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Sample records for enos activation secondary

  1. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

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    Jason Tran

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC. Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1 colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  2. Activation of eNOS in endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation involves components of the DNA damage response pathway

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    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Sakai, Yuri; Yamamori, Tohru [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Niwa, Koichi [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • eNOS activity is increased in BAECs exposed to X-rays. • ATM is involved in this increased eNOS activity. • HSP90 modulates the radiation-induced activation of ATM and eNOS. - Abstract: In this study, the involvement of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was investigated in X-irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the phosphorylation of serine 1179 of eNOS (eNOS-Ser1179) were significantly increased in irradiated cells. The radiation-induced increases in NOS activity and eNOS-Ser1179 phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced by treatment with either an ATM inhibitor (Ku-60019) or an HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin). Geldanamycin was furthermore found to suppress the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM-Ser1181. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced eNOS activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells is regulated by ATM and HSP90.

  3. Sildenafil promotes eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis.

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    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L

    2014-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Endothelial CaMKII as a regulator of eNOS activity and NO-mediated vasoreactivity.

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    Shubha Murthy

    Full Text Available The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a serine/threonine kinase important in transducing intracellular Ca2+ signals. While in vitro data regarding the role of CaMKII in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS are contradictory, its role in endothelial function in vivo remains unknown. Using two novel transgenic models to express CaMKII inhibitor peptides selectively in endothelium, we examined the effect of CaMKII on eNOS activation, NO production, vasomotor tone and blood pressure. Under baseline conditions, CaMKII activation was low in the aortic wall. Consistently, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma NO levels were unaltered by endothelial CaMKII inhibition. Moreover, endothelial CaMKII inhibition had no significant effect on NO-dependent vasodilation. These results were confirmed in studies of aortic rings transduced with adenovirus expressing a CaMKII inhibitor peptide. In cultured endothelial cells, bradykinin treatment produced the anticipated rapid influx of Ca2+ and transient CaMKII and eNOS activation, whereas CaMKII inhibition blocked eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1179 and dephosphorylation at Thr-497. Ca2+/CaM binding to eNOS and resultant NO production in vitro were decreased under CaMKII inhibition. Our results demonstrate that CaMKII plays an important role in transient bradykinin-driven eNOS activation in vitro, but does not regulate NO production, vasorelaxation or blood pressure in vivo under baseline conditions.

  5. Enhancing eNOS activity with simultaneous inhibition of IKKβ restores vascular function in Ins2(Akita+/-) type-1 diabetic mice.

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    Krishnan, Manickam; Janardhanan, Preethi; Roman, Linda; Reddick, Robert L; Natarajan, Mohan; van Haperen, Rien; Habib, Samy L; de Crom, Rini; Mohan, Sumathy

    2015-10-01

    The balance of nitric oxide (NO) versus superoxide generation has a major role in the initiation and progression of endothelial dysfunction. Under conditions of high glucose, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) functions as a chief source of superoxide rather than NO. In order to improve NO bioavailability within the vessel wall in type-1 diabetes, we investigated treatment strategies that improve eNOS phosphorylation and NO-dependent vasorelaxation. We evaluated methods to increase the eNOS activity by (1) feeding Ins2(Akita) spontaneously diabetic (type-1) mice with l-arginine in the presence of sepiapterin, a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin; (2) preventing eNOS/NO deregulation by the inclusion of inhibitor kappa B kinase beta (IKKβ) inhibitor, salsalate, in the diet regimen in combination with l-arginine and sepiapterin; and (3) independently increasing eNOS expression to improve eNOS activity and associated NO production through generating Ins2(Akita) diabetic mice that overexpress human eNOS predominantly in vascular endothelial cells. Our results clearly demonstrated that diet supplementation with l-arginine, sepiapterin along with salsalate improved phosphorylation of eNOS and enhanced vasorelaxation of thoracic/abdominal aorta in type-1 diabetic mice. More interestingly, despite the overexpression of eNOS, the in-house generated transgenic eNOS-GFP (TgeNOS-GFP)-Ins2(Akita) cross mice showed an unanticipated effect of reduced eNOS phosphorylation and enhanced superoxide production. Our results demonstrate that enhancement of endogenous eNOS activity by nutritional modulation is more beneficial than increasing the endogenous expression of eNOS by gene therapy modalities.

  6. Estrogen Receptor Signaling and the PI3K/Akt Pathway Are Involved in Betulinic Acid-Induced eNOS Activation

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    Nicolas Hohmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid (BA is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid with anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-cancer properties. Beneficial cardiovascular effects such as increased nitric oxide (NO production through enhancement of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS activity and upregulation of eNOS expression have been demonstrated for this compound. In the present study, immortalized human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells were incubated for up to 1 h with 1–100 µM BA and with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, or the estrogen receptor (ER antagonist ICI 182,780. Phosphorylation status of eNOS and total eNOS protein were analyzed by Western blotting using a serine 1177 phosphosite-specific antibody. Bioactive NO production was assessed by determination of cGMP content in rat lung fibroblasts (RFL-6 reporter cells. Short-term incubation of EA.hy 926 cells with BA resulted in eNOS phosphorylation at the serine 1177 residue in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.57 µM. This was associated with an enhanced production of NO. BA-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production was completely blocked by pretreatment with ICI 182,780, and was attenuated by pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. These results indicate that fast non-genomic effects of ER with downstream signaling through the PI3K/Akt pathway and consecutive eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 are involved in BA-induced eNOS activation.

  7. NOX4-dependent Hydrogen peroxide promotes shear stress-induced SHP2 sulfenylation and eNOS activation.

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    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Calvo, Enrique; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Fierro-Fernández, Marta; Anilkumar, Narayana; Shah, Ajay M; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P; Vázquez, Jesús; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Laminar shear stress (LSS) triggers signals that ultimately result in atheroprotection and vasodilatation. Early responses are related to the activation of specific signaling cascades. We investigated the participation of redox-mediated modifications and in particular the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the sulfenylation of redox-sensitive phosphatases. Exposure of vascular endothelial cells to short periods of LSS (12 dyn/cm(2)) resulted in the generation of superoxide radical anion as detected by the formation of 2-hydroxyethidium by HPLC and its subsequent conversion to H2O2, which was corroborated by the increase in the fluorescence of the specific peroxide sensor HyPer. By using biotinylated dimedone we detected increased total protein sulfenylation in the bovine proteome, which was dependent on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-mediated generation of peroxide. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed us to identify the phosphatase SHP2 as a protein susceptible to sulfenylation under LSS. Given the dependence of FAK activity on SHP2 function, we explored the role of FAK under LSS conditions. FAK activation and subsequent endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation were promoted by LSS and both processes were dependent on NOX4, as demonstrated in lung endothelial cells isolated from NOX4-null mice. These results support the idea that LSS elicits redox-sensitive signal transduction responses involving NOX4-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide, SHP2 sulfenylation, and ulterior FAK-mediated eNOS activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation

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    Ho Sub Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular inflammation is an important factor which can promote diabetic complications. In this study, the inhibitory effects of aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV on high glucose (HG-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC are reported. APV decreased HG-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and E-selectin. APV also dose-dependently inhibited HG-induced adhesion of HL-60 monocytic cells. APV suppressed p65 NF-κB activation in HG-treated cells. APV significantly inhibited the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. HG-stimulated HUVEC secreted gelatinases, however, APV inhibited it. APV induced Akt phosphorylation as well as activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, eNOS, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which may protect vascular inflammation caused by HG. In conclusion, APV exerts anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of ROS/NF-κB pathway by inducing HO-1 and eNOS expression mediated by Nrf2, thereby suggesting that Prunella vulgaris may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of diabetic vascular diseases.

  9. Activation of eNOS by D-pinitol Induces an Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilatation in Mouse Mesenteric Artery

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    Luciana N. Moreira

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available D-pinitol is a cyclitol present in several edible plant species and extensively investigated for the treatment of metabolic diseases in humans, as food supplement, and demonstrated protective effects in the cardiovascular system. For these reasons, the present work aimed at investigating the mechanisms involved in the vascular effects of D-pinitol in mouse mesenteric artery. Mesenteric arteries from male C57BL/6 mice were mounted in a wire myograph. Nitrite was measured by the 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN method. Protein expression and phosphorylation were measured by Western blot. The systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. D-pinitol induced a concentration-dependent vasodilatation in endothelium-intact, but not in endothelium-denuded arteries. Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (300 μM abolished the effect of D-pinitol, while 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10 μM shifted the concentration-response curve to the right. KN-93 (1 μM blunted the vasodilator effect of D-pinitol, but H-89 (0.1 μM did not change it. 1-[2-(Trifluoromethyl phenyl]imidazole (300 μM, indomethacin (10 μM, celecoxib (5 μM, wortmannin (1 μM, ruthenium red (10 μM, tiron (10 μM, MnTMPyP (30 μM, MPP (0.1 μM, PHTPP (0.1 μM, and atropine (1 μM did not change the effect of D-pinitol. D-pinitol increased the concentration of nitrite, which was inhibited by L-NAME and calmidazolium (10 μM. D-pinitol increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS activation site at Ser1177 and reduced the phosphorylation level of its inactivation site at Thr495. In normotensive mice, the intraperitoneal administration of D-pinitol (10 mg/kg induced a significant reduction of the SBP after 30 min. The present results led us to conclude that D-pinitol has an endothelium- and NO-dependent vasodilator effect in mouse mesenteric artery through a mechanism dependent on the activation of eNOS by the calcium-calmodulin complex, which can explain its

  10. Enhanced estradiol-induced vasorelaxation in aortas from type 2 diabetic mice may reflect a compensatory role of p38 MAPK-mediated eNOS activation.

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    Taguchi, Kumiko; Morishige, Akitaka; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kamata, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly due to coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis, in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, female gender is a protective factor in the development of, for example, atherosclerosis and hypertension. One of the female hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2), is known to protect against the cardiovascular injury resulting from endothelial dysfunction, but the mechanism by which it does so remains unknown. Our hypothesis was that E2-mediated activation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the subsequent endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, might protect the aorta in diabetic mellitus. The experimental type 2 diabetic model we employed to test that hypothesis (female mice given streptozotocin and nicotinamide) is here termed fDM. In fDM aortas, we examined the E2-induced relaxation response and the associated protein activities. In control (age-matched, nondiabetic) aortas, E2 induced a vascular relaxation response that was mediated via Akt/eNOS and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK)/eNOS pathways. In fDM aortas (vs. control aortas), (a) the E2-induced relaxation was enhanced, (b) the mediation of the response was different (via Akt/eNOS and p38 MAPK/eNOS pathways), and (c) E2 stimulation increased p38 MAPK and eNOS phosphorylations, decreased MEK phosphorylation, but did not alter estrogen receptor activity. We infer that at least in fDM aortas, E2 has beneficial effects (enhanced vascular relaxation and protection) that are mediated through Akt activation and (compensating for reduced MEK activation) p38 MAPK activation, leading to enhanced eNOS phosphorylation.

  11. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

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    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P. [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Searles, Charles D., E-mail: csearle@emory.edu [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1670 Clarimont Road, Decatur, GA 30033 (United States)

    2010-03-19

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm{sup 2}) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). The miRNA with the greatest change was miR-21; it was increased 5.2-fold (p = 0.002) in USS-treated versus control cells. Western analysis demonstrated that PTEN, a known target of miR-21, was downregulated in HUVECs exposed to USS or transfected with pre-miR-21. Importantly, HUVECs overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}}) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO{sup {center_dot}} pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  12. Ibuprofen arginate retains eNOS substrate activity and reverses endothelial dysfunction: implications for the COX-2/ADMA axis.

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    Kirkby, Nicholas S; Tesfai, Abel; Ahmetaj-Shala, Blerina; Gashaw, Hime H; Sampaio, Walkyria; Etelvino, Gisele; Leão, Nádia Miricéia; Santos, Robson A; Mitchell, Jane A

    2016-12-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, are among the most commonly used medications and produce their antiinflammatory effects by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Their use is associated with increased risk of heart attacks caused by blocking COX-2 in the vasculature and/or kidney, with our recent work implicating the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a cardiotoxic hormone whose effects can be prevented by l-arginine. The ibuprofen salt ibuprofen arginate (Spididol) was created to increase solubility but we suggest that it could also augment the NO pathway through codelivery of arginine. Here we investigated the idea that ibuprofen arginate can act to simultaneously inhibit COX-2 and preserve the NO pathway. Ibuprofen arginate functioned similarly to ibuprofen sodium for inhibition of mouse/human COX-2, but only ibuprofen arginate served as a substrate for NOS. Ibuprofen arginate but not ibuprofen sodium also reversed the inhibitory effects of ADMA and N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester on inducible NOS (macrophages) and endothelial NOS in vitro (aorta) and in vivo (blood pressure). These observations show that ibuprofen arginate provides, in one preparation, a COX-2 inhibitor and NOS substrate that could act to negate the harmful cardiovascular consequences mediated by blocking renal COX-2 and increased ADMA. While remarkably simple, our findings are potentially game-changing in the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug arena.-Kirkby, N. S., Tesfai, A., Ahmetaj-Shala, B., Gashaw, H. H., Sampaio, W., Etelvino, G., Leão, N. M., Santos, R. A., Mitchell, J. A. Ibuprofen arginate retains eNOS substrate activity and reverses endothelial dysfunction: implications for the COX-2/ADMA axis. © The Author(s).

  13. Resting Tension Affects eNOS Activity in a Calcium-Dependent Way in Airways

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    Paschalis-Adam Molyvdas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of resting tension (RT from 0.5 g to 2.5 g increased significantly airway smooth muscle contractions induced by acetylcholine (ACh in rabbit trachea. The decrease in extracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]o from 2 mM to 0.2 mM reduced ACh-induced contractions only at 2.5 g RT with no effect at 0.5 g RT. The nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME increased ACh-induced contractions at 2.5 g RT. The inhibitor of inducible NOS, S-methylsothiourea or neuronal NOS, 7-nitroindazole had no effect. At 2.5 g RT, the reduction of [Ca2+]o from 2 mM to 0.2 mM abolished the effect of L-NAME on ACh-induced contractions. The NO precursor L-arginine or the tyrosine kinase inhibitors erbstatin A and genistein had no effect on ACh-induced contractions obtained at 2.5 g RT. Our results suggest that in airways, RT affects ACh-induced contractions by modulating the activity of epithelial NOS in a calcium-dependent, tyrosine-phosphorylation-independent way.

  14. Treadmill exercise alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy by suppressing plasminogen activator inhibitor expression and enhancing eNOS in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

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    Chengji, Wang; Xianjin, Fan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the biological mechanism of the effect of different intensity exercises on diabetic cardiomyopathy. 87 raise specific pathogen SPF healthy 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, fed 6 weeks with high-fat diet for rats were used, and a diabetic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin - randomly selected 43 rats were divided into Diabetic control group (DCG, n  = 10), Diabetic exercise group 1 (DEG1, n  = 11), Diabetic exercise group 2 (DEG2, n  = 11) and Diabetic exercise group 3 (DEG3, n  = 11). The rats in DEG1 were forced to run on a motorized treadmill, the exercise load consisted of running at a speed of 10 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG2 were running at a speed of 15 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG3 were running at a speed of 20 m/min, for one hour once a day for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise intervention, glucose metabolism-related indexes in rats such as blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated serum protein (GSP) and insulin (FINS); cardiac fibrinolytic system parameters such as PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), Von Willebrand factor (vWF), protein kinase C (PKC) and diacylglycerol (DAG); and serum level of NO, eNOS and T-NOS were measured. Compared with DCG, fasting blood glucose and GSP were decreased, while insulin sensitivity index and insulin level were increased in all rats of the three exercise groups. FBG decrease was statistically significant ( P  diabetic rats; myocardial PAI-1 in DEG1, DEG2 and DEG3 rats decreased significantly ( P  diabetic cardiomyopathy by affecting the levels of PAI-1 and eNOS, and there is a dependence on intensity. © 2018 The authors.

  15. Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442 Effects on eNOS and microRNA 155.

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    Wang, Xinwen; Liang, Yan; Shi, Jian; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Bleske, Barry E

    2018-04-16

    Increased expression of microRNA 155 (miR-155) results in a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and impaired endothelial function. Factors that have been shown to increase expression of miR-155 may be mitigated by WS 1442, an extract of hawthorn leaves and flowers ( Crataegus special extract) that contains a range of pharmacologically active substances including oligomeric proanthocyanidins and flavonoids. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of WS 1442 on the expression of miR-155 and eNOS in the presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were studied after the exposure to TNF- α , with or without simvastatin (positive control) and WS 1442. The expression levels of eNOS, phosphorylated eNOS, and miR-155 in the different HUVEC treatment groups were determined by western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. To evaluate the effect of WS 1442 on the eNOS activity, the medium and intracellular nitrate/nitrite (NO) concentrations were also analyzed using a colorimetric Griess assay kit. The results demonstrated that TNF- α upregulated miR-155 expression and decreased eNOS expression and NO concentrations. WS 1442 also increased miR-155 expression and decreased eNOS expression but, unlike TNF- α , increased phosphorylated eNOS expression and NO concentrations. Surprisingly, WS 1442 increased miR-155 expression; however, WS 1442 mitigated the overall negative effect of miR-155 on decreasing eNOS expression by increasing expression of phosphorylated eNOS and resulting in an increase in NO concentrations. In the setting where miR-155 may be expressed, WS 1442 may offer vascular protection by increasing the expression of phosphorylated eNOS. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

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    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P.; Searles, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm 2 ) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p · ) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO · pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  17. MicroRNA-27b plays a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ dependent Hsp90-eNOS signaling and nitric oxide production

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    Bi, Rui; Bao, Chunrong; Jiang, Lianyong; Liu, Hao; Yang, Yang; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: dbcar126@126.com

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial dysfunction is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Based on recent studies showing that microRNA (miR)-27b is aberrantly expressed in PAH, we hypothesized that miR-27b may contribute to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in PAH. The effect of miR-27b on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and the underlying mechanism were investigated in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in vitro and in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced model of PAH in vivo. miR-27b expression was upregulated in MCT-induced PAH and inversely correlated with the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and miR-27b inhibition attenuated MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and remodeling and prevented PAH associated right ventricular hypertrophy and systolic pressure in rats. PPARγ was confirmed as a direct target of miR-27b in HPAECs and shown to mediate the effect of miR-27b on the disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling to Hsp90 and the suppression of NO production associated with the PAH phenotype. We showed that miR-27b plays a role endothelial function and NO release and elucidated a potential mechanism by which miR-27b regulates Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling by modulating PPARγ expression, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAH. - Highlights: • miR-27b plays a role in endothelial function and NO release. • miR-27b inhibition ameliorates MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and PAH. • miR-27b targets PPARγ in HPAECs. • miR-27b regulates PPARγ dependent Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling.

  18. Introduction of in vitro transcribed ENO1 mRNA into neuroblastoma cells induces cell death

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    Ejeskär, Katarina; Krona, Cecilia; Carén, Helena; Zaibak, Faten; Li, Lingli; Martinsson, Tommy; Ioannou, Panayiotis A

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumour of childhood often with an unfavourable outcome. One common genetic feature in aggressive tumours is 1p-deletion. The α-enolase (ENO1) gene is located in chromosome region 1p36.2, within the common region of deletion in neuroblastoma. One alternative translated product of the ENO1 gene, known as MBP-1, acts as a negative regulator of the c-myc oncogene, making the ENO1 gene a candidate as a tumour suppressor gene. Methods used in this study are transfection of cDNA-vectors and in vitro transcribed mRNA, cell growth assay, TUNEL-assay, real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan) for expression studies, genomic sequencing and DHPLC for mutation detection. Here we demonstrate that transfection of ENO1 cDNA into 1p-deleted neuroblastoma cell lines causes' reduced number of viable cells over time compared to a negative control and that it induces apoptosis. Interestingly, a similar but much stronger dose-dependent reduction of cell growth was observed by transfection of in vitro transcribed ENO1 mRNA into neuroblastoma cells. These effects could also be shown in non-neuroblastoma cells (293-cells), indicating ENO1 to have general tumour suppressor activity. Expression of ENO1 is detectable in primary neuroblastomas of all different stages and no difference in the level of expression can be detected between 1p-deleted and 1p-intact tumour samples. Although small numbers (11 primary neuroblastomas), there is some evidence that Stage 4 tumours has a lower level of ENO1-mRNA than Stage 2 tumours (p = 0.01). However, mutation screening of 44 primary neuroblastomas of all different stages, failed to detect any mutations. Our studies indicate that ENO1 has tumour suppressor activity and that high level of ENO1 expression has growth inhibitory effects

  19. Pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites of marine actinobacteria.

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    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-04-01

    Marine actinobacteria are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinobacteria from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, for many important antibiotics, anticancer, antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. However, frequent rediscovery of the same compounds from the terrestrial actinobacteria has made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinobacteria isolated from the marine environment have currently received considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. They are efficient producers of new secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitumor, cytotoxic, cytostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, anti-malaria, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, etc. In this review, an evaluation is made on the current status of research on marine actinobacteria yielding pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Bioactive compounds from marine actinobacteria possess distinct chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of new drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogens. With the increasing advancement in science and technology, there would be a greater demand for new bioactive compounds synthesized by actinobacteria from various marine sources in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. A central role of eNOS in the protective effect of wine against metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Federico; Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Urquiaga, Inés

    2006-01-01

    The positive health effects derived from moderate wine consumption are pleiotropic. They appear as improvements in cardiovascular risk factors such as plasma lipids, haemostatic mechanisms, endothelial function and antioxidant defences. The active principles would be ethanol and mainly polyphenols. Results from our and other laboratories support the unifying hypothesis that the improvements in risk factors after red wine consumption are mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Many genes are involved, but the participation of eNOS would be a constant feature. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The National Cholesterol Education Programmmes Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEPATP III) clinical definition of the metabolic syndrome requires the presence of at least three risk factors, from among abdominal obesity, high plasma triacylglycerols, low plasma HDL, high blood pressure and high fasting plasma glucose. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the metabolic syndrome are not known. Since metabolic syndrome apparently affects 10-30% of the population in the world, research on its pathogenesis and control is needed. The recent finding that eNOS knockout mice present a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors comparable to those of the metabolic syndrome suggests that defects in eNOS function may cause human metabolic syndrome. These mice are hypertensive, insulin resistant and dyslipidemic. Further support for a pathogenic role of eNOS comes from the finding in humans that eNOS polymorphisms associate with insulin resistance and diabetes, with hypertension, with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and with albuminuria. So, the data sustain the hypothesis that eNOS enhancement should reduce metabolic syndrome incidence and its consequences. Therefore red wine, since it enhances eNOS function, should be considered as a potential tool for the control of metabolic

  1. Disruption of COX-2 and eNOS does not confer protection from cardiovascular failure in lipopolysaccharide-treated conscious mice and isolated vascular rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Mette; Madsen, Kirsten; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    (NS 398), disruption of COX-2, endothelium removal, or eNOS deletion (eNOS(-/-)) did not improve vascular reactivity after LPS, while the NO synthase blockers 1400W and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester prevented loss of tone. COX-2 and eNOS activities are not necessary for LPS-induced decreases...... in blood pressure, heart rate, and vascular reactivity. Inducible NOS activity appears crucial. COX-2 and eNOS are not obvious therapeutic targets for cardiovascular rescue during gram-negative endotoxemic shock....

  2. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the first discovered gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO affects a number of cellular processes, including those involving vascular cells. This brief review summarizes the contribution of NO to the regulation of vascular tone and its sources in the blood vessel wall. NO regulates the degree of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, although cGMP-independent signaling [S-nitrosylation of target proteins, activation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA or production of cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP] also can be involved. In the blood vessel wall, NO is produced mainly from l-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS but it can also be released non-enzymatically from S-nitrosothiols or from nitrate/nitrite. Dysfunction in the production and/or the bioavailability of NO characterizes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  3. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-03-31

    Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR). Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP) promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  4. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Cerqueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR. Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  5. Alpha-enolase (ENO1 controls alpha v/beta 3 integrin expression and regulates pancreatic cancer adhesion, invasion, and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitza Principe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA cells, the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1 also acts as a plasminogen receptor and promotes invasion and metastasis formation. Moreover, ENO1 silencing in PDA cells induces oxidative stress, senescence and profoundly modifies PDA cell metabolism. Although anti-ENO1 antibody inhibits PDA cell migration and invasion, little is known about the role of ENO1 in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. We therefore investigated the effect of ENO1 silencing on the modulation of cell morphology, adhesion to matrix substrates, cell invasiveness, and metastatic ability. Methods The membrane and cytoskeleton modifications that occurred in ENO1-silenced (shENO1 PDA cells were investigated by a combination of confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The effect of ENO1 silencing was then evaluated by phenotypic and functional experiments to identify the role of ENO1 in adhesion, migration, and invasion, as well as in senescence and apoptosis. The experimental results were then validated in a mouse model. Results We observed a significant increase in the roughness of the cell membrane due to ENO1 silencing, a feature associated with an impaired ability to migrate and invade, along with a significant downregulation of proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, including alpha v/beta 3 integrin in shENO1 PDA cells. These changes impaired the ability of shENO1 cells to adhere to Collagen I and IV and Fibronectin and caused an increase in RGD-independent adhesion to vitronectin (VN via urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. Binding of uPAR to VN triggers integrin-mediated signals, which result in ERK1-2 and RAC activation, accumulation of ROS, and senescence. In shENO1 cancer cells, the use of an anti-uPAR antibody caused significant reduction of ROS production and senescence. Overall, a decrease of in vitro and in vivo cell

  6. In Vitro Activation of eNOS by Mangifera indica (Careless™) and Determination of an Effective Dosage in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Human Pilot Study on Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstgrasser, Alexandra; Röchter, Sigrid; Dressler, Dirk; Schön, Christiane; Reule, Claudia; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2016-03-01

    Mangifera indica fruit preparation (Careless™) activates the evolutionary conserved metabolic sensors sirtuin 1 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which have been identified as playing a key role in microcirculation and endothelial function. Here, an acute effect of a single dose of 100 mg or 300 mg Careless™ on microcirculation was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot study in ten healthy women to determine the effective dosage. Microcirculation and endothelial function were assessed by the Oxygen-to-see system and pulse amplitude tonometry (EndoPAT™), respectively. Cutaneous blood flow was increased over time by 100 mg (54% over pre-values, p = 0.0157) and 300 mg (35% over pre-value, p = 0.209) Careless™. The EndoPAT™ reactive hyperemia response was slightly improved 3 h after intake compared to pretesting with 300 mg Careless™. Furthermore, activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, as an important regulator for endothelial function, was tested in vitro in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Careless™, after simulation of digestion, increased the activated form of endothelial nitric oxide synthase dose-dependently by 23% (300 µg/mL), 42% (1500 µg/mL), and 60% (3000 µg/mL) compared to the untreated control. In conclusion, the study suggests moderate beneficial effects of Careless™ on microcirculation, which is at least partly mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Low shear stress induces vascular eNOS uncoupling via autophagy-mediated eNOS phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Xia; Qu, Xin-Liang; Chu, Peng; Xie, Du-Jiang; Zhu, Lin-Lin; Chao, Yue-Lin; Li, Li; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2018-05-01

    Uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) produces O 2 - instead of nitric oxide (NO). Earlier, we reported rapamycin, an autophagy inducer and inhibitor of cellular proliferation, attenuated low shear stress (SS) induced O 2 - production. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether autophagy plays a critical role in the regulation of eNOS uncoupling. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the modulation of autophagy on eNOS uncoupling induced by low SS exposure. We found that low SS induced endothelial O 2 - burst, which was accompanied by reduced NO release. Furthermore, inhibition of eNOS by L-NAME conspicuously attenuated low SS-induced O 2 - releasing, indicating eNOS uncoupling. Autophagy markers such as LC3 II/I ratio, amount of Beclin1, as well as ULK1/Atg1 were increased during low SS exposure, whereas autophagic degradation of p62/SQSTM1 was markedly reduced, implying impaired autophagic flux. Interestingly, low SS-induced NO reduction could be reversed by rapamycin, WYE-354 or ATG5 overexpression vector via restoration of autophagic flux, but not by N-acetylcysteine or apocynin. eNOS uncoupling might be ascribed to autophagic flux blockade because phosphorylation of eNOS Thr495 by low SS or PMA stimulation was also regulated by autophagy. In contrast, eNOS acetylation was not found to be regulated by low SS and autophagy. Notably, although low SS had no influence on eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation, whereas boosted eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation by rapamycin were in favor of the eNOS recoupling through restoration of autophagic flux. Taken together, we reported a novel mechanism for regulation of eNOS uncoupling by low SS via autophagy-mediated eNOS phosphorylation, which is implicated in geometrical nature of atherogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... Alternaria spp. are cosmopolitan mould fungi and can be found in soils ... the secondary metabolites products from A. alternata and ..... Zone of inhibition (mm) of test bacterial strains to fungal products and standard antibiotics. Fungal ... marine actinomycetes from pulicat, Muttukadu, and Ennore estuaries.

  9. Computer Activities in Illinois Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J. Richard; And Others

    A brief, non-technical questionnaire was sent to 875 secondary school administrators (primarily principals) in the State of Illinois. Information was collected in four areas: (1) general school characteristics, (2) availability and use of computers, (3) perceived need for and qualifications of teachers of computer science, and (4) perceived need…

  10. Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.D.; Xie, R.; Klein Nulend, J.; van Rheden, R.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von den Hoff, J.W.; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanosensitive osteocytes are essential for bone remodeling. Nitric oxide, an important regulator of bone remodeling, is produced by osteocytes through the activity of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We hypothesized that these

  11. Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.D.; Xie, R.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Rheden, R.E.M. van; Bronckers, A.L.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanosensitive osteocytes are essential for bone remodeling. Nitric oxide, an important regulator of bone remodeling, is produced by osteocytes through the activity of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We hypothesized that these

  12. Perceptions of STEM-based outreach activities in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vennix, J.; den Brok, P.J.; Taconis, R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated and compared the learning environment perceptions of students, teachers and guides who participated in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)-based outreach activities in secondary education. In outreach activities, schools and teachers work together with companies

  13. Are Korean secondary school girls physically active during leisure time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng; Kwon, Wook-Dong; Jeon, Yong-Bae

    2010-03-01

    Our aims in this study were to identify the types of physical activity during leisure time and to determine if Korean secondary school girls participate in enough physical activity during leisure time to promote health. Of the 1,088 girls randomly selected by a multistaged cluster sampling technique, 705 girls completed questionnaires. Seventy-five percent of Korean secondary school girls spent time on individualized or noncompetitive activities, and 88.3% of them were classified into underactive and inactive levels with no gained health benefits during leisure time. No significant differences were observed in the physical activity levels between middle school girls and high school girls. The results of this study may be explained by the lack of perceived appropriateness for secondary school girls' participation in physical activity, which traditionally did not favor them participating in dynamic physical activities and sufficient physical activity level to gain health benefits.

  14. Gender, exercise training, and eNOS expression in porcine skeletal muscle arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M Harold; Welshons, Wade V; Sturek, Michael; Rush, James W E; Turk, James R; Taylor, Julia A; Judy, Barbara M; Henderson, Kyle K; Ganjam, V K

    2003-07-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effects of gender and exercise training on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein content of porcine skeletal muscle arteries and to evaluate the role of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in these effects. We measured eNOS and SOD content with immunoblots and immunohistochemistry in femoral and brachial arteries of trained and sedentary male and female pigs and measured estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA and alpha-ER and beta-ER protein in aortas of male and female pigs. Results indicate that female arteries contain more eNOS than male arteries and that exercise training increases eNOS content independent of gender. Male and female pigs expressed similar levels of alpha-ER mRNA and protein and similar amounts beta-ER protein in their arteries. E2 concentrations as measured by RIA were 180 +/- 34 pg/ml in male sera and approximately 5 pg/ml in female sera, and neither was changed by training. However, bioassay indicated that biologically active estrogen equivalent to only 35 +/- 5 pg/ml was present in male sera. E2 in female pigs, whether measured by RIA or bioassay, was approximately 24 pg/ml at peak estrous and 2 pg/ml on day 5 diestrus. The free fraction of E2 in sera did not explain the low measurements, relative to RIA, of E2. We conclude that 1). gender has significant influence on eNOS and SOD content of porcine skeletal muscle arteries; 2). the effects of gender and exercise training vary among arteries of different anatomic origin; 3). male sera contains compounds that cause RIA to overestimate circulating estrogenic activity; and 4). relative to human men, the male pig is not biologically estrogenized by high levels of E2 reported by RIA, whereas in female pigs E2 levels are lower than in the blood of human women.

  15. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  16. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological. Activities of Tinospora crispa ... triterpenes have been isolated, some of which have also shown corresponding biological activities. The current review is an update on the .... were found to exhibit higher antioxidative potency than the synthetic antioxidant.

  17. Brian Eno Hollandi Festivali peakülaliseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Inglise helilooja, videokunstnik ja muusikaprodutsent Brian Eno on 5.-26. juunini Amsterdamis toimuva avangardse Hollandi Festivali peakülaline, kelle videoinstallatsioon seatakse üles Stedelijki Muuseumis. Festivali programmist

  18. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  19. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in enhancing expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α and VEGF in wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Imam; Devi, Anita; Purwandhono, Azham; Hadi Warsito, Sunaryo

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is a physiological process that occurs progressively through overlapping phases. Tissue oxygenation is an important part of the complex regulation for wound healing. Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) therapy is a method of increasing oxygen delivery to tissues. The therapy improves tissue oxygenation and stimulates the formation of H2O2 as a secondary messenger for Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF α), e-NOS, VEGF and Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta phosphorylation (NF-Kb) which play an important role in the rapid transcription of a wide variety of genes in response to extracellular stimuli. This study aims to determine the effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy in enhancing the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing. This study is an animal study with a ‘randomized control group of pre-test and post test design’ on 28 Wistar rats. Randomly, the rats were divided into 4 groups with 7 rats in each group. The HBO treatment group 1 received 5 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; the HBO treatment group 2 received 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; and each of the control groups were without HBO. Each of the 28 male rats were given a full thickness excisional wound of 1 × 1cm. Examinations of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF expressions and wound healing were performed on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-5 HBO or on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-10 HBO. The resultsshowthat the Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy can improve e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p= 0.02), VEGF expression (p=0.02) and wound healing (p=0.002) significantly in the provision of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes in 5 sessions over 5 consecutive days. While the 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes over 10 consecutive days only increase e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p=0.04), VEGF expression significantly (p=0.03) but do not improve wound healing significantly (p=0.3) compared with no HBO. The study concludes that HBO can improve the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing in the provision of HBO

  20. Morus alba extract modulates blood pressure homeostasis through eNOS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizzo, Albino; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Damato, Antonio; Madonna, Michele; Storto, Marianna; Capocci, Luca; Campiglia, Pietro; Sommella, Eduardo; Trimarco, Valentina; Rozza, Francesco; Izzo, Raffaele; Puca, Annibale A; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-10-01

    Morus alba is a promising phytomedicine cultivated in oriental countries that is extensively used to prevent and treat various cardiovascular problems. To date, despite its beneficial effects, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Thus, we investigate the vascular and haemodynamic effects of Morus alba extract in an experimental model focusing our attention on the molecular mechanisms involved. Through vascular reactivity studies, we demonstrate that Morus alba extract evokes endothelial vasorelaxation through a nitric oxide-dependent pathway. Our molecular analysis highlights an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. In vivo administration of Morus alba extract reduces blood pressure levels exclusively in wild-type mice, whereas it fails to evoke any haemodynamic effects in eNOS-deficient mice. Molecular analyses revealed that its beneficial action on vasculature is mediated by the activation of two important proteins that act as stress sensors and chaperones: PERK and heat shock protein 90. Finally, Morus alba extract exerts antihypertensive action in an experimental model of arterial hypertension. Through its action on eNOS signaling, Morus alba extract could act as a food supplement for the regulation of cardiovascular system, mainly in clinical conditions characterized by eNOS dysfunction, such as arterial hypertension. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Clapp

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK. Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  2. Problems Encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and Other Secondary School Students in Physical Education and Sports Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Mustafa; Yaman, Menzure Sibel; Hergüner, Gülten

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to determine problems encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and other Secondary School students in physical education and sports activities and to compare these problems according to school type and gender. A questionnaire named "Problems encountered in attending to physical education and sports activities"…

  3. Secondary metabolites and biological activity of Pentas species: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba-tollah M. Sweelam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pentas belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which contains approximately 40 species. Several Pentas species were reported to be used as a folk treatment by African indigenous people in treating some diseases such as malaria, tapeworms, dysentery, gonorrhea, syphilis and snake poisoning. This article covers the period from 1962 to 2017 and presents an overview of the biological activity of different Pentas species and describes their phytochemical traits. As a conclusion, the main secondary metabolites from Pentas species are quinones, highly oxygenated chromene-based structures, and iridoids. Pentas species are widely used in folk medicine but they have to be more investigated for their medicinal properties.

  4. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  5. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin; Wu, Hui Xian; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang Lun; Wang, Chang Yun; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  6. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  7. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  8. Extracurricular Physical Activity Programs in California Private Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-12-01

    Interscholastic, intramural, and club physical activity (PA) programs can be important contributors to student PA accrual at schools. Few studies have assessed factors related to the provision of these extracurricular PA programs, especially in private schools. We used a 16-item questionnaire to assess the associations and influences of selected factors relative to extracurricular PA program policies and practices in 450 private California secondary schools. Associations were evaluated using contingency table analyses (i.e., chi-squared, effect size, and post-hoc analyses). Six factors were associated with schools providing extracurricular PA programs: school location, level, enrollment, and religious classification and whether the physical education (PE) program met state PE time standards and was taught by PE specialists. Both static factors (e.g., school location, level, enrollment, and religious affiliation) and modifiable factors (e.g., meeting PE standards and employing specialists) affect the provision of extracurricular PA programs. As education is state-mandated, additional study is recommended to assess the generalizability of these findings to other states and to public schools.

  9. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  10. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia ... ulcers. A wide range of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, diterpenes, flavones, phenolics, and triterpenes .... potency than the synthetic antioxidant.

  11. Secondary organic aerosols. Chemical aging, hygroscopicity, and cloud droplet activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Angela

    2011-07-06

    Atmospheric aerosols have an important impact on the radiation balance, and thus, on the climate of the Earth. Aerosol particles scatter and absorb incoming solar and terrestrial radiation. Apart from this direct effect, aerosol particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby greatly influencing the microphysics of clouds. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are an important fraction of the total aerosol mass. In many environments these organic compounds are mainly products of the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC). In this study the hygroscopic growth and CCN activation of biogenic SOA were investigated which was formed by the oxidation of VOC with O{sub 3} and photochemically formed OH radicals under low NO{sub x} conditions. For this purpose, a complex mixture of VOC emitted by boreal tree species as gas-phase precursors was used in the Juelich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). In long-term studies in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR {alpha}-pinene or a defined mixture of {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, limonene, ocimene, {delta}-3-carene served as precursors. Initial precursor concentrations between 40 and 1000 ppbC were investigated. The observed SOA particles were slightly hygroscopic with an average hygroscopicity parameter {kappa}(CCN) = 0.10 {+-} 0.02 and {kappa}(90%RH) = 0.05 {+-} 0.01. Closure between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation data could be achieved allowing either surface tension reduction, limited solubility, or non-ideality of the solution in the droplet. The SOA solutions in equilibrium with RH <95% are possible highly non-ideal. Therefore the organic-water interaction were investigated by applying the UNIFAC model. Calculations for surrogate compounds exhibited the same strong concentration (i.e. RH) dependence of {kappa} at sub-saturation. The growth curves could be fitted and CCN activation predicted by assuming a binary mixture of water and one hypothetical organic compound. The occurrence of

  12. Investment activities in the U.S. secondary woodworking industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. secondary woodworking industry has shown signs of improvement after the steep losses in sales volume associated with the housing crisis that began in 2007. Employment in several sectors has begun to increase, suggesting that companies that survived the downturn are positioning to increase sales growth. It is likely that investment plans to improve firm-level...

  13. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tinospora crispa Beumee, a herbaceous climber, has been widely used in traditional medicine for treating various ailments such as contusion, septicaemia, fever, fracture, scabies and other tropical ulcers. A wide range of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, diterpenes, flavones, phenolics, and triterpenes have been ...

  14. Association between nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various mutation on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOs) gene cause reduced production of NO, the expansion factor (VEF) and may accelerate the process of atherosclerosis. The study was designed to investigate the frequency of T-786C polymorphism of the gene or nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene in patients ...

  15. Advanced mineral and lithological mapping using high spectral resolution TIR data from the active CO2 remote sensing system; CO2 laser wo mochiita kosupekutoru bunkaino netsusekigai remote sensing data no ganseki kobutsu shikibetsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hato, M [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Cudahy, T; Tapley, I

    1997-05-27

    A study was conducted on rock/mineral mapping technology for the metal ore deposit survey using MIRACO2LAS, an active type thermal infrared ray remote sensing system which was developed by CSIRO of Australia and is now the highest in spectral resolution in the world, and TIMS of NASA which is a passive type system. The area for the survey is the area of Olary/Broken Hill and Mt. Fitton of Australia. A good correlation is seen between the ground reflectance measured by MIRACO2LAS and the value measured by the chamber CO2 laser of rocks sampled at the above-mentioned area. In case that the width of spectral characteristics is below 300nm, the inspection ability by MIRACO2LAS`s high spectral resolution is more determined in mineral mapping as compared with TIMS which is large in band width. Minerals mapped using MIRACO2LAS are quartz, talc, amphibole, hornblende, garnet, supessartine, dolomite, magnesite, etc. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Report for fiscal 2000 investigations on Activities Implemented Jointly in China and promotion of transfer to CDM; 2000 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo oyobi CDM eno iko suishin chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    It is purposed to promote the Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) intended of reducing carbon dioxide emission amount in China. Investigations have been performed on China's environment and energy problems, CDM assignments and transfer means, and project candidates. China emits a great amount of CO2 due to coal combustion, and the CO2 emission is anticipated to increase from the coal burning thermal power generation that may continue into the future. Countermeasures for the thermal power department as the object are required. Since 1997, China has been performing the AIJ project with Norway, Japan, and America, wherein such projects have been implemented with Japan as the dry coke fire extinguishing facility model project, the energy saving model project using alloy iron electric furnaces, and the model project to utilize effectively the refuse combustion waste heat. China is one of the countries in which the greenhouse effect gas emission reducing project can be performed at a minimum cost, who will be the important party in the CDM performed by the developed countries to achieve their obligation to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emission. (NEDO)

  17. Enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Mutze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue destruction during lung injury. It consists of alveolar epithelial type I (ATI and type II (ATII cells. ATII cells are capable of self-renewal and exert progenitor function for ATI cells upon alveolar epithelial injury. Cell differentiation pathways enabling this plasticity and allowing for proper repair, however, are poorly understood. Here, we applied proteomics, expression analysis and functional studies in primary murine ATII cells to identify proteins and molecular mechanisms involved in alveolar epithelial plasticity. Mass spectrometry of cultured ATII cells revealed a reduction of carbonyl reductase 2 (CBR2 and an increase in enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 protein expression during ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation. This was accompanied by increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Notably, ENO1 and PDIA3, along with T1α (podoplanin; an ATI cell marker, exhibited decreased protein expression upon pharmacological and molecular Wnt/β-catenin inhibition in cultured ATII cells, whereas CBR2 levels were stabilized. Moreover, we analyzed primary ATII cells from mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model exhibiting activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo. We observed reduced CBR2 significantly correlating with surfactant protein C (SFTPC, whereas ENO1 and PDIA3 along with T1α were increased in injured ATII cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENO1, as well as PDIA3, in primary ATII cells led to reduced T1α expression, indicating diminished cell trans-differentiation. Our data thus identified proteins involved in ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation and suggest a Wnt/β-catenin-driven functional role of ENO1 and PDIA3 in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity in lung injury and repair.

  18. The Current Status of Classroom Inclusion Activities of Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerst, Caryn M.; Whittington, M. Susie

    2009-01-01

    The current status of classroom inclusion activities among agriculture teachers in comprehensive secondary agricultural education programs in Ohio is reported. The researchers describe secondary agriculture teachers' needs related to teaching learners with special needs in inclusion classes, given legislative mandates. Specifically, the…

  19. Effects of atorvastatin and T-786C polymorphism of eNOS gene on plasma metabolic lipid parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Vanessa Helena de Souza; Santos, José Eduardo Tanus dos; Danelon, Mirian Regina Gardin; Silva, Roger Marcelo Mesquita da; Panzoldo, Natália Baratella; Parra, Eliane Soler; Alexandre, Fernanda; Virgínio, Vítor Wilson de Moura; Quintão, Eder Carlos Rocha; Faria, Eliana Cotta de

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity may be modulated by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), statins or polymorphisms, such as the T-786C of eNOS. This study aimed at evaluating if the T-786C polymorphism is associated with changes of atorvastatin effects on the lipid profile, on the concentrations of metabolites of nitric oxide (NO) and of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Thirty male volunteers, asymptomatic, aged between 18 and 56 years were genotyped and classified according to absence (TT, n = 15) or presence (CC, n = 15) of the polymorphism. They were randomly selected for the use of placebo or atorvastatin (10 mg/day/14 days). After each treatment lipids, lipoproteins, HDL2 and HDL3 composition, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, metabolites of NO and hsCRP were evaluated. The comparisons between genotypes after placebo showed an increase in CETP activity in a polymorphism-dependent way (TT, 12±7; CC, 22±12; p < 0.05). The interaction analyses between treatments indicated that atorvastatin has an effect on cholesterol, LDL, nitrite and lipid-protein ratios (HDL2 and HDL3) (p < 0.001) in both genotypes. Interestingly, we observed genotype/drug interactions on CETP (p < 0.07) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) (p < 0.056), leading to a borderline decrease in CETP, but with no effect on Lp(a). HsCRP showed no alteration. These results suggest that statin treatment may be relevant for primary prevention of atherosclerosis in patients with the T-786C polymorphism of eNOS, considering the effects on lipid metabolism.

  20. Correlates of physical activity participation among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... health benefits of physical activity, having a friend to exercise with, having parent(s) who encourage them to exercise, and taking a physical education class in school, whereas the benefits of physical activity: were to stay in shape, increase energy level, improve self-esteem and become more physically attractive to others.

  1. Physical Activity & Sport for the Secondary School Student. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Neil J., Ed.

    This collection of papers offers a comprehensive text about contemporary physical activities and sports forms. It provides students with an overview of the various physical activities, skill technique required, safety, scoring, rules and etiquette, strategies, equipment, and related terminology. The 26 papers are: (1) "Physical Fitness"…

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure, oxidative stress and eNOS gene polymorphism in pre-hypertensive older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Anderson Saranz; Park, Joon-Young; Fenty-Stewart, Nicola; Silveira, Leonardo Reis; Kokubun, Eduardo; Brown, Michael D

    2010-11-01

    The polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are associated with reduced eNOS activity. Aerobic exercise training (AEX) may influence resting nitric oxide (NO) production, oxidative stress and blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AEX on the relationship among blood pressure, eNOS gene polymorphism and oxidative stress in pre-hypertensive older people. 118 pre-hypertensive subjects (59 ± 6 years) had blood samples collected after a 12 h overnight fast for assessing plasma NO metabolites (NOx) assays, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (T-BARS) and superoxide dismutase activity (ecSOD). eNOS polymorphism (T-786C and G-894T) was done by standard PCR methods. All people were divided according to the genotype results (G1: TT/GG, G2: TT/GT + TT, G3: TC + CC/GG, G4: TC + CC/GT + TT). All parameters were measured before and after 6 months of AEX (70% of VO(2 max)). At baseline, no difference was found in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, ecSOD and T-BARS activity. Plasma NOx levels were significantly different between G1 (19 ± 1 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM) and between G2 (20.1 ± 1.7 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM). Therefore, reduced NOx concentration in G4 group occurred only when the polymorphisms were associated, suggesting that these results are more related to genetic factors than NO-scavenging effect. After AEX, the G4 increased NOx values (17.2 ± 1.2 μM) and decreased blood pressure. G1, G3 and G4 decreased T-BARS levels. These results suggest the AEX can modulate the NOx concentration, eNOS activity and the relationship among eNOS gene polymorphism, oxidative stress and blood pressure especially in C (T-786C) and T (G-894T) allele carriers.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  4. Determination of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    justify the ethno-therapeutic usage of these plants by traditional healers. Keywords: Boraginaceae ... direct relationship between antioxidant activities and phenolic contents .... The diode array UV detector and the mobile phases, including (A) ...

  5. Views of Turkish Teachers on Extracurricular Activities at Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ömer Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    Extracurricular activities are educational applications for students outside the school curriculum that require specific knowledge, skills, and behaviors as well as continuity of participation. Because student experiences inside the classroom are organized according to the educator's or institution's instructional goals, which themselves are…

  6. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…

  7. Cybernated Storytelling: Revitalising Storytelling Activities for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Roziana M.; Idrus, Faizah

    2017-01-01

    Storytelling is one of the most common activities used in teaching English proficiency to language students. It is widely accepted as a teaching technique by many educators because it engages students in learning. This study seeks to examine students' readiness in using technology-aided applications in telling their stories. It also investigates…

  8. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  9. Prediction of adolescents doing physical activity after completing secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Huéscar, Elisa; Cervelló, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study, based on the self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) was to test the prediction power of student's responsibility, psychological mediators, intrinsic motivation and the importance attached to physical education in the intention to continue to practice some form of physical activity and/or sport, and the possible relationships that exist between these variables. We used a sample of 482 adolescent students in physical education classes, with a mean age of 14.3 years, which were measured for responsibility, psychological mediators, sports motivation, the importance of physical education and intention to be physically active. We completed an analysis of structural equations modelling. The results showed that the responsibility positively predicted psychological mediators, and this predicted intrinsic motivation, which positively predicted the importance students attach to physical education, and this, finally, positively predicted the intention of the student to continue doing sport. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of student's responsibility towards a greater commitment to the practice of physical exercise.

  10. Circulating Blood eNOS Contributes to the Regulation of Systemic Blood Pressure and Nitrite Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katherine C.; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Noguchi, Audrey; Liu, Virginia B.; Wang, Xunde; Raghavachari, Nalini; Boehm, Manfred; Kato, Gregory J.; Kelm, Malte; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mice genetically deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) are hypertensive with lower circulating nitrite levels, indicating the importance of constitutively produced nitric oxide (NO•) to blood pressure regulation and vascular homeostasis. While the current paradigm holds that this bioactivity derives specifically from expression of eNOS in endothelium, circulating blood cells also express eNOS protein. A functional red cell eNOS that modulates vascular NO• signaling has been proposed. Approach and Results To test the hypothesis that blood cells contribute to mammalian blood pressure regulation via eNOS-dependent NO• generation, we cross-transplanted WT and eNOS−/− mice, producing chimeras competent or deficient for eNOS expression in circulating blood cells. Surprisingly, we observed a significant contribution of both endothelial and circulating blood cell eNOS to blood pressure and systemic nitrite levels, the latter being a major component of the circulating NO• reservoir. These effects were abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME and repristinated by the NOS substrate L-Arginine, and were independent of platelet or leukocyte depletion. Mouse erythrocytes were also found to carry an eNOS protein and convert 14C-Arginine into 14C-Citrulline in a NOS-dependent fashion. Conclusions These are the first studies to definitively establish a role for a blood borne eNOS, using cross transplant chimera models, that contributes to the regulation of blood pressure and nitrite homeostasis. This work provides evidence suggesting that erythrocyte eNOS may mediate this effect. PMID:23702660

  11. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND BODY EXERCISE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Olaitan; Olukunmi ‘Lanre; Bakinde; Surajudeen Tosho; Ibraheem; Tajudeen Olanrewaju

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the influence of recreational activities and body exercise among secondary school students in Kwara State. This paper explores types of exercise, benefits of physical exercise, risk of physical exercise and well as health and recreation. Four research questions and four research hypotheses were raised and generated to guide the study.This researcher employed a descriptive research survey method. The population consists of all secondary school students in Kwara State. T...

