WorldWideScience

Sample records for ensatina eschscholtzii plethodontidae

  1. A diverse Rancholabrean vertebrate microfauna from southern California includes the first fossil record of ensatina ( Ensatina eschscholtzii: Plethodontidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Thomas A.; Roeder, Mark A.

    2009-11-01

    Analysis of late Pleistocene fossils recovered from near the Huntington Beach, California (USA), pier (site LACM 7679) has revealed a diverse fauna dating to approximately 40 14C ka BP. Extinct megafauna (three genera) are present; however, a microfauna including three genera of fish, five genera of amphibians, twelve genera of reptiles, two genera of birds, and ten genera of small mammals dominates the assemblage in terms of diversity. Additional identification of seven genera of non-marine mollusks and various macro- and microscopic plant remains including grasses, three families of herbs, and seven genera of trees provides a wealth of information concerning the past ecology of what is currently a coastal dune field complex. During the Rancholabrean Period, the LACM 7679 locality was approximately 10 km inland from the Pleistocene coastline and contained lush riparian zones interspersed with coastal sage scrub, a few trees, and grasslands teeming with a variety of small and large animals.

  2. Hybridization in the Ensatina Ring Species, Strong selection against hybrids at a hybrid zone in the ensatina ring species complex and its evolutionary implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrino, Joao; Baird, Stuart J.E.; Lawson, Lucinda; Macey, J. Robert; Moritz, Craig; Wake, David B.

    2005-04-22

    The analysis of interactions between lineages at varying levels of genetic divergence can provide insights into the process of speciation through the accumulation of incompatible mutations. Ring species, and especially the Ensatina eschscholtzii system exemplify this approach. The plethodontid salamanders Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica and Ensatina eschscholtzii platensis hybridize in the Central Sierran foothills of California. We compared the genetic structure across two transects (southern and northern Calaveras Co.), one of which was re-sampled over 20 years, and examined diagnostic molecular markers (eight allozyme loci and mitochondrial DNA) and a diagnostic quantitative trait (color pattern). Key results across all studies were: (i) cline centers for all markers were coincident and the zones were narrow, with width estimates of 730m to 2000m; (ii) cline centers at the northern Calaveras transect were coincident between 1981 and 2001, demonstrating repeatability over 5 generations; (iii) there are very few if any putative F1's, but a relatively high number of backcrossed individuals (57-86 percent) in the central portion of transects; (iv) we found substantial linkage disequilibrium in all three studies and strong heterozygote deficit both in northern Calaveras, in 2001, and southern Calaveras. Both linkage disequilibrium and heterozygote deficit show maximum values near the center of the zones (R and Fis, approx. equal to 0.5). Using estimates of cline width and dispersal, we infer strong selection against hybrids (s* approx. equal to 46-75 percent). This is sufficient to promote accumulation of differences at loci that are neutral or under divergent selection, but would still allow for introgression of adaptive alleles. The evidence for strong, but incomplete isolation across this centrally located contact is consistent with theory suggesting a gradual increase in postzygotic incompatibility between allopatric populations subject to divergent

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSG766 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FJ151945 |pid:none) Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica... 34 7.6 FJ151867_1( FJ151867 |pid:none) Ensatina eschscholt... 9.9 FJ151878_1( FJ151878 |pid:none) Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica... 33 9.9 FJ151848_1( FJ151848 |pid:none) Ensatina eschscholt...zii xanthoptica... 33 9.9 FJ151923_1( FJ151923 |pid:none) Ensatina eschscholt

  4. Identification and characterization of Daldinia eschscholtzii isolated from skin scrapings, nails, and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kee Peng; Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Yeo, Siok Koon; Toh, Yue Fen; Looi, Hong Keat; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Yee, Wai-Yan; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Daldinia eschscholtzii is a filamentous wood-inhabiting endophyte commonly found in woody plants. Here, we report the identification and characterization of nine D. eschscholtzii isolates from skin scrapings, nail clippings, and blood. The nine isolates were identified based on colony morphology, light microscopy, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogeny. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the fungal isolates was evaluated by the Etest to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The nine isolates examined were confirmed as D. eschscholtzii. They exhibited typical features of Daldinia sp. on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, with white felty colonies and black-gray coloration on the reverse side. Septate hyphae, branching conidiophore with conidiogenous cells budding from its terminus, and nodulisporium-like conidiophores were observed under the microscope. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nine isolates were clustered within the D. eschscholtzii species complex. All the isolates exhibited low MICs against azole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole), as well as amphotericin B, with MIC of less than 1 µg/ml. Early and definitive identification of D. eschscholtzii is vital to reducing misuse of antimicrobial agents. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization as well as antifungal profiling of D. eschscholtzii provide the basis for future studies on its biology, pathogenicity, and medicinal potential.

  5. Identification and characterization of Daldinia eschscholtzii isolated from skin scrapings, nails, and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Peng Ng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Daldinia eschscholtzii is a filamentous wood-inhabiting endophyte commonly found in woody plants. Here, we report the identification and characterization of nine D. eschscholtzii isolates from skin scrapings, nail clippings, and blood. Methods The nine isolates were identified based on colony morphology, light microscopy, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS-based phylogeny. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the fungal isolates was evaluated by the Etest to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Results The nine isolates examined were confirmed as D. eschscholtzii. They exhibited typical features of Daldinia sp. on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, with white felty colonies and black-gray coloration on the reverse side. Septate hyphae, branching conidiophore with conidiogenous cells budding from its terminus, and nodulisporium-like conidiophores were observed under the microscope. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nine isolates were clustered within the D. eschscholtzii species complex. All the isolates exhibited low MICs against azole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole, as well as amphotericin B, with MIC of less than 1 µg/ml. Discussion Early and definitive identification of D. eschscholtzii is vital to reducing misuse of antimicrobial agents. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization as well as antifungal profiling of D. eschscholtzii provide the basis for future studies on its biology, pathogenicity, and medicinal potential.

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1973 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1973 ref|YP_097038.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Ensatina eschscholt...zii] gb|AAU20475.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Ensatina eschscholtzii] YP_097038.1 0.93 23% ...

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) stomach contents detects cryptic range of a secretive salamander (Ensatina eschscholtzii oregonensis) Herpetological Conservation and Biology 5(3):395–402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean B. Reilly; Andrew D Gottsho; Justin M. Garwood; Bryan. Jennings

    2010-01-01

    Given the current global amphibian decline, it is crucial to obtain accurate and current information regarding species distributions. Secretive amphibians such as plethodontid salamanders can be difficult to detect in many cases, especially in remote, high elevation areas. We used molecular phylogenetic analyses to identify three partially digested salamanders palped...

  8. The trophic role of a forest salamander: impacts on invertebrates, leaf litter retention, and the humification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Best; H. H. Welsh

    2014-01-01

    Woodland (Plethodontid) salamanders are the most abundant vertebrates in North American forests, functioning as predators on invertebrates and prey for higher trophic levels. We investigated the role of Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii) in regulating invertebrate numbers and leaf litter retention in a northern California forest. Our objective was...

