future investigation of the magnon BEC in terms of quantum entanglement.
Multipartite geometric entanglement in finite size XY model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Giampaolo, Salvatore Marco; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2009-06-01
We investigate the behavior of the multipartite entanglement in the finite size XY model by means of the hierarchical geometric measure of entanglement. By selecting specific components of the hierarchy, we study both global entanglement and genuinely multipartite entanglement.
Structure and Dynamics of Polymer/Polymer grafted nanoparticle composite
Archer, Lynden
Addition of nanoparticles to polymers is a well-practiced methodology for augmenting various properties of the polymer host, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, barrier properties, dimensional stability and wear resistance. Many of these property changes are known to arise from nanoparticle-induced modification of polymer structure and chain dynamics, which are strong functions of the dispersion state of the nanoparticles' and on their relative size (D) to polymer chain dimensions (e.g. Random coil radius Rg or entanglement mesh size a) . This talk will discuss polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) comprised of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) tethered silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PEG) dispersed in polymers as model systems for investigating phase stability and dynamics of PNCs. On the basis of small-angle X-ray Scattering, it will be shown that favorable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered chains and a polymer host provides an important mechanism for creating PNCs in which particle aggregation is avoided. The talk will report on polymer and particle scale dynamics in these materials and will show that grafted nanoparticles well dispersed in a polymer host strongly influence the host polymer relaxation dynamics on all timescales and the polymers in turn produce dramatic changes in the nature (from diffusive to hyperdiffusive) and speed of nano particle decorrelation dynamics at the polymer entanglement threshold. A local viscosity model capable of explaining these observations is discussed and the results compared with scaling theories for NP motions in polymers This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation Award Nos. DMR-1609125 and CBET-1512297.
Optimal simulation of a perfect entangler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Nengkun; Duan Runyao; Ying Mingsheng
2010-01-01
A 2 x 2 unitary operation is called a perfect entangler if it can generate a maximally entangled state from some unentangled input. We study the following question: How many runs of a given two-qubit entangling unitary operation are required to simulate some perfect entangler with one-qubit unitary operations as free resources? We completely solve this problem by presenting an analytical formula for the optimal number of runs of the entangling operation. Our result reveals an entanglement strength of two-qubit unitary operations.
Minimal Entanglement Witness from Electrical Current Correlations.
Brange, F; Malkoc, O; Samuelsson, P
2017-01-20
Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and noncollinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be detected with only two measurements, except the maximally entangled states, which require three. Moreover, detector settings for optimal entanglement witnessing are presented.
Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp
2005-11-01
We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states—and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions—where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly.
Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp
2005-01-01
We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states--and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions--where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly
Minimal Entanglement Witness from Electrical Current Correlations
Brange, F.; Malkoc, O.; Samuelsson, P.
2017-01-01
Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and noncollinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be detected with only two measurements, except the maximally entangled states, which require three. Moreover, detector settings for optimal entanglement witnessing are presented.
Detecting quantum entanglement. Entanglement witnesses and uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guehne, O.
2004-01-01
This thesis deals with methods of the detection of entanglement. After recalling some facts and definitions concerning entanglement and separability, we investigate two methods of the detection of entanglement. In the first part of this thesis we consider so-called entanglement witnesses, mainly in view of the detection of multipartite entanglement. Entanglement witnesses are observables for which a negative expectation value indicates entanglement. We first present a simple method to construct these witnesses. Since witnesses are nonlocal observables, they are not easy to measure in a real experiment. However, as we will show, one can circumvent this problem by decomposing the witness into several local observables which can be measured separately. We calculate the local decompositions for several interesting witnesses for two, three and four qubits. Local decompositions can be optimized in the number of measurement settings which are needed for an experimental implementation. We present a method to prove that a given local decomposition is optimal and discuss with this the optimality of our decompositions. Then we present another method of designing witnesses which are by construction measurable with local measurements. Finally, we shortly report on experiments where some of the witnesses derived in this part have been used to detect three- and four-partite entanglement of polarized photons. The second part of this thesis deals with separability criteria which are written in terms of uncertainty relations. There are two different formulations of uncertainty relations since one can measure the uncertainty of an observable by its variance as well as by entropic quantities. We show that both formulations are useful tools for the derivation of separability criteria for finite-dimensional systems and investigate the resulting criteria. Our results in this part exhibit also some more fundamental properties of entanglement: We show how known separability criteria for
Extensional Rheology of Entangled Polystyrene Solutions Suggests Importance of Nematic Interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Qian; Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Matsumiya, Yumi
2013-01-01
We compare the linear and nonlinear rheological response of three entangled polystyrene solutions with the same concentration of polymer, but diluted using different solvents. The three solutions have exactly the same physical tube model parameters when normalized to the same time scale. Although...
The characterisation of polymers using pulsed NMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charlesby, A.
1983-01-01
Broad line pulsed NMR is applied to obtain information on radiation-induced polymer changes and other aspects of polymer science based on the interpretation of spin-spin relaxation curves. Calculations are made to determine the molecular weight, the crosslink density of simple, low molecular weight, flexible polymers. For higher molecular weight polymers, a conclusion can be drawn on the concentrations of entangled and crosslinked units by means of pulsed NMR. Some typical applications of the technique are illustrated by the examples of polyethylenes, rubbers, filled polymeric systems and aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions. The morphology of polymers can be followed by pulsed NMR. (V.N.)
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
Method for bonding a thermoplastic polymer to a thermosetting polymer component
Van Tooren, M.J.L.
2012-01-01
The invention relates to a method for bonding a thermoplastic polymer to a thermosetting polymer component, the thermoplastic polymer having a melting temperature that exceeds the curing temperature of the thermosetting polymer. The method comprises the steps of providing a cured thermosetting
Salberger, Olof; Korepin, Vladimir
We introduce a new model of interacting spin 1/2. It describes interactions of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of Fredkin gates. The Fredkin gate (also known as the controlled swap gate) is a computational circuit suitable for reversible computing. Our construction generalizes the model presented by Peter Shor and Ramis Movassagh to half-integer spins. Our model can be solved by means of Catalan combinatorics in the form of random walks on the upper half plane of a square lattice (Dyck walks). Each Dyck path can be mapped on a wave function of spins. The ground state is an equally weighted superposition of Dyck walks (instead of Motzkin walks). We can also express it as a matrix product state. We further construct a model of interacting spins 3/2 and greater half-integer spins. The models with higher spins require coloring of Dyck walks. We construct a SU(k) symmetric model (where k is the number of colors). The leading term of the entanglement entropy is then proportional to the square root of the length of the lattice (like in the Shor-Movassagh model). The gap closes as a high power of the length of the lattice [5, 11].
Teleportation of N-particle entangled W state via entanglement swapping
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhan You-Bang
2004-01-01
A scheme for teleporting an unknown N-particle entangled W state is proposed via entanglement swapping. In this scheme, N maximally entangled particle pairs are used as quantum channel. As a special case, the teleportation of an unknown four-particle entangled W state is studied.
Making coarse grained polymer simulations quantitatively predictive for statics and dynamics
Kremer, Kurt
2010-03-01
By combining input from short simulation runs of rather small systems with all atomistic details together with properly adapted coarse grained models we are able quantitatively predict static and especially dynamical properties of both pure polymer melts of long fully entangled but also of systems with low molecular weight additives. Comparisons to rather different experiments such as diffusion constant measurements or NMR relaxation experiments show a remarkable quantitative agreement without any adjustable parameter. Reintroduction of chemical details into the coarse grained trajectories allows the study of long time trajectories in all atomistic detail providing the opportunity for rather different means of data analysis. References: V. Harmandaris, K. Kremer, Macromolecules, in press (2009) V. Harmandaris et al, Macromolecules, 40, 7026 (2007) B. Hess, S. Leon, N. van der Vegt, K. Kremer, Soft Matter 2, 409 (2006) D. Fritz et al, Soft Matter 5, 4556 (2009)
Protecting single-photon entanglement with practical entanglement source
Zhou, Lan; Ou-Yang, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2017-06-01
Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is important for quantum communication and quantum information processing. However, SPE is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss a linear optical amplification protocol for protecting SPE. Different from the previous protocols, we exploit the practical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source to realize the amplification, for the ideal entanglement source is unavailable in current quantum technology. Moreover, we prove that the amplification using the entanglement generated from SPDC source as auxiliary is better than the amplification assisted with single photons. The reason is that the vacuum state from SPDC source will not affect the amplification, so that it can be eliminated automatically. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communications.
From entanglement witness to generalized Catalan numbers
Cohen, E.; Hansen, T.; Itzhaki, N.
2016-07-01
Being extremely important resources in quantum information and computation, it is vital to efficiently detect and properly characterize entangled states. We analyze in this work the problem of entanglement detection for arbitrary spin systems. It is demonstrated how a single measurement of the squared total spin can probabilistically discern separable from entangled many-particle states. For achieving this goal, we construct a tripartite analogy between the degeneracy of entanglement witness eigenstates, tensor products of SO(3) representations and classical lattice walks with special constraints. Within this framework, degeneracies are naturally given by generalized Catalan numbers and determine the fraction of states that are decidedly entangled and also known to be somewhat protected against decoherence. In addition, we introduce the concept of a “sterile entanglement witness”, which for large enough systems detects entanglement without affecting much the system’s state. We discuss when our proposed entanglement witness can be regarded as a sterile one.
Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers
Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz
2014-03-01
Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.
Separability criteria for genuine multiparticle entanglement
Guhne, O.; Seevinck, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847399
2010-01-01
We present a method to derive separability criteria for different classes of multiparticle entanglement, especially genuine multiparticle entanglement. The resulting criteria are necessary and sufficient for certain families of states. This, for example, completely solves the problem of classifying
Separability Criteria for Genuine Multiparticle Entanglement
Guehne, O.; Seevinck, M.P.
2010-01-01
We present a method to derive separability criteria for different classes of multiparticle entanglement, especially genuine multiparticle entanglement. The resulting criteria are necessary and sufficient for certain families of states. This, for example, completely solves the problem of classifying
HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...
Relay entanglement and clusters of correlated spins
Doronin, S. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.
2018-06-01
Considering a spin-1/2 chain, we suppose that the entanglement passes from a given pair of particles to another one, thus establishing the relay transfer of entanglement along the chain. Therefore, we introduce the relay entanglement as a sum of all pairwise entanglements in a spin chain. For more detailed studying the effects of remote pairwise entanglements, we use the partial sums collecting entanglements between the spins separated by up to a certain number of nodes. The problem of entangled cluster formation is considered, and the geometric mean entanglement is introduced as a characteristic of quantum correlations in a cluster. Generally, the lifetime of a cluster decreases with an increase in its size.