  12. Anthelminthic activity of glibenclamide on secondary cystic echinococcosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Loos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Current chemotherapy against this disease is based on the administration of benzimidazoles (BZMs. However, BZM treatment has a low cure rate and causes several side effects. Therefore, new treatment options are needed. The antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (Glb is a second-generation sulfonylurea receptor inhibitor that has been shown to be active against protozoan parasites. Hence, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects of Glb against the larval stage of E. granulosus. The in vitro activity was concentration dependent on both protoscoleces and metacestodes. Moreover, Glb combined with the minimum effective concentration of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO was demonstrated to have a greater effect on metacestodes in comparison with each drug alone. Likewise, there was a reduction in the cyst weight after oral administration of Glb to infected mice (5 mg/kg of body weight administered daily for a period of 8 weeks. However, in contrast to in vitro assays, no differences in effectiveness were found between Glb + albendazole (ABZ combined treatment and Glb monotherapy. Our results also revealed mitochondrial membrane depolarization and an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels in Glb-treated protoscoleces. In addition, the intracystic drug accumulation and our bioinformatic analysis using the available E. granulosus genome suggest the presence of genes encoding sulfonylurea transporters in the parasite. Our data clearly demonstrated an anti-echinococcal effect of Glb on E. granulosus larval stage. Further studies are needed in order to thoroughly investigate the mechanism involved in the therapeutic response of the parasite to this sulfonylurea.

  13. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  14. Sildenafil Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats: Role of iNOS and eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Morsy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is used for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections. However, its usefulness is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, was reported to prevent or decrease tissue injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential protective effects of sildenafil on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 6 days with and without sildenafil. Sildenafil administration resulted in nephroprotective effect in gentamicin-intoxicated rats as it significantly decreased serum creatinine and urea, urinary albumin, and renal malondialdehyde and nitrite/nitrate levels, with a concomitant increase in renal catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to gentamicin-treated rats. Moreover, immunohistochemical examination revealed that sildenafil treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, while expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was markedly enhanced. The protective effects of sildenafil were verified histopathologically. In conclusion, sildenafil protects rats against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly, in part, through its antioxidant activity, inhibition of iNOS expression, and induction of eNOS production.

  15. Promoting Physical Activity in Secondary Schools: Growing Expectations, "Same Old" Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There are growing expectations on schools to promote health and physical activity and helping schools to effectively do so is considered a priority. This paper reports on selected findings from a research project that was concerned with supporting secondary schools in the effective promotion of physical activity and establishing their needs in…

  16. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  17. Physical Activity Patterns and Psychological Correlates of Physical Activity among Singaporean Primary, Secondary, and Junior College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. K. John; Koh, K. T.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Liu, W. C.; Chye, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among primary, secondary, and junior college students in Singapore. A sample of 3,333 school students aged 10 to 18 years took part in the study. Results showed that the younger students had significantly higher physical…

  18. Effects of secondary loudspeaker properties on broadband feedforward active duct noise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yum-Ji; Huang, Lixi; Lam, James

    2013-07-01

    Dependence of the performance of feedforward active duct noise control on secondary loudspeaker parameters is investigated. Noise reduction performance can be improved if the force factor of the secondary loudspeaker is higher. For example, broadband noise reduction improvement up to 1.6 dB is predicted by increasing the force factor by 50%. In addition, a secondary loudspeaker with a larger force factor was found to have quicker convergence in the adaptive algorithm in experiment. In simulations, noise reduction is improved in using an adaptive algorithm by using a secondary loudspeaker with a heavier moving mass. It is predicted that an extra broadband noise reduction of more than 7 dB can be gained using an adaptive filter if the force factor, moving mass and coil inductance of a commercially available loudspeaker are doubled. Methods to increase the force factor beyond those of commercially available loudspeakers are proposed.

  19. Effect of competition on the production and activity of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Losada, L.; Ajayi, O.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2009-01-01

    and in the presence of other fungal species. However, it is not known whether secreted secondary metabolites provide a competitive advantage over other fungal species, or whether competition has any effect on the production of those metabolites. Here, we have performed co-cultivation competition assays among......Secondary metabolites are of intense interest to humans due to their pharmaceutical and/or toxic properties. Also, these metabolites are clinically relevant because of their importance in fungal pathogenesis. Aspergillus species secrete secondary metabolites when grown individually...... different species of Aspergillus to determine relative species fitness in culture, and to analyze the presence of possible antifungal activity of secondary metabolites in extracts. The results show that, for the most part, at 30C only one species is able to survive direct competition with a second species...

  20. eNOS se correlaciona com a biogênese mitocondrial em corações com cardiopatia congênita e cianose eNOS correlates with mitochondrial biogenesis in hearts of congenital heart disease with cyanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    2012-09-01

    cardiopatia congênita com cianose, que poderia ser a resposta adaptativa à hipóxia crônica e possivelmente envolve suprarregulação da eNOS. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial biogenesis program in heart appears to exhibit adaptive remodeling following biomechanical and oxidative stress. The adaptive mechanisms that protect myocardium metabolism during hypoxia are coordinated in part by nitric oxide (NO. OBJECTIVE: To observe mitochondrial biogenesis and nitric oxide synthase (NOS expression in hearts of congenital heart disease with cyanosis, discuss mitochondrial response to chronic hypoxia in myocardium. METHODS: 20 patients with cyanotic (n=10 or acyanotic cardiac defects (n=10 were investigated. Samples from the right ventricular outflow tract myocardium taken during operation were studied. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria was performed with transmission electron microscope. Relative mtDNA/nDNA ratio was determined with real-time PCR. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam transcript levels were detected by real-time fluorescent RT-PCR. COXI and nNOS, iNOS and eNOS protein levels were measured with western blot. RESULTS: Mitochondrial volume density (Vv and numerical density (Nv were significantly elevated in patients with cyanotic compared to acyanotic congenital heart disease. Elevated mtDNA and up-regulated COXI, PGC-1α, NRF1 and Tfam mRNA levels were observed in cyanotic patients. Protein levels of COXI and eNOS were significantly higher in the myocardium of cyanotic than of acyanotic patients. PGC-1α transcript levels correlated with the levels of eNOS. Conclusion: Mitochondrial biogenesis is activated in right ventricular outflow tract myocardium in congenital heart disease with cyanosis, which could be the adaptive response to chronic hypoxia and possibly

  1. Marine Compound Catunaregin Inhibits Angiogenesis through the Modulation of Phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Xiu Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. Excessive or uncontrolled angiogenesis is a major contributor to many pathological conditions whereas inhibition of aberrant angiogenesis is beneficial to patients with pathological angiogenesis. Catunaregin is a core of novel marine compound isolated from mangrove associate. The potential anti-angiogenesis of catunaregin was investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and zebrafish. HUVECs were treated with different concentrations of catunaregin in the presence or absence of VEGF. The angiogenic phenotypes including cell invasion cell migration and tube formation were evaluated following catunaregin treatment in HUVECs. The possible involvement of AKT, eNOS and ERK1/2 in catunaregin-induced anti-angiogenesis was explored using Western blotting. The anti-angiogenesis of catunaregin was further tested in the zebrafish embryo neovascularization and caudal fin regeneration assays. We found that catunaregin dose-dependently inhibited angiogenesis in both HUVECs and zebrafish embryo neovascularization and zebrafish caudal fin regeneration assays. In addition, catunaregin significantly decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, but not the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The present work demonstrates that catunaregin exerts the anti-angiogenic activity at least in part through the regulation of the Akt and eNOS signaling pathways.

  2. Secondary hyperalgesia phenotypes exhibit differences in brain activation during noxious stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Pereira, Manuel Pedro; Werner, Mads Utke

    2015-01-01

    of the burn-injury) (p right (p = 0.001) and left caudate nucleus (p = 0.01) was detected....... To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47 °C, 7 min......, 9 cm(2)) on the non-dominant lower-leg. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were assessed 100 min after the injury. We measured neuronal activation by recording blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals (BOLD-signals) during mechanical noxious stimulation before burn injury and in both primary and secondary...

  3. 16 CFR 1211.13 - Inherent force activated secondary door sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. 1211.13 Section 1211.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... across the door so that the axis is perpendicular to the plane of the door. See Figure 6 of this part...

  4. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  5. Barriers to Providing Physical Education and Physical Activity in Victorian State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Kate A.; Benson, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    An on-line questionnaire was completed by 115 physical education teachers to establish the barriers to their implementation of physical education in Victorian state secondary schools. In addition, the barriers perceived by teachers to impact on students' participation in school-based physical education and physical activity were examined. The…

  6. Applied CATIA Secondary Development to Parametric Design of Active Magnetic Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the properties of active magnetic bearing, the electromagnetic parameters and structure parameters are analyzed, parametric design method is introduced to study the structure of active magnetic bearing. Through a program personalization process that is in accordance with active magnetic bearing is established. Personalization process aims to build the parametric model of active magnetic bearings and component library by use of CATIA secondary development. Component library is to build assembly model for a multiple degree of freedom magnetic bearing system. Parametric design is a method that provides the direction for its structural design.

  7. Secondary standards (non-activation) for neutron data measurements above 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to H(n,p) scattering and 235,238 U(n,f) reactions, secondary standards for neutron flux determination may be useful for neutron energies above 20 MeV. For experiments where gamma rays are detected, reference gamma-ray production cross sections are relevant. For neutron-induced charged particle production, standard (n,p) and (n,alpha) cross sections would be helpful. Total cross section standards would serve to check the accuracy of these measurements. These secondary standards are desirable because they can be used with the same detector systems employed in measuring the quantities of interest. Uncertainties due to detector efficiency, geometrical effects, timing and length of flight paths can therefore be significantly reduced. Several secondary standards that do not depend on activation techniques are proposed. 14 refs

  8. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  9. Tidal breath eNO measurements in a cohort of unsedated hospitalized neonates-A method validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Birgitte J; Reim, Pauline S; Jensen, Andreas K

    2018-01-01

    to validate clinically feasible longitudinal online tidal eNO and V'NO in a real-life birth cohort of un-sedated, hospitalized preterm, and term neonates. METHOD: We included 149 newborns, GA 28-42 weeks. Each scheduled for six repeated, non-invasive, on-line eNO measurements with Ecomedics CLD 88sp and NO...

  10. A wavenumber approach to analysing the active control of plane waves with arrays of secondary sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Cheer, Jordan; Bhan, Lam; Shi, Chuang; Gan, Woon-Seng

    2018-04-01

    The active control of an incident sound field with an array of secondary sources is a fundamental problem in active control. In this paper the optimal performance of an infinite array of secondary sources in controlling a plane incident sound wave is first considered in free space. An analytic solution for normal incidence plane waves is presented, indicating a clear cut-off frequency for good performance, when the separation distance between the uniformly-spaced sources is equal to a wavelength. The extent of the near field pressure close to the source array is also quantified, since this determines the positions of the error microphones in a practical arrangement. The theory is also extended to oblique incident waves. This result is then compared with numerical simulations of controlling the sound power radiated through an open aperture in a rigid wall, subject to an incident plane wave, using an array of secondary sources in the aperture. In this case the diffraction through the aperture becomes important when its size is compatible with the acoustic wavelength, in which case only a few sources are necessary for good control. When the size of the aperture is large compared to the wavelength, and diffraction is less important but more secondary sources need to be used for good control, the results then become similar to those for the free field problem with an infinite source array.

  11. Secondary metabolites profiles and antioxidant activities of germinated brown and red rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurnaistia, Y.; Aisyah, S.; Munawaroh, H. S. H.; Zackiyah

    2018-05-01

    The research aims to investigate the effect of germination on the secondary metabolite profiles and antioxidant activity of brown and red rice. The germination was performed by using a simple laboratory-scale machine that was designed and optimized to provide conditions that support the germination process. The germination was carried out for 2 days in dark conditions at 26°C and 99% humidity. Analysis of the secondary metabolite profile of ungerminated and germinated rice was performed using LC-MS. The antioxidant activities of ungerminated and germinated rice were done by using DPPH method. The results showed that the profiles of secondary metabolites of brown and red rice changed after germination. Some peaks were found to be induced in the germinated rice. However, some peaks were also loss during germination. The antioxidant activity of brown rice was slightly increased due to the germination, from 11.2% to 22.5%. Meanwhile the antioxidant activity of red rice was decreased after germination, from 73.8% to 60.0%.

  12. Monte-Carlo validation of secondary sodium activation in a pool-type LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamiotti, G.; Rado, V.; Salvatores, M.

    1980-09-01

    The secondary sodium activation in a pool-type LMFBR is the main parameter to be accurately evaluated in the shield design. In the present work a complete two dimensional description of the system, including core, shielding and sodium up to Heat Exchangers, is coupled to local Heat Exchanger Monte-Carlo calculations. This refined calculation is used to deduce a simplified method to take into account the coupling of radial propagation in the Heat Exchanger and its finite cylindrical structure

  13. Physical activity and inactivity in primary and secondary school boys' and girls' daily program

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Hubáčková; Dorota Groffik; Lukasz Skrzypnik; Karel Frömel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's and youth education is becoming more and more demanding. In conjunction with development of information technology, this fact negatively affects lifestyle of children and youth. Apart from families, schools should play a crucial role in healthy lifestyle promotion in children and youth. Objective: The present study aimed to assess differences in physical activity (PA) and physical inactivity (PI) among primary and secondary school boys and girls in specific segments of ...

  14. Calibration and consistency of results of an ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring system for activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2000-01-01

    Calibration in terms of activity of the ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring systems at the PTB is described. The measurement results of a Centronic IG12/A20, a Vinten ISOCAL IV and a radionuclide calibrator chamber for nuclear medicine applications are discussed, their energy-dependent efficiency curves established and the consistency checked using recently evaluated radionuclide decay data. Criteria for evaluating and transferring calibration factors (or efficiencies) are given

  15. The use of bicycle workstations to increase physical activity in secondary classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fedewa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background To date, the majority of interventions have implemented classroom-based physical activity (PA at the elementary level; however, there is both the potential and need to explore student outcomes at high-school level as well, given that very few studies have incorporated classroom-based PA interventions for adolescents. One exception has been the use of bicycle workstations within secondary classrooms. Using bicycle workstations in lieu of traditional chairs in a high school setting shows promise for enhancing adolescents’ physical activity during the school day. Participants and procedure The present study explored the effects of integrating bicycle workstations into a secondary classroom setting for four months in a sample of 115 adolescents using an A-B-A-B withdrawal design. The study took place in one Advanced Placement English classroom across five groups of students. Physical activity outcomes included average heart rate, and caloric expenditure. Behavioural outcomes included percentage of on-task/off-task behaviour and number of teacher prompts in redirecting off-task behaviour. Feasibility and acceptability data of using the bicycle workstations were also collected. Results Findings showed significant improvements in physical activity as measured by heart rate and caloric expenditure, although heart rate percentage remained in the low intensity range when students were on the bicycle workstations. No effects were found on students’ on-task behaviour when using the bicycle workstations. Overall, students found the bikes acceptable to use but noted disadvantages of them as well. Conclusions Using bicycle workstations in high-school settings appears promising for enhancing low-intensity physical activity among adolescents. The limitations of the present study and implications for physical activity interventions in secondary schools are discussed.

  16. [Effective productions of plant secondary metabolites having antitumor activity by plant cell and tissue cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shoko

    2005-06-01

    Methods for the effective production of plant secondary metabolites with antitumor activity using plant cell and tissue cultures were developed. The factors in tannin productivity were investigated using culture strains producing different types of hydrolyzable tannins, i.e., gallotannins (mixture of galloylglucoses), ellagi-, and dehydroellagitannins. Production of ellagi- and dehydroellagitannins was affected by the concentrations and ratio of nitrogen sources in the medium. The formation of oligomeric ellagitannins in shoots of Oenothera tetraptera was correlated with the differentiation of tissues. Cultured cells of Eriobotrya japonica producing ursane- and oleanane-type triterpenes with antitumor activities were also established.

  17. Association between nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galaxy

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... spasm among Japanese (Nakayama et al., 1999; Casas et al., 2006). It is believed that these mutations might result in altered NO metabolism and impaired .... ship between T-786C mutation of eNOS gene and CAD specifically in the Iranian population. To our knowledge, this polymorphism has never been ...

  18. Association of eNOS and HSP70 gene polymorphisms with glaucoma in Pakistani cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayub, H.; Khan, M.I.; Micheal, S.; Akhtar, F.; Ajmal, M.; Shafique, S.; Ali, S.H.; Hollander, A.I. den; Ahmed, A.; Qamar, R.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the involvement of stress-regulating genes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG). METHODS: POAG and PCAG patients recruited from different areas of Pakistan

  19. Dengue virus activates polyreactive, natural IgG B cells after primary and secondary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavamalar Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and has four serotypes. Cross-protection to other serotypes lasting for a few months is observed following infection with one serotype. There is evidence that low-affinity T and/or B cells from primary infections contribute to the severe syndromes often associated with secondary dengue infections. such pronounced immune-mediated enhancement suggests a dengue-specific pattern of immune cell activation. This study investigates the acute and early convalescent B cell response leading to the generation of cross-reactive and neutralizing antibodies following dengue infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assayed blood samples taken from dengue patients with primary or secondary infection during acute disease and convalescence and compared them to samples from patients presenting with non-dengue related fever. Dengue induced massive early plasmablast formation, which correlated with the appearance of polyclonal, cross-reactive IgG for both primary and secondary infection. Surprisingly, the contribution of IgG to the neutralizing titer 4-7 days after fever onset was more than 50% even after primary infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Poly-reactive and virus serotype cross-reactive IgG are an important component of the innate response in humans during both primary and secondary dengue infection, and "innate specificities" seem to constitute part of the adaptive response in dengue. While of potential importance for protection during secondary infection, cross-reactive B cells will also compete with highly neutralizing B cells and possibly interfere with their development.

  20. Educational activities of secondary school students in Serbia: A time-diary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the time allocation of various educational activities within the structure of a typical day of Serbian secondary school students, and whether there were significant differences in this respect depending on their socio-demographic characteristics. The 24-hour time diary method was applied: the subjects described chronologically, at half-hourly intervals, their activities in one weekday an done weekend day. The research was conducted on a sample of 922 secondary school students, Structured by region, age and type of school. The analysis revealed that on weekdays students spent about 5 hours in school. In work activities outside school they spent almost 2 hours, out of which the largest part in learning (81 minutes, and significantly less in housework (23 minutes and economically productive work (7 minutes. From a total of5 hours and22 minutes of free time, only 5 minutes were devoted to organized extracurricular activities. Significant differences were obtained with regard to students’ gender, type of school, and level of parents’ education. When these results are compared with the data from other countries, it is shown that secondary school students in Serbia, compared to the U.S., spend more time in learning, and significantly less in economically productive work and house­work, much like the youth in European countries. A very low proportion of extracurricular activities shows that school learning is almost the only context of developing educational competencies. The implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of positive youth development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  1. A new online secondary path modeling method for adaptive active structure vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Yuxue; Zhang, Fang; Jiang, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new variable step size FXLMS algorithm with an auxiliary noise power scheduling strategy for online secondary path modeling. The step size for the secondary path modeling filter and the gain of auxiliary noise are varied in accordance with the parameters available directly. The proposed method has a low computational complexity. Computer simulations show that an active vibration control system with the proposed method gives much better vibration attenuation and modeling accuracy at a faster convergence rate than existing methods. National Instruments’ CompactRIO is used as an embedded processor to control simply supported beam vibration. Experimental results indicate that the vibration of the beam has been effectively attenuated. (papers)

  2. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  3. A meta-analysis of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of pre-eclampsia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, A P; Sultana, A; Bammidi, V K; Sampathirao, K; Jamil, K

    2011-10-01

    A meta-analyses of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms in pre-eclampsia was performed. We shortlisted 33 studies (17 for ACE; 16 for eNOS gene polymorphisms), of which 29 articles (16 for ACE and 15 for eNOS) were analysed. Overall, 1,620 cases with pre-eclampsia and 2,158 controls were analysed for intron 16 insertion-deletion polymorphism in ACE gene. A total of 1,610 subjects with pre-eclampsia and 2,875 controls were analysed for the Glu298Asp in eNOS gene. Overall, the random-effects odds ratio (OR) with Glu298Asp in eNOS gene was 0.958 (95% confidence intervals, CI 0.747-1.228, p > 0.05), and for the insertion-deletion/ACE polymorphism was 0.987 (95% CI 0.698-1.395, p > 0.05). Significant heterogeneity was observed in the studies that evaluated polymorphisms in ACE (Q value = 55.6; I(2) = 73; p value = 0.000); and eNOS (Q value = 37.2; I(2) = 62.4; p value = 0.001) polymorphisms. No significant risk of pre-eclampsia was observed in both eNOS and ACE genes with these polymorphisms.

  4. Arginase up-regulation and eNOS uncoupling contribute to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandvuillemin, Isabelle; Buffat, Christophe; Boubred, Farid; Lamy, Edouard; Fromonot, Julien; Charpiot, Philippe; Simoncini, Stephanie; Sabatier, Florence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Peyter, Anne-Christine; Simeoni, Umberto; Yzydorczyk, Catherine

    2018-05-09

    Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, notably hypertension (HTN). Alterations in the vascular system, particularly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, may play an important role in long-term effects of IUGR. Whether such vascular dysfunction precedes HTN has not been fully established in individuals born after IUGR. Moreover, the intimate mechanisms of altered endothelium-dependent vasodilation remain incompletely elucidated. We therefore investigated, using a rat model of IUGR, whether impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation precedes the development of HTN and whether key components of the L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway are involved in its pathogenesis. Pregnant rats were fed with a control (CTRL, 23% casein) or low-protein diet (LP, 9% casein) to induce IUGR. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography in 5- and 8-week-old male offspring. Aortic rings were isolated to investigate relaxation to acetylcholine, NO production, eNOS protein content, arginase activity, and superoxide anion production. SBP was not different at 5 weeks, but significantly increased in 8-week-old LP vs. CRTL offspring. In 5-week-old LP vs. CRTL males, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was significantly impaired, but restored by pre-incubation with L-Arginine or the arginase inhibitor BEC; NO production was significantly reduced, but restored by L-Arginine pretreatment; total eNOS protein, dimer/monomer ratio, and arginase activity were significantly increased; superoxide anion production was significantly enhanced, but normalized by pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor L-NNA. In this model, IUGR leads to early-impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, resulting from arginase up-regulation and eNOS uncoupling, which precedes the development of HTN.

  5. Monitoring of glycolytic activity secondary to ischaemia in knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Muñoz, V J; Lisón-Almagro, A J; Hernández-García, C H; López-López, M

    2018-04-17

    To non-invasively assess tissue lesion secondary to ischaemia applied during knee replacement surgery. Secondary objectives: to assess whether this lesion correlates with the duration of ischaemia and whether instrumental and gender variables influence it. Prospective cohort study. Pre and postoperative serum lactate levels have been determined as an indicator of glycolytic activity secondary to ischaemia in 88 patients. Serum lactate determination was performed by reactive strips of enzymatic-amperometric detection on capillary blood. Preoperative serum lactate levels (mean and SD): 2.467±1.036 mmol/L. Postoperative serum lactate levels: 3.938±2.018 mmol/L. Ischaemia time 102.98±18.25minutes. Postoperative serum lactate levels were significantly higher than preoperative lactate levels. There are no statistical differences according to the time that the ischaemia was prolonged, gender or type of instrumentation used. In our study, postoperative serum lactate values were significantly higher than preoperative lactate values, with no correlation to the duration of ischaemia during knee replacement surgery. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. CCN activity and volatility of β-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, M.; Bilde, Merete; Nenes, A.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of smog chamber experiments, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of beta-caryophyllene was characterized by determining the CCN derived hygroscopicity parameter, kappa(CCN), from experimental data. Two types of CCN...... in experiments without an OH scavenger (i.e. where OH was produced during ozonolysis). In other experiments, lights were turned on, either without or with the addition of HONO (OH source). This led to the formation of more CCN active SOA. SOA was aged up to 30 h through exposure to ozone and (in experiments...... with no OH scavenger present) to OH. In all experiments, the derived kappa(CCN) consistently increased with time after initial injection of beta-caryophyllene, showing that chemical ageing increases the CCN activity of beta-caryophyllene SOA. kappa(CCN) was also observed to depend on supersaturation, which...

  7. Involvement in sports clubs and informal sport activities of primary and secondary school children in Liechtenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kühnis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport involvement among children and adolescents has been a central field of research in sport science since years. This paper documents the participation of 11- to 15-year-olds in sport clubs and informal sport activities in Liechtenstein and examines possible gender- and age-specific differences. The analysis is based on four cross-sectional studies from 2004 to 2015 and includes the data of 1’262 children in primary (5th grade and secondary (7th and 9th grades school. According to our findings sports and exercise are considered to be one of the main leisure-time activities for all school levels (irrespective of gender. The percentage of fully sport-abstinent adolescents by 11- and 13-year-olds is about 5 %; by 15-year-olds is around 10 %. The culmination of sports club membership (with current 84.7 % appears to be at the age of 11 (5th grade. After the switch to secondary school the sports club commitment tends to decrease, while the high attendance of the informal sport activities (>85 % shows relatively stable age development. In contrast to other child and youth studies, our data indicates a levelling tendency and dissolution of classic gender differences not only in sports club commitment but also in informal sports among girls and boys.

  8. Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    stream_size 29406 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... 1    Author version: Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.: 63(1); 2009; 67-72 Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick) VP LIMNA MOL a , TV RAVEENDRAN a, * & PS PARAMESWARAN b a...

  9. Thermodynamic secrets of multidrug resistance: A new take on transport mechanisms of secondary active antiporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun C; Liu, Min; Lu, Guangyuan; Heng, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) presents a growing challenge to global public health. Drug extrusion transporters play a critical part in MDR; thus, their mechanisms of substrate recognition are being studied in great detail. In this work, we review common structural features of key transporters involved in MDR. Based on our membrane potential-driving hypothesis, we propose a general energy-coupling mechanism for secondary-active antiporters. This putative mechanism provides a common framework for understanding poly-specificity of most-if not all-MDR transporters. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  10. Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. Suggestions for leisure time activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter some examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet as well as suggestions for leisure time activities are presented. Used and recommended literature is included.

  11. A provincial study of opportunities for school-based physical activity in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John J M; Allison, Kenneth R; LeMoine, Karen N; Adlaf, Edward M; Goodman, Jack; Faulkner, Guy E J; Lysy, Daria C

    2006-07-01

    Adolescents spend considerable time at school and thus it is important to understand their opportunities for school-based physical activity. This study surveyed Ontario secondary schools to identify the range of structured opportunities and their engagement by students. A questionnaire was mailed to key informants in 600 randomly selected secondary schools in Ontario, for which 474 respondents (79%) returned completed questionnaires. Curriculum-based physical education (PE) classes in grade nine were reported to be offered in all schools and these classes in grades 10, 11 and 12 were offered in almost all schools. Student enrollment in PE decreased from grades 9 to 12 (97.9%, 49.6%, 43.3% and 35.9%, respectively). Respondents reported that funding, timetable, facilities and resources made it somewhat difficult to implement the health and physical education curriculum in their schools. About two-thirds (65.5%) of the schools had an intramural program and 15.0% of students participated in it, whereas 97.2% of the schools had an inter-school sports program and 25.0% of students participated in it. Supervision issues made it difficult to provide intramural programs and funding made it difficult to provide inter-school sports programs. Although provision of physical activity opportunities in Ontario appears satisfactory, actual engagement by students is low. The results suggest that strategies to increase student participation in PE, intramural programs, and inter-school sports programs need further consideration.

  12. Chlorovirus-mediated membrane depolarization of Chlorella alters secondary active transport of solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarkova, Irina; Dunigan, David; Gurnon, James; Greiner, Timo; Barres, Julia; Thiel, Gerhard; Van Etten, James L

    2008-12-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, double-stranded DNA, plaque-forming viruses that infect certain eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae from the genus Chlorovirus. PBCV-1 infection results in rapid host membrane depolarization and potassium ion release. One interesting feature of certain chloroviruses is that they code for functional potassium ion-selective channel proteins (Kcv) that are considered responsible for the host membrane depolarization and, as a consequence, the efflux of potassium ions. This report examines the relationship between cellular depolarization and solute uptake. Annotation of the virus host Chlorella strain NC64A genome revealed 482 putative transporter-encoding genes; 224 are secondary active transporters. Solute uptake experiments using seven radioactive compounds revealed that virus infection alters the transport of all the solutes. However, the degree of inhibition varied depending on the solute. Experiments with nystatin, a drug known to depolarize cell membranes, produced changes in solute uptake that are similar but not identical to those that occurred during virus infection. Therefore, these studies indicate that chlorovirus infection causes a rapid and sustained depolarization of the host plasma membrane and that this depolarization leads to the inhibition of secondary active transporters that changes solute uptake.

  13. Secondary clarifier hybrid model calibration in full scale pulp and paper activated sludge wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreckovic, G.; Hall, E.R. [British Columbia Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Thibault, J. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada); Savic, D. [Exeter Univ., School of Engineering, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    The issue of proper model calibration techniques applied to mechanistic mathematical models relating to activated sludge systems was discussed. Such calibrations are complex because of the non-linearity and multi-model objective functions of the process. This paper presents a hybrid model which was developed using two techniques to model and calibrate secondary clarifier parts of an activated sludge system. Genetic algorithms were used to successfully calibrate the settler mechanistic model, and neural networks were used to reduce the error between the mechanistic model output and real world data. Results of the modelling study show that the long term response of a one-dimensional settler mechanistic model calibrated by genetic algorithms and compared to full scale plant data can be improved by coupling the calibrated mechanistic model to as black-box model, such as a neural network. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Calibration of ARI QC ionisation chambers using the Australian secondary standards for activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, L.; Van Der Gaast, H.A.; Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Davies, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Activity Laboratory (SSAL) in ANSTO routinely provides standardised radioactive sources, traceable activity measurements and custom source preparation services to customers. The most important activity carried out is the calibration of ionisation chambers located in the Quality Control (QC) section of Australian Radioisotopes (ARI). This ensures that their activity measurements are traceable to the Australian primary methods of standardisation. ARI QC ionisation chambers are calibrated for 99m Tc, 67 Ga, 131 I, 201 Tl and 153 Sm. The SSAL has a TPA ionisation chamber, which has been directly calibrated against a primary standard for a variety of radioactive nuclides. Calibration factors for this chamber were determined specifically for the actual volumes (5ml for 99m Tc, 131 I, 2ml for 67 Ga, 201 Tl and 3 ml for 153 Sm) and types of vial (Wheaton) which are routinely used at ARI. These calibration factors can be used to accurately measure the activity of samples prepared by ARI. The samples can subsequently be used to calibrate the QC ionisation chambers. QC ionisation chambers are re-calibrated biannually

  15. Yellow-Cedar, Callitropsis (Chamaecyparis) nootkatensis, Secondary Metabolites, Biological Activities, and Chemical Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Joseph J; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P

    2018-05-01

    Yellow-cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis, is prevalent in coastal forests of southeast Alaska, western Canada, and inland forests along the Cascades to northern California, USA. These trees have few microbial or animal pests, attributable in part to the distinct groups of biologically active secondary metabolites their tissues store for chemical defense. Here we summarize the new yellow-cedar compounds identified and their biological activities, plus new or expanded activities for tissues, extracts, essential oils and previously known compounds since the last review more than 40 years ago. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the most abundant compounds in foliage, while heartwood contains substantial quantities of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with one or more tropolones. Diterpenes occur in foliage and bark, whereas condensed tannins have been isolated from inner bark. Biological activities expressed by one or more compounds in these groups include fungicide, bactericide, sporicide, acaricide, insecticide, general cytotoxicity, antioxidant and human anticancer. The diversity of organisms impacted by whole tissues, essential oils, extracts, or individual compounds now encompasses ticks, fleas, termites, ants, mosquitoes, bacteria, a water mold, fungi and browsing animals. Nootkatone, is a heartwood component with sufficient activity against arthropods to warrant research focused toward potential development as a commercial repellent and biopesticide for ticks, mosquitoes and possibly other arthropods that vector human and animal pathogens.

  16. Towards unification of the Vorticity Confinement and Shock Capturing (TVD and ENO/WENO) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidilkover, David

    2018-04-01

    New multidimensional extensions of the TVD and finite difference ENO/WENO methods for the compressible flow equations are proposed. The novelty of the approach is in the discretization schemes that acquire by means of a single mechanism both shock-capturing and vorticity confinement capabilities. Thus, the new method can be interpreted as a unification of the two methodologies, intended initially for different purposes.

  17. Cyber Dating Abuse Victimization Among Secondary School Students From a Lifestyle-Routine Activities Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2016-02-12

    Controlling one's romantic partner through digital media is a form of cyber dating abuse. To design effective educational campaigns, a deeper understanding of how some young people become victim of this type of abuse within their romantic relationships is warranted. This study is the first to adopt a lifestyle-routine activities theory perspective toward online romantic partner monitoring, by looking at whether secondary school students' risky digital lifestyle and their digital media use are linked to a higher chance of being controlled by a romantic partner, taking into account gender, age, and the length of the romantic relationship. The data of 466 secondary school students (71.0% girls, n = 331) between 16 and 22 years old (M = 17.99 years; SD = 0.92) who were in a romantic relationship are analyzed. Linear regression analysis suggests that engagement in online risk behavior, the length of the romantic relationship, engagement in sexting with the romantic partner, and the amount of social networking site use were significantly linked to victimization of digital controlling behavior. The results are important to practitioners, as they indicate that messages about safe Internet use should be incorporated in prevention and educational campaigns with regard to cyber dating abuse. Suggestions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Validation of secondary commercial data sources for physical activity facilities in urban and nonurban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa; Slater, Sandy; Quinn, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    Secondary data are often necessary to assess the availability of commercial physical activity (PA) facilities and examine its association with individual behaviors and outcomes, yet the validity of such sources has been explored only in a limited number of studies. Field data were collected on the presence and attributes of commercial PA facilities in a random sample of 30 urban, 15 suburban, and 15 rural Census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area and surrounding area. Approximately 40% of PA establishments in the field data were listed for both urban and nonurban tracts in both lists except for nonurban tracts in D&B (35%), which was significantly improved in the combined list of D&B and InfoUSA. Approximately one-quarter of the PA facilities listed in D&B were found on the ground, whereas 40% to 50% of PA facilities listed in InfoUSA were found on the ground. PA establishments that offered instruction programs or lessons or that had a court or pool were less likely to be listed, particularly in the nonurban tracts. Secondary commercial business lists on PA facilities should be used with caution in assessing the built environment.

  19. Examining 12-14 Age Secondary School Students’ Tendency to Violence doing Active Sport or not

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    Pelin Aydın

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate secondary school students’ tendency to violence, doing active sport or not. The sampling group of the study was consisted of 101 girls and 99 boys in the total 200 secondary school students in Kütahya city center of whose ages differs between of 12-14. In the study tendency to violence scale, developed by Göka and colleagues, was used as data gathering tool. In the evaluation of the data SPSS package program for Windows was used and after reliability of the scale was assessed One Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for if the obtained data was showing normal distribution and also as hypotheses tests Independent Samples t Test was applied for pairwise comparisons and One Way ANOVA test was applied for triple or more comparisons. As a result of the study there were no significant differences between students’ tendency to violence according to their ages and sport participation situations, on the other hand there were significant differences according to their class and perceived success in class. This study showed that class and perceived success in class are predictors of tendency to violence.

  20. Comparative evaluation of two Trichoderma harzianum strains for major secondary metabolite production and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitendra; Rana, Virendra S; Sati, Om P; Walia, S

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to identify the major secondary metabolite, produced by two Trichoderma harzianum strains (T-4 and T-5) with their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi using poison food technique. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol gradually. Chromatographic separation of ethyl acetate extract of T. harzianum (T-4) resulted in the isolation and identification of palmitic acid (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (2), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), 2(5H)-furanone (4), stigmasterol (5) and β-sitosterol (6), while T. harzianum (T-5) gave palmitic acid (1), 1-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (7), δ-decanolactone (8), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), ergosterol (9), harzianopyridone (10) and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone (11) as major metabolites. Among compounds screened for antifungal activity, compound 10 was found to be most active (EC50 35.9-50.2 μg mL(-1)). In conclusion, the present investigation provided significant information about antifungal activity and compounds isolated from two different strains of T. harzianum obtained from two different Himalayan locations.

  1. Antiproliferative, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Lichen Xanthoria parietina and Its Secondary Metabolite Parietin

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    Adriana Basile

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are valuable natural resources used for centuries throughout the world as medicine, food, fodder, perfume, spices and dyes, as well as for other miscellaneous purposes. This study investigates the antiproliferative, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (Linnaeus Theodor Fries and its major secondary metabolite, parietin. The extract and parietin were tested for antimicrobial activity against nine American Type Culture Collection standard and clinically isolated bacterial strains, and three fungal strains. Both showed strong antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains and matched clinical isolates, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus from standard and clinical sources. Among the fungi tested, Rhizoctonia solani was the most sensitive. The antiproliferative effects of the extract and parietin were also investigated in human breast cancer cells. The extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis, both effects being accompanied by modulation of expression of cell cycle regulating genes such as p16, p27, cyclin D1 and cyclin A. It also mediated apoptosis by activating extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways, modulating Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, and inducing Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD phosphorylation. Our results indicate that Xanthoria parietina is a major potential source of antimicrobial and anticancer substances.

  2. A novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for simultaneous detection of the MTHFR 677 C > T, eNOS +894 G > T and - eNOS -786 T > C variants among Malaysian Malays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo Keat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia as a consequence of the MTHFR 677 C > T variant is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. Another factor that can potentially contribute to these disorders is a depleted nitric oxide level, which can be due to the presence of eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants that make an individual more susceptible to endothelial dysfunction. A number of genotyping methods have been developed to investigate these variants. However, simultaneous detection methods using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis are still lacking. In this study, a novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for the simultaneous detection of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants was developed. A total of 114 healthy Malay subjects were recruited. The MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants were genotyped using the novel multiplex PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing as well as snpBLAST. Allele frequencies of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C were calculated using the Hardy Weinberg equation. Methods The 114 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study, and their DNA was extracted. Primer pair was designed using Primer 3 Software version 0.4.0 and validated against the BLAST database. The primer specificity, functionality and annealing temperature were tested using uniplex PCR methods that were later combined into a single multiplex PCR. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP was performed in three separate tubes followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR product residual was purified and sent for DNA sequencing. Results The allele frequencies for MTHFR 677 C > T were 0.89 (C allele and 0.11 (T allele; for eNOS +894 G > T, the allele frequencies were 0.58 (G allele and 0.43 (T allele; and for eNOS −786 T > C, the allele

  3. Secondary metabolites from Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) and the vasorelaxant activity of cryptolepinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Otemberg Souza; Gomes, Roosevelt Albuquerque; Tomaz, Anna Cláudia de Andrade; Fernandes, Marianne Guedes; das Graças Mendes, Leônidas; de Fátima Agra, Maria; Braga, Valdir Andrade; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The phytochemical study of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation through chromatographic techniques of eleven secondary metabolites: sitosterol (1a) and stigmasterol (1b), sitosterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2a) and stigmasterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2b), phaeophytin A (3), 17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (4), 13²-hydroxy phaeophytin B (5), 17³-ethoxypheophorbide B (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (7), cryptolepinone (8) and a salt of cryptolepine (9). Their structures were identified by ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR using one- and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the vasorelaxant activity of cryptolepinone in rat mesenteric artery rings is reported herein for the first time.

  4. Secondary Metabolites from Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae and the Vasorelaxant Activity of Cryptolepinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae led to the isolation through chromatographic techniques of eleven secondary metabolites: sitosterol (1a and stigmasterol (1b, sitosterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2a and stigmasterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2b, phaeophytin A (3, 173-ethoxypheophorbide A (4, 132-hydroxy phaeophytin B (5, 173-ethoxypheophorbide B (6, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (7, cryptolepinone (8 and a salt of cryptolepine (9. Their structures were identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR using one- and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the vasorelaxant activity of cryptolepinone in rat mesenteric artery rings is reported herein for the first time.

  5. Effect of External Electric Field on Substrate Transport of a Secondary Active Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Yu, Li-Ying; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2016-08-22

    Substrate transport across a membrane accomplished by a secondary active transporter (SAT) is essential to the normal physiological function of living cells. In the present research, a series of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations under different electric field (EF) strengths was performed to investigate the effect of an external EF on the substrate transport of an SAT. The results show that EF both affects the interaction between substrate and related protein's residues by changing their conformations and tunes the timeline of the transport event, which collectively reduces the height of energy barrier for substrate transport and results in the appearance of two intermediate conformations under the existence of an external EF. Our work spotlights the crucial influence of external EFs on the substrate transport of SATs and could provide a more penetrating understanding of the substrate transport mechanism of SATs.

  6. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine-Derived Fungus Dichotomomyces sp. L-8 and Their Cytotoxic Activity

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    Li-Hong Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided isolation of the secondary metabolites from the fungus Dichotomomyces sp. L-8 associated with the soft coral Lobophytum crassum led to the discovery of two new compounds, dichotones A and B (1 and 2, together with four known compounds including dichotocejpin C (3, bis-N-norgliovictin (4, bassiatin (5 and (3R,6R-bassiatin (6. The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. (3R,6R-bassiatin (6 displayed significant cytotoxic activities against the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 and the human lung cancer cell line Calu3 with IC50 values of 7.34 ± 0.20 and 14.54 ± 0.01 μM, respectively, while bassiatin (5, the diastereomer of compound 6, was not cytotoxic.

  7. Antibacterial activity and characterization of secondary metabolites isolated from mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentin Bhimba B; J Meenupriya; Elsa Lycias Joel; D Edaya Naveena; Suman kumar; M Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore antibacterial activity and characterization of secondary metabolites isolated from mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis (A. officinalis). Methods:In the present study the leaf extracts of A. officinalis were examined for its antibacterial potential using five different solvents against some reference strains of human pathogenic bacteria for the crude extract. Maximum activity was observed for ethyl acetate and hence different concentrations like 15μL, 25μL, and 50μL of ethyl extracts was checked for its antibacterial activity. Partial purification of crude extract was carried by column chromatography and fractions were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify compounds. Results:The crude ethyl acetate extracts of A. officinalis showed remarkable antibacterial activity with zones of inhibition of 13 mm against Eschericia coli (E. coli) and 11 mm against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Fraction 13 (ethyl acetate÷methanol=8÷2) as the most potent one against with the minimal inhibitory concentration of 30 mm against E. coli and 25 mm against S. aureus. The GC-MS resultsof active column fraction (F13) revealed that the active principals were a mixture of hydroxy-4 methoxybenzoic acid, diethyl phthalate, oleic acid. Conclusions:The leaf extracts with proven antibacterial effects can clearly be directed towards cancer treatment as to inhibiting cancer cell growth. The limited number of test organisms owes to a constraint of resource. So, the effect of strong bursts of leaf extracts on human pathogenic bacteria should further be tested on a wide range of test organisms.

  8. Glycolipids from spinach suppress LPS-induced vascular inflammation through eNOS and NK-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masakazu; Nakahara, Tatsuo; Araho, Daisuke; Murakami, Juri; Nishimura, Masahiro

    2017-07-01

    Glycolipids are the major constituent of the thylakoid membrane of higher plants and have a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. However, anti-inflammatory effects of glycolipids on vascular endothelial cells have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of glycolipids extracted from spinach on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced endothelial inflammation and evaluated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Treatment with glycolipids from spinach had no cytotoxic effects on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and significantly blocked the expression of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in them. Glycolipids treatment also effectively suppressed monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. Treatment with glycolipids inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In addition, glycolipids treatment significantly promoted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and nitric oxide (NO) production in HUVECs. Furthermore, glycolipids treatment blocked LPS-induced inducible NOS (iNOS) expression in HUVECs. Pretreatment with a NOS inhibitor attenuated glycolipids-induced suppression of NF-κB activation and adhesion molecule expression, and abolished the glycolipids-mediated suppression of monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. These results indicate that glycolipids suppress LPS-induced vascular inflammation through attenuation of the NF-κB pathway by increasing NO production in endothelial cells. These findings suggest that glycolipids from spinach may have a potential therapeutic use for inflammatory vascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  10. eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism is associated with development of complicated plaques in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide inhibits adhesion of thrombocytes, proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and restricts oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins. Therefore, decreased production or activity of NO may play a role in the initiation, progression or complications of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of Glu298Asp eNOS gene polymorphism on the individual risk for development of complicated carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis (CA who had undergone endarterectomy. The study population included 233 patients. eNOS G894T gene polymorphism was identified by PCR and RFLP methods. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Asp298Asp is an independent risk factor for the presence of complicated plaques in CA patients. Patients who were homozygous for the Asp298 allele had an adjusted OR of 4.36 for the development of complicated plaques compared to those that carry the Glu298 allele. Further validation and replication studies are needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI175085

  11. ENO1 promotes tumor proliferation and cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xinghua; Miao, Xiaobing; Wu, Yaxun; Li, Chunsun; Guo, Yan; Liu, Yushan; Chen, Yali; Lu, Xiaoyun [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, 30 North Tongyang Road, Pingchao, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yuchan, E-mail: wangyuchannt@126.com [Department of Pathogen and Immunology, Medical College, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); He, Song, E-mail: hesongnt@126.com [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, 30 North Tongyang Road, Pingchao, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-07-15

    Enolases are glycolytic enzymes responsible for the ATP-generated conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate. In addition to the glycolytic function, Enolase 1 (ENO1) has been reported up-regulation in several tumor tissues. In this study, we investigated the expression and biologic function of ENO1 in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHLs). Clinically, by western blot analysis we observed that ENO1 expression was apparently higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma than in the reactive lymphoid tissues. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining of 144 NHLs suggested that the expression of ENO1 was significantly lower in the indolent lymphomas compared with the progressive lymphomas. Further, we identified ENO1 as an independent prognostic factor, and it was significantly correlated with overall survival of NHL patients. In addition, we found that ENO1 could promote cell proliferation, regulate cell cycle associated gene and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in NHLs. Finally, we verified that ENO1 participated in the process of lymphoma cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Adhesion to FN or HS5 cells significantly protected OCI-Ly8 and Daudi cells from cytotoxicity compared with those cultured in suspension, and these effects were attenuated when transfected with ENO1-siRNA. Based on the study, we propose that inhibition of ENO1 expression may be a novel strategy for therapy for NHLs patients, and it may be a target for drug resistance. - Highlights: • ENO1 expression is reversely correlated with clinical outcomes of patients with NHLs. • ENO1 promotes the proliferation of NHL cells. • ENO1 regulates cell adhesion mediated drug resistance.

  12. KONSUMSI MIKRONUTRIEN DAN EKSPRESI GEN eNOS3 ALEL INTRO 4a4b PADA PENDERITA HIPERTENSI ETNIK MINANGKABAU

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    Delmi Sulastri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakGen eNOS3 varian intron 4a4b merupakan salah satu gen yang berhubungan dengan kejadian hipertensi esensial. Kemampuan Gen eNOS3 varian ini untuk mensintesis enzim nitric oxide synthase (NOS berkurang sehingga sintesis Nitric oxide (NO menurun. Senyawa NO adalah suatu senyawa vasoaktif yang menyebabkan vasodilatasi pembuluh darah.Penelitian pada subjek hipertensi dan normotensi berusia 30-65 tahun bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh mikronutrien terhadap ekspresi gen eNOS3 alel intron 4a4b. 130 subjek, diwawancara pola makannya lalu dilakukan analisis asupan mikronutrien, gen eNOS3, serta kadar NO plasma. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan uji T dan chi-square.Kadar NO plasma penderita hipertensi adalah 26.91 + 15.40 μM/L dan normotensi 25.79 + 15.04 μM/L. 55.5% subjek hipertensi memiliki gen eNOS3 varian intron 4b dan 69% subjek normotensi mempunyai varian intron 4a4b. Kadar NO plasma rendah, (66.7% ditemukan pada subjek hipertensi dengan varian intron 4b. Tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna asupan mikronutrien dengan kadar NO plasma pada subjek hipertensi.Hasil ini tidak mendukung pengaruh konsumsi mikronutrien terhadap kadar NO plasma pada penderita hipertensi dengan gen eNOS3 varian intron 4a4b.Kata Kunci : hipertensi esensial, gen eNOS3, kadar NO plasmaAbstracteNOS 3 gene intron 4a4b allel is one of the important genes which is related to hypertesion essensial. This gene expresses the nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme which regulates the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO in human body. NO causes vasodilatation, which decreases peripheral resistant and blood pressure.A research has been done based on cross sectional study on hypertension patients and those with normal blood pressure in the range of 30-65 years old. The main of this research is to evaluate the influence of micronutrient consumption on eNOS3 gene intron 4a4b allel expression in hypertension subjects in Minangkabau ethnicity. 130 subjects interviewed about micronutrient

  13. An Analysis of Writing Activities in the Student Workbooks of a Secondary-Level Turkish Language Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çerçi, Arif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze writing activities in the student workbooks of a secondary-level Turkish language course (grades 5 to 8) according to the principles of progressive writing. The study is descriptive and employs content analysis as a qualitative research paradigm. The writing activities of the books in this study all…

  14. Randomised controlled trial of a secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients ('ProActive Heart': study protocol. Secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C Barr

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a significant cause of health and economic burden. Secondary prevention programs play a pivotal role in the treatment and management of those affected by CHD although participation rates are poor due to patient, provider, health system and societal-level barriers. As such, there is a need to develop innovative secondary prevention programs to address the treatment gap. Telephone-delivered care is convenient, flexible and has been shown to improve behavioural and clinical outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a six-month telephone-delivered secondary prevention program for MI patients (ProActive Heart. Methods 550 adult MI patients have been recruited over a 14 month period (December 2007 to January 2009 through two Brisbane metropolitan hospitals, and randomised to an intervention or control group (n = 225 per group. The intervention commences within two weeks of hospital discharge delivered by study-trained health professionals ('health coaches' during up to 10 × 30 minute scripted telephone health coaching sessions. Participants also receive a ProActive Heart handbook and an educational resource to use during the health coaching sessions. The intervention focuses on appropriate modification of CHD risk factors, compliance with pharmacological management, and management of psychosocial issues. Data collection occurs at baseline or prior to commencement of the intervention (Time 1, six months follow-up or the completion of the intervention (Time 2, and at 12 months follow-up for longer term outcomes (Time 3. Primary outcome measures include quality of life (Short Form-36 and physical activity (Active Australia Survey. A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the

  15. The impact of utilizing mobile phones to promote physical activity among post-secondary students: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Hieu

    2016-01-01

    A commitment to regular physical activity may reduce the risks of chronic diseases for young adults. Internationally, the majority of post-secondary students are insufficiently active for health benefits. Novel health strategies and interventions utilizing mobiles phones could increase post-secondary students' physical activity levels. However, there is contradictory evidence to support the use of mobile phones to promote physical activity, and a scoping review could provide further insights into this topic. The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review to explore the existing literature and investigate what is currently known about the use of mobile phones to enhance physical activity levels among post-secondary students. A total of 84 articles were identified from the literature search, and six studies were selected for data analysis. Two major themes were supported by the evidence, which included: (I) the relationship between mobile phones and physical activity levels; and (II) students' perceptions of mobile phones. Goal setting principles combined with text message interventions were reported to have significant influences on students' physical activity levels. Students expressed mixed feelings about coaching elements of apps and posting personal results on social networking websites. No studies reported the use of objective physical activity measurements. In conclusion, mobile phone technologies such as text message reminders could be included in health interventions to enhance post-secondary students' physical activity levels. There is limited evidence available on this topic and additional research is warranted to establish a clearer understanding of the relationship between mobile phones and post-secondary students' physical activity.