  9. Comparative and phylogenetic perspectives of the cleavage process in tailed amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnitskiy, Alexey G; Litvinchuk, Spartak N

    2015-10-01

    The order Caudata includes about 660 species and displays a variety of important developmental traits such as cleavage pattern and egg size. However, the cleavage process of tailed amphibians has never been analyzed within a phylogenetic framework. We use published data on the embryos of 36 species concerning the character of the third cleavage furrow (latitudinal, longitudinal or variable) and the magnitude of synchronous cleavage period (up to 3-4 synchronous cell divisions in the animal hemisphere or a considerably longer series of synchronous divisions followed by midblastula transition). Several species from basal caudate families Cryptobranchidae (Andrias davidianus and Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) and Hynobiidae (Onychodactylus japonicus) as well as several representatives from derived families Plethodontidae (Desmognathus fuscus and Ensatina eschscholtzii) and Proteidae (Necturus maculosus) are characterized by longitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and the loss of synchrony as early as the 8-cell stage. By contrast, many representatives of derived families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae have latitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and extensive period of synchronous divisions. Our analysis of these ontogenetic characters mapped onto a phylogenetic tree shows that the cleavage pattern of large, yolky eggs with short series of synchronous divisions is an ancestral trait for the tailed amphibians, while the data on the orientation of third cleavage furrows seem to be ambiguous with respect to phylogeny. Nevertheless, the midblastula transition, which is characteristic of the model species Ambystoma mexicanum (Caudata) and Xenopus laevis (Anura), might have evolved convergently in these two amphibian orders.

  10. Histology and ultrastructure of the caudal courtship glands of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus (Amphibia: Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Siegel, Dustin S

    2015-03-01

    Caudal courtship glands (CCGs) are sexually dimorphic glands described in the skin of the dorsal tail base of some male salamanders in the genera Desmognathus, Eurycea, and Plethodon in the family Plethodontidae. These glands are believed to deliver pheromones to females during courtship, when the female rests her chin on the dorsal tail base during the stereotypic tail straddling walk unique to plethodontids. Although CCGs have been studied histologically, no investigations of their ultrastructure have been made. This article presents the first study on the fine structure and seasonal variation of CCGs, using the plethodontid Plethodon cinereus. The CCGs vary seasonally in height and secretory activity. The mature secretory granules observed in males collected in October and April consist of oval, biphasic granules that are eosinophilic and give positive reactions to periodic acid-Schiff for neutral carbohydrates but do not stain for acidic mucosusbtances or proteins with alcian blue and bromphenol blue, respectively. Granular glands, some of which contain mucous demilunes, are twice as large as CCGs, are syncytial (unlike CCGs), and stain for proteins. Mucous glands are similar in size to CCGs, but are basophilic, show no seasonal variation in secretory activity, and stain positive for acidic mucosubstances. CCGs do not resemble cytologically the sexually dimorphic mental glands of some plethodontids, which contain round or oval granules filled with an electron-dense amorphous substance. The CCGs are similar histologically to sexually dimorphic skin glands described in some anurans, but more comparative work is needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Daldinia eschscholtzii (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae isolated from the Brazilian Amazon: taxonomic features and mycelial growth conditions Daldinia eschscholzii (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae isolado na Amazônia brasileira: características taxonômicas e condições de crescimento micelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Tomoko Yuyama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon has a high diversity of fungi, including species of the genus Daldinia (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae, which produce secondary metabolites with recognized nematicidal and antimicrobial activity. The ecological role of Daldinia is important, as stromata serve as refuges to many insects and arthropodes, and the fungi contribute to the degradation of vegetable organic matter. The aim of this study was to analyze the taxonomic features and mycelial growth conditions in vitro of a Daldinia specimen collected in the Brazilian Amazon. Morphological and molecular studies of the fungus identified it as D. eschscholtzii. To evaluate mycelial growth, we cultivated the fungus at 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C in malt extract-peptone agar (MEPA, malt extract-peptone (MEP, potato dextrose (PD, and minimum medium (MM. The best mycelial growth occurred at 35 °C, although the greatest amount of biomass was obtained at 25 °C and 30 °C. PD proved to be the best medium for biomass production.A Amazônia apresenta alta diversidade de fungos, incluindo Daldinia (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae, cujas espécies produzem metabólitos secundários com reconhecida atividade antimicrobiana e nematicida. O papel ecológico é importante, visto que estromas servem de abrigo para muitos insetos e artrópodes, além de contribuir na degradação da matéria orgânica vegetal. O objetivo desse estudo foi analizar as características taxonômicas e as condições do crescimento micelial in vitro de um espécime de Daldinia coletado na Amazônia brasileira. Estudos morfológicos e moleculares do fungo o indetificaram como D. eschscholtzii. Para avaliação do crescimento micelial o fungo foi cultivado nas temperaturas de 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C e nos meios de cultura extrato de malte-peptona ágar (EMPA, extrato de malte-peptona (EMP, batata dextrose (BD e meio mínimo (MM. O melhor crescimento micelial ocorreu a 35 °C, entretanto, a maior quantidade de biomassa foi obtida a 25 e

  12. Two new species of Chiropterotriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Sean M; Parra-Olea, Gabriela

    2015-11-24

    Species of the genus Chiropterotriton are distributed through much of northern and eastern Mexico. The genus has presented taxonomic difficulties, with a number of species waiting to be described. We describe two new species, Chiropterotriton cieloensis sp. nov. and Chiropterotriton infernalis sp. nov., from the Mexican state of Tamaulipas based on both molecular and morphological data. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis for the group, with emphasis on the taxa from northern Mexico, based on mitochondrial DNA, and discuss the other species of northern Mexico, especially the wider-ranging C. multidentatus, to which the new species were formerly assigned.

  13. Status of some populations of Mexican salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parra-Olea

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Mexican plethodontid salamanders have been surveyed non-systematically over the last 25 years. In light of many reports of disappearance of amphibians around the world, we checked for persistence of reported species at ten of these sites. All of the commoner species persist (we observed individuals representing a total of 30 species. While observed densities of many species of Mexican plethodontids are lower to much lower than was the case 20 to 25 years ago, evidence for recent extinctions, such as has been reported for amphibian taxa elsewhere, is equivocal or lacking. Habitat modification has contributed to difficulties in finding certain species.Poblaciones de varias especies de salamandras pletodóntidas en México han sido monitoreadas de manera no sistemática durante los últimos 25 años. Diez de éstas poblaciones fueran visitadas recientemente con el propósito de verificar la persistencia de las especies reportadas para dichas localidades. Nuestras observaciones confirman la persistencia local de más de 30 especies cuyo estatus era desconocido, aunque la frecuencia de observación de estas especies es en general menor que en fechas anteriores. Estas observaciones son particularmente relevantes dada la situación actual de preocupación por la disminución mundial de anfibios.

  14. Conservation genetics of the endangered Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah, Plethodontidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Jung, R.E.; Sites, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah) is restricted to three isolated talus outcrops in Shenandoah National Park, VA, USA and has one of the smallest ranges of any tetrapod vertebrate. This species was listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act in 1989 over concern that direct competition with the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), successional habitat changes, and human impacts may cause its decline and possible extinction. We address two issues herein: (1) whether extensive introgression (through long-term hybridization) is present between the two species and threatens the survival of P. shenandoah, and (2) the level of population structure within P. shenandoah. We provide evidence from mtDNA haplotypes that shows no genetic differentiation among the three isolates of P. shenandoah, suggesting that their fragmentation is a geologically recent event, and/or that the isolates are still connected by occasional gene flow. There is also no evidence for extensive introgression of alleles in either direction between P. cinereus and P. shenandoah, which suggests that P. shenandoah may not be in danger of being genetically swamped out through hybridization with P. cinereus.