Network approach towards understanding the crazing in glassy amorphous polymers
Venkatesan, Sudarkodi; Vivek-Ananth, R. P.; Sreejith, R. P.; Mangalapandi, Pattulingam; Hassanali, Ali A.; Samal, Areejit
2018-04-01
We have used molecular dynamics to simulate an amorphous glassy polymer with long chains to study the deformation mechanism of crazing and associated void statistics. The Van der Waals interactions and the entanglements between chains constituting the polymer play a crucial role in crazing. Thus, we have reconstructed two underlying weighted networks, namely, the Van der Waals network and the entanglement network from polymer configurations extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation. Subsequently, we have performed graph-theoretic analysis of the two reconstructed networks to reveal the role played by them in the crazing of polymers. Our analysis captured various stages of crazing through specific trends in the network measures for Van der Waals networks and entanglement networks. To further corroborate the effectiveness of network analysis in unraveling the underlying physics of crazing in polymers, we have contrasted the trends in network measures for Van der Waals networks and entanglement networks in the light of stress-strain behaviour and voids statistics during deformation. We find that the Van der Waals network plays a crucial role in craze initiation and growth. Although, the entanglement network was found to maintain its structure during craze initiation stage, it was found to progressively weaken and undergo dynamic changes during the hardening and failure stages of crazing phenomena. Our work demonstrates the utility of network theory in quantifying the underlying physics of polymer crazing and widens the scope of applications of network science to characterization of deformation mechanisms in diverse polymers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Tang-Kun; Zhang Kang-Long; Tao Yu; Shan Chuan-Jia; Liu Ji-Bing
2016-01-01
The temporal evolution of the degree of entanglement between two atoms in a system of the binomial optical field interacting with two arbitrary entangled atoms is investigated. The influence of the strength of the dipole–dipole interaction between two atoms, probabilities of the Bernoulli trial, and particle number of the binomial optical field on the temporal evolution of the atomic entanglement are discussed. The result shows that the two atoms are always in the entanglement state. Moreover, if and only if the two atoms are initially in the maximally entangled state, the entanglement evolution is not affected by the parameters, and the degree of entanglement is always kept as 1. (paper)
Quantum entanglement and special relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishikawa, Yoshihisa
2008-01-01
Quantum entanglement was suggested by Einstein to indicate that quantum mechanics was incomplete. However, against Einstein's expectation, the phenomenon due to quantum entanglement has been verified by experiments. Recently, in quantum information theory, it has been also treated as a resource for quantum teleportation and so on. In around 2000, it is recognized that quantum correlations between two particles of one pair state in an entangled spin-state are affected by the non-trivial effect due to the successive Lorentz transformation. This relativistic effect is called the Wigner rotation. The Wigner rotation has to been taken into account when we observe spin-correlation of moving particles in a different coordinate frame. In this paper, first, we explain quantum entanglement and its modification due to the Wigner rotation. After that, we introduce an extended model instead of one pair state model. In the extended model, quantum entanglement state is prepared as a superposition state of various pair states. We have computed the von Neumann entropy and the Shannon entropy to see the global behavior of variation for the spin correlation due to the relativistic effect. We also discuss distinguishability between the two particles of the pair. (author)
Quantum walks with entangled coins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venegas-Andraca, S E; Ball, J L; Burnett, K; Bose, S
2005-01-01
We present a mathematical formalism for the description of un- restricted quantum walks with entangled coins and one walker. The numerical behaviour of such walks is examined when using a Bell state as the initial coin state, with two different coin operators, two different shift operators, and one walker. We compare and contrast the performance of these quantum walks with that of a classical random walk consisting of one walker and two maximally correlated coins as well as quantum walks with coins sharing different degrees of entanglement. We illustrate that the behaviour of our walk with entangled coins can be very different in comparison to the usual quantum walk with a single coin. We also demonstrate that simply by changing the shift operator, we can generate widely different distributions. We also compare the behaviour of quantum walks with maximally entangled coins with that of quantum walks with non-entangled coins. Finally, we show that the use of different shift operators on two and three qubit coins leads to different position probability distributions in one- and two-dimensional graphs
Communication cost of entanglement transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayden, Patrick; Winter, Andreas
2003-01-01
We study the amount of communication needed for two parties to transform some given joint pure state into another one, either exactly or with some fidelity. Specifically, we present a method to lower bound this communication cost even when the amount of entanglement does not increase. Moreover, the bound applies even if the initial state is supplemented with unlimited entanglement in the form of EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) pairs and the communication is allowed to be quantum mechanical. We then apply the method to the determination of the communication cost of asymptotic entanglement concentration and dilution. While concentration is known to require no communication whatsoever, the best known protocol for dilution, discovered by H.-K. Lo and S. Popescu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1459 (1999)], requires exchange of a number of bits that is of the order of the square root of the number of EPR pairs. Here we prove a matching lower bound of the same asymptotic order, demonstrating the optimality of the Lo-Popescu protocol up to a constant factor and establishing the existence of a fundamental asymmetry between the concentration and dilution tasks. We also discuss states for which the minimal communication cost is proportional to their entanglement, such as the states recently introduced in the context of 'embezzling entanglement' (W. van Dam and P. Hayden, e-print quant-ph/0201041)
Entanglement in mutually unbiased bases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiesniak, M; Zeilinger, A [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ), Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Paterek, T, E-mail: tomasz.paterek@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore)
2011-05-15
One of the essential features of quantum mechanics is that most pairs of observables cannot be measured simultaneously. This phenomenon manifests itself most strongly when observables are related to mutually unbiased bases. In this paper, we shed some light on the connection between mutually unbiased bases and another essential feature of quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement. It is shown that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases of a bipartite system contains a fixed amount of entanglement, independent of the choice of the set. This has implications for entanglement distribution among the states of a complete set. In prime-squared dimensions we present an explicit experiment-friendly construction of a complete set with a particularly simple entanglement distribution. Finally, we describe the basic properties of mutually unbiased bases composed of product states only. The constructions are illustrated with explicit examples in low dimensions. We believe that the properties of entanglement in mutually unbiased bases may be one of the ingredients to be taken into account to settle the question of the existence of complete sets. We also expect that they will be relevant to applications of bases in the experimental realization of quantum protocols in higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces.
Energy entanglement relation for quantum energy teleportation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hotta, Masahiro, E-mail: hotta@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.j [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2010-07-26
Protocols of quantum energy teleportation (QET), while retaining causality and local energy conservation, enable the transportation of energy from a subsystem of a many-body quantum system to a distant subsystem by local operations and classical communication through ground-state entanglement. We prove two energy-entanglement inequalities for a minimal QET model. These relations help us to gain a profound understanding of entanglement itself as a physical resource by relating entanglement to energy as an evident physical resource.
Minimal Entanglement Witness From Electrical Current Correlations
Brange, F.; Malkoc, O.; Samuelsson, P.
2016-01-01
Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and non-collinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be ...
Zenchuk, A. I.
2010-01-01
We {characterize the multipartite entanglement in a quantum system by the quantity} which vanishes if only the quantum system may be decomposed into two weakly entangled subsystems, unlike measures of multipartite entanglement introduced before. We refer to this {quantity} as the minimal entanglement of bipartite decompositions (MEBD). Big MEBD means that the system may not be decomposed into two weakly entangled subsystems. MEBD allows one to define, for instance, whether the given quantum s...
Entropy-driven phase transitions of entanglement
Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio; Yuasa, Kazuya
2013-05-01
We study the behavior of bipartite entanglement at fixed von Neumann entropy. We look at the distribution of the entanglement spectrum, that is, the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix of a quantum system in a pure state. We report the presence of two continuous phase transitions, characterized by different entanglement spectra, which are deformations of classical eigenvalue distributions.
Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K
2016-01-01
The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)
Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped ...
Universal distortion-free entanglement concentration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Keiji; Hayashi, Masahito
2007-01-01
We propose a new protocol of universal entanglement concentration, which converts many copies of an unknown pure state to an exact maximally entangled state. The yield of the protocol, which is outputted as a classical information, is probabilistic, and achieves the entropy rate with high probability, just as nonuniversal entanglement concentration protocols do
Quantum teleportation of entangled squeezed vacuum states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡新华
2003-01-01
An optical scheme for probabilistic teleporting entangled squeezed vacuum states (SVS) is proposed. In this scheme,the teleported state is a bipartite entangled SVS,and the quantum channel is a tripartite entangled SVS.The process of the teleportation is achieved by using a 50/50 symmetric beamsplitter and photon detectors with the help of classical information.
Wu, Tsai-Chin; Anderson, Rae
We use active microrheology coupled to single-molecule fluorescence imaging to elucidate the microscale dynamics of entangled DNA. DNA naturally exists in a wide range of lengths and topologies, and is often confined in cell nucleui, forming highly concentrated and entangled biopolymer networks. Thus, DNA is the model polymer for understanding entangled polymer dynamics as well as the crowded environment of cells. These networks display complex viscoelastic properties that are not well understood, especially at the molecular-level and in response to nonlinear perturbations. Specifically, how microscopic stresses and strains propagate through entangled networks, and what molecular deformations lead to the network stress responses are unknown. To answer these important questions, we optically drive a microsphere through entangled DNA, perturbing the system far from equilibrium, while measuring the resistive force the DNA exerts on the bead during and after bead motion. We simultaneously image single fluorescent-labeled DNA molecules throughout the network to directly link the microscale stress response to molecular deformations. We characterize the deformation of the network from the molecular-level to the mesoscale, and map the stress propagation throughout the network. We further study the impact of DNA length (11 - 115 kbp) and topology (linear vs ring DNA) on deformation and propagation dynamics, exploring key nonlinear features such as tube dilation and power-law relaxation.
Structural entanglements in protein complexes
Zhao, Yani; Chwastyk, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek
2017-06-01
We consider multi-chain protein native structures and propose a criterion that determines whether two chains in the system are entangled or not. The criterion is based on the behavior observed by pulling at both termini of each chain simultaneously in the two chains. We have identified about 900 entangled systems in the Protein Data Bank and provided a more detailed analysis for several of them. We argue that entanglement enhances the thermodynamic stability of the system but it may have other functions: burying the hydrophobic residues at the interface and increasing the DNA or RNA binding area. We also study the folding and stretching properties of the knotted dimeric proteins MJ0366, YibK, and bacteriophytochrome. These proteins have been studied theoretically in their monomeric versions so far. The dimers are seen to separate on stretching through the tensile mechanism and the characteristic unraveling force depends on the pulling direction.
Entanglement in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isar, A.
2007-01-01
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups, we solve the master equation for two independent bosonic oscillators interacting with an environment in the asymptotic long-time regime. We give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix of the quantum states of the considered system for an arbitrary Gaussian input state. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems immersed in a common environment and evolving under a Markovian, completely positive dynamics become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that their non-local quantum correlations exist in the long-time regime. (author) Key words: quantum information theory, open systems, quantum entanglement, inseparable states
Global entanglement in XXZ chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canosa, N.; Rossignoli, R.
2006-01-01
We examine the thermal entanglement of XXZ-type Heisenberg chains in the presence of a uniform magnetic field along the z axes through the evaluation of the negativity associated with bipartitions of the whole system and subsystems. Limit temperatures for nonzero global negativities are shown to depend on the asymmetry Δ, but not on the uniform field, and can be much higher than those limiting pairwise entanglement. It is also shown that global bipartite entanglement may exist for T>0 even for Δ≥1, i.e., when the system is fully aligned (and hence separable) at T=0, and that the bipartition leading to the highest limit temperature depends on Δ
Measuring coherence with entanglement concurrence
Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli
2017-07-01
Quantum coherence is a fundamental manifestation of the quantum superposition principle. Recently, Baumgratz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 140401) presented a rigorous framework to quantify coherence from the view of theory of physical resource. Here we propose a new valid quantum coherence measure which is a convex roof measure, for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, essentially using the generalized Gell-Mann matrices. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed coherence measure, coherence concurrence, fulfills all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence measures. Moreover, strong links between the resource frameworks of coherence concurrence and entanglement concurrence is derived, which shows that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement based on two kinds of concurrence. This new coherence measure, coherence concurrence, may also be beneficial to the study of quantum coherence.
Berry phase in entangled systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertlmann, R.A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Durstberger, C.
2005-01-01
Full text: The influence of the geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, on an entangled spin-1/2 system is studied. We discuss in detail the case, where the geometric phase is generated only by one part of the Hilbert space. We are able to cancel the effects of the dynamical phase by using the 'spin-echo' method. We analyze how the Berry phase affects the Bell angles and the maximal violation of a CHSH-Bell inequality. Furthermore, we suggest an experimental realization of our setup within neutron interferometry. It is possible to create entanglement between different degrees of freedom (spin and spatial degree of freedom) for a single neutron. The influence of the geometrical phase on the entangled neutron state is tested experimentally which is work in progress. (author)
Quantum Entanglements: Selected Papers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannetto, E
2005-01-01
This book is a sort of tribute to Rob Clifton (1964-2002), Associate Professor of Philosophy and Associate Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh, philosopher of physics and editor of the journal Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, who tragically died of cancer. It contains fourteen papers by Clifton, for the most part written in collaboration with other authors (Jeffrey Bub (2), Sheldon Goldstein, Michael Dickson, Hans Halvorson (6), Adrian Kent (2)), published between 1995 and 2002. The choice of papers made by the editors is very impressive. They concern the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Among the issues discussed are the modal interpretations of quantum mechanics, the problems of hidden variables theories, non-locality, Bell's inequality, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, Lorentz invariance, de-coherence, non-contextuality, complementarity, entanglement and quantum information. A consequence of such investigations is that non-separability is a more complex issue than violation of Bell's inequality. Apart from the perspective one can follow-whether one agrees or not with Clifton-these papers are effective contributions to an understanding of the problems involved in the foundations of quantum mechanics. The most interesting parts, in my opinion, are related to the extension of the discussion of foundational problems to quantum field theory: on the algebraic approach, and on the twin concepts of particle and vacuum. Non-locality appears to be 'worse' in relativistic quantum field theory than in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. All the papers deal with relevant epistemological and even historical aspects of quantum mechanics interpretations, but all the issues are discussed from a technical, logical and mathematical approach. A complete bibliography of Clifton's papers is given at the end of the volume. (book review)
Entanglement evolution for quantum trajectories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogelsberger, S; Spehner, D
2011-01-01
Entanglement is a key resource in quantum information. It can be destroyed or sometimes created by interactions with a reservoir. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to the phenomena of entanglement sudden death and sudden birth, i.e., the sudden disappearance or revival of entanglement at finite times resulting from a coupling of the quantum system to its environment. We investigate the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. Because of these measurements, the qubits remain at all times in a pure state, which evolves randomly. To each measurement result (or 'realization') corresponds a quantum trajectory in the Hilbert space of the qubits. We show that for two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, the average of the qubits' concurrence over all quantum trajectories is either constant or decays exponentially. The corresponding decay rate depends on the measurement scheme only. This result contrasts with the entanglement sudden death phenomenon exhibited by the qubits' density matrix in the absence of measurements. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump dynamics (photon counting) as well as to quantum state diffusion (homodyne or heterodyne detections) in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect the entanglement of the qubits. We also analyze the case of two qubits coupled to a common bath. Then, the average concurrence can vanish at discrete times and may coincide with the concurrence of the density matrix. The results explained in this article have been presented during the 'Fifth International Workshop DICE2010' by the first author and have been the subject of a prior publication.