  16. Microbial communication leading to the activation of silent fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eNetzker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms form diverse multispecies communities in various ecosystems. The high abundance of fungal and bacterial species in these consortia results in specific communication between the microorganisms. A key role in this communication is played by secondary metabolites (SMs, which are also called natural products. Recently, it was shown that interspecies ‘talk’ between microorganisms represents a physiological trigger to activate silent gene clusters leading to the formation of novel SMs by the involved species. This review focuses on mixed microbial cultivation, mainly between bacteria and fungi, with a special emphasis on the induced formation of fungal SMs in co-cultures. In addition, the role of chromatin remodeling in the induction is examined, and methodical perspectives for the analysis of natural products are presented. As an example for an intermicrobial interaction elucidated at the molecular level, we discuss the specific interaction between the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus with the soil bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus, which provides an excellent model system to enlighten molecular concepts behind regulatory mechanisms and will pave the way to a novel avenue of drug discovery through targeted activation of silent SM gene clusters through co-cultivations of microorganisms.

  17. [Evaluation of school and afterschool activities of public and nonpublic secondary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polus-Szeniawska, E

    1995-01-01

    The studies were performed on 825 school children (512 girls and 313 boys) from 1st and 2nd classes of secondary schools in som voievodship capital cities. 406 school children were from public, and 419 from non-public schools. The questionnaire prepared in the Institute for Children and Youngsters Institute in Berlin was used in this study. The evaluation of collected responses made possible to state the following conclusions: The organization of school and out school activities in public and non public schools was incorrect in several aspects ie. incorrect from the hygienic point of view organization of classes during day, too early beginning of the classes, too late ending of the classes in some week days, too long time needed to complete homework, and too late return to home after completing out school activities. The difficulties in homework completing were stated by school children from both public and non public schools. In 52% cases the parents helped in homework and 12% of children reported private lessons as an additional help in homework. The analysis of responses concerning frame of mind of school children showed better situation of pupils from non public schools. Only 15% of non public school children expressed reluctancy towards schools, as compared to 21% from public schools. The relationships between pupils and teachers did not worsened during consecutive years in non public schools, as opposite to public schools where the worsening of these relationships during the consecutive years was evident.

  18. Disease activity score in rheumatoid arthritis with or without secondary fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammurrad, S.; Munir, W.; Farooqi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To correlate disease activity score (DAS-28) in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with and without secondary fibromyalgia. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Rheumatology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from November 2011 to April 2012. Methodology: Patients aged above 16 years diagnosed to have rheumatoid arthritis according to ACR/EULAR criteria 2010 were included in the study. Fibromyalgia (FM) was diagnosed by ACR 1990 criteria. Patients of other autoimmune diseases or psychiatric illnesses were excluded. DAS was determined and compared using t-test with significance at p < 0.05. Results: The mean age of study subjects was 42.9 years. Thirty one out of total 138 patients had fibromyalgia (22.4%). Female gender was predominant (92.0%); being 96.8% in patients with and in 88.2% without fibromyalgia. The average DAS score was high (5.3 + 1.5) in fibromyalgia patients compared to those without fibromyalgia (3.9 + 1.2); this difference in mean value was statistically significant (p = < 0.001). Conclusion: DAS-28 is a useful tool for assessing rheumatoid arthritis disease status in outpatient setting, however, increased disease activity must be assessed for possible co-existence of fibromyalgia which can spuriously give high DAS value and adversely affect treatment decision. (author)

  19. Secondary metabolites from Tetracera potatoria stem bark with anti-mycobacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomogne-Fodjo, M C Y; Ndinteh, D T; Olivier, D K; Kempgens, P; van Vuuren, S; Krause, R W M

    2017-01-04

    Tetracera potatoria Afzel. Exg. Don (Dilleniaceae) is a medicinal plant used traditionally in Africa for the treatment of tuberculosis related ailments and respiratory infections. The antibacterial activity of the medium polar extracts of T. potatoria leaves and stem bark was recently reported against Mycobacterium smegmatis (MIC 25µg/mL) and M. aurum (65µg/mL), two fast-growing Mycobacterium strains used as model micro-organisms for the more pathogenic strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Fomogne-Fodjo et al., 2014). The aim of this study was consequently to isolate the compounds possibly contributing to this activity, and which may therefore be promising precursors to be used for the development of novel anti-TB drugs. T. potatoria medium polar extract [MeOH/DCM (1:1, v/v)] was fractionated sequentially with petroleum ether to which EtOAC and MeOH were gradually added to increase the polarity. The examination of T. potatoria extract and its fractions was guided by bioassays for anti-mycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis (ATCC 23246) and M. aurum (NCTC 10437) using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. All the isolated compounds were structurally elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for their anti-mycobacterial activity. Two novel secondary metabolites (1, 2) named tetraceranoate and N-hydroxy imidate-tetracerane, together with five known compounds [β-stigmasterol (3), stigmast-5-en-3β-yl acetate (4), betulinic acid (5), betulin (6) and lupeol (7)] were isolated and identified. Tetraceranoate exhibited the best activity against M. smegmatis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 7.8µg/mL, while β-stigmasterol, betulinic acid and betulin showed appreciable anti-mycobacterial activity against both strains (MIC 15µg/mL). Seven compounds were isolated from the medium polar extract [MeOH/DCM (1:1, v/v)] of T. potatoria stem bark. Only tetraceranoate one of the isolated compounds showed antibacterial activity against

  20. The poplar MYB master switches bind to the SMRE site and activate the secondary wall biosynthetic program during wood formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqin Zhong

    Full Text Available Wood is mainly composed of secondary walls, which constitute the most abundant stored carbon produced by vascular plants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling secondary wall deposition during wood formation is not only an important issue in plant biology but also critical for providing molecular tools to custom-design wood composition suited for diverse end uses. Past molecular and genetic studies have revealed a transcriptional network encompassing a group of wood-associated NAC and MYB transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of the secondary wall biosynthetic program during wood formation in poplar trees. Here, we report the functional characterization of poplar orthologs of MYB46 and MYB83 that are known to be master switches of secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. In addition to the two previously-described PtrMYB3 and PtrMYB20, two other MYBs, PtrMYB2 and PtrMYB21, were shown to be MYB46/MYB83 orthologs by complementation and overexpression studies in Arabidopsis. The functional roles of these PtrMYBs in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis were further demonstrated in transgenic poplar plants showing an ectopic deposition of secondary walls in PtrMYB overexpressors and a reduction of secondary wall thickening in their dominant repressors. Furthermore, PtrMYB2/3/20/21 together with two other tree MYBs, the Eucalyptus EgMYB2 and the pine PtMYB4, were shown to differentially bind to and activate the eight variants of the 7-bp SMRE consensus sequence, composed of ACC(A/TA(A/C(T/C. Together, our results indicate that the tree MYBs, PtrMYB2/3/20/21, EgMYB2 and PtMYB4, are master transcriptional switches that activate the SMRE sites in the promoters of target genes and thereby regulate secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation.

  1. CCN activity and droplet growth kinetics of fresh and aged monoterpene secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Engelhart

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene and monoterpene mixtures (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and 3-carene to become cloud droplets was investigated. A static CCN counter and a Scanning Mobility CCN Analyser (a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer coupled with a Continuous Flow counter were used for the CCN measurements. Consistent with previous studies monoterpene SOA is quite active and would likely be a good source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the atmosphere. A decrease in CCN activation diameter for α-pinene SOA of approximately 3 nm hr−1 was observed as the aerosol continued to react with oxidants. Hydroxyl radicals further oxidize the SOA particles thereby enhancing the particle CCN activity with time. The initial concentrations of ozone and monoterpene precursor (for concentrations lower than 40 ppb do not appear to affect the activity of the resulting SOA. Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA is used to infer the molar mass of the SOA sampled online and offline from atomized filter samples. The estimated average molar mass of online SOA was determined to be 180±55 g mol−1 (consistent with existing SOA speciation studies assuming complete solubility. KTA suggests that the aged aerosol (both from α-pinene and the mixed monoterpene oxidation is primarily water-soluble (around 65%. CCN activity measurements of the SOA mixed with (NH42SO4 suggest that the organic can depress surface tension by as much as 10 N m−1 (with respect to pure water. The droplet growth kinetics of SOA samples are similar to (NH42SO4, except at low supersaturation, where SOA tends to grow more slowly. The CCN activation diameter of α-pinene and mixed monoterpene SOA can be modelled to within 10–15% of experiments by a simple implementation of Köhler theory, assuming complete dissolution of the particles, no

  2. Pharmacokinetic studies of active triterpenoid saponins and the total secondary saponin from Anemone raddeana Regel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Lei, Tianli; Lv, Chongning; Zhao, Huimin; Xu, Haiyan; Lu, Jincai

    2017-02-15

    The rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which has a robust history treating rheumatism and neuralgia. The total secondary saponin (TSS) from it has demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, a rapid and validated LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine the active compounds (Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K). Analytes were separated on a reverse-phase C18 column with acetonitrile-water (5mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. This assay showed acceptable linearity (r>0.99) over the concentration range 5-1000 nmol/L for two analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 8.06% and accuracy was ranged from -3.16% to 3.34% for two analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 76.0%. Under the developed analytical conditions, the obtained values of main pharmacokinetic parameters (C max and AUC 0-t ) indicated that the pure compounds were more efficient than the TSS extract in Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K absorption. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies of two individual compounds demonstrated their poor oral absorption in rat ( a F%, 0.019-1.521). In the study of absorption and transportation of Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, the uptake permeability was in 10 -6 cm/sec range suggesting poor absorption, which confirmed the previous pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. Interestingly, the uptake ratio of them declined significantly when treated with phloridzin (SGLT1 inhibitor). It indicated that the absorption of Hederacolchiside A1 in intestine was mainly through positive transport and SGLT1 might participate in its active absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acoustic excitation of diffusion flames with coherent structure in a plane shear layer. ; Application of active combustion control to two-dimensional phase-locked arranging measurements. Soshiki kozo wo tomonau heimen sendai kakusan kaen no onkyo reiki. ; Nijigen iso heikin bunpu sokutei eno active nensho seigyo no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-11-25

    The acoustic excitation of a plane diffusion flame enhances the periodicity of organized eddy controlled combustion. In this study, to clarify an effectiveness of application of active combustion control, phase characteristics of the excited eddy flames with high periodicity have been examined. A computer-aided phase-locked averaging method was employed to obtain graphical two-dimensional contour maps of the instantaneous profiles of temperature and CH emission. Both maps consisting of eight consecutive phases indicated clearly not only the periodic behavior of the organized eddy flame, but also the gas dynamic properties peculiar to those flames with coherent structure. In addition, the profiles of local contribution of the sound field to the combustion process were examined by calculating the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index. Calculation results of the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index indicated that the organized eddy flames have high sensitivity to sound, and play an important role in an interaction of sound and flame. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Primary and Secondary Organic Marine Aerosol and Oceanic Biological Activity: Recent Results and New Perspectives for Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rinaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important natural aerosol systems at the global level is marine aerosol that comprises both organic and inorganic components of primary and secondary origin. The present paper reviews some new results on primary and secondary organic marine aerosol, achieved during the EU project MAP (Marine Aerosol Production, comparing them with those reported in the recent literature. Marine aerosol samples collected at the coastal site of Mace Head, Ireland, show a chemical composition trend that is influenced by the oceanic biological activity cycle, in agreement with other observations. Laboratory experiments show that sea-spray aerosol from biologically active sea water can be highly enriched in organics, and the authors highlight the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of such primary organics. With regard to the secondary fraction of organic aerosol, the average chemical composition and molecular tracer (methanesulfonic-acid, amines distribution could be successfully characterized by adopting a multitechnique analytical approach.

  5. Membrane Fouling Potential of Secondary Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) from Conventional Activated Sludge Process

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a conventional activated sludge process was filtered through constant-pressure dead-end filtration tests with a sequential ultrafiltration (UF, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 10k Dalton) and nanofiltration (NF, MWCO of 200 Dalton) array to investigate its membrane fouling potential. Advanced analytical methods including liquid chromatography with online carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescent excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) were employed for EfOM characterization. EfOM consisted of humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals, biopolymers (mainly proteins) and hydrophobic organics according to the sequence of their organic carbon fractions. The UF rejected only biopolymers and the NF rejected most humics and building blocks and a significant part of LMW neutrals. Simultaneous occurrence of cake layer and standard blocking during the filtration process of both UF and NF was identified according to constant-pressure filtration equations, which was possibly caused by the heterogeneous nature of EfOM with a wide MW distribution (several ten to several million Dalton). Thus the corresponding two fouling indices (kc for cake layer and ks for standard blocking) from UF and NF could characterize the fouling potential of macromolecular biopolymers and low to intermediate MW organics (including humics, building blocks, LMW neutrals), respectively. Compared with macromolecular biopolymers, low to intermediate MW organics exhibited a much higher fouling potential due to their lower molecular weight and higher concentration.

  6. Photochemical aging of secondary organic aerosols: effects on hygroscopic growth and CCN activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, A.; Mentel, Th. F.; Tillmann, R.; Schlosser, E.; Mildenberger, K.; Clauss, T.; Henning, S.; Kiselev, A.; Stratmann, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant emitted volatile organic carbons (VOCs) are a major precursor of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols. The precursors are oxidized via ozonolysis, photooxidation, or by NO3 and form aerosol particles. Due to further oxidation of the organic matter the composition of the SOA may age with time. This will also change the hygroscopic growth (HG) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation of the particles. In this study we generated and aged SOA in the SAPHIR chamber at the Research Centre Juelich under near atmospheric conditions: natural sunlight, low precursor and O3 concentrations, and long reaction times. As precursor we used a mixture of 5 monoterpenes (MT) or 5 MT with 2 sesquiterpenes which had been identified as major constituents of plant emissions in previous experiments. Concentrations ranged between 4 and 100 ppb MT and the total reaction time was 36h. HG was measured at RH=10-97% by a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Analyser (HTDMA, FZ Juelich) and at RH=97-99% by the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS-mobile, IfT Leipzig). The agreement between HTDMA and LACIS-mobile data was generally good. CCN properties were measured with a continuous flow CCN Counter from DMT. SOA particles generated on a sunny day were more hygroscopic and had a lower activation diameter (Dcrit) than SOA formed under cloudy conditions. With aging it became more hygroscopic and Dcrit decreased. Sunlight enhanced this effect. But the change in HG and Dcrit due to aging was less than the difference between SOA generated under different conditions (i.e. sunny or cloudy). We did not observe a dependence of the HG on the precursor concentration.

  7. Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Knowledge, Perceptions and Experiences of Promoting Healthy, Active Lifestyles in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher education (PETE) offers a context for students to learn about the promotion of active lifestyles in secondary schools through their interactions and experiences during the teacher education process. However, previous studies have found low levels of health-related fitness knowledge amongst PETE students,…

  8. Insights into the mechanisms of Promysalin, a secondary metabolite with genus-specific antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promysalin, a secondary metabolite produced by Pseudomonas putida RW10S1, has antibacterial activity against a wide variety of Pseudomonas sp., including both human and plant pathogens. Promysalin induces swarming and biofilm formation in the producing species, and inhibits growth of susceptible sp...

  9. Measuring teacher regulating activities concerning student learning in secondary education classrooms : Reliability and validity of student perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, J. A.; de Jong, F. P. C. M.; Wubbels, Th.; Minnaert, A. E. M. G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use and validation of the Pedagogical Practices Inventory, which uses student perceptions arranged into five subscales to measure teacher activities concerning the regulation of student learning in secondary education. To determine the reliability and validity of the

  10. An Examination of the Extent to Which School Outdoor Activities Could Enhance Senior Secondary Two Students' Achievement in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Amadu, Samuel O.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which school outdoor activities could enhance senior secondary (SS) two students' achievement in ecology. Non randomized pre test post test control group Quasi-experimental design was adopted. A sample of 160 SS II students from 4 co-educational schools in Jalingo metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria was used. A 40…

  11. Anti-rheumatoid Activity of Secondary Metabolites Produced by Endophytic Chaetomium globosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, Ahmed M.; Zaki, Sherif M.; Khalil, Waleed F.; Makhlouf, Noha A.; Farghaly, Lamiaa M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-rheumatoid activity of secondary metabolites produced by endophytic mycobiota in Egypt. A total of 27 endophytic fungi were isolated from 10 dominant medicinal plant host species in Wadi Tala, Saint Katherine Protectorate, arid Sinai, Egypt. Of those taxa, seven isolates of Chaetomium globosum (CG1–CG7), being the most frequent taxon, were recovered from seven different host plants and screened for production of active anti-inflammatory metabolites. Isolates were cultivated on half – strength potato dextrose broth for 21 days at 28°C on a rotatory shaker at 180 rpm, and extracted in ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. The probable inhibitory effects of both extracts against an adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model were examined and compared with the effects of methotrexate (MTX) as a standard disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drug. Disease activity and mobility scoring of AIA, histopathology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate probable inhibitory roles. A significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the severity of arthritis was observed in both the methanolic extract of CG6 (MCG6) and MTX treatment groups 6 days after treatment commenced. The average arthritis score of the MCG6 treatment group was (10.7 ± 0.82) compared to (13.8 ± 0.98) in the positive control group. The mobility score of the MCG6 treatment group (1.50 ± 0.55) was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (3.33 ± 0.82). In contrast, the ethyl acetate extract of CG6 (EACG6) treatment group showed no improvements in arthritis and mobility scores in AIA model rats. Histopathology and TEM findings confirmed the observation. Isolate CG6 was subjected to sequencing for confirmation of phenotypic identification. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1–5.8 s – ITS2 rDNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number KC

  12. Role of endothelin receptor activation in secondary pulmonary hypertension in awake swine after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Houweling (Birgit); D. Merkus (Daphne); O. Sorop (Oana); F. Boomsma (Frans); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe previously observed that pulmonary hypertension secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) in swine is characterized by elevated plasma endothelin (ET) levels and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that an increased ET-mediated vasoconstrictor

  13. Partial deletion of eNOS gene causes hyperinsulinemic state, unbalance of cardiac insulin signaling pathways and coronary dysfunction independently of high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Vecoli

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in eNOS gene, possibly interacting with high fat diet (HFD, affect peripheral vascular function and glucose metabolism. The relative role of eNOS gene, HFD and metabolic derangement on coronary function has not been fully elucidated. We test whether eNOS gene deficiency per se or in association with HFD modulates coronary function through mechanisms involving molecular pathways related to insulin signaling. Wild type (WT, eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice were studied. WT and eNOS+/- mice were fed with either standard or HF diet for 16 weeks and compared with standard diet fed eNOS-/-. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed during the last week of diet. Coronary resistance (CR was measured at baseline and during infusions of acetylcholine (Ach or sodium-nitroprusside (SNP to evaluate endothelium-dependent or independent vasodilation, in the Langendorff isolated hearts. Cardiac expression of Akt and ERK genes as evaluation of two major insulin-regulated signaling pathways involved in the control of vascular tone were assessed by western blot. HFD-fed mice developed an overt diabetic state. Conversely, chow-fed genetically modified mice (in particular eNOS-/- showed a metabolic pattern characterized by normoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia with a limited degree of insulin resistance. CR was significantly higher in animals with eNOS gene deletions than in WT, independently of diet. Percent decrease in CR, during Ach infusion, was significantly lower in both eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice than in WT, independently of diet. SNP reduced CR in all groups except eNOS-/-. The cardiac ERK1-2/Akt ratio, increased in animals with eNOS gene deletions compared with WT, independently of diet. These results suggest that the eNOS genetic deficiency, associated or not with HFD, has a relevant effect on coronary vascular function, possibly mediated by increase in blood insulin levels and unbalance in insulin-dependent signaling in coronary vessels

  14. Tracing Of Scaling Elements In Secondary Cooling System Of GA Siwabessy Reactor By Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, Diyah Erlina

    2000-01-01

    Determination of content of chemical elements and scale formed in the secondary cooling water has been carried out by means of AAN method. The counting was performed using a gamma spectrometer equipped with high resolution HPGe gamma detector. Result of counting show the elements contained in the scale are: Na, Br, Fe, Ci, Mg and Co which are also found in the secondary cooling water. The main scaling element cannot yet be detected

  15. Influence of secondary settling tank performance on suspended solids mass balance in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, M; Kainz, H; Hunze, M; Józsa, J

    2012-05-01

    Secondary settling is the final step of the activated sludge-based biological waste water treatment. Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are therefore an essential unit of producing a clear effluent. A further important function of SSTs is the sufficient thickening to achieve highly concentrated return sludge and biomass within the biological reactor. In addition, the storage of activated sludge is also needed in case of peak flow events (Ekama et al., 1997). Due to the importance of a high SST performance the problem has long been investigated (Larsen, 1977; Krebs, 1991; Takács et al., 1991; Ekama et al., 1997; Freimann, 1999; Patziger et al., 2005; Bürger et al., 2011), however, a lot of questions are still to solve regarding e.g. the geometrical features (inflow, outflow) and operations (return sludge control, scraper mechanism, allowable maximum values of surface overflow rates). In our study we focused on SSTs under dynamic load considering both the overall unsteady behaviour and the features around the peaks, investigating the effect of various sludge return strategies as well as the inlet geometry on SST performance. The main research tool was a FLUENT-based novel mass transport model consisting of two modules, a 2D axisymmetric SST model and a mixed reactor model of the biological reactor (BR). The model was calibrated and verified against detailed measurements of flow and concentration patterns, sludge settling, accompanied with continuous on-line measurement of in- and outflow as well as returned flow rates of total suspended solids (TSS) and water. As to the inlet arrangement a reasonable modification of the geometry could result in the suppression of the large scale flow structures of the sludge-water interface thus providing a significant improvement in the SST performance. Furthermore, a critical value of the overflow rate (q(crit)) was found at which a pronounced large scale circulation pattern develops in the vertical plane, the density current in

  16. Netrin-1 Ameliorates Blood-Brain Barrier Impairment Secondary to Ischemic Stroke via the Activation of PI3K Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary impairment of blood-brain barrier (BBB occurs in the remote thalamus after ischemic stroke. Netrin-1, an axonal guidance molecule, presents bifunctional effects on blood vessels through receptor-dependent pathways. This study investigates whether netrin-1 protects BBB against secondary injury. Netrin-1 (600 ng/d for 7 days was intracerebroventricularly infused 24 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in hypertensive rats. Neurological function was assessed 8 and 14 days after MCAO, and the permeability of BBB in the ipsilateral thalamus was detected. The viability of brain microvascular endothelial cells was determined after being disposed with netrin-1 (50 ng/mL before oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. The role of netrin-1 was further explored by examining its receptors and their function. We found that netrin-1 infusion improved neurological function, attenuated secondary impairment of BBB by up-regulating the levels of tight junction proteins and diminishing extravasation of albumin, with autophagy activation 14 days after MCAO. Netrin-1 also enhanced cell survival and autophagy activity in OGD-treated cells, inhibited by UNC5H2 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of netrin-1 were suppressed by PI3K inhibitors 3-Methyladenine and LY294002. Our results showed that netrin-1 ameliorated BBB impairment secondary to ischemic stroke by promoting tight junction function and endothelial survival. PI3K-mediated autophagy activation depending on UNC5H2 receptor could be an underlying mechanism.

  17. Environmental Aspects as Assessment Criteria in Municipal Heat Energy Decisions - Case of Eno Energy Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakka, Asko [North Karelia Univ. of Applied Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide information whether it is possible to consider the sustainable development perspectives in the decision making of the district energy decision. The new EU-directives concerning public procurements allow the use of environmental aspects as selection criteria. The focus here is on small-scale district heating systems and their fuel-supply chains. The comparable fuels included the analysis are forest chips, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil and peat. The paper focuses to the concept of the sustainable development and establishes the indicators for ecological-, social- and economical aspects of the district heating. The indicators are utilized in the case study on the Eno Energy Cooperative. The equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and the combustion of the fuel, the employment impacts of the fuel production and the formation of the price of energy for the consumers are considered. After presenting the sustainable development indicators in the case of Eno Energy Cooperative, the investment models of heat entrepreneurship business are discussed. Finally, we also raise an attention into important aspects to be considered when establishing a local district heating scheme. The indicators used in this presentation show that the use of forest chips in energy production has positive effect through the reduced greenhouse gases. The use of wood in energy production also provides employment opportunities and is more favourable to consumers, because of the steady fuel price when compared to other alternative fuels.

  18. H2O2 Treatment of HUVECs Facilitates PKC Mediated Thr495 Phosphorylation on eNOS when Pre-treated with High Glucose Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guterbaum, Thomas J; Braunstein, Thomas H; Fossum, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome entails hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Hyperglycemia during coronary reperfusion is associated with a poor prognosis. Contrastingly, targeting correction of hyper......Objective: Metabolic syndrome entails hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Hyperglycemia during coronary reperfusion is associated with a poor prognosis. Contrastingly, targeting correction....... The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both mitochondria and cytoplasm was measured by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on threonine 495 (Thr495) and serine 1177 (Ser1177) was assessed by western blotting. Short-term (20 hours...

  19. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. ► Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. ► Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. ► L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. ► Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg −1 body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-κB. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be

  20. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  1. ORGANIZATION OF ACTIVITIES IN THE COMPUTER LAB AT THE SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN VIEW OF MEASURES OF INFORMATION SECURITY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Kovalchuk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper the organizational activities of informational security in the secondary school are considered In particular the planning of organizational activities on stages of the lifecycle of the system of information security of educational computer complex is proposed. There are purified the methods of unification for the software installed at the pupils’ workstations. There is developed the tentative calendar plan of regular activities and main approaches to the management of system of informational security of educational computer complex on the basis of hardware-software level and the organization of antivirus security in computer lab is described.

  2. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongge Yuan

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC, a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3 with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  3. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  4. A Bridge Too Far: The Decline in Shared Science Activities during Primary-Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the use of "bridging units" in science to improve curriculum continuity during transition from primary to secondary school. Based on research evidence collected over several decades, it suggests that the use of these units rose to a peak around the time of the millennium, but that in recent years few schools have…

  5. Productive Activity in the Curriculum: Changing the Literate Bias of Secondary Schools in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes Tanzania's efforts to modify the secondary curriculum by unifying academics and productive work. Teachers have not adopted the new approach. The author suggests that teachers' reactions are affected by the relationship between schools and the division of labor, difficulties of specifying what unity means, and problems of school…

  6. Carbon monoxide releasing molecule induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation through a calcium and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Min; Huang, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Wung, Being-Sun

    2016-12-01

    The production of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a major role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. This study elucidated the potential role of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORMs) in NO production and explored the underlying mechanisms in endothelial cells. We observed that 25μM CORM-2 could increase NO production and stimulate an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ level. Furthermore, ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid caused CORM-2-induced NO production, which was abolished by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxy-methyl ester (BAPTA-AM), indicating that intracellular Ca 2+ release plays a major role in eNOS activation. The inhibition of the IP3 receptor diminished the CORM-2-induced intracellular Ca 2+ increase and NO production. Furthermore, CORM-2 induced eNOS Ser 1179 phosphorylation and eNOS dimerization, but it did not alter eNOS expression. CORM-2 (25μM) also prolonged Akt phosphorylation, lasting for at least 12h. Pretreatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors (wortmannin or LY294002) inhibited the increases in NO production and phosphorylation but did not affect eNOS dimerization. CORM-2-induced eNOS Ser 1179 phosphorylation was intracellularly calcium-dependent, because pretreatment with an intracellular Ca 2+ chelator (BAPTA-AM) inhibited this process. Although CORM-2 increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), pretreatment with antioxidant enzyme catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine did not abolish the CORM-2-induced eNOS activity or phosphorylation, signifying that ROS is not involved in this activity. Hence, CORM-2 enhances eNOS activation through intracellular calcium release, Akt phosphorylation, and eNOS dimerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang Prevents Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Apoptosis through eNOS and MAPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Liou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXT is a traditional Chinese medication consisting of three herbs, namely Coptidis rhizome, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizome. This study aimed to examine the cardioprotective effects of SHXT in a rat model of acute myocardial apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. Vehicle (intravenous saline or SHXT (intravenous or oral was administered prior to I/R (occlusion of left coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the vehicle group, myocardial I/R caused myocardial infarction with increased plasma cardiac enzymes, severe arrhythmia and mortality. Myocardial apoptosis was induced by I/R as evidenced by DNA ladder and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In the SHXT group, we found that SHXT significantly reduced plasma levels of cardiac enzymes, arrhythmia scores (from 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1, P<.01 and mortality rate (from 53 to 0%, P<.01. In addition, pretreatment with intravenous SHXT reduced the infarct size dose-dependently when compared with the vehicle group (10 mg kg−1: 14.0 ± 0.2 versus 44.5 ± 5.0%, and 30 mg kg−1: 6.2 ± 1.2% versus 44.5 ± 5.0%, both P<.01. Similarly, oral administration of SHXT reduced the infarct size dose-dependently. Furthermore, SHXT markedly decreased the apoptosis induced by I/R with increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Finally, we found that SHXT counteracted the I/R-induced downstream signaling, resulting in increased myocardial eNOS expression and plasma nitrite, and decreased activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. These data suggest that SHXT has cardioprotective effects against I/R-induced apoptosis, and that these effects are mediated, at least in part, by eNOS and MAPK pathways.

  8. An Eulerian method for computation of multimaterial impact with ENO shock-capturing and sharp interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Udaykumar, H S; Belk, D M; Vanden, K J

    2003-01-01

    A technique is presented for the numerical simulation of high-speed multimaterial impact. Of particular interest is the interaction of solid impactors with targets. The computations are performed on a fixed Cartesian mesh by casting the equations governing material deformation in Eulerian conservation law form. The advantage of the Eulerian setting is the disconnection of the mesh from the boundary deformation allowing for large distortions of the interfaces. Eigenvalue analysis reveals that the system of equations is hyperbolic for the range of materials and impact velocities of interest. High-order accurate ENO shock-capturing schemes are used along with interface tracking techniques to evolve sharp immersed boundaries. The numerical technique is designed to tackle the following physical phenomena encountered during impact: (1) high velocities of impact leading to large deformations of the impactor as well as targets; (2) nonlinear wave-propagation and the development of shocks in the materials; (3) modelin...

  9. Identification and Function Analysis of enolase Gene NlEno1 from Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera:Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Xia; Li, Kai-Long; Chen, Yang; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The enolase [EC 4.2.1.11] is an essential enzyme in the glycolytic pathway catalyzing the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGE) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding α-enolase was cloned from rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and is provisionally designated as NlEno1. The cDNA sequence of NlEno1 was 1,851 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,305 bp and encoding 434 amino acids. The deduced protein shares high identity of 80–87% with ENO1-like protein from Hemiptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera speices. The NlEno1 showed the highest mRNA expression level in hemolymph, followed by fat body, salivary gland, ovaries and egg, and showed trace mRNA levels in testis. The mRNA of NlEno1 showed up-regulated level in virulent N. lugens population Mudgo, IR56 and IR42 when compared with TN1 population. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of NlEno1 into the adults significantly down-regulated the NlEno1 mRNA level along with decreased eggs and offspring. Moreover, injection of NlEno1-dsRNA decreased mRNA level of Vitellogenin (Vg) gene. These results showed that the NlEno1, as a key glycolytic enzyme, may play roles in regulation of fecundity and adaptation of N. lugens to resistant rice varieties. PMID:26056319

  10. Radionuclide activity in the secondary cooling circuit of the NPP with WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, L.M.; Volkov, A.P.; Kozlov, V.F.; Luzanova, L.M.; Pashevich, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of the Kol'skaya NPP operating experience the radioactivity of water and steam fed to turbines and boilers has been determined. The radioactivity of water in the primary circuit is demonstrated to be mainly due to 24 Na, 42 K, 18 F, sup(131-135)I, and in the secondary circuit - due to 131 I and 133 I. The data obtained testify to the permanent leakage of water from the primary circuit to the secondary one averaging 19+-12 g/hr at the pressure gradient between the circuits approximately 7.0 MPa. With the probability of 1.2x10 -1 -1.6x10 -2 (eff. reactor day) -1 or 1.2x10 -8 -1.6x10 -9 (kWxhr) -1 the leakage may for some time increase to 1 l/hr

  11. Secondary Plant Products Causing Photosensitization in Grazing Herbivores: Their Structure, Activity and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems.

  12. Counselling low-back-pain patients in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Madsen, Finn Hjorth; Gonge, Bigitte; Christensen, Michael; Frost, Poul

    2012-01-01

    To assess if counselling by an occupational physician (OP) addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity integrated as a part of low-back pain (LBP) outpatient treatment influences pain, function and sick leave. Randomised controlled trial in the secondary healthcare sector with 3 months' follow-up. The participants were LBP patients who, independently of sick-leave status, expressed concerns about the ability to maintain their current job. Patients referred for surgery were excluded. The intervention consisted of two counselling sessions conducted by an OP addressing both workplace barriers and leisure-time physical activity. A workplace visit was performed if required. Pain, function and duration of sick leave due to LBP were primary outcomes. A reduction in bodily pain and improvement in physical function both measured by the 36-item short-form health survey questionnaire in favour of the intervention group was found. The change in pain score was found to be clinically relevant. The risk of sick leave for at least 8 weeks due to LBP was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Two secondary outcomes, Fear Avoidance Beliefs about physical activity and maximum oxygen uptake, supported compliance and adherence to the part of the intervention focusing on enhanced physical activity. Two short counselling sessions by an OP combining advice on meeting workplace barriers and enhancing physical activity had a substantial effect on important prognostic factors for LBP patients with moderate to severe symptoms diagnosed in outpatient rheumatological clinics. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13071157.

  13. Antifungal activity of secondary plant metabolites from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.): Glycoalkaloids and phenolic acids show synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Maldonado, A F; Schieber, A; Gänzle, M G

    2016-04-01

    To study the antifungal effects of the potato secondary metabolites α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and caffeic acid, alone or combined. Resistance to glycoalkaloids varied among the fungal species tested, as derived from minimum inhibitory concentrations assays. Synergistic antifungal activity between glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds was found. Changes in the fluidity of fungal membranes caused by potato secondary plant metabolites were determined by calculation of the generalized polarization values. The results partially explained the synergistic effect between caffeic acid and α-chaconine and supported findings on membrane disruption mechanisms from previous studies on artificial membranes. LC/MS analysis was used to determine variability and relative amounts of sterols in the different fungal species. Results suggested that the sterol pattern of fungi is related to their resistance to potato glycoalkaloids and to their taxonomy. Fungal resistance to α-chaconine and possibly other glycoalkaloids is species dependent. α-Chaconine and caffeic acid show synergistic antifungal activity. The taxonomic classification and the sterol pattern play a role in fungal resistance to glycoalkaloids. Results improve the understanding of the antifungal mode of action of potato secondary metabolites, which is essential for their potential utilization as antifungal agents in nonfood systems. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Concanavalin A-mediated in vitro activation of a secondary cytotoxic T-cell response in virus-primed splenocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Jensen, B L

    1980-01-01

    In a recent report it was shown that what appeared to be secondary cytotoxic T cells could be obtained from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-primed splenocytes after stimulation in vitro with the non-specific T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). The present experiments attempt to chara......In a recent report it was shown that what appeared to be secondary cytotoxic T cells could be obtained from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-primed splenocytes after stimulation in vitro with the non-specific T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). The present experiments attempt...... to characterize further these effector cells and, in particular, to establish whether the Con A-activated cytotoxic effectors are qualitatively different from the secondary cytotoxic T cells induced by restimulation with the homologous antigen. It was found that: (1) in vitro activation with Con A could......, since no evidence was found to indicate a role for other cell types or soluble (cytotoxic or arming) factors; (4) cytotoxicity was specific with regard to both virus and 'self'. By comparison with previous data on LCMV-induced cytotoxic T cells, it is concluded that Con A induces the generation...

  15. Counselling low-back-pain patients in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if counselling by an occupational physician (OP) addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity integrated as a part of low-back pain (LBP) outpatient treatment influences pain, function and sick leave. METHODS: Randomised controlled trial in the secondary...... healthcare sector with 3 months' follow-up. The participants were LBP patients who, independently of sick-leave status, expressed concerns about the ability to maintain their current job. Patients referred for surgery were excluded. The intervention consisted of two counselling sessions conducted by an OP......-form health survey questionnaire in favour of the intervention group was found. The change in pain score was found to be clinically relevant. The risk of sick leave for at least 8 weeks due to LBP was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Two secondary outcomes, Fear Avoidance Beliefs about...

  16. The evaluation of cultivable microbiota profile in patients with secondary endodontic infection before and after photo-activated disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Ghorbanzadeh, Roghayeh; Parker, Steven; Chiniforush, Nasim; Bahador, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Secondary/persistent endodontic infection can be the outcome of failure of endodontic treatment. Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) can be a useful adjunct to mechanical and antimicrobial agents in eliminating endopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the effect of PAD on diversity and count of microbiota related to secondary/persistent endodontic infections. Root canal samples were taken using sterile paper points from the root canals of 14 patients with secondary/persistent endodontic infections after removing the root-canal filling materials. PAD was performed on teeth with toluidine blue O (TBO) in combination with diode laser. Then re-sampling was conducted from the canal root using sterile paper points and transferred to transport medium. The samples were plated and pure cultures of the target microorganisms were then isolated and identified by analytical profile index (API ® 20A) assays and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Before TBO-PAD, a total of 31 cultivable isolates could be retrieved; 25.8% of the isolated species were obligate anaerobic or microphilics including Veillonella parvula, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Propionibacterium acnes, and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and 74.2% of the isolated species were facultative anaerobic such as Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces naeslundii, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, Streptococcus sanguinis, S. mitis, and Candida albicans. According to this in vivo study, the diversity and count of microbiota in root canal-treated teeth were decreased after TBO-PAD, so that E. faecalis, V. parvula, and C. albicans were the microorganisms that recovered after PAD. TBO-PAD is an effective approach that exhibited anti-microbial potential activity against microbiota involved in secondary/persistent endodontic infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Depression of calcium pump activity in renal cortex of vitamin D-deficient rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Saitoh, Michiyo; Takita, Yumiko; Nakano, Toshiaki; Tamura, Teiichi

    1990-01-01

    To examine the hormonal regulation of the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump in the kidneys, the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ uptake by the basolateral membrane vesicles in the renal cortex was measured using radioactive calcium ( 45 Ca 2+ ) in rats with vitamin D deficiency or rats undergoing thyroparathyroidectomy. The V max of the Ca 2+ pump activity was increased not only by administering calcitriol, but also by normalizing the serum calcium level in vitamin D-deficient rats. PTH suppressed the Ca 2+ pump activity in normocalcemic vitamin D-deficient rats. Thyroparathyroidectomy did not affect the Ca 2+ pump activity in the kidneys of normal rats. It was concluded that the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump activity was depressed by secondary hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-deficient rats. (author)

  18. Endothelial dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea is associated with epigenetic changes in the eNOS gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gozal, David; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Wang, Yang

    2013-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder that has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity, even in children. However, not all children with OSA manifest alterations in endothelial postocclusive hyperemia, an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-dependent response. Since expression of the eNOS gene is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms and OSA may cause epigenetic modifications such as DNA hypermethylation, we hypothesized that epigenetic modifications in the eNOS gene may underlie the differential vascular phenotypes in pediatric OSA. Age-, sex-, ethnicity-, and BMI-matched prepubertal children with polysomnographically confirmed OSA and either normal (OSAn) or abnormal (OSAab) postocclusive hyperemic responses, assessed as the time to attain peak reperfusion flow (Tmax) by laser Doppler flowmetry, were recruited. Blood genomic DNA was assessed for epigenetic modifications in the eNOS gene using pyrosequencing. Children with no evidence of OSA or endothelial dysfunction served as a control group. The study comprised 36 children with OSA (11 with OSAab and 25 with OSAn) and 35 children in the control group. Overall, the mean age was 7.5 ± 2.4 years, 65% were boys, and 30% were obese; mean apnea-hypopnea index was 18 ± 8.6/h of sleep for the children with OSA. Tmax was 66.7 ± 8.8 s in the OSAab group and 30.1 ± 8.3 s in the OSAn group (P < .001). Pyrosequencing of the proximal promoter region of the eNOS gene revealed no significant differences in six of the seven CpG sites. However, a CpG site located at position -171 (relative to transcription start site), approximating important transcriptional elements, displayed significantly higher methylation levels in the OSAab group as compared with the OSAn or control groups (81.5% ± 3.5%, 74.8% ± 1.4%, and 74.5% ± 1.7%, respectively; P < .001). eNOS mRNA expression levels were assessed in a separate group of children and were significantly reduced in the OSAab

  19. Leukemia kidney infiltration can cause secondary polycythemia by activating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Tomoo; Awazu, Midori; Fujimura, Eriko; Yamazaki, Fumito; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    Secondary polycythemia with increased production of erythropoietin (EPO) is known to occur in kidney diseases such as hydronephrosis and cystic disease, but the mechanism remains unclear. We report an 18-year-old female with isolated renal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia accompanied by polycythemia. At the relapse, she presented with bilateral nephromegaly, mild renal dysfunction, and erythrocytosis with increased serum EPO levels up to 52.1 mIU/mL (9.1-32.8). Renal biopsy demonstrated diffuse lymphoblastic infiltration. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which is undetectable in normal kidney, was observed in the renal tubule epithelium compressed by lymphoblastic cells. These findings suggest that erythrocytosis was caused by renal ischemia due to leukemic infiltration. Polycythemia probably became apparent because of the lack of leukemic involvement of the bone marrow. With chemotherapy, the serum EPO level rapidly decreased to normal range accompanied by the normalization of kidney size and function. Renal leukemic infiltration may enhance EPO production, although not recognized in the majority of cases because of bone marrow involvement. Our case has clarified the mechanism of previously reported polycythemia associated with renal diseases as renal ischemia. Furthermore, we have added renal ischemia resulting from tumor infiltration to the list of causes of secondary polycythemia.

  20. Relationship between multimorbidity and physical activity: Secondary analysis from the Quebec health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhi Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abundant literature supports the beneficial effects of physical activity for improving health of people with chronic diseases. The relationship between multimorbidity and physical activity levels, however, has been little evaluated. The purpose of the current exploratory study was to examine the relationship between a multimorbidity and physical activity levels, and b long-term limitations on activity, self-rated general health, psychological distress, and physical activity levels for each sex in adults, after age, education, income, and employment factors were controlled for. Methods Data from the Quebec Health Survey 1998 were used. The sample included 16,782 adults 18–69 yr of age. Independent variables were multimorbidity, long-term limitations on activity, self-rated general health, and psychological distress. The dependent variable was physical activity levels. Links between the independent and dependent variables were assessed separately for men and women with multinomial regressions while accounting for the survey sampling design and household clustering. Results About 46% of the participants were men. Multimorbidity was not associated with physical activity levels for either men or women. Men and women with long-term limitations on activity and with poor-to-average self-rated general health were less likely to be physically active. No relationship between psychological distress and physical activity was found for men. Women with high levels of psychological distress were less likely to be physically active. Conclusion Multimorbidity was not associated with physical activity levels in either sex, when age, education, income, and employment factors were controlled for. Long-term limitations on activity and poor-to-average self-rated general health seem related to a reduction in physical activity levels for both sexes, whereas psychological distress was associated with a reduction in physical activity levels only

  1. Report on survey for high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. Activities to promote proliferation of the introduction to subject project related business entities; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Taisho jigyosha eno fukyu sokushin katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the survey on high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. The development of a high-performance industrial furnace having been performed by NEDO since fiscal 1993 has completed the fundamental development research in fiscal 1998, and the planned achievements were verified (large energy saving, reduction of NOx emission, and down-sizing). Upon the result, the introduction field test project has started in fiscal 1998 for three years until fiscal 2000. The number of research items adopted in fiscal 1998 was 58, and those in fiscal 1999 was 51, which are progressing smoothly at the present. Reduction in CO2 emission of 50,000 tons was demonstrated as the achievement in fiscal 1998, and NOx emission realized the regulation value or lower in cities wherein each operator is executing the project. Several cases of down-sizing were also reported. In the proliferation promoting project in fiscal 1998, activities were made mainly to the subject project related business entities in relation with the development achievements and general technologies for the high-performance furnace. In fiscal 1999, communication transmission was continued by using information tools on introduction of the achievements and technologies. Attempts will be made on promoting the proliferation of the field test project in the future through a number of technology lecture meetings performed by specialists. (NEDO)

  2. Secondary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary hypertension Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, ...

  3. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Mat...

  4. Pulmonary thromboembolism in a patient with active ulcerative colitis and lung abscess secondary to pulmonary infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Selvi; Gunbatar, Hulya; Ekin, Selami; Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases and they primarily involve intestines. Herein we report the case of a young man who, during a clinical recurrence of ulcerative colitis, presented with symptoms suggestive of a lung abscess. When the patient was re-evaluated because of unexplained shortness of breath, an area of infarction was detected that had led to the development of cavitation secondary to submassive embolism and foci of infection contained within. The patient was managed with subcutaneous heparin and he was asymptomatic during 2 months of follow-up. He completed six months of anti-coagulation therapy and any recurrence was not detected during 3 months of post-treatment follow-up.

  5. Suitability of public use secondary data sets to study multiple activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Michelle; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Inoue, Megumi; Greenfield, Jennifer C; Chen, Huajuan; Lee, YungSoo

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to inventory activity items within and across U.S. public use data sets, to identify gaps in represented activity domains and challenges in interpreting domains, and to assess the potential for studying multiple activity engagement among older adults using existing data. We engaged in content analysis of activity measures of 5U.S. public use data sets with nationally representative samples of older adults. Data sets included the Health & Retirement Survey (HRS), Americans' Changing Lives Survey (ACL), Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics survey (PSID). Two waves of each data set were analyzed. We identified 13 distinct activity domains across the 5 data sets, with substantial differences in representation of those domains among the data sets, and variance in the number and type of activity measures included in each. Our findings indicate that although it is possible to study multiple activity engagement within existing data sets, fuller sets of activity measures need to be developed in order to evaluate the portfolio of activities older adults engage in and the relationship of these portfolios to health and wellness outcomes. Importantly, clearer conceptual models of activity broadly conceived are required to guide this work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. AIDS knowledge and sexual activity among Flemish secondary school students: a multilevel analysis of the effects of type of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Berten, Hans; Van Tuyckom, Charlotte

    2010-01-21

    The behavior of adolescents puts them at an increased risk for HIV and other STIs, and their knowledge about HIV/AIDS is often inadequate. An understanding of how AIDS knowledge and sexual activity co-vary among Flemish secondary school students and of how education type, specifically, affects these students is limited. This study addresses the question of whether the effects of education type on HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual activity are independent of the socio-demographic characteristics of the students. Data from the Flemish Educational Assessment survey, which collected data from a large representative sample of third- and fifth-grade high school students (N = 11,872), were used. Data were analyzed using multilevel logistic and Poisson regression techniques. There is an indication that type of education affects both an adolescent's sexual activity and his/her AIDS knowledge; these effects prove robust for differences in socio-economic backgrounds. Students in lower status education types are more likely to be sexually active and to have poorer AIDS knowledge. The relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual activity is, however, more complex. Although students in education types with poorer AIDS knowledge are more sexually active, within each of these groups the sexually active have better AIDS knowledge than the non-sexually active. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge. These findings are consistent with the literature on the role of the educational system in the reproduction of social inequalities. Students from lower status education types are at increased sexual risk compared to those from higher status types. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge.

  7. FEATURES OF THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF POLYMORPHIC VARIANTS OF ENOS AND AGTR2 GENES IN PATIENTS WITH CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Khokhlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major cause of mortality. Morphological substrate of CHD in most cases is atherosclerosis, which is based on structural genes polymorphism eNOS and AGTR2. The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of eNOS and AGTR2 genes in patients with coronary artery disease and the association of these genes with coronary heart disease. The study involved 187 patients aged 36 to 86 years (62,2±11,2 with different forms of CHD: stable and unstable angina, myocardial infarction and 45 people without CHD. Determination of gene polymorphisms was performed by real-time PCR analyzer of nucleic acids IQ 5 Bio-Rad. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0. The study revealed a significant difference between the incidence of homozygous AA allelic variant gene AGTR2 group of patients with myocardial infarction and the comparison group; polymorphic variant AA AGTR2 gene is associated with earlier onset of coronary artery disease; It found that carriers of the polymorphic variant gene GA AGTR2 beginning statistically CHD occurred significantly later than in carriers of alleles GG and AA; age CHD debut TT allele carriers of the eNOS gene is associated with an earlier onset of the disease and statistically significantly different from the age of first CHD in carriers of alleles of polymorphic variants of GG and GT; revealed a positive correlation between the polymorphic allele AGTR2 gene with the presence of arterial hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease; It determined that the T allele carriers of the polymorphic gene eNOS is associated more early onset of hypertension, found the association of the polymorphic allele gene AGTR2 the need to use higher doses of ACE inhibitor — perindopril.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of royal jelly on aorta CD3, CD68 and eNOS expression in hypercholesterolaemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Attia El-Morsy Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    RJ administration (300 mg/kg/day with CH, produced a counteractive effect, represented in recompense of biochemical alteration, CD4 and CD8 expression. RJ intake also amended the histological picture. The immunohistochemical picture revealed a decrease in CD3, CD86 and eNOS in the aortic tissue. These findings attributed to the significant immunomodulatory effect of RJ remedy suppress deleterious effects of hypercholesterolaemia.