  15. Cytogenetics of the Brazilian Bolitoglossa paraensis (Unterstein, 1930 salamanders (Caudata, Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Barata da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plethodontid salamanders of genus Bolitoglossa constitute the largest and most diverse group of salamanders, including around 20% of living caudate species. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of five recognized species in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. We present here the first cytogenetic data of a Brazilian salamander, which may prove to be a useful by contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus. Specimens were collected near the "type" locality (Utinga, Belém, PA, Brazil. Chromosomal preparations from duodenal epithelial cells and testes were subjected to Giemsa staining, C-banding and DAPI/CMA3 fluorochrome staining. All specimens showed a karyotype with 13 bi-armed chromosome pairs (2n = 26. Nucleolar Organizer Regions, evidenced by CMA3, were located distally on the long arm of pair 7 (7q. DAPI+ heterochromatin was predominantly centromeric, with some small pericentromeric bands. Although the C-banding patterns of other Bolitoglossa species are so far unknown, cytogenetic studies conducted in other Plethodontid salamanders have demonstrated that pericentromeric heterochromatin is a useful cytological marker for identifying interspecific homeologies. Species diversification is usually accompanied by chromosomal changes. Therefore, the cytogenetic characterization of Bolitoglossa populations from the middle and western Brazilian Amazon Basin could identify differences which may lead to the identification of new species.

  16. Una nueva especie de Bolitoglossa (Caudata: Plethodontidae de las selvas del Magdalena Medio en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Galvis Andrés R.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie del genero Bolitoglossa del grupo alfa (sensu Wake & Lynch, 1976 denominada Bolitoglossa lozanoi de las selvas húmedas relictuales del valle del Río Magdalena en La Cordillera Central de Colombia (loe. typ.: Río La Miel, Mpio. La Victoria, Departamento de Caldas, 500 m.s.n.m.; la nueva especie es reconocible por su cuerpo robusto, las palmeaduras manuales y pediales extensas, su patrón cromático ventral café con punteaduras café más oscuras y crema, ojos no protuberantes y la talla corporal relativamente grande entre las especies de salamandras del país. A new species of the genus Bolitoglossa, of the alpha group (sensu Wake & Lynch, 1976 named Bolitoglossa lozanoi from the relictual humid forest from the Magdalena Valley on the eastern slope ofthe central Andes Mountain range in Colombia (type locality: La Miel River, Mpio. La Victoria, Dept. of Caldas, 500 m.s.n.m.. The new species is mainly recognized by the presence of a robust body, extensively webbed hands and toes, a brownish ventral chromatic pattern with small darker brown and cream dots, non-protuberant eyes and a relatively large size.

  17. Salamandras de la Familia Plethodontidas: Hallazgo de los huevos de Bolitoglossa adspersa (Peters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicéforo María Hermano

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available La ovoviviparidad en las salamandras del género Bolitoglossa (2 (Oedipus ha sido registrada solamente para las formas que habitanen las montañas de Colombia. Al referirse a «Oedipus adspersus», que fue colectada en las bromelias de las montañas de Santa Marta, Ruthven (3 dice simplemente que ella es una especie vivípara.  Es muy probable que el autor apoya su información sobre la de Peters, quien encontró huevos de 3 mm. en el ovario de la salamandra «Oedipus adspersus» y afirmó que el animal era vivíparo.

  18. A new species of salamander (Caudata: Plethodontidae, Bolitoglossa) from Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, Javier; Escalona, Moisés; Mora, Andrés; Díaz De Pascual, Amelia; Fermin, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a new species of salamander of the genus Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) from the cloud forest near La Mucuy in Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuelan Andes, is described. Bolitoglossa mucuyensis sp. nov. differs from all Venezuelan salamanders, except B. orestes, by a larger SVL/TL ratio, and from La Culata salamander B. orestes by a reduced webbing extension of the front and hind limbs. Additionally, B. mucuyensis sp. nov. and B. orestes diverge 3.12% in terms of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, as previously reported, and in 8.1% for the cytb gene as shown in this study.

  19. Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Rovito, Sean M; García-París, Mario; Maisano, Jessica A; Wake, David B; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails. All three new species occur west of the range of T. minutissimus, which has the easternmost distribution of any member of the genus. The new species are distinguished from each other and from other named Thorius in Oaxaca by a combination of adult body size, external morphology and osteology, and by protein characters (allozymes) and differences in DNA sequences. In addition, we redescribe T. minutissimus and a related species, T. narisovalis, to further clarify the taxonomic status of Oaxacan populations and to facilitate future studies of the remaining genetically differentiated Thorius that cannot be satisfactorily assigned to any named species. Populations of all five species considered here appear to have declined dramatically over the last one or two decades and live specimens are difficult to find in nature. Thorius may be the most endangered genus of amphibians in the world. All species may go extinct before the end of this century.

  20. Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius from Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parra-Olea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails. All three new species occur west of the range of T. minutissimus, which has the easternmost distribution of any member of the genus. The new species are distinguished from each other and from other named Thorius in Oaxaca by a combination of adult body size, external morphology and osteology, and by protein characters (allozymes and differences in DNA sequences. In addition, we redescribe T. minutissimus and a related species, T. narisovalis, to further clarify the taxonomic status of Oaxacan populations and to facilitate future studies of the remaining genetically differentiated Thorius that cannot be satisfactorily assigned to any named species. Populations of all five species considered here appear to have declined dramatically over the last one or two decades and live specimens are difficult to find in nature. Thorius may be the most endangered genus of amphibians in the world. All species may go extinct before the end of this century.

  1. Ontogenetic convergence and evolution of foot morphology in European cave salamanders (Family: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistri Annamaria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Both natural and sexual selection play a large role in generating phenotypic adaptations, with biomechanical requirements and developmental mechanisms mediating patterns of phenotypic evolution. For many traits, the relative importance of selective and developmental components remains understudied. Results We investigated ontogenetic trajectories of foot morphology in the eight species of European plethodontid cave salamander to test the hypothesis that adult foot morphology was adapted for climbing. Using geometric morphometrics and other approaches, we found that developmental patterns in five species displayed little morphological change during growth (isometry, where the extensive interdigital webbing in adults was best explained as the retention of the juvenile morphological state. By contrast, three species exhibited significant allometry, with an increase in interdigital webbing during growth. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that multiple evolutionary transitions between isometry and allometry of foot webbing have occurred in this lineage. Allometric parameters of foot growth were most similar to those of a tropical species previously shown to be adapted for climbing. Finally, interspecific variation in adult foot morphology was significantly reduced as compared to variation among juveniles, indicating that ontogenetic convergence had resulted in a common adult foot morphology across species. Conclusions The results presented here provide evidence of a complex history of phenotypic evolution in this clade. The common adult phenotype exhibited among species reveals that selection plays an important part in generating patterns of foot diversity in the group. However, developmental trajectories arriving at this common morphology are distinct; with some species displaying developmental stasis (isometry, while others show an increase in foot webbing during growth. Thus, multiple developmental solutions exist to the same evolutionary challenge. Our findings underscore the importance of examining morphological adaptations from multiple perspectives, and emphasize that both selective hypotheses and developmental processes must be considered for a more comprehensive understanding of phenotypic evolution.