Entanglement Length in Miscible Blends of cis-Polyisoprene and Poly(ptert-butylstyrene)
Watanabe, Hiroshi; Matsumiya, Yumi
In miscible polymer blends, the entanglement length is common for the components, but its changes with the composition w remain unclear. For this problem, this study analyzed viscoelastic data for miscible blends of cis-polyisoprene (PI) and poly(ptert-butylstyrene) (PtBS), considering the basic feature that the local relaxation is determined only by wPI. On the basis of this feature, a series of unentangled low- M PI/PtBS blends having various M and a given wPI were utilized as references for well-entangled high- M PI/PtBS blends having the same wPI, and the modulus data of the references were subtracted from the high- M blend data. For an optimally chosen reference, the storage modulus Ge'of the high- M blends obtained after the subtraction exhibited a clear entanglement plateau GN and the corresponding Ge' ' decreased in proportion to 1/ ω at high frequencies ω. Thus, the onset of entanglement relaxation was detected. The GN values were well described by a linear mixing rule of the entanglement length with the number fraction of Kuhn segments of the components being utilized as the averaging weight. This result, not explained by a mean-field picture of entanglement, is discussed in relation to local packing of bulky PtBS chains and skinny PI chains.
Kröger, Martin
2005-06-01
We present an algorithm which returns a shortest path and related number of entanglements for a given configuration of a polymeric system in 2 or 3 dimensions. Rubinstein and Helfand, and later Everaers et al. introduced a concept to extract primitive paths for dense polymeric melts made of linear chains (a multiple disconnected multibead 'path'), where each primitive path is defined as a path connecting the (space-fixed) ends of a polymer under the constraint of non-interpenetration (excluded volume) between primitive paths of different chains, such that the multiple disconnected path fulfills a minimization criterion. The present algorithm uses geometrical operations and provides a—model independent—efficient approximate solution to this challenging problem. Primitive paths are treated as 'infinitely' thin (we further allow for finite thickness to model excluded volume), and tensionless lines rather than multibead chains, excluded volume is taken into account without a force law. The present implementation allows to construct a shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) for 2D systems (polymeric chain within spherical obstacles) and an optimal SP for 3D systems (collection of polymeric chains). The number of entanglements is then simply obtained from the SP as either the number of interior kinks, or from the average length of a line segment. Further, information about structure and potentially also the dynamics of entanglements is immediately available from the SP. We apply the method to study the 'concentration' dependence of the degree of entanglement in phantom chain systems. Program summaryTitle of program:Z Catalogue number:ADVG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Silicon Graphics (Irix), Sun (Solaris), PC (Linux) Operating systems or monitors under which the
Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus
2012-01-01
Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...
Deterministic chaos in entangled eigenstates
Schlegel, K. G.; Förster, S.
2008-05-01
We investigate the problem of deterministic chaos in connection with entangled states using the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. We show for a two particle system in a harmonic oscillator potential, that in a case of entanglement and three energy eigen-values the maximum Lyapunov-parameters of a representative ensemble of trajectories for large times develops to a narrow positive distribution, which indicates nearly complete chaotic dynamics. We also present in short results from two time-dependent systems, the anisotropic and the Rabi oscillator.
Deterministic chaos in entangled eigenstates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlegel, K.G. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany)], E-mail: guenter.schlegel@arcor.de; Foerster, S. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany)
2008-05-12
We investigate the problem of deterministic chaos in connection with entangled states using the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. We show for a two particle system in a harmonic oscillator potential, that in a case of entanglement and three energy eigen-values the maximum Lyapunov-parameters of a representative ensemble of trajectories for large times develops to a narrow positive distribution, which indicates nearly complete chaotic dynamics. We also present in short results from two time-dependent systems, the anisotropic and the Rabi oscillator.
Deterministic chaos in entangled eigenstates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlegel, K.G.; Foerster, S.
2008-01-01
We investigate the problem of deterministic chaos in connection with entangled states using the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. We show for a two particle system in a harmonic oscillator potential, that in a case of entanglement and three energy eigen-values the maximum Lyapunov-parameters of a representative ensemble of trajectories for large times develops to a narrow positive distribution, which indicates nearly complete chaotic dynamics. We also present in short results from two time-dependent systems, the anisotropic and the Rabi oscillator
Quantum entanglement: theory and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuch, N.
2007-10-10
This thesis deals with various questions concerning the quantification, the creation, and the application of quantum entanglement. Entanglement arises due to the restriction to local operations and classical communication. We investigate how the notion of entanglement changes if additional restrictions in form of a superselection rule are imposed and show that they give rise to a new resource. We characterize this resource and demonstrate that it can be used to overcome the restrictions, very much as entanglement can overcome the restriction to local operations by teleportation. We next turn towards the optimal generation of resources. We show how squeezing can be generated as efficiently as possible from noisy squeezing operations supplemented by noiseless passive operations, and discuss the implications of this result to the optimal generation of entanglement. The difficulty in describing the behaviour of correlated quantum many-body systems is ultimately due to the complicated entanglement structure of multipartite states. Using quantum information techniques, we investigate the ground state properties of lattices of harmonic oscillators. We derive an exponential decay of correlations for gapped systems, compute the dependence of correlation length and gap, and investigate the notion of criticality by relating a vanishing energy gap to an algebraic decay of correlations. Recently, ideas from entanglement theory have been applied to the description of many-body systems. Matrix Product States (MPS), which have a particularly simple interpretation from the point of quantum information, perform extremely well in approximating the ground states of local Hamiltonians. It is generally believed that this is due to the fact that both ground states and MPS obey an entropic area law. We clarify the relation between entropy scaling laws and approximability by MPS, and in particular find that an area law does not necessarily imply approximability. Using the quantum
Quantum entanglement: theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuch, N.
2007-01-01
This thesis deals with various questions concerning the quantification, the creation, and the application of quantum entanglement. Entanglement arises due to the restriction to local operations and classical communication. We investigate how the notion of entanglement changes if additional restrictions in form of a superselection rule are imposed and show that they give rise to a new resource. We characterize this resource and demonstrate that it can be used to overcome the restrictions, very much as entanglement can overcome the restriction to local operations by teleportation. We next turn towards the optimal generation of resources. We show how squeezing can be generated as efficiently as possible from noisy squeezing operations supplemented by noiseless passive operations, and discuss the implications of this result to the optimal generation of entanglement. The difficulty in describing the behaviour of correlated quantum many-body systems is ultimately due to the complicated entanglement structure of multipartite states. Using quantum information techniques, we investigate the ground state properties of lattices of harmonic oscillators. We derive an exponential decay of correlations for gapped systems, compute the dependence of correlation length and gap, and investigate the notion of criticality by relating a vanishing energy gap to an algebraic decay of correlations. Recently, ideas from entanglement theory have been applied to the description of many-body systems. Matrix Product States (MPS), which have a particularly simple interpretation from the point of quantum information, perform extremely well in approximating the ground states of local Hamiltonians. It is generally believed that this is due to the fact that both ground states and MPS obey an entropic area law. We clarify the relation between entropy scaling laws and approximability by MPS, and in particular find that an area law does not necessarily imply approximability. Using the quantum
On the dynamics of polymers in dense systems - Results of neutron spin echo spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, D.
1997-01-01
One of the basic problems in the dynamics of polymers concerns the importance of geometrical or topological interactions which are directly related to the large scale molecular structures. In the famous reptation model these constraints are pictured in terms of a tube of localization following the average chain profile and confining the chain motion to the curve-linear tube. Recently studying the dynamic structure factor of a single labeled chain in a polymer melt by means of neutron spin echo spectroscopy (NSE) led to a direct observation of these tube constraints. Here I shall summarize these neutron spin echo experiments. I shall address the NSE technique, present results on the entropy driven segmental chain dynamics, discuss the dynamics of single chains in the melt where the chain length is increased through the transition to 'reptation' dynamics and display NSE measurements on long chain systems which revealed the molecular existence of the entanglement distance. Their magnitudes agree very well with tube diameters derived from dynamical mechanical measurements on the basis of the reptation model proving thereby the basic assumption of this Nobel Price winning concept
Benchmarks and statistics of entanglement dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiersch, Markus
2009-01-01
In the present thesis we investigate how the quantum entanglement of multicomponent systems evolves under realistic conditions. More specifically, we focus on open quantum systems coupled to the (uncontrolled) degrees of freedom of an environment. We identify key quantities that describe the entanglement dynamics, and provide efficient tools for its calculation. For quantum systems of high dimension, entanglement dynamics can be characterized with high precision. In the first part of this work, we derive evolution equations for entanglement. These formulas determine the entanglement after a given time in terms of a product of two distinct quantities: the initial amount of entanglement and a factor that merely contains the parameters that characterize the dynamics. The latter is given by the entanglement evolution of an initially maximally entangled state. A maximally entangled state thus benchmarks the dynamics, and hence allows for the immediate calculation or - under more general conditions - estimation of the change in entanglement. Thereafter, a statistical analysis supports that the derived (in-)equalities describe the entanglement dynamics of the majority of weakly mixed and thus experimentally highly relevant states with high precision. The second part of this work approaches entanglement dynamics from a topological perspective. This allows for a quantitative description with a minimum amount of assumptions about Hilbert space (sub-)structure and environment coupling. In particular, we investigate the limit of increasing system size and density of states, i.e. the macroscopic limit. In this limit, a universal behaviour of entanglement emerges following a ''reference trajectory'', similar to the central role of the entanglement dynamics of a maximally entangled state found in the first part of the present work. (orig.)
Benchmarks and statistics of entanglement dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tiersch, Markus
2009-09-04
In the present thesis we investigate how the quantum entanglement of multicomponent systems evolves under realistic conditions. More specifically, we focus on open quantum systems coupled to the (uncontrolled) degrees of freedom of an environment. We identify key quantities that describe the entanglement dynamics, and provide efficient tools for its calculation. For quantum systems of high dimension, entanglement dynamics can be characterized with high precision. In the first part of this work, we derive evolution equations for entanglement. These formulas determine the entanglement after a given time in terms of a product of two distinct quantities: the initial amount of entanglement and a factor that merely contains the parameters that characterize the dynamics. The latter is given by the entanglement evolution of an initially maximally entangled state. A maximally entangled state thus benchmarks the dynamics, and hence allows for the immediate calculation or - under more general conditions - estimation of the change in entanglement. Thereafter, a statistical analysis supports that the derived (in-)equalities describe the entanglement dynamics of the majority of weakly mixed and thus experimentally highly relevant states with high precision. The second part of this work approaches entanglement dynamics from a topological perspective. This allows for a quantitative description with a minimum amount of assumptions about Hilbert space (sub-)structure and environment coupling. In particular, we investigate the limit of increasing system size and density of states, i.e. the macroscopic limit. In this limit, a universal behaviour of entanglement emerges following a ''reference trajectory'', similar to the central role of the entanglement dynamics of a maximally entangled state found in the first part of the present work. (orig.)
Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho; Venerus, David C.
2000-01-01
A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data......, and suggests a novel analysis of the data. This analysis demonstrates thatexponential shearing flow is no more capable of stretching polymer chains than is inception of steady shear at comparableinstantaneous shear rates. In fact, all exponential shear flow stresses measured are bounded quantitatively...
Transverse entanglement migration in Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, K. W.; Torres, J. P.; Eberly, J. H.
2007-01-01
We show that, although the amount of mutual entanglement of photons propagating in free space is fixed, the type of correlations between the photons that determine the entanglement can dramatically change during propagation. We show that this amounts to a migration of entanglement in Hilbert space, rather than real space. For the case of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, the migration of entanglement in transverse coordinates takes place from modulus to phase of the biphoton state and back again. We propose an experiment to observe this migration in Hilbert space and to determine the full entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Folland, R.; Charlesby, A.
1977-01-01
Pulsed NMR studies of proton spin relaxation are used to investigate both radiation-induced cross linking and entanglements in three high molecular weight linear polydimethylsiloxanes (Msub(w) = 26,000, 63,000 and 110,000). Particular emphasis is placed on the spin-spin relaxation since this is determined by the slower relative translational motions of the polymer chains and hence profoundly affected by the presence of intermolecular couplings such as crosslinks or entanglements. The spin-lattice relaxation times, T 1 , are determined by the fast anisotropic chain rotations and are rather insensitive to such intermolecular couplings. The spin-spin relaxation in these materials is represented by a double exponential decay involving two time constants, Tsub(2S) and Tsub(2L). The shorter component, Tsub(2S), is attributed to network material, which may be either of a dynamic form arising from temporary entanglements or of a permanent nature due to crosslinks. The concentration of entanglements depends on the initial molecular weight of the sample whereas the concentration of crosslinks is a function of the radiation dose. The longer component, Tsub(2L), is attributed to the non-network molecules. On the time scale of the NMR measurements the entanglements are shown to act in the same way as crosslinks. The variation of the relative proportions of network and non-network material with dose is shown to be accounted for by using standard gelation theory when allowance is made for the initial effective crosslink density due to entanglements. The analysis provides a value for the average molecular weight per entanglement point of 27,000 +- 1000 which is consistent with the critical molecular weight for entanglements of 29,000. The dependences of Tsub(2S) and Tsub(2L) on dose and molecular weight are also discussed in terms of the molecular motion. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Bach, Anders; Hassager, Ole
2002-01-01
We investigate the transient uni-axial eextensional viscosity of polymer melts by means of a filament strecthing rheometer.......We investigate the transient uni-axial eextensional viscosity of polymer melts by means of a filament strecthing rheometer....