  9. Prevalence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene exon 7 Glu298Asp variant in North Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankarishan, Priyanka; Borah, Prasanta Kumar; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives Endothelial nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator and impairment of its generation brought about by gene polymorphism is considered a major predictor for several diseases. A single nucleotide polymorphism G894T within exon 7 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-7) gene, resulting in a replacement of glutamic acid by aspartic acid, has been studied as a putative candidate gene for cardiovascular diseases. The pattern of eNOS-7 Glu298Asp variant in the Indian population is poorly known. The present study was planned to determine the prevalence of the variant of this gene among tea garden community in Assam, North-East India with high prevalence of hypertension. Methods Study participants of both sex aged ≥18 yr were recruited randomly from temporary field clinics established in tea gardens of Dibrugarh, Assam. Genomic DNA was extracted from 409 subjects by the conventional phenol-chloroform method. The prevalence of the eNOS exon 7 Glu298Asp variant was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results The study population was in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The frequency of the eNOS GG, GT and TT genotypes was found to be 75, 22 and 3 per cent respectively and did not show any significant difference in gender wise analysis. Interpretation & conclusions Our results showed that the prevalence of the homozygous GG genotype was high (75%) and the rare mutant genotype (homozygous, TT) was 3 per cent in a population at risk with cardiovascular disease. Such population-based data on various polymorphisms can ultimately be exploited in pharmacogenomics. PMID:21623032

  10. Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 4 Overexpression in Cells Prevents Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis via the Upregulation of eNOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Julie A.; Kilbane Myers, Joanna; Khan, Mahmood; Angelos, Mark G.; Chen, Chun-An

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling cascades regulate several cellular functions, including differentiation, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. The duration and magnitude of phosphorylation of these MAPKs are decisive determinants of their physiological functions. Dual-specificity phosphatases exert kinetic control over these signaling cascades. Previously, we demonstrated that DUSP4−/− hearts sustain a larger infarct and have poor functional recovery, when isolated hearts were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Uncontrolled p38 activation and upregulation of Nox4 expression are the main effectors for this functional alteration. Here, dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) overexpression in endothelial cells was used to investigate the role of DUSP4 on the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and vascular function, when cells were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) insult. Immunostaining with cleaved caspase-3 revealed that DUSP4 overexpression prevents caspase-3 activation and apoptosis after H/R. The beneficial effects occur via modulating p38 activity, increased NO bioavailability, and reduced oxidative stress. More importantly, DUSP4 overexpression upregulates eNOS protein expression (1.62 ± 0.33 versus 0.65 ± 0.16) during H/R-induced stress. NO is a critical small molecule involved in regulating vascular tone, vascular growth, platelet aggregation, and modulation of inflammation. The level of NO generation determined using DAF-2 fluorescence demonstrated that DUSP4 overexpression augments NO production and thus improves vascular function. The level of superoxide generated from cells after being subjected to H/R was determined using dihydroethidium-HPLC method. The results suggested that DUSP4 overexpression in cells decreases H/R-induced superoxide generation (1.56 ± 0.14 versus 1.19 ± 0.05) and thus reduces oxidant stress. This also correlates with the reduction in the total protein S

  11. Student Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Post-Secondary Education Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular activities have been an important part of adolescents' lives for generations (Kremer-Sadlik, Izquierdo, & Fatigante, 2010). Extracurricular activities take place outside of the classroom and result in several benefits to students (National Federation of State High School Associations [NFHS], 2010). With the recent recession in…

  12. A Literary Review and a Plan for Principals: Extracurricular Activities, Academic Achievement, and Secondary Students' Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard Kent; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Extracurricular activities have enhanced the lives of students through the years and continue to provide students with additional skills they need to succeed in school and life. This paper offers an extensive literature review of the effect of extracurricular activities on student development and offers a plan for extending successful…

  13. Listening to Learn: The Status of Listening Activities in Secondary Instrumental Ensemble Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of listening activities as part of middle and high school instrumental music instruction. Research questions addressed teachers' beliefs in the importance of listening, outcomes associated with listening, type and frequency of listening activities, presence of guided listening, and challenges…

  14. Physical Activity Levels during Dutch Primary and Secondary School Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Lars B. Borghouts; drs Menno Slingerland

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Youth activity guideline compliance is generally low across most western countries and Dutch youth are no exception to this. Thirty-two percent of 4-11 year old boys and girls, and 15% of 12-17 year olds are currently meeting the physical activity (PA) guideline recommendations of one

  15. Alignment of Hands-On STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in…

  16. Substance P ameliorates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced endothelial cell dysfunction by regulating eNOS expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Jiyuan; Hong, Hyun Sook; Son, Youngsook

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of SP on NO production and inflammation-induced vascular endothelium cell death. To mimic the inflammatory environment, TNF-α was treated with HUVECs, and SP was added prior to TNF-α to determine its protective effect. WST-1 assay was performed to detect cell viability. NO level in conditioned medium was measured by Griess Reagent System. The protein level of cleaved caspase-3, eNOS, and phosphorylated Akt was detected by Western blot analysis. TNF-α declined endothelial cell viability by downregulating Akt and NO production. TNF-α-induced cell death was reliably restored by NO, confirming the requirement of NO for cell survival. By contrast, pretreatment of SP attenuated TNF-α-induced cellular apoptosis, accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS expression, and NO production. Blockage of NK-1R, phosphorylated Akt or eNOS by CP-96345, A6730, or L-NAME entirely eliminated the effect of SP. SP can protect the vascular endothelium against inflammation-induced damage through modulation of the Akt/eNOS/NO signaling pathway. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Highly reproducible alkali metal doping system for organic crystals through enhanced diffusion of alkali metal by secondary thermal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinho; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Koo, Jin Young; Yoon, Taekyung; Kim, Jun Sung; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2018-05-16

    In this paper, we report an efficient alkali metal doping system for organic single crystals. Our system employs an enhanced diffusion method for the introduction of alkali metal into organic single crystals by controlling the sample temperature to induce secondary thermal activation. Using this system, we achieved intercalation of potassium into picene single crystals with closed packed crystal structures. Using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we confirmed that the resulting samples were uniformly doped and became K 2 picene single crystal, while only parts of the crystal are doped and transformed into K 2 picene without secondary thermal activation. Moreover, using a customized electrical measurement system, the insulator-to-semiconductor transition of picene single crystals upon doping was confirmed by in situ electrical conductivity and ex situ temperature-dependent resistivity measurements. X-ray diffraction studies showed that potassium atoms were intercalated between molecular layers of picene, and doped samples did not show any KH- nor KOH-related peaks, indicating that picene molecules are retained without structural decomposition. During recent decades, tremendous efforts have been exerted to develop high-performance organic semiconductors and superconductors, whereas as little attention has been devoted to doped organic crystals. Our method will enable efficient alkali metal doping of organic crystals and will be a resource for future systematic studies on the electrical property changes of these organic crystals upon doping.

  18. The Activation of Non-evaporable Getters Monitored by AES, XPS, SSIMS and Secondary Electron Yield Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the potential of the three classical surface analysis techniques Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS) for the characterisation of non-evaporable getter (NEG) materials is assessed and artefacts are described. The various NEG samples have been analysed in the context of the development of NEG thin film coatings for use in accelerator ultra high vacuum (UHV) systems. The secondary electron yield (SEY), which is a functional surface property of great importance for the application of NEG to accelerators, has been measured. The maximum SEY of an air exposed TiZr and TiZrV coating can be reduced from above 2.0 to below 1.1 during a 2 h heat treatment at 250 and 200 °C, respectively. Saturating an activated TiZrV surface in UHV increases the maximum SEY by about 0.1. Thus, in UHV the SEY of an activated NEG coating does not exceed the threshold value of 1.35, above which multipacting is predicted to occur in th...

  19. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-11

    Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology.

  20. Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Myung-Geun, E-mail: mghan@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Garlow, Joseph A. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Marshall, Matthew S.J.; Tiano, Amanda L. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Cheong, Sang-Wook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) are demonstrated in STEM mode combined with in situ electrical biasing in a TEM. • Electrostatic potential maps in ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC data. • Simultaneous EBIC and active SE-VC performed with atomic resolution STEM are demonstrated. - Abstract: The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF ECONOMIC COMPETENCE OF HEADS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION FOR EFFECTIVE ACTIVITY OF GENERAL SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Dyvak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the actual problem of improvement of economic competence of professional work of directors of schools for more efficient control of activity of general schools is considered.

  2. Trial to active seismic while drilling; Jinko shingen wo mochiita SWD eno kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T; Kozawa, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a more stable SWD system with larger energy by adding an artificial seismic source near the bit. SWD is a technique by which the seismic wave generated while drilling of rocks by bit can be observed on the ground surface and the records equivalent to the reverse VSP can be obtained. For this system, a shell with a vibrator was fixed immediately on the bit as a sub-generator, and total energy of usual impact by the bit and vibration by the vibrator was used as a seismic source for SWD. For the seismic wave generation mechanism of this vibrator, the shell was resonated by the magnetostrictive element, and vibration was given to the bit and drilling pipe. When this seismic source is used, only single frequency is obtained for each vibration due to the utilization of resonance of shell. Therefore, the generation patterns should be made, by which wide band energy can be obtained after the interaction. Since the survey was conducted using this bottom hole seismic source at the drilling depth more than 3,000 m, it was necessary to enhance the vibration energy. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Waste minimization activities in Toyota Motor Corporation; Haikibutsu teigen eno torikumi jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Kurai, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Toyota`s waste reduction efforts based on a drive for dealing with the source of waste generation are introduced. For the propulsion of the policy for dealing directly with the origin of waste, it is necessary to convert the existing manufacturing processes that give high priority to product quality and low production cost into environmental impact reduction oriented processes. In particular, conversion of materials into those that are easier to recycle, technology for reducing defective products, technology for the completion of recycling within the process involved, and the simplification of all the processes are mentioned. For the cleaning job in the machining process, a detergent enhanced in oil/water separating capability is developed, and this prolongs doubly the detergent replacement period and decreases the waste liquid to a 1/4 or less of what the conventional method produces. For the handling of foundry sand that is yielded in great quantities, a flow classification system is developed to replace the conventional gravitational classifier, and the reusable coarse-grain sand in the collected dust which occupies approximately 70% of the whole waste is now recovered for reuse. In the vehicle body coating process, a newly-developed robot arm type coating system is developed, which halves the coating waste. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Changes of Enzymes Activity and Production of Secondary Metabolites of Artemisia aucheri in Different Altitudes and Its Relation to Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zare-maivan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia plants are the most abundant plants species in Iran which contain strong antioxidant properties and as such, have medicinal and economic value. Despite wide distribution of Artemisisa species, ecophysiology of its adaptation to changes in altitude and soil property had not been investigated. In this study, the relationships between ecophysiological and adaptation capabilities of A. aucheri to altitude changes through measuring changes in the activity of its antioxidant enzymes and secondary metabolites in situ was investigated based on a completely randomized experiment. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and the amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, malondialdehyde and chlorophylls A and B were measured in A. aucheri plants growing in three different altitudes at and above the 36° latitude on the southern slopes of Eastern Alborz Mountain ranges in triplicate 10*10 m quadrates. Statistical analysis of data showed that soil type was loamy significantly becoming more sandy- loam with lowering in altitude and the soil contained greater amounts of oxides of silicone, aluminum, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus in upper altitude except calcium which was present in greater quantity in lower altitude. With increasing altitude, activity of superoxide dismutase and quantities of chlorophylls and total phenols in leaves increased. Some biochemical factors in A. aucheri showed significant positive correlation(P ≤ 0.05 between them. Adaptation of A. aucheri to changes in altitude occurred through changing its antioxidant enzymes activity and production of secondary metabolites in response to factors related to the altitude including soil type and texture, moisture level, temperature and most importantly radiation

  5. Efectos ecológicos del fenómeno ENOS en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno ENOS, tiene un sustancial efecto sobre las variaciones del clima a nivel mundial; por lo tanto, no sorprende que sus efectos tengan un impacto ecológico y socioeconómico fuerte, alterando la seguridad alimentaria de los países a nivel mundial. Ante este panorama, es comprensible que haya despertado el mayor interés mundial, no sólo en los especialistas en meteorología y oceanografía sino también entre biólogos, ecólogos, físicos, matemáticos, agrónomos, hidrólogos, economistas, sociólogos y planificadores, entre otros. En el presente documento, se muestra algunos de los principales efectos ecológicos en Colombia durante las fases extremas cálida (El Niño y fría (La Niña, indicando que es una necesidad urgente, orientar la investigación en sus causas, consecuencias e impactos.

  6. Four-electron transfer tandem tetracyanoquinodimethane for cathode-active material in lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Naoya; Omoda, Ryo; Mizumo, Tomonobu; Ito, Seitaro; Aihara, Yuichi; Itoh, Takahito

    2018-02-01

    Quinoid compounds are important candidates of organic active materials for lithium-ion batteries. However, its high solubility to organic electrolyte solutions and low redox potential are known as their major drawbacks. To circumvent these issues, we have designed and synthesized a tandem-tetracyanoquinonedimethane type cathode-active material, 11,11,12,12,13,13,14,14-octacyano-1,4,5,8-anthradiquinotetramethane (OCNAQ), that has four redox sites per molecule, high redox potential and suppressed solubility to electrolyte solution. Synthesized OCNAQ has been found to have two-step redox reactions by cyclic voltammetry, and each step consists of two-electron reactions. During charge-discharge tests using selected organic cathode-active materials with a lithium metal anode, the cell voltages obtained from OCNAQ are higher than those for 11,11-dicyanoanthraquinone methide (AQM) as expected, due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the cyano groups. Unfortunately, even with the use of the organic active material, the issue of dissolution to the electrolyte solution cannot be suppressed completely; however, appropriate choice of the electrolyte solutions, glyme-based electrolyte solutions in this study, give considerable improvement of the cycle retention (98% and 56% at 10 and 100 cycles at 0.5C, respectively). The specific capacity and energy density obtained in this study are 206 mAh g-1 and 554 mWh g-1 with respect to the cathode active material.

  7. Acute effects of chlorpyryphos-ethyl and secondary treated effluents on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in Carcinus maenas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihene Ghedira; Jamel Jebali; Zied Bouraoui; Mohamed Banni; Lassaad Chouba; Hamadi Boussetta

    2009-01-01

    The acute effects of commercial formulation of chlorpyrifos-ethyl (Dursban(r)) and the secondary treated industrial/urban effluent (STIUE) exposure on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities in hepatopancreas and gills of Mediterranean crab Carcinus maenas were investigated. After 2 d of exposure to chlorpyriphos-ethyl, the AChE activity was inhibited in both organs at concentrations of 3.12 and 7.82 μg/L, whereas the BuChE was inhibited only at higher concentration 7.82 μg/L of commercial preparation Dursban(r). The exposure of crabs to Dursban(r) (3.12 μg/L) showed a significant decrement of AChE activity at 24 and 48 h, whereas the BuChE was inhibited only after 24 h and no inhibition for both enzymes was observed after 72 h. Moreover, a significant repression of AChE activity was observed in both organs of C. maenas exposed to 5% of STIUE. Our experiments indicated that the measurement of AChE activity in gills and hepatopancreas of C. meanas would be useful biomarker of organophosphorous (OP) and of neurotoxic effects of STIUE in Tunisia.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, Bacillus sp. at Agatti Island, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp., Edwardsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter brackii. The secondary metabolites produced by SEB32 from sponge Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1818 [48] was selected with broad range of antibacterial activity and subjected for production, characterization by series of chromatography techniques and spectroscopic methods. Based on the results of FT-IR and mass spectrometry, the active molecule was tentatively predicted as “Pyrrol” and the structure is Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- with molecular formula of C7H10N2O2. The LC50 of active molecule was 31 μg/ml and molecular weight of the metabolites was 154. The potential strain SEB32 was identified by gene sequence (GenBank Accession number JX985748 and identified as Bacillus sp. from GenBank database.

  9. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, B?rbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in ...

  10. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.; Besselink, I.G.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper

  11. Active Citizenship and the Secondary School Experience: Community Participation Rates of Australian Youth. Research Report Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin; Lipsig-Mumme, Carla; Zajdow, Grazyna

    Volunteering is often seen as an essential element in active citizenship and community participation, and existing literature suggests that those who volunteer young are more likely to volunteer through later stages of life. Analysis of Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), which identified factors that contribute to volunteering for…

  12. Impact of different recruitment strategies on accelerometry adherence and resulting physical activity data: A secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rudolf

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for increasing adherence to physical activity assessments are often linked to extra financial or personal effort. This paper aims to investigate the influence of the recruitment strategy on participants' adherence to accelerometry and resulting PA data. Data were used from two previous studies conducted in 2013 and 2016 in Cologne, Germany, differing in recruitment strategy (N = 103, 40.8% male, mean age 20.9 ± 3.7 years, mean BMI 23.7 ± 4.1 kg/m2. In the passive recruitment (PR group, vocational students took part in the accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+ in line with the main study unless they denied participation. In the active recruitment (AR group, vocational students were invited to actively volunteer for the accelerometry. Impact of recruitment strategy on adherence and PA data was examined by regression analysis. Average adherence to the accelerometry was 66.7% (AR and 74.0% (PR. No statistically significant influence of recruitment strategy on adherence and resulting PA was found (all p > 0.05. The difference in recruitment strategy did not affect adherence to accelerometry. The data imply that AR may be applicable. Future studies using larger sample sizes and diverse populations should further investigate these trends. Keywords: Physical activity, Adherence, Recruitment, Accelerometry, Vocational school students, Sampling bias

  13. Production of Some Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites From Marine-derived Fungus Varicosporina ramulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a screening of fungal isolates associated with marine algae collected from Abou-keer, Alexanderia during the four seasons of 2004, to obtain new biologically active compounds. Varicosporina ramulosa isolate was identified and selected as a producer of 13 compounds. Out of 13 pure compounds produced, compounds 3 and 10 were considered as antibacterial and antifungal compounds, respectively as they were active against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Optimization of conditions (fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, initial pH, aeration levels which activate compounds 3 and 10 production were studied. Also the spectral properties (UV, MS, GC/MS, IR and 1H-NMR of the purified compounds were determined. Compound 3 suggested to be dibutyl phthalate and compound 10 may be ergosterol or one of its isomers. Biological evaluation of the two compounds towards 6 different types of tumor cell lines showed weak effect of compound 3 at different concentrations on the viable cell count of the different tumor cell lines. While compound 10 showed different activities against the viable cell count of the 6 different tumor cell lines. It kills 50% of the viable infected liver and lung cells at concentrations equal to 99.7 µg/mL, 74.9µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 can be recommended as new anticancer compounds.

  14. The effect of Chitosan on antioxidant activity and some secondary metabolites of Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Salimgandomi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants are almost reach sources of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids which are the most important natural antioxidants. Antioxidant compounds are essential for protecting human body against oxidative stress. However use elicitors could increase the antioxidant activity of plant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Chitosan on the content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and also antioxidant activity Mentha piperita L.In this study, firstly the Mentha piperita L. were grown up for 6-week period at greenhouse conditions and then were treated with 50-100 μm of chitosan, then total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using spectrophotometry and finally antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH method and the results were analyzed with Excel software and Variance analysis testing method with SPSS software. The results showed the content of phenolic compounds in the methanol extract based on sample mg of Gallic acid /g for control with water, 50μm and 100μm treatments respectively were 146.8,233.1,339.1. Meanwhile the total volume of flavonoid content of the methanol extract per mg of Rutin/g respectively were 9.88,12.11,14.06 and concentration of the said extracts respectively were 196.3,147.7,128.62. In regard to the above results it can be concluded that due to having phenolic and flavonoid contents, Mentha piperita L showed that antioxidant activity could be stimulated upon Chitosan treatment moreover, antioxidant activity increased by increasing Chitosan treatment content. Therefore, this method can be used to increase antioxidant effect of plant as a natural antioxidant and all the phenolic and flavonoid contents.

  15. Secondary Metabolites from Vietnamese Marine Invertebrates with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong Thao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived natural products from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of the compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. This study describes the discovery of five marine natural products with activity against Trypanosoma species by natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays. We investigated the anti-trypanosomal activity of the extracts from the soft corals and echinoderms living in Vietnamese seas. Of the samples screened, the methanolic extracts of several marine organisms exhibited potent activities against cultures of Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (EC50 < 5.0 μg/mL. Among the compounds isolated from these extracts, laevigatol B (1 from Lobophytum crassum and L. laevigatum, (24S-ergost-4-ene-3-one (2 from Sinularia dissecta, astropectenol A (3 from Astropecten polyacanthus, and cholest-8-ene-3β,5α,6β,7α-tetraol (4 from Diadema savignyi showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei with EC50 values ranging from 1.57 ± 0.14 to 14.6 ± 1.36 μM, relative to the positive control, pentamidine (EC50 = 0.015 ± 0.003 μM. Laevigatol B (1 and 5α-cholest-8(14-ene-3β,7α-diol (5 exhibited also significant inhibitory effects on T. cruzi. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed and found to be insignificant in all cases. This is the first report on the inhibitory effects of marine organisms collected in Vietnamese seas against Trypanosoma species responsible for neglected tropical diseases.

  16. [Hygienic assessment of the overwroughtness of educational activity in schoolchildren of 5-10 classes of secondary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Efimova, N V; Tkachuk, E A; Mylnikova, I V

    2016-01-01

    The state of health in children and adolescents during the time of education in secondary schools is getting worse: the prevalence rate of functional disorders and chronic diseases is increasing. There was executed the assessment of the overwroughtness of the training-education process in secondary school institutions. The prior characteristics of the educational activity are: intellectual, sensory, emotional loads; their monotony and mode of educational activity, school work intensity. The system of indices of the overwroughtness of the education labour was formed with account ofpsycho-physiological characteristics of children's organism. There was performed the research of the overwroughtness of educational activity in 820 schoolchildren. The overwroughtness of the educational process was evaluated on the basis of chronometry research, questionnaire survey of teachers and parents, and with taking into account the organization of educational process. In questionnaire survey there were involved 52 teachers and 389 parents. The assessment of overwroughtness factors of the educational activity was carried out in 5-10th classes for academic disciplines: Russian Language, Literature, Mathematics, History, Geography, Foreign Languages. It was found that the characteristics of "mental load" in schoolchildren are established to be the one of the main limiting factors that allow to refer training activities to "overwroughted of first degree" (3.1 class). Sensory loads on the studied academic subjects are rated as the second class of overwroughtness and are "permissible." The monotony of loads was revealed to correspond to 1st and 2nd class of overwroughtness and is therefore an optimal or acceptable. Training activities in the traditional educational institution corresponds to the 2nd class of overwroughtness - "permissible." The arduousness of the educational process in an innovative school is rated as the third class of the first degree ofthe overwroughtness (3

  17. Lithium containing manganese dioxide (composite dimensional manganese oxide-CDMO) as a cathod active material for lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Nobuhiro; Noma, Toshiyuki; Teraji, Kazuo; Nakane, Ikuo; Yamamoto, Yuji; Saito, Toshihiko (Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan)

    1989-06-05

    Manganese dioxide containing lithium ions in a solid matrix was investigated in the lithium nonaqueous cell. Li/sub x/MnO/sub 2+{delta}/ material prepared, with the thermal treatment, by the solid state reaction of manganese dioxide and lithium hydroxide, 7 to 3 in molar ratio, at the temperature of 375{sup 0}C in air for 20 hours, exhibited the rechargeability in the lithium nonaqueous cell. A discharging and changing cycle test, 0.14 or 0.26e/Mn in each of both the discharge and charge, was also made, with the use of a flat type cell, to demonstrate it in performance. Synthetic Li/sub x/MnO/sub 2+{delta}/ was discussed, in advantageous use for the secondary lithium cell, based on the discharging and charging characteristics. As a conclusion of the foregoing, composite dimensional manganese oxide is expected to be good as active material of positive electrode for the secondary lithium cell use. 11 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Effects of Secondary Plant Metabolites on Microbial Populations: Changes in Community Structure and Metabolic Activity in Contaminated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Musilova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary plant metabolites (SPMEs play an important role in plant survival in the environment and serve to establish ecological relationships between plants and other organisms. Communication between plants and microorganisms via SPMEs contained in root exudates or derived from litter decomposition is an example of this phenomenon. In this review, the general aspects of rhizodeposition together with the significance of terpenes and phenolic compounds are discussed in detail. We focus specifically on the effect of SPMEs on microbial community structure and metabolic activity in environments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Furthermore, a section is devoted to a complex effect of plants and/or their metabolites contained in litter on bioremediation of contaminated sites. New insights are introduced from a study evaluating the effects of SPMEs derived during decomposition of grapefruit peel, lemon peel, and pears on bacterial communities and their ability to degrade PCBs in a long-term contaminated soil. The presented review supports the “secondary compound hypothesis” and demonstrates the potential of SPMEs for increasing the effectiveness of bioremediation processes.

  19. Light-induced biochemical variations in secondary metabolite production and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Rab, Abdur; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is a very important species with worldwide medicinal and commercial uses. Light is one of the major elicitors that fluctuate morphogenic potential and biochemical responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolite production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Leaf explants were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and exposed to various spectral lights. 6-Benzyle adenine (BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D; 2.0 mgl(-1)) were used for callus induction. The control light (16/8h) produced optimum callogenic response (92.73%) than other colored lights. Compared to other colored lights, control grown cultures displayed maximum biomass accumulation (5.78 gl(-1)) during a prolonged log phase at the 18th day of growth kinetics. Cultures grown under blue light enhanced total phenolic content (TPC; 102.32 μg/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC; 22.07 μg/g DW) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; 11.63 μg/g DW). On the contrary, green and red lights improved reducing power assay (RPA; 0.71Fe(II)g(-1) DW) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 80%). Herein, we concluded that the utilization of colored lights is a promising strategy for enhanced production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Granular activated carbon for removal of organic matter and turbidity from secondary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, J W; Germain, E; Judd, S J

    2013-01-01

    A range of commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) media have been assessed as pretreatment technologies for a downstream microfiltration (MF) process. Media were assessed on the basis of reduction in both organic matter and turbidity, since these are known to cause fouling in MF membranes. Isotherm adsorption analysis through jar testing with supplementary column trials revealed a wide variation between the different adsorbent materials with regard to organics removal and adsorption kinetics. Comparison with previous work using powdered activated carbon (PAC) revealed that for organic removal above 60% the use of GAC media incurs a significantly lower carbon usage rate than PAC. All GACs tested achieved a minimum of 80% turbidity removal. This combination of turbidity and organic removal suggests that GAC would be expected to provide a significant reduction in fouling of a downstream MF process with improved product water quality.

  1. Primary versus secondary drivers of foraging activity in sandeel schools (Ammodytes tobianus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Behrens, Jane; Warnar, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to fishery biologists and has consequences for a wide range of predators ranging from birds and mammals to commercially important species. However, experimental studies that shed light on the primary drivers of foraging activity in fish are rare. In the present study, whole schools of sandeel (A. tobianus......The commercially and ecologically valuable sandeel (Ammodytes ssp.) make distinct vertical shifts between an inactive stage, during which they seek refuge in the sand, and a pelagic schooling stage, during which they forage. This characteristic discontinuous foraging pattern constitutes a challenge......) were caught in August in east Denmark (65A degrees 02'30N; 12A degrees 37'00E) and kept in large tanks in the laboratory. It was found that the amount of food ingested and memory of past days feeding history are primary drivers of foraging activity at the level of the entire school, whereas external...

  2. Increased cloud activation potential of secondary organic aerosol for atmospheric mass loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m−3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m−3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m−3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. A sensitivity analysis suggests that a drop in surface tension must be invoked to explain quantitatively the CCN observations at low SOA particle mass loadings. Other factors, such as decreased molecular weight, increased density, or increased van't Hoff factor, can contribute to the explanation but are quantitatively insufficient as the full explanation.

  3. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  4. The Content of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Wild Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria vesca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Dyduch-Siemińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses carried out in 2011–2013 aimed at evaluating the contents of flavonoids, free phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity (% by means of DPPH radical neutralization ability in fresh and air-dried fruits of three wild strawberry cultivars. Examinations revealed differences in contents of biologically active substances determined in raw versus dried material depending on the cultivar. Mean concentrations of flavonoids and tannins were highest in raw fruits of “Baron von Solemacher” cv., which amounted to 1.244 mg·g−1 and 6.09%, respectively. Fresh fruits of “Regina” cv. were characterized by the highest average content of phenolic acids and anthocyanins: 4.987 mg·g−1 and 0.636 mg·100 g−1. The pattern of mean contents of biologically active substances analyzed in air-dried fruits was similar. Significant differences in abilities to neutralize the DPPH radical to diphenylpicrylhydrazine by extracts made of examined wild strawberry fruits were also indicated.

  5. Impact of different recruitment strategies on accelerometry adherence and resulting physical activity data: A secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Kevin; Grieben, Christopher; Petrowski, Katja; Froböse, Ingo; Schaller, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    Strategies for increasing adherence to physical activity assessments are often linked to extra financial or personal effort. This paper aims to investigate the influence of the recruitment strategy on participants' adherence to accelerometry and resulting PA data. Data were used from two previous studies conducted in 2013 and 2016 in Cologne, Germany, differing in recruitment strategy ( N  = 103, 40.8% male, mean age 20.9 ± 3.7 years, mean BMI 23.7 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 ). In the passive recruitment (PR) group, vocational students took part in the accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) in line with the main study unless they denied participation. In the active recruitment (AR) group, vocational students were invited to actively volunteer for the accelerometry. Impact of recruitment strategy on adherence and PA data was examined by regression analysis. Average adherence to the accelerometry was 66.7% (AR) and 74.0% (PR). No statistically significant influence of recruitment strategy on adherence and resulting PA was found (all p  > 0.05). The difference in recruitment strategy did not affect adherence to accelerometry. The data imply that AR may be applicable. Future studies using larger sample sizes and diverse populations should further investigate these trends.

  6. Site-Specific Expression of Gelatinolytic Activity during Morphogenesis of the Secondary Palate in the Mouse Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Blumer, Susan; Katsaros, Christos; Graf, Daniel; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Morphogenesis of the secondary palate in mammalian embryos involves two major events: first, reorientation of the two vertically oriented palatal shelves into a horizontal position above the tongue, and second, fusion of the two shelves at the midline. Genetic evidence in humans and mice indicates the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). As MMP expression patterns might differ from sites of activity, we used a recently developed highly sensitive in situ zymography technique to map gelatinolytic MMP activity in the developing mouse palate. At embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), we detected strong gelatinolytic activity around the lateral epithelial folds of the nasopharyngeal cavity, which is generated as a consequence of palatal shelf elevation. Activity was concentrated in the basement membrane of the epithelial fold but extended into the adjacent mesenchyme, and increased in intensity with lateral outgrowth of the cavity at E15.5. Gelatinolytic activity at this site was not the consequence of epithelial fold formation, as it was also observed in Bmp7-deficient embryos where shelf elevation is delayed. In this case, gelatinolytic activity appeared in vertical shelves at the exact position where the epithelial fold will form during elevation. Mmp2 and Mmp14 (MT1-MMP), but not Mmp9 and Mmp13, mRNAs were expressed in the mesenchyme around the epithelial folds of the elevated palatal shelves; this was confirmed by immunostaining for MMP-2 and MT1-MMP. Weak gelatinolytic activity was also found at the midline of E14.5 palatal shelves, which increased during fusion at E15.5. Whereas MMPs have been implicated in palatal fusion before, this is the first report showing that gelatinases might contribute to tissue remodeling during early stages of palatal shelf elevation and formation of the nasopharynx. PMID:23091646

  7. New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of Albizia lebbeck flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Abd El Halim, Mohamed F; Al-Said, Mansour S; Abdel-Kader, Maged S; Basudan, Omer A; Alqasoumi, Saleh I

    2017-01-01

    The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid-liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n -butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n -hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl 3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside]-(2 E ,6 E -)-farnesol ( 6 ) and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene ( 9 ), in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia ; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) and benzyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 2 ); three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 3 ) and linalyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 4 ); (2 E )-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O- α -l arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 5 ), two oligoglycosides, n -hexyl- α -l arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (creoside) ( 7 ) and n -octyl α -l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside) ( 8 ); and ethyl fructofuranoside ( 10 ). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

  8. New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of Albizia lebbeck flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaza M. Al-Massarani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid–liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n-butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n-hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside]-(2E,6E--farnesol (6 and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene (9, in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1 and benzyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl β-d-glucopyranoside (2; three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β-d-glucopyranoside (3 and linalyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (4; (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-α-l arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (5, two oligoglycosides, n-hexyl-α-l arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6-β-d-glucopyranoside (creoside (7 and n-octyl α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6-β-d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside (8; and ethyl fructofuranoside (10. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

  9. Secondary Metabolites from Jacaranda Mimosifolia and Kigelia Africana (Bignoniaceae and Their Anticandidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazare Sidjui Sidjui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From the stem barks of Jacaranda mimosifolia benzoic acid (1, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 5-carboxy- 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,2,4a-trimethyl-[1S-(1α,2β,4aβ,8aα] ( 2, betulinic acid ( 3, lupeol (4 and ursolic acid (5 were isolated. Similarly, lapachol (6, dehydro-α-lapachone (7, 2- acetylfuro-1, 4-naphthoquinone (8, p-coumaric acid (9, caffeic acid (10, nonacosanoic acid, 2-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl ester (11, β-sitosterol (12, kigelinol (13, oleanolic acid (14, β-friedelinol (15, pomolic acid (16, and kojic acid (17 were isolated from the stem barks of Kigelia africana. All the isolated compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic methods especially 1D and 2D NMR and ESI mass spectrometry and comparison with literature data. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1, 2, 3 and 5, and compounds 11, 14, 15 and 16 were isolated for the first time from Jacaranda mimosifolia and Kigelia africana, respectively. All these compounds were screened for anticandidal activity by agar diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique on four Candida albicans strains (ATCCL26, ATCC12C, ATCCP37039, and ATCCP37037. Among them, compounds 9, 10, and 17 exhibited the highest anticandidal activity that varied between the microbial species (MIC= 0.01 ± 0.00 − 0.03 ± 0.00 mg/mL on C. albicans ATCCL26, ATCCP37037, ATCCP37039 and ATCC12C strains. Compound 17 was likely the most active against the four Candida albicans strains (MIC= 0.01 ± 0.00 − 0.02 ± 0.00 mg/mL.

  10. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Giorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae, also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled, dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A screening on phenolic content (the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and antiradical activity (DPPH assay of seeds was also conducted. In addition, the repellent properties of seed extracts against Aedes aegypti L. were investigated. Volatile compounds detected in B. orellana samples consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and arenes: α-humulene is the major volatile compound present in seed extracts followed by D-germacrene, γ-elemene, and caryophyllene. B. orellana proved to be a good source of antioxidants. Preliminary data on repellency against A. aegypti of three different dried seed extracts (hexane, ethanol, and ethanol/water indicated a significant skin protection activity. A protection of 90% and 73% for hexane and ethanol/water extracts was recorded.

  11. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  12. Development of activable tracers for application in secondary recovering in petroleum reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Polyana Fabricia Fernandes; Moreira, Rubens Martins . Servico de Meio Ambiente e Tecnicas Nucleares.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear methods are instrumental in describing detailed flow patterns and other features of oil reservoirs that are unattainable to other methods. Tracer studies in oil fields are performed in a net of injection and producing wells. Thus, the use of only one tracer species would not discriminate the contributions of distinct injection wells to the output of a given production well. Hence, a multi-tracer experiment is required, and the use of activable tracers, capable of being measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA) is here proposed. As additional tracer choices lanthanum (La) and europium (Eu) were chosen from the rare earth series due to their large neutron cross sections and general availability. In order to decrease losses to the oil phase and the retardation of the tracer relatively to the aqueous phase, these elements were complexed with organic chelating ligands: the polyaminocarboxylic acids EDTA, DTPA and DOTA. Infrared spectrometry was used to check complexation. In order to check the partition of the tracer between the aqueous and organic phases, tests were carried stirring the two phases together and measuring the tracer concentrations in the aqueous phase; the partition coefficient (Kao) was then calculated for all the combinations of the two lanthanides and the three ligands. Tests in which the tracer was continuously pumped through reservoir rock samples were also carried out using tritiated water as a reference tracer and the complexed lanthanides. (author)

  13. Meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that meditation inhibits or relieves pain perception. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, and neurophysiological methods, such as magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography, have been used. However, it has been difficult to interpret the results, because there is some paradoxical evidence. For example, some studies reported increased neural responses to pain stimulation during meditation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula, whereas others showed a decrease in these regions. There have been inconsistent findings to date. Moreover, in general, since the activities of the ACC and insula are correlated with pain perception, the increase in neural activities during meditation would be related to the enhancement of pain perception rather than its reduction. These contradictions might directly contribute to the ‘mystery of meditation.’ In this review, we presented previous findings for brain regions during meditation and the anatomical changes that occurred in the brain with long-term meditation training. We then discussed the findings of previous studies that examined pain-related neural activity during meditation. We also described the brain mechanisms responsible for pain relief during meditation, and possible reasons for paradoxical evidence among previous studies. By thoroughly overviewing previous findings, we hypothesized that meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the ACC, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus. We suggest that the characteristics of the modulation of this activity may depend on the kind of meditation and/or number of years of experience of meditation, which were associated with paradoxical findings among previous studies that investigated pain-related neural activities during meditation. PMID:25566158

  14. Activation of dormant secondary metabolite production by introducing neomycin resistance into the deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Hua, Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

    2014-07-29

    A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(D-Pro-D-Phe) (1), cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Pro) (2), phenethyl 5-oxo-L-prolinate (3), cyclo(L-Ile-L-Pro) (4), cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) (5) and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6), were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1-6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1), 72.9% (2), 23.5% (3), 29.6% (4), 30.9% (5) and 51.1% (6) at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent fungal

  15. Secondary Metabolites from Two Species of Tolpis and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco León

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical research of two Tolpis species, T. proustii and T. lagopoda, led to the isolation of three new compounds: 30-chloro-3β-acetoxy-22α-hydroxyl-20(21-taraxastene (1, 3β,22α-diacetoxy-30-ethoxy-20(21-taraxastene (2 and 3β,28-dihydroxy-11α-hydroperoxy-12-ursene (3. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of extensive IR, NMR, and MS data and by comparison of data reported in the literature. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods. The cytotoxicity of several known compounds and its derivatives was also assessed against human myeloid leukemia K-562 and K-562/ADR cell lines.

  16. Downregulation of Kv7.4 channel activity in primary and secondary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Chadha, Preet S; Davis, Alison J

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channels encoded by KCNQ genes (Kv7 channels) have been identified in various rodent and human blood vessels as key regulators of vascular tone; however, nothing is known about the functional impact of these channels in vascular disease. We ascertained the effect of...... structurally different activators of Kv7.2 through Kv7.5 channels (BMS-204352, S-1, and retigabine) on blood vessels from normotensive and hypertensive animals.......Voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channels encoded by KCNQ genes (Kv7 channels) have been identified in various rodent and human blood vessels as key regulators of vascular tone; however, nothing is known about the functional impact of these channels in vascular disease. We ascertained the effect of 3...

  17. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica Prof. Delby Fernandes de Medeiros; Silva, Davi Antas e [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides {beta}-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-{beta}-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  18. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Silva, Davi Antas e

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides β-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, 1 H and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  19. Identification of Minor Secondary Metabolites from the Latex of Croton lechleri (Muell-Arg and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Iorizzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dragon’s blood (Sangre de drago, a viscous red sap derived from Croton lechleri Muell-Arg (Euphorbiaceae, is extensively used by indigenous cultures of the Amazonian basin for its wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to identify the minor secondary metabolites and test the antioxidant activity of this sustance. A bioguided fractionation of the n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and aqueous extracts led to the isolation of 15 compounds: three megastigmanes, four flavan-3-ols, three phenylpropanoids, three lignans, a clerodane, and the alkaloid taspine. In addition to these known molecules, six compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in the latex: blumenol B, blumenol C, 4,5-dihydroblumenol A, erythro-guaiacyl-glyceryl-β-O-4’- dihydroconiferyl ether, 2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl-2-methoxyphenoxy]-propane-1,3-diol and floribundic acid glucoside. Combinations of spectroscopic methods (1H-, 13C- NMR and 2D-NMR experiments, ESI-MS, and literature comparisons were used for compound identification. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by DPPH, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation assays. Flavan-3-ols derivatives (as major phenolic compounds in the latex exhibited the highest antioxidant activity.

  20. Anticancer Activity of Ramalin, a Secondary Metabolite from the Antarctic Lichen Ramalina terebrata, against Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Suk Suh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and occurs through the highly complex coordination of multiple cellular pathways, resulting in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have increasingly revealed that constituents of lichen extracts exhibit potent pharmaceutical activities, including anticancer activity against various cancer cells, making them promising candidates for new anticancer therapeutic drugs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer capacities of ramalin, a secondary metabolite from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata, in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. In this study, ramalin displayed concentration-dependent anticancer activity against HCT116 cells, significantly suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, ramalin induced cell cycle arrest in the gap 2/mitosis (G2/M phase through the modulation of hallmark genes involved in the G2/M phase transition, such as tumour protein p53 (TP53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 and cyclin B1 (CCNB1. At both the transcriptional and translational level, ramalin caused a gradual increase in the expression of TP53 and its downstream gene CDKN1A, while decreasing the expression of CDK1 and CCNB1 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, ramalin significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that ramalin may be a therapeutic candidate for the targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  1. Evaluation of wound healing activity of atranorin, a lichen secondary metabolite, on rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana S. S. Barreto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the wound healing activity of atranorin cream (Patent requested on excision wounds. Seventy-two male rats were anesthetized and an excisional wound was performed. Then the rats were randomly assigned into three groups: untreated control group; atranorin 1 (group treated with 1% AT ointment; and atranorin 5 (group treated with 5% AT ointment. Six animals of each group were euthanized 3, 7, 14 or 21 days after surgical procedures and the wounded areas were analyzed and removed. Serial histological sections were obtained and stained by histochemical techniques (Hematoxilin-Eosin-HEand Sirius red and immunohistochemical techniques. Topical application of atranorin reduced wound areas, induced earlier granulation tissue formation, increased cell proliferation, improved collagenization and modulated the myofibroblasts differentiation when compared to control animals. It is suggested that atranorin modulates the wound healing process. These data suggest that this formulation based on atranorin extracted from Cladina kalbii AHTI may be a new biotechnological product for wound healing clinical applications.

  2. Association of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and plasma nitric oxide with risk of non-small cell lung cancer in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Badabagni, Siva Prasad; Gundimeda, Sandhya Devi; Mundluru, Hema Prasad

    2018-01-01

    The role of ACE and eNOS gene polymorphisms and their association with various cancers were reported. However, their role in the lung cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in South Indian population. For the eNOS gene, the homozygous "AA" genotypic frequency was significantly associated with NSCLC with an overall risk of 3.6-fold (P = 0.006, odds ratio = 3.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.66, 7.723). The heterozygous "I/D" genotypic frequency of ACE gene was significantly higher in NSCLC patients when compared to the controls with a 2.29-fold risk for NSCLC. Multiple regression analyses indicated that gender, smoking status, and polymorphisms in eNOS and ACE genes as the strongest predicting factors for an increased susceptibility to NSCLC. We report for the first time that polymorphisms in the eNOS "A/A" (homozygous mutant) and ACE "I/D" genotypes might contribute to the increased risk of NSCLC in the South Indian population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Investigation of gene expression and serum levels of PIN1 and eNOS with high blood pressure in patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mina; Nikanfar, Masoud; Khakikhatibi, Fatemeh; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Biray Avci, Cigir; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    According to evidence, Alzheimer's disease is known as one of the most serious neurodegenerative diseases, for which hypertension has been observed to be a key risk factor. Therefore, this study aims to examine the relationship between the PIN1 and eNOS genes expression, as well as serum levels and hypertension in Alzheimer's disease sufferers. Blood samples were obtained from subjects who were divided into four groups: the control group, normotensive Alzheimer's patients, the Alzheimer's sufferers group with hypertension, and the healthy group with only hypertension, considering the inhibition of confounding factors. Thereafter, eNOS and PIN1 genes expression along with serum levels were studied. Based on the obtained results, a statistically significant correlation didn't exist between serum level of PIN1 and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, between serum level of eNOS and diastolic blood pressure in the norm tension Alzheimer's disease patients, between serum levels of PIN1, eNOS and systolic blood pressure, and between serum eNOS and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the patients with hypertension (pdiseases in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, I T

    1993-10-01

    Osteoporosis with attendant increased fracture risk is a common complication of many other diseases. Indeed, almost all chronic diseases make some impact on life-style, usually by restricting physical activity and hence reducing the anabolic effect of exercise and gravitational strains on the skeleton. Restricted appetite and modified gastrointestinal tract function is another commonplace finding that has an impact on bone nutrition and synthesis, as on other systems. Sex hormone status is of particular importance for the maintenance of the normal skeleton, and the postmenopausal woman is at particular risk for most causes of secondary osteoporosis. In dealing with secondary osteoporosis in the hypo-oestrogenic woman, the question of giving hormone replacement therapy in addition to other disease-specific therapy should always be considered, as, for example, in a young amenorrhoeic woman with Crohn's disease. Similarly, in hypogonadal men the administration of testosterone is useful for bone conservation. The wider availability of bone densitometry ought to make us more aware of the presence of osteoporosis in the many disease states discussed above. This is particularly important as the life span of such patients is now increased by improved management of the underlying disease process in many instances. Even in steroid-induced osteoporosis--one of the commonest and most severe forms of osteoporosis--we now have some effective therapy in the form of the bisphosphonates and other anti-bone-resorbing drug classes. The possibility of prophylaxis against secondary osteoporosis has therefore become a possibility, although the very long-term effects of such drug regimens are still unknown. In some situations, such as thyrotoxicosis, Cushing's syndrome and immobilization, spontaneous resolution of at least part of the osteoporosis is possible after cure of the underlying problem. The shorter the existence of the basic problem, the more successful the restoration of the

  5. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called "repeat-swap modeling" to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport also

  6. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eFenollar Ferrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to either the outside or inside of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (asymmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called repeat-swap modeling to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that

  7. Secondary Fault Activity of the North Anatolian Fault near Avcilar, Southwest of Istanbul: Evidence from SAR Interferometry Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqi Diao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Strike-slip faults may be traced along thousands of kilometers, e.g., the San Andreas Fault (USA or the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey. A closer look at such continental-scale strike faults reveals localized complexities in fault geometry, associated with fault segmentation, secondary faults and a change of related hazards. The North Anatolian Fault displays such complexities nearby the mega city Istanbul, which is a place where earthquake risks are high, but secondary processes are not well understood. In this paper, long-term persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR data time series was used to precisely identify the surface deformation pattern associated with the faulting complexity at the prominent bend of the North Anatolian Fault near Istanbul city. We elaborate the relevance of local faulting activity and estimate the fault status (slip rate and locking depth for the first time using satellite SAR interferometry (InSAR technology. The studied NW-SE-oriented fault on land is subject to strike-slip movement at a mean slip rate of ~5.0 mm/year and a shallow locking depth of <1.0 km and thought to be directly interacting with the main fault branch, with important implications for tectonic coupling. Our results provide the first geodetic evidence on the segmentation of a major crustal fault with a structural complexity and associated multi-hazards near the inhabited regions of Istanbul, with similarities also to other major strike-slip faults that display changes in fault traces and mechanisms.

  8. [Differences of blood plasma renin activity, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in essential or secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ai-ling; Zeng, Zheng-pei; Tong, An-li; Lu, Lin; Chen, Shi; Li, Ming; Fu, Chun-li; Wang, Yong-hui; Sun, Mei-li

    2012-04-01

    To study on the difference of plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin II (Ang II), and aldosterone levels in patients with essential hypertension (EH) or primary aldosteronism (PA) or pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and to analyze the sensitivity and specificity on the diagnosis of PA among patients with hypertension with aldosterone/PRA ratio (ARR). The plasma aldosterone, Ang II and PRA concentrations in supine and upright positions were measured by radioimmunoassay from 413 patients including idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA, n = 111), aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA, n = 118), PHEO (n = 98) and EH (n = 86). ARR was calculated. Plasma aldosterone concentrations in both of supine and upright positions in PHEO group [374 (294, 465) pmol/L and 629 (449, 997) pmol/L] and PA group [471 (346, 632) pmol/L and 673 (499, 825) pmol/L] were higher than those in EH group [277 (224, 332) pmol/L and 427 (341, 501) pmol/L] (P 0.05). The PRA level in both positions of each group were PHEO group [0.3 (0.2, 1.0) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 1.4 (0.6, 3.4) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] > EH group [0.2 (0.1, 0.4) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.6 (0.4, 1.0) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] (P PA group [0.1 (0.1, 0.1) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] (P < 0.01), and APA group [0.1 (0.1, 0.1) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.1 (0.1, 0.3) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] < IHA group [0.1 (0.1, 0.2) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] (supine P < 0.01; upright P < 0.05). APA was divided into 2 types with renin-Ang II-responsive APA (n = 26) and unresponsive APA (n = 92). The plasma aldosterone concentration was lower in supine position but higher in upright position in renin-Ang II-responsive APA than in unresponsive APA patients. ARR in upright was higher in PA group (P < 0.01) but lower in PHEO group (P < 0.05) compared with EH. ARR was higher in APA than in IHA (P < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of ARR as 40 (aldosterone unit: ng/dl; PRA unit: µg · L(-1

  9. Effect of biological activated carbon pre-treatment to control organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2014-10-15

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane (0.1 μm polyvinylidene fluoride) in the treatment of a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. BAC treatment of the BTSE resulted in a marked improvement in permeate flux, which was attributed to the effective removal of organic foulants and particulates. Although the BAC removed significantly less dissolved organic carbon than the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment which was used as a control for comparison, it led to a markedly greater flux. This was attributed to the effective removal of the very high molecular weight substances such as biopolymers by the BAC through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm. Size exclusion chromatography showed the BAC treatment led to approximately 30% reduction in these substances, whereas the GAC did not greatly remove these molecules. The BAC treatment led to a greater reduction of loosely-attached and firmly-attached membrane surface foulant, and this was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. This study demonstrated the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the microfiltration of BTSE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol: Part 1 – Evidence from measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wex

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA studied in previous laboratory experiments generally showed only slight hygroscopic growth, but a much better activity as a CCN (Cloud Condensation Nucleus than indicated by the hygroscopic growth. This discrepancy was examined at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, using a portable generator that produced SOA particles from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, and adding butanol or butanol and water vapor during some of the experiments. The light scattering signal of dry SOA-particles was measured by the LACIS optical particle spectrometer and was used to derive a refractive index for SOA of 1.45. LACIS also measured the hygroscopic growth of SOA particles up to 99.6% relative humidity (RH, and a CCN counter was used to measure the particle activation. SOA-particles were CCN active with critical diameters of e.g. 100 nm and 55 nm at super-saturations of 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. But only slight hygroscopic growth with hygroscopic growth factors ≤1.05 was observed at RH<98% RH. At RH>98%, the hygroscopic growth increased stronger than would be expected if a constant hygroscopicity parameter for the particle/droplet solution was assumed. An increase of the hygroscopicity parameter by a factor of 4–6 was observed in the RH-range from below 90% to 99.6%, and this increase continued for increasingly diluted particle solutions for activating particles. This explains an observation already made in the past: that the relation between critical super-saturation and dry diameter for activation is steeper than what would be expected for a constant value of the hygroscopicity. Combining measurements of hygroscopic growth and activation, it was found that the surface tension that has to be assumed to interpret the measurements consistently is greater than 55 mN/m, possibly close to that of pure water, depending on the different SOA-types produced, and therefore only in part accounts for the discrepancy

  11. Telmisartan activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Myojo

    Full Text Available Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177 in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172 and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP. Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling.

  12. Activation of the Silent Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin-Resistance in a Marine-Derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jing Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of neomycin-resistance into a marine-derived, wild-type Penicillium purpurogenum G59 resulted in activation of silent biosynthetic pathways for the secondary metabolite production. Upon treatment of G59 spores with neomycin and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, a total of 56 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of mutants to neomycin was testified by the resistance test. In contrast to the G59 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 28 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that the 28 mutants have acquired the capability to produce bioactive metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI-MS analyses further indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the bioactive mutant extracts. Followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that five bioactive secondary metabolites, curvularin (1, citrinin (2, penicitrinone A (3, erythro-23-O-methylneocyclocitrinol (4 and 22E-7α-methoxy-5α, 6α-epoxyergosta-8(14,22-dien-3β-ol (5, were newly produced by a mutant, 4-30, compared to the G59 strain. All 1–5 were also not yet found in the secondary metabolites of other wild type P. purpurogenum strains. Compounds 1–5 inhibited human cancer K562, HL-60, HeLa and BGC-823 cells to varying extents. Both present bioassays and chemical investigations demonstrated that the introduction of neomycin-resistance into the marine-derived fungal G59 strain could activate silent secondary metabolite production. The present work not only extended the previous DMSO-mediated method for introducing drug-resistance in fungi both in DMSO concentrations and antibiotics, but also additionally exemplified effectiveness of this method for activating silent fungal secondary metabolites. This method could be applied to other fungal isolates to elicit their metabolic potentials to investigate secondary metabolites from silent biosynthetic pathways.