  2. Registro de Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae en una cueva de Tehuacán, Puebla Record of Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae in a cave of Tehuacán, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Windfield-Pérez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron organismos de Pseudoeurycea mixteca en el interior de una cueva a 80 metros de profundidad en una zona de vegetación xerófila en el Valle de Tehuacán, Puebla. Los ejemplares fueron hallados bajo piedras en la arena húmeda. Los registros previos de P. mixteca corresponden únicamente a vegetación de bosque de pino-encino en el noroeste de Oaxaca donde vive bajo la corteza de árboles caídos o en troncos podridos. Este nuevo registro incrementa el área de distribución y el tipo de hábitat para la especie.Adult organisms of Pseudoeurycea mixteca were found in a cave of about 80 meters deep at a xerophile vegetation in the Tehuacan Valley, Puebla. The specimens were located under stones in humid sand. Previous reports of this species were from pine-oak forest in northwestern Oaxaca, living under the bark of logs or inside rotten logs. This new record increases the known distribution of the species and habitat type.

  3. Notas sobre la distribución geográfica de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae Notes about the geographic distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovii and Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Solano-Zavaleta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En un análisis de la distribución de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y P. melanomolga, se registra por primera vez para Puebla la especie Pseudoeurycea melanomolga, además de ampliarse el rango de distribución conocido para ambas especies.Analyzing the distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovil and P. melanmolga, we report Pseudoeurycea melanmolga for the first time in Puebla, and the known distribution range for both species is increased.

  4. Notas sobre la distribución geográfica de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae) Notes about the geographic distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovii and Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Solano-Zavaleta; Uri Omar García-Vázquez; Andrés Alberto Mendoza-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    En un análisis de la distribución de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y P. melanomolga, se registra por primera vez para Puebla la especie Pseudoeurycea melanomolga, además de ampliarse el rango de distribución conocido para ambas especies.Analyzing the distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovil and P. melanmolga, we report Pseudoeurycea melanmolga for the first time in Puebla, and the known distribution range for both species is increased.

  5. A new Nototriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H; Medina-flores, Melissa; Reyes-Calderón, Onán; Austin, James D

    2013-01-01

    The highlands of northeastern Honduras remain under-characterized in terms of biological diversity, as exemplified by the regularity of new amphibian and reptile taxa discoveries. Following the recent description of a new species of Nototriton from the Sierra de Agalta in northeastern Honduras, we report the discovery of a second new species of Nototriton from the nearby Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos. This new taxon, Nototriton mime sp. nov., is distinguished from other Nototriton by its distinctive pale brown dorsal coloration in adult males, relatively large nares, a relatively broad head, mitochondrial sequence divergence, and phylogenetic relationships, and is geographically isolated from other populations of Nototriton.

  6. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Darda

    Full Text Available Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes. Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1 phylogeny, 2 adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms, 3 size-free shape, and 4 size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work.

  7. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darda, David M; Wake, David B

    2015-01-01

    Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes). Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1) phylogeny, 2) adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms), 3) size-free shape, and 4) size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work.

  8. Dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi (Caudata, Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika X. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La temperatura ambiental es un factor determinante en los procesos fisiológicos y comportamentales de los anfibios ya que son ectotérmos y consecuentemente dependen de una fuente de calor externa para alcanzar su temperatura corporal óptima. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi Brame & Wake, 1972 con respecto a las temperaturas del aire y del sustrato. Para esto se realizaron diferentes muestreos en el municipio de Líbano, Tolima, Colombia, entre las 18:00 y las 24:00 horas, en Abril y Mayo de 2015. Allí se capturaron 34 individuos a los cuales se les registró directamente en campo: la temperatura corporal, la masa corporal y la longitud corporal. También, se midió la temperatura del sustrato y la temperatura del aire en el lugar donde fue encontrado el animal. La temperatura corporal de los individuos tuvo una media de 18.3±0.55°C, mostrando una relación positiva y significativa con la temperatura del sustrato y la temperatura del aire, lo que demuestra que la especie es termoconformadora. Además, la temperatura corporal mostró una dependencia térmica mayor con la temperatura del sustrato que con la del aire, indicando que B. ramosi presenta una regulación tigmotérmica. Finalmente, la temperatura corporal no se relacionó con la longitud corporal ni con la masa corporal. Esta información es importante para el conocimiento de la biología térmica de la especie y las posibles respuestas fisiológicas ante el incremento de las temperaturas ambientales.

  9. Lineage divergence and speciation in the Web-toed Salamanders (Plethodontidae: Hydromantes) of the Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    Peripatric speciation and the importance of founder effects have long been controversial, and multilocus sequence data and coalescent methods now allow hypotheses of peripatric speciation to be tested in a rigorous manner. Using a multilocus phylogeographical data set for two species of salamanders (genus Hydromantes) from the Sierra Nevada of California, hypotheses of recent divergence by peripatric speciation and older, allopatric divergence were tested. Phylogeographical analysis revealed two divergent lineages within Hydromantes platycephalus, which were estimated to have diverged in the Pliocene. By contrast, a low-elevation species, Hydromantes brunus, diverged from within the northern lineage of H. platycephalus much more recently (mid-Pleistocene), during a time of major climatic change in the Sierra Nevada. Multilocus species tree estimation and coalescent estimates of divergence time, migration rate, and growth rate reject a scenario of ancient speciation of H. brunus with subsequent gene flow and introgression from H. platycephalus, instead supporting a more recent divergence with population expansion. Although the small, peripheral distribution of H. brunus suggests the possibility of peripatric speciation, the estimated founding population size of the species was too large to have allowed founder effects to be important in its divergence. These results provide evidence for both recent speciation, most likely tied to the climatic changes of the Pleistocene, and older lineage divergence, possibly due to geological events, and add to evidence that Pleistocene glacial cycles were an important driver of diversification in the Sierra Nevada. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi (Caudata, Plethodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Erika X. Cruz; Galindo, Carlos A; Manuel H. Bernal

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN La temperatura ambiental es un factor determinante en los procesos fisiológicos y comportamentales de los anfibios ya que son ectotérmos y consecuentemente dependen de una fuente de calor externa para alcanzar su temperatura corporal óptima. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi Brame & Wake, 1972 con respecto a las temperaturas del aire y del sustrato. Para esto se realizaron diferentes muestreos en...

  11. The effects of inference method, population sampling, and gene sampling on species tree inferences: an empirical study in slender salamanders (Plethodontidae: Batrachoseps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jockusch, Elizabeth L; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Timpe, Elizabeth K

    2015-01-01

    Species tree methods are now widely used to infer the relationships among species from multilocus data sets. Many methods have been developed, which differ in whether gene and species trees are estimated simultaneously or sequentially, and in how gene trees are used to infer the species tree. While these methods perform well on simulated data, less is known about what impacts their performance on empirical data. We used a data set including five nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene for 22 species of Batrachoseps to compare the effects of method of analysis, within-species sampling and gene sampling on species tree inferences. For this data set, the choice of inference method had the largest effect on the species tree topology. Exclusion of individual loci had large effects in *BEAST and STEM, but not in MP-EST. Different loci carried the greatest leverage in these different methods, showing that the causes of their disproportionate effects differ. Even though substantial information was present in the nuclear loci, the mitochondrial gene dominated the *BEAST species tree. This leverage is inherent to the mtDNA locus and results from its high variation and lower assumed ploidy. This mtDNA leverage may be problematic when mtDNA has undergone introgression, as is likely in this data set. By contrast, the leverage of RAG1 in STEM analyses does not reflect properties inherent to the locus, but rather results from a gene tree that is strongly discordant with all others, and is best explained by introgression between distantly related species. Within-species sampling was also important, especially in *BEAST analyses, as shown by differences in tree topology across 100 subsampled data sets. Despite the sensitivity of the species tree methods to multiple factors, five species groups, the relationships among these, and some relationships within them, are generally consistently resolved for Batrachoseps. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Taxonomic revision of the moss salamander Nototriton barbouri (Schmidt (Caudata: Plethodontidae), with description of two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H

    2016-11-24

    Moss salamanders (genus Nototriton) are represented in northern Central America by nine putative species: N. barbouri, N. brodiei, N. lignicola, N. limnospectator, N. mime, N. picucha, N. saslaya, N. stuarti, and N. tomamorum. I estimate the phylogenetic relationships for these species based on data from three mitochondrial gene fragments (16S, cytochrome b, and COI), and compare morphological variation among putative taxa. As evidenced here and in previous studies, the taxon N. barbouri is paraphyletic with respect to populations from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios in northern Honduras. I restrict this taxon to populations from the Sierra de Sulaco in central Yoro, Honduras, and describe two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios.