Characterization of two-qubit perfect entanglers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezakhani, A.T.
2004-01-01
Here we consider perfect entanglers from another perspective. It is shown that there are some special perfect entanglers which can maximally entangle a full product basis. We explicitly construct a one-parameter family of such entanglers together with the proper product basis that they maximally entangle. This special family of perfect entanglers contains some well-known operators such as controlled-NOT (CNOT) and double-CNOT, but not √(SWAP). In addition, it is shown that all perfect entanglers with entangling power equal to the maximal value (2/9) are also special perfect entanglers. It is proved that the one-parameter family is the only possible set of special perfect entanglers. Also we provide an analytic way to implement any arbitrary two-qubit gate, given a proper special perfect entangler supplemented with single-qubit gates. Such gates are shown to provide a minimum universal gate construction in that just two of them are necessary and sufficient in implementation of a generic two-qubit gate
Continuous variable polarization entanglement, experiment and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowen, Warwick P; Treps, Nicolas; Schnabel, Roman; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy
2003-01-01
We generate and characterize continuous variable polarization entanglement between two optical beams. We first produce quadrature entanglement, and by performing local operations we transform it into a polarization basis. We extend two entanglement criteria, the inseparability criteria proposed by Duan et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox criteria proposed by Reid and Drummond (1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 2731), to Stokes operators; and use them to characterize the entanglement. Our results for the EPR paradox criteria are visualized in terms of uncertainty balls on the Poincare sphere. We demonstrate theoretically that using two quadrature entangled pairs it is possible to entangle three orthogonal Stokes operators between a pair of beams, although with a bound √3 times more stringent than for the quadrature entanglement
Continuous variable polarization entanglement, experiment and analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowen, Warwick P [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Treps, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Schnabel, Roman [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Ralph, Timothy C [Department of Physics, Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Lam, Ping Koy [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2003-08-01
We generate and characterize continuous variable polarization entanglement between two optical beams. We first produce quadrature entanglement, and by performing local operations we transform it into a polarization basis. We extend two entanglement criteria, the inseparability criteria proposed by Duan et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox criteria proposed by Reid and Drummond (1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 2731), to Stokes operators; and use them to characterize the entanglement. Our results for the EPR paradox criteria are visualized in terms of uncertainty balls on the Poincare sphere. We demonstrate theoretically that using two quadrature entangled pairs it is possible to entangle three orthogonal Stokes operators between a pair of beams, although with a bound {radical}3 times more stringent than for the quadrature entanglement.
Entanglement and decoherence in high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertlmann, R.
2005-01-01
Full text: The phenomenon of entanglement occurs in very heavy quantum systems of particle physics. We find analogies but also differences to the entangled spin-1/2 or photon systems. In particular we discuss the features of entangled 'strangeness', the K-meson system, where a Bell inequality exists which has a remarkable connection to CP (charge conjugation and parity) and its violation. Stability of entangled quantum states is studied by allowing the system to interact with an environment. We consider possible decoherence of entangled 'beauty', the B-meson system, produced at the particle colliders at very high energies (10 GeV). Finally, we discuss a criterion for detecting entangled/separable states, a generalized Bell inequality and entanglement witness. We illustrate its geometric features by the two-spin example Alice and Bob. (author)
Entanglement in Gaussian matrix-product states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie
2006-01-01
Gaussian matrix-product states are obtained as the outputs of projection operations from an ancillary space of M infinitely entangled bonds connecting neighboring sites, applied at each of N sites of a harmonic chain. Replacing the projections by associated Gaussian states, the building blocks, we show that the entanglement range in translationally invariant Gaussian matrix-product states depends on how entangled the building blocks are. In particular, infinite entanglement in the building blocks produces fully symmetric Gaussian states with maximum entanglement range. From their peculiar properties of entanglement sharing, a basic difference with spin chains is revealed: Gaussian matrix-product states can possess unlimited, long-range entanglement even with minimum number of ancillary bonds (M=1). Finally we discuss how these states can be experimentally engineered from N copies of a three-mode building block and N two-mode finitely squeezed states
Classical-driving-assisted entanglement dynamics control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Ying-Jie, E-mail: yingjiezhang@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Han, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: yjxia@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100190 (China)
2017-04-15
We propose a scheme of controlling entanglement dynamics of a quantum system by applying the external classical driving field for two atoms separately located in a single-mode photon cavity. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the classical-driving strength and the atom–photon detuning, the effective atom–photon interaction Hamiltonian can be switched from Jaynes–Cummings model to anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. By tuning the controllable atom–photon interaction induced by the classical field, we illustrate that the evolution trajectory of the Bell-like entanglement states can be manipulated from entanglement-sudden-death to no-entanglement-sudden-death, from no-entanglement-invariant to entanglement-invariant. Furthermore, the robustness of the initial Bell-like entanglement can be improved by the classical driving field in the leaky cavities. This classical-driving-assisted architecture can be easily extensible to multi-atom quantum system for scalability.
Optimal Entanglement Witnesses for Qubits and Qutrits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertlmann, R.A.; Durstberger, K.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Krammer, P.
2005-01-01
Full text: We give a review of the connection between an optimal entanglement witness and the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states): a generalized Bell inequality is derived within the concept of entanglement witnesses, in the sense that a violation of the inequality detects entanglement and not non-locality liKEX usual Bell inequalities do. It can be seen that the maximal violation equals the Hilbert-Schmidt measure. Furthermore, since finding the nearest separable state to a given entangled state is rather difficult, a method for checking an estimated nearest separable state is presented. This is illustrated with isotropic qubit and qutrit states; the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, the optimal entanglement witness and the maximal violation of the GBI are calculated for those cases. Possible generalizations for arbitrary dimensions are discussed. (author)
Stability of inflation processes with polymer melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Hassager, Ole
2002-01-01
is performed applying a gas pressure into the core of the cylinder, which press the molten plastic cylinder outward. During the inflation the plastic may burst. The occurrence of this burst, or break, puts a limit on the possibility to produce a specified product at some, or all, processing conditions. Here...
Bessel-Gaussian entanglement; presentation
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mclaren, M
2013-07-01
Full Text Available mode Hologram Page 9 Violation of Bell’s inequality demonstrates entanglement © CSIR 2013 www.csir.co.za P ro b ab il it y Classical Quantum mechanical M. McLaren et al.,2012, Opt. Express, 20, 23589 Page 10 Comparison...
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zizzi, P A
2007-01-01
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zizzi, P A [Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Via Trieste 63, 35121 Padova (Italy)
2007-05-15
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing.
Transitivity of an entangled choice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W
2011-01-01
We describe a quantum model of a simple choice game (constructed upon the entangled state of two qubits), which involves the fundamental problem of transitive-intransitive preferences. We compare attainability of optimal intransitive strategies in both classical and quantum models with the use of geometrical interpretation.
Entangling light in high dimensions
Pors, Jan Bardeus
2011-01-01
Quantum entanglement is a fundamental trait of quantum mechanics that causes the information about the properties of two (or more) objects to be inextricably linked. When a measurement on one of the objects is performed, the state of the other object is immediately altered, even when these objects
Computational complexity in entanglement transformations
Chitambar, Eric A.
In physics, systems having three parts are typically much more difficult to analyze than those having just two. Even in classical mechanics, predicting the motion of three interacting celestial bodies remains an insurmountable challenge while the analogous two-body problem has an elementary solution. It is as if just by adding a third party, a fundamental change occurs in the structure of the problem that renders it unsolvable. In this thesis, we demonstrate how such an effect is likewise present in the theory of quantum entanglement. In fact, the complexity differences between two-party and three-party entanglement become quite conspicuous when comparing the difficulty in deciding what state changes are possible for these systems when no additional entanglement is consumed in the transformation process. We examine this entanglement transformation question and its variants in the language of computational complexity theory, a powerful subject that formalizes the concept of problem difficulty. Since deciding feasibility of a specified bipartite transformation is relatively easy, this task belongs to the complexity class P. On the other hand, for tripartite systems, we find the problem to be NP-Hard, meaning that its solution is at least as hard as the solution to some of the most difficult problems humans have encountered. One can then rigorously defend the assertion that a fundamental complexity difference exists between bipartite and tripartite entanglement since unlike the former, the full range of forms realizable by the latter is incalculable (assuming P≠NP). However, similar to the three-body celestial problem, when one examines a special subclass of the problem---invertible transformations on systems having at least one qubit subsystem---we prove that the problem can be solved efficiently. As a hybrid of the two questions, we find that the question of tripartite to bipartite transformations can be solved by an efficient randomized algorithm. Our results are
Physics of Polymers under Nanoscopic Confinement: a Single Molecule Study
Keshavarz, M.
2016-01-01
Physicist Masoumeh Keshavarz studied the thermal motion of a fluorescently labelled, individual “reporter” polymer molecule, surrounded and entangled by a gel of similar but unlabelled polymers. Owing to their extreme length and stiffness, it is possible to follow the shape and the motion of the
Displacement-enhanced entanglement distillation of single-mode-squeezed entangled states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tipsmark, Anders; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
It has been shown that entanglement distillation of Gaussian entangled states by means of local photon subtraction can be improved by local Gaussian transformations. Here we show that a similar effect can be expected for the distillation of an asymmetric Gaussian entangled state that is produced...... by a single squeezed beam. We show that for low initial entanglement, our largely simplified protocol generates more entanglement than previous proposed protocols. Furthermore, we show that the distillation scheme also works efficiently on decohered entangled states as well as with a practical photon...
Local copying of orthogonal entangled quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmi, Fabio; Chefles, Anthony; Plenio, Martin B
2004-01-01
In classical information theory one can, in principle, produce a perfect copy of any input state. In quantum information theory, the no cloning theorem prohibits exact copying of non-orthogonal states. Moreover, if we wish to copy multiparticle entangled states and can perform only local operations and classical communication (LOCC), then further restrictions apply. We investigate the problem of copying orthogonal, entangled quantum states with an entangled blank state under the restriction to LOCC. Throughout, the subsystems have finite dimension D. We show that if all of the states to be copied are non-maximally entangled, then novel LOCC copying procedures based on entanglement catalysis are possible. We then study in detail the LOCC copying problem where both the blank state and at least one of the states to be copied are maximally entangled. For this to be possible, we find that all the states to be copied must be maximally entangled. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for LOCC copying under these conditions. For two orthogonal, maximally entangled states, we provide the general solution to this condition. We use it to show that for D = 2, 3, any pair of orthogonal, maximally entangled states can be locally copied using a maximally entangled blank state. However, we also show that for any D which is not prime, one can construct pairs of such states for which this is impossible
Entanglement dynamics in quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cubitt, T.S.
2007-03-29
This thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement dynamics, that is, the behaviour of entanglement in systems that are evolving with time. Progressively more complex multipartite systems are considered, starting with low-dimensional tripartite systems, whose entanglement dynamics can nonetheless display surprising properties, progressing through larger networks of interacting particles, and finishing with infinitely large lattice models. Firstly, what is perhaps the most basic question in entanglement dynamics is considered: what resources are necessary in order to create entanglement between distant particles? The answer is surprising: sending separable states between the parties is sufficient; entanglement can be created without it being carried by a ''messenger'' particle. The analogous result also holds in the continuous-time case: two particles interacting indirectly via a common ancilla particle can be entangled without the ancilla ever itself becoming entangled. The latter result appears to discount any notion of entanglement flow. However, for pure states, this intuitive idea can be recovered, and even made quantitative. A ''bottleneck'' inequality is derived that relates the entanglement rate of the end particles in a tripartite chain to the entanglement of the middle one. In particular, no entanglement can be created if the middle particle is not entangled. However, although this result can be applied to general interaction networks, it does not capture the full entanglement dynamics of these more complex systems. This is remedied by the derivation of entanglement rate equations, loosely analogous to the rate equations describing a chemical reaction. A complete set of rate equations for a system reflects the full structure of its interaction network, and can be used to prove a lower bound on the scaling with chain length of the time required to entangle the ends of a chain. Finally, in contrast with these more
Entanglement dynamics in quantum information theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cubitt, T.S.