  13. Secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, C; Martini, G; Nuti, R

    1998-06-01

    Generalized osteoporosis currently represents a heterogeneous group of conditions with many different causes and pathogenetic mechanisms, that often are variably associated. The term "secondary" is applied to all patients with osteoporosis in whom the identifiable causal factors are other than menopause and aging. In this heterogeneous group of conditions, produced by many different pathogenetic mechanisms, a negative bone balance may be variably associated with low, normal or increased bone remodeling states. A consistent group of secondary osteoporosis is related to endocrinological or iatrogenic causes. Exogenous hypercortisolism may be considered an important risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in the community, and probably glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common type of secondary osteoporosis. Supraphysiological doses of corticosteroids cause two abnormalities in bone metabolism: a relative increase in bone resorption, and a relative reduction in bone formation. Bone loss, mostly of trabecular bone, with its resultant fractures is the most incapacitating consequence of osteoporosis. The estimated incidence of fractures in patients prescribed corticosteroid is 30% to 50%. Osteoporosis is considered one of the potentially serious side effects of heparin therapy. The occurrence of heparin-induced osteoporosis appeared to be strictly related to the length of treatment (over 4-5 months), and the dosage (15,000 U or more daily), but the pathogenesis is poorly understood. It has been suggested that heparin could cause an increase in bone resorption by increasing the number of differentiated osteoclasts, and by enhancing the activity of individual osteoclasts. Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with loss of trabecular and cortical bone; the enhanced bone turnover that develops in thyrotoxicosis is characterized by an increase in the number of osteoclasts and resorption sites, and an increase in the ratio of resorptive to formative bone

  14. The Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M49 Nra-Ralp3 Transcriptional Regulatory Network and Its Control of Virulence Factor Expression from the Novel eno ralp3 epf sagA Pathogenicity Region▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Nakata, Masanobu; Köller, Thomas; Hildisch, Hendrikje; Kourakos, Vassilios; Standar, Kerstin; Kawabata, Shigetada; Glocker, Michael O.; Podbielski, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Many Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) virulence factor- and transcriptional regulator-encoding genes cluster together in discrete genomic regions. Nra is a central regulator of the FCT region. Previous studies exclusively described Nra as a transcriptional repressor of adhesin and toxin genes. Here transcriptome and proteome analysis of a serotype M49 GAS strain and an isogenic Nra mutant of this strain revealed the complete Nra regulon profile. Nra is active in all growth phases tested, with the largest regulon in the transition phase. Almost exclusively, virulence factor-encoding genes are repressed by Nra; these genes include the GAS pilus operon, the capsule synthesis operon, the cytolysin-mediated translocation system genes, all Mga region core virulence genes, and genes encoding other regulators, like the Ihk/Irr system, Rgg, and two additional RofA-like protein family regulators. Surprisingly, our experiments revealed that Nra additionally acts as a positive regulator, mostly for genes encoding proteins and enzymes with metabolic functions. Epidemiological investigations revealed strong genetic linkage of one particular Nra-repressed regulator, Ralp3 (SPy0735), with a gene encoding Epf (extracellular protein factor from Streptococcus suis). In a serotype-specific fashion, this ralp3 epf gene block is integrated, most likely via transposition, into the eno sagA virulence gene block, which is present in all GAS serotypes. In GAS serotypes M1, M4, M12, M28, and M49 this novel discrete genetic region is therefore designated the eno ralp3 epf sagA (ERES) pathogenicity region. Functional experiments showed that Epf is a novel GAS plasminogen-binding protein and revealed that Ralp3 activity counteracts Nra and MsmR regulatory activity. In addition to the Mga and FCT regions, the ERES region is the third discrete chromosomal pathogenicity region. All of these regions are transcriptionally linked, adding another level of complexity to the known

  15. The Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M49 Nra-Ralp3 transcriptional regulatory network and its control of virulence factor expression from the novel eno ralp3 epf sagA pathogenicity region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Nakata, Masanobu; Köller, Thomas; Hildisch, Hendrikje; Kourakos, Vassilios; Standar, Kerstin; Kawabata, Shigetada; Glocker, Michael O; Podbielski, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    Many Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) virulence factor- and transcriptional regulator-encoding genes cluster together in discrete genomic regions. Nra is a central regulator of the FCT region. Previous studies exclusively described Nra as a transcriptional repressor of adhesin and toxin genes. Here transcriptome and proteome analysis of a serotype M49 GAS strain and an isogenic Nra mutant of this strain revealed the complete Nra regulon profile. Nra is active in all growth phases tested, with the largest regulon in the transition phase. Almost exclusively, virulence factor-encoding genes are repressed by Nra; these genes include the GAS pilus operon, the capsule synthesis operon, the cytolysin-mediated translocation system genes, all Mga region core virulence genes, and genes encoding other regulators, like the Ihk/Irr system, Rgg, and two additional RofA-like protein family regulators. Surprisingly, our experiments revealed that Nra additionally acts as a positive regulator, mostly for genes encoding proteins and enzymes with metabolic functions. Epidemiological investigations revealed strong genetic linkage of one particular Nra-repressed regulator, Ralp3 (SPy0735), with a gene encoding Epf (extracellular protein factor from Streptococcus suis). In a serotype-specific fashion, this ralp3 epf gene block is integrated, most likely via transposition, into the eno sagA virulence gene block, which is present in all GAS serotypes. In GAS serotypes M1, M4, M12, M28, and M49 this novel discrete genetic region is therefore designated the eno ralp3 epf sagA (ERES) pathogenicity region. Functional experiments showed that Epf is a novel GAS plasminogen-binding protein and revealed that Ralp3 activity counteracts Nra and MsmR regulatory activity. In addition to the Mga and FCT regions, the ERES region is the third discrete chromosomal pathogenicity region. All of these regions are transcriptionally linked, adding another level of complexity to the known

  16. Relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and natural history of intracranial aneurysms: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Paschoal Junior, Fernando Mendes; Jong-A-Liem, Glaucia Suzanna; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Yamada, Elizabeth Sumi; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Ândrea; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2018-01-01

    The aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major public health problem described as a sudden drastic event with no warning symptoms and high morbidity and mortality rates. The role of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism in intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is still a matter of controversy with divergent findings among European, American, and Asian populations. Our study purposed to test the association between intracranial aneurysms formation and nitric oxide gene polymorphisms through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic search on Medline, Lilacs, and EMBASE was performed. The primary search resulted in 139 papers, out of which 9 met our inclusion criteria after a full text analysis. The dominant T786C model found a significant association with IA (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.04-1.44, p = 0.01), so did studies of the recessive T786C model (OR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.30-0.45, p < 0.0001) but with opposite effect. Our findings support the presence of the T786C polymorphism as a predictor for the development of intracranial aneurysm in the cerebral vascular system. More studies are necessary in order to elucidate the pathways of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cerebrovascular diseases and in defining how different allelic combinations of the eNOS gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) could favor this pathological process.

  17. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hien, Tran Thi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-01-01

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-α induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-κB activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N G -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. ► Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK. ► Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. ► Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  18. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hien, Tran Thi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myung Ho [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  19. Amenorrhea secondary to a vismodegib-induced blockade of follicle-stimulating hormone-receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasswimmer, John; Latimer, Benjamin; Ory, Steven

    2014-08-01

    To report a novel mechanism suggestive of early ovarian failure secondary to the anti-tumor hedgehog-pathway inhibitor vismodegib. Case report and literature review. Academic and private dermatology and fertility practices. A 34-year-old nulliparous woman with locally advanced basal cell carcinomas who became amenorrheic while receiving oral therapy with vismodegib. Physical examination and endocrine evaluation. Elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and low estrogen in the setting of a normal anti-Müllerian hormone. FSH was elevated; estrogen was low. Preantral follicles were detected and anti-Müllerian hormone activity was normal. Menses resumed 5 weeks after cessation of therapy. Vismodegib, a first-in-class inhibitor of the hedgehog signaling pathway is indicated for advanced basal cell carcinoma and is associated with amenorrhea. The mechanism is unknown; it has some features of ovarian failure but preserves ovarian potential through blockading of FSH-receptor-dependent signal transduction. This effect appears to be rapidly reversible upon cessation of therapy. Vismodegib and related compounds may have potential for a role in intervention for gynecologic and endocrine disorders and in therapy for other issues involving FSH-dependent function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic, DFT calculations and biological activity studies of ruthenium carbonyl complexes with 2-picolinic acid and a secondary ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohayeb, Shahera M.; Mohamed, Rania G.; Moustafa, H.; El-Medani, Samir M.

    2016-09-01

    Thermal reaction of [Ru3(CO)12] with 2-picolinic acid (Hpic) in the absence and presence of a secondary ligand (pyridine, Py, bipyridine, Bipy, or thiourea, Tu) was investigated. Four complexes with molecular formulae: [Ru(CO)3(Hpic)], 1, [Ru2(CO)5(Hpic)(Py)], 2, [Ru2(CO)5(Hpic)(Tu)], 3 and [Ru2(CO)4(Hpic)(Bipy)], 4, were isolated. All complexes were characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, magnetic studies, mass spectrometry and thermal analysis. The ligand and its complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p)_ level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligands. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using B3LYP method and LANL2DZ basis set. The extent of natural charge population (core, valence and rydberg), exact electronic configuration, total Lewis and total non-Lewis are estimated and discussed in terms of natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis.

  1. The enrichment secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einbund, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper will addresses two topics: the background to the present status of the enrichment secondary market and the future outlook of the secondary market in enrichment services, and the viability of the nuclear fuel brokerage industry. These two topics are inevitably connected, as most secondary market activity, not only in enrichment but also in natural uranium, has traditionally been conducted with the participation of brokers. Therefore, the author interrelates these topics

  2. The mobile GeoBus outreach project: hands-on Earth and Mars activities for secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruth; Pike, Charlotte; Roper, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Just under 35,000 pupils have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities since the project began in 2012, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run 50 - 80 minute workshops, and half- or whole-day Enterprise Challenges and field excursions. Workshops are aimed at a class of up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are increasingly popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. Enterprise Challenge are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Topics include "Journey to Mars", "Scotland's Rocks", "Drilling for Oil", and "Renewable Energy". Both of the energy Enterprise Challenges were designed to incorporates ideas and

  3. Self-Reported Learning Effects of a Tagging Activity Carried out in a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) by Secondary-School Pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique; Glahn, Christian; Chatti, Amine; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Verpoorten, D., Glahn, C., Chatti, A., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2011). Self-Reported Learning Effects of a Tagging Activity Carried out in a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) by Secondary-School Pupils. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education, 2(1), 276-284.

  4. Secondary School Chemistry Teacher's Current Use of Laboratory Activities and the Impact of Expense on Their Laboratory Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Livermore, Robin A.

    2018-01-01

    In the United States with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)'s emphasis on learning science while doing science, laboratory activities in the secondary school chemistry continues to be an important component of a strong curriculum. Laboratory equipment and consumable materials create a unique expense which chemistry teachers and schools…

  5. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongjun, E-mail: hjlin@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Chen, Jianrong, E-mail: cjr@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Lu, Xiaofeng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The first study to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. {yields} The study revealed that most organics in the secondary effluent were low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by PAC-MBR process. {yields} The study suggested that the action of biomass and the PAC is mutual and synergistic. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent.

  6. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang; Chen, Jianrong; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The first study to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. → The study revealed that most organics in the secondary effluent were low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by PAC-MBR process. → The study suggested that the action of biomass and the PAC is mutual and synergistic. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH 4 + -N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent.

  7. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lust Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  8. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of screen time and physical activity with school performance at different types of secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Tanja; Peschel, Thomas; Vogel, Mandy; Jurkutat, Anne; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-04-27

    Previous studies have already reported associations of media consumption and/or physical activity with school achievement. However, longitudinal studies investigating independent effects of physical activity and media consumption on school performance are sparse. The present study fills this research gap and, furthermore, assesses relationships of the type of secondary school with media consumption and physical activity. The consumption of screen-based media (TV/video, game console, PC/internet, and mobile phone) and leisure physical activity (organized and non-organized) of 10 - to 17-year old adolescents participating in the LIFE Child study in Germany were related to their school grades in two major school subjects (Mathematics and German) and in Physical Education. In addition to a cross-sectional analysis at baseline (N = 850), a longitudinal analysis (N = 512) investigated the independent effects of these activities on the school grades achieved 12 months later. All associations were adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, year of data assessment, body-mass-index, and school grades at baseline. A further analysis investigated differences in the consumption of screen-based media and physical activity as a function of the type of secondary school (highest vs. lower secondary school). Adolescents of lower secondary schools reported a significantly higher consumption of TV/video and game consoles than adolescents attending the highest secondary school. Independently of the type of school, a better school performance in Mathematics was predicted by a lower consumption of computers/internet, and a better performance in Physical Education was predicted by a lower consumption of TV/video and a higher frequency of non-organized physical activity. However, the association between non-organized physical activity and subsequent grades in Physical Education was significant in girls only. The present results suggest that media consumption has a negative effect on

  9. SOS response in bacteria: Inhibitory activity of lichen secondary metabolites against Escherichia coli RecA protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, Pierangelo; Di Pietro, Letizia; Mancini, Alisia; Piovano, Marisa; Nicoletti, Marcello; Brisdelli, Fabrizia; Tondi, Donatella; Cendron, Laura; Franceschini, Nicola; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Celenza, Giuseppe

    2017-06-15

    RecA is a bacterial multifunctional protein essential to genetic recombination, error-prone replicative bypass of DNA damages and regulation of SOS response. The activation of bacterial SOS response is directly related to the development of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to antimicrobials. Although recent studies directed towards RecA inactivation via ATP binding inhibition described a variety of micromolar affinity ligands, inhibitors of the DNA binding site are still unknown. Twenty-seven secondary metabolites classified as anthraquinones, depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans, diphenyl-butenolides, paraconic acids, pseudo-depsidones, triterpenes and xanthones, were investigated for their ability to inhibit RecA from Escherichia coli. They were isolated in various Chilean regions from 14 families and 19 genera of lichens. The ATP hydrolytic activity of RecA was quantified detecting the generation of free phosphate in solution. The percentage of inhibition was calculated fixing at 100µM the concentration of the compounds. Deeper investigations were reserved to those compounds showing an inhibition higher than 80%. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition, the semi-log plot of the percentage of inhibition vs. ATP and vs. ssDNA, was evaluated. Only nine compounds showed a percentage of RecA inhibition higher than 80% (divaricatic, perlatolic, alpha-collatolic, lobaric, lichesterinic, protolichesterinic, epiphorellic acids, sphaerophorin and tumidulin). The half-inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) calculated for these compounds were ranging from 14.2µM for protolichesterinic acid to 42.6µM for sphaerophorin. Investigations on the mechanism of inhibition showed that all compounds behaved as uncompetitive inhibitors for ATP binding site, with the exception of epiphorellic acid which clearly acted as non-competitive inhibitor of the ATP site. Further investigations demonstrated that epiphorellic acid competitively binds the ssDNA binding site. Kinetic data were

  10. Characterization of aerosol photooxidation flow reactors: heterogeneous oxidation, secondary organic aerosol formation and cloud condensation nuclei activity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the need to develop instrumental techniques for characterizing organic aerosol aging, we report on the performance of the Toronto Photo-Oxidation Tube (TPOT and Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM flow tube reactors under a variety of experimental conditions. The PAM system was designed with lower surface-area-to-volume (SA/V ratio to minimize wall effects; the TPOT reactor was designed to study heterogeneous aerosol chemistry where wall loss can be independently measured. The following studies were performed: (1 transmission efficiency measurements for CO2, SO2, and bis(2-ethylhexyl sebacate (BES particles, (2 H2SO4 yield measurements from the oxidation of SO2, (3 residence time distribution (RTD measurements for CO2, SO2, and BES particles, (4 aerosol mass spectra, O/C and H/C ratios, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity measurements of BES particles exposed to OH radicals, and (5 aerosol mass spectra, O/C and H/C ratios, CCN activity, and yield measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA generated from gas-phase OH oxidation of m-xylene and α-pinene. OH exposures ranged from (2.0 ± 1.0 × 1010 to (1.8 ± 0.3 × 1012 molec cm−3 s. Where applicable, data from the flow tube reactors are compared with published results from the Caltech smog chamber. The TPOT yielded narrower RTDs. However, its transmission efficiency for SO2 was lower than that for the PAM. Transmission efficiency for BES and H2SO4 particles was size-dependent and was similar for the two flow tube designs. Oxidized BES particles had similar O/C and H/C ratios and CCN activity at OH exposures greater than 1011 molec cm−3 s, but different CCN activity at lower OH exposures. The O/C ratio, H/C ratio, and yield of m-xylene and α-pinene SOA was strongly affected by reactor design and

  11. [Secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice.

  12. A qualitative examination of factors related to the decrease in physical activity behavior in adolescent girls during the transition from primary to secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa; Fawkner, Samantha

    2011-11-01

    Quantitative research has suggested that the decline in physical activity levels for adolescent girls is most marked during the transition from primary school to secondary school yet understanding the contributing factors for this decline may be advanced through qualitative research methods to gain an individual perspective of the girls' school transition experience. This study explored factors related to the decrease in physical activity behavior in 14 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.6 ± 0.3 years) during the transition between primary and secondary school through the use of narrative interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. The findings suggested that a change in the environment was central to understanding the decline in physical activity levels since primary school. During secondary school, a positive environment can be created by ensuring a choice of activities in Physical Education lessons; allowing a girls-only environment, to reduce the focus on competence and competition, and recognizing the importance of social support. These could enhance self-perceptions, reduce self-presentational concerns, increase enjoyment, and subsequently reduce the decrease in physical activity behavior during this key transitional period.

  13. Examining the impact of a province-wide physical education policy on secondary students' physical activity as a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Erickson, Tannis; Comte, Melisa; Zuo, Fei; Pasha, Saamir; Murnaghan, Donna; Manske, Steve; Casey, Catherine; Griffith, Jane; McGavock, Jonathan

    2017-07-19

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a province-wide physical education (PE) policy on secondary school students' moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Policy: In fall 2008, Manitoba expanded a policy requiring a PE credit for students in grades 11 and 12 for the first time in Canada. The PE curriculum requires grades 11 and 12 students to complete a minimum of 55 h (50% of course hours) of MVPA (e.g., ≥30 min/day of MVPA on ≥5 days a week) during a 5-month semester to achieve the course credit. A natural experimental study was designed using two sub-studies: 1) quasi-experimental controlled pre-post analysis of self-reported MVPA data obtained from census data in intervention and comparison [Prince Edward Island (PEI)] provinces in 2008 (n = 33,619 in Manitoba and n = 2258 in PEI) and 2012 (n = 41,169 in Manitoba and n = 4942 in PEI); and, 2) annual objectively measured MVPA in cohorts of secondary students in intervention (n = 447) and comparison (Alberta; n = 224) provinces over 4 years (2008 to 2012). In Study 1, two logistic regressions were conducted to model the odds that students accumulated: i) ≥30 min/day of MVPA, and ii) met Canada's national recommendation of ≥60 min/day of MVPA, in Manitoba versus PEI after adjusting for grade, sex, and BMI. In Study 2, a mixed effects model was used to assess students' minutes of MVPA per day per semester in Manitoba and Alberta, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, school location and school SES. In Study 1, no significant differences were observed in students achieving ≥30 (OR:1.13, 95% CI:0.92, 1.39) or ≥60 min/day of MVPA (OR:0.92, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.07) from baseline to follow-up between Manitoba and PEI. In Study 2, no significant policy effect on students' MVPA trajectories from baseline to last follow-up were observed between Manitoba and Alberta overall (-1.52, 95% CI:-3.47, 0.42), or by covariates. The Manitoba policy mandating PE in grades 11 and 12 had no

  14. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming As A Supplementary Treatment For Hanford's Low Activity Waste And Secondary Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  15. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=12), HIIT for an acute bout (AT1), short term HIIT for 3 and 5 sessions (ST3 and ST5), long-term training for 8 weeks (LT) (6 in each group). The rats of the training groups were made to run on a treadmill for 60 min in three stages: 6 min running for warm-up, 7 intervals of 7 min running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 min with an intensity of 80-110% VO2max and 3 min at 50-60% VO2max), and 5-min running for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Rats were sacrificed and the hearts were extracted to analyze the levels of UCP2, UCP3 and eNOS mRNA by RT-PCR. UCP3 expression was increased significantly following an acute training bout. Repeated HIIT for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in UCPs mRNA and a significant increase in eNOS expression in cardiac muscle. This study indicates that Long term HIIT through decreasing UCPs mRNA and increasing eNOS mRNA expression may enhance energy efficiency and physical performance.

  16. Eno-culture and Identity: The installation as a new methodology in Artistic Research and Heritage Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Marañón Martínez de la Puente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic experience and the artistic knowledge always have been connected with the Heritage Education, due to the great importance in rewarding pedagogic processes, specially, in non-formal spaces. In our research, the installation (with its features and competences has turned into the most interesting educational tool to transform the reality of our work’s context: Rioja Alavesa. Thus, across the workshops "Instálate" (organized inside different wineries of the region, we worked the Wine Cultural Heritage (Eno-culture, the Artistic Research and the knowledge based on the sensitive experience. In this article, we showed the results of this experience, proposing the installation as a new interesting and practical method of Artistic Research in Heritage Education. In conclusion, we propose the art-installation as a different key to work the identity, contemporary art, culture and heritage.

  17. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C S Boa

    Full Text Available Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30 starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change, return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30, high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET (HFEX, n = 30 and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30. Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM (HF4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8 M (HF87.9±2.7%; (HFSC*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6 M (HF95.3±3.1%; (HFSC*126±6.2%; (HFEX*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4 M (HF109.5±4.8%; (HFSC*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF40.5±4.2; (HFSC*19.0±1.6; (HFEX*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2, decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial-independent microvascular

  18. A Multilevel Prediction of Physiological Response to Challenge: Interactions among Child Maltreatment, Neighborhood Crime, eNOS and GABRA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins – i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment – and specific genetic polymorphisms of eNOS and GABRA6. A total of 186 children were recruited at age 4. At this time, the presence or absence of child maltreatment was determined, as was the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge – i.e., change in the amplitude of RSA – was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. Results confirmed that complex G x G, E x E, and G x E interactions were associated with different patterns of RSA reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed. PMID:26535938

  19. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Tissue Plasminogen Activator and DNase for Complicated Pleural Effusions Secondary to Abdominal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Adnan; Ochoa, Sebastian; Chatterji, Sumit; Fernandez-Bussy, Sebastian; Kheir, Fayez; Rivera, Estefania; Cheng, George; Folch, Erik

    2017-03-01

    Exudative pleural effusions may arise secondary to inflammation of intra-abdominal structures. Pleural space loculations can complicate these effusions, preventing adequate chest tube drainage and leading to consideration of surgical intervention. Previous studies have demonstrated that intrapleural administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) combined with human recombinant DNase can improve fluid drainage and reduce surgery for patients with loculated parapneumonic effusions; however, the efficacy of this treatment has not been evaluated for complicated pleural effusions attributed to intra-abdominal inflammation. We assessed the safety and efficacy of tPA/DNase for 17 pleural effusions associated with nonmalignant intra-abdominal pathology that did not drain adequately after placement of one or more chest tubes. Efficacy was measured by comparing post- to pretreatment fluid drainage rates, volumetric assessment of pleural fluid on radiographic images before and after treatment, and clinical improvement, including the need for surgical intervention. Symptomatic relief was assessed using the Borg scale for breathlessness. After a median of two doses of tPA/DNase, 23.5% of patients had chest pain and none had pleural bleeding. The volume of pleural fluid drained increased from a median of 325 ml to 890 ml per 24 hours after therapy (P = 0.018). The area of pleural space opacity on chest radiographs decreased from a median of 42.8-17.8% of the hemithorax (P = 0.001). tPA/DNase reduced the pleural fluid volume on chest computed tomographic imaging from a median of 294.4 ml to 116.1 ml. Borg scores improved from a median of 3 (interquartile range = 1-6) to 0 (interquartile range = 0-2) after therapy (P = 0.001). The median duration of chest tube placement and hospital stay were 4 and 11 days, respectively. Two patients required surgical intervention for lung entrapment. Overall, treatment was considered successful for 88.2% of patients

  1. Secondary Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Thomas D.

    Secondary evaluations, in which an investigator takes a body of evaluation data collected by a primary evaluation researcher and examines the data to see if the original conclusions about the program correspond with his own, are discussed. The different kinds of secondary evaluations and the advantages and disadvantages of each are pointed out,…

  2. Comparison of specular H-atomic-beam intensity and C+ secondary-ion yield at thermally activated decrease of a carbon layer on a Ni(110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaarmann, H.; Hoinkes, H.; Wilsch, H.

    1983-01-01

    The thermally activated disappearance of a carbon layer on a Ni(110) surface was investigated by the scattering of atomic hydrogen and by secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Decreasing C coverage at surface temperatures kept constant in each case at values between 650 and 750 K resulted in an exponential decrease of specular H-beam intensity as well as C + secondary-ion yield. This decrease in both cases fits first-order kinetics (presumable diffusion into the bulk) with an identical rate constant as a function of surface temperature and results finally in a preexponential frequency ν = 10/sup() 10plus-or-minus1/ s -1 and an activation energy E/sub A/ = 1.8 +- 0.2 eV

  3. Teaching molecular diffusion using an inquiry approach : diffusion activities in a secondary school inquiry-learning community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rens, L.; van der Schee, J.; Pilot, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch chemistry curriculum for upper secondary schools has prescribed inquiry-based student learning since 1997. For some decades inquiry tasks have been a feature of school science in various countries (1). As in other countries, some of our chemistry teachers are used to recipe-geared

  4. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C. Doc; Hinman, Nancy W.; Scott, Jill R.

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  5. Which Socio-Ecological Factors Associate with a Switch to or Maintenance of Active and Passive Transport during the Transition from Primary to Secondary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwolleghem, Griet; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Meester, Femke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Gheysen, Freja

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate which individual, psychosocial and physical neighborhood environmental factors associate with children's switch to or maintenance of active/passive transport to school and to leisure time destinations during the transition from primary to secondary school. Children (n = 313) filled out a questionnaire in the last year of primary school and 2 years later to assess socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported transport. One of their parents completed a questionnaire to assess parental perceptions of psychosocial and physical neighborhood environmental factors. The increase of the home-school distance was significantly associated with children's switch to or maintenance of passive transport to school compared to a switch to (OR = 0.81; p = 0.03) and maintenance (OR = 0.87; p = 0.03) of active transport to school. Low SES was associated with children's switch to active transport to school compared to maintenance of active transport (OR = 3.67; p = 0.07). For transport to leisure time destinations, other factors such as parental perceived neighborhood safety from traffic and crime (OR = 2.78; p = 0.004), a positive social norm (OR = 1.49; p = 0.08), positive attitudes (OR = 1.39; p = 0.08) (i.e. more benefits, less barriers) towards their children's physical activity and poor walking/cycling facilities in the neighborhood (OR = 0.70; p = 0.06) were associated with children's maintenance of active transport to leisure time destinations compared to a switch to or maintenance of passive transport. This longitudinal study can give directions for interventions promoting children's active transport during the transition to secondary school. It is necessary to promote different possibilities at primary school for children to use active transport when going to secondary school. Walking/cycling a part of the home-school trip can be a possible solution for children who will be living at non-feasible distances from secondary school. Providing safe

  6. Evaluation of Protective Immune Responses Induced by Recombinant TrxLp and ENO2 Proteins against Toxoplasma gondii Infection in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan that can infect almost all species of warm-blooded animals. As any chemical-based drugs could not act against the tissue cyst stage of T. gondii, vaccination may be one of the ideal control strategies. In the present study, two new vaccine candidates, named TgENO2 and TgTrxLp, were purified from Escherichia coli with pET-30a(+ expression system and then were injected into BALB/c mice to evaluate the protective efficacy against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. The results showed that both the recombinant proteins, either alone or in combination, could elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses with a higher level of IgG antibodies, IFN-γ, IL-2, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells as compared to those in mice from control groups. After acute challenge with tachyzoites of the GJS strain, mice immunized with rTgTrxLp (8±2.77 d, rTgENO2 (7.4±1.81 d, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 (8.38±4.57 d proteins showed significantly longer survival time than those that received Freund’s adjuvant (6.78±2.08 d and PBS (6.38±4.65 d (χ2 = 9.687, df = 4, P=0.046. The protective immunity of rTgTrxLp, rTgENO2, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 proteins against chronic T. gondii infection showed 69.77%, 58.14%, and 20.93% brain cyst reduction as compared to mice that received PBS. The present study suggested that both TgENO2 and TgTrxLp were potential candidates for the development of multicomponent vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

  7. Secondary Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can be caused by general medical conditions such as severe hypertension, or by conditions that affect the brain and ...

  8. Developing geometrical reasoning in the secondary school: outcomes of trialling teaching activities in classrooms, a report to the QCA

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Margaret; Jones, Keith; Taylor, Ron

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the Southampton/Hampshire Group of mathematicians and mathematics educators sponsored by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) to develop and trial some teaching/learning materials for use in schools that focus on the development of geometrical reasoning at the secondary school level. The project ran from October 2002 to November 2003. An interim report was presented to the QCA in March 2003. 1. The Southampton/Hampshire Group consisted of five...

  9. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  10. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samdal Oddrun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Results Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.93–10.44 higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65–11.28, outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32–2.40, playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.42 and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18–2.10 were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might

  11. No structure without culture? A survey study of 15-19 year olds’ practices, preferences and perceptions of physical activity in a Danish upper secondary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Nielsen, Glen; Ottesen, Laila

    2018-01-01

    dimensions influencing young people’s participation in and views on physical activity. The study shows that even though we have a long tradition of gender-integrated PE in Denmark, very traditional gender differences similar to countries with gender-segregated PE prevails. The article, therefore, discusses......This article presents the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in a Danish upper secondary school where alternative options of physical activity have been provided to the students. The purpose of the study is to gain knowledge about the perspectives of the students concerning physical...... education (PE), sport and exercise. The study illustrates young people’s practices, preferences and perceptions when physical activity is a gender-integrated activity as is the case in Denmark. The results are discussed in a figurational perspective viewing PE, sport and exercise as interdependent...

  12. Application of ECS to a hybrid automobile; `ECS` no hybrid jidosha eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, M.; Okamura, T.

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes a simulation for a case when an energy capacitor system (ECS) is mounted in a hybrid electric vehicle in place of secondary batteries. The ECS is electric power storage equipment consisted of capacitors and electronic circuits, and capable of quick charge and discharge at high efficiency. Its energy density per unit weight is about the same as lead-acid batteries, but its output density is greater than any type of batteries. Being free of deterioration due to charge and discharge, its cycle life is almost limitless. In order to suppress heat generation, a switching converter is used to control the output to about 300W. However, internal resistance of an ECS is smaller than in an equivalent secondary battery, and internal loss and heat generation stay as low as 1/5 to 1/10. Discussions have been given on cases of using the ECS in small passenger cars, small buses/trucks, and large buses. Since the ECS can use the stored power to about 94% of the capacity, and its cycle life is sufficiently long, it can operate with charge capacity as small as 1/4 of a lead-acid battery. The weight can also be reduced largely. Regenerative power storage efficiency is high, fuel consumption can be improved, heat generation is less, and no forced cooling is required. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Production of cyathane type secondary metabolites by submerged cultures of Hericium erinaceus and evaluation of their antibacterial activity by direct bioautography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T; Morlock, G; Zorn, H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota are well-known to form a broad spectrum of biologically active secondary metabolites, especially low molecular weight compounds such as terpenoids. Hericium erinaceus produces various cyathane type diterpenoids including erinacines. However, no quantitative data and production kinetics have been reported on the biosynthesis of the erinacines C and P in submerged cultures. In the present study, the production of erinacine C was optimized, and the product formation kinetics as well as the antimicrobial activity were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and direct bioautography. Oatmeal and Edamin ® K were identified to be crucial media components for an efficient production of erinacine C. The highest concentrations of erinacine C were obtained in the optimized culture medium on the 9 th culture day (approximately 260 mg L -1 ). The production of erinacine P was strongly time dependent. The maximum concentration of erinacine P of 184 mg L -1 was observed on the third culture day. Afterwards, the concentrations of erinacine P decreased while the concentrations of erinacine C steadily increased. Comparable results were obtained by HPTLC with UV detection and HPLC with diode-array detection (DAD) analyses. Direct bioautography allowed for an additional analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the secondary metabolites. The C and N sources oatmeal and Edamin ® K induced the formation of erinacine C. Detailed product formation kinetics of the erinacines C and P have been reported for the first time. HPTLC combined with the Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay allowed for an instant detection of cyathane diterpenoids in crude extracts and for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the secondary metabolites directly on the plate.

  14. Variable effects of maternal and paternal-fetal contribution to the risk for preeclampsia combining GSTP1, eNOS, and LPL gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Kalliopi I; Roubelakis, Maria; Vlachos, George; Marinopoulos, Spyros; Zissou, Antonia; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the maternal, paternal, and fetal genotype contribution to preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: We combined the analysis of polymorphisms of the GSTP1, eNOS, and LPL genes - affecting biotransformation enzymes and endothelial function - in a cohort of 167 preeclamptic and normal control trios (mother, father, and child) comprising a total of 501 samples in the Greek population, never analyzed before by this approach. For the frequency of the GSTP1 Ile(105)/Val(105), the eNOS Glu298Asp and the LPL-93 polymorphisms, statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. However, the transmission rates of the parental alleles to neonates studied by the transmission disequilibrium test, disclosed no increased rate of transmission to preeclampsia children for the variant alleles of Val(105) GSTP1, 298Asp eNOS, and -93G LPL. These novel data, suggest that interaction of all three types of genotypes (mother, father and neonate), reveals no effects on the development of preeclampsia, but provide the impetus for further studies to decipher the individual contribution of each genetic parameter of preeclampsia.

  15. Exercise Training Could Improve Age-Related Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow and Capillary Vascularity through the Upregulation of VEGF and eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheepsumon Viboolvorakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise training on age-induced microvascular alterations in the brain. Additionally, the association with the protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was also assessed. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary-young (SE-Young, n=5, sedentary aged (SE-Aged, n=8, immersed-aged (IM-Aged, n=5, and exercise trained-aged (ET-Aged, 60 minutes/day and 5 days/week for 8 weeks, n=8 rats. The MAPs of all aged groups, SE-Aged, IM-Aged, and ET-Aged, were significantly higher than that of the SE-Young group. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the SE-Aged and IM-Aged was significantly decreased as compared to SE-Young groups. However, rCBF of ET-Aged group was significantly higher than that in the IM-Aged group (P<0.05. Moreover, the percentage of capillary vascularity (%CV and the levels of VEGF and eNOS in the ET-Aged group were significantly increased compared to the IM-Aged group (P<0.05. These results imply that exercise training could improve age-induced microvascular changes and hypoperfusion closely associated with the upregulation of VEGF and eNOS.

  16. Expression profiles of eNOS, iNOS and microRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum of rats submitted to chronic alcoholism and Diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joao Paulo da; Lizarte, Fermino Sanches; Novais, Paulo Cezar; Gattas, Daniela; Carvalho, Camila Albuquerque Mello de; Tirapelli, Daniela Pretti da Cunha; Molina, Carlos Augusto Fernandes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Tucci, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the expression of endothelial and inducible NOS in addition to the miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood of healthy rats, diabetic rats, alcoholic rats and rats with both pathologies. Forty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), alcoholic (A), diabetic (D) and alcoholic-diabetic (AD). Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study protein expressions of eNOS and iNOS by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood. Immunohistochemistry for eNOS and iNOS showed an increase in cavernosal smooth muscle cells in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups when compared with the control group. Similarly, the mRNA levels for eNOS were increased in cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups and miRNA-27b were decreased in CSM in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups. The major new finding of our study was an impairment of relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscle in alcoholic, diabetic, and alcoholic-diabetic rats that involved a decrease in the nitric oxide pathway by endothelium-dependent mechanisms accompanied by a change in the corpus cavernosum contractile sensitivity.

  17. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  18. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Oil Palm Seedlings Treated with Combination of NPK Fertilizers Infected with Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohidin, Hasmah; Idris, Abu Seman; Fariz, A.; Abiri, Rambod; Taheri, Sima; Moradpoor, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is one of the major sources of edible oil. Reducing the effect of Ganoderma, main cause of basal stem rot (BSR) on oil palm, is the main propose of this study. Understanding the oil palm defense mechanism against Ganoderma infection through monitoring changes in the secondary metabolite compounds levels before/after infection by Ganoderma under different fertilizing treatment is required. Oil palm requires macro- and microelements for growth and yield. Manipulating the nutrient for oil palm is a method to control the disease. The 3-4-month-old oil palm seedlings were given different macronutrient treatments to evaluate induction of defense related enzymes and production of secondary metabolite compounds in response to G. boninense inoculation. The observed trend of changes in the infected and uninfected seedlings was a slightly higher activity for β-1,3-glucanases, chitinase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase during the process of pathogenesis. It was found that PR proteins gave positive response to the interaction between oil palm seedlings and Ganoderma infection. Although the responses were activated systematically, they were short-lasting as the changes in enzymes activities appeared before the occurrence of visible symptoms. Effect of different nutrients doses was obviously observed among the results of the secondary metabolite compounds. Many identified/unidentified metabolite compounds were presented, of which some were involved in plant cell defense mechanism against pathogens, mostly belonging to alkaloids with bitter-tasting nitrogenous-compounds, and some had the potential to be used as new markers to detect basal stem rot at the initial step of disease. PMID:29721500

  19. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Oil Palm Seedlings Treated with Combination of NPK Fertilizers Infected with Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Mohidin, Hasmah; Rafii, M Y; Azizi, Parisa; Idris, Abu Seman; Fariz, A; Abiri, Rambod; Taheri, Sima; Moradpoor, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is one of the major sources of edible oil. Reducing the effect of Ganoderma, main cause of basal stem rot (BSR) on oil palm, is the main propose of this study. Understanding the oil palm defense mechanism against Ganoderma infection through monitoring changes in the secondary metabolite compounds levels before/after infection by Ganoderma under different fertilizing treatment is required. Oil palm requires macro- and microelements for growth and yield. Manipulating the nutrient for oil palm is a method to control the disease. The 3-4-month-old oil palm seedlings were given different macronutrient treatments to evaluate induction of defense related enzymes and production of secondary metabolite compounds in response to G. boninense inoculation. The observed trend of changes in the infected and uninfected seedlings was a slightly higher activity for β -1,3-glucanases, chitinase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase during the process of pathogenesis. It was found that PR proteins gave positive response to the interaction between oil palm seedlings and Ganoderma infection. Although the responses were activated systematically, they were short-lasting as the changes in enzymes activities appeared before the occurrence of visible symptoms. Effect of different nutrients doses was obviously observed among the results of the secondary metabolite compounds. Many identified/unidentified metabolite compounds were presented, of which some were involved in plant cell defense mechanism against pathogens, mostly belonging to alkaloids with bitter-tasting nitrogenous-compounds, and some had the potential to be used as new markers to detect basal stem rot at the initial step of disease.

  20. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Oil Palm Seedlings Treated with Combination of NPK Fertilizers Infected with Ganoderma boninense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbod Sahebi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is one of the major sources of edible oil. Reducing the effect of Ganoderma, main cause of basal stem rot (BSR on oil palm, is the main propose of this study. Understanding the oil palm defense mechanism against Ganoderma infection through monitoring changes in the secondary metabolite compounds levels before/after infection by Ganoderma under different fertilizing treatment is required. Oil palm requires macro- and microelements for growth and yield. Manipulating the nutrient for oil palm is a method to control the disease. The 3-4-month-old oil palm seedlings were given different macronutrient treatments to evaluate induction of defense related enzymes and production of secondary metabolite compounds in response to G. boninense inoculation. The observed trend of changes in the infected and uninfected seedlings was a slightly higher activity for β-1,3-glucanases, chitinase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase during the process of pathogenesis. It was found that PR proteins gave positive response to the interaction between oil palm seedlings and Ganoderma infection. Although the responses were activated systematically, they were short-lasting as the changes in enzymes activities appeared before the occurrence of visible symptoms. Effect of different nutrients doses was obviously observed among the results of the secondary metabolite compounds. Many identified/unidentified metabolite compounds were presented, of which some were involved in plant cell defense mechanism against pathogens, mostly belonging to alkaloids with bitter-tasting nitrogenous-compounds, and some had the potential to be used as new markers to detect basal stem rot at the initial step of disease.

  1. Screening of the in vitro antileishmanial activities of compounds and secondary metabolites isolated from Maytenus guianensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae chichuá Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION Maytenus guianensis is a member of the Celastraceae family that is used in traditional medicine, particularly for its anti-parasitic and anti-cancer effects. To explore the ethnopharmacological potential of this plant, the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antileishmanial activities of extracts and compounds isolated from M. guianensis. METHODS Maytenus guianensis stems and leaves were extracted in acetone, followed by the preparation of eluates and isolation of secondary metabolites using chromatography on a glass column with silica gel as the fixed phase. The chemical components were identified using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen-1 and carbon-13, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of these eluates and compounds were evaluated by direct promastigote counting and viability assays. RESULTS It was found that the hexane bark eluate produced the strongest anti-L. amazonensis effect, with 90-100% inhibition of the promastigote form. The isolated metabolite that produced the best result was tingenone B, followed by a compound formed by the union of tingenone and tingenone B (80-90% inhibition. CONCLUSIONS Maytenus guianensis shows anti-parasite activity that warrants further investigation to determine the mechanisms underlying this antileishmanial effect and to evaluate the pharmacological potential of these eluates and isolated secondary metabolites, while minimizing any adverse effects.

  2. Screening of the in vitro antileishmanial activities of compounds and secondary metabolites isolated from Maytenus guianensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae) chichuá Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira; Lima, Renato Abreu; Hurtado, Fernanda Bay; Passarini, Guilherme Matos; Macedo, Sharon Rose Aragão; Barros, Neuza Biguinati de; Oliveira, Flávio Augusto de Souza; Medeiros, Patrícia Soares de Maria de; Militão, Júlio Sancho Linhares Teixeira; Nicolete, Roberto; Facundo, Valdir Alves

    2016-01-01

    Maytenus guianensis is a member of the Celastraceae family that is used in traditional medicine, particularly for its anti-parasitic and anti-cancer effects. To explore the ethnopharmacological potential of this plant, the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antileishmanial activities of extracts and compounds isolated from M. guianensis. Maytenus guianensis stems and leaves were extracted in acetone, followed by the preparation of eluates and isolation of secondary metabolites using chromatography on a glass column with silica gel as the fixed phase. The chemical components were identified using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen-1 and carbon-13, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of these eluates and compounds were evaluated by direct promastigote counting and viability assays. It was found that the hexane bark eluate produced the strongest anti-L. amazonensis effect, with 90-100% inhibition of the promastigote form. The isolated metabolite that produced the best result was tingenone B, followed by a compound formed by the union of tingenone and tingenone B (80-90% inhibition). Maytenus guianensis shows anti-parasite activity that warrants further investigation to determine the mechanisms underlying this antileishmanial effect and to evaluate the pharmacological potential of these eluates and isolated secondary metabolites, while minimizing any adverse effects.

  3. A General Catalyst for Site-Selective C(sp(3))-H Bond Amination of Activated Secondary over Tertiary Alkyl C(sp(3))-H Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scamp, Ryan J; Jirak, James G; Dolan, Nicholas S; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2016-06-17

    The discovery of transition metal complexes capable of promoting general, catalyst-controlled and selective carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond amination of activated secondary C-H bonds over tertiary alkyl C(sp(3))-H bonds is challenging, as substrate control often dominates when reactive nitrene intermediates are involved. In this letter, we report the design of a new silver complex, [(Py5Me2)AgOTf]2, that displays general and good-to-excellent selectivity for nitrene insertion into propargylic, benzylic, and allylic C-H bonds over tertiary alkyl C(sp(3))-H bonds.

  4. The effect of high protein diet and exercise on irisin, eNOS, and iNOS expressions in kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastekin, Ebru; Palabiyik, Orkide; Ulucam, Enis; Uzgur, Selda; Karaca, Aziz; Vardar, Selma Arzu; Yilmaz, Ali; Aydogdu, Nurettin

    2016-08-01

    Long-term effects of high protein diets (HPDs) on kidneys are still not sufficiently studied. Irisin which increases oxygen consumption and thermogenesis in white fat cells was shown in skeletal muscles and many tissues. Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. We aimed to investigate the effects of HPD, irisin and NO expression in kidney and relation of them with exercise and among themselves. Animals were grouped as control, exercise, HPD and exercise combined with HPD (exercise-HPD). Rats were kept on a HPD for 5 weeks and an exercise program was given them as 5 exercise and 2 rest days per week exercising on a treadmill with increasing speed and angle. In our study, while HPD group had similar total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels with control group, exercise and exercise-HPD groups had lower levels (p highly selective and quite clear in this study. Effects of exercise and HPD on kidney should be evaluated with different exercise protocols and contents of the diet. İrisin, eNOS, and iNOS staining localizations should be supported with various research studies.

  5. Postmodification of MOF-5 using secondary complex formation using 8- hydroxyquinoline (HOQ) for the development of visible light active photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Sanjay R.; Ramteke, Shruti M.

    2018-05-01

    A novel HOQ@MOF-5 compound photocatalyst was successfully constructed by interacting 8- Hydroxyquinoline with MOF-5 synthesized through a room temperature method. The secondary complex formation between the Zn cluster with 8-Hydroxyquinoline harnessed visible light and acted as a mediator to transfer photoinduced electrons to MOF-5 for enhancing the photocatalytic reaction rate with visible light. HOQ@MOF-5 was characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, such as XRD showing the crystalline nature of compound, UV-Visible spectroscopy showing the 2.54 eV band gap of HOQ@MOF-5 and morphological analysis tools, such as the nanoparticle nature of the compound with 9.561 nm particle size. The photocatalytic effect was estimated using the photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a representative organic pollutant under visible light irradiation. This work provides a new compound acting as source of electrons transfer for the development of efficient photocatalysts for remediation of environmental pollution.

  6. Barriers to Physical Activity in Low Back Pain Patients following Rehabilitation: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schaller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Promoting health-enhancing physical activity following rehabilitation is a well-known challenge. This study analysed the barriers to leisure time activity among low back pain patients. Methods. A subset of 192 low back pain patients who participated in a randomized controlled trial promoting physical activity was analysed. Physical activity, barriers, and sociodemographic and indication-related variables were assessed by a questionnaire. Differences in barriers between active and inactive participants were tested by Pearson’s chi squared test. A logistic regression model was fitted to identify influencing factors on physical activity at six months following rehabilitation. Results. Inactive and active participants differed significantly in nine of the 19 barriers assessed. The adjusted regression model showed associations of level of education (OR = 5.366 [1.563; 18.425]; p value = 0.008 and fear of pain (OR = 0.612 [0.421; 0.889]; p value = 0.010 with physical activity. The barriers included in the model failed to show any statistically significant association after adjustment for sociodemographic factors. Conclusions. Low back pain patients especially with a low level of education and fear of pain seem to need tailored support in overcoming barriers to physical activity. This study is registered at German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00004878.

  7. Relationship between Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity among Primary and Secondary School Students: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…

  8. Application of EM tomography to detect a buried pipe; EM tomography no maisetsukan tansa eno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, S [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    EM tomography was applied to detect buried pipes. Underground radar exploration method is limited to 10m in depth. Positive use of bored holes is desirable, and in such case, magnetic logging based on the magnetic susceptibility (MS) contrast between buried body and surrounding ground is effective. The primary magnetic field is generated by coil current, and the secondary one is generated by the primary one responding to foreign bodies in the ground. Since the measured primary magnetic field of low frequency within 10Hz can be treated as static magnetic field responding to MS in the ground, it is useful to determine MS distributions. Since the measured magnetic field of high frequency within 100kHz can be treated as induction field responding to conductivity in the ground, it is useful to determine resistivity distributions. The EM tomography which can image both above distributions by using electromagnetic wave in a wide frequency range, was applied to detect buried pipes. The EM tomography could detect an buried foreign body of 3m in diameter at 10m in distance between bored holes. The theoretical equation for analysis was also derived. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Changing from primary to secondary school highlights opportunities for school environment interventions aiming to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Strugnell, Claudia; Allender, Steven

    2015-05-08

    There is little empirical evidence of the impact of transition from primary to secondary school on obesity-related risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a change of school system on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in pre-early adolescents. Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia were recruited at random from the bottom two strata of a five level socio-economic scale. In nine schools, students in year 6 primary school transitioned to a different school for year 7 secondary school, while in six schools (combined primary-secondary), students remained in the same school environment from year 6 to year 7. Time 1 (T1) measures were collected from students (N=245) in year 6 (age 11-13). Time 2 (T2) data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original student cohort when in year 7. PA and sedentary behaviour data were collected objectively (via ActiGraph accelerometer) and subjectively (via child self-report recall questionnaire). School environment data were collected via school staff survey. Change of behaviour analyses were conducted longitudinally i) for all students and ii) by change/no change of school. Mixed model regression analysis tested for behavioural interaction effects of changing/not changing school. Sixty-three percent (N=152) changed schools from T1 to T2. Across all students we observed declines in average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (-4 min) and light PA (-23 min), and increases in average daily sedentary behaviour (16 min), weekday leisure screen time (17 min) and weekday homework screen time (25 min), all Penvironment, students who changed school reported a greater reduction in PA intensity at recess and lunch, less likelihood to cycle to/from school, greater increase in weekday (41 mins) and weekend (45 mins) leisure screen time (Pbehaviour, and has further compounding effects on behaviour type by changing school environments.

  10. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Sun Lee

    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  11. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  12. The IAEA/WHO Network of SSDLs. Short history, activity and future trends[Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Hans; Zsdanszky, Kalman [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dosimtery Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1990-04-01

    In 1968 at an IAEA meeting in Caracas, Venezuela, the dosimetric requirements of radiotherapy centres were discussed. At that time many radiotherapy departments in developing countries did not have a dosimeter. Even those that had a dosimeter were seldom able to send it to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (PSDL) for proper calibration. The establishment of regional dosimeter calibration laboratories was recommended by the participating experts including representatives of WHO. There was general consent that it was not necessary to establish in every country a PSDL, which would need a very qualified staff and sophisticated equipment. Instead, the establishment of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) was found to be an adequate solution to the problem. The new idea of SSDLs and their role within the international metrology system was thoroughly discussed at a joint IAEA/WHO meeting in Rio de Janeiro (scientific secretaries: H.H. Eisenlohr, IAEA and W. Seelentag, WHO) in December 1974. Considering the fact that an SSDL cannot work in isolation the experts recommended the setting up of an international Network of SSDLs under the auspices of the IAEA and WHO. The statutes of the IAEA/WHO Network of SSDLs were laid down in a Working Arrangement between the IAEA and WHO in April 1976. Later in 1976 the two Directors General of the IAEA and WHO formally announced by circular letters to their respective member states the establishment of the IAEA/WHO Network of SSDL. The Criteria for the Establishment of a Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory were formulated by an Advisory Group and were attached to these letters. At that time there existed already 8 laboratories, which had been designated by WHO during the period 1968-1976 as regional reference centres for dosimetry. Another SSDL had been set up in Rio de Janeiro in collaboration between the Brazilian Government, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the IAEA. As a consequence of the

  13. Demographic factors, workplace factors and active transportation use in the USA: a secondary analysis of 2009 NHTS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Tyler D; Jakicic, John M; Fertman, Carl I; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2017-05-01

    While active transportation has health, economic and environmental benefits, participation within the USA is low. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships of demographic and workplace factors with health-enhancing active transportation and commuting. Participants in the 2009 National Household Travel Survey reported demographics, workplace factors (time/distance to work, flextime availability, option to work from home and work start time) and active transportation (for any purpose) or commuting (to and from work, workers only) as walking or biking (≥10 min bouts only). Multiple logistic regression examined cross-sectional relationships between demographics and workplace factors with active transportation and commuting. Among 152 573 participants, active transportation was reported by 1.11% by biking and 11.74% by walking. Among 111 808 working participants, active commuting was reported by 0.80% by biking and 2.76% by walking. Increased odds (pbike but decreased odds of walk transporting. Inconsistent patterns were observed by race, but whites had greater odds of any biking (p<0.05). Odds of active commuting were higher with a flexible schedule (p<0.001), the option to work from home (p<0.05), shorter time and distance to work (both p<0.001), and work arrival time between 11:00 and 15:59 (walking only, p=0.001). Active transportation differed across demographic and workplace factors. These relationships could inform infrastructure policy decisions and workplace wellness programming targeting increased active transportation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Ice nucleation activity of diesel soot particles at cirrus relevant temperature conditions: Effects of hydration, secondary organics coating, soot morphology, and coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar; China, Swarup; Liu, Shang; Nandasiri, Manjula; Sharma, Noopur; Wilson, Jacqueline; Aiken, Allison C.; Chand, Duli; Laskin, Alexander; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Pekour, Mikhail; Shilling, John; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2016-04-01

    Ice formation by diesel soot particles was investigated at temperatures ranging from -40 to -50°C. Size-selected soot particles were physically and chemically aged in an environmental chamber, and their ice nucleating properties were determined using a continuous flow diffusion type ice nucleation chamber. Bare (freshly formed), hydrated, and compacted soot particles, as well as α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA)-coated soot particles at high relative humidity conditions, showed ice formation activity at subsaturation conditions with respect to water but below the homogeneous freezing threshold conditions. However, SOA-coated soot particles at dry conditions were observed to freeze at homogeneous freezing threshold conditions. Overall, our results suggest that heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of freshly emitted diesel soot particles are sensitive to some of the aging processes that soot can undergo in the atmosphere.