  13. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae from the intestine of Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae in central Mexico Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae del intestino de Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae en la región central de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Falcón-Ordaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Angiostoma (Angiostomatidae is described from the intestine of the plethodontid salamander, Pseudoeurycea mixteca from Puebla State, in central Mexico. The new species closely resembles Angiostoma limancis, Angiostoma kimmeriensis, Angiostoma spiridonovi, Angiostoma stammeri, and Angiostoma carettae, because they all possess 8 pairs of pedunculate papillae in the caudal region; however, the new species can be distinguished by the unique arrangement of papillae, with 1 pre-cloacal pair, and 7 post-cloacal pairs. Among the 12 congeneric species of Angiostoma described so far, 2 have been described as parasites of salamanders, Angiostoma plethodontis from Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon richmondi in Virginia, USA, and Angiostoma onychodactyla from Onychodactylus japonicus in Japan. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. is readily distinguished from these 2 species by the presence of lateral alae and by the number of pre-cloacal papillae.En este trabajo se describe una especie nueva del género Angiostoma (Angiostomatidae como parásito del intestino de la salamandra pletodóntida Pseudoeurycea mixteca en el estado de Puebla, en el centro de México. La nueva especie es morfológicamente similar a Angiostoma limancis, Angiostoma kimmeriensis, Angiostoma spiridonovi, Angiostoma stammeri y Angiostoma carettae, porque todas ellas poseen 8 pares de papilas pedunculadas en la región caudal; sin embargo, se puede distinguir de éstas por el arreglo característico de dichas papilas: 1 par en posición precloacal y 7 pares postcloacales. Dos de las 12 especies congenéricas de Angiostoma fueron descritas de salamandras, Angiostoma plethodontis de Plethodon cinereus y Plethodon richmondi en Virginia, EUA y Angiostoma onychodactyla de Onychodactylus japonicus en Japón. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. se distingue fácilmente de estas 2 especies por la presencia de alas laterales y por el número de papilas precloacales.

  14. Miniaturization and its effects on cranial morphology in plethodontid salamanders, genus Thorius (Amphibia, Plethodontidae): II. The fate of the brain and sense organs and their role in skull morphogenesis and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, J

    1983-09-01

    Relative size and arrangement of the brain and paired sense organs are examined in three species of Thorius, a genus of minute, terrestrial salamanders that are among the smallest extant tailed tetrapods. Analogous measurements of representative species of three related genera of larger tropical (Pseudoeurycea, Chiropterotriton) and temperate (Plethodon) salamanders are used to identify changes in gross morphology of the brain and sense organs that have accompanied the evolution of decreased head size in Thorius and their relation to associated changes in skull morphology. In adult Thorius, relative size (area measured in frontal plane, and length) of the eyes, otic capsules, and brain each is greater than in adults of all of the larger genera; relative size of the nasal capsules is unchanged or slightly smaller. Interspecific scaling phenomena--negative allometry of otic capsule, eye and brain size, isometry or slight positive allometry of nasal capsule size, all with respect to skull length--also are characteristic of intraspecific (ontogenetic) comparisons in both T. narisovalis and Pseudoeurycea goebeli. Predominance of the brain and eyes in Thorius results in greater contact and overlap among these structures and the nasal capsules in the anterior portion of the head. This is associated with anterior displacement of both the eyes and nasal capsules, which now protrude anterior to the skull proper; a change in eye shape; and medial deformation of anterior braincase walls. Posteriorly, predominance of the otic capsules has effected a reorientation of the jaw suspensorium to a fully vertical position that is correlated with the novel presence of a posteriorly directed squamosal process and shift in origin of the quadropectoralis muscle. Many of these changes in cranial morphology may be explained simply as results of mechanical (physical) interactions among the skeletal, nervous, and sensory components during head development at reduced size. This provides further evidence of the role of nervous, sensory, and other "soft" tissues in cranial skeletal morphogenesis, and reinforces the need to consider these tissues in analyses of skull evolution.

  15. A new genus and species of Brachycoeliidae (Digenea) from Chiropterotriton sp. (Caudata: Plethodontidae) in Mexico and its phylogenetic position within the Plagiorchiida based on partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, G Pérez-Ponce; Mendoza-Garfias, B; Razo-Mendivil, U; Parra-Olea, G

    2011-02-01

    Parabrachycoelium longicaecum n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Brachycoeliidae) is described from the intestine of a plethodontid salamander Chiropterotriton sp. Hosts were collected in bromeliads at the cloud forest of Tlaquilpa, Veracruz, Mexico. Members of the Brachycoeliidae Looss, 1899 (sensu Yamaguti, 1971) are characterized by having a spined tegument; ceca usually short, not passing level of gonads, but longer in some species; gonads posterior to, or in region of, acetabulum, with ovary anterior to testes; a well developed cirrus pouch containing a bipartite seminal vesicle; and uterus occupying entire hind-body posterior to testes. However, this combination of morphological traits prevents the inclusion of the new taxon in any of the genera in that family; a new genus was, therefore, erected to accommodate the new species. The new taxon is readily distinguished from members belonging to Brachycoelium Dujardin, 1845, Mesocoelium Odhner, 1910, and Tremiorchis Mehra and Negi, 1925, by having long ceca extending into the posterior third of the body, slightly surpassing the testes, and vitellaria extending along the body. The new species morphologically resembles Caudouterina rhyacotritoni Martin, 1966, a digenean parasitizing a plethodontid salamander; however, the latter species lacks spines in the tegument and is actually placed within the Allocreadiidae. To demonstrate further the phylogenetic position of the new taxon, we sequenced the D1-D3 regions of 28S rRNA gene and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of available sequences for the order to which brachycoeliids belong (Plagiorchiida). Sequence divergence of the partial 28S rRNA gene confirms its distinction from the aforementioned brachycoeliids, and the phylogenetic position within the Plagiorchiida places the new species as closely related to a clade formed by Brachycoelium + Mesocoelium. Divergence levels and phylogenetic position within the Plagiorchiida verifies the validity of the new genus and its inclusion in Brachycoeliidae.