2007-01-01
This thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement dynamics, that is, the behaviour of entanglement in systems that are evolving with time. Progressively more complex multipartite systems are considered, starting with low-dimensional tripartite systems, whose entanglement dynamics can nonetheless display surprising properties, progressing through larger networks of interacting particles, and finishing with infinitely large lattice models. Firstly, what is perhaps the most basic question in entanglement dynamics is considered: what resources are necessary in order to create entanglement between distant particles? The answer is surprising: sending separable states between the parties is sufficient; entanglement can be created without it being carried by a ''messenger'' particle. The analogous result also holds in the continuous-time case: two particles interacting indirectly via a common ancilla particle can be entangled without the ancilla ever itself becoming entangled. The latter result appears to discount any notion of entanglement flow. However, for pure states, this intuitive idea can be recovered, and even made quantitative. A ''bottleneck'' inequality is derived that relates the entanglement rate of the end particles in a tripartite chain to the entanglement of the middle one. In particular, no entanglement can be created if the middle particle is not entangled. However, although this result can be applied to general interaction networks, it does not capture the full entanglement dynamics of these more complex systems. This is remedied by the derivation of entanglement rate equations, loosely analogous to the rate equations describing a chemical reaction. A complete set of rate equations for a system reflects the full structure of its interaction network, and can be used to prove a lower bound on the scaling with chain length of the time required to entangle the ends of a chain. Finally, in contrast with these more abstract results, the entanglement and
Entanglement rules for holographic Fermi surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dibakar Roychowdhury
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, based on the notion of Gauge/Gravity duality, we explore the laws of entanglement thermodynamics for most generic classes of Quantum Field Theories with hyperscaling violation. In our analysis, we note that for Quantum Field Theories with compressible quark like excitation, the first law of entanglement thermodynamics gets modified due to the presence of an additional term that could be identified as the entanglement chemical potential associated with hidden Fermi surfaces of the boundary theory. Most notably, we find that the so called entanglement chemical potential does not depend on the size of the entangling region and is purely determined by the quark d.o.f. encoded within the entangling region.
Entanglement between two spatially separated atomic modes
Lange, Karsten; Peise, Jan; Lücke, Bernd; Kruse, Ilka; Vitagliano, Giuseppe; Apellaniz, Iagoba; Kleinmann, Matthias; Tóth, Géza; Klempt, Carsten
2018-04-01
Modern quantum technologies in the fields of quantum computing, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology require the creation and control of large ensembles of entangled particles. In ultracold ensembles of neutral atoms, nonclassical states have been generated with mutual entanglement among thousands of particles. The entanglement generation relies on the fundamental particle-exchange symmetry in ensembles of identical particles, which lacks the standard notion of entanglement between clearly definable subsystems. Here, we present the generation of entanglement between two spatially separated clouds by splitting an ensemble of ultracold identical particles prepared in a twin Fock state. Because the clouds can be addressed individually, our experiments open a path to exploit the available entangled states of indistinguishable particles for quantum information applications.
Entanglement rules for holographic Fermi surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roychowdhury, Dibakar, E-mail: dibakarphys@gmail.com
2016-08-15
In this paper, based on the notion of Gauge/Gravity duality, we explore the laws of entanglement thermodynamics for most generic classes of Quantum Field Theories with hyperscaling violation. In our analysis, we note that for Quantum Field Theories with compressible quark like excitation, the first law of entanglement thermodynamics gets modified due to the presence of an additional term that could be identified as the entanglement chemical potential associated with hidden Fermi surfaces of the boundary theory. Most notably, we find that the so called entanglement chemical potential does not depend on the size of the entangling region and is purely determined by the quark d.o.f. encoded within the entangling region.
Entanglement criteria for microscopic-macroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spagnolo, Nicolo; Vitelli, Chiara; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco
2010-01-01
We discuss the conclusions that can be drawn on a recent experimental micro-macro entanglement test [De Martini, Sciarrino, and Vitelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253601 (2008)]. The system under investigation is generated through optical parametric amplification of one photon belonging to an entangled pair. The adopted entanglement criterion makes it possible to infer the presence of entanglement before losses that occur on the macrostate under a specific assumption. In particular, an a priori knowledge of the system that generates the micro-macro pair is necessary to exclude a class of separable states that can reproduce the obtained experimental results. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of a micro-macro ''genuine'' entanglement test on the analyzed system by considering different strategies, which show that in principle a fraction ε, proportional to the number of photons that survive the lossy process, of the original entanglement persists in any loss regime.
Entangled photons and quantum communication
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuan Zhensheng, E-mail: yuanzs@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bao Xiaohui [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lu Chaoyang; Zhang Jun; Peng Chengzhi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Pan Jianwei, E-mail: pan@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2010-12-15
This article reviews the progress of quantum communication that utilizes photonic entanglement. We start with a survey of various methods for generating entangled photons, followed by an introduction of the theoretical principles and the experimental implementations of quantum key distribution. We then move on to a discussion of more involved quantum communication protocols including quantum dense coding, teleportation and quantum communication complexity. After that, we review the progress in free-space quantum communication, decoherence-free subspace, and quantum repeater protocols which are essential ingredients for long-distance quantum communication. Practical realizations of quantum repeaters, which require an interface between photons and quantum memories, are discussed briefly. Finally, we draw concluding remarks considering the technical challenges, and put forward an outlook on further developments of this field.
Quantum steganography using prior entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihara, Takashi
2015-01-01
Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography
Quantum steganography using prior entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp
2015-06-05
Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.
Experimental quantum computing without entanglement.
Lanyon, B P; Barbieri, M; Almeida, M P; White, A G
2008-11-14
Deterministic quantum computation with one pure qubit (DQC1) is an efficient model of computation that uses highly mixed states. Unlike pure-state models, its power is not derived from the generation of a large amount of entanglement. Instead it has been proposed that other nonclassical correlations are responsible for the computational speedup, and that these can be captured by the quantum discord. In this Letter we implement DQC1 in an all-optical architecture, and experimentally observe the generated correlations. We find no entanglement, but large amounts of quantum discord-except in three cases where an efficient classical simulation is always possible. Our results show that even fully separable, highly mixed, states can contain intrinsically quantum mechanical correlations and that these could offer a valuable resource for quantum information technologies.
Entangled photons and quantum communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Zhensheng; Bao Xiaohui; Lu Chaoyang; Zhang Jun; Peng Chengzhi; Pan Jianwei
2010-01-01
This article reviews the progress of quantum communication that utilizes photonic entanglement. We start with a survey of various methods for generating entangled photons, followed by an introduction of the theoretical principles and the experimental implementations of quantum key distribution. We then move on to a discussion of more involved quantum communication protocols including quantum dense coding, teleportation and quantum communication complexity. After that, we review the progress in free-space quantum communication, decoherence-free subspace, and quantum repeater protocols which are essential ingredients for long-distance quantum communication. Practical realizations of quantum repeaters, which require an interface between photons and quantum memories, are discussed briefly. Finally, we draw concluding remarks considering the technical challenges, and put forward an outlook on further developments of this field.
Quantum entanglement at negative temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, G B; Meerovich, V M; Sokolovsky, V L
2013-01-01
An isolated spin system that is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium and that has an upper limit to its allowed energy states can possess a negative temperature. We calculate the thermodynamic characteristics and the concurrence in this system over the entire range of positive and negative temperatures. Our calculation was performed for different real structures, which can be used in experiments. It is found that the temperature dependence of the concurrence is substantially asymmetrical similarly to other thermodynamic characteristics. At a negative temperature the maximum concurrence and the absolute temperature of the entanglement appearance are significantly larger than those at a positive temperature. The concurrence can be characterized by two dimensionless parameters: the ratio between the Zeeman and dipolar energies and the ratio of the thermal and dipolar energies. It was shown that for all considered structures the dimensionless temperatures of the transition between entanglement and separability of the first and second spins are independent of spin structure and the number of spins. (paper)
Increasing Entanglement between Gaussian States by Coherent Photon Subtraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Tualle Brouri, Rosa
2007-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement between Gaussian entangled states can be increased by non-Gaussian operations. Coherent subtraction of single photons from Gaussian quadrature-entangled light pulses, created by a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, produces delocalized states...
Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy
Fan, Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi
2002-01-01
We define the concurrence hierarchy as d-1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters et al in 2-level quantum system and generalized to d-level pure quantum states case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication.
Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boer, Jan de [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2016-08-29
We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.
Entanglement and inhibited quantum evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toschek, P E; Balzer, Chr; Hannemann, Th; Wunderlich, Ch; Neuhauser, W
2003-01-01
The evolution of a quantum system is impeded by the system's state being observed. A test on an ensemble neither proves the causal nexus nor discloses the nature of the inhibition. Two recent experiments that make use of sequential optical or microwave-optical double resonance on an individual trapped ion disprove a dynamical effect of back action by meter or environment. They rather indicate the ionic states involved in the evolution being entangled with the potentially recorded bivalued scattered-light signal
Spin entanglement, decoherence and Bohm's EPR paradox
Cavalcanti, E. G.; Drummond, P. D.; Bachor, H. A.; Reid, M. D.
2007-01-01
We obtain criteria for entanglement and the EPR paradox for spin-entangled particles and analyse the effects of decoherence caused by absorption and state purity errors. For a two qubit photonic state, entanglement can occur for all transmission efficiencies. In this case, the state preparation purity must be above a threshold value. However, Bohm's spin EPR paradox can be achieved only above a critical level of loss. We calculate a required efficiency of 58%, which appears achievable with cu...
Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio
2009-12-01
We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .
Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano
2009-01-01
We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.
Variation of entanglement entropy in scattering process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seki, Shigenori, E-mail: sigenori@hanyang.ac.kr [Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, I.Y., E-mail: inyongpark05@gmail.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, Philander Smith College, Little Rock, AR 72223 (United States); Sin, Sang-Jin, E-mail: sjsin@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-09
In a scattering process, the final state is determined by an initial state and an S-matrix. We focus on two-particle scattering processes and consider the entanglement between these particles. For two types initial states, i.e., an unentangled state and an entangled one, we calculate perturbatively the change of entanglement entropy from the initial state to the final one. Then we show a few examples in a field theory and in quantum mechanics.
Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.
2010-01-01
We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....
Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Qiang; Zhi Qijun; Zhang Xiaoping; Ren Zhongzhou
2011-01-01
We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qutrit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth. (authors)
Experimental generation of complex noisy photonic entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobek, K; Banaszek, K; Karpiński, M; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, R; Horodecki, P
2013-01-01
We present an experimental scheme based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion to produce multiple-photon pairs in maximally entangled polarization states using an arrangement of two type-I nonlinear crystals. By introducing correlated polarization noise in the paths of the generated photons we prepare mixed-entangled states whose properties illustrate fundamental results obtained recently in quantum information theory, in particular those concerning bound entanglement and privacy. (paper)
Quantum dialogue using non-maximally entangled states based on entanglement swapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Yan; Song Jie; Song Heshan
2007-01-01
We present a secure quantum dialogue protocol using non-maximally entangled two-particle states via entanglement swapping at first, and then discuss the requirements for a real quantum dialogue. Within the present version two authorized users can exchange their faithful secret messages securely and simultaneously based on the method of entanglement purification
Time evolution of the Wigner function in the entangled-state representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Hongyi
2002-01-01
For quantum-mechanical entangled states we introduce the entangled Wigner operator in the entangled-state representation. We derive the time evolution equation of the entangled Wigner operator . The trace product rule for entangled Wigner functions is also obtained
Entanglement dynamics in random media
Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N. F.; Zarro, C. A. D.
2017-12-01
We study how the entanglement dynamics between two-level atoms is impacted by random fluctuations of the light cone. In our model the two-atom system is envisaged as an open system coupled with an electromagnetic field in the vacuum state. We employ the quantum master equation in the Born-Markov approximation in order to describe the completely positive time evolution of the atomic system. We restrict our investigations to the situation in which the atoms are coupled individually to two spatially separated cavities, one of which displays the emergence of light-cone fluctuations. In such a disordered cavity, we assume that the coefficients of the Klein-Gordon equation are random functions of the spatial coordinates. The disordered medium is modeled by a centered, stationary, and Gaussian process. We demonstrate that disorder has the effect of slowing down the entanglement decay. We conjecture that in a strong-disorder environment the mean life of entangled states can be enhanced in such a way as to almost completely suppress quantum nonlocal decoherence.
Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Huangjun; Teo Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-01-01
We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The witnesses can be measured successively; if all of them give an inconclusive result, one exploits their tomographic completeness for a reconstruction of the quantum state and can then determine its entanglement properties by data processing. There are witnesses that are optimal for this purpose. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic construction and illustrate the matter with the example of two qubits. For the case of two polarization qubits of photons, we show how existing technology can be used to implement the optimized witnesses in a very efficient way. Owing to the details of the implementation, which actually measures the eigenstate basis of the witness rather than solely determining the expectation value of the witness, one does not need to measure more than six witnesses in this example of a 16-dimensional state space.
Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses
Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-05-01
We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The witnesses can be measured successively; if all of them give an inconclusive result, one exploits their tomographic completeness for a reconstruction of the quantum state and can then determine its entanglement properties by data processing. There are witnesses that are optimal for this purpose. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic construction and illustrate the matter with the example of two qubits. For the case of two polarization qubits of photons, we show how existing technology can be used to implement the optimized witnesses in a very efficient way. Owing to the details of the implementation, which actually measures the eigenstate basis of the witness rather than solely determining the expectation value of the witness, one does not need to measure more than six witnesses in this example of a 16-dimensional state space.
Entanglement Swapping in the Presence of White and Color Noise
Dotsenko, Ivan S.; Korobka, R.
2018-02-01
The influence of white and color noise on the outcome of the entanglement swapping process is investigated in a four-qubit system. Critical degree of noise in initial state, that could destroy entanglement in a result state is presented. The entanglement characteristics, such as concurrence, tangle, etc. are compared. Results could be helpful for experiments regarding entanglement swapping as conditions for initial quantum entangled states, to obtain entangled result state.
Entanglement property in matrix product spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jingmin
2012-01-01
We study the entanglement property in matrix product spin-ring systems systemically by von Neumann entropy. We find that: (i) the Hilbert space dimension of one spin determines the upper limit of the maximal value of the entanglement entropy of one spin, while for multiparticle entanglement entropy, the upper limit of the maximal value depends on the dimension of the representation matrices. Based on the theory, we can realize the maximum of the entanglement entropy of any spin block by choosing the appropriate control parameter values. (ii) When the entanglement entropy of one spin takes its maximal value, the entanglement entropy of an asymptotically large spin block, i.e. the renormalization group fixed point, is not likely to take its maximal value, and so only the entanglement entropy S n of a spin block that varies with size n can fully characterize the spin-ring entanglement feature. Finally, we give the entanglement dynamics, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the matrix product system. (author)
Quantum communication using a multiqubit entangled channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghose, Shohini, E-mail: sghose@wlu.ca [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Hamel, Angele [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)
2015-12-31
We describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state. The multiqubit channel used for teleportation is genuinely 4-qubit entangled and is not equivalent to a product of maximally entangled Bell pairs under local unitary operations. We discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported. Such an all-or-nothing scheme cannot be implemented with standard two-qubit entangled Bell pairs and can be useful for different communication and computing tasks.
Entanglement polygon inequality in qubit systems
Qian, Xiao-Feng; Alonso, Miguel A.; Eberly, J. H.
2018-06-01
We prove a set of tight entanglement inequalities for arbitrary N-qubit pure states. By focusing on all bi-partite marginal entanglements between each single qubit and its remaining partners, we show that the inequalities provide an upper bound for each marginal entanglement, while the known monogamy relation establishes the lower bound. The restrictions and sharing properties associated with the inequalities are further analyzed with a geometric polytope approach, and examples of three-qubit GHZ-class and W-class entangled states are presented to illustrate the results.
Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation.
Jacobson, Ted
2016-05-20
A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy.
Melting under shock compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, B.I.
1980-10-01
A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions
Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, Thomas S.; Hearon, II, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P.
2017-01-10
This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.
Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers
Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P
2014-11-11
This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.
On entanglement spreading from holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mezei, Márk [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2017-05-11
A global quench is an interesting setting where we can study thermalization of subsystems in a pure state. We investigate entanglement entropy (EE) growth in global quenches in holographic field theories and relate some of its aspects to quantities characterizing chaos. More specifically we obtain four key results: We prove holographic bounds on the entanglement velocity v{sub E} and the butterfly effect speed v{sub B} that arises in the study of chaos. We obtain the EE as a function of time for large spherical entangling surfaces analytically. We show that the EE is insensitive to the details of the initial state or quenchÂ protocol. In a thermofield double state we determine analytically the two-sided mutual information between two large concentric spheres separated in time. We derive a bound on the rate of growth of EE for arbitrary shapes, and develop an expansion for EE at early times. In a companion paper https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.05101, these results are put in the broader context of EE growth in chaotic systems: we relate EE growth to the chaotic spreading of operators, derive bounds on EE at a given time, and compare the holographic results to spin chain numerics and toy models. In this paper, we perform holographic calculations that provide the basis of arguments presented in that paper. We prove holographic bounds on the entanglement velocity v{sub E} and the butterfly effect speed v{sub B} that arises in the study of chaos. We obtain the EE as a function of time for large spherical entangling surfaces analytically. We show that the EE is insensitive to the details of the initial state or quenchÂ protocol. In a thermofield double state we determine analytically the two-sided mutual information between two large concentric spheres separated in time. We derive a bound on the rate of growth of EE for arbitrary shapes, and develop an expansion for EE at early times.
Small angle scattering and polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cotton, J.P.
1996-01-01
The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregoryanz, Eugene; Degtyareva, Olga; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Somayazulu, Maddury
2005-01-01
High-pressure high-temperature synchrotron diffraction measurements reveal a maximum on the melting curve of Na in the bcc phase at ∼31 GPa and 1000 K and a steep decrease in melting temperature in its fcc phase. The results extend the melting curve by an order of magnitude up to 130 GPa. Above 103 GPa, Na crystallizes in a sequence of phases with complex structures with unusually low melting temperatures, reaching 300 K at 118 GPa, and an increased melting temperature is observed with further increases in pressure
Designing Polymer Blends Through Modeling and Simulation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Balazs, Anna
2001-01-01
...) of clay sheets in polymer melts. In addition, we determined how the coupling between phase separation and wetting interactions in polymeric composites effects the structural evolution and phase behavior of the material...
Two particle entanglement and its geometric duals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wasay, Muhammad Abdul [University of Agriculture, Department of Physics, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bashir, Asma [University of Agriculture, Department of Physics, Faisalabad (Pakistan)
2017-12-15
We show that for a system of two entangled particles, there is a dual description to the particle equations in terms of classical theory of conformally stretched spacetime. We also connect these entangled particle equations with Finsler geometry. We show that this duality translates strongly coupled quantum equations in the pilot-wave limit to weakly coupled geometric equations. (orig.)
Generating stationary entangled states in superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Li Chunwen; Tarn, T.-J.; Nori, Franco
2009-01-01
When a two-qubit system is initially maximally entangled, two independent decoherence channels, one per qubit, would greatly reduce the entanglement of the two-qubit system when it reaches its stationary state. We propose a method on how to minimize such a loss of entanglement in open quantum systems. We find that the quantum entanglement of general two-qubit systems with controllable parameters can be controlled by tuning both the single-qubit parameters and the two-qubit coupling strengths. Indeed, the maximum fidelity F max between the stationary entangled state, ρ ∞ , and the maximally entangled state, ρ m , can be about 2/3≅max(tr(ρ ∞ ρ m ))=F max , corresponding to a maximum stationary concurrence, C max , of about 1/3≅C(ρ ∞ )=C max . This is significant because the quantum entanglement of the two-qubit system can be produced and kept, even for a long time. We apply our proposal to several types of two-qubit superconducting circuits and show how the entanglement of these two-qubit circuits can be optimized by varying experimentally controllable parameters.
Rank-dependant factorization of entanglement evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siomau, Michael
2016-01-01
Highlights: • In some cases the complex entanglement evolution can be factorized on simple terms. • We suggest factorization equations for multiqubit entanglement evolution. • The factorization is solely defined by the rank of the final state density matrices. • The factorization is independent on the local noisy channels and initial pure states. - Abstract: The description of the entanglement evolution of a complex quantum system can be significantly simplified due to the symmetries of the initial state and the quantum channels, which simultaneously affect parts of the system. Using concurrence as the entanglement measure, we study the entanglement evolution of few qubit systems, when each of the qubits is affected by a local unital channel independently on the others. We found that for low-rank density matrices of the final quantum state, such complex entanglement dynamics can be completely described by a combination of independent factors representing the evolution of entanglement of the initial state, when just one of the qubits is affected by a local channel. We suggest necessary conditions for the rank of the density matrices to represent the entanglement evolution through the factors. Our finding is supported with analytical examples and numerical simulations.
On entanglement in neutrino mixing and oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-01-01
We report on recent results about entanglement in the context of particle mixing and oscillations. We study in detail single-particle entanglement arising in two-flavor neutrino mixing. The analysis is performed first in the context of Quantum Mechanics, and then for the case of Quantum Field Theory.
On entanglement in neutrino mixing and oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2010-06-01
We report on recent results about entanglement in the context of particle mixing and oscillations. We study in detail single-particle entanglement arising in two-flavor neutrino mixing. The analysis is performed first in the context of Quantum Mechanics, and then for the case of Quantum Field Theory.
Two particle entanglement and its geometric duals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wasay, Muhammad Abdul; Bashir, Asma
2017-01-01
We show that for a system of two entangled particles, there is a dual description to the particle equations in terms of classical theory of conformally stretched spacetime. We also connect these entangled particle equations with Finsler geometry. We show that this duality translates strongly coupled quantum equations in the pilot-wave limit to weakly coupled geometric equations. (orig.)
Entangled spins and ghost-spins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dileep P. Jatkar
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We study patterns of quantum entanglement in systems of spins and ghost-spins regarding them as simple quantum mechanical toy models for theories containing negative norm states. We define a single ghost-spin as in [20] as a 2-state spin variable with an indefinite inner product in the state space. We find that whenever the spin sector is disentangled from the ghost-spin sector (both of which could be entangled within themselves, the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over all the ghost-spins gives rise to positive entanglement entropy for positive norm states, while negative norm states have an entanglement entropy with a negative real part and a constant imaginary part. However when the spins are entangled with the ghost-spins, there are new entanglement patterns in general. For systems where the number of ghost-spins is even, it is possible to find subsectors of the Hilbert space where positive norm states always lead to positive entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins. With an odd number of ghost-spins however, we find that there always exist positive norm states with negative real part for entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins.
Entangled Light Emission From a Diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevenson, R. M.; Shields, A. J.; Salter, C. L.; Farrer, I.; Nicoll, C. A.; Ritchie, D. A.
2011-01-01
Electrically-driven entangled photon generation is demonstrated for the first time using a single semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a light emitting diode structure. The entanglement fidelity is shown to be of sufficient quality for applications such as quantum key distribution.
Continuous variable tripartite entanglement from twin nonlinearities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, M K; Bradley, A S
2006-01-01
In this work, we analyse and compare the continuous variable tripartite entanglement available from the use of two concurrent or cascaded χ (2) nonlinearities. We examine both idealized travelling-wave models and more experimentally realistic intracavity models, showing that tripartite entangled outputs are readily producible. These may be a useful resource for applications such as quantum cryptography and teleportation
Quantum entanglement in polarization and space
Lee, Peter Sing Kin
2006-01-01
One of the most intriguing concepts of quantum mechanics is quantum entanglement. Two physical systems are said to be entangled with respect to a certain variable, if their individual outcomes of the variable are undetermined before measurement, but strictly correlated. Measurement of the variable
Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.
Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton
2015-11-17
As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.
Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped onto a classical optical scheme. It is only for three and more input bits that the DJ algorithm requires the implementation of entangling transformations and in these cases it is impossible to implement ...
Multiparticle entanglement under the influence of decoherence
Gühne, O.; Bodoky, F.; Blaauboer, M.
2008-01-01
We present a method to determine the decay of multiparticle quantum correlations as quantified by the geometric measure of entanglement under the influence of decoherence. With this, we compare the robustness of entanglement in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ), cluster, W, and Dicke states of four
Holographic entanglement entropy in Lovelock gravities
de Boer, J.; Kulaxizi, M.; Parnachev, A.
2011-01-01
We study entanglement entropies of simply connected surfaces in field theories dual to Lovelock gravities. We consider Gauss-Bonnet and cubic Lovelock gravities in detail. In the conformal case the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy are governed by the conformal anomalies of the CFT; we
Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds
de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.
2016-08-01
We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.
Entanglement verification with detection efficiency mismatch
Zhang, Yanbao; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
Entanglement is a necessary condition for secure quantum key distribution (QKD). When there is an efficiency mismatch between various detectors used in the QKD system, it is still an open problem how to verify entanglement. Here we present a method to address this problem, given that the detection efficiency mismatch is characterized and known. The method works without assuming an upper bound on the number of photons going to each threshold detector. Our results suggest that the efficiency mismatch affects the ability to verify entanglement: the larger the efficiency mismatch is, the smaller the set of entangled states that can be verified becomes. When there is no mismatch, our method can verify entanglement even if the method based on squashing maps [PRL 101, 093601 (2008)] fails.