  15. Secondary metabolites from Ganoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushrooms. This review deals with secondary metabolites isolated from Ganoderma and their biological significance. Phytochemical studies over the last 40years led to the isolation of 431 secondary metabolites from various Ganoderma species. The major secondary compounds isolated are (a) C30 lanostanes (ganoderic acids), (b) C30 lanostanes (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, glycosides, lactones, ketones), (c) C27 lanostanes (lucidenic acids), (d) C27 lanostanes (alcohols, lactones, esters), (e) C24, C25 lanostanes (f) C30 pentacyclic triterpenes, (g) meroterpenoids, (h) farnesyl hydroquinones (meroterpenoids), (i) C15 sesquiterpenoids, (j) steroids, (k) alkaloids, (l) prenyl hydroquinone (m) benzofurans, (n) benzopyran-4-one derivatives and (o) benzenoid derivatives. Ganoderma lucidum is the species extensively studied for its secondary metabolites and biological activities. Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma colossum, Ganoderma sinense, Ganoderma cochlear, Ganoderma tsugae, Ganoderma amboinense, Ganoderma orbiforme, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma hainanense, Ganoderma concinna, Ganoderma pfeifferi, Ganoderma neo-japonicum, Ganoderma tropicum, Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Ganoderma fornicatum, Ganoderma lipsiense (synonym G. applanatum), Ganoderma mastoporum, Ganoderma theaecolum, Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma capense and Ganoderma annulare are the other Ganoderma species subjected to phytochemical studies. Further phytochemical studies on Ganoderma could lead to the discovery of hitherto unknown biologically active secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of load leveling in Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc.; Hokuriku denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. aims at an around 2% improvement of the load factor up to 2005, by which the quick and proper service and the proposal of load leveling menu are planned. This paper describes an outline of the investigation of load leveling. Various programs have been proposed so that the customers can further shift the load by their consideration. Proposed systems include the time-of-day electricity rate system, the load regulation contract system for industries, the seasonal time-of-day rate system, the electric power system for snowmelt in which the load is dumped at the peak, and the secondary electric power system for snowmelt. Accompanying with the revision of electric utility law, the enlargement of its available time, the price reduction, and the discount rate system for the ice regenerative air conditioners have been provided. For the business activities, a demonstration model house was exhibited to indicate a proper house with local characteristics in Hokuriku district. Furthermore, the spreading activities of regenerative systems and the consulting activities have been positively promoted. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Bio-Activity and Dereplication-Based Discovery of Ophiobolins and Other Fungal Secondary Metabolites Targeting Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Thorskov Bladt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize fungal natural products (NPs with in vitro bioactivity towards leukemia cells. We based our screening on a combined analytical and bio-guided approach of LC-DAD-HRMS dereplication, explorative solid-phase extraction (E-SPE, and a co-culture platform of CLL and stromal cells. A total of 289 fungal extracts were screened and we tracked the activity to single compounds in seven of the most active extracts. The novel ophiobolin U was isolated together with the known ophiobolins C, H, K as well as 6-epiophiobolins G, K and N from three fungal strains in the Aspergillus section Usti. Ophiobolins A, B, C and K displayed bioactivity towards leukemia cells with induction of apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations. The remaining ophiobolins were mainly inactive or only slightly active at micromolar concentrations. Dereplication of those ophiobolin derivatives possessing different activity in combination with structural analysis allowed a correlation of the chemical structure and conformation with the extent of bioactivity, identifying the hydroxy group at C3 and an aldehyde at C21, as well as the A/B-cis ring structure, as indispensible for the strong activity of the ophiobolins. The known compounds penicillic acid, viridicatumtoxin, calbistrin A, brefeldin A, emestrin A, and neosolaniol monoacetate were identified from the extracts and also found generally cytotoxic.

  18. Ubiad1 is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates eNOS activity by CoQ10 synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugoni, V.; Postel, R.; Catanzaro, V.; De Luca, E.; Turco, E.; Digilio, G.; Silengo, L.; Murphy, M.P.; Medana, C.; Stainier, D.Y.; Bakkers, J.; Santoro, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish

  19. The influence of a consumer-wearable activity tracker on sedentary time and prolonged sedentary bouts: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Robert A; Kim, Youngdeok; Sahasranaman, Aarti; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Biddle, Stuart J H; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2018-03-22

    A recent meta-analysis surmised pedometers were a useful panacea to independently reduce sedentary time (ST). To further test and expand on this deduction, we analyzed the ability of a consumer-wearable activity tracker to reduce ST and prolonged sedentary bouts (PSB). We originally conducted a 12-month randomized control trial where 800 employees from 13 organizations were assigned to control, activity tracker, or one of two activity tracker plus incentive groups designed to increase step count. The primary outcome was accelerometer measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We conducted a secondary analysis on accelerometer measured daily ST and PSB bouts. A general linear mixed model was used to examine changes in ST and prolonged sedentary bouts, followed by between-group pairwise comparisons. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of changes in step counts with ST and PSB. The changes in ST and PSB were not statistically significant and not different between the groups (P consumer-wearable activity trackers as a means to reduce sedentary behavior. Trial registration NCT01855776 Registered: August 8, 2012.

  20. α-Glucosidase Inhibition and Antibacterial Activity of Secondary Metabolites from the Ecuadorian Species Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth Govaerts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Morocho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of both volatile and fixed metabolites of Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth Govaerts (Lamiaceae was performed for the first time. It allowed the isolation and characterization of the essential oil and six known compounds: carvacrol (1, squalane (2, uvaol (3, erythrodiol (4, ursolic acid (5, and salvigenin (6. Their structures were identified and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS, and corroborated by literature. The essential oil of the leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation in two different periods and analyzed by GC-MS and GC coupled to Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. A total of 54 compounds were detected, of which 42 were identified (including trace constituents. The major constituents were carvacrol methyl ether (18.9–23.2%, carvacrol (13.8–16.3% and, carvacryl acetate (11.4–4.8%. The antibacterial activities were determined as Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. The hexane and methanol extracts exhibited activity only against Klebsiella pneumoniae (250 and 500 μg/mL respectively, while the ethyl acetate extract was inactive. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by the in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract showed strong inhibitory activity with IC50 = 24.88 µg/mL, however methanolic and hexanic extracts showed weak activity. As a pure compound, only ursolic acid showed a strong inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 72.71 μM.

  1. Detection of secondary eclipses of WASP-10b and Qatar-1b in the Ks band and the correlation between Ks-band temperature and stellar activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Patricia; Barrado, David; Lillo-Box, Jorge; Diaz, Marcos; López-Morales, Mercedes; Birkby, Jayne; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hodgkin, Simon

    2017-10-01

    The Calar Alto Secondary Eclipse study was a program dedicated to observe secondary eclipses in the near-IR of two known close-orbiting exoplanets around K-dwarfs: WASP-10b and Qatar-1b. Such observations reveal hints on the orbital configuration of the system and on the thermal emission of the exoplanet, which allows the study of the brightness temperature of its atmosphere. The observations were performed at the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). We used the OMEGA2000 instrument (Ks band) at the 3.5m telescope. The data was acquired with the telescope strongly defocused. The differential light curve was corrected from systematic effects using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The final light curve was fitted using an occultation model to find the eclipse depth and a possible phase shift by performing a MCMC analysis. The observations have revealed a secondary eclipse of WASP-10b with depth of 0.137%, and a depth of 0.196% for Qatar-1b. The observed phase offset from expected mid-eclipse was of -0.0028 for WASP-10b, and of -0.0079 for Qatar-1b. These measured offsets led to a value for |ecosω| of 0.0044 for the WASP-10b system, leading to a derived eccentricity which was too small to be of any significance. For Qatar-1b, we have derived a |ecosω| of 0.0123, however, this last result needs to be confirmed with more data. The estimated Ks-band brightness temperatures are of 1647 K and 1885 K for WASP-10b and Qatar-1b, respectively. We also found an empirical correlation between the (R'HK) activity index of planet hosts and the Ks-band brightness temperature of exoplanets, considering a small number of systems.

  2. An Evaluation of Gas Law Webquest Based on Active Learning Style in a Secondary School in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Siraj, Saedah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the PTEchLS WebQuest on Gas Laws was evaluated. It was designed for Form Four students with active learning styles. The focus of the evaluation was on the usability and effectiveness of the PTechLS WebQuest. Data were collected from interviews and students' achievement scores. Two teachers and eight students volunteered to…

  3. Popular Culture, English Out-of-Class Activities, and Learner Autonomy among Highly Proficient Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoi Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning [1]. Out-of-class…

  4. The Inflammasome Drives GSDMD-Independent Secondary Pyroptosis and IL-1 Release in the Absence of Caspase-1 Protease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katharina S; Groß, Christina J; Dreier, Roland F; Saller, Benedikt S; Mishra, Ritu; Gorka, Oliver; Heilig, Rosalie; Meunier, Etienne; Dick, Mathias S; Ćiković, Tamara; Sodenkamp, Jan; Médard, Guillaume; Naumann, Ronald; Ruland, Jürgen; Kuster, Bernhard; Broz, Petr; Groß, Olaf

    2017-12-26

    Inflammasomes activate the protease caspase-1, which cleaves interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 to generate the mature cytokines and controls their secretion and a form of inflammatory cell death called pyroptosis. By generating mice expressing enzymatically inactive caspase-1 C284A , we provide genetic evidence that caspase-1 protease activity is required for canonical IL-1 secretion, pyroptosis, and inflammasome-mediated immunity. In caspase-1-deficient cells, caspase-8 can be activated at the inflammasome. Using mice either lacking the pyroptosis effector gasdermin D (GSDMD) or expressing caspase-1 C284A , we found that GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis prevented caspase-8 activation at the inflammasome. In the absence of GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis, the inflammasome engaged a delayed, alternative form of lytic cell death that was accompanied by the release of large amounts of mature IL-1 and contributed to host protection. Features of this cell death modality distinguished it from apoptosis, suggesting it may represent a distinct form of pro-inflammatory regulated necrosis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  6. Crystal Structure of the CTP1L Endolysin Reveals How Its Activity Is Regulated by a Secondary Translation Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Matthew; Leicht, Stefan; Krichel, Boris; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Thompson, Andrew; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Svergun, Dmitri I; Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Garde, Sonia; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Narbad, Arjan; Mayer, Melinda J; Meijers, Rob

    2016-03-04

    Bacteriophages produce endolysins, which lyse the bacterial host cell to release newly produced virions. The timing of lysis is regulated and is thought to involve the activation of a molecular switch. We present a crystal structure of the activated endolysin CTP1L that targets Clostridium tyrobutyricum, consisting of a complex between the full-length protein and an N-terminally truncated C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). The truncated CBD is produced through an internal translation start site within the endolysin gene. Mutants affecting the internal translation site change the oligomeric state of the endolysin and reduce lytic activity. The activity can be modulated by reconstitution of the full-length endolysin-CBD complex with free CBD. The same oligomerization mechanism applies to the CD27L endolysin that targets Clostridium difficile and the CS74L endolysin that targets Clostridium sporogenes. When the CTP1L endolysin gene is introduced into the commensal bacterium Lactococcus lactis, the truncated CBD is also produced, showing that the alternative start codon can be used in other bacterial species. The identification of a translational switch affecting oligomerization presented here has implications for the design of effective endolysins for the treatment of bacterial infections. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Antitumor activity of hierridin B, a cyanobacterial secondary metabolite found in both filamentous and unicellular marine strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro N Leão

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are widely recognized as a valuable source of bioactive metabolites. The majority of such compounds have been isolated from so-called complex cyanobacteria, such as filamentous or colonial forms, which usually display a larger number of biosynthetic gene clusters in their genomes, when compared to free-living unicellular forms. Nevertheless, picocyanobacteria are also known to have potential to produce bioactive natural products. Here, we report the isolation of hierridin B from the marine picocyanobacterium Cyanobium sp. LEGE 06113. This compound had previously been isolated from the filamentous epiphytic cyanobacterium Phormidium ectocarpi SAG 60.90, and had been shown to possess antiplasmodial activity. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from both strains confirmed that these cyanobacteria derive from different evolutionary lineages. We further investigated the biological activity of hierridin B, and tested its cytotoxicity towards a panel of human cancer cell lines; it showed selective cytotoxicity towards HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

  8. Anti-Phytopathogenic and Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts and Secondary Metabolites of Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lin Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one isolates belonging to eight genera in seven orders were identified from 141 strains that were isolated from several marine plants. Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. were found to be the predominant fungi. Evaluation of the anti-phytopathogenic bacterial and fungal activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of these 31 extracts, revealed that most of them displayed different levels of bioactivities. Due to their interesting bioactivities, two fungal strains—Fusarium equiseti (P18 and Alternaria sp. (P8—were selected for chemical investigation and compounds 1–4 were obtained. The structure of 1 was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analysis, as well as high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS, and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbon (C-11 was established by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular-dichroism (ECD spectra. Moreover, alterperylenol (4 exhibited antibacterial activity against Clavibacter michiganensis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 1.95 μg/mL, which was 2-fold stronger than that of streptomycin sulfate. Additionally, an antibacterial mechanism study revealed that 4 caused membrane hyperpolarization without evidence of destruction of cell membrane integrity. Furthermore, stemphyperylenol (3 displayed potent antifungal activity against Pestallozzia theae and Alternaria brassicicola with MIC values equal to those of carbendazim. The cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 against human lung carcinoma (A-549, human cervical carcinoma (HeLa, and human hepatoma (HepG2 cell lines were also evaluated.

  9. Secondary structure changes induced by pulsed electric field affect antioxidant activity of pentapeptides from pine nut (Pinus koraiensis) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Cheng, Sheng; Wang, Xiuying

    2018-07-15

    We used a pulsed electric field (PEF) to treat four pentapeptides with similar amino acid sequences (KCHKP, KCHQP, QCHKP, and QCHQP). We then evaluated antioxidant activity of the pentapeptides according to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity. Structures of the peptides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mid-infrared (MIR), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results indicated that antioxidant activities of KCHQP and QCHKP were increased by PEF, whereas those of KCHKP and QCHQP were reduced. The basic structures and functional groups of peptides were unaffected. PEF treatment reduced the α-helix contents of KCHQP and QCHKP, but increased those of KCHKP and QCHQP. Moreover, the chemical shifts at 14.46 ppm, 8.22 ppm, 7.87 ppm, 7.24 ppm, and 6.13 ppm attributable to hydrogen atoms of QCHKP shifted to the right, but the active hydrogens of QCHQP were not affected by PEF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Depressive symptoms among older adults with long-term spinal cord injury: Associations with secondary health conditions, sense of coherence, coping strategies and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Jörgensen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the presence of depressive symptoms among older adults with long-term spinal cord injury and investigate the association with sociodemographic and injury characteristics; and to determine how potentially modifiable factors, i.e. secondary health conditions, sense of coherence, coping strategies and leisure-time physical activity, are associated with depressive symptoms. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 122 individuals (70% men, injury levels C1–L5, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A–D, mean age 63 years, mean time since injury 24 years. Methods: Data from the Swedish Aging with Spinal Cord Injury Study, collected using the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, the 13-item Sense of Coherence Scale, the Spinal Cord Lesion-related Coping Strategies Questionnaire and the Physical Activity Recall Assessment for people with Spinal Cord Injury. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Results: A total of 29% reported clinically relevant depressive symptoms and 5% reported probable depression. Sense of coherence, the coping strategy Acceptance, neuropathic pain and leisure-time physical activity explained 53% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Older adults with long-term spinal cord injury report a low presence of probable depression. Mental health may be supported through rehabilitation that strengthens the ability to understand and confront life stressors, promotes acceptance of the injury, provides pain management and encourages participation in leisure-time physical activity.

  11. Relationship Between Attitudes and Beliefs and Physical Activity in Older Adults With Knee Pain: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nadine E.; Ogollah, Reuben O.; Croft, Peter R.; Holden, Melanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate how attitudes and beliefs about exercise relate to physical activity behavior in older adults with knee pain attributable to osteoarthritis (OA). Methods We conducted secondary data analyses of a randomized controlled trial of exercise interventions (ISRCTN: 93634563). Participants were adults ≥45 years old with knee pain attributable to OA (n = 514). Crude and adjusted cross‐sectional and longitudinal associations between baseline Self‐Efficacy for Exercise (SEE), Positive Outcome Expectations for Exercise (POEE), Negative Outcome Expectations for Exercise scores, and physical activity level, at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months (measured by self‐report using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly [PASE]), and important increases in physical activity level (from baseline to 6‐month followup) were investigated using multiple linear and logistic regression. Results Cross‐sectional associations were found between SEE and PASE scores (β = 4.14 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.26, 8.03]) and POEE and PASE scores (β = 16.71 [95% CI 1.87, 31.55]), adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Longitudinal associations were found between baseline SEE and PASE scores at 3 months (β = 4.95 [95% CI 1.02, 8.87]) and 6 months β = 3.71 (0.26, 7.16), and baseline POEE and PASE at 3 months (β = 34.55 [95% CI 20.13, 48.97]) and 6 months (β = 25.74 [95% CI 11.99, 39.49]), adjusted for baseline PASE score and intervention arm. However, no significant associations with important increases in physical activity level were found. Conclusion Greater exercise self‐efficacy and more positive exercise outcome expectations were associated with higher current and future physical activity levels. These may be targets for interventions aimed at increasing physical activity. PMID:27696795

  12. Influence of eNOS gene 4a/bVNTR polymorphism on development of endothelial dysfunction and respiratory system disorders in children - residents of radioactively contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, Je.Yi.; Kolpakov, Yi.Je.; Zigalo, V.M.; And Others

    2015-01-01

    Total of 184 children were examined to determine the possible associative links between eNOS gene intron 4m polymorphism and indices characterizing the functional state of the endothelium and the bronchopulmonary system. Of them the main group of children consisted of 135 childrenresidents of radioactively contaminated areas, the control group - of 49 healthy children who lived in ''clean'' regions by the radioactive con tamination and were not belonging to victims of the Chernobyl accident contingents. The molecular genetic study determining the eNOS gene intron 4 polymorphism was performed. Children of the main group did not differ from that of control and literature data by the frequency of geno types 4a/b and eNOS gene allele polymorphism. An increase in the duration of circulation restoration up to the ini tial level after occlusion test was noted in children of the main group with genotype 4a/4b comparing to children with genotype 4b/4b ; a decrease in the nitrite content was observed in blood serum. The integral indices of elastic ity and tensility of the lung tissue, respiratory permeability were decreased; the signs of bronchospasm were record ed 1.5 times more often. These adverse effects were associated with the presence of genotype allele 4a , the signs of endothelial dysfunction and the level of the incorporated 137 Cs. More pronounced changes in vascular endothelial reaction to occlusion and the significant decrease of serum nitrite level in allele 4a carriers, especially in children who live in adverse ecological conditions, give the right to include them into the risk group for the development of endothelial dysfunction, and to conside pulmonary dysfunction as one of its manifestations

  13. Astronaut suitability requirements and selection process; Uchu hikoshi tanjo eno michi (shishitsu yokyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, H. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Manned space activities at National Space Development Agency of Japan and the suitability requirements that an astronaut is supposed to satisfy are described. At the first phase, candidates have to participate in a manned space experiment utilizing a NASA space shuttle and, in 1985, Mori, Mukai, and Doi were selected to be payload specialists. At the second phase, Astronauts Wakata, Doi, and Mori were sent to the mission specialist training course, this being one of the jobs aboard a space shuttle, which was for preparing for the construction and operation of the international space station. In January, 1996, Astronaut Wakata performed extravehicular tool manipulation and so forth, and Astronaut Doi did the same in 1997. The endowments that an astronaut is expected to have include undoubted professionalism, adaptability to branches out of his field, adaptability to a prolonged stay in space, spirit of teamwork and coordination, and ability to perform wide range of duties aboard an international space station. (NEDO)

  14. Cataract: A major secondary complication of diabetes, its epidemiology and an overview on major medicinal plants screened for anticataract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel DK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is a visual impairment caused due to opacification or optical dysfunction of crystallin lens affecting more than 17 million people around the world. Even though the incidences of cataract are increasing day by day among the elderly persons but, still except surgery no other ways of treatment have been successfully developed so far. Thus, the aim of writing the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of cataract along with discussing the remedies available for the disorder. The review also describes different experimental models with their relevant mechanism and significance such as galactose-induced, naphthalene-induced and selenite-induced cataract models which are mainly used for evaluating the anticataract activity of a particular drug (mainly of natural origin. The review includes list of plants and their phytoconstituents which have been so far evaluated pharmacologicaly for the treatment of cataract. From the survey, it was confirmed that the antioxidant property of plants phytoconstituents are basically responsible for their effective anticataract activity. Thus, the valuable information provided in the present review will help researches in developing an alternative method rather than surgery for the treatment of cataract which will minimize the rate of blindness due to cataract thus, benefiting and extending protective aspects of eyes, an integral part of human body.

  15. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus O.; Mortensen, Alicja; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of estrogen replacement therapy or soy isoflavones supplement on endothelium-dependent relaxation in vitro and gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cerebral arteries in a rabbit model of human hypercholesterolemia. Study design: Thirty...... cholesterol was significantly higher at termination in the SoyLife(R) group (P lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was comparable in all treatment groups. Neither treatment influenced the endothelium-dependent responses to carbamylcholine chloride or L-NAME or the endothelium...

  16. Influencia del fenómeno ENOS (El Niño y La Niña) en la disponibilidad de grados-día

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada García, Beatriz; Prela, Angélica; Sentelhas, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la influencia del fenómeno ENOS (El Niño y La Niña) sobre la disponibilidad de calor, en 8 localidades, ubicadas en la región centro-occidental de Venezuela, utilizando concepto de grados-día (GD). Los cambios de la temperatura, representados por las variaciones en los GD, afectarían directamente el ciclo fenológico los cultivos, generando un incremento o reducción en función de desvíos positivos o negativos, respectivamente. Los GD estimados fueron agrupados según el evento predomi...

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in secondary school physical education lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Jenna L; Sutherland, Rachel; Williams, Amanda J; Campbell, Elizabeth; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2017-04-24

    Schools play an important role in physical activity promotion for adolescents. The systematic review aimed to determine the proportion of secondary (middle and high) school physical education (PE) lesson time that students spend in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and to assess if MVPA was moderated by school level (middle and high school), type of physical activity measurement and type of PE activities. A systematic search of nine electronic databases was conducted (PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009649). Studies were eligible if they were published between 2005 and 2014; written in English; assessed MVPA in PE lessons of secondary (middle and high) school students; and used a quantitative MVPA measure (i.e., accelerometry, heart rate monitoring, pedometers or observational measures). Two reviewers examined the retrieved articles, assessed risk of bias, and performed data extraction. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled estimate of the percent of PE lesson time spent in MVPA and to assess moderator effects where data allowed. The search yielded 5,132 potentially relevant articles; 28 articles representing 25 studies (7 middle and 18 high school) from seven countries were included. Twelve studies measured MVPA through observational measures, seven used accelerometers, five used heart rate monitors and four used pedometers (including three studies using a mix of measures). Meta-analysis of 15 studies found that overall, students spent a mean (95% CI) of 40.5% (34.8-46.2%) of PE in MVPA. Middle school students spent 48.6% (41.3-55.9%) of the lesson in MVPA (n = 5 studies) and high school students 35.9% (28.3-43.6%) (n = 10 studies). Studies measuring MVPA using accelerometers (n = 5) showed that students spent 34.7% (25.1-44.4%) of the lesson in MVPA, while 44.4% (38.3-50.5%) was found for lessons assessed via observation (n = 9), 43.1% (24.3-61.9%) of the lesson for a heart rate based study, and 35.9% (31.0-40.8%) for a

  18. Ferrihydrite-impregnated granular activated carbon (FH@GAC) for efficient phosphorus removal from wastewater secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahardika, Dedy; Park, Hak-Soon; Choo, Kwang-Ho

    2018-05-23

    Adsorptive removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents has attracted attention because of its reduced sludge production and potential P recovery. In this study, we investigated granular activated carbons (GACs) impregnated with amorphous ferrihydrite (FH@GAC) for the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Preoxidation of intact GAC surfaces using an oxidant (e.g., hypochlorite) and strong acids (e.g., HNO 3 /H 2 SO 4 ) was performed to create active functional groups (e.g., carboxyl or phenolic) for enhanced iron binding, leading to greater phosphorus uptake. Both the rate and the capacity of phosphorus sorption onto FH@GAC had significant, positive relationships (Pearson correlation coefficient r > 0.9) with the product of surface area and Fe content. The pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics explained the P sorption rate better than the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics, whereas the Langmuir model fit the P sorption isotherm better than the Freundlich model. The iron content in the FH@GAC increased significantly (>10 mg/g) when GAC (e.g., BMC1050) was preoxidized by a 1:1 (w/w) concentrated HNO 3 /H 2 SO 4 mixture. The Langmuir maximum P sorption capacity of a functionalized FH@BMC1050 adsorbent prepared with acid pretreatment was estimated to be substantial (5.73 mg P/g GAC corresponding to 526 mg P/g Fe). This sorption capacity was superior to that of a FH slurry, possibly because the nano-sized FH formed inside the GAC pores (<2.5 nm) can bind phosphate ions more effectively than FH aggregates. Fixed-bed column reactor operation with bicarbonate regeneration showed potential for efficient, continuous phosphorus removal by FH@GAC media. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Secondary Analysis for Results Tracking Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Secondary Analysis and Results Tracking (SART) activity provides support for the development of two databases to manage secondary and third-party data, data...

  20. Recurrent myocardial infarctions in a young football player secondary to thrombophilia, associated with elevated factor VIII activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacek TP

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Vacek, Shipeng Yu, Shahnaz Rehman, Blair P Grubb, Daniel Kosinski, Cherian Verghese, Ehab A Eltahawy, Shafiq Qaiser Department of Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Myocardial infarction (MI due to coronary atherosclerosis in young adults is uncommon; rare causes such as cocaine abuse, arterial dissection, and thromboembolism should be considered. A 21-year-old football player, and otherwise healthy African American man, developed chest pain during exercise while bench-pressing 400 lbs. Acute MI was diagnosed based on physical examination, electrocardiography findings, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary arteriography showed a thrombus occluding the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD. Aggressive antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide was pursued, in addition to standard post-MI care. This led to the successful resolution of symptoms and dissolution of the thrombus, demonstrated by repeat coronary arteriography. Five months later, he presented with similar symptoms during exercise after lifting heavy weights, and was found to have another acute MI. Coronary arteriography again showed a thrombus occluding the LAD. No evidence of coronary artery dissection or vasospasm was found. Only mild atherosclerotic plaque burden was observed on both occasions by intravascular ultrasound. A bare metal stent was placed at the site as it was thought this site had acted as a nidus for small plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Elevated serum factor VIII activity at 205% (reference range 60%–140% was found, a rare cause of hypercoagulability. Further workup revealed a patent foramen ovale during a Valsalva maneuver by transesophageal echocardiography. Both events occurred during weight lifting, which can transiently increase right heart pressure in a similar way to the Valsalva maneuver. In light of all the findings, we concluded that an exercise-related increase in factor

  1. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225, eNOS (rs1799983, CBS (rs2850144 and ACE (rs4343 gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects

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    Mehri Khatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case–control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively. The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD.

  2. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225), eNOS (rs1799983), CBS (rs2850144) and ACE (rs4343) gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mehri; Ratki, Farzaneh Morteza; Tajfar, Saba; Akrami, Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case-control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively). The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  3. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

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    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  4. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka J; Finn, Tara; Callister, Robin

    2010-10-28

    Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the field. Australian New Zealand Clinical

  5. Raw material variability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and its relevance for processability in secondary continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, F; Vanhoorne, V; Pilcer, G; Chavez, P-F; Rome, S; Schubert, M A; Aerts, L; De Beer, T

    2018-06-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality. The study described in this article aims at explaining the raw material variability of an API using extensive material characterization on a restricted number of representative batches using multivariate data analysis. It is part of a larger investigation trying to link the API drug substance manufacturing process, the resulting physical API raw material attributes and the drug product continuous manufacturing process. Eight API batches produced using different synthetic routes, crystallization, drying, delumping processes and processing equipment were characterized, extensively. Seventeen properties from seven characterization techniques were retained for further analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Three principal components (PCs) were sufficient to explain 92.9% of the API raw material variability. The first PC was related to crystal length, agglomerate size and fraction, flowability and electrostatic charging. The second PC was driven by the span of the particle size distribution and the agglomerates strength. The third PC was related to surface energy. Additionally, the PCA allowed to summarize the API batch-to-batch variability in only three PCs which can be used in future drug product development studies to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the API raw material variability upon the drug product process. The approach described in this article could be applied to any

  6. Redox-sensitive up-regulation of eNOS by purple grape juice in endothelial cells: role of PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Alhosin

    Full Text Available The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ, which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase, SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK. Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene.

  7. Secondary metabolites constituents and antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm grown in different locations of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Ashkani, Sadegh

    2015-09-23

    Etlingera elatior is a well-known herb in Malaysia with various pharmaceutical properties. E. elatior flowers grown in three different locations of Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang and Johor), were investigated for differences in their content of secondary metabolites (total phenolics [TPC], total flavonoids [TFC], and total tannin content [TTC]) as well as for their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were isolated and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities. The anticancer activity of extracts was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. When extracted with various solvents (aqueous and ethanolic), samples from the different locations yielded significantly different results for TPC, TFC, and TTC as well as antioxidant activity. Aqueous extracts of E. elatior flowers collected from Kelantan exhibited the highest values: TPC (618.9 mg/100 g DM), TFC (354.2 mg/100 g DM), TTC (129.5 mg/100 g DM), DPPH (76.4 %), and FRAP (6.88 mM of Fe (II)/g) activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL compared with extracts of flowers collected from the other two locations. The most important phenolic compounds isolated in this study, based on concentration, were: gallic acid > caffeic acid > tannic acid > chlorogenic acid; and the most important flavonoids were: quercetin > apigenin > kaempferol > luteolin > myricetin. Extracts of flowers from Kelantan exhibited potent anticancer activity with a IC50of 173.1 and 196.2 μg/mL against the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, compared with extracts from Pahang (IC50 = 204.5 and 246.2 μg/mL) and Johor samples (IC50 = 277.1 and 296.7 μg/mL). Extracts of E. elatior flowers also showed

  8. The effect of dance mat exergaming systems on physical activity and health-related outcomes in secondary schools: results from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Liane B; Burges Watson, Duika; Haighton, Catherine; Adams, Jean

    2014-09-12

    Exergaming has been proposed as an innovative method for physical activity promotion. However, large effectiveness studies are rare. In January 2011, dance mat systems were introduced in secondary schools in two districts in England with the aim of promoting an innovative opportunity for physical activity. The aim of this natural experiment was to examine the effect of introducing the dance mat exergaming systems on physical activity and health-related outcomes in 11-13 year old students using a non-randomised controlled design and mixed methods. Participants were recruited from five schools in intervention districts (n = 280) and two schools in neighbouring control districts (n = 217). Data on physical activity (accelerometer), anthropometrics (weight, BMI and percentage of body fat), aerobic fitness (20-m multistage shuttle run test), health-related quality of life (Kidscreen questionnaire), self-efficacy (children's physical activity self-efficacy survey), school attendance, focus groups with children and interviews with teachers were collected at baseline and approximately 12 months follow-up. There was a negative intervention effect on total physical activity (-65.4 cpm CI: -12.6 to -4.7), and light and sedentary physical activity when represented as a percentage of wear time (Light: -2.3% CI: -4.5 to 0.2; Sedentary: 3.3% CI: 0.7 to 5.9). However, compliance with accelerometers at follow-up was poor. There was a significant positive intervention effect on weight (-1.7 kg, 95% CI: -2.9 to -0.4), BMI (-0.9 kg/m2, 95% CI: -1.3 to -0.4) and percentage of body fat (-2.2%, 95% CI: -4.2 to -0.2). There was also evidence of improvement in some health-related quality of life parameters: psychological well-being (2.5, 95% CI: 0.1 to 4.8) and autonomy and parent relation (4.2, 95% CI: 1.4 to 7.0). The implementation of a dance mat exergaming scheme was associated with improvement in anthropometric measurements and parameters of health-related quality of life. However

  9. Immunothrombotic Activity of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns and Extracellular Vesicles in Secondary Organ Failure Induced by Trauma and Sterile Insults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eppensteiner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in injury prevention and emergency response, injury-related death and morbidity continues to increase in the US and worldwide. Patients with trauma, invasive operations, anti-cancer treatment, and organ transplantation produce a host of danger signals and high levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and extracellular vesicles (EVs. DAMPs (e.g., nucleic acids, histone, high-mobility group box 1 protein, and S100 are molecules released from injured, stressed, or activated cells that act as endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors, whereas EVs (e.g., microparticle and exosome are membranous vesicles budding off from plasma membranes and act as messengers between cells. DAMPs and EVs can stimulate multiple innate immune signaling pathways and coagulation cascades, and uncontrolled DAMP and EV production causes systemic inflammatory and thrombotic complications and secondary organ failure (SOF. Thus, DAMPs and EVs represent potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for SOF. High plasma levels of DAMPs and EVs have been positively correlated with mortality and morbidity of patients or animals with trauma or surgical insults. Blocking or neutralizing DAMPs using antibodies or small molecules has been demonstrated to ameliorate sepsis and SOF in animal models. Furthermore, a membrane immobilized with nucleic acid-binding polymers captured and removed multiple DAMPs and EVs from extracellular fluids, thereby preventing the onset of DAMP- and EV-induced inflammatory and thrombotic complications in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of DAMPs, EVs, and SOF and discuss potential therapeutics and preventive intervention for organ failure secondary to trauma, surgery, anti-cancer therapy, and allogeneic transplantation.

  10. Vascular endothelial dysfunction in β-thalassemia occurs despite increased eNOS expression and preserved vascular smooth muscle cell reactivity to NO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekatherina Stoyanova

    Full Text Available The hereditary β-thalassemia major condition requires regular lifelong blood transfusions. Transfusion-related iron overloading has been associated with the onset of cardiovascular complications, including cardiac dysfunction and vascular anomalies. By using an untransfused murine model of β-thalassemia major, we tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial dysfunction, alterations of arterial structure and of its mechanical properties would occur despite the absence of treatments.Vascular function and structure were evaluated ex vivo. Compared to the controls, endothelium-dependent vasodilation with acetylcholine was blunted in mesenteric resistance arteries of β-thalassemic mice while the endothelium-independent vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside produced comparable vessel dilation, indicating endothelial cell impairment with preserved smooth muscle cell reactivity to nitric oxide (NO. While these findings suggest a decrease in NO bioavailability, Western blotting showed heightened expression of aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in β-thalassemia. Vascular remodeling of the common carotid arteries revealed increased medial elastin content. Under isobaric conditions, the carotid arteries of β-thalassemic mice exhibited decreased wall stress and softening due to structural changes of the vessel wall.A complex vasculopathy was identified in untransfused β-thalassemic mice characterized by altered carotid artery structure and endothelial dysfunction of resistance arterioles, likely attributable to reduced NO bioavailability despite enhanced vascular eNOS expression.

  11. Differential effect of beetroot bread on postprandial DBP according to Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D A; George, T W; Lovegrove, J A

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether the presence of Glu298Asp polymorphism in the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene differentially affects the postprandial blood pressure response to dietary nitrate-rich beetroot bread. A randomised, single-blind, controlled, crossover acute pilot study was performed in 14 healthy men (mean age: 34±9 years) who were retrospectively genotyped for Glu298Asp polymorphism (7GG; T carriers 7). Volunteers were randomised to receive 200 g beetroot-enriched bread (1.1 mmol nitrate) or control bread (no beetroot; 0.01 mmol nitrate) on two separate occasions 10 days apart. Baseline and incremental area under the curve of blood pressure and NOx (nitrate/nitrite) were measured for a 6-h postprandial period. A treatment × genotype interaction was observed for diastolic blood pressure (Pconsumption of beetroot bread compared with control bread. No significant differences were observed in the GG group. The beneficial diastolic blood pressure reduction was observed only in the T carriers of the Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene after consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot bread. These data require confirmation in a larger population group.

  12. Learning Activities That Combine Science Magic Activities with the 5E Instructional Model to Influence Secondary-School Students' Attitudes to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jang-Long; Cheng, Meng-Fei; Chang, Ying-Chi; Li, Hsiao-Wen; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Deng-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how learning materials based on Science Magic activities affect student attitudes to science. A quasi-experimental design was conducted to explore the combination of Science Magic with the 5E Instructional Model to develop learning materials for teaching a science unit about friction. The participants…

  13. Toxicity effect of Auxemma oncocalyx fraction and its active principle oncocalyxone A on in vitro culture of caprine secondary follicles and in vitro oocyte maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Leiva-Revilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract of the heartwood of Auxemma oncocalyx (A. oncocalyx and its main component i.e., Oncocalyxone A (onco A, have elevated antioxidant and anti-tumoral activity, but studies on the action of these drugs regarding folliculogenesis are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of A. oncocalyx and onco A on the in vitro culture of isolated secondary follicles and on the in vitro maturation of oocytes from caprine antral follicles grown in vivo. Isolated secondary follicles were randomly distributed in six groups; the non-cultured control was immediately fixed upon isolation. The remaining follicles were cultured for 7 days in ?-MEM+ alone (control or supplemented with DMSO, doxorrubicin, A. oncocalyx or onco A. After culture, follicles were evaluated for antrum formation, growth rate, apoptosis (TUNEL and cellular proliferation (PCNA, as well as gene expression of Bcl2 and Bax. Additionally, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were aspirated and allocated into five treatments for in vitro maturation: control, cultured only in maturation base medium (TCM 199+; or supplemented with DMSO; DXR; A. oncocalyx or onco A. After in vitro maturation, oocyte chromatin configuration and viability were assessed. After 7 days of culture, there was a reduction (P < 0.05 in the percentage of morphologically intact follicles, antrum formation, growth rate and number of PCNA positive granulosa cells in DXR treatment compared to the other treatments. In the DXR treatment a higher percentage (P < 0.05 of TUNEL positive follicles and higher (P < 0.05 relative BAX:BCL2 mRNA ratio’s were observed. After in vitro maturation of the COCs DXR, A. oncocalyx and onco A treatments had a greater (P < 0.05 percentage of abnormal oocytes and a lower (P < 0.05 percentage of viable oocytes as compared with the control group. However, only DXR and onco A treatments increased (P < 0.05 the percentage of alive oocytes with

  14. An Internet-supported Physical Activity Intervention Delivered in Secondary Schools Located in Low Socio-economic Status Communities: Study Protocol for the Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Lester, Aidan; Owen, Katherine B; White, Rhiannon L; Moyes, Ian; Peralta, Louisa; Kirwan, Morwenna; Maeder, Anthony; Bennie, Andrew; MacMillan, Freya; Kolt, Gregory S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gore, Jennifer M; Cerin, Ester; Diallo, Thierno M O; Cliff, Dylan P; Lubans, David R

    2016-01-06

    School-based physical education is an important public health initiative as it has the potential to provide students with regular opportunities to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Unfortunately, in many physical education lessons students do not engage in sufficient MVPA to achieve health benefits. In this trial we will test the efficacy of a teacher professional development intervention, delivered partially via the Internet, on secondary school students' MVPA during physical education lessons. Teaching strategies covered in this training are designed to (i) maximize opportunities for students to be physically active during lessons and (ii) enhance students' autonomous motivation towards physical activity. A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with allocation at the school level (intervention vs. usual care control). Teachers and Year 8 students in government-funded secondary schools in low socio-economic areas of the Western Sydney region of Australia will be eligible to participate. During the main portion of the intervention (6 months), teachers will participate in two workshops and complete two implementation tasks at their school. Implementation tasks will involve video-based self-reflection via the project's Web 2.0 platform and an individualized feedback meeting with a project mentor. Each intervention school will also complete two group peer-mentoring sessions at their school (one per term) in which they will discuss implementation with members of their school physical education staff. In the booster period (3 months), teachers will complete a half-day workshop at their school, plus one online implementation task, and a group mentoring session at their school. Throughout the entire intervention period (main intervention plus booster period), teachers will have access to online resources. Data collection will include baseline, post-intervention (7-8 months after baseline) and maintenance phase (14-15 months after baseline

  15. Effect of a medical food on body mass index and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: secondary analyses from a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, P J G H; Verhey, F R J; Olde Rikkert, M G M; Twisk, J W R; Swinkels, S H N; Scheltens, P

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effect of a medical food (Souvenaid) on body mass index (BMI) and functional abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTION /MEASUREMENTS: These analyses were performed on data from a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter, proof-of-concept study with a similarly designed and exploratory 12-week extension period. Patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score of 20-26) were randomized to receive either the active product or an iso-caloric control product. While primary outcomes included measures of cognition, the 23-item Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale was included as a secondary outcome. Both ADCS-ADL and BMI were assessed at baseline and Weeks 6, 12 and 24. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures mixed model. Overall, data suggested an increased BMI in the active versus the control group at Week 24 (ITT: p = 0.07; PP: p = 0.03), but no treatment effect on ADCS-ADL was observed. However, baseline BMI was found to be a significant treatment effect modifier (ITT: p = 0.04; PP: p = 0.05), and an increase in ADCS-ADL was observed at Week 12 in patients with a 'low' baseline BMI (ITT: p = 0.02; PP: p = 0.04). These data indicate that baseline BMI significantly impacts the effect of Souvenaid on functional abilities. In addition, there was a suggestion that Souvenaid increased BMI.

  16. Clustered randomised controlled trial of two education interventions designed to increase physical activity and well-being of secondary school students: the MOVE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymms, Peter B; Curtis, Sarah E; Routen, Ash C; Thomson, Katie H; Bolden, David S; Bock, Susan; Dunn, Christine E; Cooper, Ashley R; Elliott, Julian G; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Tiffin, Paul A; Kasim, Adetayo S

    2016-01-06

    To assess the effectiveness of 2 interventions in improving the physical activity and well-being of secondary school children. A clustered randomised controlled trial; classes, 1 per school, were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention arms or a control group based on a 2×2 factorial design. The interventions were peer-mentoring and participative learning. Year 7 children (aged 11-12) in the peer-mentoring intervention were paired with year 9 children for 6 weekly mentoring meetings. Year 7 children in the participative learning arm took part in 6 weekly geography lessons using personalised physical activity and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Year 7 children in the combined intervention received both interventions, with the year 9 children only participating in the mentoring sessions. 1494 year 7 students from 60 schools in the North of England took part in the trial. Of these, 43 students opted out of taking part in the evaluation measurements, 2 moved teaching group and 58 changed school. Valid accelerometry outcome data were collected for 892 students from 53 schools; and well-being outcome data were available for 927 students from 52 schools. The primary outcomes were mean minutes of accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity per day, and well-being as evaluated by the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. These data were collected 6 weeks after the intervention; a 12-month follow-up is planned. No significant effects (main or interaction) were observed for the outcomes. However, small positive differences were found for both outcomes for the participative learning intervention. These findings suggest that the 2 school-based interventions did not modify levels of physical activity or well-being within the period monitored. Change in physical activity may require more comprehensive individual behavioural intervention, and/or more system-based efforts to address wider environmental influences such as family, peers, physical environment

  17. Hepatopulmonary syndrome induced by common bile duct ligation in a rabbit model: correlation between pulmonary vascular dilatation on thin-section CT and angiography and serum nitrite concentration or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jin Wha; Kim, Ki Nam; Park, Byung Ho; Kwak, Jong Young; Jeong, Jin Sook; Kim, Young Hoon

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between radiologic vascular dilatation and serum nitrite concentration and eNOS expression in the endothelial cell and pneumocyte in a rabbit model of hepatopulmonary syndrome induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). Thin-section CT scans of the lung and pulmonary angiography were obtained 3 weeks after CBDL (n=6), or a sham operation (n=4), and intrapulmonary vasodilatation was assessed. The diameter and tortuosity of peripheral vessels in the right lower lobe by thin-section CT and angiography at the same level of the right lower lobe in all subjects were correlated to serum nitrite concentration and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) expression as determined by immunostaining. The diameters of pulmonary vessels on thin-section CT were well correlated with nitrite concentrations in serum (r=0.92, ρ < 0.001). Dilated pulmonary vessels were significantly correlated with an increased eNOS expression (r=0.94, ρ < 0.0001), and the severity of pulmonary vessel tortuosity was found to be well correlated with serum nitrite concentration (r=0.90, ρ < 0.001). The peripheral pulmonary vasculature in hepatopulmonary syndrome induced by CBLD was dilated on thin-section CT and on angiographs. Our findings suggest that peripheral pulmonary vascular dilatations are correlated with serum nitrite concentrations and pulmonary eNOS expression

  18. Identifying and sharing data for secondary data analysis of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and their determinants across the life course in Europe : general principles and an example from DEDIPAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakerveld, J.; Loyen, A.; Ling, F.C.M.; De Craemer, M.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; O’Gorman, D.J.; Carlin, A.; Caprinica, L.; Kalter, J.; Oppert, J.-M.; Chastin, S.; Cardon, G.; Brug, J.; MacDonncha, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The utilisation of available cross-European data for secondary data analyses on physical activity, sedentary behaviours and their underlying determinants may benefit from the wide variation that exists across Europe in terms of these behaviours and their determinants. Such reuse of

  19. eNOS se correlaciona com a biogênese mitocondrial em corações com cardiopatia congênita e cianose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O programa de biogênese mitocondrial no coração parece apresentar remodelação adaptativa após estresse biomecânico e oxidativo. Os mecanismos adaptativos que protegem o metabolismo do miocárdio durante a hipóxia são coordenados, em parte, pelo óxido nítrico (NO. OBJETIVO: Observar a biogênese mitocondrial e expressão do óxido nítrico sintase (NOS em corações de cardiopatia congênita com cianose; discutir a resposta mitocondrial à hipóxia crônica do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Foram investigados 20 pacientes com defeitos cardíacos cianóticos (n = 10 ou acianóticos (n = 10. Foram estudadas amostras do miocárdio na via de saída ventricular direita, tomadas durante a operação. A análise morfométrica de mitocôndrias foi realizada por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. A relação mtDNA/nDNA foi determinada com PCR em tempo real. Os níveis de transcrição da subunidade I da citocromo c oxidase (COXI, coativador-1α do receptor γ ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma (PGC-1α, o fator respiratório nuclear 1 (NRF1, e fator de transcrição mitocondrial A (Tfam foram detectados por reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR ativado por fluorescência em tempo real. Os níveis proteicos de COXI e nNOS, iNOS e eNOS foram medidos por técnica de Western Blot. RESULTADOS: A densidade volumétrica mitocondrial (Vv e a densidade numérica (Nv foram significativamente elevadas em pacientes com cianose, em comparação com a cardiopatia congênita acianótica. MtDNA elevada e suprarregulação dos níveis de COXI, PGC-1 α, NRF1 e Tfam mRNA foram observadas em pacientes cianóticos. Os níveis de proteína de COXI e eNOS foram significativamente maiores no miocárdio de pacientes cianóticos que nos de acianóticos. Os níveis de transcrição do PGC-1α se correlacionam com os níveis de eNOS. CONCLUSÃO: A biogênese mitocondrial é ativada no miocárdio da via de saída ventricular na

  20. Age and gender differences in the influences of eNOS T-786C polymorphism on arteriosclerotic parameters in general population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Marowa; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Sonomi; Iwahara, Akihiko; Utsumi, Miyoko; Arita, Mikio; Takeshita, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of T-786C polymorphism in the promoter region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on arteriosclerotic parameters by age and gender were examined. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), heart-rate adjusted augmentation index (AIx@75), pulse pressure (PP) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were assessed as arteriosclerotic parameters in addition to non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) to HDL-C (non-HDL-C/HDL-C) ratio in 1499 participants. T-786C polymorphism (rs2070744) was screened using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Analyses of covariance were carried. Women with the non-C allele showed significantly lower AIx@75 in participants aged gender differences, possibly involving antioxidative and/or endothelial signaling other than inflammatory signaling.

  1. 2,4,6-Tri-amino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium 3-(prop-2-eno-yloxy)propano-ate acrylic acid monosolvate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, V; Kanagathara, N; Chakkaravarthi, G; Marchewka, M K; Anbalagan, G

    2013-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C3H7N6 (+)·C6H7O4 (-)·C3H4O2·H2O, contains a 2,4,6-tri-amino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium cation, a 3-(prop-2-eno-yloxy)propano-ate anion and acrylic acid and water solvent mol-ecules in a 1:1:1:1 ratio and with each species in a general position. In the crystal, the components are linked into a supra-molecular layer in the bc plane via a combination of O-H⋯O, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin, the minor component contribution being approximately 26%.

  2. Role of C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR and -786 C/T eNOS gene polymorphisms in atrial fibrillation susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Giusti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been suggested to play a role in the NonValvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in genes coding for homocysteine (Hcy metabolism enzymes may be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and NVAF. METHODOLOGIES: 456 NVAF patients and 912 matched controls were genotyped by an electronic microchip technology for C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR, and -786C/T eNOS gene polymorphisms. Hcy was determined by an immunoassay method. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genotype distribution of the four polymorphisms as well as genotype combinations did not differ in patients and controls. Hcy was higher in patients than in controls (15.2, 95%CI 14.7-15.7 vs 11.3, 95%CI 11.0-11.6 micromol/L; p<0.0001. In both populations, a genotype-phenotype association (p<0.0001 between Hcy and C677T MTHFR polymorphism was observed; in controls a significant (p = 0.029 association between tHcy and -786C/T eNOS polymorphism was also observed. At the multivariate analysis the NVAF risk significantly increased in the upper quartiles of Hcy compared to the lowest: OR from 2.8 (1.68-4.54 95%CI in Q2 to 12.9 (7.96-21.06 95%CI in Q4. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated the four polymorphisms, although able, at least in part, to affect Hcy, were not associated with an increased risk of NVAF per se or in combination.

  3. Endothelial Fcγ Receptor IIB Activation Blunts Insulin Delivery to Skeletal Muscle to Cause Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Chambliss, Ken L.; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Ahmed, Mohamed; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Huang, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Modest elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with type 2 diabetes. We previously revealed in mice that increased CRP causes insulin resistance and mice globally deficient in the CRP receptor Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) were protected from the disorder. FcγRIIB is expressed in numerous cell types including endothelium and B lymphocytes. Here we investigated how endothelial FcγRIIB influences glucose homeostasis, using mice with elevated CRP expressing or lacking endothelial FcγRIIB. Whereas increased CRP caused insulin resistance in mice expressing endothelial FcγRIIB, mice deficient in the endothelial receptor were protected. The insulin resistance with endothelial FcγRIIB activation was due to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake caused by attenuated insulin delivery, and it was associated with blunted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in skeletal muscle. In culture, CRP suppressed endothelial cell insulin transcytosis via FcγRIIB activation and eNOS antagonism. Furthermore, in knock-in mice harboring constitutively active eNOS, elevated CRP did not invoke insulin resistance. Collectively these findings reveal that by inhibiting eNOS, endothelial FcγRIIB activation by CRP blunts insulin delivery to skeletal muscle to cause insulin resistance. Thus, a series of mechanisms in endothelium that impairs insulin movement has been identified that may contribute to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:27207525

  4. Physical activity domains and cognitive function over three years in older adults with subjective memory complaints: Secondary analysis from the MAPT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Andrieu, Sandrine; Rolland, Yves; Vellas, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations of physical activity (PA) domains (i.e., PA in leisure-time (LTPA), for housework (HPA), or for gardening (GPA)) with cognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaints (no-dementia) and to investigate if those associations were dependent on the status of apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), omega-3 levels and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Observational prospective secondary analysis using longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial. Participants were 420 French community-dwelling people (aged 75.6±4.4; 66.4% women) randomized into the placebo group. They were assessed at baseline, 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month using a battery of neuropsychological tests; a composite cognitive Z score was elaborated for all time points. Data on PA come from baseline and was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire. In time-adjusted analysis, LTPA significantly predicted cognitive function over three years for almost all tests and the composite Z score, with higher LTPA associated with better function; multivariate analysis showed a significant association only for verbal fluency. HPA was not associated to cognitive function, whereas GPA had mixed results. The magnitude of the PA-cognition associations was very weak, being the strongest for LTPA. Stratified analyses showed that the associations between PA and cognitive function were stronger for MCI, people with normal omega-3 index levels, and APOE4 non-carriers. PA domain is an important aspect to take into account when examining the associations between PA and cognitive function. Biomarkers of cognitive function may modulate the PA-cognition associations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of secondary hyperparathyroidism: practice patterns and outcomes of cinacalcet treatment with or without active vitamin D in Austria and Switzerland - the observational TRANSIT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronai, Wolfgang; Rosenkranz, Alexander R; Bock, Andreas; Klauser-Braun, Renate; Jäger, Christine; Pendl, Gunther; Hemetsberger, Margit; Lhotta, Karl

    2017-05-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a complex disorder requiring an individualized multicomponent treatment approach. This study was conducted to identify treatment combinations used in clinical practice in Austria and Switzerland and the potential to control this disorder. A total of 333 adult hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients were analyzed. All patients received conventional care prior to initiation of a cinacalcet-based regimen. During the study, treatment components, e.g. cinacalcet, active vitamin D analogues and phosphate binders, were adapted to individual patient requirements and treatment dynamics were documented. Overall, the mean intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) increased from 64.2 pmol/l to 79.6 pmol/l under conventional therapy and decreased after cinacalcet initiation to 44.0 pmol/l after 12 months (mean decrease between baseline and 12 months -45%). Calcium remained within the normal range throughout the study and phosphorus ranged around the upper limit of normal. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) target achievement for iPTH increased from 44.5% of patients at baseline to 65.7% at 12 months, corrected calcium from 58.9% to 51.9% and phosphorus from 18.4% to 24.4%. On average, approximately 30% of patients adapted their regimen from one observation period to the next. The reasons for changing a given regimen were to attain or maintain any of the bone mineral markers within recommended targets and to avoid developments to extreme values. Some regional differences in practice patterns were identified. No new safety signals emerged. In conclusion, cinacalcet appears to be a necessary treatment component to achieve recommended targets. The detailed composition of the treatment mix should be adapted to patient requirements and reassessed on a regular basis.

  6. Intracellular acidification reduces l-arginine transport via system y+L but not via system y+/CATs and nitric oxide synthase activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Marco A; Morales, Jorge; Cornejo, Marcelo; Blanco, Elias H; Mancilla-Sierpe, Edgardo; Toledo, Fernando; Beltrán, Ana R; Sobrevia, Luis

    2018-04-01

    l-Arginine is taken up via the cationic amino acid transporters (system y + /CATs) and system y + L in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). l-Arginine is the substrate for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) which is activated by intracellular alkalization, but nothing is known regarding modulation of system y + /CATs and system y + L activity, and eNOS activity by the pHi in HUVECs. We studied whether an acidic pHi modulates l-arginine transport and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Cells loaded with a pH-sensitive probe were subjected to 0.1-20 mmol/L NH 4 Cl pulse assay to generate pHi 7.13-6.55. Before pHi started to recover, l-arginine transport (0-20 or 0-1000 μmol/L, 10 s, 37 °C) in the absence or presence of 200 μmol/L N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) (system y + /CATs inhibitor) or 2 mmol/L l-leucine (systemy + L substrate) was measured. Protein abundance for eNOS and serine 1177 or threonine 495 phosphorylated eNOS was determined. The results show that intracellular acidification reduced system y + L but not system y + /CATs mediated l-arginine maximal transport capacity due to reduced maximal velocity. Acidic pHi reduced NO synthesis and eNOS serine 1177 phosphorylation. Thus, system y + L activity is downregulated by an acidic pHi, a phenomenon that may result in reduced NO synthesis in HUVECs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison between paricalcitol and active non-selective vitamin D receptor activator for secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Panpan; Tang, Xiaohong; Qin, Wei; Ji, Ling; Li, Zi

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paricalcitol versus active non-selective vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs) for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) management in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), clinicaltrials.gov (inception to September 2015), and ASN Web site were searched for relevant studies. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that assessed the effects and adverse events of paricalcitol and active non-selective VDRA in adult CKD patients with SHPT was performed using Review Manager 5.2. A total of 10 trials involving 734 patients were identified for this review. The quality of included trials was limited, and very few trials reported all-cause mortality or cardiovascular calcification without any differences between two groups. Compared with active non-selective VDRAs, paricalcitol showed no significant difference in both PTH reduction (MD -7.78, 95% CI -28.59-13.03, P = 0.46) and the proportion of patients who achieved the target reduction of PTH (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.87-1.85, P = 0.22). In addition, no statistical differences were found in terms of serum calcium, episodes of hypercalcemia, serum phosphorus, calcium × phosphorus products, and bone metabolism index. Current evidence is insufficient, showing paricalcitol is superior to active non-selective VDRAs in lowering PTH or reducing the burden of mineral loading. Further trials are required to prove the tissue-selective effect of paricalcitol and to overcome the limitation of current research.

  8. Laboratory studies of the chemical composition and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA and oxidized primary organic aerosol (OPOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA and oxidized primary organic aerosol (OPOA were produced in laboratory experiments from the oxidation of fourteen precursors representing atmospherically relevant biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The SOA and OPOA particles were generated via controlled exposure of precursors to OH radicals and/or O3 in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM flow reactor over timescales equivalent to 1–20 days of atmospheric aging. Aerosol mass spectra of SOA and OPOA were measured with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. The fraction of AMS signal at m/z = 43 and m/z = 44 (f43, f44, the hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C ratio, and the oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratio of the SOA and OPOA were obtained, which are commonly used to characterize the level of oxidation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA. The results show that PAM-generated SOA and OPOA can reproduce and extend the observed f44f43 composition beyond that of ambient OOA as measured by an AMS. Van Krevelen diagrams showing H/C ratio as a function of O/C ratio suggest an oxidation mechanism involving formation of carboxylic acids concurrent with fragmentation of carbon-carbon bonds. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of PAM-generated SOA and OPOA was measured as a function of OH exposure and characterized as a function of O/C ratio. CCN activity of the SOA and OPOA, which was characterized in the form of the hygroscopicity parameter κorg, ranged from 8.4×10−4 to 0.28 over measured O/C ratios ranging from 0.05 to 1.42. This range of κorg and O/C ratio is significantly wider than has been previously obtained. To first order, the κorg-to-O/C relationship is well represented by a linear function of the form κorg = (0.18±0.04 ×O/C + 0.03, suggesting that a simple, semi-empirical parameterization of OOA hygroscopicity and

  9. Natural IgM antibodies that bind neoepitopes exposed as a result of spinal cord injury , drive secondary injury by activating complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Aarti; Qiao, Fei; Atkinson, Carl; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Kulik, Liudmila; Holers, V Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2017-06-19

    Natural IgM antibodies (Abs) function as innate immune sensors of injury via recognition of neoepitopes expressed on damaged cells, although how this recognition systems function following spinal cord injury (SCI) exposes various neoepitopes and their precise nature remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of two natural IgM monoclonal Abs (mAbs), B4 and C2, that recognize post-ischemic neoepitopes following ischemia and reperfusion in other tissues. Identification of post-SCI expressed neoepitopes was examined using previously characterized monoclonal Abs (B4 and C2 mAbs). The role of post-SCI neoepitopes and their recognition by natural IgM Abs in propagating secondary injury was examined in Ab-deficient Rag1-/- or wild type C57BL/6 mice using Ab reconstitution experiments and neoepitope-targeted therapeutic studies, respectively. Administration of B4 or C2 mAb following murine SCI increased lesion size and worsened functional outcome in otherwise protected Ab-deficient Rag1-/- mice. Injury correlated with colocalized deposition of IgM and C3d in injured spinal cords from both mAb reconstituted Rag1-/- mice and untreated wild-type mice. Depletion of peritoneal B1 B cells, a source of natural Abs, reduced circulating levels of IgM with B4 (annexin-IV) and C2 (subset of phospholipids) reactivity, reduced IgM and complement deposition in the spinal cord, and protected against SCI. We therefore investigated whether the B4 neoepitope represents a therapeutic target for complement inhibition. B4-Crry, a fusion protein consisting of a single-chain Ab derived from B4 mAb, linked to the complement inhibitor Crry, significantly protected against SCI. B4-Crry exhibited a dual function in that it inhibited both the binding of pathogenic IgM and blocked complement activation in the spinal cord. This study identifies important neoepitopes expressed within the spinal cord after injury. These neoepitopes are recognized by clonally specific natural IgM Abs that

  10. Identification of protein phosphatase involvement in the AT-receptor induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peluso, A Augusto; Bertelsen, Jesper Bork; Andersen, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    -antagonist), L-NAME (10µM; eNOS inhibitor), MK-2206 (100nM; Akt-inhibitor) sodium fluoride (1nM; serine/threonine-phosphatase inhibitor) or sodium orthovanadate (10nM; tyrosine-phosphatase inhibitor). NO release was estimated by quantifying DAF-FM fluorescence. The phosphorylation status of activating (e...

  11. Learning effects of active involvement of secondary school students in scientific research within the Sparkling Science project "FlussAu:WOW!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Scheikl, Sigrid; Heidenreich, Andrea; Kurz, Roman; Schrittwieser, Martin; Muhar, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    ://www.dynalearn.eu) to capture and simulate qualitative causal relationships across disciplines and scales. In "FlussAu:WOW!" students work in groups of two and are guided to think about processes and interactions of hydrological, biological, ecological, spatial and societal elements within a river catchment. They can develop their own causal models and scenarios (e.g., hydrological changes in river run off due to landscape changes in the upper catchment) but also can compare their conceptions to expert models that will be provided. As main benefit, the models help students to reflect their own conceptions in the light of scientific knowledge but also scientists learn about the viewpoints and conceptions young students might have from their environment. The comparison of pre- and post-tests conducted within the "FlussAu:WOW!" project showed that students increased significantly their factual knowledge on different processes in river systems during the first year. Questions regarding functions, processes and elements of riverine landscapes were answered more extensively. This can be ascribed to students` active involvement in scientific research. However, the causal understanding still showed room for improvement, which will be tackled during the next qualitative modelling exercises. Summarizing, involvement of secondary school students in research projects is an effective means to increase scientific literacy when active participation with reflective integration are combined. Ensuring that young people are proficient in system knowledge and understanding makes it more likely that environmental and sustainable considerations are soundly addressed in the future.

  12. Secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akio; Kajiyama, Shin-Ichiro

    1998-03-01

    Cyanobacteria attracted much attention recently because of their secondary metabolites with potent biological activities and unusual structures. This paper reviews some recent studies on the isolation, structural, elucidation and biological activities of the bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria Nostoc species.

  13. Inhibition of ice recrystallization and cryoprotective activity of wheat proteins in liver and pancreatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow-Shi-Yée, Mélanie; Briard, Jennie G; Grondin, Mélanie; Averill-Bates, Diana A; Ben, Robert N; Ouellet, François

    2016-05-01

    Efficient cryopreservation of cells at ultralow temperatures requires the use of substances that help maintain viability and metabolic functions post-thaw. We are developing new technology where plant proteins are used to substitute the commonly-used, but relatively toxic chemical dimethyl sulfoxide. Recombinant forms of four structurally diverse wheat proteins, TaIRI-2 (ice recrystallization inhibition), TaBAS1 (2-Cys peroxiredoxin), WCS120 (dehydrin), and TaENO (enolase) can efficiently cryopreserve hepatocytes and insulin-secreting INS832/13 cells. This study shows that TaIRI-2 and TaENO are internalized during the freeze-thaw process, while TaBAS1 and WCS120 remain at the extracellular level. Possible antifreeze activity of the four proteins was assessed. The "splat cooling" method for quantifying ice recrystallization inhibition activity (a property that characterizes antifreeze proteins) revealed that TaIRI-2 and TaENO are more potent than TaBAS1 and WCS120. Because of their ability to inhibit ice recrystallization, the wheat recombinant proteins TaIRI-2 and TaENO are promising candidates and could prove useful to improve cryopreservation protocols for hepatocytes and insulin-secreting cells, and possibly other cell types. TaENO does not have typical ice-binding domains, and the TargetFreeze tool did not predict an antifreeze capacity, suggesting the existence of nontypical antifreeze domains. The fact that TaBAS1 is an efficient cryoprotectant but does not show antifreeze activity indicates a different mechanism of action. The cryoprotective properties conferred by WCS120 depend on biochemical properties that remain to be determined. Overall, our results show that the proteins' efficiencies vary between cell types, and confirm that a combination of different protection mechanisms is needed to successfully cryopreserve mammalian cells. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  14. "Reflective Co-Education" or Male-Oriented Physical Education? Teachers' Views about Activities in Co-Educational PE Classes at German Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Valerie; Kleindienst-Cachay, Christa

    2016-01-01

    As much as the principle of co-education may appear to make sense in physical education (PE) lessons, trends in its development have emerged over the past years, especially in secondary schools, which were certainly not intended by the pedagogical programme of "reflective co-education", which stands for respect for equality…

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin ExoU induces a PAF-dependent impairment of alveolar fibrin turnover secondary to enhanced activation of coagulation and increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the course of mice pneumosepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suassuna José HR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity, was shown to induce vascular hyperpermeability and thrombus formation in a murine model of pneumosepsis. In this study, we investigated the toxin ability to induce alterations in pulmonary fibrinolysis and the contribution of the platelet activating factor (PAF in the ExoU-induced overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Methods Mice were intratracheally instilled with the ExoU producing PA103 P. aeruginosa or its mutant with deletion of the exoU gene. After 24 h, animal bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF were analyzed and lung sections were submitted to fibrin and PAI-1 immunohistochemical localization. Supernatants from A549 airway epithelial cells and THP-1 macrophage cultures infected with both bacterial strains were also analyzed at 24 h post-infection. Results In PA103-infected mice, but not in control animals or in mice infected with the bacterial mutant, extensive fibrin deposition was detected in lung parenchyma and microvasculature whereas mice BALF exhibited elevated tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity and PAI-1 concentration. ExoU-triggered PAI-1 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro assays, PA103-infected A549 cells exhibited overexpression of PAI-1 mRNA. Increased concentration of PAI-1 protein was detected in both A549 and THP-1 culture supernatants. Mice treatment with a PAF antagonist prior to PA103 infection reduced significantly PAI-1 concentrations in mice BALF. Similarly, A549 cell treatment with an antibody against PAF receptor significantly reduced PAI-1 mRNA expression and PAI-1 concentrations in cell supernatants, respectively. Conclusion ExoU was shown to induce disturbed fibrin turnover, secondary to enhanced procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity during P. aeruginosa pneumosepsis, by a PAF-dependent mechanism. Besides its possible pathophysiological relevance, in

  16. Obesity, inflammation, and exercise training: relative contribution of iNOS and eNOS in the modulation of vascular function in the mouse aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Fernandes da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background - The understanding of obsesity-related vascular dysfunction remains controversial mainly because of the diseases associated with vascular injury. Exercise training is known to prevent vascular dysfunction. Using an obesity model without comorbidities, we aimed at investigating the underlying mechanism of vascular dysfunction and how exercise interferes with this process.Methods - High-sugar diet was used to induce obesity in mice. Exercise training was performed 5 days/week. Body weight, energy intake, and adipose tissues were assessed; blood metabolic and hormonal parameters were determined; and serum TNFα was measured. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed by plethysmography. Changes in aortic isometric tension were recorded on myograph. Western blot was used to analyze protein expression. Nitric oxide (NO was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were used for inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform (iNOS knockdown.Results - Body weight, fat mass, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, insulin, and leptin were higher in the sedentary obese group (SD than in the sedentary control animals (SS. Exercise training prevented these changes. No difference in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and heart rate was found. Decreased vascular relaxation and reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS functioning in the SD group were prevented by exercise. Contractile response to phenylephrine was decreased in the aortas of the wild SD mice, compared with that of the SS group; however, no alteration was noted in the SD iNOS-/- animals. The decreased contractility was endothelium-dependent, and was reverted by iNOS inhibition or iNOS silencing. The aortas from the SD group showed increased basal NO production, serum TNFα, TNF receptor-1, and phospho-IκB. Exercise training attenuated iNOS-dependent reduction in contractile response in high-sugar diet

  17. Effects of stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase on diabetic nephropathy in diabetic eNOS knockout mice on top of angiotensin II receptor blockade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina M Ott

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications, such as diabetic nephropathy (DN, is rising worldwide and prevention and treatment are therefore becoming increasingly important. Therapy of DN is particularly important for patients who do not adequately respond to angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB treatment. Novel approaches include the stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC as it is reported to have beneficial effects on cardiac and renal damage. We aimed to investigate the effects of the sGC stimulator riociguat and ARB telmisartan on kidney function and structure in a hypertensive model of diabetic nephropathy. Seventy-six diabetic male eNOS knockout C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided after having received streptozotocin: telmisartan (1 mg/kg/d, riociguat (3 mg/kg/d, riociguat+telmisartan (3+1 mg/kg/d, and vehicle. Fourteen mice were used as non-diabetic controls. Treatment duration was 11 weeks. Glucose concentrations were increased and similar in all diabetic groups. Telmisartan insignificantly reduced blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg compared with diabetic controls (111.2±2.3 mmHg vs. 117.1±2.2 mmHg; p = 0.071. Treatment with riociguat both alone and in combination with telmisartan led to a significant reduction of blood pressure towards diabetic vehicle (105.2±2.5 mmHg and 105.0±3.2 mmHg, respectively, vs. 117.1±2.2 mmHg. Combined treatment also significantly decreased albuminuria compared with diabetic controls (47.3±9.6 µg/24 h vs. 170.8±34.2 µg/24 h; p = 0.002 reaching levels similar to those of non-diabetic controls (34.4±10.6 µg/24 h, whereas the reduction by single treatment with either telmisartan (97.8±26.4 µg/24 h or riociguat (97.1±15.7 µg/24 h was not statistically significant. The combination treatment led to a significant (p<0.01 decrease of tissue immunoreactivity of malondialdehyde, as consequence of reduced oxidative stress. In conclusion, stimulation of sGC significantly reduced urinary

  18. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François

    2010-01-01

    of a healthy lifestyle. These secondary prevention targets are included in the overall goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Cardiac rehabilitation can be viewed as the clinical application of preventive care by means of a professional multi-disciplinary integrated approach for comprehensive risk reduction...... and global long-term care of cardiac patients. The CR approach is delivered in tandem with a flexible follow-up strategy and easy access to a specialized team. To promote implementation of cardiac prevention and rehabilitation, the CR Section of the EACPR (European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention...... and Rehabilitation) has recently completed a Position Paper, entitled 'Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: A condition-oriented approach'. Components of multidisciplinary CR for seven clinical presentations have been addressed. Components include patient assessment, physical activity counselling...

  19. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thewarid Berkban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP and increased heart rate (HR, hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability.

  20. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT1R Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putcharawipa Maneesai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day: captopril (5 mg/kg/day or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS.

  1. Waste management - textbook for secondary schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.

    2010-09-01

    This text-book consist of five parts: (I) Waste management; (II) Solid waste management; (III) Recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials; (IV) Radioactive waste management; Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. (V) Suggestions for leisure time activities. This text-book is assigned for high school students.

  2. 电力二次系统主动安全防御策略及实现%An Active Security Defense Strategy and Its Implementation for the Power Secondary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯兆红; 贾铁军

    2015-01-01

    在分析数据安全和业务安全保护侧重点的基础上,结合电力二次系统结构对系统按数密和业密级别高低进行安全分区。针对电力二次系统的业务实际及其运行过程中存在的不安全因素,对内外网之间进行通信安全部署,提出主动安全防御策略,有效地解决了电力二次系统中存在的数据和业务安全保护的矛盾,提高了系统的检测辨识能力及整体防御功效。%On the basis of analyzing the protection sides of data security and business security,the power secondary system is divided into different sections according to the level of data secrecy and business secrecy.Under consideration of actual business of the power secondary system and unsafe factors in its operation,this paper makes a communication security deployment between the internal and external networks and proposes an active security defense strategy,thus effectively resolving the contradiction between data and business security protection in the power secondary system and improving the detection identification ability of the system.

  3. Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools. ... engagement of students in activities, use of innovative instructional strategies by teachers, ... and teachers in their perception regarding the effects of teachers classroom ...

  4. Quantitative secondary electron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Joy, David C.; Nayak, Subuhadarshi

    2018-05-08

    Quantitative Secondary Electron Detection (QSED) using the array of solid state devices (SSD) based electron-counters enable critical dimension metrology measurements in materials such as semiconductors, nanomaterials, and biological samples (FIG. 3). Methods and devices effect a quantitative detection of secondary electrons with the array of solid state detectors comprising a number of solid state detectors. An array senses the number of secondary electrons with a plurality of solid state detectors, counting the number of secondary electrons with a time to digital converter circuit in counter mode.

  5. Platelet activating factor-induced ceramide micro-domains drive endothelial NOS activation and contribute to barrier dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Predescu

    Full Text Available The spatial and functional relationship between platelet activating factor-receptor (PAF-R and nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in the lateral plane of the endothelial plasma membrane is poorly characterized. In this study, we used intact mouse pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs as well as endothelial plasma membrane patches and subcellular fractions to define a new microdomain of plasmalemma proper where the two proteins colocalize and to demonstrate how PAF-mediated nitric oxide (NO production fine-tunes ECs function as gatekeepers of vascular permeability. Using fluorescence microscopy and immunogold labeling electron microscopy (EM on membrane patches we demonstrate that PAF-R is organized as clusters and colocalizes with a subcellular pool of eNOS, outside recognizable vesicular profiles. Moreover, PAF-induced acid sphingomyelinase activation generates a ceramide-based microdomain on the external leaflet of plasma membrane, inside of which a signalosome containing eNOS shapes PAF-stimulated NO production. Real-time measurements of NO after PAF-R ligation indicated a rapid (5 to 15 min increase in NO production followed by a > 45 min period of reduction to basal levels. Moreover, at the level of this new microdomain, PAF induces a dynamic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Ser, Thr and Tyr residues of eNOS that correlates with NO production. Altogether, our findings establish the existence of a functional partnership PAF-R/eNOS on EC plasma membrane, at the level of PAF-induced ceramide plasma membrane microdomains, outside recognized vesicular profiles.

  6. Influence of training status and eNOS haplotypes on plasma nitrite concentrations in normotensive older adults: a hypothesis-generating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberta Fernanda; Sertório, Jonas Tadeu Cau; Lacchini, Riccardo; Trapé, Atila Alexandre; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra Lia; Zago, Anderson Saranz

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between 3 eNOS gene polymorphisms and training status (TS) in affecting plasma nitrite concentration (NO2) in normotensive adults over 50 years old. Resting blood pressure (BP) was measured in all participants (n = 101). Plasma was taken to analyze: lipid profile, nitrite concentration (NO2) and lipid peroxide levels (T-BARS). Also, genomic DNA was extracted from plasma for genotyping NOS3 polymorphisms (-786T>C; 894G>T; and VNTR in intron 4). TS was determined by one-mile walk test and Functional Fitness Test Battery from AAHPERD (TS1-regular TS; TS2-good TS; and TS3-very good TS). BP was not influenced by TS, but NO2 was 15% higher in TS3 (123 ± 27 nM) compared to TS-2 (106 ± 22 nM). No differences were found in plasma NO2 in the haplotype analyses. However, the presence of the C allele (T-786C) and ASP allele (Glu298Asp) was found to enhance the correlation between TS and NO2 levels (r = 0.492 in C/4b/ASP haplotype and r = 0.855 in C/4a/ASP haplotype). This study thus identifies NOS3 polymorphism-dependent sensitivity to the effects of physical training on plasma NO2. Maintenance of good levels of training status, in carriers of C allele for T-786C polymorphism, combined with ASP allele for Glu298Asp polymorphism, may result in an increase in the NO2 plasma concentrations, which may reflect improved NO bioavailability in older adult normotensive individuals.

  7. A combination of genistein and magnesium enhances the vasodilatory effect via an eNOS pathway and BK(Ca) current amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Hou, Yunlong; Zhao, Tingting; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaoran; Zhang, Liming; Yu, Guichun

    2015-04-01

    The phytoestrogen genistein (GST) and magnesium have been independently shown to regulate vascular tone; however, their individual vasodilatory effects are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the combined effects of GST plus magnesium on vascular tone in mesenteric arteries. The effects of pretreatment with GST (0-200 μmol/L), MgCl2 (0-4.8 mmol/L) and GST plus MgCl2 on 10 μmol/L phenylephrine (PE) precontracted mesenteric arteries in rats were assessed by measuring isometric force. BK(Ca) currents were detected by the patch clamp method. GST caused concentration- and partial endothelium-dependent relaxation. Magnesium resulted in dual adjustment of vascular tone. Magnesium-free solution eliminated the vasodilatation of GST in both endothelium-intact and denuded rings. GST (50 μmol/L) plus magnesium (4.8 mmol/L) caused stronger relaxation in both endothelium-intact and denuded rings. Pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-N-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μmol/L) significantly inhibited the effects of GST, high magnesium, and the combination of GST and magnesium. BK(Ca) currents were amplified to a greater extent when GST (50 μmol/L) was combined with 4.8 versus 1.2 mmol/L Mg(2+). Our data suggest that GST plus magnesium provides enhanced vasodilatory effects in rat mesenteric arteries compared with that observed when either is used separately, which was related to an eNOS pathway and BK(Ca) current amplification.

  8. Elementary and Secondary Educational Services of Public Television Grantees: Highlights from the 1997 Station Activities Survey. CPB Research Notes, No. 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This report provides a summary of K-12 educational services offered by Corporation for Public Broadcasting-supported television stations from CPB's annual Station Activities Survey. Stations are broken into cohorts by license type and budget size. The 1997 Station Activities Survey asked public television stations whether they provided…

  9. Physical activity in primary versus secondary prevention indication implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients 6-12 months after implantation - a cross-sectional study with register follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, S. K.; Thygesen, L. C.; Svendsen, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe (i) physical activity status among ICD patients according to the indication for ICD implant compared to international guidelines and compared to a matched normal population in order to detect potentials for improved physical outcomes, (ii) patients' beliefs regarding...... and participation in physical exercise by ICD indication, (iii) factors predicting low physical activity, and (iv) physical activity as a predictor of mortality. DESIGN: National survey with register follow-up. Comparisons were made to a matched healthy reference population and patients were followed in registers...... MEASURES: Questions regarding physical activity and the IPAQ questionnaire were used to assess physical activity. RESULTS: The response rate was 71.7%. Mean age 65.5 years with 82% males. 37% participated in a rehabilitation programme. 21 % were sedentary compared to 8 % in the reference population (p

  10. Secondary acute pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pathological changes, promoting the development of secondary pneumonias, are investigated. To this group belong: blood circulation disturbance in small circle, bronchial passability disturbance, aspiration of liquids, gases and vapors, infections and purulent processes, intoxications, injuries, operative interference. Roetgenologic symptomatics of each secondary acute pneumonia form is presented in detail

  11. Secondary fuel delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  12. Secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sophie A; Miller, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the etiology and management of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) that is appropriate and in response to a stimulus, most commonly low serum calcium. In secondary hyperparathyroidism, the serum calcium is normal and the PTH level is elevated. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by excessive secretion of PTH after longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism, in which hypercalcemia has ensued. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism typically occurs in men and women with chronic kidney disease usually after kidney transplant. The etiology and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism is relatively straightforward whereas data on the management of tertiary hyperparathyroidism is limited to a few small trials with short follow-up. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Load levelling measures being tackled by shikoku Electric Power Co. Inc.; Shikoku Denryoku Kabushi Kaisha no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    For the electric power companies, the activity of pushing forward the load levelling contributes greatly to the curtailment of cost by means of effective formation and utilization of facilities. It is planned to take up more positive activities with a target of 3% improvement in the load factor in ten years. Concrete measures for further promotion of load levelling are the diversity of the rate menu of appraising the load levelling effort of the customers and the promotion of the spread of equipment and systems relating to load levelling such as electric water heating apparatuses and thermal energy storage air conditioning systems. The rate system has been reviewed taking the opportunity of rate revision made in January, 1996. Particularly, further load shift to midnight time zone is expected as a result of better rate incentive for customers which is brought about by large reduction of the rate level due to the cost reduction effect accompanying the improvement in atomic power generation ratio. Outlines are given on the fields relating to general households, business, dwellings, buildings, and industry. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Approach undertaken by our Company for leveling electric loads; Chubu Denryoku Kabushi Kaisha no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Measures for leveling the electric loads relying upon two facets - tariff system and business activities - in Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. are presented. Firstly, the existing pricing systems for midnight electric power and electric light according to the period of time for the household as well as those of seasonal and time zone electric power, modifiable contract with the time zone and so forth for large industry users, together with a similar contract for the owner of regenerating installation are outlined. In addition, a price reduction system is indicated in favor of a scheduled shutdown of large industry operations as a means of avoiding electric consumption during weekdays in summer and between 13h and 16h when large demands exist. Further, a selective contract system put in service in 1995 and the price reduction for ice regenerating air conditioning system are cited. As for business facet, 1995 is regarded as the first year of the ice regenerator for its generalization through exhibition and promotive campaign to the foods processing industry, and the application of the latent heat regenerative system to perishable foods is recommended. Moreover, installation of energy saving type automatic vending machine, so-called eco-vendor is encouraged for its merit of peak-cut and energy price lowering. Lastly, activities to extend the use of electric calorifiers and the regenerative floor heating are mentioned. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Application of genetically engineered microorganisms to bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Idenshi sosa biseibutsu no kankyo joka mizushori eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, M; Ike, M [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-11-10

    This paper summarizes the following techniques: a gene engineering method for bioremediation and wastewater treatment, microorganism breeding using the former method, and a monitoring technique for genetical and ecological stability of genetically engineered microorganisms. Recombination bacteria reinforced with PH genes showed higher phenol removing rate than wild strains, but presented accumulation of catechol in such a large quantity as cannot be seen in wild strains, with the complete degradation rate rather decreased. Gene recombined bacteria structured by introducing the recombined plasmid, pBH500, had high genetic stability when P.putida BH-1 is used as a host. E.coli C600 having recombined plasmid and P.putida BH were added and cultivated in activated sludge. As a result, both recombined bacteria showed rapid logarithmic decrease just after the addition, then, maintained the relatively stable population groups, and remained in the activated sludge for an extended period of time. In monitoring techniques, the colony hybridization process detected clearly the gene recombined bacteria. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Positive electrode for lithium secondary battery of the next generation. Part 3. Positive electrode active material synthesized by soft chemistry; 3 sofutokemisutori de gosei sareru seikyoku katsubusshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, N.; Jo, A [Iwate Univ., Morioka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-05

    Synthesis of high performance positive electrode material for the lithium secondary battery using soft chemistry methods such as sol-gel method, precipitation method, and ion exchange method as well as the electrochemical properties and the positive electrode material for the metal oxides synthesized by soft chemistry methods are introduced. V2O5 gel is obtained by acidifying aqueous solution of vanadate such as NaVO3. MnO2 exists in various crystalline forms, and the characteristics of the electrode depend strongly on the crystal structure, chemical composition, water content, conditions of powder, and density, which can be controlled by the methods of synthesis and heat treatment. Sol-gel method is applied to the synthesis of MnO2 related compounds. LiCoO2 is synthesized by the precipitation method of the aqueous solution of the mixture of lithium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide. Tungsten trioxide hydrate and molybdenum trioxide hydrate are obtained as precipitation by adding strong acid for acidification to tungstate or molybdate A2MO4 aqueous solution. 31 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Comparing participation in physical recreation activities between children with disability and children with typical development: A secondary analysis of matched data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansee, Carmen; Hahne, Andrew; Imms, Christine; Shields, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Facilitating participation in physical recreation among children with disability is an increasingly important aim of paediatric rehabilitation. To compare the extent (diversity and frequency), context (where and companionship), experience (enjoyment) and preference for participation in physical recreation activities outside-of-school between children with disability and children with typical development. One hundred and sixty-three children with physical, intellectual, sensory or multiple disabilities (67 girls; mean age 10.8 yr) were matched with 163 children with typical development for age, sex, geographical location and socioeconomic status. Participation in 16 physical recreation activities (including walking, cycling, team sports) was compared between these two groups using non-parametric statistics and relative risk ratios. There were significant differences between the groups in 14 activities. A lower percentage of children with disability reported participating in 5 physical recreation activities. A higher percentage of children with disability reported not participating in their preferred activities. Children with disability were less likely to participate on their own in some day-to-day physical recreation activities such as walking and cycling. Differences between the groups related to the context (companionship) and preference for participation. Understanding and addressing these differences may enhance participation among children with disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacto del ENOS sobre los rendimientos de maíz en la región pampeana argentina Impact of the ENSO on corn yields in the Argentinean pampas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Fernández Long

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de “El Niño - Oscilación del Sur” (ENOS es uno de los principales responsables de la variabilidad climática interanual, con influencia sobre la región pampeana argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el impacto del ENOS sobre las variaciones anuales de la producción de maíz. La región fue dividida en 10 zonas en las cuales los rendimientos tienen una variabilidad interanual homogénea. Se utilizaron diferentes índices del ENOS. Los resultados indicaron que, en la mayor parte de la región, los desvíos de los rendimientos son, en general, positivos durante eventos “El Niño” y negativos durante “La Niña”. Sin embargo, el impacto es muy fuerte al norte y centro de la región analizada, y se debilita hacia el sur. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires el comportamiento es diferente que en el resto. Los índices promediados de mayo a julio son, en general, un buen indicador de la influencia del ENOS sobre la productividad de los cultivos, y brindan una adecuada información para la toma de decisiones de la empresa agropecuaria, con suficiente anticipación respecto del comienzo de la campaña.The “El Niño Southern Oscillation” (ENSO phenomenon is one of the main responsible factor for interannual climate variability in the “pampas” region. This work aims to analyze the impact of ENSO on the annual variations of corn production. The region was divided into 10 areas in which yields have a homogeneous interannual variability. Five ENSO indexes were used The results indicated that, in most parts of the region, the deviations of trend line yields are, in general, positive during “El Niño” events and negative during “La Niña”. However, the impact is very strong in the North and Centre of the analyzed region and weakens southward. In the southeast of the province of Buenos Aires, the behavior is different than the rest. Averaging indexes from May to July we obtained a good indicator

  19. Composición y abundancia de artrópodos epígeos del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe: impactos del ENOS de 1997 y efectos del hábitat pedológico Abundance and composition of epigean arthropods from Llanos de Challe National Park: impacts of ENSO-1997 and effects of the pedological habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE CEPEDA-PIZARRO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de trampas de intercepción, se estudió el efecto de la precipitación y el tipo de hábitat sobre la denso-actividad del ensamble de artrópodos epígeos _en particular Tenebrionidae_ del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe. Este parque está ubicado en el desierto costero transicional de Chile, en la III Región de Atacama. Los muestreos se realizaron durante tres días por mes (septiembre, octubre y diciembre en el período de máxima actividad biológica del sistema y en los años 1989 (año no-ENOS seco, 1997 (año ENOS intenso y 2000 (año no-ENOS húmedo. En las comparaciones se utilizaron dos sitios pedológicamente contrastantes: un hábitat dunario costero y un hábitat pedregoso interior. Se registró la presencia de 15 órdenes de Arthropoda. Los hexápodos constituyeron > 95 % del total de los especímenes capturados (9.065 individuos, siendo Collembola (36,1 % y Coleoptera (29,8 % los órdenes con mayor representatividad numérica. El número de órdenes con representantes activos varió ligeramente entre años: 13 órdenes se registraron en 1989 (44 % de precipitación bajo el promedio, 15 en 1997 (443 % sobre el promedio y 11 en 2000 (52 % sobre el promedio. El efecto del evento ENOS se reflejó claramente en la contribución numérica en la mayoría de los taxa registrados. Aunque más sutilmente, este efecto también se reflejó en la composición del ensamble de taxa dominantes y entre hábitat pedológicos, particularmente con Tenebrionidae y Formicidae. Especialmente en las dunas costeras, Tenebrionidae dominó claramente el ensamble de artrópodos epígeos, siendo Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville el género más diverso y abundante. La dominancia de Gyriosomus plantea un conjunto de interrogantes respecto de su nivel de endemismo, diversidad y distribución de sus especies, y el papel funcional de estas en el ecosistema estudiadoBy using pitfall traps, the effects of rainfall and habitat type on the denso-activity

  20. Teaching secondary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rock, David

    2013-01-01

    Solidly grounded in up-to-date research, theory and technology,?Teaching Secondary Mathematics?is a practical, student-friendly, and popular text for secondary mathematics methods courses. It provides clear and useful approaches for mathematics teachers, and shows how concepts typically found in a secondary mathematics curriculum can be taught in a positive and encouraging way. The thoroughly revised fourth edition combines this pragmatic approach with truly innovative and integrated technology content throughout. Synthesized content between the book and comprehensive companion websi

  1. Active learning at the post-secondary level to promote the development of leadership competency management in response to the labor market requirements of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel L. Rivera Aponte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Active learning at undergraduate level is necessary to promote business competencies on behalf of the actual labor market in Puerto Rico.The participation of students registered in the Leadership course at the School of Business, using the induction process, generates throughout the integration of theory and practice the encouragement of competencies development. Qualitative analysis demostrates the effectiveness of the teaching and learning experience through pedagogical methodologies of active learning. Results obtained by students’ success during the teaching and learning experience increased the competencies level of leadership, etc.

  2. Effect of structured physical activity on overall burden and transitions between states of major mobility disability in older persons: secondary analysis of a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The total time a patient is disabled likely has a greater influence on his or her quality of life than the initial occurrence of disability alone. Objective: To compare the effect of a long-term, structured physical activity program with that of a health education intervention on the pro...

  3. Elementary and Secondary Educational Services of Public Television Grantees: Highlights from the 1998 Station Activities Survey. CPB Research Notes, No. 116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This report is a summary of a variety of educational services offered by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) supported television stations as reported in CPB's annual Station Activities Survey (1998). Highlights from the data include: 141 stations (80% of all CPB supported stations) provide educational services to elementary or secondary…

  4. Secondary amenorrhea (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary amenorrhea is the cessation of menstrual flow for a period of 6 months or more in the absence ... as anxiety can be the root cause of amenorrhea. Treatment can range from behavior modification for excessive ...

  5. Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Physical and Social Activity Limitations in Patients With Heart Failure: A Secondary Analysis of the PARADIGM-HF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Alvin; Lewis, Eldrin F; Claggett, Brian L; Desai, Akshay S; Packer, Milton; Zile, Michael R; Swedberg, Karl; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Katova, Tzvetana; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2018-04-04

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with heart failure is markedly reduced compared with that in patients with other chronic diseases, demonstrating substantial limitations in physical and social activities. In the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With an ACE-Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, sacubitril/valsartan improved overall HRQL compared with enalapril, as determined by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). To examine the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on physical and social activities. The PARADIGM-HF trial was a randomized, double-blind, active treatment-controlled clinical trial performed from December 8, 2009, to March 31, 2014, in 8399 patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV disease and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less at 1043 centers in 38 countries. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2017, to December 25, 2017. Sacubitril/valsartan, 200 mg twice daily, or enalapril, 10 mg twice daily. Patients completed HRQL assessments using the KCCQ at randomization, 4-month, 8-month, and annual visits. The effect of sacubitril/valsartan on components of the physical and social limitation sections of the KCCQ at 8 months and longitudinally and related biomarkers and clinical outcomes were studied. At baseline, 7618 of 8399 patients (90.7%) (mean [SD] age, 64 [11] years; 5987 [78.6%] male and 1631 [21.4%] female) completed the initial KCCQ assessment. Patients reported the greatest limitations at baseline in jogging and sexual relationships. Patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan had significantly better adjusted change scores in most physical and social activities at 8 months and during 36 months compared with those receiving enalapril. The largest improvement over enalapril was in household chores (adjusted change score difference, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.19-3.50; P sacubitril/valsartan significantly improved nearly all KCCQ physical

  6. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available an accuracy figure of 76.8%. This small difference between the two figures is indicative of the validity of the proposed secondary classification module. Keywords?fingerprint core; fingerprint delta; primary classifi- cation; secondary classification I..., namely, the fingerprint core and the fingerprint delta. Forensically, a fingerprint core is defined as the innermost turning point where the fingerprint ridges form a loop, while the fingerprint delta is defined as the point where these ridges form a...

  7. Secondary Fire Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Megaton Weapons and Secondary Ignition There are very few well documented data on fires initiated by physical damage (i.e., secondary ignitions). Those data...where significant physical damage to buildings and/or contents can occur. Where this outer bound is located relative to the primary ignition range is...maintenance 7.9 Busline facilities, including shops 3.0 Convalescent homes8 3.1 Hospitals 8.0 Radio and television transmitters Collges and universities

  8. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    OpenAIRE

    Okely Anthony D; Plotnikoff Ronald C; Collins Clare E; Dewar Deborah; Morgan Philip J; Lubans David R; Batterham Marijka J; Finn Tara; Callister Robin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolesc...

  9. Measurement of secondary cosmic ray intensity at Regener-Pfotzer height using low-cost weather balloons and its correlation with solar activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Pal, Partha Sarathi; Bhowmick, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    Cosmic ray flux in our planetary system is primarily modulated by solar activity. Radiation effects of cosmic rays on the Earth strongly depend on latitude due to the variation of the geomagnetic field strength. To study these effects we carried out a series of measurements of the radiation characteristics in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays from various places (geomagnetic latitude: ~ 14.50 deg N) in West Bengal, India, located near the Tropic of Cancer, for several years (2012-2016) partic...

  10. Reduced resting potentials in dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers are secondary to NF-κB-dependent negative modulation of ouabain sensitive Na+-K+ pump activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, M T; Cottey, E; Cottey, A; Stefanski, C; Carlson, C G

    2011-04-15

    To examine potential mechanisms for the reduced resting membrane potentials (RPs) of mature dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers, the Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor ouabain was added to freshly isolated nondystrophic and mdx fibers. Ouabain produced a 71% smaller depolarization in mdx fibers than in nondystrophic fibers, increased the [Na(+)](i) in nondystrophic fibers by 40%, but had no significant effect on the [Na(+)](i) of mdx fibers, which was approximately double that observed in untreated nondystrophic fibers. Western blots indicated no difference in total and phosphorylated Na(+)-K(+) ATPase catalytic α1 subunit between nondystrophic and mdx muscle. Examination of the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) indicated that direct application of the drug slowly hyperpolarized mdx fibers (7 mV in 90 min) but had no effect on nondystrophic fibers. Pretreatment with ouabain abolished this hyperpolarization, and pretreatment with PDTC restored ouabain-induced depolarization and reduced [Na(+)](i). Administration of an NF-κB inhibitor that utilizes a different mechanism for reducing nuclear NF-κB activation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also hyperpolarized mdx fibers. These results suggest that in situ Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is depressed in mature dystrophic fibers by NF-κB dependent modulators, and that this reduced pump activity contributes to the weakness characteristic of dystrophic muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurements of activation reaction rates in transverse shielding concrete exposed to the secondary particle field produced by intermediate energy heavy ions on an iron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Morev, M.N.; Iimoto, T.; Kosako, T.

    2012-01-01

    Reaction rate distributions were measured inside a 60-cm thick concrete pile placed at the lateral position of a thick (stopping length) iron target that was bombarded with heavy ions, 400 MeV/u C and 800 MeV/u Si. Foils of aluminum and gold, as well as gold, tungsten and manganese covered with cadmium were inserted at various locations in the concrete pile to serve as activation detectors. Features of reaction rate distribution, such as the shape of the reaction rate profile, contribution of the neutrons from intra-nuclear cascade and that from evaporation to the activation reactions are determined by the analysis of measured reaction rates. The measured reaction rates were compared with those calculated with radiation transport simulation codes, FLUKA and PHITS, to verify their capability to predict induced activity. The simulated reaction rates agree with the experimental results within a factor of three in general. However, systematic discrepancies between simulated reaction rates and measured reaction rates attributed to the neutron source terms are observed.

  12. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in comparison with tumor marker activity in central nervous system metastases secondary to breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F; Bjerregaard, B; Sölétormos, G

    1993-01-01

    : Cytology and activity of the tumor markers tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and creatine kinase-BB isoenzyme (CK-BB) were evaluated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 71 consecutive patients with breast cancer suspected for CNS metastases. RESULTS: Forty-three patients had no CNS metastases, 12 patients...... (Spearmans-Rho, 0.49; P Cytologic evaluation of CSF obtained by lumbar punctures is a reliable procedure. In CSF from ICV reservoirs, cytologic evaluation is of limited use, but CK-BB and TPA is of potential value....

  13. Investigation on Secondary Structure Perturbations of Proteins Embedded in Solid Lipid Matrices as a Novel Indicator of their Biological Activity upon In Vitro Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeeshan, Farrukh; Tabbassum, Misbah; Jorgensen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    encased in solid lipid matrices as a novel indicator of their stability upon in vitro release. Model proteins namely catalase and lysozyme were incorporated into lipid namely Precirol® AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58°C) at 30% w/w loading using melting and mixing and wet granulation...... aggregation for catalase which was increased using wet granulation. The biological activity of catalase was statistically different from that of control and was affected by the incorporation method and was found to be in alignment with ATR spectral changes and extent of aggregation. In conclusion, ATR...

  14. Probing the active site of MIO-dependent 2,3-aminomutases, key catalysts in the biosynthesis of beta-amino acids incorporated in secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Steven D.; Cooke, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The tyrosine aminomutase SgTAM produces (S)-β-tyrosine from l-tyrosine in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027. This conversion is promoted by the methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) prosthetic group. MIO was first identified in the homologous family of ammonia lyases, which deaminate aromatic amino acids to form α,β-unsaturated carboxylates. Studies of substrate specificity have been described for lyases but there have been no reports in altering the substrate specificity of aminomutases. Furthermore, it remains unclear as to what structural properties are responsible for catalyzing the presumed readdition of the amino group into the α,β-unsaturated intermediates to form β-amino acids. Attempts to elucidate specificity and mechanistic determinants of SgTAM have also proved to be difficult as it is recalcitrant to perturbations to the active site via mutagenesis. An X-ray co-crystal structure of the SgTAM mutant of the catalytic base with l-tyrosine verified important substrate binding residues as well as the enzymatic base. Further mutagenesis revealed that removal of these crucial interactions renders the enzyme inactive. Proposed structural determinants for mutase activity probed via mutagenesis, time-point assays and X-ray crystallography revealed a complicated role for these residues in maintaining key quaternary structure properties that aid in catalysis. PMID:20577998

  15. The cAMP effectors PKA and Epac activate endothelial NO synthase through PI3K/Akt pathway in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Verónica; Luaces-Regueira, María; Campos-Toimil, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    3',5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) exerts an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant action by stimulating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity, and the subsequent NO release, through cAMP protein kinase (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) activation in endothelial cells. Here, we have investigated the mechanism by which the cAMP-Epac/PKA pathway activates eNOS. cAMP-elevating agents (forskolin and dibutyryl-cAMP) and the joint activation of PKA (6-Bnz-cAMP) and Epac (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) increased cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) in ≤30% of fura-2-loaded isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). However, these drugs did not modify [Ca 2+ ] c in fluo-4-loaded HUVEC monolayers. In DAF-2-loaded HUVEC monolayers, forskolin, PKA and Epac activators significantly increased NO release, and the forskolin effect was reduced by inhibition of PKA (Rp-cAMPs), Epac (ESI-09), eNOS (L-NAME) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K; LY-294,002). On the other hand, inhibition of CaMKII (KN-93), AMPK (Compound C), or total absence of Ca 2+ , was without effect. In Western blot experiments, Serine 1177 phosphorylated-eNOS was significantly increased in HUVEC by cAMP-elevating agents and PKA or Epac activators. In isolated rat aortic rings LY-294,002, but not KN-93 or Compound C, significantly reduced the vasorelaxant effects of forskolin in the presence of endothelium. Our results suggest that Epac and PKA activate eNOS via Ser 1177 phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, and independently of AMPK or CaMKII activation or [Ca 2+ ] c increase. This action explains, in part, the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effect of cAMP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Peninsula Humane Society Teacher's Packet. Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this teacher's packet are designed to familiarize secondary school students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons grouped under social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities focus on pet overpopulation, expressions of social responses in…

  17. Efecto del Tostado Sobre los Metabolitos Secundarios y la Actividad Antioxidante de Clones de Cacao Colombiano / Effect of Roasting on the Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Colombian Cocoa Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zapata Bustamante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El tostado es una de las operaciones tecnológicas másimportantes en el procesamiento de los granos de cacao; esteproceso conduce a la formación de los productos de la reacciónde Maillard (RM los cuales son cruciales para el desarrollo dela calidad organoléptica de los granos de cacao y sus productosasociados. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto del tostadosobre el contenido de metabolitos secundarios y la actividadantioxidante en cinco clones de cacao cultivados en Colombia.En los extractos metanólicos de los diferentes clones de cacao sedeterminó el contenido de fenoles totales, taninos condensados,antocianinas totales, catequina y epicatequina, teobromina ycafeína. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante pormedio de la actividad atrapadora del radical ABTS•+, el métodoORAC y la capacidad atrapadora de radicales superóxido. Enconclusión, el efecto del tostado en los clones de cacao no tuvo uncomportamiento uniforme sobre los cambios en los contenidos delos diversos metabolitos secundarios y la actividad antioxidante. /  Abstract. Roasting is one of the most important technologicaloperations in the processing of cocoa beans; this process leads tothe formation of products of the Maillard reaction (RM, which arecrucial for the development of organoleptic quality of cocoa beansand its associated products. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of roasting on the content of secondary metabolites andantioxidant activity in five Colombian cocoa clones, by differentmethodologies. The methanolic extracts of the cocoa beans wereanalyzed for total phenols content, condensed tannins, totalantiocianins, catechin and epicatechin, theobromine and caffeine.The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS assay, ORACmethod and superoxide radical scavenging method. The effect ofroasting on cocoa clones did not have an unspecified behavior. Inconclusion, the effect of roasting of cacao clones was not uniformon the

  18. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites from plants of the family Flacourtiaceae and Asclepiadaceae, and evaluation of biological activity of the sesquiterpene lactones and the diterpenes of Casearia sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns Quiros, Franklin

    2012-01-01

    A phytochemical study was realized of the plants Casearia aculeata, Casearia nitida and Asclepias verticillata, using experiments of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of one and two dimensions. Ten secondary metabolites are isolated from C. aculeata and C. nitida. Three of the secondary metabolites have presented a structure known: a diterpene type kaurane: ent-kaurenic acid, a diterpene type pimarane: oxide of 3β-hydroximanoil and a steroid: 4-stigmastene-3-ona. Seven remaining compounds have corresponded to diterpene type clerodane of novel structure. Eight glycosides of poly oxidized pregnanes of novel structure are isolated from A. verticillata. In vitro tests of cytotoxicity and induction of caspase-3 are performed on leukemia cells type Jurkat T. These tests were performed at fifteen sesquiterpene lactones and at four diterpenes. The tests developed have had the purpose to describe structure-activity relationships that can be linked with the capacity to inhibit the factor NF-κB (sesquiterpene lactones) described in the literature and with the known mechanism of action induction of apoptosis in diterpenes type clerodane. A clear relationship between the capacity (high, intermediate or low) to inhibit the factor NF-κB and the capacity to induce to the caspase-3 has remained without observation in the sesquiterpene lactones. Some structural comparisons related with the cytotoxic capacity and the induction of the caspase-3 have been described for the series of LSs with carbon structure of pseudoguianolides. Diterpenes with carbon structure of diterpenes type clerodane have had greater cytotoxic activity with respect to without carbon structure. Diterpenes type clerodane isolated from the family Flacourtiaceae have been cytotoxics, their capacity to induce to the caspase-3 has remained without be nearby to induction realized by the actinomycin D (pure inducer of the caspase-3). (author) [es

  19. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Clement, Suzette; Peacock, Beth; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure ('die-off'), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex were isolated from these soils and found to be pathogenic on B. tectorum seeds. One of these strains was produced in cheatgrass seed culture to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxins. Six metabolites were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods (essentially 1D and 2D NMR and ESIMS) as acuminatopyrone (1), blumenol A (2), chlamydosporol (3), isochlamydosporol (4), ergosterol (5) and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (6). Upon testing against B. tectorum in a seedling bioassay, (6) the coleoptile and radicle length of cheatgrass seedlings were significantly reduced. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate activity, while 3-5 were not significantly different from the control.

  20. Do networking activities outside of the classroom protect students against being bullied? A field study with students in secondary school settings in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickle, Gerhard; Meurs, James A; Schoepe, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that having close relationships with fellow classmates can provide a buffer for students against bullying and the negative outcomes associated with it. But, research has not explicitly examined the potential benefits of social networking behaviors outside of the classroom for those who could be bullied. This study addresses this gap and finds that, although a bullying climate in the classroom increases overall bullying, students high on external networking activities did not experience an increase in the bullying they received when in a classroom with a high bullying climate. However, the same group of students reported the largest degree of received bulling under conditions of a low bullying climate. We discuss the implications of our results and provide directions for future research.

  1. Puruvana puruvanavana : [luuletused] / Eno Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Eno, 1928-1996

    2000-01-01

    Sisu: Puruvana puruvanavana ; Vetesell ; Pada ja katel ; Nääripäkapikk ; Vanapaar ; Mere peremees ; Lepamaim ; Kiilaspää kiilasjääl ; Tõugu unistus ; Naljatilk silk ; Muttide jalutuskäik ; Hiir lumes ; Kalakari salakaril ; Naljalammas ; Mesilastest ; Kure mure ; Voki laul karule ; Põrsalaul ; Kurk ja kõrvits ; Tuhk ja tina ; Õige pea ja vale pea ; Suu pea, puupea! ; Siga õuel

  2. Application of Pre-coated Microfiltration Ceramic Membrane with Powdered Activated Carbon for Natural Organic Matter Removal from Secondary Wastewater Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Kurniasari, Novita

    2012-12-01

    Ceramic membranes offer more advantageous performances than conventional polymeric membranes. However, membrane fouling caused by Natural Organic Matters (NOM) contained in the feed water is still become a major problem for operational efficiency. A new method of ceramic membrane pre-coating with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC), which allows extremely contact time for adsorbing aquatic contaminants, has been studied as a pre-treatment prior to ceramic microfiltration membrane. This bench scale study evaluated five different types of PAC (SA Super, G 60, KCU 6, KCU 8 and KCU 12,). The results showed that KCU 6 with larger pore size was performed better compared to other PAC when pre-coated on membrane surface. PAC pre-coating on the ceramic membrane with KCU 6 was significantly enhance NOM removal, reduced membrane fouling and improved membrane performance. Increase of total membrane resistance was suppressed to 96%. The removal of NOM components up to 92%, 58% and 56% for biopolymers, humic substances and building blocks, respectively was achieved at pre-coating dose of 30 mg/l. Adsorption was found to be the major removal mechanism of NOM. Results obtained showed that biopolymers removal are potentially correlated with enhanced membrane performance.

  3. Enhanced coagulation with powdered activated carbon or MIEX secondary treatment: a comparison of disinfection by-product formation and precursor removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Knight, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The removal of both organic and inorganic disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors prior to disinfection is important in mitigating DBP formation, with halide removal being particularly important in salinity-impacted water sources. A matrix of waters of variable alkalinity, halide concentration and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration were treated with enhanced coagulation (EC) followed by anion exchange (MIEX resin) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and the subsequent disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBP-FPs) assessed and compared to DBP-FPs for untreated samples. Halide and DOC removal were also monitored for both treatment processes. Bromide and iodide adsorption by MIEX treatment ranged from 0 to 53% and 4-78%, respectively. As expected, EC and PAC treatments did not remove halides. DOC removal by EC/PAC was 70 ± 10%, while EC/MIEX enabled a DOC removal of 66 ± 12%. Despite the halide removals achieved by MIEX, increases in brominated disinfection by-product (Br-DBP) formation were observed relative to untreated samples, when favourable Br:DOC ratios were created by the treatment. However, the increases in formation were less than what was observed for the EC/PAC treated waters, which caused large increases in Br-DBP formation when high Br-DBP-forming water quality conditions occurred. The formation potential of fully chlorinated DBPs decreased after treatment in all cases.

  4. Strong eukaryotic IRESs have weak secondary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhua Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to investigate the hypothesis that eukaryotic Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRES lack secondary structure and to examine the generality of the hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IRESs of the yeast and the fruit fly are located in the 5'UTR immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The minimum folding energy (MFE of 60 nt RNA segments immediately upstream of the initiation codons was calculated as a proxy of secondary structure stability. MFE of the reverse complements of these 60 nt segments was also calculated. The relationship between MFE and empirically determined IRES activity was investigated to test the hypothesis that strong IRES activity is associated with weak secondary structure. We show that IRES activity in the yeast and the fruit fly correlates strongly with the structural stability, with highest IRES activity found in RNA segments that exhibit the weakest secondary structure. CONCLUSIONS: We found that a subset of eukaryotic IRESs exhibits very low secondary structure in the 5'-UTR sequences immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The consistency in results between the yeast and the fruit fly suggests a possible shared mechanism of cap-independent translation initiation that relies on an unstructured RNA segment.

  5. Aktywność fizyczna i niektóre jej uwarunkowania wśród młodzieży licealnej = Physical activity and some of its conditions amongst secondary-school youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Kozłowska

    2015-09-01

    ruchu oraz efektywnego zarządzania czasem wolnym. Niedostateczna liczba obiektów rekreacyjnych na terenach wiejskich stanowi istotny czynnik ograniczający dodatkową aktywność fizyczną adolescentów.   Słowa kluczowe: aktywność fizyczna, wychowanie fizyczne, motywy, bariery, młodzież licealna.       Summary   Introduction and work aim. Physical activity constitutes one of key conditions for a healthy lifestyle. Unfortunately, as it results from the analyses only 30% of children and youth undertake physical activities, which type, frequency and intensity meets physiological needs of the body. An aim of the work is to analyze the physical activity of secondary-school youth and some of its conditions. Material and Method. Examinations were conducted amongst 174 pupils attending to comprehensive secondary school in Zamość. Research material was obtained with surveys technique using the author's questionnaire form, and next subjected to statistical analysis with nonparametric Pearson’s χ2 statistical test. Results. Boys more often spend their free time practicing sport (p=0.005, more often exercise during physical lessons (p=0.044, and spend more time on one-off exercise (p=0.000. Amongst girls the leading motivator is to lose or keep correct body weight, however amongst boys – pleasure of physical activity (p=0.012. An important in the context of increasing physical activity amongst pupils living in the countryside is a factor associated with the access to sport infrastructure in the area of residence. However, amongst residents of cities an important is appropriate amount of time (p=0.027. Conclusions. Girls constitute a group of secondary-school pupils particularly threatened with deficiency of physical activity. Programs promoting an active lifestyle should be directed to educate the ability of drawing pleasure from movement and effective time management. Insufficient number of recreational objects on country areas constitutes an important factor

  6. Dynamics of secondary forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van M.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and

  7. Two secondary drops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure shows formation of two secondary drops of unequal size and their merger. The process is same as the earlier process until t= 0.039 Tc with necking occurring at two places, one at the bottom of the column and the other at the middle. The necking at the middle of the liquid column is due to Raleigh instability.

  8. [Primary and secondary encopresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Langer, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    While the difficulty of the child to part with its faeces in primary encopresis is linked to the incapability to experience the object as separated and independent from himself, secondary encopresis is a progressed psychical state of development. In this case we have to deal with regression caused by conflict. Two case-studies show clearly the differences.

  9. [Secondary thrombotic microangiopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, P

    2017-11-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are termed secondary when associated to a specific context favouring their occurrence. They encompass mainly TMA associated with pregnancy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cancer, drugs, or HIV infection. Secondary TMA represent a heterogeneous group of diseases which clinical presentation largely depends on the associated context. It is therefore mandatory to recognize these conditions since they have a significant impact in TMA management and prognosis. A successful management still represents a challenge in secondary TMA. Significant progresses have been made in the understanding of pregnancy-associated TMA, allowing an improvement of prognosis; on the opposite, other forms of secondary TMA such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated TMA or TMA associated with chemotherapy remain of dismal prognosis. A better understanding of pathophysiology in these forms of TMA, in association with a more empirical approach through the use of new therapeutic agents that can also help in the understanding on new mechanisms a posteriori, should improve their prognosis. The preliminary encouraging results reported with complement blockers in this field could represent a convincing example. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary coolant purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiteler, F.Z.; Donohue, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention combines the attributes of volatile chemical addition, continuous blowdown, and full flow condensate demineralization. During normal plant operation (defined as no primary to secondary leakage) condensate from the condenser is pumped through a full flow condensate demineralizer system by the condensate pumps. Volatile chemical additions are made. Dissolved and suspended solids are removed in the condensate polishers by ion exchange and/or filtration. At the same time a continuous blowdown of approximately 1 percent of the main steaming rate of the steam generators is maintained. Radiation detectors monitor the secondary coolant. If these monitors indicate no primary to secondary leakage, the blowdown is cooled and returned directly to the condensate pump discharge. If one of the radiation monitors should indicate a primary to secondary leak, when the temperature of the effluent exiting from the blowdown heat exchanger is compatible with the resin specifications of the ion exchangers, the bypass valve causes the blowdown flow to pass through the blowdown ion exchangers

  11. A quasi-experimental examination of how school-based physical activity changes impact secondary school student moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity over time in the COMPASS study

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Stephen; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Storey, Kate; Carson, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is characterized by low moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels. Targeting the school setting can increase MVPA among a large proportion of adolescents. However, school-based physical activity interventions for adolescents remain largely ineffective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how naturally-occurring changes to school physical activity policy, recreational programming, public health resources, and the physical environmen...

  12. Efeitos da atorvastatina e do polimorfismo T-786C do gene eNOS sobre parâmetros do metabolismo lipídico plasmático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Helena de Souza Zago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade do óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS pode ser modulada pelo colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, estatinas ou polimorfismos, como o T-786C de eNOS. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o polimorfismo T-786C está associado a alterações nos efeitos da atorvastatina no perfil lipídico, nas concentrações de metabólitos de óxido nítrico (NO e da proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as. MÉTODOS: Trinta voluntários do sexo masculino, assintomáticos, com idade entre 18-56 anos foram genotipados e classificados de acordo com a ausência (TT, n = 15 ou presença (CC, n = 15 do polimorfismo. Eles foram selecionados aleatoriamente para a utilização de placebo e atorvastatina (10 mg/dia por 14 dias. Após cada tratamento foram medidos lípides, lipoproteínas, frações HDL2 e HDL3, atividade da proteína de transferência de colesteril éster (CETP, metabólitos de NO e PCR-as. RESULTADOS: As comparações entre genótipos após a administração de placebo mostraram aumento da atividade da CETP polimorfismo-dependente (TT, 12 ± 7; CC, 22 ± 12, p < 0,05. As análises da interação entre os tratamentos indicaram que a atorvastatina tem efeito sobre colesterol, LDL, nitrito e razões lípides/proteínas (HDL2 e HDL3 (p < 0,001 em ambos os genótipos. É interessante notar as interações genótipo/droga sobre a CETP (p < 0,07 e a lipoproteína (a [Lp(a] (p < 0,056, levando a uma diminuição limítrofe da CETP, embora sem afetar a Lp(a. A PRC-as não mostrou alterações. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que o tratamento com estatinas pode ser relevante para a prevenção primária da aterosclerose em pacientes com o polimorfismo T-786C do eNOS, considerando os efeitos no metabolismo lipídico.

  13. Reconstitution of a secondary cell wall in a secondary cell wall-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2015-02-01

    The secondary cell wall constitutes a rigid frame of cells in plant tissues where rigidity is required. Deposition of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells contributes to the production of wood in woody plants. The secondary cell wall is assembled through co-operative activities of many enzymes, and their gene expression is precisely regulated by a pyramidal cascade of transcription factors. Deposition of a transmuted secondary cell wall in empty fiber cells by expressing selected gene(s) in this cascade has not been attempted previously. In this proof-of-concept study, we expressed chimeric activators of 24 transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in the stem, in empty fiber cells of the Arabidopsis nst1-1 nst3-1 double mutant, which lacks a secondary cell wall in fiber cells, under the control of the NST3 promoter. The chimeric activators of MYB46, SND2 and ANAC075, as well as NST3, reconstituted a secondary cell wall with different characteristics from those of the wild type in terms of its composition. The transgenic lines expressing the SND2 or ANAC075 chimeric activator showed increased glucose and xylose, and lower lignin content, whereas the transgenic line expressing the MYB46 chimeric activator showed increased mannose content. The expression profile of downstream genes in each transgenic line was also different from that of the wild type. This study proposed a new screening strategy to identify factors of secondary wall formation and also suggested the potential of the artificially reconstituted secondary cell walls as a novel raw material for production of bioethanol and other chemicals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  14. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Levy A; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L

    2015-09-15

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP(+), coincided with formation of 2'-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes.

  15. Secondary hypertension in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-05-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  16. Secondary combined suicide pact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanth, S H; Girish Chandra, Y P; Hugar, Basappa S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar

    2014-03-01

    This article reports a combined suicide pact, where in a young couple; a 26 year old male and a 20 year old female committed suicide by using two methods. The couple had resorted to hanging and self-immolation to prevent failure of single method alone. In secondary combined suicides, several other methods of suicide are tried after the first method chosen has failed. It is primary combined suicide only when two or more methods are used simultaneously. Both types of combined suicide by one individual is well reported in the literature whereas the same by two persons together is rare. In this report, the deceased were disappointed lovers, poor and the family members were against their marriage. The investigation of scene, methods employed to commit suicide, autopsy findings and the interview with their relatives altogether suggested that it was a secondary combined suicide pact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. THE SECONDARY EXTINCTION CORRECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariasen, W. H.

    1963-03-15

    It is shown that Darwin's formula for the secondary extinction correction, which has been universally accepted and extensively used, contains an appreciable error in the x-ray diffraction case. The correct formula is derived. As a first order correction for secondary extinction, Darwin showed that one should use an effective absorption coefficient mu + gQ where an unpolarized incident beam is presumed. The new derivation shows that the effective absorption coefficient is mu + 2gQ(1 + cos/sup 4/2 theta )/(1 plus or minus cos/sup 2/2 theta )/s up 2/, which gives mu + gQ at theta =0 deg and theta = 90 deg , but mu + 2gQ at theta = 45 deg . Darwin's theory remains valid when applied to neutron diffraction. (auth)

  18. Secondary Breast Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mitchell H; Somogyi, Ron B; Aggarwal, Shagun

    2016-07-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Assess common clinical problems in the secondary breast augmentation patient. 2. Describe a treatment plan to correct the most common complications of breast augmentation. 3. Provide surgical and nonsurgical options for managing complications of breast augmentation. 4. Decrease the incidence of future complications through accurate assessment, preoperative planning, and precise surgical technique. Breast augmentation has been increasing steadily in popularity over the past three decades. Many of these patients present with secondary problems or complications following their primary breast augmentation. Two of the most common complications are capsular contracture and implant malposition. Familiarity and comfort with the assessment and management of these complications is necessary for all plastic surgeons. An up-to-date understanding of current devices and techniques may decrease the need to manage future complications from the current cohort of breast augmentation patients.

  19. Icariin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways in human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Chun-Ki; Kim, Jung Huan; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the molecular effect and signal pathway of icariin, a major flavonoid of Epimedium koreanum Nakai, on angiogenesis. Icariin stimulated in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, which are typical phenomena of angiogenesis, as well as increased in vivo angiogenesis. Icariin activated the angiogenic signal modulators, ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and increased NO production, without affecting VEGF expression, indicating that icariin may directly stimulate angiogenesis. Icariin-induced ERK activation and angiogenic events were significantly inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, without affecting Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. The PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin suppressed icariin-mediated angiogenesis and Akt and eNOS activation without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, the NOS inhibitor NMA partially reduced the angiogenic activity of icariin. These results suggest that icariin stimulated angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways and may be a useful drug for angiogenic therapy

  20. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  1. 2,4,6-Tri­amino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium 3-(prop-2-eno­yloxy)propano­ate acrylic acid monosolvate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, V.; Kanagathara, N.; Chakkaravarthi, G.; Marchewka, M. K.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C3H7N6 +·C6H7O4 −·C3H4O2·H2O, contains a 2,4,6-tri­amino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium cation, a 3-(prop-2-eno­yloxy)propano­ate anion and acrylic acid and water solvent mol­ecules in a 1:1:1:1 ratio and with each species in a general position. In the crystal, the components are linked into a supra­molecular layer in the bc plane via a combination of O—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin, the minor component contribution being approximately 26%. PMID:23723892

  2. Organic Horticulture in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    This report is based on five years experience working with primary and secondary school teachers in Italy to develop organic farming as an activity for students. The tasks involved were intended to develop our students' environmental awareness, allow them to produce food organically and show that market gardening could be a productive hobby. In…

  3. Secondary wastewater treatment by microalgae isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae play a fundamental role in primary and secondary wastewater treatment. In this work the growth, photosynthetic activity and removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents by indigenous blue-green algal species, Spirulina and Oscillatoria, isolated from Gaborone oxidation ponds was studied. Oscillatoria and ...

  4. Whales of New England. Secondary Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Instructional materials and suggestions for conducting a whale watching field trip are contained in this curriculum packet for secondary science teachers. It is one unit in a series of curricular programs developed by the New England Aquarium Education Department. Activities and information are organized into three sections: (1) pre-trip…

  5. In vitro antioxidant activities of the novel pentapeptides Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn and Leu-Pro-Phe-Ala-Met and the relationship between activity and peptide secondary structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ruiwen; Wang, Jia; Lin, Songyi

    2017-01-01

    ,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Antioxidant activity was measured using in vitro assays, including the cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl or 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS...... LPFAM (P ABTS inhibition (88.16 ± 0.76%). It had normalized ORAC values of 0.3000 ± 0.0070 µmol GE mg(-1) and 0.0900 ± 0.0020 µmol TE mg(-1) , respectively. The results...

  6. Characteristics and generation of secondary jets and secondary gigantic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Jou; Huang, Sung-Ming; Chou, Jung-Kung; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Chen, Alfred B.; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Rou; Frey, Harald U.; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    2012-06-01

    Secondary transient luminous events (TLEs) recorded by the ISUAL-FORMOSAT2 mission can either be secondary jets or secondary gigantic jets (GJs), depending on their terminal altitudes. The secondary jets emerge from the cloud top beneath the preceding sprites and extend upward to the base of the sprites at ˜50 km. The secondary jets likely are negative electric discharges with vertically straight luminous columns, morphologically resembling the trailing jet of the type-I GJs. The number of luminous columns in a secondary jet seems to be affected by the size of the effective capacitor plate formed near the base of the preceding sprites and the charge distribution left behind by the sprite-inducing positive cloud-to-ground discharges. The secondary GJs originate from the cloud top under the shielding area of the preceding sprites, and develop upward to reach the lower ionosphere at ˜90 km. The observed morphology of the secondary GJs can either be the curvy shifted secondary GJs extending outside the region occupied by the preceding sprites or the straight pop-through secondary GJs developing through the center of the preceding circular sprites. A key factor in determining the terminal height of the secondary TLEs appears to be the local ionosphere boundary height that established by the preceding sprites. The abundance and the distribution of the negative charge in the thundercloud following the sprite-inducing positive cloud-to-ground discharges may play important role in the generation of the secondary TLEs.

  7. A Harmonic Resonance Suppression Strategy for a High-Speed Railway Traction Power Supply System with a SHE-PWM Four-Quadrant Converter Based on Active-Set Secondary Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runze Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulse width modulation (PWM technology is widely used in traction converters for high-speed railways. The harmonic distribution caused by PWM is quite extensive, and increases the possibility of grid–train coupling resonance in the traction power supply system (TPSS. This paper first analyzes the mechanism of resonance, when the characteristic harmonic frequency of a four-quadrant converter (4QC current that injects into the traction grid matches the resonant frequency of the traction grid, which may result in resonance in the system. To suppress resonance, this paper adopts specific harmonic elimination–pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM technology combined with a transient direct current control strategy to eliminate the harmonics in the resonant frequency, which may suppress the grid–train coupling resonance. Due to the fact that the SHE-PWM process with multiple switching angles contains complex transcendental equations, the initial value is difficult to provide, and is difficult to solve using ordinary iterative algorithms. In this paper, an active-set secondary optimization method is used to solve the equation. The algorithm has the benefits of low dependence on initial values, fast convergence and high solution accuracy. Finally, the feasibility of the resonant suppression algorithm is verified by means of Matlab simulation.

  8. Secondary Emission Calorimeter Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, David R.; Onel, Yasar

    2012-12-01

    In a Secondary Emission electron(SEe) detector module, Secondary Emission electrons (SEe) are generated from an SE surface/cathode, when charged hadronic or electromagnetic particles, particularly shower particles, penetrate an SE sampling module placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W etc) in calorimeters. The SE cathode is a thin (10-50 nm thick) film (simple metal-oxides, or other higher yield materials) on the surface of a metal plate, which serves as the entrance “window” to a compact vacuum vessel (metal or metal-ceramic); this SE film cathode is analogous to a photocathode, and the SEe are similar to p.e., which are then amplified by dynodes, also is in a PMT. SE sensor modules can make use of electrochemically etched/machined or laser-cut metal mesh dynode sheets, as large as ~30 cm square, to amplify the Secondary Emission Electrons (SEe), much like those that compact metal mesh or mesh dynode PMT's use to amplify p.e.'s. The construction requirements easier than a PMT, since the entire final assembly can be done in air; there are no critical controlled thin film depositions, cesiation or other oxygen-excluded processes or other required vacuum activation, and consequently bake-out can be a refractory temperatures; the module is sealed by normal vacuum techniques (welding or brazing or other high temperature joinings), with a simple final heated vacuum pump-out and tip-off. The modules envisioned are compact, high gain, high speed, exceptionally radiation damage resistant, rugged, and cost effective, and can be fabricated in arbitrary tileable shapes. The SE sensor module anodes can be segmented transversely to sizes appropriate to reconstruct electromagnetic cores with high precision. The GEANT4 and existing calorimeter data estimated calorimeter response performance is between 35-50 Secondary Emission electrons per GeV, in a 1 cm thick Cu absorber calorimeter, with a gain per SEe > 105 per SEe, and an e/pi<1.2. The calorimeter pulse width is

  9. Causes of secondary headache (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, dysfunction, can be a cause of secondary headache. Secondary headaches result from underlying disorders which produce pain as a symptom. The TMJ may become painful and dysfunctional as a result ...

  10. Exploration of the methodological quality and clinical usefulness of a cross-sectional sample of published guidance about exercise training and physical activity for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Bridget; Glasziou, Paul; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2017-06-13

    Clinicians are encouraged to use guidelines to assist in providing evidence-based secondary prevention to patients with coronary heart disease. However, the expanding number of publications providing guidance about exercise training may confuse cardiac rehabilitation clinicians. We therefore sought to explore the number, scope, publication characteristics, methodological quality, and clinical usefulness of published exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation guidance. We included publications recommending physical activity, exercise or cardiac rehabilitation for patients with coronary heart disease. These included systematically developed clinical practice guidelines, as well as other publications intended to support clinician decision making, such as position papers or consensus statements. Publications were obtained via electronic searches of preventive cardiology societies, guideline databases and PubMed, to November 2016. Publication characteristics were extracted, and two independent assessors evaluated quality using the 23-item Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II (AGREE) tool. Fifty-four international publications from 1994 to 2016 were identified. Most were found on preventive cardiology association websites (n = 35; 65%) and were freely accessible (n = 50; 93%). Thirty (56%) publications contained only broad recommendations for physical activity and cardiac rehabilitation referral, while 24 (44%) contained the necessary detailed exercise training recommendations. Many were labelled as "guidelines", however publications with other titles (e.g. scientific statements) were common (n = 24; 44%). This latter group of publications contained a significantly greater proportion of detailed exercise training recommendations than clinical guidelines (p = 0.017). Wide variation in quality also existed, with 'applicability' the worst scoring AGREE II domain for clinical guidelines (mean score 53%) and 'rigour of development' rated lowest for other

  11. Secondary beams at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.

    1992-01-01

    GANIL, a user's facility since 1983, can deliver a broad spectrum of heavy-ion beams, from He to U, to well-equipped experimental areas. Their very large intensities are to be exploited to produce secondary beams, either using the fragmentation method (beams at energy per nucleon larger than 30 MeV/u), or the ISOL method. With the latter one, these ions have to be re-accelerated. The project of a cyclotron as a post-accelerator is described. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Secondary Vertex Finder Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Heer, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    If a jet originates from a b-quark, a b-hadron is formed during the fragmentation process. In its dominant decay modes, the b-hadron decays into a c-hadron via the electroweak interaction. Both b- and c-hadrons have lifetimes long enough, to travel a few millimetres before decaying. Thus displaced vertices from b- and subsequent c-hadron decays provide a strong signature for a b-jet. Reconstructing these secondary vertices (SV) and their properties is the aim of this algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is studied with tt̄ events, requiring at least one lepton, simulated at 13 TeV.

  13. SECONDARY (ENDOCRINE HYPERTENSION: LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Yukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a  very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  14. Overview of factors influencing the secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleistine, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated

  15. Magnetite deposition in PWR secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, V.; Riess, R.; Ruehle, W.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, local magnetite (Fe 3 04) deposition has been observed at various locations within the secondary systems of Siemens-designed PWRs. These deposits sometimes limited operational flexibility and affected routine operation checks. In addition, these deposits may affect the heat transfer characteristics of heat exchangers. Prior to replacement of components or piping or other extensive maintenance activities it should be investigated whether any modification in secondary-side water chemistry might counteract this corrosion phenomenon, which has proven very effective in maintaining steam generator performance. A VGB study will make an assessment of available field information, and countermeasures will be elaborated. This paper describes the current status of the project. (orig.) [de

  16. [Secondary osteoporosis in gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Y; Gorai, I

    1998-06-01

    Several diseases and medications are known to induce secondary osteoporosis. Among them, same situations are related to gynecological field. They include Turner's syndrome, anorexia nervosa, ovarian dysfunction, oophorectomy, GnRH agonist therapy, and osteoporosis associated with pregnancy. We briefly describe these secondary osteoporosis in this article as follows. Several studies have found osteoporosis to be a common complication of Turner's syndrome and hormone replacement therapy has been used as a possible management; in anorexic patient, low body weight, prolonged amenorrhea, early onset of anorexia nervosa, and hypercortisolism have been reported to be risks for bone demineralization; since oophorectomy which is a common intervention in gynecology leads osteoporosis, it is important to prevent osteoporosis caused by surgery as well as postmenopausal osteoporosis; GnRH agonist, which induces estrogen deficient state and affect bone mass, is commonly used as a management for endometriosis and leiomyoma of uterus; associated with pregnancy, post-pregnancy spinal osteoporosis and transient osteoporosis of the hip are clinically considered to be important and heparin therapy and magnesium sulfate therapy are commonly employed during pregnancy, affecting calcium homeostasis.

  17. Radioactive heavy ion secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.

    1987-01-01

    The production of secondary radioactive beams at GANIL using the LISE spectrometer is reviewed. The experimental devices, and secondary beam characteristics are summarized. Production of neutron rich secondary beams was studied for the systems Ar40 + Be at 44 MeV/u, and 018 + Be at 45 and 65 MeV/u. Partial results were also obtained for the system Ne22 + Ta at 45 MeV/u. Experiments using secondary beams are classified into two categories: those which correspond to fast transfer of nuclei from the production target to a well shielded observation point; and those in which the radioactive beam interacts with a secondary target

  18. Academic Procrastination of Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Ribič Hederih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is a trait and/or a form of behavior that denotes an individual’s delay in an activity which should be done, and which causes discomfort. In the study we wished to determine the differences between high school students regarding gender, educational programme and learning success of the previous school year in three factors. On a sample of 284 high school students of different Slovenian secondary schools, we found that on average boys show statistically significantly more shortage of learning self-discipline than girls, while girls, on average, significantly more discomfort than boys. Comparison of secondary school students between programmes showed that, on average, gimnazija students show significantly more learning self-discipline than students in secondary technical education. The comparison in relation to different levels of learning success at the end of the previous school year and the factors of procrastination showed, however, no statistically significant differences.

  19. ‘Let’s Move It’ – a school-based multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among older adolescents in vocational secondary schools: a study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Hankonen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA has been shown to decline during adolescence, and those with lower education have lower levels of activity already at this age, calling for targeted efforts for them. No previous study has demonstrated lasting effects of school-based PA interventions among older adolescents. Furthermore, these interventions have rarely targeted sedentary behaviour (SB despite its relevance to health. The Let’s Move It trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of a school-based, multi-level intervention, on PA and SB, among vocational school students. We hypothesise that the intervention is effective in increasing moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, particularly among those with low or moderate baseline levels, and decreasing SB among all students. Methods The design is a cluster-randomised parallel group trial with an internal pilot study. The trial is conducted in six vocational schools in the Helsinki Metropolitan area, Finland. The intervention is carried out in 30 intervention classes, and 27 control classes retain the standard curriculum. The randomisation occurs at school-level to avoid contamination and to aid delivery. Three of the six schools, randomly allocated, receive the ‘Let’s Move It’ intervention which consists of 1 group sessions and poster campaign targeting students’ autonomous PA motivation and self-regulation skills, 2 sitting reduction in classrooms via alterations in choice architecture and teacher behaviour, and 3 enhancement of PA opportunities in school, home and community environments. At baseline, student participants are blind to group allocation. The trial is carried out in six batches in 2015–2017, with main measurements at pre-intervention baseline, and 2-month and 14-month follow-ups. Primary outcomes are for PA, MVPA measured by accelerometry and self-report, and for SB, sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time (accelerometry

  20. Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, H; Andersen, B; Wanscher, B

    2004-01-01

    We used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance to obtain paired biopsies from the brains of four patients with clinical definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Samples were analyzed for the immunoreactivity (IR) of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms [inducible, neuronal......NOS expressing cells in active lesions. NOS IR expressing cells were widely distributed in plaques, in white and gray matter that appeared normal macroscopically, and on MR. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was highly expressed in intraparenchymal vascular endothelial cells of MS patients. A control group matched for age...

  1. Agricultural Education in Secondary Schools in Tanzania: Were the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to assess whether the objectives of introducing agricultural education in secondary schools were realised. The whereabouts of graduates from agriculture biased schools was traced to establish their activities and determine their attitude towards the significance of secondary agricultural education in ...

  2. Speedminton: Using the Tactical Games Model in Secondary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Bullard, Susan; Hovatter, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching and learning of sport and sports-related games dominates the curriculum in most secondary physical education programs in America. For many secondary school students, playing games can be exciting and lead to a lifetime of participation in sport-related activities. Using the Tactical Games Model (TGM) (Mitchell et al., 2006) to teach the…

  3. β3-Adrenoceptor activation relieves oxidative inhibition of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump in hyperglycemia induced by insulin receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A; Hamilton, Elisha J; Figtree, Gemma A; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2015-09-01

    Dysregulated nitric oxide (NO)- and superoxide (O2 (·-))-dependent signaling contributes to the pathobiology of diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications. We examined if stimulation of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), coupled to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation, relieves oxidative inhibition of eNOS and the Na(+)-K(+) pump induced by hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was established in male New Zealand White rabbits by infusion of the insulin receptor antagonist S961 for 7 days. Hyperglycemia increased tissue and blood indexes of oxidative stress. It induced glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit in cardiac myocytes, an oxidative modification causing pump inhibition, and reduced the electrogenic pump current in voltage-clamped myocytes. Hyperglycemia also increased glutathionylation of eNOS, which causes its uncoupling, and increased coimmunoprecipitation of cytosolic p47(phox) and membranous p22(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits, consistent with NADPH oxidase activation. Blocking translocation of p47(phox) to p22(phox) with the gp91ds-tat peptide in cardiac myocytes ex vivo abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit and decrease in pump current. In vivo treatment with the β3-AR agonist CL316243 for 3 days eliminated the increase in indexes of oxidative stress, decreased coimmunoprecipitation of p22(phox) with p47(phox), abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of eNOS and the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit, and abolished the decrease in pump current. CL316243 also increased coimmunoprecipitation of glutaredoxin-1 with the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit, which may reflect facilitation of deglutathionylation. In vivo β3-AR activation relieves oxidative inhibition of key cardiac myocyte proteins in hyperglycemia and may be effective in targeting the deleterious cardiac effects of diabetes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Lansoprazole for secondary prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy: results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Itabashi, Tsukasa; Abe, Sumihisa; Sakaki, Nobuhiro; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Uemura, Naomi; Hiramatsu, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole has not been established for the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in those receiving long-term low-dose aspirin (LDA) for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection. This study sought to examine the efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole (15 mg once daily) for the secondary prevention of LDA-associated gastric or duodenal ulcers. Patients were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 226) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 235) for 12 months or longer in a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized active-controlled trial, followed by a 6-month follow-up study with open-label lansoprazole treatment. The study utilized 94 sites in Japan and 461 Japanese patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The primary endpoint was the development of gastric or duodenal ulcers. The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcers on days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method as 1.5, 2.1, and 3.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 15.2, 24.0, and 31.7%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk of ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.099 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.042-0.230). Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy.

  6. Transitions in Secondary Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Jensen, Leif; Pilegaard Jensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social......The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark...... between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Population-based registers are used to include information on family upbringing, e.g. alcohol abuse, criminality, use of psychopharmaca and out-of-home placement. We estimate a parsimonious version of Cameron and Heckman's (2001) dynamic...

  7. [Secondary orbital lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D

    2015-09-01

    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. HANARO secondary coolant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Duk.

    1998-02-01

    In this report, the basic theory for management of water quality, environmental factors influencing to the coolant, chemicals and its usage for quality control of coolant are mentioned, and water balance including the loss rate by evaporation (34.3 m 3 /hr), discharge rate (12.665 m 3 /hr), concentration ratio and feed rate (54.1 m 3 /hr) are calculated at 20 MW operation. Also, the analysis data of HANSU Limited for HANARO secondary coolant (feed water and circulating coolant) - turbidity, pH, conductivity, M-alkalinity, Ca-hardness, chloride ion, total iron ion, phosphoric ion and conversion rate are reviewed. It is confirmed that the feed water has good quality and the circulating coolant has been maintained within the control specification in general, but some items exceeded the control specification occasionally. Therefore it is judged that more regular discharge of coolant is needed. (author). 6 refs., 17 tabs., 18 figs

  9. New secondary energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1977-01-01

    As an introduction, the FRG's energy industry situation is described, secondary energy systems to be taken into consideration are classified, and appropriate market requirements are analyzed. Dealt with is district heating, i.e. the direct transport of heat by means of circulating media, and long-distance energy, i.e. the long-distance energy transport by means of chemical conversion in closed- or open-cycle systems. In closed-cycle systems heat is transported in the form of chemical latent energy. In contrast to this, chemical energy is transported in open-cycle systems in the form of fuel gases produced by coal gasification or by thermochemical water splitting. (GG) [de

  10. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified...... in endothelial cells of the fetal vessels. Cotinine, lipid profiles, estradiol, l-arginine, and dimethylarginines that may affect NO production were determined in maternal and fetal blood. Serum cotinine verified self-reported smoking. Newborns of smokers had a lower weight (P... were similar for nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that maternal smoking reduces eNOS activity in the fetal vascular bed, contributing to retarded fetal growth caused by the reduction of vasodilatory capacity, and suggest that smoking cessation early in pregnancy...

  11. Cyclic nucleotides and mitogen-activated protein kinases: regulation of simvastatin in platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Ssu-Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins have been widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. These statins (i.e., simvastatin may exert other effects besides from their cholesterol-lowering actions, including inhibition of platelet activation. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Although the inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation has been studied; the detailed signal transductions by which simvastatin inhibit platelet activation has not yet been completely resolved. Methods The aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of simvastatin in preventing platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblotting, and electron spin resonance studies were used to assess the antiplatelet activity of simvastatin. Results Simvastatin (20-50 μM exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin. Simvastatin inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 (TxA2 formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (i.e., p38 MAPK, JNKs phosphorylation in washed platelets. Simvastatin obviously increased both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Simvastatin markedly increased NO release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the simvastatin-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and simvastatin-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation may involve activation of the cyclic AMP

  12. Factors affecting Mathematics achievement of first-year secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2015-08-14

    Aug 14, 2015 ... Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Campus Kulak Kortrijk, KU ... responses of 4,819 first-year secondary school students (Grade ... “its usefulness in science, mathematical and technological activities as well as.

  13. Intention and constraints of Hong Kong secondary school Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of Hong Kong secondary school Physical Education teachers to promote Unified Sports® ... school subjects like Civic Education, Social Studies, Religious Studies or Liberal Studies.

  14. Secondary interactions in HIJET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longacre, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This talk deals with the investigation of secondary interactions in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions using the Monte Carlo event generator HIJET. The HIJET generator considers p-A and A-A collisions to be a sum of independent N-N collisions, with the N-N cross section and scattering dynamics not dependent on whether the nucleon has previously participated in an interaction. It is very reasonable to assume that each collision should be well represented by an independent N-N collision, however the cross section for the forward going struck nucleon may be different. For each primary N-N interaction, a call is made to the MINBIAS routine of the program ISAJET - an event generator for high energy N-N interactions. MINBIAS computes the energy loss of the colliding nucleons and production of particles. MINBIAS is based on inclusive high energy N-N interactions forming multi-pomeron chains, with each chain fragmenting according to the Field-Feynman algorithm

  15. [Uveitic Secondary Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Claudia; Heinz, Carsten

    2018-05-01

    An intraocular pressure increase with development of glaucomatous damage is a common complication of uveitis. The prevalence has a wide range depending on various factors such as the underlying uveitis type and the duration of the disease. Pathogenetically, a distinction must be made between a secondary angle closure component and the more frequently occurring open-angle glaucoma. In diagnostics, in addition to the clinical optic nerve head assessment, perimetry and tonometry, the use of imaging examination equipment, such as OCT and HRT, are recommended. In the context of uveitic glaucoma, it must be considered in the evaluation, because the glaucoma-typical changes are generally less pronounced or can be concealed by retinal swelling in comparison with other forms of glaucoma. Therapeutically, drug therapy in the form of eye drops continues to be a first-line recommendation, with the use of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or beta-blockers primarily preferred, depending on the contraindications. An operative therapy follows after unsuccessful or inadequate conservative therapy: the adequate surgical technique depends on the respective finding and includes actually techniques such as filtering procedures and glaucoma drainage devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  17. A survey on lifestyle and attitudes on fruit and vegetable consumption and participation in physical activity in a sample of secondary school and university students from Palermo, Western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Sidoti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption, and physical activity (PA, are thought to be some of the most important protective factors that can improve long-term health quality of life. Many epidemiological studies indicate, in fact, that F&V consumption and PA are health-promoting and are correlated with the beneficial effects and positive outcomes such as preventing some chronic diseases. Evidence, however, indicates that large proportions of adolescents are not consuming the minimum servings of F&V as recommended by experts and a high percentage of them have sedentary habits.

    Objective and method: The purpose of this research was to investigate knowledge and behaviors in a sample of secondary school, (250, and university students, (200, referred to F&V consumption and PA. The instrument used for the survey was a questionnaire containing 19 items with multiple choice answers. Data were codified, descriptive analysis and ÷2 tests were computed through Openstat and Statistica software.

    Results: Only 24,2% of the individuals identified welfare as including healthy eating, and this attitude seemed to be associated with the students’ families educational level. Educational level was also positively associated with the awareness of the importance of a healthy diet for well-being and with PA practice. The percentage of students having knowledge of the expert recommendations on PA and eating guidelines about F&V consumption was about one third of the entire population. Students who met the expert recommendation for daily servings of fruit and vegetables were 27,8%, while only 17,8% practiced regular PA. The principal source of information was university/school, (48,0% and 57,0%.

    Conclusions: Healthy dietary and PA habits are far from the optimal in our sample of students. Because of the importance for the prevention of many diseases and long term health

  18. Organic particulate matter formation at varying relative humidity using surrogate secondary and primary organic compounds with activity corrections in the condensed phase obtained using a method based on the Wilson equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E. I.; Pankow, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere is currently often modeled using a multiple lumped "two-product" (N·2p) approach. The N·2p approach neglects: 1) variation of activity coefficient (ζi) values and mean molecular weight solid #000; color: #000;">MW in the particulate matter (PM) phase; 2) water uptake into the PM; and 3) the possibility of phase separation in the PM. This study considers these effects by adopting an (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,ζ approach (θ is a phase index). Specific chemical structures are assigned to 25 lumped SOA compounds and to 15 representative primary organic aerosol (POA) compounds to allow calculation of ζi and solid #000; color: #000;">MW values. The SOA structure assignments are based on chamber-derived 2p gas/particle partition coefficient values coupled with known effects of structure on vapor pressure pL,io (atm). To facilitate adoption of the (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,θ approach in large-scale models, this study also develops CP-Wilson.1 (Chang-Pankow-Wilson.1), a group-contribution ζi-prediction method that is more computationally economical than the UNIFAC model of Fredenslund et al. (1975). Group parameter values required by CP-Wilson.1 are obtained by fitting ζi values to predictions from UNIFAC. The (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,θ approach is applied (using CP-Wilson.1) to several real α-pinene/O3 chamber cases for high reacted hydrocarbon levels (ΔHC≈400 to 1000 μg m-3) when relative humidity (RH) ≍50%. Good agreement between the chamber and predicted results is obtained using both the (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,θ and N·2p approaches, indicating relatively small water effects under these conditions. However, for a hypothetical α-pinene/O3 case at ΔHC=30 μg m-3 and RH=50%, the (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,θ approach predicts that water uptake will lead to an organic PM level that is more double that predicted by the N·2p

  19. Performance Art at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sheridan

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the far-reaching potential and the particular characteristics of performance art within the secondary art curriculum. It discusses the means by which an art department has incorporated it into their teaching curriculum at a state secondary school with reference to installations and the work of different performance artists…

  20. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  1. [Preventive dentistry 5. Secondary caries].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, A.C.C.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary caries is reported as one of the most important reasons for replacing restorations. The patient's general caries risk plays an important role in the development of secondary caries. The connection, at the patient level, between various factors, the risk of caries and restoration factors,

  2. Nitric oxide synthesis-promoting effects of valsartan in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via the Akt/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingshuai Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Valsartan (VAL, an antagonist of angiotensin II receptor type 1, has antihypertensive and multiple cardiovascular protective effects. The pleiotropic functions of VAL are related to the increased synthesis and biological activity of intravascular nitric oxide (NO. In this study, the role and mechanisms of VAL in the synthesis of NO were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Ten µmol/L of VAL was used to treat EA.hy926 cells for 30 minutes, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, and three concentrations of VAL (i.e., 10, 1, and 0.1 µmol/L were used to treat EA.hy926 cells for 24 hours. The cells were divided into five groups: control, VAL, VAL + Compound C (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase [AMPK] inhibitor, 1 µmol/L, VAL + LY294002 (Akt [protein kinase B] inhibitor, 10 µmol/L, and VAL + L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] inhibitor, 500 µmol/L groups. The NO content in the VAL-treated HUVEC line (EA.hy926 was detected using the nitrate reductase method, and western blot was used to detect the phosphorylation of Akt, AMPK, and eNOS, as well as the changes in total protein levels. VAL increased NO synthesis in EA.hy926 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and the intracellular phosphorylation levels of Akt, AMPK, and eNOS at the corresponding time points. LY294002, Compound C, and L-NAME could inhibit the VAL-promoted NO synthesis. VAL activated Akt, AMPK, and eNOS, thus promoting NO synthesis and playing a protective role in endothelial cells. These results partially explained the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular protective effects of VAL.

  3. Endothelial epithelial sodium channel inhibition activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt in small-diameter mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco R; Venegas, Fabiola; González, Magdalena; Andrés, Sergio; Vallejos, Catalina; Riquelme, Gloria; Sierralta, Jimena; Michea, Luis

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in vascular tissue. However, the role that ENaC may play in the responses to vasoconstrictors and NO production has yet to be addressed. In this study, the contractile responses of perfused pressurized small-diameter rat mesenteric arteries to phenylephrine and serotonin were reduced by ENaC blockade with amiloride (75.1+/-3.2% and 16.9+/-2.3% of control values, respectively; P<0.01) that was dose dependent (EC(50)=88.9+/-1.6 nmol/L). Incubation with benzamil, another ENaC blocker, had similar effects. alpha, beta, and gamma ENaC were identified in small-diameter rat mesenteric arteries using RT-PCR and Western blot with specific antibodies. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry localized ENaC expression to the tunica media and endothelium of small-diameter rat mesenteric arteries. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that primary cultures of mesenteric artery endothelial cells expressed amiloride-sensitive sodium currents. Mechanical ablation of the endothelium or inhibition of eNOS with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine inhibited the reduction in contractility caused by ENaC blockers. ENaC inhibitors increased eNOS phosphorylation (Ser 1177) and Akt phosphorylation (Ser 473). The presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 blunted Akt phosphorylation and eNOS phosphorylation and the decrease in the response to phenylephrine caused by blockers of ENaC, indicating that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was activated after ENaC inhibition. Finally, we observed that the effects of blockers of ENaC were flow dependent and that the vasodilatory response to shear stress was enhanced by ENaC blockade. Our results identify a previously unappreciated role for ENaC as a negative modulator of eNOS and NO production in resistance arteries.

  4. A multilevel prediction of physiological response to challenge: Interactions among child maltreatment, neighborhood crime, endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS), and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to a variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins (i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment) and specific genetic polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6). One hundred eighty-six children were recruited at age 4. The presence or absence of child maltreatment as well as the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year were determined at that time. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab, where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge (i.e., change in the amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia) was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. The results confirmed that complex Gene × Gene, Environment × Environment, and Gene × Environment interactions were associated with different patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed.

  5. Lymphedema secondary to filariasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.C.; Humphrey, G.B.; Basmadjian, G.

    1985-01-01

    A 1-year-old immunodeficient boy developed brawny edema of the left foot. Lymphoscintigraphy revealed no evidence of left inguinal activity following pedal injection of Tc-99m-Sn phosphate. Over the next two months, the patient developed lymphedema on the right and repeat scintigraphy demonstrated no movement of isotope from the dorsum of either foot. Subsequent studies identified microfilaria in a nocturnal blood smear, which were thought to represent Brugia beaveri acquired by mosquito transmission in Oklahoma

  6. Jasmonate-responsive transcription factors regulating plant secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Memelink, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a large variety of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, glucosinolates, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids. These compounds play key roles in plant-environment interactions and many of them have pharmacological activity in humans. Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones which induce biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. JAs-responsive transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the JAs-induced accumulation of secondary metabolites belong to different families including AP2/ERF, bHLH, MYB and WRKY. Here, we give an overview of the types and functions of TFs that have been identified in JAs-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and highlight their similarities and differences in regulating various biosynthetic pathways. We review major recent developments regarding JAs-responsive TFs mediating secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and provide suggestions for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Initiation of secondary ice production in clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Sullivan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disparities between the measured concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs and in-cloud ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs have led to the hypothesis that mechanisms other than primary nucleation form ice in the atmosphere. Here, we model three of these secondary production mechanisms – rime splintering, frozen droplet shattering, and ice–ice collisional breakup – with a six-hydrometeor-class parcel model. We perform three sets of simulations to understand temporal evolution of ice hydrometeor number (Nice, thermodynamic limitations, and the impact of parametric uncertainty when secondary production is active. Output is assessed in terms of the number of primarily nucleated ice crystals that must exist before secondary production initiates (NINP(lim as well as the ICNC enhancement from secondary production and the timing of a 100-fold enhancement. Nice evolution can be understood in terms of collision-based nonlinearity and the phasedness of the process, i.e., whether it involves ice hydrometeors, liquid ones, or both. Ice–ice collisional breakup is the only process for which a meaningful NINP(lim exists (0.002 up to 0.15 L−1. For droplet shattering and rime splintering, a warm enough cloud base temperature and modest updraft are the more important criteria for initiation. The low values of NINP(lim here suggest that, under appropriate thermodynamic conditions for secondary ice production, perturbations in cloud concentration nuclei concentrations are more influential in mixed-phase partitioning than those in INP concentrations.

  8. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  9. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  10. Secondary Behavior of Drivers on Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cell phone use by drivers leads to changes in the frequency of other types of potentially distracting behavior. There were 2 main questions of interest: (1) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent on other distracting behavior? (2) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent looking away from the driving task? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. The amount of driving time during each trip spent on tasks secondary to driving (or looking away from the driving task) was correlated to the amount of time on a cell phone, taking into account the relationships among trips taken by the same driver. Drivers spent 42% of the time engaging in at least one secondary activity. Drivers were talking on a cell phone 7% of the time, interacting in some other way with a cell phone 5% of the time, and engaging in some other secondary activity (sometimes in conjunction with cell phone use) 33% of the time. Other than cell phone use, the most common secondary activities were interacting with a passenger (12% of driving time), holding but not otherwise interacting with an object (6%), and talking/singing/dancing to oneself (5%). Drivers were looking straight forward 81% of the time, forward left or right 5% of time, in a mirror 4% of the time, and elsewhere (eyes off driving task) 10% of time. On average, for each 1 percentage point increase in cell phone talking, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.28 percentage points (P cell phone interaction per trip, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.08 percentage points (P =.0558), but the rate of eyes off driving task increased by 0.06 percentage points (P cell phone can be distracting from the driving task, other secondary activities can be equally or more distracting, at least as measured by eye glances

  11. Organic particulate matter formation at varying relative humidity using surrogate secondary and primary organic compounds with activity corrections in the condensed phase obtained using a method based on the Wilson equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in the atmosphere is currently often modeled using a multiple lumped "two-product" (N·2p approach. The N·2p approach neglects: 1 variation of activity coefficient (ζi values and mean molecular weight MW in the particulate matter (PM phase; 2 water uptake into the PM; and 3 the possibility of phase separation in the PM. This study considers these effects by adopting an (N·2pζpMW,ζ approach (θ is a phase index. Specific chemical structures are assigned to 25 lumped SOA compounds and to 15 representative primary organic aerosol (POA compounds to allow calculation of ζi and MW values. The SOA structure assignments are based on chamber-derived 2p gas/particle partition coefficient values coupled with known effects of structure on vapor pressure pL,io (atm. To facilitate adoption of the (N·2pζpMW,θ approach in large-scale models, this study also develops CP-Wilson.1 (Chang-Pankow-Wilson.1, a group-contribution ζi-prediction method that is more computationally economical than the UNIFAC model of Fredenslund et al. (1975. Group parameter values required by CP-Wilson.1 are obtained by fitting ζi values to predictions from UNIFAC. The (N·2pζpMW,θ approach is applied (using CP-Wilson.1 to several real α-pinene/O3 chamber cases for high reacted hydrocarbon levels (ΔHC≈400 to 1000 μg m−3 when relative humidity (RH ≈50%. Good agreement between the chamber and predicted results is

  12. Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wink, Michael

    2010-01-01

    ... (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sterols, cardiac glycosides and steroid saponins). A chapter is also included covering the importance of secondary metabolites in taxonomy, as viewed from the perspective of molecular systematics...

  13. MARIJUANA SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIJUANA SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE AND ... Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. ... A comprehensive school health education

  14. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  15. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  16. Secondary electron emission from insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, K.; Ono, S.; Ishigaki, F.

    1978-01-01

    The high yield of secondary electron emission from insulators due to electron bombardment may be the result of an increase of the depth of escape. The free-electron scattering theory is applied to the high energy of primary beams, but cannot be applied to the low energy of secondary escaping beams because of the large energy gap of the insulators. The plasmon loss with the valence electron is considered when the secondary electrons escape. Based on the energy retardation power formula of the penetration and energy loss of an electron probe into solid targets, secondary electron emissions from insulators are calculated from the assumptions that the distribution of the secondary electrons due to both incident and back-scattered electrons within the target is isotropic and that it follows the absorption law of the Lenard type. The universal yield-energy curve of the secondary electron emission, which is deduced as a function of three parameters such as ionisation potential, valence electron and the back-scattered coefficient in addition to the free-electron density effect, is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.