  16. Reconnaissance Observations of Long-Term Natural Vegetation Recovery in the Cape Thompson Region, Alaska, and Additions to the Checklist of Flora,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    plants proba- Saxifraga bronchialis bly do not survive for many seasons, although Silene acaulis there is no documentation of this. However, indi- a... Saxifraga eschscholtzii undisturbed areas. The variability that does occur Scattered individuals of Carex microchaeta, Hier- can be attributed to the...Corydalis pauciflora, Carda- tills community). The hepatic Anthelia juratz- mine microphylla, Eutrema edwardsii, Saxifraga kana, which is common on acidic

  17. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a Nicaraguan, micro-endemic Neotropical salamander, Bolitoglossa mombachoensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, Tariq; Laurijssens, Carlijn; Weterings, Martijn; Martel, An; Köhler, Gunther; Pasmans, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened terrestrial vertebrates on the planet and are iconic in the global biodiversity crisis. Their global decline caused by the fungal agent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is well known. Declines of Mesoamerican salamanders of the family Plethodontidae, mainly

  18. Evaluating multi-level models to test occupancy state responses of Plethodontid salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Andrew J.; Garcia, Tiffany S.; Jones, Jay E.; Dugger, Catherine; Murden, Blake; Johnson, Josh; Peerman, Summer; Brintz, Ben; Rochelle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Plethodontid salamanders are diverse and widely distributed taxa and play critical roles in ecosystem processes. Due to salamander use of structurally complex habitats, and because only a portion of a population is available for sampling, evaluation of sampling designs and estimators is critical to provide strong inference about Plethodontid ecology and responses to conservation and management activities. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-scale and hierarchical single-scale occupancy models in the context of a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) experimental design with multiple levels of sampling. Also, we fit the hierarchical single-scale model to empirical data collected for Oregon slender and Ensatina salamanders across two years on 66 forest stands in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. All models were fit within a Bayesian framework. Estimator precision in both models improved with increasing numbers of primary and secondary sampling units, underscoring the potential gains accrued when adding secondary sampling units. Both models showed evidence of estimator bias at low detection probabilities and low sample sizes; this problem was particularly acute for the multi-scale model. Our results suggested that sufficient sample sizes at both the primary and secondary sampling levels could ameliorate this issue. Empirical data indicated Oregon slender salamander occupancy was associated strongly with the amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = 0.74; SD = 0.24); Ensatina occupancy was not associated with amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = -0.01; SD = 0.29). Our simulation results indicate that either model is suitable for use in an experimental study of Plethodontid salamanders provided that sample sizes are sufficiently large. However, hierarchical single-scale and multi-scale models describe different processes and estimate different parameters. As a result, we recommend careful consideration of study questions

  19. DemaDb: an integrated dematiaceous fungal genomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Sian; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Toh, Yue Fen; Lee, Kok Wei; Cheong, Wei-Hien; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yap, Soon-Joo; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    Many species of dematiaceous fungi are associated with allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in human, especially in tropical climates. Over the past 10 years, we have isolated more than 400 dematiaceous fungi from various clinical samples. In this study, DemaDb, an integrated database was designed to support the integration and analysis of dematiaceous fungal genomes. A total of 92 072 putative genes and 6527 pathways that identified in eight dematiaceous fungi (Bipolaris papendorfii UM 226, Daldinia eschscholtzii UM 1400, D. eschscholtzii UM 1020, Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, Ochroconis mirabilis UM 578, Cladosporium sphaerospermum UM 843, Herpotrichiellaceae sp. UM 238 and Pleosporales sp. UM 1110) were deposited in DemaDb. DemaDb includes functional annotations for all predicted gene models in all genomes, such as Gene Ontology, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Pfam and InterProScan. All predicted protein models were further functionally annotated to Carbohydrate-Active enzymes, peptidases, secondary metabolites and virulence factors. DemaDb Genome Browser enables users to browse and visualize entire genomes with annotation data including gene prediction, structure, orientation and custom feature tracks. The Pathway Browser based on the KEGG pathway database allows users to look into molecular interaction and reaction networks for all KEGG annotated genes. The availability of downloadable files containing assembly, nucleic acid, as well as protein data allows the direct retrieval for further downstream works. DemaDb is a useful resource for fungal research community especially those involved in genome-scale analysis, functional genomics, genetics and disease studies of dematiaceous fungi. Database URL: http://fungaldb.um.edu.my. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Bsal to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Bsal according to disease...... prevention and control rules as in Annex IV, and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Bsal. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before......) of Article 9(1). The assessment here performed on compliance with the criteria as in Section 1 of Annex IV referred to in point (a) of Article 9(1) is inconclusive. The animal species to be listed for Bsal according to Article 8(3) criteria are species of the families Salamandridae and Plethodontidae...

  1. Plethodontid salamander mitochondrial genomics: A parsimonyevaluation of character conflict and implications for historicalbiogeography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert

    2005-01-19

    A new parsimony analysis of 27 complete mitochondrial genomic sequences is conducted to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of plethodontid salamanders. This analysis focuses on the amount of character conflict between phylogenetic trees recovered from newly conducted parsimony searches and the Bayesian and maximum likelihood topology reported by Mueller et al. (2004, PNAS, 101, 13820-13825). Strong support for Hemidactylium as the sister taxon to all other plethodontids is recovered from parsimony analyses. Plotting area relationships on the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree suggests that eastern North America is the origin of the family Plethodontidae supporting the ''Out of Appalachia'' hypothesis. A new taxonomy that recognizes clades recovered from phylogenetic analyses is proposed.

  2. Natural History Constrains the Macroevolution of Foot Morphology in European Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dean C; Korneisel, Dana; Young, Morgan; Nistri, Annamaria

    2017-08-01

    The natural history of organisms can have major effects on the tempo and mode of evolution, but few examples show how unique natural histories affect rates of evolution at macroevolutionary scales. European plethodontid salamanders (Plethodontidae: Hydromantes) display a particular natural history relative to other members of the family. Hydromantes commonly occupy caves and small crevices, where they cling to the walls and ceilings. On the basis of this unique and strongly selected behavior, we test the prediction that rates of phenotypic evolution will be lower in traits associated with climbing. We find that, within Hydromantes, foot morphological traits evolve at significantly lower rates than do other phenotypic traits. Additionally, Hydromantes displays a lower rate of foot morphology evolution than does a nonclimbing genus, Plethodon. Our findings suggest that macroevolutionary trends of phenotypic diversification can be mediated by the unique behavioral responses in taxa related to particular attributes of their natural history.

  3. Amphibian and reptile abundance in riparian and upslope areas of five forest types in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, D.M.; Anthony, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    We compared species composition and relative abundance of herpetofauna between riparian and upslope habitats among 5 forest types (shrub, open sapling-pole, large sawtimber and old-growth conifer forests, and deciduous forests) in Western Oregon. Riparian- and upslope- associated species were identified based on capture frequencies from pitfall trapping. Species richness was similar among forest types but slightly greater in the shrub stands. The abundances of 3 species differed among forest types. Total captures was highest in deciduous forests, intermediate in the mature conifer forests, and lowest in the 2 young coniferous forests. Species richness was similar between stream and upslope habitats; however, captures were higher in riparian than upslope habitat. Tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei), Dunn's salamanders (Plethodon dunni), roughskin newts(Tanicha granulosa), Pacific giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) and red-legged frogs(Rana aurora) were captured more frequently in riparian than upslope habitats. Of these species the red-legged frog and Pacific giant salamander may depend on riparian habitat for at least part of their life requirements, while tailed frogs, Dunn's salamanders and roughskin newts appear to be riparian associated species. In addition, we found Oregon salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzi) were associated with upslope habitats. We suggest riparian management zones should be al least 75-100 m on each side of the stream and that management for upslope/and or old forest associates may be equally as important as for riparian species.