Optimized entanglement witnesses for Dicke states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergmann, Marcel; Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Department Physik, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)
2013-07-01
Quantum entanglement is an important resource for applications in quantum information processing like quantum teleportation and cryptography. Moreover, the number of particles that can be entangled experimentally using polarized photons or ion traps has been significantly enlarged. Therefore, criteria to decide the question whether a given multi-particle state is entangled or not have to be improved. Our approach to this problem uses the notion of PPT mixtures which form an approximation to the set of bi-separable states. With this method, entanglement witnesses can be obtained in a natural manner via linear semi-definite programming. In our contribution, we will present analytical results for entanglement witnesses for Dicke states. This allows to overcome the limitations of convex optimization.
Entanglement, Bell inequality and all that
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narnhofer, Heide; Thirring, Walter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Wien (Austria)
2012-09-15
We start from the geometrical observation that a finite set of pure states correspond to some points on a sphere and their convex span cannot be the whole set of states. If we call the left over entangled we can pursue this picture from the simplest case of a two dimensional Hilbert space to the usual Alice-and-Bob game of entangled states and then move to bigger systems and finely to quantum field theory where almost everything is entangled. On the way we encounter more or less known old friends up from the shell structure of states to the monogamy of squashed entanglement. We study how entanglement can be concentrated on a small slice and how it depends on the particular factorization of the Hilbert space.
Entanglement, Bell inequality and all that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narnhofer, Heide; Thirring, Walter
2012-01-01
We start from the geometrical observation that a finite set of pure states correspond to some points on a sphere and their convex span cannot be the whole set of states. If we call the left over entangled we can pursue this picture from the simplest case of a two dimensional Hilbert space to the usual Alice-and-Bob game of entangled states and then move to bigger systems and finely to quantum field theory where almost everything is entangled. On the way we encounter more or less known old friends up from the shell structure of states to the monogamy of squashed entanglement. We study how entanglement can be concentrated on a small slice and how it depends on the particular factorization of the Hilbert space.
Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks.
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
2017-10-27
We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.
Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.
Multipartite entanglement detection with nonsymmetric probing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dellantonio, Luca; Das, Sumanta; Appel, Jürgen
2017-01-01
We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify th...... the degree of entanglement of a quantum state in the spin system. Finally, we apply our method for entanglement verification to existing experimental data, and use it to prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in a spin-squeezed atomic ensemble.......We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify...
Entanglement temperature with Gauss–Bonnet term
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shesansu Sekhar Pal
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We compute the entanglement temperature using the first law-like of thermodynamics, ΔE=TentΔSEE, up to Gauss–Bonnet term in the Jacobson–Myers entropy functional in any arbitrary spacetime dimension. The computation is done when the entangling region is the geometry of a slab. We also show that such a Gauss–Bonnet term, which becomes a total derivative, when the co-dimension two hypersurface is four dimensional, does not contribute to the finite term in the entanglement entropy. We observe that the Weyl-squared term does not contribute to the entanglement entropy. It is important to note that the calculations are performed when the entangling region is very small and the energy is calculated using the normal Hamiltonian.
Entanglement entropy in top-down models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, Peter A.R.; Taylor, Marika [Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2016-08-26
We explore holographic entanglement entropy in ten-dimensional supergravity solutions. It has been proposed that entanglement entropy can be computed in such top-down models using minimal surfaces which asymptotically wrap the compact part of the geometry. We show explicitly in a wide range of examples that the holographic entanglement entropy thus computed agrees with the entanglement entropy computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula from the lower-dimensional Einstein metric obtained from reduction over the compact space. Our examples include not only consistent truncations but also cases in which no consistent truncation exists and Kaluza-Klein holography is used to identify the lower-dimensional Einstein metric. We then give a general proof, based on the Lewkowycz-Maldacena approach, of the top-down entanglement entropy formula.
Entanglement entropy in top-down models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, Peter A.R.; Taylor, Marika
2016-01-01
We explore holographic entanglement entropy in ten-dimensional supergravity solutions. It has been proposed that entanglement entropy can be computed in such top-down models using minimal surfaces which asymptotically wrap the compact part of the geometry. We show explicitly in a wide range of examples that the holographic entanglement entropy thus computed agrees with the entanglement entropy computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula from the lower-dimensional Einstein metric obtained from reduction over the compact space. Our examples include not only consistent truncations but also cases in which no consistent truncation exists and Kaluza-Klein holography is used to identify the lower-dimensional Einstein metric. We then give a general proof, based on the Lewkowycz-Maldacena approach, of the top-down entanglement entropy formula.
Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation
Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani
2005-12-01
We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.
Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani
2005-01-01
We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes
Deterministic dense coding with partially entangled states
Mozes, Shay; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni
2005-01-01
The utilization of a d -level partially entangled state, shared by two parties wishing to communicate classical information without errors over a noiseless quantum channel, is discussed. We analytically construct deterministic dense coding schemes for certain classes of nonmaximally entangled states, and numerically obtain schemes in the general case. We study the dependency of the maximal alphabet size of such schemes on the partially entangled state shared by the two parties. Surprisingly, for d>2 it is possible to have deterministic dense coding with less than one ebit. In this case the number of alphabet letters that can be communicated by a single particle is between d and 2d . In general, we numerically find that the maximal alphabet size is any integer in the range [d,d2] with the possible exception of d2-1 . We also find that states with less entanglement can have a greater deterministic communication capacity than other more entangled states.
Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta.
Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Plick, William N; Krenn, Mario; Schaeff, Christoph; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton
2012-11-02
Single photons with helical phase structures may carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM), and their entanglement is important for quantum information science and fundamental tests of quantum theory. Because there is no theoretical upper limit on how many quanta of OAM a single photon can carry, it is possible to create entanglement between two particles with an arbitrarily high difference in quantum number. By transferring polarization entanglement to OAM with an interferometric scheme, we generate and verify entanglement between two photons differing by 600 in quantum number. The only restrictive factors toward higher numbers are current technical limitations. We also experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement of very high OAM can improve the sensitivity of angular resolution in remote sensing.
Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.
Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton
2013-01-01
Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.
Entanglement fidelity of quantum memories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surmacz, K.; Nunn, J.; Waldermann, F. C.; Wang, Z.; Walmsley, I. A.; Jaksch, D.
2006-01-01
We introduce a figure of merit for a quantum memory which measures the preservation of entanglement between a qubit stored in and retrieved from the memory and an auxiliary qubit. We consider a general quantum memory system consisting of a medium of two level absorbers, with the qubit to be stored encoded in a single photon. We derive an analytic expression for our figure of merit taking into account Gaussian fluctuations in the Hamiltonian parameters, which, for example, model inhomogeneous broadening and storage time dephasing. Finally we specialize to the case of an atomic quantum memory where fluctuations arise predominantly from Doppler broadening and motional dephasing
Entanglement entropy of excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alba, Vincenzo; Fagotti, Maurizio; Calabrese, Pasquale
2009-01-01
We study the entanglement entropy of a block of contiguous spins in excited states of spin chains. We consider the XY model in a transverse field and the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain. For the latter, we developed a numerical application of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We find two main classes of states with logarithmic and extensive behavior in the dimension of the block, characterized by the properties of excitations of the state. This behavior can be related to the locality properties of the Hamiltonian having a given state as the ground state. We also provide several details of the finite size scaling
Secret sharing via quantum entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hillery, M.; Buzek, V.
1999-01-01
Secret sharing is a procedure for splitting a message into several parts so that no single part is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. This procedure can be implemented using either GHZ states or two-particle entangled states. In the quantum case the presence of an eavesdropper will introduce errors so that her presence can be detected. We also discuss how quantum information can be split into parts so that the message can be reconstructed from a sufficiently large subset of the parts. (Authors)
Entanglement and inhibited quantum evolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toschek, P E; Balzer, Chr; Hannemann, Th; Wunderlich, Ch; Neuhauser, W [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Jungiusstrasse 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)
2003-03-14
The evolution of a quantum system is impeded by the system's state being observed. A test on an ensemble neither proves the causal nexus nor discloses the nature of the inhibition. Two recent experiments that make use of sequential optical or microwave-optical double resonance on an individual trapped ion disprove a dynamical effect of back action by meter or environment. They rather indicate the ionic states involved in the evolution being entangled with the potentially recorded bivalued scattered-light signal.
Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.
2004-05-25
A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.
Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics
Nahum, Adam; Ruhman, Jonathan; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan
2017-07-01
Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the "entanglement tsunami" in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time )1/3 and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time )2/3. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i) a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii) a "minimal cut" picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii) a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the "velocity" of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.
Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM, Unita di Salerno, and INFN, Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2011-07-15
Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.
Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Xiongfeng; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Lo, H.-K.
2007-01-01
A parametric down-conversion (PDC) source can be used as either a triggered single-photon source or an entangled-photon source in quantum key distribution (QKD). The triggering PDC QKD has already been studied in the literature. On the other hand, a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD are still missing. We fill in this important gap by proposing such a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD. Although the PDC model is proposed to study the entanglement-based QKD, we emphasize that our generic model may also be useful for other non-QKD experiments involving a PDC source. Since an entangled PDC source is a basis-independent source, we apply Koashi and Preskill's security analysis to the entanglement PDC QKD. We also investigate the entanglement PDC QKD with two-way classical communications. We find that the recurrence scheme increases the key rate and the Gottesman-Lo protocol helps tolerate higher channel losses. By simulating a recent 144-km open-air PDC experiment, we compare three implementations: entanglement PDC QKD, triggering PDC QKD, and coherent-state QKD. The simulation result suggests that the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate higher channel losses than the coherent-state QKD. The coherent-state QKD with decoy states is able to achieve highest key rate in the low- and medium-loss regions. By applying the Gottesman-Lo two-way post-processing protocol, the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate up to 70 dB combined channel losses (35 dB for each channel) provided that the PDC source is placed in between Alice and Bob. After considering statistical fluctuations, the PDC setup can tolerate up to 53 dB channel losses
Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Nahum
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the “entanglement tsunami” in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time^{1/3} and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time^{2/3}. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii a “minimal cut” picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the “velocity” of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.
Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F.; Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B.
2011-01-01
Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.
Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol
di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert
Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.
Entanglement fidelity of the standard quantum teleportation channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Gang; Ye, Ming-Yong, E-mail: myye@fjnu.edu.cn; Lin, Xiu-Min
2013-09-16
We consider the standard quantum teleportation protocol where a general bipartite state is used as entanglement resource. We use the entanglement fidelity to describe how well the standard quantum teleportation channel transmits quantum entanglement and give a simple expression for the entanglement fidelity when it is averaged on all input states.
Probabilistic Teleportation of a Four-Particle Entangled State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAN You-Bang; FU Hao; DONG Zheng-Chao
2005-01-01
A Scheme for teleporting an unknown four-particle entangled state is proposed via entangled swapping. In this scheme, four pairs of entangled particles are used as quantum channel. It is shown that, if the four pairs of particles are nonmaximally entangled, the teleportation can be successfully realized with certain probability if a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schurtenberger, P.
1996-01-01
A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schurtenberger, P [ETH Zurich, Inst. fuer Polymere, Zurich (Switzerland)
1996-11-01
A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs.
Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Risko, Chad; Bruner, Christopher; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Bredas, Jean-Luc
2015-01-01
Due to their inherent mechanical flexibility and stretchability, organic-based electronic devices have garnered a great deal of academic and industrial interest. Here, molecular-dynamics simulations are used to examine the molecular-scale details that govern the relationships among molecular weight, chain entanglement, persistence length, and the elastic characteristics of the widely studied π-conjugated polymer poly-(3-hexyl thiophene), P3HT. Oligomers containing at least 50 monomer units are required in the simulations to observe elastic behavior in P3HT, while much longer chains are required to ensure description of appropriate levels of entanglement: only when the molecular weight is greater than 50 kDa, that is, oligomers with approximately 400 monomer units, is truly entangled behavior observed. Interestingly, results from primitive path analysis of amorphous P3HT matches well with the observed onsets of inter-chain excitonic coherence with increased molecular weight. The simulations also indicate that the P3HT modulus saturates at 1.6 GPa for chain lengths of 50–100 monomers, a result that compares well with experimental results. This work highlights the care that needs to be taken to accurately model P3HT morphologies in relation to experimental measurements. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015
Tummala, Naga Rajesh
2015-04-01
Due to their inherent mechanical flexibility and stretchability, organic-based electronic devices have garnered a great deal of academic and industrial interest. Here, molecular-dynamics simulations are used to examine the molecular-scale details that govern the relationships among molecular weight, chain entanglement, persistence length, and the elastic characteristics of the widely studied π-conjugated polymer poly-(3-hexyl thiophene), P3HT. Oligomers containing at least 50 monomer units are required in the simulations to observe elastic behavior in P3HT, while much longer chains are required to ensure description of appropriate levels of entanglement: only when the molecular weight is greater than 50 kDa, that is, oligomers with approximately 400 monomer units, is truly entangled behavior observed. Interestingly, results from primitive path analysis of amorphous P3HT matches well with the observed onsets of inter-chain excitonic coherence with increased molecular weight. The simulations also indicate that the P3HT modulus saturates at 1.6 GPa for chain lengths of 50–100 monomers, a result that compares well with experimental results. This work highlights the care that needs to be taken to accurately model P3HT morphologies in relation to experimental measurements. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015
Quantum entanglement of baby universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi
2007-01-01
We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight
Quantum entanglement of baby universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi
2006-01-01
We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight
Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almheiri, Ahmed [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Swingle, Brian [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2017-02-14
We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We investigate this property by computing the entanglement entropy, via the replica trick, in states dual to superpositions of macroscopically distinct geometries and find it consistent with evaluating the expectation value of the area operator within such states. However, we find that this fails once the number of semi-classical states in the superposition grows exponentially in the central charge of the CFT. Moreover, in certain such scenarios we find that the choice of surface on which to evaluate the area operator depends on the density matrix of the entire CFT. This nonlinearity is enforced in the bulk via the homology prescription of Ryu-Takayanagi. We thus conclude that the homology constraint is not a linear property in the CFT. We also discuss the existence of ‘entropy operators’ in general systems with a large number of degrees of freedom.
Quantum Entanglement: Separability, Measure, Fidelity of Teleportation, and Distillation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Li
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum entanglement plays crucial roles in quantum information processing. Quantum entangled states have become the key ingredient in the rapidly expanding field of quantum information science. Although the nonclassical nature of entanglement has been recognized for many years, considerable efforts have been taken to understand and characterize its properties recently. In this review, we introduce some recent results in the theory of quantum entanglement. In particular separability criteria based on the Bloch representation, covariance matrix, normal form and entanglement witness, lower bounds, subadditivity property of concurrence and tangle, fully entangled fraction related to the optimal fidelity of quantum teleportation, and entanglement distillation will be discussed in detail.
Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir
2004-01-01
It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.
1987-01-01
A two-dimensional model is proposed to describe systems with phase transitions which take place in terms of crystalline as well as internal degrees of freedom. Computer simulation of the model shows that the interplay between the two sets of degrees of freedom permits observation of grain-boundar......-boundary formation and interfacial melting, a nonequilibrium process by which the system melts at the boundaries of a polycrystalline domain structure. Lipid membranes are candidates for systems with pronounced interfacial melting behavior....
Residual entanglement and sudden death: A direct connection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, J.G.G. de; Peixoto de Faria, J.G.; Nemes, M.C.
2011-01-01
We explore the results of [V. Coffman, et al., Phys. Rev. A 61 (2000) 052306] derived for general tripartite states in a dynamical context. We study a class of physically motivated tripartite systems. We show that whenever entanglement sudden death occurs in one of the partitions residual entanglement will appear. For fourpartite systems however, the appearance of residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death of entanglement. We can only say that if sudden death of entanglement occurs in some partition there will certainly be residual entanglement. -- Highlights: ► For tripartite systems we show there exists residual entanglement if sudden death occurs. ► For fourpartite systems, the residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death. ► If sudden death of entanglement occurs there will certainly be residual entanglement.
Gauge field entanglement in Kitaev's honeycomb model
Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich
2018-01-01
A spin fractionalizes into matter and gauge fermions in Kitaev's spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice. This follows from a Jordan-Wigner mapping to fermions, allowing for the construction of a minimal entropy ground-state wave function on the cylinder. We use this to calculate the entanglement entropy by choosing several distinct partitionings. First, by partitioning an infinite cylinder into two, the -ln2 topological entanglement entropy is reconfirmed. Second, the reduced density matrix of the gauge sector on the full cylinder is obtained after tracing out the matter degrees of freedom. This allows for evaluating the gauge entanglement Hamiltonian, which contains infinitely long-range correlations along the symmetry axis of the cylinder. The matter-gauge entanglement entropy is (Ny-1 )ln2 , with Ny the circumference of the cylinder. Third, the rules for calculating the gauge sector entanglement of any partition are determined. Rather small correctly chosen gauge partitions can still account for the topological entanglement entropy in spite of long-range correlations in the gauge entanglement Hamiltonian.
Cosmological perturbations in the entangled inflationary universe
Robles-Pérez, Salvador J.
2018-03-01
In this paper, the model of a multiverse made up of universes that are created in entangled pairs that conserve the total momentum conjugated to the scale factor is presented. For the background spacetime, assumed is a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric with a scalar field with mass m minimally coupled to gravity. For the fields that propagate in the entangled spacetimes, the perturbations of the spacetime and the scalar field, whose quantum states become entangled too, are considered. They turn out to be in a quasithermal state, and the corresponding thermodynamical magnitudes are computed. Three observables are expected to be caused by the creation of the universes in entangled pairs: a modification of the Friedmann equation because of the entanglement of the spacetimes, a modification of the effective value of the potential of the scalar field by the backreaction of the perturbation modes, and a modification of the spectrum of fluctuations because the thermal distribution is induced by the entanglement of the partner universes. The later would be a distinctive feature of the creation of universes in entangled pairs.
The geometry of entanglement and Grover's algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwai, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Naoki; Mizobe, Kimitake
2008-01-01
A measure of entanglement with respect to a bipartite partition of n-qubit has been defined and studied from the viewpoint of Riemannian geometry (Iwai 2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 12161). This paper has two aims. One is to study further the geometry of entanglement, and the other is to investigate Grover's search algorithms, both the original and the fixed-point ones, in reference with entanglement. As the distance between the maximally entangled states and the separable states is known already in the previous paper, this paper determines the set of maximally entangled states nearest to a typical separable state which is used as an initial state in Grover's search algorithms, and to find geodesic segments which realize the above-mentioned distance. As for Grover's algorithms, it is already known that while the initial and the target states are separable, the algorithms generate sequences of entangled states. This fact is confirmed also in the entanglement measure proposed in the previous paper, and then a split Grover algorithm is proposed which generates sequences of separable states only with respect to the bipartite partition
Heralded entanglement of two remote atoms
Krug, Michael; Hofmann, Julian; Ortegel, Norbert; Gerard, Lea; Redeker, Kai; Henkel, Florian; Rosenfeld, Wenjamin; Weber, Markus; Weinfurter, Harald
2012-06-01
Entanglement between atomic quantum memories at remote locations will be a key resource for future applications in quantum communication. One possibility to generate such entanglement over large distances is entanglement swapping starting from two quantum memories each entangled with a photon. The photons can be transported to a Bell-state measurement where after the atomic quantum memories are projected onto an entangled state. We have set up two independently operated single atom experiments separated by 20 m. Via a spontaneous decay process each quantum memory, in our case a single Rb-87 atom, emits a single photon whose polarization is entangled with the atomic spin. The photons one emitted from each atom are collected into single-mode optical fibers guided to a non-polarizing 50-50 beam-splitter and detected by avalanche photodetectors. Bunching of indistinguishable photons allows to perform a Bell-state measurement on the photons. Conditioned on the registration of particular two-photon coincidences the spin states of both atoms are measured. The observed correlations clearly prove the entanglement of the two atoms. This is a first step towards creating a basic node of a quantum network as well as a key prerequisite for a future loophole-free test of Bell's inequality.
Developments in entanglement theory and applications to relevant physical systems
Lamata Manuel, Lucas
2007-01-01
This Thesis is devoted to the analysis of entanglement in relevant physical systems. Entanglement is the conducting theme of this research, though I do not dedicate to a single topic, but consider a wide scope of physical situations. I have followed mainly three lines of research for this Thesis, with a series of different works each, which are, Entanglement and Relativistic Quantum Theory, Continuous-variable entanglement, and Multipartite entanglement.
Entanglement replication in driven dissipative many-body systems.
Zippilli, S; Paternostro, M; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F
2013-01-25
We study the dissipative dynamics of two independent arrays of many-body systems, locally driven by a common entangled field. We show that in the steady state the entanglement of the driving field is reproduced in an arbitrarily large series of inter-array entangled pairs over all distances. Local nonclassical driving thus realizes a scale-free entanglement replication and long-distance entanglement distribution mechanism that has immediate bearing on the implementation of quantum communication networks.
Dynamics of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jinliang; Song Heshan
2008-01-01
We investigate the time evolution of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms for various entangled initial states, including pure and mixed states. We find that the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death behaviors is distinct in the evolution of entanglement for different initial states. What deserves mentioning here is that the initial portion of the excited state in the initial state is responsible for the sudden death of entanglement, and the degree of this effect also depends on the initial states
Entanglement witnesses arising from exposed positive linear maps
Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok
2011-01-01
We consider entanglement witnesses arising from positive linear maps which generate exposed extremal rays. We show that every entanglement can be detected by one of these witnesses, and this witness detects a unique set of entanglement among those. Therefore, they provide a minimal set of witnesses to detect all entanglement in a sense. Furthermore, if those maps are indecomposable then they detect large classes of entanglement with positive partial transposes which have nonempty relative int...
Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations
Monras, A.; Adesso, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Davies, G. B.; Illuminati, F.
2011-07-01
Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as “mirror entanglement.” They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the “stellar mirror entanglement” associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.042301 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chuan; Zhang Yong; Jin Guangsheng
2011-01-01
We present an entanglement purification protocol and an entanglement concentration protocol for electron-spin entangled states, resorting to quantum-dot spin and optical-microcavity-coupled systems. The parity-check gates (PCGs) constructed by the cavity-spin-coupling system provide a different method for the entanglement purification of electron-spin entangled states. This protocol can efficiently purify an electron ensemble in a mixed entangled state. The PCGs can also concentrate electron-spin pairs in less-entangled pure states efficiently. The proposed methods are more flexible as only single-photon detection and single-electron detection are needed.
Evolution of entanglement under echo dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prosen, Tomaz; Znidaric, Marko; Seligman, Thomas H.
2003-01-01
Echo dynamics and fidelity are often used to discuss stability in quantum-information processing and quantum chaos. Yet fidelity yields no information about entanglement, the characteristic property of quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of entanglement in echo dynamics. We find qualitatively different behavior between integrable and chaotic systems on one hand and between random and coherent initial states for integrable systems on the other. For the latter the evolution of entanglement is given by a classical time scale. Analytic results are illustrated numerically in a Jaynes-Cummings model
Detecting Kondo Entanglement by Electron Conductance
Yoo, Gwangsu; Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.
2018-04-01
Quantum entanglement between an impurity spin and electrons nearby is a key property of the single-channel Kondo effects. We show that the entanglement can be detected by measuring electron conductance through a double quantum dot in an orbital Kondo regime. We derive a relation between the entanglement and the conductance, when the SU(2) spin symmetry of the regime is weakly broken. The relation reflects the universal form of many-body states near the Kondo fixed point. Using it, the spatial distribution of the entanglement—hence, the Kondo cloud—can be detected, with breaking of the symmetry spatially nonuniformly by electrical means.
Scattering effect on entanglement propagation in RCFTs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Numasawa, Tokiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara,Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States)
2016-12-14
In this paper we discuss the scattering effect on entanglement propagation in RCFTs. In our setup, we consider the time evolution of excited states created by the insertion of many local operators. Our results show that because of the finiteness of quantum dimension, entanglement is not changed after the scattering in RCFTs. In this mean, entanglement is conserved after the scattering event in RCFTs, which reflects the integrability of the system. Our results are also consistent with the free quasiparticle picture after the global quenches.
Quantum entanglement and fixed-point bifurcations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Ross H.; Milburn, G.J.
2005-01-01
How does the classical phase-space structure for a composite system relate to the entanglement characteristics of the corresponding quantum system? We demonstrate how the entanglement in nonlinear bipartite systems can be associated with a fixed-point bifurcation in the classical dynamics. Using the example of coupled giant spins we show that when a fixed point undergoes a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, the corresponding quantum state--the ground state--achieves its maximum amount of entanglement near the critical point. We conjecture that this will be a generic feature of systems whose classical limit exhibits such a bifurcation
Task-oriented maximally entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B
2010-01-01
We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.
Teleportation of Multi-qudit Entangled States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAN Xiao-Gui; LI Hong-Mei; ZENG Hao-Sheng
2006-01-01
@@ We propose a method to realize the teleportation of an unknown entangled state that consists of many qudits through a partially entangled-qudit quantum channel with the help of 2 log2 d-bit classical communication. The operations used in the teleportation process include a generalized Bell-state measurement and a series of singlequdit π-measurements performed by Alice, a series of generalized qudit-Pauli gates and two-level unitary gates,as well as a qubit measurement performed by Bob. For a maximally entangled quantum channel, the successful probability of the teleportation becomes unit.
Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Detection
Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed
2015-02-01
Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols.
Entanglement detection in hybrid optomechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro; Palma, G. Massimo
2011-01-01
We study a device formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coupled to the field of a cavity with a moving end mirror and find a working point such that the mirror-light entanglement is reproduced by the BEC-light quantum correlations. This provides an experimentally viable tool for inferring mirror-light entanglement with only a limited set of assumptions. We prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in the hybrid device, persisting up to temperatures of a few milli-Kelvin, and discuss a scheme to detect it.