  4. New vascular plant records for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Lynn J.; Saarela, Jeffery M.; Sokoloff, Paul C.; Bull, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Canadian Arctic Archipelago is a vast region of approximately 1,420,000 km2, with a flora characterized by low species diversity, low endemicity, and little influence by alien species. New records of vascular plant species are documented here based on recent fieldwork on Victoria and Baffin Islands; additional records based on recent literature sources are mentioned. This paper serves as an update to the 2007 publication Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and brings the total number of vascular plants for the region to 375 species and infraspecific taxa, an increase of 7.7%. Three families (Amaranthaceae, Juncaginaceae, Pteridaceae) and seven genera (Cherleria L., Cryptogramma R. Br., Platanthera Rich., Sabulina Rchb., Suaeda Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel., Triglochin L., Utricularia L.) are added to the flora, and one genus is deleted (Minuartia L.). Five species are first records for Nunavut (Arenaria longipedunculata Hultén, Cryptogramma stelleri (S.G. Gmel.) Prantl, Puccinellia banksiensis Consaul, Saxifraga eschscholtzii Sternb., Utricularia ochroleuca R.W. Hartm.) PMID:26311505

  5. New vascular plant records for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn J. Gillespie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Arctic Archipelago is a vast region of approximately 1,420,000 km2, with a flora characterized by low species diversity, low endemicity, and little influence by alien species. New records of vascular plant species are documented here based on recent fieldwork on Victoria and Baffin Islands; additional records based on recent literature sources are mentioned. This paper serves as an update to the 2007 publication Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and brings the total number of vascular plants for the region to 375 species and infraspecific taxa, an increase of 7.7%. Three families (Amaranthaceae, Juncaginaceae, Pteridaceae and seven genera (Cherleria L., Cryptogramma R. Br., Platanthera Rich., Sabulina Rchb., Suaeda Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel., Triglochin L., Utricularia L. are added to the flora, and one genus is deleted (Minuartia L.. Five species are first records for Nunavut (Arenaria longipedunculata Hultén, Cryptogramma stelleri (S.G. Gmel. Prantl, Puccinellia banksiensis Consaul, Saxifraga eschscholtzii Sternb., Utricularia ochroleuca R.W. Hartm.

  6. The dynamic evolutionary history of genome size in North American woodland salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Catherine E; Gregory, T Ryan; Austin, Christopher C

    2017-04-01

    The genus Plethodon is the most species-rich salamander genus in North America, and nearly half of its species face an uncertain future. It is also one of the most diverse families in terms of genome sizes, which range from 1C = 18.2 to 69.3 pg, or 5-20 times larger than the human genome. Large genome size in salamanders results in part from accumulation of transposable elements and is associated with various developmental and physiological traits. However, genome sizes have been reported for only 25% of the species of Plethodon (14 of 55). We collected genome size data for Plethodon serratus to supplement an ongoing phylogeographic study, reconstructed the evolutionary history of genome size in Plethodontidae, and inferred probable genome sizes for the 41 species missing empirical data. Results revealed multiple genome size changes in Plethodon: genomes of western Plethodon increased, whereas genomes of eastern Plethodon decreased, followed by additional decreases or subsequent increases. The estimated genome size of P. serratus was 21 pg. New understanding of variation in genome size evolution, along with genome size inferences for previously unstudied taxa, provide a foundation for future studies on the biology of plethodontid salamanders.

  7. Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Macey, J. Robert; Jaekel, Martin; Wake, David B.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-01

    The evolutionary history of the largest salamander family (Plethodontidae) is characterized by extreme morphological homoplasy. Analysis of the mechanisms generating such homoplasy requires an independent, molecular phylogeny. To this end, we sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial genomes (22 plethodontids and two outgroup taxa), added data for three species from GenBank, and performed partitioned and unpartitioned Bayesian, ML, and MP phylogenetic analyses. We explored four dataset partitioning strategies to account for evolutionary process heterogeneity among genes and codon positions, all of which yielded increased model likelihoods and decreased numbers of supported nodes in the topologies (PP > 0.95) relative to the unpartitioned analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees that contrast with the traditional morphology-based taxonomy; the monophyly of three out of four major groups is rejected. Reanalysis of current hypotheses in light of these new evolutionary relationships suggests that (1) a larval life history stage re-evolved from a direct-developing ancestor multiple times, (2) there is no phylogenetic support for the ''Out of Appalachia'' hypothesis of plethodontid origins, and (3) novel scenarios must be reconstructed for the convergent evolution of projectile tongues, reduction in toe number, and specialization for defensive tail loss. Some of these novel scenarios imply morphological transformation series that proceed in the opposite direction than was previously thought. In addition, they suggest surprising evolutionary lability in traits previously interpreted to be conservative.

  8. Low prevalence of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in amphibians of U.S. headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Adams, Michael J.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Pearl, Chistopher A.; Bettaso, James B.; Barichivich, William J.; Lowe, Winsor H.; True, Kimberly; Ware, Joy L.; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Many declines of amphibian populations have been associated with chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Despite the relatively high prevalence of chytridiomycosis in stream amphibians globally, most surveys in North America have focused primarily on wetland-associated species, which are frequently infected. To better understand the distribution and prevalence of Bd in headwater amphibian communities, we sampled 452 tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei and Ascaphus montanus) and 304 stream salamanders (seven species in the Dicamptodontidae and Plethodontidae) for Bd in 38, first- to third-order streams in five montane areas across the United States. We tested for presence of Bd by using PCR on skin swabs from salamanders and metamorphosed tailed frogs or the oral disc of frog larvae. We detected Bd on only seven individuals (0.93%) in four streams. Based on our study and results from five other studies that have sampled headwater- or seep-associated amphibians in the United States, Bd has been detected on only 3% of 1,322 individuals from 21 species. These results differ strongly from surveys in Central America and Australia, where Bd is more prevalent on stream-breeding species, as well as results from wetland-associated anurans in the same regions of the United States that we sampled. Differences in the prevalence of Bd between stream- and wetland-associated amphibians in the United States may be related to species-specific variation in susceptibility to chytridiomycosis or habitat differences.

  9. How is the rate of climatic-niche evolution related to climatic-niche breadth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Reid, M Caitlin; Kozak, Kenneth H; Wiens, John J

    2012-12-01

    The rate of climatic-niche evolution is important to many research areas in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology, including responses of species to global climate change, spread of invasive species, speciation, biogeography, and patterns of species richness. Previous studies have implied that clades with higher rates of climatic-niche evolution among species should have species with narrower niche breadths, but there is also evidence suggesting the opposite pattern. However, the relationships between rate and breadth have not been explicitly analyzed. Here, we examine the relationships between the rate of climatic-niche evolution and climatic-niche breadth using phylogenetic and climatic data for 250 species in the salamander family Plethodontidae, a group showing considerable variation in both rates of climatic-niche evolution and climatic-niche breadths. Contrary to some expectations, we find no general relationship between climatic-niche breadth and the rate of climatic-niche evolution. Climatic-niche breadths for some ecologically important climatic variables considered separately (temperature seasonality and annual precipitation) do show significant relationships with the rate of climatic-niche evolution, but rates are faster in clades in which species have broader (not narrower) niche breadths. In summary, our results show that narrower niche breadths are not necessarily associated with faster rates of niche evolution. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. 5-HT-like immunoreactivity in the brains of plethodontid and salamandrid salamanders (Hydromantes italicus, Hydromantes genei, Plethodon jordani, Desmognathus ochrophaeus, Pleurodeles waltl): an immunohistochemical and biocytin double-labelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, U; Wallstein, M; Roth, G

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of 5-HT-like-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibres was studied in the brains of the salamanders Hydromantes italicus, H. genei, Plethodon jordani, Desmognathus ochrophaeus (family Plethodontidae), and Pleurodeles waltl (family Salamandridae). In addition, double-labelling experiments with biocytin were carried out to identify the relationship between serotonergic fibres and neurons involved in the processing of sensory and sensorimotor information. In all species, 5-HT-immunopositive somata are found in the ventral thalamus close to the ventricle forming the paraventricular organ. In the hypothalamus, cells are labelled in the ependymal layer around the infundibular recess and at the lateral edge of the periventricular grey. In the pretectum, a few immunoreactive cells are situated dorsolaterally in the grey matter. In the tegmentum and medulla oblongata, cells of the raphe nuclei are regularly distributed along the midline; labelled perikarya are occasionally found in the cervical spinal cord. 5-HT-like-immunoreactive fibres are widely distributed throughout the nervous system. Densely arborizing fibres are found in the olfactory bulb, striatum and amygdala. Distinct fibre projections extend in the ventral thalamus and tectum. Biocytin tracing of striatal and tectal projection neurons and ascending reticular neurons combined with the demonstration of 5-HT suggest that the striatum, the tectum and the ascending activating system are strongly influenced by 5-HT.

  11. At random meetings to the creation of new species of Salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillant, Marie-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The pupils in final year of high school (15-18 years old) study the notion "species" and the creation of new species in various ways. Having studied genetic admixtures, this activity allows the pupils to build a scenario explaining the creation of a new species of Salamander in southern California from an ancestral population existing in northern Oregon. They can observe, on Google Earth, various populations of Salamander of the genus Ensatina. Salamanders of the genus Ensatina live in California around the Joaquin and Sacramento dry valleys. In this software, the pupils get information about the salamanders' environment and photographs of individuals and environments. During a migratory movement toward new territories to be colonized, these salamanders meet an inhospitable environment that they can not occupy. This population then splits up into two migratory branches, east and west, each overcoming the obstacles in different ways. The two groups gradually colonized southern territories but they avoided the too dry and hot San Joaquin plains. The two main branches of the original population gradually move away from each other, and genetic exchanges between them decrease over time. Eventually, we can find various populations of Salamander on both sides of the valleys, since the salamanders occupied new territories and diversified along the way. Among mutations that randomly occur, only those mutations that are best adapted in the origin were conserved in the genetic heritage of every population. When the individuals stemming from different western populations met, they were interfertile and give fertile hybrids, which was verified in the laboratory. Likewise, when individuals of the different eastern subspecies met accidentally, fertile hybrids also could arise from these crossings. The pupils can observe what happens in the overlap of various populations : interfertility or not. They also have geological, geographical and climatic information about the San Joaquin

  12. A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Marc; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Decock, Cony; Schmieschek, Beata; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Peršoh, Derek

    2014-03-15

    For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UV-visible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future

  13. A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Marc; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Decock, Cony; Schmieschek, Beata; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Peršoh, Derek

    2014-01-01

    For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UV-visible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future

  14. Posterior tail development in the salamander Eurycea cirrigera: exploring cellular dynamics across life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglia, Janet L; Fornari, Chet; Evans, Paula K

    2017-03-01

    During embryogenesis, the body axis elongates and specializes. In vertebrate groups such as salamanders and lizards, elongation of the posterior body axis (tail) continues throughout life. This phenomenon of post-embryonic tail elongation via addition of vertebrae has remained largely unexplored, and little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms that promote vertebral addition. Our research investigated tail elongation across life stages in a non-model salamander species, Eurycea cirrigera (Plethodontidae). Post-embryonic addition of segments suggests that the tail tip retains some aspects of embryonic cell/tissue organization and gene expression throughout the life cycle. We describe cell and tissue differentiation and segmentation of the posterior tail using serial histology and expression of the axial tissue markers, MF-20 and Pax6. Embryonic expression patterns of HoxA13 and C13 are shown with in situ hybridization. Tissue sections reveal that the posterior spinal cord forms via cavitation and precedes development of the underlying cartilaginous rod after embryogenesis. Post-embryonic tail elongation occurs in the absence of somites and mesenchymal cells lateral to the midline express MF-20. Pax6 expression was observed only in the spinal cord and some mesenchymal cells of adult Eurycea tails. Distinct temporal and spatial patterns of posterior Hox13 gene expression were observed throughout embryogenesis. Overall, important insights to cell organization, differentiation, and posterior Hox gene expression may be gained from this work. We suggest that further work on gene expression in the elongating adult tail could shed light on mechanisms that link continual axial elongation with regeneration.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of extensive mitochondrial gene rearrangementin plethodontid salamanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-06-01

    Extensive gene rearrangement is reported in the mitochondrial genomes of lungless salamanders (Plethodontidae). In each genome with a novel gene order, there is evidence that the rearrangement was mediated by duplication of part of the mitochondrial genome, including the presence of both pseudogenes and additional, presumably functional, copies of duplicated genes. All rearrangement-mediating duplications include either the origin of light strand replication and the nearby tRNA genes or the regions flanking the origin of heavy strand replication. The latter regions comprise nad6, trnE, cob, trnT, an intergenic spacer between trnT and trnP and, in some genomes, trnP, the control region, trnF, rrnS, trnV, rrnL, trnL1, and nad1. In some cases, two copies of duplicated genes, presumptive regulatory regions, and/or sequences with no assignable function have been retained in the genome following the initial duplication; in other genomes, only one of the duplicated copies has been retained. Both tandem and non-tandem duplications are present in these genomes, suggesting different duplication mechanisms. In some of these mtDNAs, up to 25 percent of the total length is composed of tandem duplications of non-coding sequence that includes putative regulatory regions and/or pseudogenes of tRNAs and protein-coding genes along with otherwise unassignable sequences. These data indicate that imprecise initiation and termination of replication, slipped-strand mispairing, and intra-molecular recombination may all have played a role in generating repeats during the evolutionary history of plethodontid mitochondrial genomes.

  16. Fire effects on wildlife in Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Craig A.; Ford, W. Mark; Lashley, Marcus A.; Moorman, Christopher; Stambaugh, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    possible. Early growing-season fire may pose increased risk for some species, especially herpetofauna recently emerged from winter hibernacula (April) or forest songbirds that nest in the understory (May to June). However, negative population-level effects are unlikely unless the burned area is relatively large and early growing-season fire is used continually. We did not find evidence that fire is leading to population declines for any species, including Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed species (e.g., Indiana bat [Myotis sodalis Mill. Allen] or northern long-eared bat [M. septentrionalis Trouess.]). Instead, data indicate that fire can enhance habitat for bats by increasing suitability of foraging and day-roost sites. Similarly, concern over burning and displacement of woodland salamanders (Plethodontidae), another taxa of heightened conservation concern, is alleviated when fire is prescribed along ecologically appropriate aspect and slope gradients and not forced into mesic, high site index environments where salamanders are most common. Because topography across the Central Hardwoods and Appalachians is diverse, we contend that applying fire on positions best suited for burning is an effective approach to increase regional landscape heterogeneity and biological diversity. Herein, we offer prescriptive concepts for burning for various wildlife species and guilds in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachians.