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  1. Stromal cell–derived factor 2 is critical for Hsp90-dependent eNOS activation

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    Siragusa, Mauro; Fröhlich, Florian; Park, Eon Joo; Schleicher, Michael; Walther, Tobias C.; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine and molecular oxygen into l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous second messenger that influences cardiovascular physiology and disease. Several mechanisms regulate eNOS activity and function, including phosphorylation at Ser and Thr residues and protein-protein interactions. Combining a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry, we identified stromal cell–derived factor 2 (SDF2) as a component of the eNOS macromolecular complex in endothelial cells. SDF2 knockdown impaired agonist-stimulated NO synthesis and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, a key event required for maximal activation of eNOS. Conversely, SDF2 overexpression dose-dependently increased NO synthesis through a mechanism involving Akt and calcium (induced with ionomycin), which increased the phosphorylation of Ser1177 in eNOS. NO synthesis by iNOS (inducible NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) was also enhanced upon SDF2 overexpression. We found that SDF2 was a client protein of the chaperone protein Hsp90, interacting preferentially with the M domain of Hsp90, which is the same domain that binds to eNOS. In endothelial cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF2 was required for the binding of Hsp90 and calmodulin to eNOS, resulting in eNOS phosphorylation and activation. Thus, our data describe a function for SDF2 as a component of the Hsp90-eNOS complex that is critical for signal transduction in endothelial cells. PMID:26286023

  2. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

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    Jason Tran

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC. Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1 colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  3. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS) Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

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    Tran, Jason; Magenau, Astrid; Rodriguez, Macarena; Rentero, Carles; Royo, Teresa; Enrich, Carlos; Thomas, Shane R; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1) colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  4. Folic acid modulates eNOS activity via effects on posttranslational modifications and protein–protein interactions☆

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    Taylor, Sarah Y.; Dixon, Hannah M.; Yoganayagam, Shobana; Price, Natalie; Lang, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Folic acid enhances endothelial function and improves outcome in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The exact intracellular signalling mechanisms involved remain elusive and were therefore the subject of this study. Particular focus was placed on folic acid-induced changes in posttranslational modifications of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Cultured endothelial cells were exposed to folic acid in the absence or presence of phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) inhibitors. The phosphorylation status of eNOS was determined via western blotting. The activities of eNOS and PI3K/Akt were evaluated. The interaction of eNOS with caveolin-1, Heat-Shock Protein 90 and calmodulin was studied using co-immunoprecipitation. Intracellular localisation of eNOS was investigated using sucrose gradient centrifugation and confocal microscopy. Folic acid promoted eNOS dephosphorylation at negative regulatory sites, and increased phosphorylation at positive regulatory sites. Modulation of phosphorylation status was concomitant with increased cGMP concentrations, and PI3K/Akt activity. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt revealed specific roles for this kinase pathway in folic acid-mediated eNOS phosphorylation. Regulatory protein and eNOS protein associations were altered in favour of a positive regulatory effect in the absence of bulk changes in intracellular eNOS localisation. Folic acid-mediated eNOS activation involves the modulation of eNOS phosphorylation status at multiple residues and positive changes in important protein–protein interactions. Such intracellular mechanisms may in part explain improvements in clinical vascular outcome following folic acid treatment. PMID:23796957

  5. Activation of eNOS in endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation involves components of the DNA damage response pathway

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    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Sakai, Yuri; Yamamori, Tohru [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Niwa, Koichi [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • eNOS activity is increased in BAECs exposed to X-rays. • ATM is involved in this increased eNOS activity. • HSP90 modulates the radiation-induced activation of ATM and eNOS. - Abstract: In this study, the involvement of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was investigated in X-irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the phosphorylation of serine 1179 of eNOS (eNOS-Ser1179) were significantly increased in irradiated cells. The radiation-induced increases in NOS activity and eNOS-Ser1179 phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced by treatment with either an ATM inhibitor (Ku-60019) or an HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin). Geldanamycin was furthermore found to suppress the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM-Ser1181. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced eNOS activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells is regulated by ATM and HSP90.

  6. Early ischaemic preconditioning requires Akt- and PKA-mediated activation of eNOS via serine1176 phosphorylation.

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    Yang, Changjun; Talukder, M A Hassan; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Velayutham, Murugesan; Zweier, Jay L

    2013-01-01

    The role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/NO signalling is well documented in late ischaemic preconditioning (IPC); however, the role of eNOS and its activation in early IPC remains controversial. This study investigates the role of eNOS in early IPC and the signalling pathways and molecular interactions that regulate eNOS activation during early IPC. Rat hearts were subjected to 30-min global ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) with or without IPC (three cycles 5-min I and 5-min R) in the presence or absence of the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 (LY), and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 during IPC induction or prior endothelial permeablization. IPC improved post-ischaemic contractile function and reduced infarction compared with I/R with this being abrogated by l-NAME or endothelial permeablization. eNOS(Ser1176), Akt(Ser473), and PKA(Thr197) phosphorylation was increased following IPC. I/R decreased eNOS(Ser1176) phosphorylation, whereas IPC increased it. Mass spectroscopy confirmed eNOS(Ser1176) phosphorylation and quantitative Western blots showed ∼24% modification of eNOS(Ser1176) following IPC. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated eNOS, Akt, and PKA complexation. Immunohistology showed IPC-induced Akt and PKA phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes and endothelium. With eNOS activation, IPC increased NO production as measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping and fluorescence microscopy. LY or H89 not only decreased Akt(Ser473) or PKA(Thr197) phosphorylation, respectively, but also abolished IPC-induced preservation of eNOS and eNOS(Ser1176) phosphorylation as well as cardioprotection. Thus, Akt- and PKA-mediated eNOS activation, with phosphorylation near the C-terminus, is critical for early IPC-induced cardioprotection, with eNOS-derived NO from the endothelium serving a critical role.

  7. Sildenafil promotes eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis.

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    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L

    2014-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Triterpenoic Acids from Apple Pomace Enhance the Activity of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS).

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    Waldbauer, Katharina; Seiringer, Günter; Nguyen, Dieu Linh; Winkler, Johannes; Blaschke, Michael; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Urban, Ernst; Ladurner, Angela; Dirsch, Verena M; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2016-01-13

    Pomace is an easy-accessible raw material for the isolation of fruit-derived compounds. Fruit consumption is associated with health-promoting effects, such as the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Increased vascular nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, for example, due to an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, could be one molecular mechanism mediating this effect. To identify compounds from apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) pomace that have the potential to amplify NO bioavailability via eNOS activation, a bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol/water (70:30) extract has been performed using the (14)C-L-arginine to (14)C-L-citrulline conversion assay (ACCA) in the human endothelium-derived cell line EA.hy926. Phytochemical characterization of the active fractions was performed using the spectrophotometric assessment of the total phenolic content, as well as TLC, HPLC-DAD-ELSD, and HPLC-MS analyses. Eleven triterpenoic acids, of which one is a newly discovered compound, were identified as the main constituents in the most active fraction, accompanied by only minor contents of phenolic compounds. When tested individually, none of the tested compounds exhibited significant eNOS activation. Nevertheless, cell stimulation with the reconstituted compound mixture restored eNOS activation, validating the potential of apple pomace as a source of bioactive components.

  9. Impact of Lifestyle Intervention on HDL-Induced eNOS Activation and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Obese Adolescent

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    Jenny Wesnigk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese children and adolescent and is regarded as a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Important components for the development of endothelial dysfunction are reduced activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and an increase in cholesterol deposition in the vessel wall, due to reduced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT activity. High density lipoprotein (HDL exhibits antiatherosclerotic properties including modulation of eNOS activity and cholesterol efflux capacity. Lifestyle intervention programs can modify endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents, but their impact on HDL-mediated eNOS activation and RCT is unknown so far. Methods. Obese adolescents (15±1 years, BMI > 35 kg/m2 where randomized either to an intervention group (IG, n=8; restricted diet and exercise or to a usual care group (UC, n=8. At the beginning and after 10 months of treatment HDL-mediated eNOS phosphorylation and cholesterol efflux capacity were evaluated. Results. Ten months of treatment resulted in a substantial weight loss (−31%, an improvement of endothelial function, and an increase in HDL-mediated eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and RCT. A correlation between change in eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation or RCT and change in endothelial function was noted. Conclusion. A structured lifestyle intervention program improves antiatherosclerotic HDL functions, thereby positively influencing endothelial function.

  10. [The action of PI3K/AKT during genistein promoting the activity of eNOS].

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    Zheng, Feng-li; Zhao, Jia-hui; Zhang, Hua-ping

    2012-04-01

    Genistein could inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. This study explored the role of PI3K/AKT signaling during genistein promoted eNOS activation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with ox-LDL (100 mg/L), then treated with genistein (100 nmol/L) for 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min. The production of NO was assessed by Griess reaction in cell culture supernatant. The mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression of eNOS and phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) were determined by Western blot. The effect of genistein on phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) level was also observed in the presence of LY294002 or NSC154020 (PI3K and AKT inhibitors). The concentration of NO and the expression level of phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) were significantly increased in ox-LDL + genistein treated cells than ox-LDL treated cells (all P 0.05). Furthermore, the expression level of phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) was significantly lower in PIK3/AKT inhibitors LY294002 and NSC154020 treated cells compared with ox-LDL + genistein treated cells (all P Genistein could promote the activity of eNOS through increasing phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) level through PI3K/AKT pathway.

  11. Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation

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    Ho Sub Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular inflammation is an important factor which can promote diabetic complications. In this study, the inhibitory effects of aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV on high glucose (HG-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC are reported. APV decreased HG-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and E-selectin. APV also dose-dependently inhibited HG-induced adhesion of HL-60 monocytic cells. APV suppressed p65 NF-κB activation in HG-treated cells. APV significantly inhibited the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. HG-stimulated HUVEC secreted gelatinases, however, APV inhibited it. APV induced Akt phosphorylation as well as activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, eNOS, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which may protect vascular inflammation caused by HG. In conclusion, APV exerts anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of ROS/NF-κB pathway by inducing HO-1 and eNOS expression mediated by Nrf2, thereby suggesting that Prunella vulgaris may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of diabetic vascular diseases.

  12. Cavin-2 regulates the activity and stability of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) in angiogenesis.

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    Boopathy, Gandhi T K; Kulkarni, Madhura; Ho, Sze Yuan; Boey, Adrian; Chua, Edmond Wei Min; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Carney, Tom J; Wang, Xiaomeng; Hong, Wanjin

    2017-10-27

    Angiogenesis is a highly regulated process for formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. Angiogenesis is dysregulated in various pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration, arthritis, and cancer. Inhibiting pathological angiogenesis therefore represents a promising therapeutic strategy for treating these disorders, highlighting the need to study angiogenesis in more detail. To this end, identifying the genes essential for blood vessel formation and elucidating their function are crucial for a complete understanding of angiogenesis. Here, focusing on potential candidate genes for angiogenesis, we performed a morpholino-based genetic screen in zebrafish and identified Cavin-2, a membrane-bound phosphatidylserine-binding protein and critical organizer of caveolae (small microdomains in the plasma membrane), as a regulator of angiogenesis. Using endothelial cells, we show that Cavin-2 is required for in vitro angiogenesis and also for endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. We noted a high level of Cavin-2 expression in the neovascular tufts in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, suggesting a role for Cavin-2 in pathogenic angiogenesis. Interestingly, we also found that Cavin-2 regulates the production of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells by controlling the stability and activity of the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) and that Cavin-2 knockdown cells produce much less NO than WT cells. Also, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy analyses indicated that Cavin-2 is secreted in endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and is required for EMP biogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that in addition to its function in caveolae biogenesis, Cavin-2 plays a critical role in endothelial cell maintenance and function by regulating eNOS activity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation

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    Wen, Jiaming; Grenz, Almut; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Xia, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Normal penile erection is under the control of multiple factors and signaling pathways. Although adenosine signaling is implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection, the exact role and the underlying mechanism for adenosine signaling in penile physiology remain elusive. Here we report that shear stress leads to increased adenosine release from endothelial cells. Subsequently, we determined that ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) is a key enzyme required for the production of elevated adenosine from ATP released by shear-stressed endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that shear stress-mediated elevated adenosine functions through the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) to activate the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade and subsequent increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. These in vitro studies led us to discover further that adenosine was induced during sustained penile erection and contributes to PI3K/AKT activation and subsequent eNOS phosphorylation via A2BR signaling in intact animal. Finally, we demonstrate that lowering adenosine in wild-type mice or genetic deletion of A2BR in mutant mice significantly attenuated PI3K/AKT activation, eNOS phosphorylation, and subsequent impaired penile erection featured with the reduction of ratio of maximal intracavernosal pressure to systemic arterial pressure from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.04, respectively (both Ppenile erection via PI3K/AKT-dependent eNOS activation. These studies suggest that this signaling pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for erectile disorders.—Wen, J., Grenz, A., Zhang, Y., Dai, Y., Kellems, R. E., Blackburn, M. R., Eltzschig, H. K., Xia, Y. A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation. PMID:21566208

  14. Water extract of Korean red ginseng stimulates angiogenesis by activating the PI3K/Akt-dependent ERK1/2 and eNOS pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

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    Kim, Young-Mi; Namkoong, Seung; Yun, Young-Gab; Hong, Hee-Do; Lee, Young-Chul; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Lee, Hansoo; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2007-09-01

    Angiogenesis is important for promoting cardiovascular disease, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. We investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGE) on angiogenesis and its underlying signal mechanism. KRGE increased in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as well as stimulated in vivo angiogenesis without increasing VEGF expression. KRGE-induced angiogenesis was accompanied by phosphorylation of ERK1/2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Akt), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) as well as an increase in NO production. Inhibition of PI3K activity by wortmannin completely inhibited KRGE-induced angiogenesis and phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and eNOS, indicating that PI3K/Akt activation is an upstream event of the KRGE-mediated angiogenic pathway. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 blocked KRGE-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation without affecting Akt and eNOS activation. However, the eNOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine effectively inhibited tube formation, but partially blocked proliferation and migration as well as ERK phosphorylation, without altering Akt and eNOS activation, revealing that the eNOS/NO pathway is partially involved in ERK1/2 activation. This study demonstrated that KRGE stimulates in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis through the activation of the PI3K/Akt-dependent ERK1/2 and eNOS signal pathways and their cross talk.

  15. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

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    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P. [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Searles, Charles D., E-mail: csearle@emory.edu [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1670 Clarimont Road, Decatur, GA 30033 (United States)

    2010-03-19

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm{sup 2}) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). The miRNA with the greatest change was miR-21; it was increased 5.2-fold (p = 0.002) in USS-treated versus control cells. Western analysis demonstrated that PTEN, a known target of miR-21, was downregulated in HUVECs exposed to USS or transfected with pre-miR-21. Importantly, HUVECs overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}}) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO{sup {center_dot}} pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  16. Effects of a pomegranate fruit extract rich in punicalagin on oxidation-sensitive genes and eNOS activity at sites of perturbed shear stress and atherogenesis.

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    de Nigris, Filomena; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Sica, Vincenzo; Lerman, Lilach O; D'Armiento, Francesco P; Byrns, Russell E; Casamassimi, Amelia; Carpentiero, Daniela; Schiano, Concetta; Sumi, Daigo; Fiorito, Carmela; Ignarro, Louis J; Napoli, Claudio

    2007-01-15

    Atherosclerosis is enhanced in arterial segments exposed to disturbed flow. Perturbed shear stress increases the expression of oxidation-sensitive responsive genes (such as ELK-1 and p-CREB). Polyphenolic antioxidants contained in the juice derived from the pomegranate contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress and atherogenesis during disturbed shear stress. To evaluate the effects of intervention with the Pomegranate Fruit Extract (PFE) rich in polyphones (punicalagin, which is a potent antioxidant) on ELK-1, p-CREB, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression induced by high shear stress in vitro and in vivo. At the doses used in the study, both the PFE and the regular pomegranate juice concentrate reduced the activation of ELK-1 and p-CREB and increased eNOS expression (which was decreased by perturbed shear stress) in cultured human endothelial cells and in atherosclerosis-prone areas of hypercholesterolemic mice. PFE and pomegranate juice increased cyclic GMP levels while there was no significant effect of both compounds on the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline. Administration of these compounds to hypercholesterolemic mice significantly reduced the progression of atherosclerosis and isoprostane levels and increased nitrates. This protective effect was relevant with PFE. Vasomotor reactivity was improved and EC(25) values in response to Ach and NONOate were significantly increased in treated mice in comparison to controls. This study indicates that the proatherogenic effects induced by perturbed shear stress can be also reversed by chronic administration of PFE.

  17. Extract from Ribes nigrum leaves in vitro activates nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increases CD39 expression in human endothelial cells.

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    Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Dudzinska, Dominika; Rozalski, Marek; Krajewska, Urszula; Balcerczak, Ewa; Podsedek, Anna; Redzynia, Malgorzata; Watala, Cezary

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether blackcurrant leaf extract (BLE) modulates endothelium antithrombotic function, namely increases the expression/activity of ADPase (CD39) and augments the production of nitric oxide in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). It was found that BLE with proanthocyanidins (60 % of the total polyphenol content) increased the CD39-positive endothelial cell fraction (up to 10 % for 2.5 μg/ml, and up to 33 % for 15 μg/ml, p < 0.05 or less) in a concentration-dependent manner, and enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation (T495 phosphorylation decreased by 31 ± 6 % for 2.5 μg/ml and 48 ± 6 % for 15 μg/ml; S1177 phosphorylation increased by 13 ± 3 % for 2.5 μg/ml and 18 ± 7 % for 15 μg/ml, compared to untreated cells, p < 0.05 or less). Additionally, incubation for 24 or 48 h with BLE at a lower range of polyphenol concentrations, significantly increased cell viability with a maximal effect at 2.5 μg/ml (viability increased by 24.8 ± 1.0 % for 24 h and by 32.5 ± 2.7 % for 48-h time incubation, p < 0.0001). The increased CD39 expression and the increased eNOS activation in HUVEC can be regarded as the beneficial markers of the improvement of antiplatelet action of endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, these assumptions were not confirmed in the experimental model of platelet-endothelial cell interactions. These observations lead to the conclusion that BLE may improve endothelial cell viability at low physiological concentrations without affecting the antiplatelet action of endothelium.

  18. Beneficial effects of exercise training after myocardial infarction require full eNOS expression.

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    de Waard, Monique C; van Haperen, Rien; Soullié, Thomas; Tempel, Dennie; de Crom, Rini; Duncker, Dirk J

    2010-06-01

    Exercise training attenuates left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). It could be speculated that these effects of exercise are mediated by increased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that eNOS plays a critical role in the exercise-induced amelioration of LV dysfunction after MI. MI or sham was induced in eNOS(-/-), eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(+/+) mice. After 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running (approximately 7 km/day in all groups) or sedentary housing, global cardiac function was determined in vivo and (immuno)histochemistry was performed to assess cardiomyocyte size, fibrosis, capillary density and apoptosis in remote myocardium. At baseline eNOS(-/-) mice had higher mean aortic pressure compared to eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(+/+) mice, but had normal global cardiac function. MI resulted in marked LV remodeling, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and a reduction in capillary density, increased fibrosis and apoptosis, as well as LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction to the same extent in all genotypes. In eNOS(+/+) MI mice exercise abolished fibrosis and apoptosis in the remote myocardium, attenuated LV systolic dysfunction and ameliorated pulmonary congestion. These beneficial effects were lost in eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(-/-) mice, while LV systolic dysfunction and pulmonary congestion in eNOS(+/-) mice were exacerbated by exercise. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of exercise after MI on LV remodeling and dysfunction depend critically on endogenous eNOS. The observation that the lack of one eNOS allele is sufficient to negate all beneficial effects of exercise, strongly suggests that exercise depends on full eNOS expression. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Normal and high eNOS levels are detrimental in both mild and severe cardiac pressure-overload.

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    van Deel, Elza D; Octavia, Yanti; de Boer, Martine; Juni, Rio P; Tempel, Dennie; van Haperen, Rien; de Crom, Rini; Moens, An L; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) exerts beneficial effects in a variety of cardiovascular disease states. Studies on the benefit of eNOS activity in pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by aortic stenosis are equivocal, which may be due to different expression levels of eNOS or different severities of pressure-overload. Consequently, we investigated the effects of eNOS-expression level on cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by mild or severe pressure-overload. To unravel the impact of eNOS on pressure-overload cardiac dysfunction we subjected eNOS deficient, wildtype and eNOS overexpressing transgenic (eNOS-Tg) mice to 8weeks of mild or severe transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and studied cardiac geometry and function at the whole organ and tissue level. In both mild and severe TAC, lack of eNOS ameliorated, whereas eNOS overexpression aggravated, TAC-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Moreover, the detrimental effects of eNOS in severe TAC were associated with aggravation of TAC-induced NOS-dependent oxidative stress and by further elevation of eNOS monomer levels, consistent with enhanced eNOS uncoupling. In the presence of TAC, scavenging of reactive oxygen species with N-acetylcysteine reduced eNOS S-glutathionylation, eNOS monomer and NOS-dependent superoxide levels in eNOS-Tg mice to wildtype levels. Accordingly, N-acetylcysteine improved cardiac function in eNOS-Tg but not in wildtype mice with TAC. In conclusion, independent of the severity of TAC, eNOS aggravates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, which appears due to TAC-induced eNOS uncoupling and superoxide production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detrimental effect of combined exercise training and eNOS overexpression on cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Monique C; van der Velden, Jolanda; Boontje, Nicky M; Dekkers, Dick H W; van Haperen, Rien; Kuster, Diederik W D; Lamers, Jos M J; de Crom, Rini; Duncker, Dirk J

    2009-05-01

    It has been reported that exercise after myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates left ventricular (LV) pump dysfunction by normalization of myofilament function. This benefit could be due to an exercise-induced upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activity. Consequently, we first tested the hypothesis that the effects of exercise after MI can be mimicked by elevated eNOS expression using transgenic mice with overexpression of human eNOS (eNOSTg). Both exercise and eNOSTg attenuated LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI in mice and improved cardiomyocyte maximal force development (F(max)). However, only exercise training restored myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)2a protein levels and improved the first derivative of LV pressure at 30 mmHg. Conversely, only eNOSTg improved survival. In view of these partly complementary actions, we subsequently tested the hypothesis that combining exercise and eNOSTg would provide additional protection against LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI. Unexpectedly, the combination of exercise and eNOSTg abolished the beneficial effects on LV remodeling and dysfunction of either treatment alone. The latter was likely due to perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, as myofilament F(max) actually increased despite marked reductions in the phosphorylation status of several myofilament proteins, whereas the exercise-induced increases in SERCA2a protein levels were lost in eNOSTg mice. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine or supplementation of tetrahydrobiopterin and l-arginine prevented these detrimental effects on LV function while partly restoring the phosphorylation status of myofilament proteins and further enhancing myofilament F(max). In conclusion, the combination of exercise and elevated eNOS expression abolished the cardioprotective effects of either treatment alone after MI, which appeared to be, at least in part, the result of increased

  1. MicroRNA-27b plays a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ dependent Hsp90-eNOS signaling and nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Rui; Bao, Chunrong; Jiang, Lianyong; Liu, Hao; Yang, Yang; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: dbcar126@126.com

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial dysfunction is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Based on recent studies showing that microRNA (miR)-27b is aberrantly expressed in PAH, we hypothesized that miR-27b may contribute to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in PAH. The effect of miR-27b on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and the underlying mechanism were investigated in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in vitro and in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced model of PAH in vivo. miR-27b expression was upregulated in MCT-induced PAH and inversely correlated with the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and miR-27b inhibition attenuated MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and remodeling and prevented PAH associated right ventricular hypertrophy and systolic pressure in rats. PPARγ was confirmed as a direct target of miR-27b in HPAECs and shown to mediate the effect of miR-27b on the disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling to Hsp90 and the suppression of NO production associated with the PAH phenotype. We showed that miR-27b plays a role endothelial function and NO release and elucidated a potential mechanism by which miR-27b regulates Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling by modulating PPARγ expression, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAH. - Highlights: • miR-27b plays a role in endothelial function and NO release. • miR-27b inhibition ameliorates MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and PAH. • miR-27b targets PPARγ in HPAECs. • miR-27b regulates PPARγ dependent Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling.

  2. Endothelin-1 Overexpression Improves Renal Function in eNOS Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Tsuprykov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the renal phenotype under conditions of an activated renal ET-1 system in the status of nitric oxide deficiency, we compared kidney function and morphology in wild-type, ET-1 transgenic (ET+/+, endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS-/- and ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Methods: We assessed blood pressure, parameters of renal morphology, plasma cystatin C, urinary protein excretion, expression of genes associated with glomerular filtration barrier and tissue remodeling, and plasma metabolites using metabolomics. Results: eNOS-/- and ET+/+eNOS-/- mice developed hypertension. Osteopontin, albumin and protein excretion were increased in eNOS-/- and restored in ET+/+eNOS-/- animals. All genetically modified mice developed renal interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Genes involved in tissue remodeling (serpine1, TIMP1, Col1a1, CCL2 were up-regulated in eNOS-/-, but not in ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Plasma levels of free carnitine and acylcarnitines, amino acids, diacyl phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and hexoses were descreased in eNOS-/- and were in the normal range in ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Conclusion: eNOS-/- mice developed renal dysfunction, which was partially rescued by ET-1 overexpression in eNOS-/- mice. The metabolomics results suggest that ET-1 overexpression on top of eNOS knockout is associated with a functional recovery of mitochondria (rescue effect in β-oxidation of fatty acids and an increase in antioxidative properties (normalization of monounsaturated fatty acids levels.

  3. Pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites of marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-04-01

    Marine actinobacteria are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinobacteria from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, for many important antibiotics, anticancer, antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. However, frequent rediscovery of the same compounds from the terrestrial actinobacteria has made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinobacteria isolated from the marine environment have currently received considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. They are efficient producers of new secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitumor, cytotoxic, cytostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, anti-malaria, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, etc. In this review, an evaluation is made on the current status of research on marine actinobacteria yielding pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Bioactive compounds from marine actinobacteria possess distinct chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of new drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogens. With the increasing advancement in science and technology, there would be a greater demand for new bioactive compounds synthesized by actinobacteria from various marine sources in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B

    2016-11-01

    Many Fungi have a well-developed secondary metabolism. The diversity of fungal species and the diversification of biosynthetic gene clusters underscores a nearly limitless potential for metabolic variation and an untapped resource for drug discovery and synthetic biology. Much of the ecological success of the filamentous fungi in colonizing the planet is owed to their ability to deploy their secondary metabolites in concert with their penetrative and absorptive mode of life. Fungal secondary metabolites exhibit biological activities that have been developed into life-saving medicines and agrochemicals. Toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins, contaminate human and livestock food and indoor environments. Secondary metabolites are determinants of fungal diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Secondary metabolites exhibit a staggering variation in chemical structures and biological activities, yet their biosynthetic pathways share a number of key characteristics. The genes encoding cooperative steps of a biosynthetic pathway tend to be located contiguously on the chromosome in coregulated gene clusters. Advances in genome sequencing, computational tools, and analytical chemistry are enabling the rapid connection of gene clusters with their metabolic products. At least three fungal drug precursors, penicillin K and V, mycophenolic acid, and pleuromutilin, have been produced by synthetic reconstruction and expression of respective gene clusters in heterologous hosts. This review summarizes general aspects of fungal secondary metabolism and recent developments in our understanding of how and why fungi make secondary metabolites, how these molecules are produced, and how their biosynthetic genes are distributed across the Fungi. The breadth of fungal secondary metabolite diversity is highlighted by recent information on the biosynthesis of important fungus-derived metabolites that have contributed to human health and agriculture and that have negatively impacted crops

  5. Antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were the analysis of the secondary metabolites and evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Alternaria alternata. Twenty six bioactive compounds were identified in methanolic extract of Alternaria alternata. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on the peak area, ...

  6. Redox activity of naphthalene secondary organic aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    R. D. McWhinney; S. Zhou; J. P. D. Abbatt

    2013-01-01

    Chamber secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from low-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene by hydroxyl radical was examined with respect to its redox cycling behaviour using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Naphthalene SOA was highly redox active, consuming DTT at an average rate of 118 ± 14 pmol per minute per μg of SOA material. Measured particle-phase masses of the major previously identified redox active products, 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone, accounted for only 21 ± 3% of the obse...

  7. De novo lipogenesis maintains vascular homeostasis through endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) palmitoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaochao; Schneider, Jochen G; Shenouda, Sherene M; Lee, Ada; Towler, Dwight A; Chakravarthy, Manu V; Vita, Joseph A; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2011-01-28

    Endothelial dysfunction leads to lethal vascular complications in diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Here, we demonstrate that de novo lipogenesis, an insulin-dependent process driven by the multifunctional enzyme fatty-acid synthase (FAS), maintains endothelial function by targeting endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) to the plasma membrane. In mice with endothelial inactivation of FAS (FASTie mice), eNOS membrane content and activity were decreased. eNOS and FAS were physically associated; eNOS palmitoylation was decreased in FAS-deficient cells, and incorporation of labeled carbon into eNOS-associated palmitate was FAS-dependent. FASTie mice manifested a proinflammatory state reflected as increases in vascular permeability, endothelial inflammatory markers, leukocyte migration, and susceptibility to LPS-induced death that was reversed with an NO donor. FAS-deficient endothelial cells showed deficient migratory capacity, and angiogenesis was decreased in FASTie mice subjected to hindlimb ischemia. Insulin induced FAS in endothelial cells freshly isolated from humans, and eNOS palmitoylation was decreased in mice with insulin-deficient or insulin-resistant diabetes. Thus, disrupting eNOS bioavailability through impaired lipogenesis identifies a novel mechanism coordinating nutritional status and tissue repair that may contribute to diabetic vascular disease.

  8. Post-translational regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by estrogens in the rat vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Strong, Travis D; Lagoda, Gwen A; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2010-05-01

    Estrogens control vaginal blood flow during female sexual arousal mostly through nitric oxide (NO). Although vascular effects of estrogens are attributed to an increase in endothelial NO production, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) regulation by estrogens in the vagina are largely unknown. Our hypothesis was that estrogens regulate eNOS post-translationally in the vagina, providing a mechanism to affect NO bioavailability without changes in eNOS protein expression. We measured eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in the distal and proximal vagina of female rats at diestrus, 7 days after ovariectomy and 2 days after replacement of ovariectomized rats with estradiol-17beta (15 microg). Molecular mechanisms of eNOS regulation by estrogen in the rat vagina. We localized phospho-eNOS (Ser-1177) immunohistochemically to the endothelium lining blood vessels and vaginal sinusoids. Estrogen withdrawal decreased phosphorylation of eNOS on its positive regulatory site (Ser-1177) and increased eNOS binding to its negative regulator caveolin-1 (without affecting eNOS/HSP90 interaction), and they were both normalized by estradiol replacement. Protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were not affected by estrogen status, suggesting that the effect of estrogens on eNOS (Ser-1177) phosphorylation was not mediated by activated AKT or ERK1/2. eNOS phosphorylation on its negative regulatory site (Ser-114) was increased in the vagina by estrogen withdrawal and normalized by estradiol replacement, implying that the maintenance of low phosphorylation of eNOS on this site by estradiol may limit eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and preserve the enzyme's activity. Total eNOS, inducible NOS, caveolin-1, and HSP90 protein expressions were not affected by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement in the distal or proximal vagina. These results

  9. Redox activity of naphthalene secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, R. D.; Zhou, S.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2013-04-01

    Chamber secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from low-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene by hydroxyl radical was examined with respect to its redox cycling behaviour using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Naphthalene SOA was highly redox active, consuming DTT at an average rate of 118 ± 14 pmol per minute per μg of SOA material. Measured particle-phase masses of the major previously identified redox active products, 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone, accounted for only 21 ± 3% of the observed redox cycling activity. The redox-active 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone was identified as a new minor product of naphthalene oxidation, and including this species in redox activity predictions increased the predicted DTT reactivity to 30 ± 5% of observations. Similar attempts to predict redox behaviour of oxidised two-stroke engine exhaust particles by measuring 1,2-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone predicted DTT decay rates only 4.9 ± 2.5% of those observed. Together, these results suggest that there are substantial unidentified redox-active SOA constituents beyond the small quinones that may be important toxic components of these particles. A gas-to-SOA particle partitioning coefficient was calculated to be (7.0 ± 2.5) × 10-4 m3 μg-1 for 1,4-naphthoquinone at 25 °C. This value suggests that under typical warm conditions, 1,4-naphthoquinone is unlikely to contribute strongly to redox behaviour of ambient particles, although further work is needed to determine the potential impact under conditions such as low temperatures where partitioning to the particle is more favourable. As well, higher order oxidation products that likely account for a substantial fraction of the redox cycling capability of the naphthalene SOA are likely to partition much more strongly to the particle phase.

  10. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-03-31

    Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR). Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP) promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  11. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Cerqueira

    Full Text Available Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR. Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  12. RNAi-Mediated Down-Regulation of CD47 Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Myocardial Damage via Activation of eNOS in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-bo Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial damage caused by ischemia reperfusion (I/R. Previous studies have confirmed that cardiac CD47 drives left ventricular heart failure. However, the role for CD47 in myocardial I/R injury (MIRI has not previously been proposed. This study was designed to investigate whether down-regulation of CD47 using RNA interference (RNAi technology can relieve inhibition of nitric oxide signaling and attenuate myocardial damage in a rat model of I/R. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40 were randomly allocated to four groups and pre-treated either with saline (Sham and I/R groups, or adenovirus expressing either control (Ad-EGFP-N or CD47-targeting (Ad-EGFP-CD47 RNAi. After four days, the rat MIRI model was established by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. Heart tissue was harvested and assessed by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and quantitative RT-PCR. Outcome measures included infarct size, myocardial enzyme (creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum, markers of oxidative stress, and morphological changes to the myocardium. Results: Delivery of Ad-EGFP-CD47 RNAi into the myocardium remarkably decreased CD47 expression levels. Down-regulation of CD47 was significantly associated with reduced infarct size and serum levels of myocardial enzymes, increased activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, increased levels of nitric oxide, and decreased levels of oxidative stress. Conclusion: These data indicate that down-regulation of CD47 exerts a protective effect against MIRI, which may be attributable to attenuation of oxidative stress via activation of the eNOS/NO signaling pathway.

  13. RNAi-Mediated Down-Regulation of CD47 Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Myocardial Damage via Activation of eNOS in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Bo; Yang, Jun; Ding, Jia-Wang; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, Song; Liu, Xiao-Wen; Yang, Chao-Jun; Fan, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial damage caused by ischemia reperfusion (I/R). Previous studies have confirmed that cardiac CD47 drives left ventricular heart failure. However, the role for CD47 in myocardial I/R injury (MIRI) has not previously been proposed. This study was designed to investigate whether down-regulation of CD47 using RNA interference (RNAi) technology can relieve inhibition of nitric oxide signaling and attenuate myocardial damage in a rat model of I/R. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) were randomly allocated to four groups and pre-treated either with saline (Sham and I/R groups), or adenovirus expressing either control (Ad-EGFP-N) or CD47-targeting (Ad-EGFP-CD47) RNAi. After four days, the rat MIRI model was established by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. Heart tissue was harvested and assessed by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and quantitative RT-PCR. Outcome measures included infarct size, myocardial enzyme (creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, and lactate dehydrogenase) levels in serum, markers of oxidative stress, and morphological changes to the myocardium. Delivery of Ad-EGFP-CD47 RNAi into the myocardium remarkably decreased CD47 expression levels. Down-regulation of CD47 was significantly associated with reduced infarct size and serum levels of myocardial enzymes, increased activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, increased levels of nitric oxide, and decreased levels of oxidative stress. These data indicate that down-regulation of CD47 exerts a protective effect against MIRI, which may be attributable to attenuation of oxidative stress via activation of the eNOS/NO signaling pathway. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Antifungal activity of microbial secondary metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Coleman

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites are well known for their ability to impede other microorganisms. Reanalysis of a screen of natural products using the Caenorhabditis elegans-Candida albicans infection model identified twelve microbial secondary metabolites capable of conferring an increase in survival to infected nematodes. In this screen, the two compound treatments conferring the highest survival rates were members of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP family of fungal secondary metabolites, acetylgliotoxin and a derivative of hyalodendrin. The abundance of fungal secondary metabolites indentified in this screen prompted further studies investigating the interaction between opportunistic pathogenic fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus, because of the ability of the fungus to produce a plethora of secondary metabolites, including the well studied ETP gliotoxin. We found that cell-free supernatant of A. fumigatus was able to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans through the production of a secreted product. Comparative studies between a wild-type and an A. fumigatus ΔgliP strain unable to synthesize gliotoxin demonstrate that this secondary metabolite is the major factor responsible for the inhibition. Although toxic to organisms, gliotoxin conferred an increase in survival to C. albicans-infected C. elegans in a dose dependent manner. As A. fumigatus produces gliotoxin in vivo, we propose that in addition to being a virulence factor, gliotoxin may also provide an advantage to A. fumigatus when infecting a host that harbors other opportunistic fungi.

  15. Antioxidant enzymes activities during secondary somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis was achieved from immature cotyledon explants of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) cave. "Chandler" on DKW medium. Secondary somatic embryogenesis, the process by which adventitious embryos are formed from primary somatic embryos, is frequent during somatic embryogenesis in Persian ...

  16. Aspirin prevents TNF-α-induced endothelial cell dysfunction by regulating the NF-κB-dependent miR-155/eNOS pathway: Role of a miR-155/eNOS axis in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohwan; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Park, Minsik; Choi, Seunghwan; Park, Wonjin; Kim, Suji; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Hwang, Jong Yun; Choe, Jongseon; Won, Moo-Ho; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory disease with endothelial cell dysfunction that occurs via decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (eNOS/NO) activity. Aspirin reduces the incidence of hypertensive pregnancy complications. However, the underlying mechanism has not been clearly explained. Here, we found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, microRNA (miR)-155, and eNOS levels as well as endothelial redox phenotype were differentially regulated in preeclamptic patients, implying the involvement of TNF-α- and redox signal-mediated miR-155 biogenesis and eNOS downregulation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Aspirin prevented the TNF-α-mediated increase in miR-155 biogenesis and decreases in eNOS expression and NO/cGMP production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Similar effects of aspirin were also observed in HUVECs treated with H2O2. The preventive effects of aspirin was associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent MIR155HG (miR-155 host gene) expression. Aspirin recovered the TNF-α-mediated decrease in wild-type, but not mutant, eNOS 3'-untranslated region reporter activity, whose effect was blocked by miR-155 mimic. Moreover, aspirin prevented TNF-α-mediated endothelial cell dysfunction associated with impaired vasorelaxation, angiogenesis, and trophoblast invasion, and the preventive effects were blocked by miR-155 mimic or an eNOS inhibitor. Aspirin rescued TNF-α-mediated eNOS downregulation coupled with endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional miR-155 biogenesis. Thus, the redox-sensitive NF-κB/miR-155/eNOS axis may be crucial in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders including preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic extract of Datura stramonium and evaluation of antimicrobial activity. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 14 (19):1668-1674. Anupama M, Narayana KJ, Vijayalakshmi M (2007). Screening of. Streptomyces perpuofucus for antimicrobial metabolites. Res. J. Microbiol. 2:992-994.

  18. Teaching about Korea: Elementary and Secondary Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-sook, Ed.; And Others

    The classroom activities in this book focus on teaching about Korean culture and society within the context of larger social science units. Also, some of the lessons may be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts. An historical overview and a list of suggestions for working with small groups introduces the 18 lessons. The format…

  19. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  20. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ulcers. A wide range of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, diterpenes, flavones, phenolics, and triterpenes have been isolated, some of which have also shown corresponding biological activities. The current review is an update on the reported pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of T. crispa.

  1. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide range of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, diterpenes, flavones, phenolics, and triterpenes have been isolated, some of which have also shown corresponding biological activities. The current review is an update on the reported pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of T. crispa.

  2. Brian Eno Hollandi Festivali peakülaliseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Inglise helilooja, videokunstnik ja muusikaprodutsent Brian Eno on 5.-26. juunini Amsterdamis toimuva avangardse Hollandi Festivali peakülaline, kelle videoinstallatsioon seatakse üles Stedelijki Muuseumis. Festivali programmist

  3. Exercise training enhanced myocardial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS function in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Pawel M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different mechanisms of diabetic-induced NO dysfunction have been proposed and central to most of them are significant changes in eNOS function as the rate-limiting step in NO bioavailability. eNOS exists in both monomeric and dimeric conformations, with the dimeric form catalyzing the synthesis of nitric oxide, while the monomeric form catalyzes the synthesis of superoxide (O2-. Diabetic-induced shifts to decrease the dimer:monomer ratio is thought to contribute to the degradation of nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Exercise has long been useful in the management of diabetes. Although exercise-induced increases expression of eNOS has been reported, it is unclear if exercise may alter the functional coupling of eNOS. Methods To investigate this question, Goto-Kakizaki rats (a model of type II diabetes were randomly assigned to a 9-week running program (train or sedentary (sed groups. Results Exercise training significantly (p 4, but not in the presence of exogenous BH4. Exercise training also significantly decreased NADPH-dependent O2- activity. Conclusion Exercise-induced increased eNOS dimerization resulted in an increased coupling of the enzyme to facilitate production of NO at the expense of ROS generation. This shift that could serve to decrease diabetic-related oxidative stress, which should serve to lessen diabetic-related complications.

  4. Plant products and secondary metabolites with acaricide activity against ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Arjona-Cambranes, K; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Bolio-González, M E; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Alzina-López, A; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E J; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J

    2017-04-30

    The present review documents the results of studies evaluating the acaricidal activity of different plant products and secondary metabolites against ticks that are resistant and susceptible to conventional acaricides. Studies published from 1998 to 2016 were included. The acaricidal activity of plant extracts, essential oils and secondary compounds from plants have been evaluated using bioassays with ticks in the larval and adult stages. There is variable effectiveness according to the species of plant and the concentrations used, with observed mortalities ranging from 5 to 100% against the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus), Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, and Argas genera. A number of plants have been reported to cause high mortalities and/or affect the reproductive capacity of ticks in the adult phase. In the majority of these trials, the main species of plants evaluated correspond to the families Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Verbenaceae, and Poaceae. Different secondary metabolites such as thymol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol and n-hexanal, have been found to be primarily responsible for the acaricidal activity of different essential oils against different species of ticks, while nicotine, dibenzyldisulfide and dibenzyltrisulfide have been evaluated for plant extracts. Only thymol, carvacrol and 1,8-cineol have been evaluated for acaricidal activity under in vivo conditions. The information in the present review allows the conclusion that the secondary metabolites contained in plant products could be used as an alternative for the control of ticks that are susceptible or resistant to commercial acaricides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Militant Teacher Union Members' Activities in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangu, Vimbi P.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the activities of teacher unions in some Gauteng secondary schools in South Africa. The methods used in collecting data were questionnaires, interviews and a literature study of appropriate educational and labour law journals, books and newspapers. An interpretive paradigm was used in analysing the data. In this article,…

  6. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  7. Secondary metabolites from Inula britannica L. and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Hamayun, Muhammad; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Ahmad, Shabir; Rehman, Gauhar; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-03-10

    Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids) and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  8. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-25

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein's ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter's mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na + -coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures.

  9. Physical activity breaks and facilities in US secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-11-01

    Research on physical activity breaks and facilities (indoor and outdoor) in secondary schools is relatively limited. School administrators and students in nationally representative samples of 8th (middle school) and 10th/12th grade (high school) students were surveyed annually from 2008-2009 to 2011-2012. School administrators reported information about physical activity breaks and facilities. Students self-reported height, weight, and physical activity. The prevalence of physical activity breaks and indoor and outdoor facilities (dichotomized by median split) differed significantly by region of the country, school size, student race/ethnicity, and school socioeconomic status (SES). Breaks were associated with lower odds of overweight (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.00) and obesity (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.99) among middle school students. Among low-SES middle school students and schools, higher indoor facilities were associated with lower rates of overweight and obesity. Among high school students, higher indoor and outdoor facilities were associated with 19-42% higher odds of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Physical activity breaks and school facilities may help to address high rates of overweight/obesity and low physical activity levels among secondary students, especially lower-SES students. Students in all schools should have equal access to these resources. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  10. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in enhancing expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α and VEGF in wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Imam; Devi, Anita; Purwandhono, Azham; Hadi Warsito, Sunaryo

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is a physiological process that occurs progressively through overlapping phases. Tissue oxygenation is an important part of the complex regulation for wound healing. Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) therapy is a method of increasing oxygen delivery to tissues. The therapy improves tissue oxygenation and stimulates the formation of H2O2 as a secondary messenger for Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF α), e-NOS, VEGF and Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta phosphorylation (NF-Kb) which play an important role in the rapid transcription of a wide variety of genes in response to extracellular stimuli. This study aims to determine the effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy in enhancing the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing. This study is an animal study with a ‘randomized control group of pre-test and post test design’ on 28 Wistar rats. Randomly, the rats were divided into 4 groups with 7 rats in each group. The HBO treatment group 1 received 5 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; the HBO treatment group 2 received 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; and each of the control groups were without HBO. Each of the 28 male rats were given a full thickness excisional wound of 1 × 1cm. Examinations of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF expressions and wound healing were performed on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-5 HBO or on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-10 HBO. The resultsshowthat the Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy can improve e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p= 0.02), VEGF expression (p=0.02) and wound healing (p=0.002) significantly in the provision of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes in 5 sessions over 5 consecutive days. While the 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes over 10 consecutive days only increase e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p=0.04), VEGF expression significantly (p=0.03) but do not improve wound healing significantly (p=0.3) compared with no HBO. The study concludes that HBO can improve the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing in the provision of HBO

  11. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-03-01

    The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity.

  12. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Stéphanie; González, Carmen; García, Celina; Zamarripa, David Arredondo; Nava, Gabriel; Vaca, Luis; López-Casillas, Fernando; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez; Clapp, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK). Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  13. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Clapp

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK. Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  14. Endogenous urotensin II selectively modulates erectile function through eNOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urotensin II (U-II is a cyclic peptide originally isolated from the neurosecretory system of the teleost fish and subsequently found in other species, including man. U-II was identified as the natural ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor, namely UT receptor. U-II and UT receptor are expressed in a variety of peripheral organs and especially in cardiovascular tissue. Recent evidence indicates the involvement of U-II/UT pathway in penile function in human, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. On these bases the aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism(s of U-II-induced relaxation in human corpus cavernosum and its relationship with L-arginine/Nitric oxide (NO pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human corpus cavernosum tissue was obtained following in male-to-female transsexuals undergoing surgical procedure for sex reassignment. Quantitative RT-PCR clearly demonstrated the U-II expression in human corpus cavernosum. U-II (0.1 nM-10 µM challenge in human corpus cavernosum induced a significant increase in NO production as revealed by fluorometric analysis. NO generation was coupled to a marked increase in the ratio eNOS phosphorilated/eNOS as determined by western blot analysis. A functional study in human corpus cavernosum strips was performed to asses eNOS involvement in U-II-induced relaxation by using a pharmacological modulation. Pre-treatment with both wortmannin or geldanamycinin (inhibitors of eNOS phosphorylation and heath shock protein 90 recruitment, respectively significantly reduced U-II-induced relaxation (0.1 nM-10 µM in human corpus cavernosum strips. Finally, a co-immunoprecipitation study demonstrated that UT receptor and eNOS co-immunoprecipitate following U-II challenge of human corpus cavernosum tissue. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: U-II is endogenously synthesized and locally released in human corpus cavernosum. U-II elicited penile erection through eNOS activation. Thus, U-II/UT pathway may

  15. LOČENO ZBIRANJE KOMUNALNIH ODPADKOV V KRAJEVNI SKUPNOSTI PREDOSLJE

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Jaka

    2016-01-01

    Odpadki so stvari, s katerimi se dnevno srečujemo. Ljudje se vedno bolj zavedajo, kako pomembno je pravilno ločevanje posameznih odpadkov. Sistem ločenega zbiranja komunalnih odpadkov obstaja že nekaj let. Namen te diplomske naloge je bil preveriti, v kolikšni meri so krajani Predoselj sprejeli ločeno zbiranje komunalnih odpadkov.

  16. Bone Morphogenic Protein 4 Mediates NOX1-Dependent eNOS Uncoupling, Endothelial Dysfunction, and COX2 Induction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ji-Youn; Zhou, Jun; Cai, Hua

    2015-08-01

    We have recently shown that angiotensin II-mediated uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) contributes to endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, it has remained unclear whether and how eNOS uncoupling occurs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the consequences of such in regulating vascular function. Here we investigated a role of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-4 in mediating eNOS uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation in db/db mice. Circulating levels of BMP4 were markedly elevated in db/db mice but not in mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus, in which angiotensin II levels were significantly increased. Infusion of BMP4 antagonist noggin into db/db mice (15 μg/kg/day, 4 weeks) abolished eNOS uncoupling activity while restoring tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) bioavailability. The impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in db/db aortas was significantly improved by noggin infusion. Exposure of aortic endothelial cells to BMP4 (50 ng/mL, 24 hours) resulted in eNOS uncoupling, which was attenuated by H(4)B precursor sepiapterin or small interfering RNA silencing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase isoform 1 (NOX1). Interestingly, BMP4-dependent NOX1 up-regulation was abrogated by sepiapterin, implicating a NOX1-uncoupled eNOS-NOX1 feed-forward loop. BMP4 induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and vascular cell adhesion protein 1 was found in db/db mice. Consistently, COX2 was up-regulated by BMP4 in endothelial cells, which was attenuated by sepiapterin, implicating an upstream role of eNOS uncoupling in COX2-mediated inflammatory activation. Taken together, our data for the first time reveal a novel role of BMP4 in inducing NOX1-dependent eNOS uncoupling in T2DM, which may promote development of novel therapeutics restoring endothelial function in T2DM.

  17. The eNOS enhancer AVE 9488: a novel cardioprotectant against ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, S; Adamek, A; Fraccarollo, D; Tillmanns, J; Widder, J D; Dienesch, C; Schäfer, A; Podolskaya, A; Held, M; Ruetten, H; Ertl, G; Bauersachs, J

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vascular and myocardial function. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury is reduced in mice overexpressing endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) suggesting cardioprotection by eNOS. Novel pharmacological substances, so called eNOS enhancers, upregulate eNOS expression and thereby increase NO production. We tested the effects of the eNOS enhancer AVE 9488 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo in mice. After treatment with the eNOS enhancer AVE 9488 (30 mg/kg/day) or placebo for one week mice underwent 30 min of coronary artery ligation and 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. Ischemia-reperfusion damage was significantly reduced in mice treated with the eNOS enhancer when compared to placebo treated mice (infarct/area at risk 65.4 +/- 4.1 vs. 36.9 +/- 4.0%, placebo vs. eNOS enhancer, P = 0.0002). The protective effect was blunted in eNOS knockout mice treated with the eNOS enhancer (infarct/area at risk 64.1 +/- 6.2%, eNOS knockout + eNOS enhancer vs. WT + eNOS enhancer, P = ns). Reactive oxygen species were significantly reduced in mice treated with the eNOS enhancer as indicated by significantly lower malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid levels (placebo vs. eNOS enhancer, 3.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.07 micromol/l, P = 0.0003). Thus pharmacological interventions addressed to increase eNOS-derived NO production constitute a promising therapeutic approach to prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  18. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  19. Investigating the effects of perturbations to pgi and eno gene expression on central carbon metabolism in Escherichia coli using 13 C metabolic flux analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usui Yuki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has long been recognized that analyzing the behaviour of the complex intracellular biological networks is important for breeding industrially useful microorganisms. However, because of the complexity of these biological networks, it is currently not possible to obtain all the desired microorganisms. In this study, we constructed a system for analyzing the effect of gene expression perturbations on the behavior of biological networks in Escherichia coli. Specifically, we utilized 13 C metabolic flux analysis (13 C-MFA to analyze the effect of perturbations to the expression levels of pgi and eno genes encoding phosphoglucose isomerase and enolase, respectively on metabolic fluxes. Results We constructed gene expression-controllable E. coli strains using a single-copy mini F plasmid. Using the pgi expression-controllable strain, we found that the specific growth rate correlated with the pgi expression level. 13 C-MFA of this strain revealed that the fluxes for the pentose phosphate pathway and Entner-Doudoroff pathway decreased, as the pgi expression lelvel increased. In addition, the glyoxylate shunt became active when the pgi expression level was almost zero. Moreover, the flux for the glyoxylate shunt increased when the pgi expression level decreased, but was significantly reduced in the pgi-knockout cells. Comparatively, eno expression could not be decreased compared to the parent strain, but we found that increased eno expression resulted in a decreased specific growth rate. 13 C-MFA revealed that the metabolic flux distribution was not altered by an increased eno expression level, but the overall metabolic activity of the central metabolism decreased. Furthermore, to evaluate the impact of perturbed expression of pgi and eno genes on changes in metabolic fluxes in E. coli quantitatively, metabolic sensitivity analysis was performed. As a result, the perturbed expression of pgi gene had a great impact to the

  20. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  1. Simvastatin induces a central hypotensive effect via Ras-mediated signalling to cause eNOS up-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Han; Ho, Wen-Yu; Chang, Chien-Feng; Lu, Pei-Jung; Cheng, Pei-Wen; Yeh, Tung-Chen; Hong, Ling-Zong; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Hsiao, Michael; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Clinical studies indicate that statins have a BP-lowering effect in hypercholesterolemic individuals with hypertension. Specifically, statins modulate BP through the up-regulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS) activation in the brain. However, the signalling mechanisms through which statins enhance eNOS activation remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the possible signalling pathways involved in statin-mediated BP regulation in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH To investigate the involvement of Ras and other signalling pathways in simvastatin-induced effects on BP, BP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were determined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) before and after i.c.v. administration of simvastatin in the absence and presence of a Ras-specific inhibitor (farnesyl thiosalicylic acid, FTS), a geranylgeranyltransferase inhibitor (GGTI-2133), a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or a MAPK-ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor (PD98059). KEY RESULTS FTS significantly attenuated the decrease in BP and increased NO evoked by simvastatin and reversed the decrease in basal RSNA induced by simvastatin. Immunoblotting and pharmacological studies showed that inhibition of Ras activity by FTS significantly abolished simvastatin-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK), Akt and decreased eNOS phosphorylation. Likewise, administration of Akt and ERK1/2 signalling inhibitors, LY294002 and PD98059, attenuated the reduction in BP evoked by simvastatin. Furthermore, i.c.v. simvastatin decreased Rac1 activation and the number of ROS-positive cells in the NTS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Simvastatin modulates central BP control in the NTS of SHRs by increasing Ras-mediated activation of the PI3K-Akt and ERK1/2-RSK signalling pathways, which then up-regulates eNOS activation. PMID:23889671

  2. Low-energy laser irradiation increases endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and eNOS gene expression possibly via PI3K signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Huang; Hung, Huey-Shan; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine the mechanisms by which low-energy laser irradiation (LELI) may exert some of its angiogenic effects via the PI3 kinase/eNOS signaling pathway and induce endothelial cell migration and neovascularization, an important and necessary part of wound healing. The possible molecular mechanism of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on endothelial cells was proposed. He-Ne laser at 632.5 nm was used to stimulate human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), and its effect on cell proliferation, nitric oxide secretion, and cell migration was determined. Irradiation enhanced endothelial nitric oxidase synthase (eNOS) protein expression, and irradiation of less than 0.26 J/cm(2) enhanced eNOS gene expression in HUVEC. The cell migration ability was promoted for HUVEC irradiated with 0.26 J/cm(2). This agreed with the vinculin protein expression induced by irradiation. In addition, the angiogenesis was promoted. The induced eNOS expression was inhibited by LY294002, indicating that the effect of laser on EC could be attributed to the up-regulation of eNOS expression through PI3K pathway at the cellular and molecular levels as a result of the He-Ne laser. The study has shown that LELI increased endothelial cell proliferation, migration, NO secretion, and identified that activation of PI3K/Akt pathway was a critical step for the elevated for eNOS expression upon LELI.

  3. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  4. School Sports Opportunities Influence Physical Activity in Secondary School and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Sabiston, Catherine; Karp, Igor; Barnett, Tracie; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the availability of intramural or extramural sports in secondary schools is associated with physical activity levels in youth throughout secondary school and at age 20. Methods: Eight hundred and eight adolescents from 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, provided physical…

  5. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  6. Effect of exercise training on eNOS expression, NO production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during the second half of pregnancy on endothelial NOS expression (eNOS, nitric oxide (NO production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta. METHODS: The study included 20 nulliparous in gestational week 16-20, attending prenatal care at three tertiary hospitals in Colombia who were randomly assigned into one of two groups: The exercise group (n = 10 took part in an exercise session three times a week for 12 weeks which consisted of: aerobic exercise at an intensity of 55-75% of their maximum heart rate for 60 min and 25 mins. Resistance exercise included 5 exercise groups circuit training (50 repetitions of each using barbells (1-3 kg/exercise and low-to-medium resistance bands. The control group (n = 10 undertook their usual physical activity. Mitochondrial and cytosol fractions were isolated from human placental tissue by differential centrifugation. A spectrophotometric assay was used to measure NO production in cytosolic samples from placental tissue and Western Blot technique to determine eNOS expression. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide were measured to determine oxygen metabolism. RESULTS: Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during pregnancy leads to a 2-fold increase in eNOS expression and 4-fold increase in NO production in placental cytosol (p = 0.05. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide production rate were decreased by 8% and 37% respectively in the placental mitochondria of exercising women (p = 0.05. CONCLUSION: Regular exercise training during the second half of pregnancy increases eNOS expression and NO production and decreases reactive oxygen species generation in human placenta. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chronic exercise increases eNOS/NO production, presumably by increasing endothelial shear stress. This adaptation may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on

  7. Metformin stimulates ischemia-induced revascularization through an eNOS dependent pathway in the ischemic hindlimb mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriko; Shibata, Rei; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Masayuki; Murohara, Toyoaki; Komori, Kimihiro

    2015-02-01

    As first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, metformin has gained a strong position. In addition, type 2 diabetics benefit from the fact that metformin is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of information concerning the functional role of metformin in regulating angiogenesis. Our present study explores whether metformin is involved in the modulation of the revascularization processes in vivo by employing a hindlimb mice model of ischemia-induced angiogenesis. For comparative purposes, randomly selected wild-type (WT) mice or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deficient mice were assigned to one of two groups. One group was orally administered a daily dose of metformin through a gastric tube whereas the other group served as a control with no metformin administered. Both groups were subjected to unilateral hindlimb ischemia. Laser Doppler analysis coupled with capillary density staining with CD31was the method employed to determine revascularization. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and eNOS phosphorylation levels were assessed using Western blot analysis. Subsequent to hindlimb ischemic surgery, in comparison to the nontreated mice, metformin-treated WT mice showed accelerated limb perfusion, which was substantiated by laser Doppler blood-flow measurements and the presence of increased capillary density in the ischemic adductor muscle. Treatment with metformin significantly enhanced the increase in AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation levels of muscle tissues in WT mice induced by ischemia. In eNOS- deficient knockout mice, there was a significant increase in ischemic tissue AMPK phosphorylation induced by metformin; however, blood flow recovery in ischemic limb after surgery was unaffected. Metformin promoted revascularization in the presence of tissue ischemia through an AMPK/eNOS-related mechanism. Our study indicates that, in addition to its glucose-lowering effect, metformin fosters

  8. Secondary organic aerosols. Chemical aging, hygroscopicity, and cloud droplet activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Angela

    2011-07-06

    Atmospheric aerosols have an important impact on the radiation balance, and thus, on the climate of the Earth. Aerosol particles scatter and absorb incoming solar and terrestrial radiation. Apart from this direct effect, aerosol particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby greatly influencing the microphysics of clouds. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are an important fraction of the total aerosol mass. In many environments these organic compounds are mainly products of the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC). In this study the hygroscopic growth and CCN activation of biogenic SOA were investigated which was formed by the oxidation of VOC with O{sub 3} and photochemically formed OH radicals under low NO{sub x} conditions. For this purpose, a complex mixture of VOC emitted by boreal tree species as gas-phase precursors was used in the Juelich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). In long-term studies in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR {alpha}-pinene or a defined mixture of {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, limonene, ocimene, {delta}-3-carene served as precursors. Initial precursor concentrations between 40 and 1000 ppbC were investigated. The observed SOA particles were slightly hygroscopic with an average hygroscopicity parameter {kappa}(CCN) = 0.10 {+-} 0.02 and {kappa}(90%RH) = 0.05 {+-} 0.01. Closure between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation data could be achieved allowing either surface tension reduction, limited solubility, or non-ideality of the solution in the droplet. The SOA solutions in equilibrium with RH <95% are possible highly non-ideal. Therefore the organic-water interaction were investigated by applying the UNIFAC model. Calculations for surrogate compounds exhibited the same strong concentration (i.e. RH) dependence of {kappa} at sub-saturation. The growth curves could be fitted and CCN activation predicted by assuming a binary mixture of water and one hypothetical organic compound. The occurrence of

  9. Activator Protein 2α Mediates Parathyroid TGF-α Self-Induction in Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Cozzolino, Mario; Spiegel, Noah; Tokumoto, Masanori; Yang, Jing; Lu, Yan; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Dusso, Adriana S.

    2008-01-01

    In secondary hyperparathyroidism, enhanced expression of TGF-α in the parathyroid leads to its own upregulation, generating a feed-forward loop for TGF-α activation of its receptor, EGFR receptor (EGFR), which promotes parathyroid hyperplasia. These studies examined the role of activator protein 2α (AP2), an inducer of TGF-α gene transcription, in the upregulation of parathyroid TGF-α in secondary hyperparathyroidism. In rat and human secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid AP2 expression ...

  10. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. 204.122 Section 204.122 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have been...

  11. Advanced mineral and lithological mapping using high spectral resolution TIR data from the active CO2 remote sensing system; CO2 laser wo mochiita kosupekutoru bunkaino netsusekigai remote sensing data no ganseki kobutsu shikibetsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hato, M. [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Cudahy, T.; Tapley, I.

    1997-05-27

    A study was conducted on rock/mineral mapping technology for the metal ore deposit survey using MIRACO2LAS, an active type thermal infrared ray remote sensing system which was developed by CSIRO of Australia and is now the highest in spectral resolution in the world, and TIMS of NASA which is a passive type system. The area for the survey is the area of Olary/Broken Hill and Mt. Fitton of Australia. A good correlation is seen between the ground reflectance measured by MIRACO2LAS and the value measured by the chamber CO2 laser of rocks sampled at the above-mentioned area. In case that the width of spectral characteristics is below 300nm, the inspection ability by MIRACO2LAS`s high spectral resolution is more determined in mineral mapping as compared with TIMS which is large in band width. Minerals mapped using MIRACO2LAS are quartz, talc, amphibole, hornblende, garnet, supessartine, dolomite, magnesite, etc. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Arsenic, cadmium and neuron specific enolase (ENO2, γ-enolase) expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Maureen A; Garrett, Scott H; Somji, Seema; Dunlevy, Jane R; Zhou, Xu Dong; Sens, Mary Ann; Bathula, Chandra S; Allen, Christina; Sens, Donald A

    2011-11-18

    Neuron specific enolase (ENO2, γ-enolase) has been used as a biomarker to help identify neuroendocrine differentiation in breast cancer. The goal of the present study was to determine if ENO2 expression in the breast epithelial cell is influenced by the environmental pollutants, arsenite and cadmium. Acute and chronic exposure of MCF-10A cells to As+3 and Cd+2 sufficient to allow colony formation in soft agar, was used to determine if ENO2 expression was altered by these pollutants. It was shown that both As+3 and Cd+2 exposure caused significant increases in ENO2 expression under conditions of both acute and chronic exposure. In contrast, ENO1, the major glycolytic enolase in non-muscle and neuronal cells, was largely unaffected by exposure to either As+3 or Cd+2. Localization studies showed that ENO2 in the MCF-10A cells transformed by As+3 or Cd+2 had both a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization. In contrast, ENO1 was localized to the cytoplasm. ENO2 localized to the cytoplasm was found to co-localized with ENO1. The results are the first to show that ENO2 expression in breast epithelial cells is induced by acute and chronic exposure to As+3 or Cd+2. The findings also suggest a possible link between As+3 and Cd+2 exposure and neuroendocrine differentiation in tumors. Overall, the results suggest that ENO2 might be developed as a biomarker indicating acute and/or chronic environmental exposure of the breast epithelial cell to As+3 and Cd+2.

  13. Arsenic, cadmium and neuron specific enolase (ENO2, γ-enolase expression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Maureen A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuron specific enolase (ENO2, γ-enolase has been used as a biomarker to help identify neuroendocrine differentiation in breast cancer. The goal of the present study was to determine if ENO2 expression in the breast epithelial cell is influenced by the environmental pollutants, arsenite and cadmium. Acute and chronic exposure of MCF-10A cells to As+3 and Cd+2 sufficient to allow colony formation in soft agar, was used to determine if ENO2 expression was altered by these pollutants. Results It was shown that both As+3 and Cd+2 exposure caused significant increases in ENO2 expression under conditions of both acute and chronic exposure. In contrast, ENO1, the major glycolytic enolase in non-muscle and neuronal cells, was largely unaffected by exposure to either As+3 or Cd+2. Localization studies showed that ENO2 in the MCF-10A cells transformed by As+3 or Cd+2 had both a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization. In contrast, ENO1 was localized to the cytoplasm. ENO2 localized to the cytoplasm was found to co-localized with ENO1. Conclusion The results are the first to show that ENO2 expression in breast epithelial cells is induced by acute and chronic exposure to As+3 or Cd+2. The findings also suggest a possible link between As+3 and Cd+2 exposure and neuroendocrine differentiation in tumors. Overall, the results suggest that ENO2 might be developed as a biomarker indicating acute and/or chronic environmental exposure of the breast epithelial cell to As+3 and Cd+2.

  14. Larvicidal activity of extracellular secondary metabolites from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this investigation was to find mosquito larvicidal secondary metabolites from a basidiomycete – Stereum species (JO5289) – against Aedes aegypti. The Stereum species (JO5289) was collected in July 2005 from undisturbed habitat in Londiani forest in Rift Valley province, Kenya. Extracellular crude ...

  15. Investment activities in the U.S. secondary woodworking industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. secondary woodworking industry has shown signs of improvement after the steep losses in sales volume associated with the housing crisis that began in 2007. Employment in several sectors has begun to increase, suggesting that companies that survived the downturn are positioning to increase sales growth. It is likely that investment plans to improve firm-level...

  16. Association between nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various mutation on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOs) gene cause reduced production of NO, the expansion factor (VEF) and may accelerate the process of atherosclerosis. The study was designed to investigate the frequency of T-786C polymorphism of the gene or nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene in patients ...

  17. SLOŽENO KLIZANJE U DOLINI RJEČINE

    OpenAIRE

    Benac, Čedomir; Arbanas, Željko; Jardas, Branka; Kasapović, Saša; Jurak, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    U radu su prikazani rezultati istraživanja prve faze složenog klizišta na sjeveroistočnoj padini doline Rječine između brane Valići i naselja Pašac. Bokovi doline oblikovani su u paleogenskom flišu i kvartarnim padinskim tvorevinama. Na vrhovima su zastupljene vapnenačke stijene tvoreći litice. Nastanak istražene kompleksne pojave klizišta predodređen je geološkom gradom i morfogenezom doline Rječine. To je složeno retrogresivno klizište, koje se počelo razvijati od stope prema vrhu kosine. N...

  18. Localization of the two constitutively expressed nitric oxide synthase isoforms (nNOS and eNOS) in the same cell types in the saccule maculae of the frog Rana pipiens by immunoelectron microscopy: evidence for a back-up system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger; Lioudyno, Maria; Maurer, Jan; Mann, Wolf; Guth, Paul S; Förstermann, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    There is growing evidence for a nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway of signal transduction in the vestibular system. Recently, two isoforms of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS and eNOS) and NO itself have been identified at the light microscopic level in the vestibulocochlear system of mice using specific antibodies and a new fluorescence indicator. In order to acquire more information about signal transduction and tissue modulation in this neuroepithelium at the cellular and subcellular levels, ultrathin sections of London Resin White-embedded saccule maculae of the frog Rana pipiens were incubated with various concentrations of commercially available antibodies to nNOS and eNOS. The immunoreactivity was visualized by a gold-labelled secondary antibody and the amount of the immunoreactions per microm2 was quantified for the different cell types and subcellular regions. Significant eNOS immunoreactivity was identified in the hair bundles, cuticular plates and the rest of the cytoplasm of the hair cells as well as in different subcellular regions of the supporting cells. Gold-labelled anti-nNOS antibodies stained mainly stereovilli and cuticular structures of hair cells and supporting cells, whereas the number of the immunoreactions in the remaining cytoplasm of both cell types was near the background level. The spatial co-localization of the two NOS isotypes in the same cell regions of hair cells and supporting cells was confirmed in double-labelling experiments. The immunocytochemical findings are suggestive of a redundant system in which one NOS isoform can (partially) replace the other. The different subcellular localization of the NOS isoforms may allow for isoform specific regulation of NOS activity by different Ca2+ currents at the subcellular level, underlining the importance of NO-regulated processes in neuroepithelia of the inner ear.

  19. Correlates of physical activity participation among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... health benefits of physical activity, having a friend to exercise with, having parent(s) who encourage them to exercise, and taking a physical education class in school, whereas the benefits of physical activity: were to stay in shape, increase energy level, improve self-esteem and become more physically attractive to others.

  20. Physical Activity & Sport for the Secondary School Student. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Neil J., Ed.

    This collection of papers offers a comprehensive text about contemporary physical activities and sports forms. It provides students with an overview of the various physical activities, skill technique required, safety, scoring, rules and etiquette, strategies, equipment, and related terminology. The 26 papers are: (1) "Physical Fitness"…

  1. New Aquatic Activities and Games for Secondary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Aaron; Reimann, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide educators with usable, nontraditional aquatic activities that can be adapted for swimmers and non-swimmers alike. Educators are oriented to a variety of aquatic techniques designed to challenge both health- and skill-related fitness components. By using a series of activity cards, the authors have blended…

  2. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  3. Esquemas de quinto orden Weighted Power‐ENO para ecuaciones de Hamilton‐Jacobi

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Moreno, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo han sido diseñados una clase de esquemas Weighted Power‐ENO empleados para aproximar la solución viscosa de las ecuaciones HJ. La idea esencial de este tipo de reconstrucción Power‐ENO es la aplicación a una clase de limitadores extendidos a diferencias de segundo orden en las reconstrucciones ENO clásicas de tercer orden, con el objetivo de mejorar las soluciones cerca de las discontinuidades. La estrategia de pesado basada en apropiados indicadores de suavidad...

  4. Views of Turkish Teachers on Extracurricular Activities at Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ömer Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    Extracurricular activities are educational applications for students outside the school curriculum that require specific knowledge, skills, and behaviors as well as continuity of participation. Because student experiences inside the classroom are organized according to the educator's or institution's instructional goals, which themselves are…

  5. Extracurricular Physical Activity Programs in California Private Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Interscholastic, intramural, and club physical activity (PA) programs can be important contributors to student PA accrual at schools. Few studies have assessed factors related to the provision of these extracurricular PA programs, especially in private schools. Methods: We used a 16-item questionnaire to assess the associations and…

  6. Determination of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antioxidant potential, flavonoids, and total phenols as well as cyanidin 3- glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside contents of some Boraginaceae species that grow in Iran. Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the plants were prepared. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was ...

  7. Cybernated Storytelling: Revitalising Storytelling Activities for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Roziana M.; Idrus, Faizah

    2017-01-01

    Storytelling is one of the most common activities used in teaching English proficiency to language students. It is widely accepted as a teaching technique by many educators because it engages students in learning. This study seeks to examine students' readiness in using technology-aided applications in telling their stories. It also investigates…

  8. Determination of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), Folin-Ciocalteu, methanol, sodium acetate, aluminium chloride and ethanol were ... The BHA was used as a standard reference. Antioxidant activity (D) was determined as in Eq 1. .... cancer and cardiovascular diseases and as well as inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus. [21].

  9. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…

  10. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  11. Circulating Blood eNOS Contributes to the Regulation of Systemic Blood Pressure and Nitrite Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katherine C.; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Noguchi, Audrey; Liu, Virginia B.; Wang, Xunde; Raghavachari, Nalini; Boehm, Manfred; Kato, Gregory J.; Kelm, Malte; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mice genetically deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) are hypertensive with lower circulating nitrite levels, indicating the importance of constitutively produced nitric oxide (NO•) to blood pressure regulation and vascular homeostasis. While the current paradigm holds that this bioactivity derives specifically from expression of eNOS in endothelium, circulating blood cells also express eNOS protein. A functional red cell eNOS that modulates vascular NO• signaling has been proposed. Approach and Results To test the hypothesis that blood cells contribute to mammalian blood pressure regulation via eNOS-dependent NO• generation, we cross-transplanted WT and eNOS−/− mice, producing chimeras competent or deficient for eNOS expression in circulating blood cells. Surprisingly, we observed a significant contribution of both endothelial and circulating blood cell eNOS to blood pressure and systemic nitrite levels, the latter being a major component of the circulating NO• reservoir. These effects were abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME and repristinated by the NOS substrate L-Arginine, and were independent of platelet or leukocyte depletion. Mouse erythrocytes were also found to carry an eNOS protein and convert 14C-Arginine into 14C-Citrulline in a NOS-dependent fashion. Conclusions These are the first studies to definitively establish a role for a blood borne eNOS, using cross transplant chimera models, that contributes to the regulation of blood pressure and nitrite homeostasis. This work provides evidence suggesting that erythrocyte eNOS may mediate this effect. PMID:23702660

  12. The antifungal activity of Moroccan plants and the mechanism of action of secondary metabolites from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrouh, F; Dakka, N; Bakri, Y

    2017-09-01

    This review is based on a comprehensive literature search for existing knowledge about antifungal mechanisms of different secondary metabolites from plants. The secondary metabolites have been grouped into three major groups according to their biosynthetic origin. On another side, this review represents studies on antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts from Moroccan plants, against fungal species involved in human or plant diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Anthelminthic activity of glibenclamide on secondary cystic echinococcosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Loos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Current chemotherapy against this disease is based on the administration of benzimidazoles (BZMs. However, BZM treatment has a low cure rate and causes several side effects. Therefore, new treatment options are needed. The antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (Glb is a second-generation sulfonylurea receptor inhibitor that has been shown to be active against protozoan parasites. Hence, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects of Glb against the larval stage of E. granulosus. The in vitro activity was concentration dependent on both protoscoleces and metacestodes. Moreover, Glb combined with the minimum effective concentration of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO was demonstrated to have a greater effect on metacestodes in comparison with each drug alone. Likewise, there was a reduction in the cyst weight after oral administration of Glb to infected mice (5 mg/kg of body weight administered daily for a period of 8 weeks. However, in contrast to in vitro assays, no differences in effectiveness were found between Glb + albendazole (ABZ combined treatment and Glb monotherapy. Our results also revealed mitochondrial membrane depolarization and an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels in Glb-treated protoscoleces. In addition, the intracystic drug accumulation and our bioinformatic analysis using the available E. granulosus genome suggest the presence of genes encoding sulfonylurea transporters in the parasite. Our data clearly demonstrated an anti-echinococcal effect of Glb on E. granulosus larval stage. Further studies are needed in order to thoroughly investigate the mechanism involved in the therapeutic response of the parasite to this sulfonylurea.

  14. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  15. Test-Takers' Background, Literacy Activities, and Views of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Klinger, Don A.; Cheng, Liying; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among students' background information and their in-school and after-school literacy activities, as well as the relationships between students' background and their views of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT). The results showed that students' literacy activities could be grouped into three…

  16. 16 CFR 1211.13 - Inherent force activated secondary door sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sensors. 1211.13 Section 1211.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... § 1211.13 Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) A force activated door sensor of a door system installed according to the installation instructions shall actuate...

  17. Promoting Physical Activity in Secondary Schools: Growing Expectations, "Same Old" Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There are growing expectations on schools to promote health and physical activity and helping schools to effectively do so is considered a priority. This paper reports on selected findings from a research project that was concerned with supporting secondary schools in the effective promotion of physical activity and establishing their needs in…

  18. Interplay of vacuolar transporters for coupling primary and secondary active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Siek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary active transporters are driven by the proton motif force which is generated by primary active transporters such as the vacuolar proton pumps V-ATPase and V-PPase. The vacuole occupies up to 90 % of the mature cell and acidification of the vacuolar lumen is a challenging and energy-consuming task for the plant cell. Therefore, a direct coupling of primary and secondary active transporters is expected to enhance transport efficiency and to reduce energy consumption by transport processes across the tonoplast. This has been addressed by analyzing physical and functional interactions between the V-ATPase and a selection of vacuolar transporters including the primary active proton pump AVP1, the calcium ion/proton exchanger CAX1, the potassium ion/proton symporter KUP5, the sodium ion/proton exchanger NHX1, and the anion/proton exchanger CLC-c. Physical interaction was demonstrated in vivo for the V-ATPase and the secondary active transporters CAX1 and CLC-c, which are responsible for calcium- and anion-accumulation in the vacuole, respectively. Measurements of V-ATPase activity and vacuolar pH revealed a functional interaction of V-ATPase and CAX1, CLC-c that is likely caused by the observed physical interaction. The complex of the V-ATPase further interacts with the nitrate reductase 2, and as a result, nitrate assimilation is directly linked to the energization of vacuolar nitrate accumulation by secondary active anion/proton exchangers.

  19. Modelling of the Secondary Clarifier Combined with the Activated Sludge Model no. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, René; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    Modelling of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants is today generally based on the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 combined with a very simple model for the secondary settler. This paper describes the development of a model for the secondary clarifier based on the general flux theory for zone...... model is a purely empirical model, which connects the effluent quality with the hydraulic load, suspended solids load and the nitrate load. The paper describes the model and gives some basic examples on computer simulations and verification of the model....

  20. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-03-23

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (-786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles -786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2-5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue.

  1. Antifeedant Activity of Ginkgo biloba Secondary Metabolites against Hyphantria cunea Larvae: Mechanisms and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Ren, Lili; Chen, Fang; Feng, Yuqian; Luo, Youqing

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a typical relic plant that rarely suffers from pest hazards. This study analyzed the pattern of G. biloba pest hazards in Beijing; tested the antifeedant activity of G. biloba extracts, including ginkgo flavonoids, ginkgolide, and bilobalide, against Hyphantria cunea larvae; determined the activities of glutathione transferase (GSTs), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed-functional oxidase (MFO), in larvae after feeding on these G. biloba secondary metabolites; and screened for effective botanical antifeedants in the field. In this study, no indicators of insect infestation were found for any of the examined leaves of G. biloba; all tested secondary metabolites showed significant antifeedant activity and affected the activity of the four larval detoxifying enzymes. Ginkgolide had the highest antifeedant activity and the most significant effect on the detoxifying enzymes (Pbiloba extracts or ginkgolide both significantly repelled H. cunea larvae in the field (Pbiloba secondary metabolites against H. cunea larvae, and the results provide new insights into the mechanism of G. biloba pest resistance. This study also developed new applications of G. biloba secondary metabolites for effective pest control.

  2. Upregulation of ERK1/2-eNOS via AT2 receptors decreases the contractile response to angiotensin II in resistance mesenteric arteries from obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela N Hagihara

    Full Text Available It has been clearly established that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKS are important mediators of angiotensin II (Ang II signaling via AT1 receptors in the vasculature. However, evidence for a role of these kinases in changes of Ang II-induced vasoconstriction in obesity is still lacking. Here we sought to determine whether vascular MAPKs are differentially activated by Ang II in obese animals. The role of AT2 receptors was also evaluated. Male monosodium glutamate-induced obese (obese and non-obese Wistar rats (control were used. The circulating concentrations of Ang I and Ang II, determined by HPLC, were increased in obese rats. Ang II-induced isometric contraction was decreased in endothelium-intact resistance mesenteric arteries from obese compared with control rats and exhibited a retarded AT1 receptor antagonist response. Blocking of AT2 receptors and inhibition of either endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 restored Ang II-induced contraction in obese rats. Western blot analysis revealed increased protein expression of AT2 receptors in arteries from obese rats. Basal and Ang II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was also increased in obese rats. Blockade of either AT1 or AT2 receptors corrected the increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in arteries from obese rats to levels observed in control preparations. Phosphorylation of eNOS was increased in obese rats. Incubation with the ERK1/2 inhibitor before Ang II stimulation did not affect eNOS phosphorylation in control rats; however, it corrected the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in obese rats. These results clearly demonstrate that enhanced AT2 receptor and ERK1/2-induced, NO-mediated vasodilation reduces Ang II-induced contraction in an endothelium-dependent manner in obese rats.

  3. Upregulation of ERK1/2-eNOS via AT2 receptors decreases the contractile response to angiotensin II in resistance mesenteric arteries from obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Graziela N; Lobato, Nubia S; Filgueira, Fernando P; Akamine, Eliana H; Aragão, Danielle S; Casarini, Dulce E; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Fortes, Zuleica B

    2014-01-01

    It has been clearly established that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKS) are important mediators of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling via AT1 receptors in the vasculature. However, evidence for a role of these kinases in changes of Ang II-induced vasoconstriction in obesity is still lacking. Here we sought to determine whether vascular MAPKs are differentially activated by Ang II in obese animals. The role of AT2 receptors was also evaluated. Male monosodium glutamate-induced obese (obese) and non-obese Wistar rats (control) were used. The circulating concentrations of Ang I and Ang II, determined by HPLC, were increased in obese rats. Ang II-induced isometric contraction was decreased in endothelium-intact resistance mesenteric arteries from obese compared with control rats and exhibited a retarded AT1 receptor antagonist response. Blocking of AT2 receptors and inhibition of either endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) restored Ang II-induced contraction in obese rats. Western blot analysis revealed increased protein expression of AT2 receptors in arteries from obese rats. Basal and Ang II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was also increased in obese rats. Blockade of either AT1 or AT2 receptors corrected the increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in arteries from obese rats to levels observed in control preparations. Phosphorylation of eNOS was increased in obese rats. Incubation with the ERK1/2 inhibitor before Ang II stimulation did not affect eNOS phosphorylation in control rats; however, it corrected the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in obese rats. These results clearly demonstrate that enhanced AT2 receptor and ERK1/2-induced, NO-mediated vasodilation reduces Ang II-induced contraction in an endothelium-dependent manner in obese rats.

  4. Relation between physical activity and academic performance in 3rd-year secondary education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; García-Masso, Xavier; Gomis, Manuel; González, Luis-Millán

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the amount of physical activity and academic performance in 3rd-year secondary education students. The sample was taken from three secondary schools in the area of Barcelona. 284 students (158 girls, 126 boys) with an average age of 14.7 yr. participated. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used by students to self-report their amount of physical activity. Students' academic records were obtained for comparisons. Results showed that there was a linear relationship between academic performance and physical activity; nevertheless, there was a trend to stronger correlation when modeling the relationship between these variables with a quadratic equation. Further research should focus on whether academic performance and physical activity might be better explained with a second-order equation.

  5. The immunomodulatory activity of secondary metabolites isolated from Streptomyces calvus on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariba; Baradaran, Behzad; Dehnad, Alireza; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Mohamed Khosroshahi, Leila; Aghapour, Mahyar

    2016-07-01

    The natural products derived from micro-organisms are potential candidates for the discovery of novel drugs. Streptomyces bacteria are prolific sources of secondary metabolites with a wide variety of biological activities. Streptomyces calvus (S. calvus) is one strain of this genus and may be an appropriate candidate for isolating new compounds. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of S. calvus secondary metabolites on the expression of various cytokine genes by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were evaluated. A bacterial sample was inoculated in Mueller Hinton Broth and secondary metabolites were extracted. PBMCs were isolated from venous blood and were treated with S. calvus secondary metabolites for 48 h. The cell proliferation was assessed by Methyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays to survey mRNA expressions of selected pro-inflammatory and inhibitory cytokine genes. Secondary metabolites augmented interleukin-2 and interferon-γ gene expression in PBMCs at low doses and also reduced the levels of immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10. In addition, the proliferation of PBMCs substantially increased in response to metabolite treatment in a concentration-dependent manner (p secondary metabolites from S. calvus can successfully stimulate human PBMCs. Therefore, these metabolites have the potential to serve as robust immunomodulators.

  6. IIR filtering based adaptive active vibration control methodology with online secondary path modeling using PZT actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Utku; Basdogan, Ipek

    2015-12-01

    Structural vibrations is a major cause for noise problems, discomfort and mechanical failures in aerospace, automotive and marine systems, which are mainly composed of plate-like structures. In order to reduce structural vibrations on these structures, active vibration control (AVC) is an effective approach. Adaptive filtering methodologies are preferred in AVC due to their ability to adjust themselves for varying dynamics of the structure during the operation. The filtered-X LMS (FXLMS) algorithm is a simple adaptive filtering algorithm widely implemented in active control applications. Proper implementation of FXLMS requires availability of a reference signal to mimic the disturbance and model of the dynamics between the control actuator and the error sensor, namely the secondary path. However, the controller output could interfere with the reference signal and the secondary path dynamics may change during the operation. This interference problem can be resolved by using an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter which considers feedback of the one or more previous control signals to the controller output and the changing secondary path dynamics can be updated using an online modeling technique. In this paper, IIR filtering based filtered-U LMS (FULMS) controller is combined with online secondary path modeling algorithm to suppress the vibrations of a plate-like structure. The results are validated through numerical and experimental studies. The results show that the FULMS with online secondary path modeling approach has more vibration rejection capabilities with higher convergence rate than the FXLMS counterpart.

  7. eNOS Uncoupling, A Therapeutic Target For Ischemic Foot of Diabetic Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling; Yu, Ailin; Liu, Jingcheng; Ma, Lina; Li, Jing

    2018-02-01

    To determine the relationship between eNOS uncoupling and diabetic ischemic foot and whether reversing eNOS uncoupling by Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) transfection or folic acid (FA) supplementation can be beneficiary in diabetic ischemic foot. The bilateral common iliac artery of diabetic rats were ligated to establish the diabetic ischemic foot animal model. DHFR transfection was implemented via femoral artery and muscle injection of in vivo transfection reagent mixture (GenEscortIII) every 4 days during the 2 weeks intervention. The color doppler flow imaging (CDFI) of femoral artery for RI measurement, triceps and quadriceps structure and histology, eNOS coupling status, DHFR expression level, superoxide, peroxynitrite (ONOO- ) and nitric oxide (NO) production in the presence or absence of L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor) were examined among wild type rats (WT), diabetic sham rats (DM), rats of diabetic ischemic foot (DF) or DF with DHFR transfection (DFT) or DF with FA supplementation (DFF). Dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, as an index of superoxide production was enhanced in the femoral arteries of diabetic rats and even more in those of ischemic foot from diabetic rats. However, the DHE fluorescence was diminished in the presence of L-NAME suggesting eNOS uncoupling is the source of superoxide overproduction which further led to increased peroxynitrite production and decreased NO . bioavailability. Subsequently, the hind limb muscle became atrophic and the local collateral circulation was defective due to endothelial dysfunction related to eNOS uncoupling. However, all of the above and hemodynamic index (RI) of femoral artery were resumed via restoration of DHFR protein expression by folic acid treatment or DHFR transfection. eNOS uncoupling is involved in diabetic ischemic foot due to DHFR suppression. DHFR restoration can reverse eNOS uncoupling and resume the endothelial dysfunction and pathological changes (increased vasculature resistance, hind limb muscle

  8. Secondary Metabolites Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis sydowiana and Their 20S Proteasome Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xuekui; Kim, Soonok; Liu, Changheng; Shim, Sang Hee

    2016-07-20

    Fungal endophytes have attracted attention due to their functional diversity. Secondary metabolites produced by Pestalotiopsis sydowiana from a halophyte, Phragmites communis Trinus, were investigated. Eleven compounds, including four penicillide derivatives (1-4) and seven α-pyrone analogues (5-10) were isolated from cultures of P. sydowiana. The compounds were identified based on spectroscopic data. The inhibitory activities against the 20S proteasome were evaluated. Compounds 1-3, 5, and 9-10 showed modest proteasome inhibition activities, while compound 8 showed strong activity with an IC50 of 1.2 ± 0.3 μM. This is the first study on the secondary metabolites produced by P. sydowiana and their proteasome inhibitory activities. The endophytic fungus P. sydowiana might be a good resource for proteasome inhibitors.

  9. "Non alcoholic fatty liver disease and eNOS dysfunction in humans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Marcello; Masarone, Mario; Damato, Antonio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Federico, Alessandro; Rosato, Valerio; Bucci, Tommaso; Carrizzo, Albino; Vecchione, Carmine

    2017-03-07

    NAFLD is associated to Insulin Resistance (IR). IR is responsible for Endothelial Dysfunction (ED) through the impairment of eNOS function. Although eNOS derangement has been demonstrated in experimental models, no studies have directly shown that eNOS dysfunction is associated with NAFLD in humans. The aim of this study is to investigate eNOS function in NAFLD patients. Fifty-four NAFLD patients were consecutively enrolled. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and liver biopsy. Patients were divided into two groups by the presence of NAFL or NASH. We measured vascular reactivity induced by patients' platelets on isolated mice aorta rings. Immunoblot assays for platelet-derived phosphorylated-eNOS (p-eNOS) and immunohistochemistry for hepatic p-eNOS have been performed to evaluate eNOS function in platelets and liver specimens. Flow-mediated-dilation (FMD) was also performed. Data were compared with healthy controls. Twenty-one (38, 8%) patients had NAFL and 33 (61, 7%) NASH. No differences were found between groups and controls except for HOMA and insulin (p liver (p liver tissue didn't match with FMD.

  10. Quercetin modulates iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN expressions and attenuates oxidative stress in warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd-Elbaset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R is mediated through the generation of oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced cell injury. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin (QR compared to N-acetylcysteine (NAC against hepatic I/R injury in rats and to assess iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions, as a possible mechanism of its hepatoprotective effect. Hepatic ischemia was surgically performed by occlusion of hepatic pedicle (hepatic artery, portal vein, bile duct that supplies the left and medial lobes (approximately 70% of the total liver mass, for 30 min with a vascular clamp followed by releasing the clamp and the liver was reperfused for 30 min. QR-pretreatment increased eNOS protein expression with simultaneous decrease in iNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions. It also decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferases (ALT and hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. In addition, it restored the depleted content of reduced glutathione (GSH and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels. A notable finding is that QR alleviated I/R-induced histopathological changes. Therefore, the present study illustrates the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin compared to N-acetylcysteine against ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and by modulating iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions.

  11. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  12. Activator protein 2alpha mediates parathyroid TGF-alpha self-induction in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Cozzolino, Mario; Spiegel, Noah; Tokumoto, Masanori; Yang, Jing; Lu, Yan; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Dusso, Adriana S

    2008-10-01

    In secondary hyperparathyroidism, enhanced expression of TGF-alpha in the parathyroid leads to its own upregulation, generating a feed-forward loop for TGF-alpha activation of its receptor, EGFR receptor (EGFR), which promotes parathyroid hyperplasia. These studies examined the role of activator protein 2alpha (AP2), an inducer of TGF-alpha gene transcription, in the upregulation of parathyroid TGF-alpha in secondary hyperparathyroidism. In rat and human secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid AP2 expression strongly correlated with TGF-alpha levels and with the rate of parathyroid growth, as expected. Furthermore, the increases in rat parathyroid content of AP2 and its binding to a consensus AP2 DNA sequence preceded the increase in TGF-alpha induced by high dietary phosphate. More significant, in A431 cells, which provide a model of enhanced TGF-alpha and TGF-alpha self-induction, mutating the core AP2 site of the human TGF-alpha promoter markedly impaired promoter activity induced by endogenous or exogenous TGF-alpha. Important for therapy, in five-sixths nephrectomized rats fed high-phosphate diets, inhibition of parathyroid TGF-alpha self-induction using erlotinib, a highly specific inhibitor of TGF-alpha/EGFR-driven signals, reduced AP2 expression dosage dependently. This suggests that the increases in parathyroid AP2 occur downstream of EGFR activation by TGF-alpha and are required for TGF-alpha self-induction. Indeed, in A431 cells, erlotinib inhibition of TGF-alpha self-induction caused parallel reductions in AP2 expression and nuclear localization, as well as TGF-alpha mRNA and protein levels. In summary, increased AP2 expression and transcriptional activity at the TGF-alpha promoter determine the severity of the hyperplasia driven by parathyroid TGF-alpha self-upregulation in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  13. Secondary hyperalgesia phenotypes exhibit differences in brain activation during noxious stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Pereira, Manuel Pedro; Werner, Mads Utke

    2015-01-01

    . To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47 °C, 7 min...... to central neuronal sensitization. Some individuals develop large areas of secondary hyperalgesia (high-sensitization responders), while others develop small areas (low-sensitization responders). The magnitude of each area is reproducible within individuals, and can be regarded as a phenotypic characteristic...... hyperalgesia areas after burn-injury. In addition, T1-weighted images were used to measure differences in gray-matter density in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. We found significant differences in neuronal activity between high- and low-sensitization responders at baseline (before application...

  14. Redox activity of urban quasi-ultrafine particles from primary and secondary sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vishal; Ning, Zhi; Cho, Arthur K.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-12-01

    To characterize the redox activity profiles of atmospheric aerosols from primary (traffic) and secondary photochemical sources, ambient quasi-ultrafine particles were collected near downtown Los Angeles in two different time periods - morning (6:00-9:00 PDT) and afternoon (11:00-14:00 PDT) in the summer of 2008. Detailed chemical analysis of the collected samples, including water-soluble elements, inorganic ions, organic species and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was conducted and redox activity of the samples was measured by two different assays: the dithiothreitol (DTT) and the macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Tracers of secondary photochemical reactions, such as sulfate and organic acids were higher (2.1 ± 0.6 times for sulfate, and up to 3 times for the organic acids) in the afternoon period. WSOC was also elevated by 2.5 ± 0.9 times in the afternoon period due to photo-oxidation of primary particles during atmospheric aging. Redox activity measured by the DTT assay was considerably higher for the samples collected during the afternoon; on the other hand, diurnal trends in the ROS-based activity were not consistent between the morning and afternoon periods. A linear regression between redox activity and various PM chemical constituents showed that the DTT assay was highly correlated with WSOC ( R2 = 0.80), while ROS activity was associated mostly with water soluble transition metals (Vanadium, Nickel and Cadmium; R2 > 0.70). The DTT and ROS assays, which are based on the generation of different oxidizing species by chemical PM constituents, provide important information for elucidating the health risks related to PM exposure from different sources. Thus, both primary and secondary particles possess high redox activity; however, photochemical transformations of primary emissions with atmospheric aging enhance the toxicological potency of primary particles in terms of generating oxidative stress and leading to subsequent damage in cells.

  15. The impact of utilizing mobile phones to promote physical activity among post-secondary students: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Hieu

    2016-01-01

    A commitment to regular physical activity may reduce the risks of chronic diseases for young adults. Internationally, the majority of post-secondary students are insufficiently active for health benefits. Novel health strategies and interventions utilizing mobiles phones could increase post-secondary students? physical activity levels. However, there is contradictory evidence to support the use of mobile phones to promote physical activity, and a scoping review could provide further insights ...

  16. The use of bicycle workstations to increase physical activity in secondary classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fedewa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background To date, the majority of interventions have implemented classroom-based physical activity (PA at the elementary level; however, there is both the potential and need to explore student outcomes at high-school level as well, given that very few studies have incorporated classroom-based PA interventions for adolescents. One exception has been the use of bicycle workstations within secondary classrooms. Using bicycle workstations in lieu of traditional chairs in a high school setting shows promise for enhancing adolescents’ physical activity during the school day. Participants and procedure The present study explored the effects of integrating bicycle workstations into a secondary classroom setting for four months in a sample of 115 adolescents using an A-B-A-B withdrawal design. The study took place in one Advanced Placement English classroom across five groups of students. Physical activity outcomes included average heart rate, and caloric expenditure. Behavioural outcomes included percentage of on-task/off-task behaviour and number of teacher prompts in redirecting off-task behaviour. Feasibility and acceptability data of using the bicycle workstations were also collected. Results Findings showed significant improvements in physical activity as measured by heart rate and caloric expenditure, although heart rate percentage remained in the low intensity range when students were on the bicycle workstations. No effects were found on students’ on-task behaviour when using the bicycle workstations. Overall, students found the bikes acceptable to use but noted disadvantages of them as well. Conclusions Using bicycle workstations in high-school settings appears promising for enhancing low-intensity physical activity among adolescents. The limitations of the present study and implications for physical activity interventions in secondary schools are discussed.

  17. Characterization of porcine ENO3: genomic and cDNA structure, polymorphism and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Yuanzhu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a full-length cDNA of the porcine ENO3 gene encoding a 434 amino acid protein was isolated. It contains 12 exons over approximately 5.4 kb. Differential splicing in the 5'-untranslated sequence generates two forms of mRNA that differ from each other in the presence or absence of a 142-nucleotide fragment. Expression analysis showed that transcript 1 of ENO3 is highly expressed in liver and lung, while transcript 2 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. We provide the first evidence that in skeletal muscle expression of ENO3 is different between Yorkshire and Meishan pig breeds. Furthermore, real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that, in Yorkshire pigs, skeletal muscle expression of transcript 1 is identical at postnatal day-1 and at other stages while that of transcript 2 is higher. Moreover, expression of transcript 1 is lower in skeletal muscle and all other tissue samples than that of transcript 2, with the exception of liver and kidney. Statistical analysis showed the existence of a polymorphism in the ENO3 gene between Chinese indigenous and introduced commercial western pig breeds and that it is associated with fat percentage, average backfat thickness, meat marbling and intramuscular fat in two different populations.

  18. Parental Involvement, Student Active Engagement and the "Secondary Slump" Phenomenon--Evidence from a Three-Year Study in a Barbadian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ian A.; Jackman, Grace-Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement and a proximal student academic outcome-active engagement, for a cohort of 160 students on their transition to secondary school and at three subsequent time periods. The student-reported measures were assessed using the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (2005) instrument. Results provide…

  19. Association of eNOS polymorphisms with susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femur head : A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G G; Lee, Y H

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene are associated with susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between the 4b/a, G894T, and T786C polymorphisms of eNOS and the susceptibility to ONFH. A total of five studies, which included 566 cases and 833 controls, were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between allele a of the 4b/a polymorphism and ONFH in all study subjects (odds ratio, OR 3.237; 95 % confidence interval, CI 2.036-5.148; P = 6.9 × 10-7); stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between this allele and ONFH in Caucasians and Asians (OR 2.985; 95 % CI 1.592-5.597; P = 0.001 and OR 3.567; 95 % CI 1.793-7.095; P = 2.9 × 10-4, respectively). Meta-analysis stratified by ONFH type showed a significant association between allele a of the 4b/a polymorphism and idiopathic and secondary ONFH (OR 3.411; 95 % CI 2.049-5.679; P = 2.4 × 10-6 and OR 3.163; 95 % CI 1.781-5.619, P = 8.6 × 10 -5, respectively). However, the meta-analysis did not show any allelic association between the G894T and T786C polymorphisms and ONFH (OR 1.718; 95 % CI 0.796-3.707; P = 0.168 and OR 1.027; 95 % CI 0.191-5.517; P = 0.976, respectively). Our meta-analysis of published studies shows that the 4b/a polymorphism is associated with the development of idiopathic and secondary ONFH in Caucasians and Asians.

  20. Coupling electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography to understand secondary active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Ju; Ziegler, Christine

    2010-08-01

    In the past few years we have seen an amazing increase in the number of high-resolution structures for secondary transporters determined by X-ray crystallography, while 3D data obtained by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) from two-dimensional (2D) crystals are only available at medium resolutions of about 6-10A. Despite their superior resolution, it turned out that the description of a molecular mechanism of secondary transport could not solely rely on high-resolution X-ray structures and have to be supplemented with biochemical and spectroscopic data. Moreover, the comparison of X-ray structures and 3D EM maps has proved to be an important tool for validating native conformations of several membrane proteins, especially when functional data contradicted predictions based on a crystal structure. In addition, 3D EM maps are better suited to investigate transporter activation because of the lipidic environment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  2. DFT, Hirshfeld surfaces, spectral and in vivo cytotoxic studies of 7a-Aza-B-homostigmast-5-eno [7a,7-d] tetrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahboob; Alam, Mohammad Jane; Nami, Shahab A. A.; Khan, Mohd Shoeb; Ahmad, Shabbir; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2015-11-01

    The DFT (B3LYP) calculations on a synthetic steroidal molecule 7a-Aza-B-homostigmast-5-eno [7a,7-d] tetrazole, C29H48N4, have been performed. The molecular structure, IR and NMR (13C and 1H) spectra of the present compound were interpreted using experiments (XRD, FTIR, NMR) as well as theoretical, B3LYP/6-311 + G(2d,p), calculations. The vibrational bands appearing in FTIR are assigned with great accuracy using animated modes. Molecular properties like HOMO-LUMO analysis, chemical reactivity descriptors, MEP mapping, dipole moment and Mullikan's atomic charges have been presented at the same level of theory. The theoretical results are found in good correlation with experimental data. Moreover, the Hirshfeld analysis was carried out to ascertain the secondary interactions and associated 2D fingerprint plots. The in vivo cytotoxicity of 7a-Aza-B-homostigmast-5-eno [7a,7-d] has also been carried out against brine shrimp nauplii by lethality bioassay.

  3. Barks Essential Oil, Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of Four Organs of Tunisian Calligonum azel Maire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannour, Marwa; Aouadhi, Chedia; Khalfaoui, Houssem; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Khadhri, Ayda

    2016-11-01

    This study is the first to investigate the chemical composition of barks essential oil (EO), secondary metabolites and biological activities of the MeOH and infusions extracts of seeds, leaves, barks and roots of Calligonum azel Maire (Polygonaceae) harvested from Tunisian desert. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results showed the presence of fifty-four compounds in barks EO. The major components were: viridiflorol (14.6%), α-eudesmol (8.65%), trans-caryophyllene (6.72%), elemol (6.63%), β-eudesmol (6.21%). The obtained results showed that C. azel is a very rich plant in secondary metabolites. High contents in polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins were observed in both extracts of all studied organs. Significant differences were found between both extracts of the four organs. Thus, polyphenols and tannins were more abundant in leaves infusion extract, while, flavonoids showed a high level in barks extract. The antioxidant activity data demonstrated that all extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. The MeOH extracts presented potential for antibacterial and antifungal activities against all tested microorganisms. The inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitrice concentration values were in the range of 9 - 15 mm and 2.5 - 20 μg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that C. azel can be regarded as an excellent plant source for natural antimicrobial agents. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities of secondary metabolites from the fungus Eurotium repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiangtao; Radwan, Mohamed M; León, Francisco; Wang, Xiaoning; Jacob, Melissa R; Tekwani, Babu L; Khan, Shabana I; Lupien, Shari; Hill, Robert A; Dugan, Frank M; Cutler, Horace G; Cutler, Stephen J

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we examined in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities of secondary metabolites (1-8) isolated from the fungus Eurotium repens. All compounds showed mild to moderate antibacterial or antifungal or both activities except 7. The activity of compound 6 was the best of the group tested. The in vitro antimalarial evaluation of these compounds revealed that compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 showed antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC(50) values in the range of 1.1-3.0 μg/ml without showing any cytotoxicity to the mammalian cells. Compound 5 displayed the highest antimalarial activity. Antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was observed for compounds 1-6 with IC(50) values ranging from 6.2 to 23 μg/ml. Antileishmanial activity of compounds 5 and 6 (IC(50) values of 7.5 and 6.2 μg/ml, respectively) was more potent than 1-4 (IC(50) values ranging from 19-23 μg/ml). Compounds 7 and 8 did not show any antiprotozoal effect. Preliminary structure and activity relationship studies indicated that antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities associated with phenol derivates (1-6) seem to be dependent on the number of double bonds in the side chain, which would be important for lead optimization in the future.

  5. Altered Endometrial Expression of Endothelial Nitric oxide Synthase (eNOS) in women with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Tohid; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Ghazi, Reza; Khorram, Omid

    2012-01-01

    Background Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has diverse roles in the female reproductive system including a role in blastocyst implantation. Aberrant expression of eNOS could therefore be significant in the pathogenesis of disorders of implantation Materials and Methods eNOS protein and mRNA levels in the endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriages, unexplained infertility, and a control group was determined by compartmental quantitative immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR Results eNOS was immunolocalized to all layers of the endometrium and the vascular endothelium. eNOS protein expression was higher in glandular epithelium (P=0.004) and luminal epithelium (P=0.002) but not vascular endothelium and stroma (P=0.14) in women with recurrent miscarriage. Similarly, in women with unexplained infertility eNOS expression was significantly higher (Pinfertility compared with controls Conclusion Increased expression of eNOS in glandular and luminal epithelium of the endometrium in women with recurrent miscarriages and unexplained infertility suggests a detrimental effect of excess nitric oxide in endometrial receptivity and implantation PMID:22877939

  6. VEGF and eNOS Expression in Umbilical Cord from Pregnancy Complicated by Hypertensive Disorder with Different Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bhavina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reduced blood flow in hypertensive pregnancy may influence the production vasoconstrictors; subsequently the vessel remains in highly contracted state. NO is a vasodilator; VEGF influences its synthesis by regulating eNOS production. Aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of VEGF and eNOS in different severity of hypertensive pregnancy. Methods. Study was conducted in 4 groups with 40 members: group 1—control, group 2—gestational hypertension, group 3—mild preeclampsia, and group 4—severe preeclampsia. Fetal end of umbilical cord was taken and follows IHC staining protocol for VEGF and eNOS antibody. Staining intensity were measured by semiquantitative scoring method. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare each group. Results. Decreased expression of both VEGF and eNOS was found in hypertensive condition than in normal condition. Among hypertensive group, severe preeclamptic group showed more intensity in staining than gestational hypertension and mild preeclampsia. Conclusion. Reduction of VEGF and eNOS in gestational hypertension may lead to hypoperfusion and subsequent hypoxia of fetus in hypertensive pregnancy. The developed hypoxic state may upregulate the synthesis of VEGF and thereby eNOS. Increased expression of VEGF and eNOS in severe group may be a compensatory mechanism to dilate the blood vessels and to improve blood flow of fetus.

  7. Catechins Blunt the Effects of oxLDL and its Primary Metabolite Phosphatidylcholine Hydroperoxide on Endothelial Dysfunction Through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Restoration of eNOS in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Hsiang Chang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We explored the effects of catechins (decaffeinated green tea extracts containing (–-epicatechin, (–-epigallocatechin, (–-epicatechin gallate and (–-epigallocatechin gallate on atherosclerosis risk factors, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL and its primary metabolite, phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH induced oxidative injury in cultured endothelial cell line and rats. Methods: We used endothelial cell line and male Wistar rats to determine the effect of catechins on oxLDL or PCOOH induced oxidative injury including apoptosis, H2O2 level, vascular responses and urinary 8-isoprostane and nitrite/nitrate concentration. Plasma catechins concentration was determined by a CoulArray HPLC. Responses of aortic and renal vasoconstriction were evaluated by a transonic meter and a full-field laser perfusion imager. Results: PCOOH administration significantly increased H2O2 amounts and cell apoptosis and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression in the cultured endothelial cells. Catechins pretreatment significantly reduced PCOOH-elevated H2O2 amounts, endothelial cell apoptosis and partly recovered eNOS expression. Intravenous administration of oxLDL, PCOOH or H2O2, not native LDL, significantly decreased renal and aortic blood flow associated with enhanced ICAM-1 expression and 4-hydroxynoneal (4-HNE accumulation, and decreased eNOS expression in the male Wistrar rats. One hour after oral intake of green tea extracts, 4 peaks of catechins were found in the rat plasma. The increased plasma catechins significantly inhibited oxLDL-, PCOOH- or H2O2-induced renal and aortic vasoconstriction, decreased urinary 8-isoprostane levels, renal ICAM-1 expression and 4-HNE accumulation, and restored nitrite/nitrate amounts and eNOS activity. Conclusions: Our data suggests that catechins pretreatment decrease PCOOH-induced endothelial apoptosis and arterial vasoconstriction through the action of H2O2 inhibition

  8. Examining students' after-school literacy activities and their literacy performance on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don A; Zheng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    ... reading and writing activities. Key words: after-school reading, after-school writing, literacy testing, test performance, secondary students, Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test, ESL/ELD students, second language learners Cet article analyse les activites de litteratie parascolaires des eleves et les resultats qu'ils ont obtenus lors d...

  9. Induction of Haemeoxygenase-1 Directly Improves Endothelial Function in Isolated Aortas from Obese Rats through the Ampk-Pi3k/Akt-Enos Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induction of haemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 increases adiponectin secretion by remodeling adipose tissue in obesity. The objective of our study is to explore whether HO-1 induction directly improves endothelial function independent of adiponectin changes in obese rats. Methods: Rats were divided into control and obesity groups. Aortic endothelial function was determined by measuring endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV. Vascular segments of the obese rats were incubated in an organ bath in the presence or absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP or CoPP plus stannous protoporphyrin. Nitric oxide (NO production, superoxide anion production and NF-κB p65 expression in the aorta were determined. The expression of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK, Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in endothelial cells was determined by western blotting. The aortic rings from the obese rats were then incubated with CoPP in the presence of specific inhibitors of AMPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K or eNOS. Results: Acetylcholine-induced EDV was significantly attenuated in the obese rats, compared with the NC group (p p in vitro in the presence of inhibitors of AMPK, PI3K or eNOS. HO-1 induction with CoPP significantly increased the activation of the AMPK-PI3K/Akt-eNOS pathway and NO production in parallel with reduced superoxide anion production and NF-κB p65 expression in obese rats. Conclusions: HO-1 induction with CoPP directly improved endothelial function in obese rats independent of adiponectin changes. The mechanism of this protective effect is related to increasing NO production by activation of the AMPK-PI3K/Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.

  10. The activity of medicinal plants and secondary metabolites on eosinophilic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, Alexandre P; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2010-10-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are present in several body compartments and in the blood at relatively low numbers under normal conditions. However, an increase in the number of eosinophils, in the blood or in the tissues, is observed in allergic or parasitic disorders. Although some progress has been made in understanding the development of eosinophil-mediated inflammation in allergic and parasitic diseases, the discovery of new compounds to control eosinophilia has lagged behind other advances. Plant-derived secondary metabolites are the basis for many drugs currently used to treat pathologic conditions, including eosinophilic diseases. Several studies, including our own, have demonstrated that plant extracts and secondary metabolites can reduce eosinophilia and eosinophil recruitment in different experimental animal models. In this review, we summarize these studies and describe the anti-eosinophilic activity of various plant extracts, such as Ginkgo biloba, Allium cepa, and Lafoensia pacari, as well as those of secondary metabolites (compounds isolated from plant extracts), such as quercetin and ellagic acid. In addition, we highlight the medical potential of these plant-derived compounds for treating eosinophil-mediated inflammation, such as asthma and allergy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling and analysis of secondary sources coupling for active sound field reduction in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Allahyar; Taylor, C. James

    2017-10-01

    This article addresses the coupling of acoustic secondary sources in a confined space in a sound field reduction framework. By considering the coupling of sources in a rectangular enclosure, the set of coupled equations governing its acoustical behavior are solved. The model obtained in this way is used to analyze the behavior of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) active sound field control (ASC) systems, where the coupling of sources cannot be neglected. In particular, the article develops the analytical results to analyze the effect of coupling of an array of secondary sources on the sound pressure levels inside an enclosure, when an array of microphones is used to capture the acoustic characteristics of the enclosure. The results are supported by extensive numerical simulations showing how coupling of loudspeakers through acoustic modes of the enclosure will change the strength and hence the driving voltage signal applied to the secondary loudspeakers. The practical significance of this model is to provide a better insight on the performance of the sound reproduction/reduction systems in confined spaces when an array of loudspeakers and microphones are placed in a fraction of wavelength of the excitation signal to reduce/reproduce the sound field. This is of particular importance because the interaction of different sources affects their radiation impedance depending on the electromechanical properties of the loudspeakers.

  12. Normal plasma antithrombin activity in patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-de-Magalhães, Marilza; de Almeida, Adilson José; Papaiz-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Gadelha, Telma; Morais-de-Sá, Carlos Alberto; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease characterized by multifocal areas of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Activation of coagulation factors and fibrin deposition are observed around CNS blood vessels in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. Antithrombin (AT) is a potent anticoagulant with remarkable anti-inflammatory properties, and its inhibitory effects on coagulation and inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis and clinical course of MS. We studied the association between plasma AT activity and clinical forms of MS. A total of 69 patients, 37 with relapsing-remitting and 32 with secondary progressive MS, were included in the study. A control group (CG) of 34 normal subjects was also studied. Plasma AT activity (Stachrom ATIII) was quantified using a chromogenic activity assay with normal reference values ranging from 70% to 120% of AT activity. We found no difference between plasma AT levels in patients and those in CG. We also found no association of AT levels with activity of disease, duration of disease progression, level of neurological disability, and treatment. We found no association between plasma AT activity and RRMS or SPMS. It remains to be studied whether exists or not an association between abnormal plasma AT activity and other MS forms.

  13. CCN activity and volatility of β-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, M.; Bilde, Merete; Nenes, A.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of smog chamber experiments, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of beta-caryophyllene was characterized by determining the CCN derived hygroscopicity parameter, kappa(CCN), from experimental data. Two types of CCN......, kappa(CCN) decreased when particles were sent through the thermodenuder (with a temperature up to 50 degrees C). SOA was generated under different experimental conditions: In some experiments, an OH scavenger (2-butanol) was added. SOA from these experiments was less CCN active than SOA produced...... in experiments without an OH scavenger (i.e. where OH was produced during ozonolysis). In other experiments, lights were turned on, either without or with the addition of HONO (OH source). This led to the formation of more CCN active SOA. SOA was aged up to 30 h through exposure to ozone and (in experiments...

  14. Involvement in sports clubs and informal sport activities of primary and secondary school children in Liechtenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kühnis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport involvement among children and adolescents has been a central field of research in sport science since years. This paper documents the participation of 11- to 15-year-olds in sport clubs and informal sport activities in Liechtenstein and examines possible gender- and age-specific differences. The analysis is based on four cross-sectional studies from 2004 to 2015 and includes the data of 1’262 children in primary (5th grade and secondary (7th and 9th grades school. According to our findings sports and exercise are considered to be one of the main leisure-time activities for all school levels (irrespective of gender. The percentage of fully sport-abstinent adolescents by 11- and 13-year-olds is about 5 %; by 15-year-olds is around 10 %. The culmination of sports club membership (with current 84.7 % appears to be at the age of 11 (5th grade. After the switch to secondary school the sports club commitment tends to decrease, while the high attendance of the informal sport activities (>85 % shows relatively stable age development. In contrast to other child and youth studies, our data indicates a levelling tendency and dissolution of classic gender differences not only in sports club commitment but also in informal sports among girls and boys.

  15. Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    stream_size 29406 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... 1    Author version: Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.: 63(1); 2009; 67-72 Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick) VP LIMNA MOL a , TV RAVEENDRAN a, * & PS PARAMESWARAN b a...

  16. Reduced Voluntary Activation During Brief and Sustained Contractions of a Hand Muscle in Secondary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkorte, Ria; Heersema, Dorothea J.; Zijdewind, Inge

    Background. Secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients have structural cortical damage resulting in increased compensatory cortical activity during (submaximal) performance. However, functional effects of changed cortical output are difficult to measure. The interpolated-twitch

  17. [Dietary habits and physical activity in a secondary school in the Balearic islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas Juan, Trinidad; Moreo Mir, Inmaculada; Vidal Thomàs, Clara; Perello Beau, Manel; Miralles Xamena, Jerònia; Pérez Mariano, Damiana Ma; Ripoll Amengual, Joana

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in dietary habits and physical activity, as well as the prevalence of obesity and overweight that have occurred in a cohort of 1st and 4th year secondary school pupils after non-structured health education activities. A descriptive, longitudinal study, in which anthropometric variables, dietary habits, leisure and physical activity were collected in the 1st year secondary school pupils (n=61), and they were measured again when they were in the 4th year. The differences between the two school years were analysed using the Mc Nemar-Bowker Test. During the period of the study educational sessions were given on healthy eating and physical activity. The prevalence of overweight decreased significantly (from 14.8% to 3.7%) and the level of physical activity has increased. No statistical differences were detected in the quality of breakfast or in the quality of the Mediterranean diet. Some of the aspects studied have improved without being able to attribute this improvement to the educational sessions given. To determine and analyse the healthy living habits of adolescents would enable us to plan realistic interventions, adapted to the particular environment. They should be structured and continuous over time and approach areas of knowledge, skills and emotions, and directed, not only at the young people, but also their families, the internal environment of the educational centre. There should be coordination of community resources in order to make a coordinated approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Chlorovirus-Mediated Membrane Depolarization of Chlorella Alters Secondary Active Transport of Solutes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarkova, Irina; Dunigan, David; Gurnon, James; Greiner, Timo; Barres, Julia; Thiel, Gerhard; Van Etten, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, double-stranded DNA, plaque-forming viruses that infect certain eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae from the genus Chlorovirus. PBCV-1 infection results in rapid host membrane depolarization and potassium ion release. One interesting feature of certain chloroviruses is that they code for functional potassium ion-selective channel proteins (Kcv) that are considered responsible for the host membrane depolarization and, as a consequence, the efflux of potassium ions. This report examines the relationship between cellular depolarization and solute uptake. Annotation of the virus host Chlorella strain NC64A genome revealed 482 putative transporter-encoding genes; 224 are secondary active transporters. Solute uptake experiments using seven radioactive compounds revealed that virus infection alters the transport of all the solutes. However, the degree of inhibition varied depending on the solute. Experiments with nystatin, a drug known to depolarize cell membranes, produced changes in solute uptake that are similar but not identical to those that occurred during virus infection. Therefore, these studies indicate that chlorovirus infection causes a rapid and sustained depolarization of the host plasma membrane and that this depolarization leads to the inhibition of secondary active transporters that changes solute uptake. PMID:18842725

  19. Secondary metabolites from the South China Sea invertebrates: chemistry and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei; Gu, Yucheng

    2006-01-01

    The increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries has driven scientists to search for new sources of bioactive natural products. Marine invertebrates are a rich source of novel, bioactive secondary metabolites and they have attracted a great deal of attention from scientists in the fields of chemistry, pharmacology, ecology, and molecular biology. During the past 25 years, many complex and structurally unique secondary metabolites have been isolated from the invertebrates inhabiting the South China Sea. These metabolites are responsible for various bioactivities such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities, and/or they act on the cardiovascular system. This review will focus on the marine natural product chemistry of invertebrates from the South China Sea, aiming to give the reader a brief view of the compounds isolated from these invertebrates, as well as their biological activities. The article covers the literature published during the period from the beginning of 1980 to the end of 2005, with 340 citations and 811 compounds from invertebrates from the South China Sea, including sponges, coelenterates, molluscs and echinoderms.

  20. Proliferative activity of the parathyroid cells in rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S; Yachiku, S; Hashimoto, H; Okuyama, M; Tsurukawa, H; Kawakami, N; Watabe, Y; Sue, Y

    2001-04-01

    Proliferative kinetics of parathyroid cells in secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) are still unknown. We examined the histopathological changes and proliferative activity of parathyroid cells in spontaneously hypercholesterolemic (SHC) rats that exhibit secondary HPT and in normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats from 3 weeks to 32 weeks of age. Proliferative activity [proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) labeling index], evaluated by means of immunohistochemical examination of PCNA, declined in SD rats with age from 10.8% at 3 weeks of age to 0.15% at 32 weeks of age. In SHC rats, a PCNA labeling index of 11.6% declined to 3.12% at 14 weeks of age and rebounded to 6.15% at 26 weeks of age. Parathyroid glands increased in size as determined by the maximum cross-sectional area, but in SHC rats, the increase was significantly greater, paralleling the progression of renal dysfunction, and at 32 weeks they were almost three times larger than in SD rats. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in SHC rats also rose sharply after 20 weeks and reached 611 pg/ml at 32 weeks, while PTH in SD rats remained unchanged at approximately 110 pg/ml. This study showed that in the course of developing HPT in SHC rats, there is a large increase in the size of the parathyroid gland, a concomitant increase in PTH levels, and a PCNA labeling index that is higher than in normal SD rats.

  1. A provincial study of opportunities for school-based physical activity in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John J M; Allison, Kenneth R; LeMoine, Karen N; Adlaf, Edward M; Goodman, Jack; Faulkner, Guy E J; Lysy, Daria C

    2006-07-01

    Adolescents spend considerable time at school and thus it is important to understand their opportunities for school-based physical activity. This study surveyed Ontario secondary schools to identify the range of structured opportunities and their engagement by students. A questionnaire was mailed to key informants in 600 randomly selected secondary schools in Ontario, for which 474 respondents (79%) returned completed questionnaires. Curriculum-based physical education (PE) classes in grade nine were reported to be offered in all schools and these classes in grades 10, 11 and 12 were offered in almost all schools. Student enrollment in PE decreased from grades 9 to 12 (97.9%, 49.6%, 43.3% and 35.9%, respectively). Respondents reported that funding, timetable, facilities and resources made it somewhat difficult to implement the health and physical education curriculum in their schools. About two-thirds (65.5%) of the schools had an intramural program and 15.0% of students participated in it, whereas 97.2% of the schools had an inter-school sports program and 25.0% of students participated in it. Supervision issues made it difficult to provide intramural programs and funding made it difficult to provide inter-school sports programs. Although provision of physical activity opportunities in Ontario appears satisfactory, actual engagement by students is low. The results suggest that strategies to increase student participation in PE, intramural programs, and inter-school sports programs need further consideration.

  2. Lab-on-a-chip workshop activities for secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Mohammad M. N.; Tarn, Mark D.; Choudhury, Tahmina A.; Hewitt, Laura C.; Mayo, Ashley J.; Rubin, Theodore A.; Waller, Mathew R.; Christensen, Martin G.; Dawson, Amy; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The ability to engage and inspire younger generations in novel areas of science is important for bringing new researchers into a burgeoning field, such as lab-on-a-chip. We recently held a lab-on-a-chip workshop for secondary school students, for which we developed a number of hands-on activities that explained various aspects of microfluidic technology, including fabrication (milling and moulding of microfluidic devices, and wax printing of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, so-called μPADs), flow regimes (gradient formation via diffusive mixing), and applications (tissue analysis and μPADs). Questionnaires completed by the students indicated that they found the workshop both interesting and informative, with all activities proving successful, while providing feedback that could be incorporated into later iterations of the event. PMID:26865902

  3. Visual Representation of Sports Activities in Secondary School English and Turkish Coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Galip ZORBA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with language teaching purposes, coursebooks also convey different kinds of cultural and social messages through both written texts and visualization. Therefore, studying coursebooks in terms of such qualities is necessary in foreign language education. In the learning process, visualization plays a pivotal role since visuals cater for concrete sensory stimuli and thus is an indispensable part in all co ursebooks. The aim of this study is to comparatively investigate how sports, including recreational activities, are portrayed in secondary school English and Turkish coursebooks prepared according to the new education system in relation to such variables a s which sports are particularly shown, and sex of persons doing sports and/or recreational activities. A total number of eight coursebooks (four English and four Turkish are studied and the findings are also compared with similar studies. The results show ed the problems associated with these coursebooks.

  4. Home-Based Physical Activity Coaching, Physical Activity, and Healthcare Utilization in COPD: COPD-SMART Secondary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas, David B; Jackson, Bradford E; Russo, Rennie; Peoples, Jennifer; Singh, Karan P; Sloan, John; Uhm, Minyong; Ashmore, Jamile A; Blair, Steven N; Bae, Sejong

    2017-12-28

    Physical inactivity among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with exacerbations requiring high-cost healthcare utilization including urgent, emergent, and hospital care. To examine the effectiveness of a behavioral lifestyle physical activity intervention combined with COPD self-management education to prevent high-cost healthcare utilization. This was an analysis of secondary outcomes of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Self-Management Activation Research Trial, a two-arm randomized trial of stable adult outpatients with COPD recruited from primary care and pulmonary clinics. Following a six-week self-management education run-in period, participants were randomized to usual care or to a telephone-delivered home-based health coaching intervention over 20 weeks. Secondary outcomes of physical activity and healthcare utilization were determined by self-report at 6-, 12-, and 18-months after randomization. Associations between treatment allocation arm and these secondary outcomes were examined using log-binomial and Poisson regression models. A total of 325 outpatients with stable COPD were enrolled in the trial. The average age of 70.3 years (standard deviation 9.5), and 50.5% were female; 156 were randomized to usual care and 149 to the intervention. A greater proportion of participants reported being persistently active over the 18-month follow-up period in the intervention group (73.6%) compared to the usual care group (57.8%) (mean difference=15.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0%-27.7%)). This association varied by severity of FEV1 impairment (p for interaction = 0.09). Those in the intervention group with moderate impairment(FEV1=50%-70% predicted), more frequently reported being persistently active compared to the usual care (86.0% vs. 65.1%, mean difference=20.9%, 95% CI 5.7%-36.1%). Patients with severe and very severe FEV1 impairment (FEV1 home-based coaching intervention may decrease sedentary behavior and

  5. An artificial compression method for ENO schemes: The slope modification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanan

    1988-01-01

    A simple and effective method of artificial compression is introduced. This method is based on a modification of the slopes of the ENO (essentially nonoscillatory) reconstruction and, with the help of suitable chosen parameters, greatly improves the resolution of the contact discontinuities. Numerical examples are provided to test the performance of the method and to give some suggestions as to the choice of the parameters.

  6. Role of eNOS in water exchange index maintenance-MRI studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atochin, D.; Litvak, M.; Huang, S.; Kim, Y. R.; Huang, P.

    2017-08-01

    Stroke studies employ experimental models of cerebral ischemic and reperfusion injury in rodents. MRI provides valuable supravital data of cerebral blood flow and brain tissue damage. This paper presents MRI applications for cerebral blood flow research in mice lines with impaired nitric oxide production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Our data demonstrates that specific modifications of MRI methodology in transgenic mouse models help to evaluate the role of eNOS in the brain-blood barrier function.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell migration via the GPR120/PP2A/ERK1/2/eNOS signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Che-Yi; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Ye, Siou-Yu; Li, Chien-Chun; Lu, Chia-Yang; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Liu, Kai-Li; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2014-05-07

    Cell migration plays an important role in angiogenesis and wound repair. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen that is essential for endothelial cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, shows both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which DHA down-regulates VEGF-induced cell migration. HUVECs were used as the study model, and the MTT assay, Western blot, wound-healing assay, and phosphatase activity assay were used to explore the effects of DHA on cell migration. GPR120 is the putative receptor for DHA action. The results showed that DHA, PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor), and GW9508 (a GPR120 agonist) inhibited VEGF-induced cell migration. In contrast, pretreatment with okadaic acid (OA, a PP2A inhibitor) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (an NO donor) reversed the inhibition of cell migration by DHA. VEGF-induced cell migration was accompanied by phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and eNOS. Treatment of HUVECs with DHA increased PP2A enzyme activity and decreased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and eNOS. However, pretreatment with OA significantly decreased DHA-induced PP2A enzyme activity and reversed the DHA inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation. These results suggest that stimulation of PP2A activity and inhibition of the VEGF-induced ERK1/2/eNOS signaling pathway may be involved in the DHA suppression of VEGF-induced cell migration. Thus, the effect of DHA on angiogenesis and wound repair is at least partly by virtue of its attenuation of cell migration.

  8. Hydroxide-bridged dicopper complexes: the influence of secondary coordination sphere on structure and catecholase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Deepak; Gupta, Rajeev

    2017-04-05

    Amide-based ligands (H2L(1-6)) with assorted functional groups appended to them have been used for the synthesis of dicopper(ii) complexes 1-6 having a Cu(μ-OH)Cu core. The crystal structures of 1-6 show that while every Cu(ii) ion is ligated within the N3 pincer cavity of a potentially multidentate ligand, two Cu(ii) centers are bridged by a hydroxide group. Notably, the Cu(μ-OH)Cu core is encased within the secondary coordination sphere intricately created by the appended groups. While complexes 1 and 2 exhibit the presence of an H-bond acceptor in the proximity of the Cu(μ-OH)Cu core, complexes 3 and 4 display the occurrence of both the H-bond donor as well as H-bond acceptor groups in the vicinity of the Cu(μ-OH)Cu core. In contrast, complexes 5 and 6 present modified secondary coordination spheres around the Cu(μ-OH)Cu core with limited H-bonding interacting groups in 5 and no such groups in 6. We show that the extent of H-bonding by the appended groups modulates not only the Cu-OH bond distance, Cu(μ-OH)Cu angle and Cu-Cu separation but also the Cu(2+)/Cu(+) redox potential. All six complexes were utilized for their ability to oxidize 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol, and the catecholase activity results have been correlated to the secondary coordination sphere created by the appended groups in all six complexes.

  9. Changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior during the transition from elementary to secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Cindy; Boen, Filip; Seghers, Jan

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) and to analyze its association with gender and weight status during the transition from elementary to secondary school. Flemish children were recruited in 6th grade of elementary school (age = 10.97 ± 0.41) and reassessed 2 years later (age = 12.96 ± .40). Children completed a questionnaire on moderate to vigorous PA and SB and wore pedometers to monitor habitual PA. Longitudinal data from 472 children were analyzed. A significant decrease was observed in self-reported moderate to vigorous PA (-12.2%), but not in pedometer-determined PA. With respect to SB, a pronounced increase in recreational computer use was found (+3.22 hours/week), particularly in overweight boys (+8.18 hours/week). Finally, a significant increase in time spent on homework was observed in girls (+3.57 hours/week) and normal weight children (+2.83 hours/week). No longitudinal change in pedometer-determined PA was observed. Nevertheless, the decline in self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA suggests that the transition to secondary school induced a change in the contribution of different types of PA. Finally, time spent on homework and recreational computer use increased during the school transition.

  10. Cyber Dating Abuse Victimization Among Secondary School Students From a Lifestyle-Routine Activities Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2016-02-12

    Controlling one's romantic partner through digital media is a form of cyber dating abuse. To design effective educational campaigns, a deeper understanding of how some young people become victim of this type of abuse within their romantic relationships is warranted. This study is the first to adopt a lifestyle-routine activities theory perspective toward online romantic partner monitoring, by looking at whether secondary school students' risky digital lifestyle and their digital media use are linked to a higher chance of being controlled by a romantic partner, taking into account gender, age, and the length of the romantic relationship. The data of 466 secondary school students (71.0% girls, n = 331) between 16 and 22 years old (M = 17.99 years; SD = 0.92) who were in a romantic relationship are analyzed. Linear regression analysis suggests that engagement in online risk behavior, the length of the romantic relationship, engagement in sexting with the romantic partner, and the amount of social networking site use were significantly linked to victimization of digital controlling behavior. The results are important to practitioners, as they indicate that messages about safe Internet use should be incorporated in prevention and educational campaigns with regard to cyber dating abuse. Suggestions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Examining 12-14 Age Secondary School Students’ Tendency to Violence doing Active Sport or not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Aydın

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate secondary school students’ tendency to violence, doing active sport or not. The sampling group of the study was consisted of 101 girls and 99 boys in the total 200 secondary school students in Kütahya city center of whose ages differs between of 12-14. In the study tendency to violence scale, developed by Göka and colleagues, was used as data gathering tool. In the evaluation of the data SPSS package program for Windows was used and after reliability of the scale was assessed One Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for if the obtained data was showing normal distribution and also as hypotheses tests Independent Samples t Test was applied for pairwise comparisons and One Way ANOVA test was applied for triple or more comparisons. As a result of the study there were no significant differences between students’ tendency to violence according to their ages and sport participation situations, on the other hand there were significant differences according to their class and perceived success in class. This study showed that class and perceived success in class are predictors of tendency to violence.

  12. Physical activity levels and movement skill instruction in secondary school physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dean A; Okely, Anthony D; Cotton, Wayne G; Pearson, Phil; Caputi, Peter

    2012-05-01

    To determine the levels of physical activity (PA), lesson context and teacher interaction students receive during physical education (PE) in secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia. Baseline cross-sectional study. Systematic direct observation of Year 7 PE classes over a six-month period. Eighty one (81) PE lessons across six schools were observed. The mean (SD) percentage of class time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 56.9% (18.7). However, only 60% of the 81 met the recommended 50% of class time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Just over 6% of class time was spent in skill instruction. Game play made up nearly half of the lesson context (44%) and teachers spent just under one-third (31%) of class time promoting PA. Substantial variations in the PA, lesson context and teacher interaction exist within PE. As a large proportion of classes, especially girls' only classes, did not meet the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendation of 50% of class time in MVPA, ways need to be found to promote PA in PE classes. Levels of skill instruction and practice were well below international comparisons and may have implications for PA participation later in life. Numerous possibilities exist for improving PE in Australia as a way of improving the activity levels and experiences of our young people. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN OBESITY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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    Ratri Ciptaningtyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Obesity is a  nutritional problem worldwide, including in Indonesia. Data from the 2010 Basic Health Research showed that the prevalence of obesity in adolescents aged 13-15 years in Banten Province was 3.4percent, greater than the national prevalence of obesity for adolescents at the same age (2.5%. Objective: To determine gender differences in the obesity amongst junior high school students. Methods:Using a cross sectional design, this study included anthropometric measurement, questionnaire, and 2 x 24 hours food recall method. This study involved 134 junior high school students of Pembangunan Jaya Secondary School Bintaro. Results:The results of the univariate analysis showed that 14.9% of students were obese. The results of bivariate analysis showed a significant difference between sex for obesity and physical activity. These results were consistent with the previous research showing more consumption of calories in men than women. However, women only conducted milder physical activities than men. Conclusions:There was a significant difference in obesity and physical activity across different sexes. Both men and women had unbalanced diet, low consumption of fibre, yet excessive consumption of fat and protein.  Key words:Gender, obesity, adolescense, physical activity, nutrition 

  14. Secondary Metabolites from Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae and the Vasorelaxant Activity of Cryptolepinone

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    Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae led to the isolation through chromatographic techniques of eleven secondary metabolites: sitosterol (1a and stigmasterol (1b, sitosterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2a and stigmasterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2b, phaeophytin A (3, 173-ethoxypheophorbide A (4, 132-hydroxy phaeophytin B (5, 173-ethoxypheophorbide B (6, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (7, cryptolepinone (8 and a salt of cryptolepine (9. Their structures were identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR using one- and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the vasorelaxant activity of cryptolepinone in rat mesenteric artery rings is reported herein for the first time.

  15. Biosynthetic approaches to creating bioactive fungal metabolites: Pathway engineering and activation of secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Takayuki; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-15

    The diversity of natural products is greater than that of combinatorial chemistry compounds and is similar to that of drugs. Compounds rich in sp3 carbons, such as natural products, typically exhibit high structural complexity and high specificity to molecular targets. Microorganisms can synthesize such sp3 carbon-rich compounds and can be used as excellent factories for making bioactive compounds. Here, we mainly focus on pathway engineering of two sp3 carbon-rich bioactive indole alkaloids, fumitremorgin C and terpendole E. We also demonstrate the importance of activation of secondary metabolism by focusing on tenuazonic acid, a bioactive tetramic acid compound, as an example. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Secondary Metabolites from Halostachys caspica and Their Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

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    Jianglin Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine secondary metabolites have been isolated from the aerial parts of Halostachys caspica C. A. Mey. (Chenopodiaceae. By means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis, they were identified as betaine (1, diphenylamine (2, benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, β-sitosterol (4, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid (5, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (6, 2-hydroxy benzoic acid (7, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid (8, and 3,4-dihydroxy benzeneacrylic acid (9. All compounds were isolated from this plant species for the first time. They were screened to exhibit antimicrobial and antioxidant activities to some extent except for the compounds 1 and 3. The results indicated that the isolated phenol acids and diphenylamine (2 could be the main bioactive components in the crude ethanol extract of H. caspica.

  17. Secondary metabolites from Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) and the vasorelaxant activity of cryptolepinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Otemberg Souza; Gomes, Roosevelt Albuquerque; Tomaz, Anna Cláudia de Andrade; Fernandes, Marianne Guedes; das Graças Mendes, Leônidas; de Fátima Agra, Maria; Braga, Valdir Andrade; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The phytochemical study of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation through chromatographic techniques of eleven secondary metabolites: sitosterol (1a) and stigmasterol (1b), sitosterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2a) and stigmasterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2b), phaeophytin A (3), 17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (4), 13²-hydroxy phaeophytin B (5), 17³-ethoxypheophorbide B (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (7), cryptolepinone (8) and a salt of cryptolepine (9). Their structures were identified by ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR using one- and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the vasorelaxant activity of cryptolepinone in rat mesenteric artery rings is reported herein for the first time.

  18. A novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for simultaneous detection of the MTHFR 677 C > T, eNOS +894 G > T and - eNOS -786 T > C variants among Malaysian Malays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo Keat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia as a consequence of the MTHFR 677 C > T variant is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. Another factor that can potentially contribute to these disorders is a depleted nitric oxide level, which can be due to the presence of eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants that make an individual more susceptible to endothelial dysfunction. A number of genotyping methods have been developed to investigate these variants. However, simultaneous detection methods using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis are still lacking. In this study, a novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for the simultaneous detection of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants was developed. A total of 114 healthy Malay subjects were recruited. The MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants were genotyped using the novel multiplex PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing as well as snpBLAST. Allele frequencies of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C were calculated using the Hardy Weinberg equation. Methods The 114 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study, and their DNA was extracted. Primer pair was designed using Primer 3 Software version 0.4.0 and validated against the BLAST database. The primer specificity, functionality and annealing temperature were tested using uniplex PCR methods that were later combined into a single multiplex PCR. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP was performed in three separate tubes followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR product residual was purified and sent for DNA sequencing. Results The allele frequencies for MTHFR 677 C > T were 0.89 (C allele and 0.11 (T allele; for eNOS +894 G > T, the allele frequencies were 0.58 (G allele and 0.43 (T allele; and for eNOS −786 T > C, the allele

  19. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON DEPRESSION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MALE STUDENTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KERMANSHAH PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Shahbazi,; Tahereh Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the effect of physical activity on depression and academic performance of male students of secondary schools in Kermanshah Province conducted. Research method is field and quasi-experimental. The study population consisted of secondary school students in Kermanshah province, the number is 45,000 and statistical sample was 450 randomly selected districts of the city in three groups of athletes (individual and group) and non-athletes group and individual athletes...

  20. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  1. Comparison of delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase activity in chick liver during sex steroid hormone dependent primary and secondary stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, N; Yamada, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Comparative study on primary and secondary stimulation of hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) (EC 4.2.1.24) was carried out after oestradiol-17 beta and/or testosterone administration in immature female chicken. 2. When 2 mg/day oestradiol was administered to birds for 15 days successively, hepatic total ALAD activity increased to 170% by day 15 of primary stimulation, whereas a more rapid increased rate was observed within day 3 of secondary stimulation and thereafter the hepatic ALAD activity maintained the same high level from day 3 to day 15. 3. Testosterone (2 mg/day) alone decreased hepatic total ALAD activity during both primary and secondary stimulation. 4. When testosterone (0.25-10 mg/day) was injected into birds in combination with 2 mg oestradiol for 15 days during primary and secondary stimulation, only an antagonistic effect of testosterone on oestradiol-stimulated total ALAD activity in liver was observed independently of the testosterone amount administered. However, the extent of suppression of hepatic ALAD activity by testosterone during primary stimulation was markedly different from that of secondary stimulation.

  2. Identification of Secondary Metabolites Compounds and Antibacterial Activities on The Extract of Soursop Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Riana Ningsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bacterial infectious diseases using semi-synthetic antibiotics can lead to resistance, so as to overcome it necessary to search for natural ingredients from plant extracts that has potential as an antibacterial, one of which is the leaf extract of soursop (Annona muricata L.. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of soursop leaf against E. coli and identify groups most active chemical compounds from the extracts. Soursop leaves extracted by maceration using n-hexane, chloroform and methanol. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity using the diffusion method. Extract with the highest activity determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations grow (MIC and tested the content of secondary metabolites with phytochemical test, subsequently identified using IR spectrophotometer. Soursop leaves with extraction solvent n-hexane, chloroform and methanol to produce n-hexane extract (E1, the chloroform extract (E2, and the methanol extract (E3 with a yield respectively 0.82%; 5.21%; 8.2% and produce antibacterial activity with consecutive inhibition zone of 3.52 mm; 8.34 mm; 3.00 mm. MIC of soursop leaf chloroform extract of the E. coli bacteria that is at a concentration of 1 ppm with inhibition zone of 3.23 mm. Based on the test results phytochemical soursop leaf chloroform extract showed the presence of compounds alkaloids, steroids, saponins and tannins. IR spectrophotometer identification results showed that the chloroform extract of the leaves of the soursop has functional groups OH, aliphatic C-H, C = O, C = C aromatic, CH3, C-O ether and C-H outside the field.

  3. Field validation of listings of food stores and commercial physical activity establishments from secondary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mark

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food- and activity-related establishments are increasingly viewed as neighbourhood resources that potentially condition health-related behaviour. The primary objective of the current study was to establish, using ground truthing (on-site verification, the validity of measures of availability of food stores and physical activity establishments that were obtained from commercial database and Internet searches. A secondary objective was to examine differences in validity results according to neighbourhood characteristics and commercial establishment categories. Methods Lists of food stores and physical activity-related establishments in 12 census tracts within the Montreal metropolitan region were compiled using a commercial database (n = 171 establishments and Internet search engines (n = 123 establishments. Ground truthing through field observations was performed to assess the presence of listed establishments and identify those absent. Percentage agreement, sensitivity (proportion of establishments found in the field that were listed, and positive predictive value (proportion of listed establishments found in the field were calculated and contrasted according to data sources, census tracts characteristics, and establishment categories. Results Agreement with field observations was good (0.73 for the commercial list, and moderate (0.60 for the Internet-based list. The commercial list was superior to the Internet-based list for correctly listing establishments present in the field (sensitivity, but slightly inferior in terms of the likelihood that a listed establishment was present in the field (positive predictive value. Agreement was higher for food stores than for activity-related establishments. Conclusion Commercial data sources may provide a valid alternative to field observations and could prove a valuable tool in the evaluation of commercial environments relevant to eating behaviour. In contrast, this study did not find

  4. Acoustic excitation of diffusion flames with coherent structure in a plane shear layer. ; Application of active combustion control to two-dimensional phase-locked arranging measurements. Soshiki kozo wo tomonau heimen sendai kakusan kaen no onkyo reiki. ; Nijigen iso heikin bunpu sokutei eno active nensho seigyo no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-11-25

    The acoustic excitation of a plane diffusion flame enhances the periodicity of organized eddy controlled combustion. In this study, to clarify an effectiveness of application of active combustion control, phase characteristics of the excited eddy flames with high periodicity have been examined. A computer-aided phase-locked averaging method was employed to obtain graphical two-dimensional contour maps of the instantaneous profiles of temperature and CH emission. Both maps consisting of eight consecutive phases indicated clearly not only the periodic behavior of the organized eddy flame, but also the gas dynamic properties peculiar to those flames with coherent structure. In addition, the profiles of local contribution of the sound field to the combustion process were examined by calculating the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index. Calculation results of the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index indicated that the organized eddy flames have high sensitivity to sound, and play an important role in an interaction of sound and flame. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  5. KONSUMSI MIKRONUTRIEN DAN EKSPRESI GEN eNOS3 ALEL INTRO 4a4b PADA PENDERITA HIPERTENSI ETNIK MINANGKABAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmi Sulastri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakGen eNOS3 varian intron 4a4b merupakan salah satu gen yang berhubungan dengan kejadian hipertensi esensial. Kemampuan Gen eNOS3 varian ini untuk mensintesis enzim nitric oxide synthase (NOS berkurang sehingga sintesis Nitric oxide (NO menurun. Senyawa NO adalah suatu senyawa vasoaktif yang menyebabkan vasodilatasi pembuluh darah.Penelitian pada subjek hipertensi dan normotensi berusia 30-65 tahun bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh mikronutrien terhadap ekspresi gen eNOS3 alel intron 4a4b. 130 subjek, diwawancara pola makannya lalu dilakukan analisis asupan mikronutrien, gen eNOS3, serta kadar NO plasma. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan uji T dan chi-square.Kadar NO plasma penderita hipertensi adalah 26.91 + 15.40 μM/L dan normotensi 25.79 + 15.04 μM/L. 55.5% subjek hipertensi memiliki gen eNOS3 varian intron 4b dan 69% subjek normotensi mempunyai varian intron 4a4b. Kadar NO plasma rendah, (66.7% ditemukan pada subjek hipertensi dengan varian intron 4b. Tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna asupan mikronutrien dengan kadar NO plasma pada subjek hipertensi.Hasil ini tidak mendukung pengaruh konsumsi mikronutrien terhadap kadar NO plasma pada penderita hipertensi dengan gen eNOS3 varian intron 4a4b.Kata Kunci : hipertensi esensial, gen eNOS3, kadar NO plasmaAbstracteNOS 3 gene intron 4a4b allel is one of the important genes which is related to hypertesion essensial. This gene expresses the nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme which regulates the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO in human body. NO causes vasodilatation, which decreases peripheral resistant and blood pressure.A research has been done based on cross sectional study on hypertension patients and those with normal blood pressure in the range of 30-65 years old. The main of this research is to evaluate the influence of micronutrient consumption on eNOS3 gene intron 4a4b allel expression in hypertension subjects in Minangkabau ethnicity. 130 subjects interviewed about micronutrient

  6. eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism is associated with development of complicated plaques in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide inhibits adhesion of thrombocytes, proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and restricts oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins. Therefore, decreased production or activity of NO may play a role in the initiation, progression or complications of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of Glu298Asp eNOS gene polymorphism on the individual risk for development of complicated carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis (CA who had undergone endarterectomy. The study population included 233 patients. eNOS G894T gene polymorphism was identified by PCR and RFLP methods. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Asp298Asp is an independent risk factor for the presence of complicated plaques in CA patients. Patients who were homozygous for the Asp298 allele had an adjusted OR of 4.36 for the development of complicated plaques compared to those that carry the Glu298 allele. Further validation and replication studies are needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI175085

  7. The impact of utilizing mobile phones to promote physical activity among post-secondary students: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Hieu

    2016-01-01

    A commitment to regular physical activity may reduce the risks of chronic diseases for young adults. Internationally, the majority of post-secondary students are insufficiently active for health benefits. Novel health strategies and interventions utilizing mobiles phones could increase post-secondary students' physical activity levels. However, there is contradictory evidence to support the use of mobile phones to promote physical activity, and a scoping review could provide further insights into this topic. The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review to explore the existing literature and investigate what is currently known about the use of mobile phones to enhance physical activity levels among post-secondary students. A total of 84 articles were identified from the literature search, and six studies were selected for data analysis. Two major themes were supported by the evidence, which included: (I) the relationship between mobile phones and physical activity levels; and (II) students' perceptions of mobile phones. Goal setting principles combined with text message interventions were reported to have significant influences on students' physical activity levels. Students expressed mixed feelings about coaching elements of apps and posting personal results on social networking websites. No studies reported the use of objective physical activity measurements. In conclusion, mobile phone technologies such as text message reminders could be included in health interventions to enhance post-secondary students' physical activity levels. There is limited evidence available on this topic and additional research is warranted to establish a clearer understanding of the relationship between mobile phones and post-secondary students' physical activity.

  8. Challenge to unique researches; Unique na kenkyu eno challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    Mr. Takashi Tachibana, a critic, enumerates two reasons for why the U.S.A. is maintaining the high research level. One is the U.S. research institution in which foreigners can perform their actions freely. Another is the American frontier spirit that evaluates highly the challenge to new things. In the fields where the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry of Japan has achieved world-wide excellent accomplishments, many are the cases in which foreign researchers participate and work actively as the visiting researchers or the Science and Technology Agency (STA) fellows. In the latter case, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has introduced since a few years ago a system in which challenges can be made on unique researches that the researchers can draw their inspirations by themselves. Results are beginning to appear in several subjects, including the environmental hormone measuring method utilizing biotechnology. The 21st century requires solution of different problems in the electric power business, such as energy and environment issues. It would become increasingly important to work positively on creative and advanced researches and further strengthen the research power as the base for problem solution under the internationally opened research institution where first-class researchers inside and outside the country will get together. (NEDO)

  9. CCN activity of secondary aerosols from terpene ozonolysis under atmospheric relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cheng; Ma, Yan; Diao, Yiwei; Yao, Lei; Zhou, Yaoyao; Wang, Xing; Zheng, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Gas-phase ozonolysis of terpenes is an important source of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The contribution of terpene-derived aerosols to the atmospheric cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) burden under atmospheric conditions, however, remains highly uncertain. The results obtained in previous studies under simple laboratory conditions may not be applicable to atmospheric relevant conditions. Here we present that CCN activities of aerosols from terpene ozonolysis can be significantly affected by atmospheric relevant species that can act as stabilized Criegee intermediate (SCI) or OH scavengers. Ozonolysis reactions of α-pinene, limonene, α-cedrene, and α-humulene were conducted in a 4.5 m3 collapsible fluoropolymer chamber at near-atmospheric concentrations in the presence of different OH scavengers (cyclohexane, 2-butanol, or CO) and SCI scavengers (CH3COOH, H2O, or SO2). The number size distribution and CCN activity of aerosol particles formed during ozonolysis were simultaneously determined. Additionally, particulate products were chemically analyzed by using a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometer. Results showed that aerosol CCN activity following monoterpene ozonolysis was more sensitive to the choice of OH scavengers, while that from sesquiterpene ozonolysis was significantly affected by SCI scavengers. Combined with chemical analysis results, it was concluded that the unimolecular decomposition of CIs giving hygroscopic organic products can be largely suppressed by bimolecular reactions during sesquiterpene ozonolysis but was not significantly impacted in monoterpene ozonolysis. Our study underscores the key role of CIs in the CCN activity of terpene ozonolysis-derived aerosols. The effects of atmospheric relevant species (e.g., SO2, H2O, and CO) need to be considered when assessing the contribution of biogenic terpenes to the atmospheric CCN burden under ambient conditions.

  10. ENO1 promotes tumor proliferation and cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xinghua; Miao, Xiaobing; Wu, Yaxun; Li, Chunsun; Guo, Yan; Liu, Yushan; Chen, Yali; Lu, Xiaoyun [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, 30 North Tongyang Road, Pingchao, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yuchan, E-mail: wangyuchannt@126.com [Department of Pathogen and Immunology, Medical College, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); He, Song, E-mail: hesongnt@126.com [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, 30 North Tongyang Road, Pingchao, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-07-15

    Enolases are glycolytic enzymes responsible for the ATP-generated conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate. In addition to the glycolytic function, Enolase 1 (ENO1) has been reported up-regulation in several tumor tissues. In this study, we investigated the expression and biologic function of ENO1 in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHLs). Clinically, by western blot analysis we observed that ENO1 expression was apparently higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma than in the reactive lymphoid tissues. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining of 144 NHLs suggested that the expression of ENO1 was significantly lower in the indolent lymphomas compared with the progressive lymphomas. Further, we identified ENO1 as an independent prognostic factor, and it was significantly correlated with overall survival of NHL patients. In addition, we found that ENO1 could promote cell proliferation, regulate cell cycle associated gene and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in NHLs. Finally, we verified that ENO1 participated in the process of lymphoma cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Adhesion to FN or HS5 cells significantly protected OCI-Ly8 and Daudi cells from cytotoxicity compared with those cultured in suspension, and these effects were attenuated when transfected with ENO1-siRNA. Based on the study, we propose that inhibition of ENO1 expression may be a novel strategy for therapy for NHLs patients, and it may be a target for drug resistance. - Highlights: • ENO1 expression is reversely correlated with clinical outcomes of patients with NHLs. • ENO1 promotes the proliferation of NHL cells. • ENO1 regulates cell adhesion mediated drug resistance.

  11. Microbial communication leading to the activation of silent fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eNetzker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms form diverse multispecies communities in various ecosystems. The high abundance of fungal and bacterial species in these consortia results in specific communication between the microorganisms. A key role in this communication is played by secondary metabolites (SMs, which are also called natural products. Recently, it was shown that interspecies ‘talk’ between microorganisms represents a physiological trigger to activate silent gene clusters leading to the formation of novel SMs by the involved species. This review focuses on mixed microbial cultivation, mainly between bacteria and fungi, with a special emphasis on the induced formation of fungal SMs in co-cultures. In addition, the role of chromatin remodeling in the induction is examined, and methodical perspectives for the analysis of natural products are presented. As an example for an intermicrobial interaction elucidated at the molecular level, we discuss the specific interaction between the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus with the soil bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus, which provides an excellent model system to enlighten molecular concepts behind regulatory mechanisms and will pave the way to a novel avenue of drug discovery through targeted activation of silent SM gene clusters through co-cultivations of microorganisms.

  12. CCN activity and volatility of β-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of smog chamber experiments, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA generated from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene was characterized by determining the CCN derived hygroscopicity parameter, κCCN, from experimental data. Two types of CCN counters, operating at different temperatures, were used. The effect of semi-volatile organic compounds on the CCN activity of SOA was studied using a thermodenuder.

    Overall, SOA was only slightly CCN active (with κCCN in the range 0.001–0.16, and in dark experiments with no OH scavenger present, κCCN decreased when particles were sent through the thermodenuder (with a temperature up to 50 °C.

    SOA was generated under different experimental conditions: In some experiments, an OH scavenger (2-butanol was added. SOA from these experiments was less CCN active than SOA produced in experiments without an OH scavenger (i.e. where OH was produced during ozonolysis. In other experiments, lights were turned on, either without or with the addition of HONO (OH source. This led to the formation of more CCN active SOA.

    SOA was aged up to 30 h through exposure to ozone and (in experiments with no OH scavenger present to OH. In all experiments, the derived κCCN consistently increased with time after initial injection of β-caryophyllene, showing that chemical ageing increases the CCN activity of β-caryophyllene SOA. κCCN was also observed to depend on supersaturation, which was explained either as an evaporation artifact from semi-volatile SOA (only observed in experiments lacking light exposure or, alternatively, by effects related to chemical composition depending on dry particle size.

    Using the method of Threshold Droplet Growth Analysis it was also concluded that the activation kinetics of the SOA do not differ significantly from calibration ammonium sulphate aerosol for

  13. CCN activity and droplet growth kinetics of fresh and aged monoterpene secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Engelhart

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene and monoterpene mixtures (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and 3-carene to become cloud droplets was investigated. A static CCN counter and a Scanning Mobility CCN Analyser (a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer coupled with a Continuous Flow counter were used for the CCN measurements. Consistent with previous studies monoterpene SOA is quite active and would likely be a good source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the atmosphere. A decrease in CCN activation diameter for α-pinene SOA of approximately 3 nm hr−1 was observed as the aerosol continued to react with oxidants. Hydroxyl radicals further oxidize the SOA particles thereby enhancing the particle CCN activity with time. The initial concentrations of ozone and monoterpene precursor (for concentrations lower than 40 ppb do not appear to affect the activity of the resulting SOA. Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA is used to infer the molar mass of the SOA sampled online and offline from atomized filter samples. The estimated average molar mass of online SOA was determined to be 180±55 g mol−1 (consistent with existing SOA speciation studies assuming complete solubility. KTA suggests that the aged aerosol (both from α-pinene and the mixed monoterpene oxidation is primarily water-soluble (around 65%. CCN activity measurements of the SOA mixed with (NH42SO4 suggest that the organic can depress surface tension by as much as 10 N m−1 (with respect to pure water. The droplet growth kinetics of SOA samples are similar to (NH42SO4, except at low supersaturation, where SOA tends to grow more slowly. The CCN activation diameter of α-pinene and mixed monoterpene SOA can be modelled to within 10–15% of experiments by a simple implementation of Köhler theory, assuming complete dissolution of the particles, no

  14. Shear stress stimulates phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(635) by a protein kinase A-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Hwang, Jinah; Sykes, Michelle; Michell, Belinda J.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Lum, Hazel; Jo, Hanjoong

    2002-01-01

    Shear stress stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production by phosphorylating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at Ser(1179) in a phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)- and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. The eNOS has additional potential phosphorylation sites, including Ser(116), Thr(497), and Ser(635). Here, we studied these potential phosphorylation sites in response to shear, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and 8-bromocAMP (8-BRcAMP) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). All three stimuli induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(635), which was consistently slower than that at Ser(1179). Thr(497) was rapidly dephosphorylated by 8-BRcAMP but not by shear and VEGF. None of the stimuli phosphorylated Ser(116). Whereas shear-stimulated Ser(635) phosphorylation was not affected by phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002, it was blocked by either treating the cells with a PKA inhibitor H89 or infecting them with a recombinant adenovirus-expressing PKA inhibitor. These results suggest that shear stress stimulates eNOS by two different mechanisms: 1) PKA- and PI3K-dependent and 2) PKA-dependent but PI3K-independent pathways. Phosphorylation of Ser(635) may play an important role in chronic regulation of eNOS in response to mechanical and humoral stimuli.

  15. Association of eNOS Gene Polymorphisms G894T and T-786C with Risk of Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Seckin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies investigating the relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene polymorphisms and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS. Aim. The purpose of this study is to elucidate whether eNOS gene polymorphisms (G894T and T-786C play a role in the development of type-2 HRS. Methods. This study was carried out in a group of 92 patients with cirrhosis (44 patients with type-2 HRS and 48 without HRS and 50 healthy controls. Polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and melting curve analysis. Results. We did not find any significant difference in allele and genotype distributions of the eNOS -T-786C polymorphism among the groups (p=0.440. However, the frequency of GT (40.9% and TT (13.6% genotypes and mutant allele T (34.1% for the eNOS G894T polymorphism were significantly higher (p<0.001 and p<0.001, resp. in the HRS group than in both the stable cirrhosis (14.6%, 4.2%, and 11.5%, resp. and the control (22.0%, 2.0%, and 13.0%, resp. groups. Conclusion. The occurrence of mutant genotypes (GT/TT and mutant allele T in eNOS -G894T polymorphisms should be considered as a potential risk factor in cirrhotic patients with HRS.

  16. Effect of competition on the production and activity of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Losada, L.; Ajayi, O.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are of intense interest to humans due to their pharmaceutical and/or toxic properties. Also, these metabolites are clinically relevant because of their importance in fungal pathogenesis. Aspergillus species secrete secondary metabolites when grown individually and in the pre...

  17. Primary and Secondary Organic Marine Aerosol and Oceanic Biological Activity: Recent Results and New Perspectives for Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rinaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important natural aerosol systems at the global level is marine aerosol that comprises both organic and inorganic components of primary and secondary origin. The present paper reviews some new results on primary and secondary organic marine aerosol, achieved during the EU project MAP (Marine Aerosol Production, comparing them with those reported in the recent literature. Marine aerosol samples collected at the coastal site of Mace Head, Ireland, show a chemical composition trend that is influenced by the oceanic biological activity cycle, in agreement with other observations. Laboratory experiments show that sea-spray aerosol from biologically active sea water can be highly enriched in organics, and the authors highlight the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of such primary organics. With regard to the secondary fraction of organic aerosol, the average chemical composition and molecular tracer (methanesulfonic-acid, amines distribution could be successfully characterized by adopting a multitechnique analytical approach.

  18. Membrane Fouling Potential of Secondary Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) from Conventional Activated Sludge Process

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-01-01

    Secondary effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a conventional activated sludge process was filtered through constant-pressure dead-end filtration tests with a sequential ultrafiltration (UF, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 10k Dalton) and nanofiltration (NF, MWCO of 200 Dalton) array to investigate its membrane fouling potential. Advanced analytical methods including liquid chromatography with online carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescent excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) were employed for EfOM characterization. EfOM consisted of humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals, biopolymers (mainly proteins) and hydrophobic organics according to the sequence of their organic carbon fractions. The UF rejected only biopolymers and the NF rejected most humics and building blocks and a significant part of LMW neutrals. Simultaneous occurrence of cake layer and standard blocking during the filtration process of both UF and NF was identified according to constant-pressure filtration equations, which was possibly caused by the heterogeneous nature of EfOM with a wide MW distribution (several ten to several million Dalton). Thus the corresponding two fouling indices (kc for cake layer and ks for standard blocking) from UF and NF could characterize the fouling potential of macromolecular biopolymers and low to intermediate MW organics (including humics, building blocks, LMW neutrals), respectively. Compared with macromolecular biopolymers, low to intermediate MW organics exhibited a much higher fouling potential due to their lower molecular weight and higher concentration.

  19. Mental Load and Its Compensation by Physical Activity in Adolescents at Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svozil, Zbyněk; Frömel, Karel; Chmelík, František; Jakubec, Lukáš; Groffik, Dorota; Šafář, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Sedentary behaviour and increasing mental load in adolescents is one of the major health problems of the contemporary youth. The aim of the study is to analyze the associations between mental load and physical activity (PA) in adolescents in school-day segments. 381 adolescents (120 boys, 261 girls) took part in the research which was conducted in 19 secondary schools in the Czech Republic. Participants throughout the whole day (1-3 days) wore an ActiTrainer accelerometer that monitors PA and heart rate (HR). The reports covered 727 school days. The participants were divided into two groups with lower and higher mental load. Boys and girls with higher mental load in lessons do not compensate this load in neither volume nor intensity of PA during recess in greater amount than those who had lower mental load. In the individual school-day segments (apart from the time before school) no significant differences between the groups were found. When creating a habit of immediate compensation for mental load in lessons by PA, it is necessary to pay attention to boys and girls with higher mental load in lessons. The adoption of the habit should be supported by adequate physical literacy of both students and teachers and by changes in the school programme. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  20. Vascular graft thrombosis secondary to activated protein C resistance: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejkic, Sinisa; Savic, Nebojsa; Paripovic, Miroslav; Sladojevic, Milos; Doric, Predrag; Ilic, Nikola

    2014-02-01

    Hypercoagulability is a well-documented and prominent risk factor for venous thromboembolism. The role of thrombophilia in arterial thrombotic events is less well defined. A 52-year-old male patient with multiple atherogenic risk factors was admitted for non-healing pedal ulcer and absent distal pulses. Based on the clinical presentation, Doppler ultrasound and angiography findings, the patient underwent elective in situ bypass arterial reconstruction. The saphenous vein graft was of satisfactory quality and the procedure went routinely. Acute graft thrombosis on postoperative day 0 was recognized immediately and prompted an emergent surgical revision. No technical errors or anatomical/mechanical causes for failed reconstruction were found and the graft was successfully thrombectomized using a Fogarty balloon-catheter. Graft rethrombosis, however, ensued after several hours. Considering the absence of threatening limb ischemia and the idiopathic recurrent thrombosis, raising suspicion of prothrombotic state, conservative treatment was pursued. Postoperative thrombophilia testing proved positive for activated protein C resistance, mandating introduction of chronic oral anticoagulation. Six months later, the operated extremity is viable. Inexplicable vascular graft thrombosis, particularly if early and recurrent, should raise suspicion of underlying thrombophilia. If confirmed by laboratory testing, long-term secondary antithrombotic prophylaxis may be required.

  1. Design of a Tubular Permanent Magnet Actuator for Active Lateral Secondary Suspension of a Railway Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the finite element (FE-based design of a slotted tubular permanent magnet actuator (TPMA used in railway vehicle active lateral secondary suspension that improves the actuator’s thrust and lowers its cogging force under thermal and geometric constraints. To consider the electromagnetic and thermal fields and the complex interactions among the design variables, design was carried out in an electromagnet and thermal field environment using accurate and time-effective FE analysis. A six-slot prototype model was fabricated to estimate critical thermal parameters, which are difficult to compute without experiments. Three-dimensional FE analysis using the determined thermal parameters was adopted to calculate the precise thermal distribution of the TPMA and verify the forced air-cooling effect. A prototype TPMA with a quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving magnet was manufactured through the FE-based design process; the dynamic, electromagnetic, and thermal characteristics of the prototype TPMA were validated experimentally.

  2. Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis in a Child with Recurrent Macrophage Activation Syndrome Secondary to Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Barut, Kenan; Sahin, Sezgin; Adrovic, Amra; Sen, Velat; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome, a severe complication of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other inflammatory diseases, represents one of the most important rheumatological emergencies. Delayed diagnosis could lead to life-threatening complications. Pulmonary hemosiderosis has been classically characterized by a triad of anemia, hemoptysis, and lung infiltrates on chest radiogram. Although the majority of patients of pulmonary hemosiderosis are considered idiopathic, secondary hemosi...

  3. Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Knowledge, Perceptions and Experiences of Promoting Healthy, Active Lifestyles in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher education (PETE) offers a context for students to learn about the promotion of active lifestyles in secondary schools through their interactions and experiences during the teacher education process. However, previous studies have found low levels of health-related fitness knowledge amongst PETE students,…

  4. Status of Biology Laboratory and Practical Activities in Some Selected Secondary and Preparatory Schools of Borena Zone, South Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daba, Tolessa Muleta; Anbassa, Baressa; Oda, Bula Kere; Degefa, Itefa

    2016-01-01

    Science laboratory is a very important resource input for teaching science. Learning science is enhanced and the understanding level is improved when students are engaged in science laboratory for practical experiments. The current study aimed to assess the status of Biology laboratory and practical activities in some selected secondary and…

  5. An Examination of the Extent to Which School Outdoor Activities Could Enhance Senior Secondary Two Students' Achievement in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Amadu, Samuel O.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which school outdoor activities could enhance senior secondary (SS) two students' achievement in ecology. Non randomized pre test post test control group Quasi-experimental design was adopted. A sample of 160 SS II students from 4 co-educational schools in Jalingo metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria was used. A 40…

  6. Measuring teacher regulating activities concerning student learning in secondary education classrooms : Reliability and validity of student perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, J. A.; de Jong, F. P. C. M.; Wubbels, Th.; Minnaert, A. E. M. G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use and validation of the Pedagogical Practices Inventory, which uses student perceptions arranged into five subscales to measure teacher activities concerning the regulation of student learning in secondary education. To determine the reliability and validity of the

  7. Insights into the mechanisms of Promysalin, a secondary metabolite with genus-specific antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promysalin, a secondary metabolite produced by Pseudomonas putida RW10S1, has antibacterial activity against a wide variety of Pseudomonas sp., including both human and plant pathogens. Promysalin induces swarming and biofilm formation in the producing species, and inhibits growth of susceptible sp...

  8. Physical Activity Level and Associated Factors Among Higher Secondary School Students in Banke, Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Susan; Subedi, Narayan; Mehata, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    This study was carried out to assess physical activity level and identify associated factors among higher secondary school students in Banke district, Nepal. A school-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 405 students studying in grades 11 and 12 in 7 higher secondary schools selected randomly. A self-administered questionnaire based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity level. Only 5% of students were found to be inactive, and domestic and transport-related activities were major contributors to total physical activity score. No significant difference existed for total physical activity and domain-specific and activity-specific scores across different age groups when males and females were tested separately. Being male (P = .046), lower economic status (P = .026), living at a distance of less than 30 minutes (P = .007), walking/cycling to school (P school (P physical activity scores on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Routine activities such as transport and household chores contributed greatly to total physical activity among students. This study highlights the need for physical activity promotion interventions at school addressing the associated factors and a need for greater focus on leisure-time physical activities.

  9. Aortic eNOS expression and phosphorylation in Apo-E knockout mice: differing effects of rapamycin and simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoum, Joseph J; Zhang, Shu; Woodside, Kenneth J; Song, Wei; Guo, Qian; Belalcazar, Ligia M; Hunter, Glenn C

    2004-08-01

    The inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) by hypercholesterolemia may be mediated, in part, by interactions with caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Because of the facilitatory effects of statins on endothelial function and the adverse effects of rapamycin (RAPA) on plasma lipids, we compared the effects of simvastatin (SMV) and RAPA on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and Cav-1 protein expression and phosphorylation in the aortas of apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) knockout (-/-) mice. Apo-E -/- mice (n = 38) fed a high-cholesterol diet were given SMV (100 mg/kg/day po), RAPA (3 mg/kg/day ip), or no treatment for 10 weeks. Blood was drawn for serum lipid analysis, and protein was extracted for Western immunoblotting. Selected aortic specimens from 2 animals in each group were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. The data are expressed as the mean +/- SEM and compared by the Student t test and ANOVA. Significance was established as P < .05. Lipid levels at 10 weeks were similar in the 3 groups except for higher triglyceride levels in RAPA-treated animals. eNOS expression was highest in RAPA-treated mice, but the p-eNOS to eNOS protein expression ratio was significantly greater in the SMV treatment group compared to both RAPA and controls (P < .05). Both Cav-1 and p-Cav-1 expression was significantly lower in the SMV-treated animals (P < .05) compared to mice treated with RAPA. Although eNOS expression was greatest in the RAPA-treated mice, the expression of p-eNOS was similar in the RAPA- and SMV-treated animals. The increase in eNOS induced by RAPA and the inverse relationship between p-eNOS and Cav-1 protein expression observed with SMV treatment suggest different mechanisms for the regulation of aortic eNOS expression in Apo-E mice by these 2 agents. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Abid Ali; Bacha, Nafees; Ahmad, Bashir; Lutfullah, Ghosia; Farooq, Umar; Cox, Russell John

    2014-01-01

    .... This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites...

  11. Phytochemical characterization and biological activity of secondary metabolites from three Limonium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant tissues typically contain a diverse complement of secondary metabolites that provide protection against various biotic and abiotic hazards. Chemical similarities are commonly used to interpret phylogenetic relationships among plant taxa. The comparative phytochemical constituents of three Limo...

  12. Antinociceptive activity of extracts and secondary metabolites from wild growing and micropropagated plants of Renealmia alpinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Cortés, Natalie; Benjumea, Dora; Osorio, Edison; León, Francisco; Cutler, Stephen J

    2015-05-13

    Renealmia alpinia is native to the American continent and can be found from Mexico to Brazil, and in the Caribbean islands. It is known as "matandrea" in Colombia, and it has been commonly used in traditional medicine to treat painful diseases and ailments. Based on its traditional uses, it is of interest to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of this plant and its secondary metabolites. Methanol and aqueous extracts of wild and micropropagated R. alpinia (leaves) were obtained and chemically compared by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The antinociceptive activity of these extracts was examined using an in vivo assay (Siegmund test). Additionally, the dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia was fractionated and pure compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performed by NMR experiments and spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. Purified compounds were evaluated for their in vitro binding affinity for opioids and cannabinoids receptors. The dichloromethane extract of the plant's aerial part afforded sinostrobin (1), naringenin 7,4'-dimethyl ether (2), 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (3), 4-methoxy-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4), naringenin 7-methyl ether (5) and 3,5-heptanediol, 1,7-diphenyl (6), which were isolated using chromatographic methods. Their chemical structures were established by physical and spectroscopic techniques. The antinociceptive effects observed in mice by extracts of wild and micropropagated plants were similar. The compounds isolated from R. alpinia do not show affinity to opioid or cannabinoid receptors. Aqueous and methanol extracts of R. alpinia provide antinociceptive and analgesic effects in an in vivo model. These results contribute additional insight as to why this plant is traditionally used for pain management. Also, this is the first comprehensive report of a phytochemical study of R. alpinia. Copyright © 2015

  13. Synthesis and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of secondary and tertiary amines containing 2-chloro-6-methylquinoline moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Bawa, Sandhya; Kaushik, Darpan; Panda, Bibhu P

    2011-07-01

    A number of secondary and tertiary amines bearing 2-chloro-6-methylquinoline were synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of 3-(chloromethyl)-2-chloro-6-methylquinoline with substituted aromatic primary and secondary amines in presence of catalytic amount of triethylamine (TEA) and K(2)CO(3). All the compounds were characterized by combined use of IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, mass spectral data, and microanalyses. The newly synthesized quinolinyl amines were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger MTCC 281, Aspergillus flavus MTCC 277, Monascus purpureus MTCC 369, Penicillium citrinum NCIM 768 and for antibacterial activity strains viz. Escherichia coli NCTC 10418, Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 65710, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 10662 by agar diffusion technique. Results of the preliminary screening revealed that some of the compounds mainly those with electron withdrawing groups in the phenyl ring showed promising antifungal activity. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Partial deletion of eNOS gene causes hyperinsulinemic state, unbalance of cardiac insulin signaling pathways and coronary dysfunction independently of high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Vecoli

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in eNOS gene, possibly interacting with high fat diet (HFD, affect peripheral vascular function and glucose metabolism. The relative role of eNOS gene, HFD and metabolic derangement on coronary function has not been fully elucidated. We test whether eNOS gene deficiency per se or in association with HFD modulates coronary function through mechanisms involving molecular pathways related to insulin signaling. Wild type (WT, eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice were studied. WT and eNOS+/- mice were fed with either standard or HF diet for 16 weeks and compared with standard diet fed eNOS-/-. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed during the last week of diet. Coronary resistance (CR was measured at baseline and during infusions of acetylcholine (Ach or sodium-nitroprusside (SNP to evaluate endothelium-dependent or independent vasodilation, in the Langendorff isolated hearts. Cardiac expression of Akt and ERK genes as evaluation of two major insulin-regulated signaling pathways involved in the control of vascular tone were assessed by western blot. HFD-fed mice developed an overt diabetic state. Conversely, chow-fed genetically modified mice (in particular eNOS-/- showed a metabolic pattern characterized by normoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia with a limited degree of insulin resistance. CR was significantly higher in animals with eNOS gene deletions than in WT, independently of diet. Percent decrease in CR, during Ach infusion, was significantly lower in both eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice than in WT, independently of diet. SNP reduced CR in all groups except eNOS-/-. The cardiac ERK1-2/Akt ratio, increased in animals with eNOS gene deletions compared with WT, independently of diet. These results suggest that the eNOS genetic deficiency, associated or not with HFD, has a relevant effect on coronary vascular function, possibly mediated by increase in blood insulin levels and unbalance in insulin-dependent signaling in coronary vessels

  15. Efeitos da atorvastatina e do polimorfismo T-786C do gene eNOS sobre parâmetros do metabolismo lipídico plasmático Effects of atorvastatin and T-786C polymorphism of eNOS gene on plasma metabolic lipid parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Helena de Souza Zago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade do óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS pode ser modulada pelo colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, estatinas ou polimorfismos, como o T-786C de eNOS. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o polimorfismo T-786C está associado a alterações nos efeitos da atorvastatina no perfil lipídico, nas concentrações de metabólitos de óxido nítrico (NO e da proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as. MÉTODOS: Trinta voluntários do sexo masculino, assintomáticos, com idade entre 18-56 anos foram genotipados e classificados de acordo com a ausência (TT, n = 15 ou presença (CC, n = 15 do polimorfismo. Eles foram selecionados aleatoriamente para a utilização de placebo e atorvastatina (10 mg/dia por 14 dias. Após cada tratamento foram medidos lípides, lipoproteínas, frações HDL2 e HDL3, atividade da proteína de transferência de colesteril éster (CETP, metabólitos de NO e PCR-as. RESULTADOS: As comparações entre genótipos após a administração de placebo mostraram aumento da atividade da CETP polimorfismo-dependente (TT, 12 ± 7; CC, 22 ± 12, p BACKGROUND: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity may be modulated by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, statins or polymorphisms, such as the T-786C of eNOS. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating if the T-786C polymorphism is associated with changes of atorvastatin effects on the lipid profile, on the concentrations of metabolites of nitric oxide (NO and of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP. METHODS: Thirty male volunteers, asymptomatic, aged between 18 and 56 years were genotyped and classified according to absence (TT, n = 15 or presence (CC, n = 15 of the polymorphism. They were randomly selected for the use of placebo or atorvastatin (10 mg/day/14 days. After each treatment lipids, lipoproteins, HDL2 and HDL3 composition, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP activity, metabolites of NO

  16. Efeitos da atorvastatina e do polimorfismo T-786C do gene eNOS sobre parâmetros do metabolismo lipídico plasmático Effects of atorvastatin and T-786C polymorphism of eNOS gene on plasma metabolic lipid parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Helena de Souza Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade do óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS pode ser modulada pelo colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, estatinas ou polimorfismos, como o T-786C de eNOS. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o polimorfismo T-786C está associado a alterações nos efeitos da atorvastatina no perfil lipídico, nas concentrações de metabólitos de óxido nítrico (NO e da proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as. MÉTODOS: Trinta voluntários do sexo masculino, assintomáticos, com idade entre 18-56 anos foram genotipados e classificados de acordo com a ausência (TT, n = 15 ou presença (CC, n = 15 do polimorfismo. Eles foram selecionados aleatoriamente para a utilização de placebo e atorvastatina (10 mg/dia por 14 dias. Após cada tratamento foram medidos lípides, lipoproteínas, frações HDL2 e HDL3, atividade da proteína de transferência de colesteril éster (CETP, metabólitos de NO e PCR-as. RESULTADOS: As comparações entre genótipos após a administração de placebo mostraram aumento da atividade da CETP polimorfismo-dependente (TT, 12 ± 7; CC, 22 ± 12, p BACKGROUND: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity may be modulated by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, statins or polymorphisms, such as the T-786C of eNOS. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating if the T-786C polymorphism is associated with changes of atorvastatin effects on the lipid profile, on the concentrations of metabolites of nitric oxide (NO and of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP. METHODS: Thirty male volunteers, asymptomatic, aged between 18 and 56 years were genotyped and classified according to absence (TT, n = 15 or presence (CC, n = 15 of the polymorphism. They were randomly selected for the use of placebo or atorvastatin (10 mg/day/14 days. After each treatment lipids, lipoproteins, HDL2 and HDL3 composition, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP activity, metabolites of NO

  17. Activation of the calcium receptor by a calcimimetic compound halts the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J; Miller, S C; Wada, M; Nagano, N; Nemeth, E F; Fox, J

    2000-05-01

    The secondary hyperparathyroidism that develops in rats with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) can be totally prevented by activation of the parathyroid Ca(2+) receptor with a calcimimetic compound, when treatment is initiated before parathyroid cell hyperplasia and increased circulating parathyroid hormone levels develop. In clinical practice, however, secondary hyperparathyroidism is usually manifest by the time CRI is diagnosed. This study examined the effects of daily oral gavage or continuous subcutaneous infusion for 8 wk of the calcimimetic NPS R-568 on the progression of established mild or moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in rats with CRI induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. Both oral and infused NPS R-568 completely prevented further hyperplasia but did not reduce total parathyroid cell number below that present at the initiation of treatment. This prevention of cellular proliferation occurred despite increases in plasma phosphate and decreases in Ca(2+) and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, and supports the view that the Ca(2+) receptor is the dominant regulator of parathyroid cell hyperplasia in addition to parathyroid hormone secretion. The clinical implications of these findings suggest that controlling Ca(2+) receptor activity with calcimimetic compounds could be sufficient to manage secondary hyperparathyroidism in CRI.

  18. Recess physical activity and school-related social factors in Finnish primary and lower secondary schools: cross-sectional associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Henna L; Hirvensalo, Mirja H; Laine, Kaarlo; Laakso, Lauri; Hakonen, Harto; Kankaanpää, Anna; Lintunen, Taru; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2014-10-28

    Participation in physical activities provides students with opportunities for social interaction and social skills development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of students' recess physical activity with school-related social factors. Data were collected in 19 schools countrywide in autumn 2010, and 1463 students from grades 4 and 5 (primary school) and from grades 7 and 8 (lower secondary school) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate whether self-reported physical activity at recess was associated with peer relationships at school, relatedness to school and school climate. Analyses were adjusted for self-reported overall physical activity and conducted for primary and lower secondary schools. Multi-group analysis was used to test sex differences among the associations. In primary school, physical activity at recess was positively associated with peer relationships at school (boys: b = 0.17, p = 0.007 and girls: b = 0.21, p school (boys: b = 0.18, p = 0.002 and girls: b = 0.24, p school climate (girls: b = 0.17, p = 0.001), after adjusting for overall physical activity. In lower secondary school, physical activity at recess was positively associated with peer relationships at school (boys: b = 0.09, p = 0.006 and girls: b = 0.12, p = 0.010) but not with other school-related social factors. No sex differences were observed in these associations. Our results suggest that students' participation in physical activities during school recess is positively associated with students' school-related social factors. In the future, it would be worthwhile to study how physical activity at recess should be organised in order to support the development of school-related social factors.

  19. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  20. What correlation does the electron structure of environmental hormones have with manifestation of their toxicity and biological activity. Application of the hardness conception to biology; Kankyo horumon no denshi kozo wa sono dokusei ya seibutsu kassei no hatsugen ni donoyona sokansei wo motsunode aroka. Hardness gainen no seibutsugaku eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, S.; Tanaka, A. [Showa College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Sameshima, K. [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This paper indicates that the relationship between toxicity and biological activity of environmental hormones such as dioxin and their chemical structures may be predicted by using parameters (physical quantity) derived from the chemical hardness conception. According to this conception, softness and hardness of molecules are important in addition to electron receptivity and donation properties of molecules. Soft compounds facilitate electrons to migrate. Chlorine displacement of dioxin skeleton to 2nd, 3rd, 7th and 8th orders softens the molecules and displacement to 1st, 4th, 6th and 9th orders hardens them. The toxicity and biological activity of the environmental hormones cannot be explained only with the fit model of key-keyhole with the counterpart they act on (receptor). The softer the chemical hardness, the greater the toxicity and biological activity. Development has been made on an absolute hardness versus absolute electrical negative activity diagram to learn electron structure of molecules. This diagram indicates that the toxicity of dioxin depends more strongly on the chemical hardness than the strength of the electrical negativity, and the softer the hardness, the stronger the toxicity. (NEDO)

  1. Altered vasoreactivity in neonatal rats with pulmonary hypertension associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Implication of both eNOS phosphorylation and calcium signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dumas de la Roque

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD consists of an arrest of pulmonary vascular and alveolar growth, with persistent hypoplasia of the pulmonary microvasculature and alveolar simplification. In 25 to 40% of the cases, BPD is complicated by pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH that significantly increases the risk of morbidity. In vivo studies suggest that increased pulmonary vascular tone could contribute to late PH in BPD. Nevertheless, an alteration in vasoreactivity as well as the mechanisms involved remain to be confirmed. The purpose of this study was thus to assess changes in pulmonary vascular reactivity in a murine model of BPD-PH. Newborn Wistar rats were exposed to either room air (normoxia or 90% O2 (hyperoxia for 14 days. Exposure to hyperoxia induced the well-known features of BPD-PH such as elevated right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreased pulmonary vascular density. Intrapulmonary arteries from hyperoxic pups showed decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine without any alteration of relaxation to the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside. This functional alteration was associated with a decrease of lung eNOS phosphorylation at the Ser1177 activating site. In pups exposed to hyperoxia, serotonin and phenylephrine induced exacerbated contractile responses of intrapulmonary arteries as well as intracellular calcium response in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC. Moreover, the amplitude of the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE, induced by store depletion using a SERCA inhibitor, was significantly greater in PASMC from hyperoxic pups. Altogether, hyperoxia-induced BPD-PH alters the pulmonary arterial reactivity, with effects on both endothelial and smooth muscle functions. Reduced activating eNOS phosphorylation and enhanced Ca2+ signaling likely account for alterations of pulmonary arterial reactivity.

  2. Altered vasoreactivity in neonatal rats with pulmonary hypertension associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Implication of both eNOS phosphorylation and calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas de la Roque, Eric; Smeralda, Gwladys; Quignard, Jean-François; Freund-Michel, Véronique; Courtois, Arnaud; Marthan, Roger; Muller, Bernard; Guibert, Christelle; Dubois, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) consists of an arrest of pulmonary vascular and alveolar growth, with persistent hypoplasia of the pulmonary microvasculature and alveolar simplification. In 25 to 40% of the cases, BPD is complicated by pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH) that significantly increases the risk of morbidity. In vivo studies suggest that increased pulmonary vascular tone could contribute to late PH in BPD. Nevertheless, an alteration in vasoreactivity as well as the mechanisms involved remain to be confirmed. The purpose of this study was thus to assess changes in pulmonary vascular reactivity in a murine model of BPD-PH. Newborn Wistar rats were exposed to either room air (normoxia) or 90% O2 (hyperoxia) for 14 days. Exposure to hyperoxia induced the well-known features of BPD-PH such as elevated right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreased pulmonary vascular density. Intrapulmonary arteries from hyperoxic pups showed decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine without any alteration of relaxation to the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside. This functional alteration was associated with a decrease of lung eNOS phosphorylation at the Ser1177 activating site. In pups exposed to hyperoxia, serotonin and phenylephrine induced exacerbated contractile responses of intrapulmonary arteries as well as intracellular calcium response in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Moreover, the amplitude of the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), induced by store depletion using a SERCA inhibitor, was significantly greater in PASMC from hyperoxic pups. Altogether, hyperoxia-induced BPD-PH alters the pulmonary arterial reactivity, with effects on both endothelial and smooth muscle functions. Reduced activating eNOS phosphorylation and enhanced Ca2+ signaling likely account for alterations of pulmonary arterial reactivity.

  3. Impacto del fenómeno ENOS en el régimen hidrometeorológico de Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    ógicas predominantes (situaciones sinópticas más frecuentes durante el invierno tanto en el llano como en el sector cordillerano. Se caracteriza hidrológica y climatológicamente al área de estudio. Se utilizan datos de caudales mensuales de los principales ríos de la región, así como datos climáticos, sinópticos. El estudio abarca los eventos cálidos ENOS registrados en este siglo, haciendo énfasis en los casos de 1982-1983, 1986-1987, 1991-1993 y las primeras manifestaciones del evento de 1997-1998. Los resultados principales muestran un incremento sustancial de los caudales en el período estival como resultado del exceso de precipitación invernal producido por el correspondiente evento cálido ENOS. Se destaca como caudal máximo maximorum de la serie el valor asociado al primer año del evento cálido de 1982/1983 considerado (hasta 1997 como el más intenso del siglo. Las mayores precipitaciones en la cordillera obedecen a una mayor frecuencia de pasajes de centros de baja presión y vaguadas de onda larga en latitudes más bajas que lo normal. Esto determina una anomalía negativa en el campo de presión tanto en superficie como en capas medias de la atmósfera. HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL EFFECTS CAUSED BY THE ENSO IN THE PROVINCE OF MENDOZA ARGENTINA. The main purpose of this work is to analyze the hydroclimatological effects that El Niño event causes in the Argentinean Province of Mendoza. Secondary objectives of this study are to consider prevailing meteorological conditions (most frequent synoptic conditions during winter both in the plains and in the mountain range area. The study area has been hydrologically and meteorologically characterized by using monthly stream flow from the most important rivers in the region as well as using synoptic climalogical data. The study comprises the ENSO warm events registered during this century, emphasizing the 1982-1983, 1986-1987, 1991-1993, and the first evidences of the 1997-1998 events. The main results show a substantial

  4. Pilot nutrition and physical activity intervention for preschool children attending daycare centres (JUNJI): primary and secondary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Gabriela; Vasquez, Fabian; Concha, Fernando; Rodriguez, Maria Del Pilar; Berlanga, Maria Del Rocio; Rojas, Juanita; Muñoz, Alvaro; Andrade, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    A pilot intervention was conducted to promote physical activity and nutrition in public preschool education (near half a million children in Chile), in order to prevent obesity. To assess the primary (body fat) and secondary outcomes (physical activity and energy intake) of a nutrition and physical activity pilot intervention for preschool children, attending day care centres. A pilot intervention in six day care centres selected at random (n = 530), in 4-5 years old preschool children, Santiago, Chile intending to: provide nutritional and physical activity education to educators and health promotion activities for the family, which in turn, will affect the primary (body fat), and secondary outcomes (physical activity pattern and energy food intake) were measured in a representative subsample of 120 intervened and 145 controls children. In relation to secondary outcomes monitoring, moderate-vigorous activity was duplicated in the intervention group (+5.4% and +4.7%, respectively), in both obese and eutrophic children. Energy intake decreased in 11.7% in obese and 7.5% in eutrophic children. Dietary fat intake was reduced (-11 g in obese and -8.4 g in eutrophic children). Intervened obese children reduced body fat in 1.5%, meanwhile in control obese children, body fat increased 1.3% (p < 0.01). The pilot intervention demonstrated the feasibility to influence dietary risk factors and physical activity at the day care centres and families. Therefore, the implementation of the validated intervention program will be tested in different weather conditions, to prevent unhealthy habits in preschool children and their families. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongge Yuan

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC, a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3 with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  6. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  7. Effect of resistance training on microvascular density and eNOS content in skeletal muscle of sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Matthew; Shaw, Christopher S; Shepherd, Sam O; Fisher, James P; Ranasinghe, Aaron M; Barker, Thomas A; Tipton, Kevin D; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2014-11-01

    The effects of RT on muscle mass, strength, and insulin sensitivity are well established, but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether RT induces changes in endothelial enzymes of the muscle microvasculature, which would increase NO bioavailability and could contribute to improved insulin sensitivity. Eight previously sedentary males (age 20 ± 0.4 years, BMI 24.5 ± 0.9 kg/m(2) ) completed six weeks of RT 3x/week. Muscle biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis and microvascular density; and endothelial-specific eNOS content, eNOS Ser(1177) phosphorylation, and NOX2 content were assessed pre- and post-RT using quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy. Whole-body insulin sensitivity (measured as Matsuda Index), microvascular Kf (functional measure of the total available endothelial surface area), and arterial stiffness (AIx, central, and pPWV) were also measured. Measures of microvascular density, microvascular Kf , microvascular eNOS content, basal eNOS phosphorylation, and endothelial NOX2 content did not change from pre-RT to post-RT. RT increased insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05) and reduced resting blood pressure and AIx (p < 0.05), but did not change central or pPWV. RT did not change any measure of muscle microvascular structure or function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells with eNOS Over-Expression Enhance Cardiac Repair in Rats with Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leilei; Zhang, Yuan; Tao, Liangliang; Yang, Zhijian; Wang, Liansheng

    2017-02-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising therapeutic option for patients with acute myocardial infarction. We show here that the ectopic overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), an endothelial form of NOS, could enhance the ability of MSCs in treating ischemic heart damage after the occlusion of the coronary artery. Adenoviral delivery of human eNOS gene into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) conferred resistance to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in vitro, and elevated the bioavailability of nitric oxide when injected into the myocardium in vivo. In a rat model of acute myocardial infarction, the transplantation of eNOS-overexpressing BM-MSCs significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, corrected hemodynamic parameters and increased capillary density. We also found that the synergistic effects were consistently better than either treatment alone. These findings reveal a positive role of elevated eNOS expression in cardiac repair, and suggest the combination of eNOS and MSC transplant therapy as a potential approach for treating myocardial infarction.

  9. An Eulerian method for computation of multimaterial impact with ENO shock-capturing and sharp interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Udaykumar, H S; Belk, D M; Vanden, K J

    2003-01-01

    A technique is presented for the numerical simulation of high-speed multimaterial impact. Of particular interest is the interaction of solid impactors with targets. The computations are performed on a fixed Cartesian mesh by casting the equations governing material deformation in Eulerian conservation law form. The advantage of the Eulerian setting is the disconnection of the mesh from the boundary deformation allowing for large distortions of the interfaces. Eigenvalue analysis reveals that the system of equations is hyperbolic for the range of materials and impact velocities of interest. High-order accurate ENO shock-capturing schemes are used along with interface tracking techniques to evolve sharp immersed boundaries. The numerical technique is designed to tackle the following physical phenomena encountered during impact: (1) high velocities of impact leading to large deformations of the impactor as well as targets; (2) nonlinear wave-propagation and the development of shocks in the materials; (3) modelin...

  10. Physical Activity and School Performance: A Survey among Students Not Qualified for Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Ingegerd; Cederberg, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many students leave compulsory school without being qualified to apply for national upper secondary school programmes. Despite efforts, the number of unqualified students in Sweden has increased. Grades from compulsory school have direct implications for students' educational futures and the requirement to qualify for an upper…

  11. The Occupational Identity of In-Service Secondary Music Educators: Formative Interpersonal Interactions and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joshua A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the factors that inform the occupational identity development of in-service music educators and to compare the identities of in-service teachers with those of preservice music educators as examined in previous research, the purposes of this study were to examine the reported occupational identity of in-service secondary music…

  12. Exploring Secondary Students' Understanding of Chemical Kinetics through Inquiry-Based Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairam, Sanoe; Klahan, Nutsuda; Coll, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    This research is trying to evaluate the feedback of Thai secondary school students to inquiry-based teaching and learning methods, exemplified by the study of chemical kinetics. This work used the multiple-choice questions, scientifically practical diagram and questionnaire to assess students' understanding of chemical kinetics. The findings…

  13. Uncoupling of eNOS contributes to redox-sensitive leukocyte recruitment and microvascular leakage elicited by methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Qadri, Syed M; Hossain, Mokarram; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Lixin

    2013-12-15

    Elevated levels of the glycolysis metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) have been implicated in impaired leukocyte-endothelial interactions and vascular complications in diabetes, putative mechanisms of which remain elusive. Uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was shown to be involved in endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Whether MG contributes to these effects has not been elucidated. By using intravital microscopy in vivo, we demonstrate that MG-triggered reduction in leukocyte rolling velocity and increases in rolling flux, adhesion, emigration and microvascular permeability were significantly abated by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). In murine cremaster muscle, MG treatment reduced tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)/total biopterin ratio, increased arginase expression and stimulated ROS and superoxide production. The latter was significantly blunted by ROS scavengers Tempol (300μM) or MnTBAP (300μM), by BH4 supplementation (100μM) or by NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20μM). In these tissues and cultured murine and human primary endothelial cells, MG increased eNOS monomerization and decreased BH4/total biopterin ratio, effects that were significantly mitigated by supplementation of BH4 or its precursor sepiapterin but not by L-NAME or tetrahydroneopterin, indicative of MG-triggered eNOS uncoupling. MG treatment further decreased the expression of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I in murine primary endothelial cells. MG-induced leukocyte recruitment was significantly attenuated by supplementation of BH4 or sepiapterin or suppression of superoxide by L-NAME confirming the role of eNOS uncoupling in MG-elicited leukocyte recruitment. Together, our study uncovers eNOS uncoupling as a pivotal mechanism in MG-induced oxidative stress, microvascular hyperpermeability and leukocyte recruitment in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis in a Child with Recurrent Macrophage Activation Syndrome Secondary to Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage activation syndrome, a severe complication of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other inflammatory diseases, represents one of the most important rheumatological emergencies. Delayed diagnosis could lead to life-threatening complications. Pulmonary hemosiderosis has been classically characterized by a triad of anemia, hemoptysis, and lung infiltrates on chest radiogram. Although the majority of patients of pulmonary hemosiderosis are considered idiopathic, secondary hemosiderosis associated with known diseases could be seen. In this case report, we aimed to present gradually increased pulmonary manifestations due to pulmonary hemosiderosis with recurrent macrophage activation syndrome attacks in a child with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  15. Investigation of the potential anticancer and antifungal active secondary metabolites from marine natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Boonlarppradab, Chollaratt

    2007-01-01

    The oceans are a unique resource that has contributed greatly to the field of natural products chemistry. Secondary metabolites from natural sources still play an important role in drug discovery and development by providing pharmaceutical candidates with novel structures that are valuable for synthetic modification. Of the marine organisms described to date, the vast majority of marine natural products derive from invertebrates such as sponges, ascidians, bryozoans, and tunicates. Recently, ...

  16. Secondary Plant Products Causing Photosensitization in Grazing Herbivores: Their Structure, Activity and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems.

  17. Secondary Metabolites from Halostachys caspica and Their Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jianglin Zhao; Kui Wang; Ligang Zhou; Mingan Wang; Hao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Nine secondary metabolites have been isolated from the aerial parts of Halostachys caspica C. A. Mey. (Chenopodiaceae). By means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis, they were identified as betaine (1), diphenylamine (2), benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), β-sitosterol (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid (5), 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (6), 2-hydroxy benzoic acid (7), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid (8), and 3,4-dihydroxy benzeneacrylic acid (9). All compounds were isolated from t...

  18. Identification and Function Analysis of enolase Gene NlEno1 from Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera:Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Xia; Li, Kai-Long; Chen, Yang; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The enolase [EC 4.2.1.11] is an essential enzyme in the glycolytic pathway catalyzing the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGE) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding α-enolase was cloned from rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and is provisionally designated as NlEno1. The cDNA sequence of NlEno1 was 1,851 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,305 bp and encoding 434 amino acids. The deduced protein shares high identity of 80–87% with ENO1-like protein from Hemiptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera speices. The NlEno1 showed the highest mRNA expression level in hemolymph, followed by fat body, salivary gland, ovaries and egg, and showed trace mRNA levels in testis. The mRNA of NlEno1 showed up-regulated level in virulent N. lugens population Mudgo, IR56 and IR42 when compared with TN1 population. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of NlEno1 into the adults significantly down-regulated the NlEno1 mRNA level along with decreased eggs and offspring. Moreover, injection of NlEno1-dsRNA decreased mRNA level of Vitellogenin (Vg) gene. These results showed that the NlEno1, as a key glycolytic enzyme, may play roles in regulation of fecundity and adaptation of N. lugens to resistant rice varieties. PMID:26056319

  19. Antifungal activity of secondary plant metabolites from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.): Glycoalkaloids and phenolic acids show synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Maldonado, A F; Schieber, A; Gänzle, M G

    2016-04-01

    To study the antifungal effects of the potato secondary metabolites α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and caffeic acid, alone or combined. Resistance to glycoalkaloids varied among the fungal species tested, as derived from minimum inhibitory concentrations assays. Synergistic antifungal activity between glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds was found. Changes in the fluidity of fungal membranes caused by potato secondary plant metabolites were determined by calculation of the generalized polarization values. The results partially explained the synergistic effect between caffeic acid and α-chaconine and supported findings on membrane disruption mechanisms from previous studies on artificial membranes. LC/MS analysis was used to determine variability and relative amounts of sterols in the different fungal species. Results suggested that the sterol pattern of fungi is related to their resistance to potato glycoalkaloids and to their taxonomy. Fungal resistance to α-chaconine and possibly other glycoalkaloids is species dependent. α-Chaconine and caffeic acid show synergistic antifungal activity. The taxonomic classification and the sterol pattern play a role in fungal resistance to glycoalkaloids. Results improve the understanding of the antifungal mode of action of potato secondary metabolites, which is essential for their potential utilization as antifungal agents in nonfood systems. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. The evaluation of cultivable microbiota profile in patients with secondary endodontic infection before and after photo-activated disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Ghorbanzadeh, Roghayeh; Parker, Steven; Chiniforush, Nasim; Bahador, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Secondary/persistent endodontic infection can be the outcome of failure of endodontic treatment. Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) can be a useful adjunct to mechanical and antimicrobial agents in eliminating endopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the effect of PAD on diversity and count of microbiota related to secondary/persistent endodontic infections. Root canal samples were taken using sterile paper points from the root canals of 14 patients with secondary/persistent endodontic infections after removing the root-canal filling materials. PAD was performed on teeth with toluidine blue O (TBO) in combination with diode laser. Then re-sampling was conducted from the canal root using sterile paper points and transferred to transport medium. The samples were plated and pure cultures of the target microorganisms were then isolated and identified by analytical profile index (API ® 20A) assays and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Before TBO-PAD, a total of 31 cultivable isolates could be retrieved; 25.8% of the isolated species were obligate anaerobic or microphilics including Veillonella parvula, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Propionibacterium acnes, and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and 74.2% of the isolated species were facultative anaerobic such as Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces naeslundii, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, Streptococcus sanguinis, S. mitis, and Candida albicans. According to this in vivo study, the diversity and count of microbiota in root canal-treated teeth were decreased after TBO-PAD, so that E. faecalis, V. parvula, and C. albicans were the microorganisms that recovered after PAD. TBO-PAD is an effective approach that exhibited anti-microbial potential activity against microbiota involved in secondary/persistent endodontic infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Depression of calcium pump activity in renal cortex of vitamin D-deficient rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Saitoh, Michiyo (Department of Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)); Takita, Yumiko; Nakano, Toshiaki (Medical Science Centre, Applied Research Laboratories, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, Teiichi (Second Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    To examine the hormonal regulation of the ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} pump in the kidneys, the ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake by the basolateral membrane vesicles in the renal cortex was measured using radioactive calcium ({sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}) in rats with vitamin D deficiency or rats undergoing thyroparathyroidectomy. The V{sub max} of the Ca{sup 2+} pump activity was increased not only by administering calcitriol, but also by normalizing the serum calcium level in vitamin D-deficient rats. PTH suppressed the Ca{sup 2+} pump activity in normocalcemic vitamin D-deficient rats. Thyroparathyroidectomy did not affect the Ca{sup 2+} pump activity in the kidneys of normal rats. It was concluded that the ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} pump activity was depressed by secondary hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-deficient rats. (author).

  2. Delayed afterdepolarization and spontaneous secondary spiking in a simple model of neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, V. V.; Nekorkin, V. I.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we suggest a new dynamical model of neuron excitability. It is based on the classical FitzHugh-Nagumo model in which we introduce the third variable for additional ionic current. By using the method of fast and slow motions we study the afterdepolarization, spontaneous secondary spiking and tonic spiking effects. We build regions in the parameter space that correspond to different dynamical regimes. The obtained results may be important for different problems of neuroscience, e.g. for the problem of working memory.

  3. Effect of a ban on extracurricular sports activities by secondary school teachers on physical activity levels of adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Gauvin, Lise; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2006-10-01

    To study the effect of a teachers' ban on supervising sports-related extracurricular physical activities (ECAs), levels of physical activity among 979 grade 7 students (mean age=12.7 [0.5] years at baseline) were compared during and after the ban in seven schools that fully implemented the ban, and three schools that did not implement the ban fully. On average, schools offered 18.0 (SD=5.1) ECAs during a no-ban school year. Students attending full implementation schools were significantly more likely than students in nonimplementation schools to be active after the ban ended (odds ratio for being active=1.89 [95% confidence interval: 1.39, 2.58]). They also increased the number of physical activities in which they participated (coefficient=4.04; SE=1.01). Ending a teachers' ban on sports-related ECAs was associated with increased involvement in physical activity among secondary school students.

  4. Leukemia kidney infiltration can cause secondary polycythemia by activating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Tomoo; Awazu, Midori; Fujimura, Eriko; Yamazaki, Fumito; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    Secondary polycythemia with increased production of erythropoietin (EPO) is known to occur in kidney diseases such as hydronephrosis and cystic disease, but the mechanism remains unclear. We report an 18-year-old female with isolated renal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia accompanied by polycythemia. At the relapse, she presented with bilateral nephromegaly, mild renal dysfunction, and erythrocytosis with increased serum EPO levels up to 52.1 mIU/mL (9.1-32.8). Renal biopsy demonstrated diffuse lymphoblastic infiltration. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which is undetectable in normal kidney, was observed in the renal tubule epithelium compressed by lymphoblastic cells. These findings suggest that erythrocytosis was caused by renal ischemia due to leukemic infiltration. Polycythemia probably became apparent because of the lack of leukemic involvement of the bone marrow. With chemotherapy, the serum EPO level rapidly decreased to normal range accompanied by the normalization of kidney size and function. Renal leukemic infiltration may enhance EPO production, although not recognized in the majority of cases because of bone marrow involvement. Our case has clarified the mechanism of previously reported polycythemia associated with renal diseases as renal ischemia. Furthermore, we have added renal ischemia resulting from tumor infiltration to the list of causes of secondary polycythemia.

  5. Relationship between multimorbidity and physical activity: Secondary analysis from the Quebec health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhi Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abundant literature supports the beneficial effects of physical activity for improving health of people with chronic diseases. The relationship between multimorbidity and physical activity levels, however, has been little evaluated. The purpose of the current exploratory study was to examine the relationship between a multimorbidity and physical activity levels, and b long-term limitations on activity, self-rated general health, psychological distress, and physical activity levels for each sex in adults, after age, education, income, and employment factors were controlled for. Methods Data from the Quebec Health Survey 1998 were used. The sample included 16,782 adults 18–69 yr of age. Independent variables were multimorbidity, long-term limitations on activity, self-rated general health, and psychological distress. The dependent variable was physical activity levels. Links between the independent and dependent variables were assessed separately for men and women with multinomial regressions while accounting for the survey sampling design and household clustering. Results About 46% of the participants were men. Multimorbidity was not associated with physical activity levels for either men or women. Men and women with long-term limitations on activity and with poor-to-average self-rated general health were less likely to be physically active. No relationship between psychological distress and physical activity was found for men. Women with high levels of psychological distress were less likely to be physically active. Conclusion Multimorbidity was not associated with physical activity levels in either sex, when age, education, income, and employment factors were controlled for. Long-term limitations on activity and poor-to-average self-rated general health seem related to a reduction in physical activity levels for both sexes, whereas psychological distress was associated with a reduction in physical activity levels only

  6. Active anti-acetylcholinesterase component of secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungi of Huperzia serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhejian Wang

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: We isolated 4 compounds from the endophytic fungus L10Q37, among them S1 and S3 are new compounds. 6 compounds were isolated from LQ2F02, all 6 compounds are new compounds. After tested anti acetylcholinesterase activity, S5 has the best activity. Other compounds' anti acetylcholinesterase activity was not better compared with huperzine A.

  7. Waste minimization activities in Toyota Motor Corporation; Haikibutsu teigen eno torikumi jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Kurai, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Toyota`s waste reduction efforts based on a drive for dealing with the source of waste generation are introduced. For the propulsion of the policy for dealing directly with the origin of waste, it is necessary to convert the existing manufacturing processes that give high priority to product quality and low production cost into environmental impact reduction oriented processes. In particular, conversion of materials into those that are easier to recycle, technology for reducing defective products, technology for the completion of recycling within the process involved, and the simplification of all the processes are mentioned. For the cleaning job in the machining process, a detergent enhanced in oil/water separating capability is developed, and this prolongs doubly the detergent replacement period and decreases the waste liquid to a 1/4 or less of what the conventional method produces. For the handling of foundry sand that is yielded in great quantities, a flow classification system is developed to replace the conventional gravitational classifier, and the reusable coarse-grain sand in the collected dust which occupies approximately 70% of the whole waste is now recovered for reuse. In the vehicle body coating process, a newly-developed robot arm type coating system is developed, which halves the coating waste. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Trial to active seismic while drilling; Jinko shingen wo mochiita SWD eno kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T.; Kozawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a more stable SWD system with larger energy by adding an artificial seismic source near the bit. SWD is a technique by which the seismic wave generated while drilling of rocks by bit can be observed on the ground surface and the records equivalent to the reverse VSP can be obtained. For this system, a shell with a vibrator was fixed immediately on the bit as a sub-generator, and total energy of usual impact by the bit and vibration by the vibrator was used as a seismic source for SWD. For the seismic wave generation mechanism of this vibrator, the shell was resonated by the magnetostrictive element, and vibration was given to the bit and drilling pipe. When this seismic source is used, only single frequency is obtained for each vibration due to the utilization of resonance of shell. Therefore, the generation patterns should be made, by which wide band energy can be obtained after the interaction. Since the survey was conducted using this bottom hole seismic source at the drilling depth more than 3,000 m, it was necessary to enhance the vibration energy. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Physical education in secondary schools located in low-income communities: Physical activity levels, lesson context and teacher interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Elizabeth; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Nathan, Nicole; Gillham, Karen; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-02-01

    Physical education (PE) plays an important role in contributing to students' physical activity (PA); however, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) within PE is lower than recommended. Little is known about the PA levels of students from disadvantaged schools within PE. This study aimed to describe: (i) the PA levels of students from disadvantaged secondary schools during PE lessons, (ii) the lesson context and teacher interactions occurring during PE, and (iii) the associations between teacher, school or PE lesson characteristics with student physical activity levels in PE. Cross-sectional study of 100 Grade 7 PE lessons across 10 secondary schools. System for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) was used to assess student PA, lesson context, and teacher interaction. Teacher and school characteristics were collected via survey. Mean proportion of lesson time was used to describe PA, lesson context and teacher interaction. Associations between each outcome variable and each characteristic were examined using 2-sample t-tests, ANOVAs and linear regression. Thirty-nine percent of PE lesson was spent in MVPA, and less than 10% spent in VA. Lessons in schools in urban areas included significantly more MVPA than rural areas (P=0.04). Male teachers and more experienced teachers conducted lessons with significantly more VA than female and less experienced teachers (P=0.04 and 0.02). MVPA was also higher in lessons conducted by more experienced teachers. PA during PE lessons within disadvantaged secondary schools is below international recommendations. Male teachers, more experienced teachers and schools in urban regions teach more active lessons. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. AIDS knowledge and sexual activity among Flemish secondary school students: a multilevel analysis of the effects of type of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Berten, Hans; Van Tuyckom, Charlotte

    2010-01-21

    The behavior of adolescents puts them at an increased risk for HIV and other STIs, and their knowledge about HIV/AIDS is often inadequate. An understanding of how AIDS knowledge and sexual activity co-vary among Flemish secondary school students and of how education type, specifically, affects these students is limited. This study addresses the question of whether the effects of education type on HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual activity are independent of the socio-demographic characteristics of the students. Data from the Flemish Educational Assessment survey, which collected data from a large representative sample of third- and fifth-grade high school students (N = 11,872), were used. Data were analyzed using multilevel logistic and Poisson regression techniques. There is an indication that type of education affects both an adolescent's sexual activity and his/her AIDS knowledge; these effects prove robust for differences in socio-economic backgrounds. Students in lower status education types are more likely to be sexually active and to have poorer AIDS knowledge. The relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual activity is, however, more complex. Although students in education types with poorer AIDS knowledge are more sexually active, within each of these groups the sexually active have better AIDS knowledge than the non-sexually active. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge. These findings are consistent with the literature on the role of the educational system in the reproduction of social inequalities. Students from lower status education types are at increased sexual risk compared to those from higher status types. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge.

  11. FEATURES OF THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF POLYMORPHIC VARIANTS OF ENOS AND AGTR2 GENES IN PATIENTS WITH CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Khokhlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major cause of mortality. Morphological substrate of CHD in most cases is atherosclerosis, which is based on structural genes polymorphism eNOS and AGTR2. The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of eNOS and AGTR2 genes in patients with coronary artery disease and the association of these genes with coronary heart disease. The study involved 187 patients aged 36 to 86 years (62,2±11,2 with different forms of CHD: stable and unstable angina, myocardial infarction and 45 people without CHD. Determination of gene polymorphisms was performed by real-time PCR analyzer of nucleic acids IQ 5 Bio-Rad. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0. The study revealed a significant difference between the incidence of homozygous AA allelic variant gene AGTR2 group of patients with myocardial infarction and the comparison group; polymorphic variant AA AGTR2 gene is associated with earlier onset of coronary artery disease; It found that carriers of the polymorphic variant gene GA AGTR2 beginning statistically CHD occurred significantly later than in carriers of alleles GG and AA; age CHD debut TT allele carriers of the eNOS gene is associated with an earlier onset of the disease and statistically significantly different from the age of first CHD in carriers of alleles of polymorphic variants of GG and GT; revealed a positive correlation between the polymorphic allele AGTR2 gene with the presence of arterial hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease; It determined that the T allele carriers of the polymorphic gene eNOS is associated more early onset of hypertension, found the association of the polymorphic allele gene AGTR2 the need to use higher doses of ACE inhibitor — perindopril.

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of royal jelly on aorta CD3, CD68 and eNOS expression in hypercholesterolaemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Attia El-Morsy Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    RJ administration (300 mg/kg/day with CH, produced a counteractive effect, represented in recompense of biochemical alteration, CD4 and CD8 expression. RJ intake also amended the histological picture. The immunohistochemical picture revealed a decrease in CD3, CD86 and eNOS in the aortic tissue. These findings attributed to the significant immunomodulatory effect of RJ remedy suppress deleterious effects of hypercholesterolaemia.

  13. Clustering of 3D-Structure Similarity Based Network of Secondary Metabolites Reveals Their Relationships with Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtana, Yuki; Abdullah, Azian Azamimi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Huang, Ming; Ono, Naoaki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Horai, Hisayuki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Morita Hirai, Aki; Lange, Klaus W; Kibinge, Nelson K; Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    Developing database systems connecting diverse species based on omics is the most important theme in big data biology. To attain this purpose, we have developed KNApSAcK Family Databases, which are utilized in a number of researches in metabolomics. In the present study, we have developed a network-based approach to analyze relationships between 3D structure and biological activity of metabolites consisting of four steps as follows: construction of a network of metabolites based on structural similarity (Step 1), classification of metabolites into structure groups (Step 2), assessment of statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 3), and 2-dimensional clustering of the constructed data matrix based on statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 4). Applying this method to a data set consisting of 2072 secondary metabolites and 140 biological activities reported in KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB, we obtained 983 statistically significant structure group-biological activity pairs. As a whole, we systematically analyzed the relationship between 3D-chemical structures of metabolites and biological activities. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Efectos ecológicos del fenómeno ENOS en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno ENOS, tiene un sustancial efecto sobre las variaciones del clima a nivel mundial; por lo tanto, no sorprende que sus efectos tengan un impacto ecológico y socioeconómico fuerte, alterando la seguridad alimentaria de los países a nivel mundial. Ante este panorama, es comprensible que haya despertado el mayor interés mundial, no sólo en los especialistas en meteorología y oceanografía sino también entre biólogos, ecólogos, físicos, matemáticos, agrónomos, hidrólogos, economistas, sociólogos y planificadores, entre otros. En el presente documento, se muestra algunos de los principales efectos ecológicos en Colombia durante las fases extremas cálida (El Niño y fría (La Niña, indicando que es una necesidad urgente, orientar la investigación en sus causas, consecuencias e impactos.

  15. Targeted ENO schemes with tailored resolution property for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we extend the range of targeted ENO (TENO) schemes (Fu et al. (2016) [18]) by proposing an eighth-order TENO8 scheme. A general formulation to construct the high-order undivided difference τK within the weighting strategy is proposed. With the underlying scale-separation strategy, sixth-order accuracy for τK in the smooth solution regions is designed for good performance and robustness. Furthermore, a unified framework to optimize independently the dispersion and dissipation properties of high-order finite-difference schemes is proposed. The new framework enables tailoring of dispersion and dissipation as function of wavenumber. The optimal linear scheme has minimum dispersion error and a dissipation error that satisfies a dispersion-dissipation relation. Employing the optimal linear scheme, a sixth-order TENO8-opt scheme is constructed. A set of benchmark cases involving strong discontinuities and broadband fluctuations is computed to demonstrate the high-resolution properties of the new schemes.

  16. Listening to Learn: The Status of Listening Activities in Secondary Instrumental Ensemble Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of listening activities as part of middle and high school instrumental music instruction. Research questions addressed teachers' beliefs in the importance of listening, outcomes associated with listening, type and frequency of listening activities, presence of guided listening, and challenges…

  17. Physical Activity Levels during Dutch Primary and Secondary School Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs Menno Slingerland; dr. Lars B. Borghouts

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Youth activity guideline compliance is generally low across most western countries and Dutch youth are no exception to this. Thirty-two percent of 4-11 year old boys and girls, and 15% of 12-17 year olds are currently meeting the physical activity (PA) guideline recommendations of one

  18. Student Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Post-Secondary Education Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular activities have been an important part of adolescents' lives for generations (Kremer-Sadlik, Izquierdo, & Fatigante, 2010). Extracurricular activities take place outside of the classroom and result in several benefits to students (National Federation of State High School Associations [NFHS], 2010). With the recent recession in…

  19. The Activation of Non-evaporable Getters Monitored by AES, XPS, SSIMS and Secondary Electron Yield Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the potential of the three classical surface analysis techniques Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS) for the characterisation of non-evaporable getter (NEG) materials is assessed and artefacts are described. The various NEG samples have been analysed in the context of the development of NEG thin film coatings for use in accelerator ultra high vacuum (UHV) systems. The secondary electron yield (SEY), which is a functional surface property of great importance for the application of NEG to accelerators, has been measured. The maximum SEY of an air exposed TiZr and TiZrV coating can be reduced from above 2.0 to below 1.1 during a 2 h heat treatment at 250 and 200 °C, respectively. Saturating an activated TiZrV surface in UHV increases the maximum SEY by about 0.1. Thus, in UHV the SEY of an activated NEG coating does not exceed the threshold value of 1.35, above which multipacting is predicted to occur in th...

  20. Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Myung-Geun, E-mail: mghan@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Garlow, Joseph A. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Marshall, Matthew S.J.; Tiano, Amanda L. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Cheong, Sang-Wook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) are demonstrated in STEM mode combined with in situ electrical biasing in a TEM. • Electrostatic potential maps in ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC data. • Simultaneous EBIC and active SE-VC performed with atomic resolution STEM are demonstrated. - Abstract: The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.

  1. Activity theory as a tool to address the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalsvoort, Joke

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF ECONOMIC COMPETENCE OF HEADS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION FOR EFFECTIVE ACTIVITY OF GENERAL SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Dyvak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the actual problem of improvement of economic competence of professional work of directors of schools for more efficient control of activity of general schools is considered.

  3. Physical activity in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Overview updated

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Alberto J; Viana, Jo?o L; Cavalcante, Suiane L; Oliveira, N?rton L; Duarte, Jos? A; Mota, Jorge; Oliveira, Jos?; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Although the observed progress in the cardiovascular disease treatment, the incidence of new and recurrent coronary artery disease remains elevated and constitutes the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Three-quarters of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases could be prevented with adequate changes in lifestyle, including increased daily physical activity. New evidence confirms that there is an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular dis...

  4. Changes of Enzymes Activity and Production of Secondary Metabolites of Artemisia aucheri in Different Altitudes and Its Relation to Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zare-maivan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia plants are the most abundant plants species in Iran which contain strong antioxidant properties and as such, have medicinal and economic value. Despite wide distribution of Artemisisa species, ecophysiology of its adaptation to changes in altitude and soil property had not been investigated. In this study, the relationships between ecophysiological and adaptation capabilities of A. aucheri to altitude changes through measuring changes in the activity of its antioxidant enzymes and secondary metabolites in situ was investigated based on a completely randomized experiment. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and the amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, malondialdehyde and chlorophylls A and B were measured in A. aucheri plants growing in three different altitudes at and above the 36° latitude on the southern slopes of Eastern Alborz Mountain ranges in triplicate 10*10 m quadrates. Statistical analysis of data showed that soil type was loamy significantly becoming more sandy- loam with lowering in altitude and the soil contained greater amounts of oxides of silicone, aluminum, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus in upper altitude except calcium which was present in greater quantity in lower altitude. With increasing altitude, activity of superoxide dismutase and quantities of chlorophylls and total phenols in leaves increased. Some biochemical factors in A. aucheri showed significant positive correlation(P ≤ 0.05 between them. Adaptation of A. aucheri to changes in altitude occurred through changing its antioxidant enzymes activity and production of secondary metabolites in response to factors related to the altitude including soil type and texture, moisture level, temperature and most importantly radiation

  5. Role of endothelin receptor activation in secondary pulmonary hypertension in awake swine after myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houweling, Birgit; Merkus, Daphne; Sorop, Oana; Boomsma, Frans; Duncker, Dirk J

    2006-01-01

    We previously observed that pulmonary hypertension secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) in swine is characterized by elevated plasma endothelin (ET) levels and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that an increased ET-mediated vasoconstrictor influence contributes to secondary pulmonary hypertension after MI and investigated the involvement of ETA and ETB receptor subtypes. Chronically instrumented swine with (MI swine; n = 25) or without (normal swine; n = 19) MI were studied at rest and during treadmill exercise (up to 4 km h−1), in the absence and presence of the ETA antagonist EMD 122946 or the mixed ETA/ETB antagonist tezosentan. In normal swine, exercise caused a small decrease in PVR. ETA blockade had no effect on PVR at rest or during exercise. Conversely, ETA/ETB blockade decreased PVR but only during exercise (at 4 km h−1, from 3.0 ± 0.1 to 2.3 ± 0.1 mmHg min l−1; P ≤ 0.05). MI increased pulmonary arterial pressure and PVR both at rest and during exercise (both P ≤ 0.05). The increased pulmonary arterial pressure correlated with the increased plasma ET levels in resting MI swine (r = 0.71; P ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 infusion was enhanced after MI (P ≤ 0.05). ETA/ETB blockade decreased PVR in MI swine from 3.6 ± 0.3 to 3.1 ± 0.5 mmHg min l−1 at rest and from 3.4 ± 0.3 to 2.4 ± 0.2 mmHg min l−1 during exercise at 4 km h−1 (both P ≤ 0.05). This increased response to mixed ETA/ETB blockade in MI compared to normal swine appeared to be the result of an increased ETA-mediated vasoconstriction, as ETA blockade decreased PVR in MI swine from 3.4 ± 0.4 to 2.8 ± 0.2 mmHg min l−1 at rest and from 3.1 ± 0.3 to 2.6 ± 0.2 mmHg min l−1 at 4 km h−1 (both P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, increased plasma ET levels together with increased pulmonary resistance vessel responsiveness to ET result in an exaggerated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence of ET in

  6. Four-electron transfer tandem tetracyanoquinodimethane for cathode-active material in lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Naoya; Omoda, Ryo; Mizumo, Tomonobu; Ito, Seitaro; Aihara, Yuichi; Itoh, Takahito

    2018-02-01

    Quinoid compounds are important candidates of organic active materials for lithium-ion batteries. However, its high solubility to organic electrolyte solutions and low redox potential are known as their major drawbacks. To circumvent these issues, we have designed and synthesized a tandem-tetracyanoquinonedimethane type cathode-active material, 11,11,12,12,13,13,14,14-octacyano-1,4,5,8-anthradiquinotetramethane (OCNAQ), that has four redox sites per molecule, high redox potential and suppressed solubility to electrolyte solution. Synthesized OCNAQ has been found to have two-step redox reactions by cyclic voltammetry, and each step consists of two-electron reactions. During charge-discharge tests using selected organic cathode-active materials with a lithium metal anode, the cell voltages obtained from OCNAQ are higher than those for 11,11-dicyanoanthraquinone methide (AQM) as expected, due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the cyano groups. Unfortunately, even with the use of the organic active material, the issue of dissolution to the electrolyte solution cannot be suppressed completely; however, appropriate choice of the electrolyte solutions, glyme-based electrolyte solutions in this study, give considerable improvement of the cycle retention (98% and 56% at 10 and 100 cycles at 0.5C, respectively). The specific capacity and energy density obtained in this study are 206 mAh g-1 and 554 mWh g-1 with respect to the cathode active material.

  7. Secondary metabolites from Vietnamese marine invertebrates with activity against Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; No, Joo Hwan; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Yang, Gyongseon; Byun, Soo Young; Goo, Junghyun; Kim, Kyung Tae; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Van Minh, Chau; Schmidt, Thomas J; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-06-11

    Marine-derived natural products from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of the compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. This study describes the discovery of five marine natural products with activity against Trypanosoma species by natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays. We investigated the anti-trypanosomal activity of the extracts from the soft corals and echinoderms living in Vietnamese seas. Of the samples screened, the methanolic extracts of several marine organisms exhibited potent activities against cultures of Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (EC50 activity against T. brucei with EC50 values ranging from 1.57 ± 0.14 to 14.6 ± 1.36 μM, relative to the positive control, pentamidine (EC50 = 0.015 ± 0.003 μM). Laevigatol B (1) and 5α-cholest-8(14)-ene-3β,7α-diol (5) exhibited also significant inhibitory effects on T. cruzi. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed and found to be insignificant in all cases. This is the first report on the inhibitory effects of marine organisms collected in Vietnamese seas against Trypanosoma species responsible for neglected tropical diseases.

  8. Epiphyseal chondrocyte secondary ossification centers require thyroid hormone activation of Indian hedgehog and osterix signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Weirong; Cheng, Shaohong; Wergedal, Jon; Mohan, Subburaman

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are known to regulate endochondral ossification during skeletal development via acting directly in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. In this study, we focused on TH effects on the secondary ossification center (SOC) because the time of appearance of SOCs in several species coincides with the time when peak levels of TH are attained. Accordingly, micro-computed tomography (µCT) evaluation of femurs and tibias at day 21 in TH-deficient and control mice revealed that endochondral ossification of SOCs is severely compromised owing to TH deficiency and that TH treatment for 10 days completely rescued this phenotype. Staining of cartilage and bone in the epiphysis revealed that whereas all of the cartilage is converted into bone in the prepubertal control mice, this conversion failed to occur in the TH-deficient mice. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed that TH treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor mutant (Tshr(-/-) ) mice induced expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and Osx in type 2 collagen (Col2)-expressing chondrocytes in the SOC at day 7, which subsequently differentiate into type 10 collagen (Col10)/osteocalcin-expressing chondro/osteoblasts at day 10. Consistent with these data, treatment of tibia cultures from 3-day-old mice with 10 ng/mL TH increased expression of Osx, Col10, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin in the epiphysis by sixfold to 60-fold. Furthermore, knockdown of the TH-induced increase in Osx expression using lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly blocked TH-induced ALP and osteocalcin expression in chondrocytes. Treatment of chondrogenic cells with an Ihh inhibitor abolished chondro/osteoblast differentiation and SOC formation. Our findings indicate that TH regulates the SOC initiation and progression via differentiating chondrocytes into bone matrix-producing osteoblasts by stimulating Ihh and Osx expression in chondrocytes. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, Bacillus sp. at Agatti Island, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp., Edwardsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter brackii. The secondary metabolites produced by SEB32 from sponge Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1818 [48] was selected with broad range of antibacterial activity and subjected for production, characterization by series of chromatography techniques and spectroscopic methods. Based on the results of FT-IR and mass spectrometry, the active molecule was tentatively predicted as “Pyrrol” and the structure is Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- with molecular formula of C7H10N2O2. The LC50 of active molecule was 31 μg/ml and molecular weight of the metabolites was 154. The potential strain SEB32 was identified by gene sequence (GenBank Accession number JX985748 and identified as Bacillus sp. from GenBank database.

  10. Academic performance and participation in physical activity by secondary school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, A J; Ryan, J

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adolescents' academic performance and participation in physical activity. 232 boys and girls from Years 8-11 (ages 13-16 years) were randomly selected, and their academic performance was assessed on previous examination scores in English, Mathematics, and Science. Participants were also asked to list all the sports based physical activities in which they normally participated during a typical week and to indicate how many times per week they took part in each activity and the duration of each. Overall, no significant correlations were found, although weak negative correlations were recorded between the amount of time (in minutes) in sport and exercise and English scores for children ages 13, 14, and 16 years. A similar association was also noted for Science scores of children 16 years old.

  11. Characteristics of teacher's health protecting activities in the modern secondary school environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimova V.M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers general approaches to the definition of the notion of anomia. It analyzes different aspects of the term's modern interpretation and discusses the main problems connected with the formation of the social context of the future teacher professional training for health protecting activities. The features of health protecting activity are exposed in the conditions of anomia. Certainly its influences on the social, psychical and physical health of young people. It is well-proven that introduction to maintenance of professional preparation of future teachers of presentations about anomia and its intercommunications with the different aspects of vital functions are necessity in connection with actualization of health protecting activity of teachers.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from Centaurea spruneri Boiss. & Heldr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ĆIRIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coumarins, scopoletin (1 and isoscopoletin (2, two simple phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid (3 and isovanillic acid (4 and one flavonoid, eriodictyol (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea spruneri. The structure of the compounds was established by spectroscopic methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds was tested against eight bacteria and eight fungal species, using a microdilution method. All compounds tested showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations were in the range 0.655–2.38 µmol ml-1 and their minimal bactericidal concentrations ranged from 0.694 to 4.15 µmol ml-1 against the tested bacterial species. All compounds showed fungistatic activity at 0.259–2.38 µmol ml-1 and fungicidal at 0.69–2.6 µmol ml-1 against all fungi tested.

  13. Promoting Health-Related Fitness during Warm-Up Activities for Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    It is common to begin a physical education class by having students run laps. Many teachers find that doing the same running warm-up day after day leads to boredom and a lack of interest in their students. This article provides teachers with developmentally appropriate warm-up activities that will not only motivate students, but also keep them…

  14. Soap Film and Bubble Activities for the Upper Primary and Lower Secondary School Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James M.

    1982-01-01

    Activities used with seventh and eighth grade students in Western Australia are described. The instructor guides pupils towards experimental solutions and encourages discovery of solutions for similar and more general problems. Investigations include study and construction of polygons, polyhedra, and one and two-sided surfaces. Commercial kits are…

  15. Primary versus secondary drivers of foraging activity in sandeel schools (Ammodytes tobianus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Behrens, Jane; Warnar, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to fishery biologists and has consequences for a wide range of predators ranging from birds and mammals to commercially important species. However, experimental studies that shed light on the primary drivers of foraging activity in fish are rare. In the present study, whole schools of sandeel (A. tobianus...

  16. Production of Some Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites From Marine-derived Fungus Varicosporina ramulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a screening of fungal isolates associated with marine algae collected from Abou-keer, Alexanderia during the four seasons of 2004, to obtain new biologically active compounds. Varicosporina ramulosa isolate was identified and selected as a producer of 13 compounds. Out of 13 pure compounds produced, compounds 3 and 10 were considered as antibacterial and antifungal compounds, respectively as they were active against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Optimization of conditions (fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, initial pH, aeration levels which activate compounds 3 and 10 production were studied. Also the spectral properties (UV, MS, GC/MS, IR and 1H-NMR of the purified compounds were determined. Compound 3 suggested to be dibutyl phthalate and compound 10 may be ergosterol or one of its isomers. Biological evaluation of the two compounds towards 6 different types of tumor cell lines showed weak effect of compound 3 at different concentrations on the viable cell count of the different tumor cell lines. While compound 10 showed different activities against the viable cell count of the 6 different tumor cell lines. It kills 50% of the viable infected liver and lung cells at concentrations equal to 99.7 µg/mL, 74.9µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 can be recommended as new anticancer compounds.

  17. Can Activity Projects Improve Children's Wellbeing during the Transition to Secondary Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akister, Jane; Guest, Hannah; Burch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Promoting child mental wellbeing is an important part of UK early intervention policy. Children with poor physical or mental health have significantly lower educational attainment and lower social status as adults. "Activity" projects are one form of early intervention used to try and help vulnerable children. Evidence relating to the…

  18. [Hygienic assessment of the overwroughtness of educational activity in schoolchildren of 5-10 classes of secondary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Efimova, N V; Tkachuk, E A; Mylnikova, I V

    2016-01-01

    The state of health in children and adolescents during the time of education in secondary schools is getting worse: the prevalence rate of functional disorders and chronic diseases is increasing. There was executed the assessment of the overwroughtness of the training-education process in secondary school institutions. The prior characteristics of the educational activity are: intellectual, sensory, emotional loads; their monotony and mode of educational activity, school work intensity. The system of indices of the overwroughtness of the education labour was formed with account ofpsycho-physiological characteristics of children's organism. There was performed the research of the overwroughtness of educational activity in 820 schoolchildren. The overwroughtness of the educational process was evaluated on the basis of chronometry research, questionnaire survey of teachers and parents, and with taking into account the organization of educational process. In questionnaire survey there were involved 52 teachers and 389 parents. The assessment of overwroughtness factors of the educational activity was carried out in 5-10th classes for academic disciplines: Russian Language, Literature, Mathematics, History, Geography, Foreign Languages. It was found that the characteristics of "mental load" in schoolchildren are established to be the one of the main limiting factors that allow to refer training activities to "overwroughted of first degree" (3.1 class). Sensory loads on the studied academic subjects are rated as the second class of overwroughtness and are "permissible." The monotony of loads was revealed to correspond to 1st and 2nd class of overwroughtness and is therefore an optimal or acceptable. Training activities in the traditional educational institution corresponds to the 2nd class of overwroughtness - "permissible." The arduousness of the educational process in an innovative school is rated as the third class of the first degree ofthe overwroughtness (3

  19. The effect of Chitosan on antioxidant activity and some secondary metabolites of Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Salimgandomi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants are almost reach sources of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids which are the most important natural antioxidants. Antioxidant compounds are essential for protecting human body against oxidative stress. However use elicitors could increase the antioxidant activity of plant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Chitosan on the content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and also antioxidant activity Mentha piperita L.In this study, firstly the Mentha piperita L. were grown up for 6-week period at greenhouse conditions and then were treated with 50-100 μm of chitosan, then total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using spectrophotometry and finally antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH method and the results were analyzed with Excel software and Variance analysis testing method with SPSS software. The results showed the content of phenolic compounds in the methanol extract based on sample mg of Gallic acid /g for control with water, 50μm and 100μm treatments respectively were 146.8,233.1,339.1. Meanwhile the total volume of flavonoid content of the methanol extract per mg of Rutin/g respectively were 9.88,12.11,14.06 and concentration of the said extracts respectively were 196.3,147.7,128.62. In regard to the above results it can be concluded that due to having phenolic and flavonoid contents, Mentha piperita L showed that antioxidant activity could be stimulated upon Chitosan treatment moreover, antioxidant activity increased by increasing Chitosan treatment content. Therefore, this method can be used to increase antioxidant effect of plant as a natural antioxidant and all the phenolic and flavonoid contents.

  20. Secondary Metabolites from Vietnamese Marine Invertebrates with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong Thao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived natural products from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of the compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. This study describes the discovery of five marine natural products with activity against Trypanosoma species by natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays. We investigated the anti-trypanosomal activity of the extracts from the soft corals and echinoderms living in Vietnamese seas. Of the samples screened, the methanolic extracts of several marine organisms exhibited potent activities against cultures of Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (EC50 < 5.0 μg/mL. Among the compounds isolated from these extracts, laevigatol B (1 from Lobophytum crassum and L. laevigatum, (24S-ergost-4-ene-3-one (2 from Sinularia dissecta, astropectenol A (3 from Astropecten polyacanthus, and cholest-8-ene-3β,5α,6β,7α-tetraol (4 from Diadema savignyi showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei with EC50 values ranging from 1.57 ± 0.14 to 14.6 ± 1.36 μM, relative to the positive control, pentamidine (EC50 = 0.015 ± 0.003 μM. Laevigatol B (1 and 5α-cholest-8(14-ene-3β,7α-diol (5 exhibited also significant inhibitory effects on T. cruzi. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed and found to be insignificant in all cases. This is the first report on the inhibitory effects of marine organisms collected in Vietnamese seas against Trypanosoma species responsible for neglected tropical diseases.

  1. Light-induced biochemical variations in secondary metabolite production and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Rab, Abdur; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is a very important species with worldwide medicinal and commercial uses. Light is one of the major elicitors that fluctuate morphogenic potential and biochemical responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolite production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Leaf explants were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and exposed to various spectral lights. 6-Benzyle adenine (BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D; 2.0 mgl(-1)) were used for callus induction. The control light (16/8h) produced optimum callogenic response (92.73%) than other colored lights. Compared to other colored lights, control grown cultures displayed maximum biomass accumulation (5.78 gl(-1)) during a prolonged log phase at the 18th day of growth kinetics. Cultures grown under blue light enhanced total phenolic content (TPC; 102.32 μg/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC; 22.07 μg/g DW) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; 11.63 μg/g DW). On the contrary, green and red lights improved reducing power assay (RPA; 0.71Fe(II)g(-1) DW) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 80%). Herein, we concluded that the utilization of colored lights is a promising strategy for enhanced production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Secondary Plant Metabolites on Microbial Populations: Changes in Community Structure and Metabolic Activity in Contaminated Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, Lucie; Ridl, Jakub; Polivkova, Marketa; Macek, Tomas; Uhlik, Ondrej

    2016-07-29

    Secondary plant metabolites (SPMEs) play an important role in plant survival in the environment and serve to establish ecological relationships between plants and other organisms. Communication between plants and microorganisms via SPMEs contained in root exudates or derived from litter decomposition is an example of this phenomenon. In this review, the general aspects of rhizodeposition together with the significance of terpenes and phenolic compounds are discussed in detail. We focus specifically on the effect of SPMEs on microbial community structure and metabolic activity in environments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, a section is devoted to a complex effect of plants and/or their metabolites contained in litter on bioremediation of contaminated sites. New insights are introduced from a study evaluating the effects of SPMEs derived during decomposition of grapefruit peel, lemon peel, and pears on bacterial communities and their ability to degrade PCBs in a long-term contaminated soil. The presented review supports the "secondary compound hypothesis" and demonstrates the potential of SPMEs for increasing the effectiveness of bioremediation processes.

  3. Antioxidant and antibiofilm activities of secondary metabolites from Ziziphus jujuba leaves used for infusion preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Silvia; Forino, Martino; De, Arpan; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2017-09-01

    Ziziphus jujuba Mill., jujube, leaf infusions are popular bedtime beverages as they improve sleep by soothing the nerves. With the aim of providing further insights into the polyphenol content of jujube leaf infusion and their antioxidant activities, a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-guided purification of the aqueous extract of Z. jujuba Mill. leaves was conducted. Three major antioxidant polyphenols (i.e. quercitrin, catechin and gallocatechin) of the leaves were identified. In addition, a significant antibiofilm bioactivity against Streptococcus mutans, a causative agent of human dental caries, was detected for the aqueous leaf extract and its bio-guided separation resulted in the identification of the lupane triterpenoid alphitolic acid as the main antibiofilm metabolite. The results herein presented further promote the consumption of jujube leaf infusion as a healthy antioxidant bedtime beverage, and associate it to an unreported anti-caries activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondary metabolites from the unripe pulp of Persea americana and their antimycobacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Chen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Peng, Chien-Fang; Lin, Chu-Hung; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2012-12-15

    The fruits of Persea americana (Avocado) are nowadays used as healthy fruits in the world. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active ethyl acetate soluble fraction has led to the isolation of five new fatty alcohol derivatives, avocadenols A-D (1-4) and avocadoin (5) from the unripe pulp of P. americana, along with 12 known compounds (6-17). These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolates, avocadenol A (1), avocadenol B (2), (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane (6), and (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadec-16-ene (7) showed antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)R(V)in vitro, with MIC values of 24.0, 33.8, 24.9, and 35.7 μg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  6. Smoking, physical activity and breakfast consumption among secondary school students in a southwestern Ontario community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bonnie; Evers, Susan; Manske, Steve; Bercovitz, Kim; Edward, H Gayle

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of smoking, low levels of physical activity, and missing breakfast among students (n=318) in grades 9 through 12 in three schools in southwestern Ontario; to see if these behaviours were associated; and, whether there were gender differences. A self-administered survey was conducted in grade 10 English classes. The response rate was 87.1%. The prevalence of smoking was 36.2%; there was no gender difference. Only 42.8% of students ate breakfast daily; 48.8% of boys and 36.1% of girls (chi2 = 5.2; p or = 3 times/week compared to girls (66.0%) (chi2 = 4.8; p or = 3 times/week were more likely to eat breakfast daily and, among boys, 60.4% of non-smokers ate breakfast daily compared to 31.9% of those currently smoking (chi2 = 13.3; pskip breakfast compared to those who were not concerned. Weight concern was not associated with frequency of physical activity, smoking, or breakfast consumption among boys. The high prevalence rates for these behaviours suggests that interventions in high schools should include daily physical activity, promotion of breakfast eating (either at home or in the school), and encouragement to quit smoking.

  7. [Secondary metabolites, lethality and antimicrobial activity of extracts from three corals and three marine mollusks from Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Hernández, Juan; Camacho, Angel

    2010-06-01

    The study of biochemical activity of extracts obtained from marine organisms is gaining interest as some have proved to have efficient health or industrial applications. To evaluate lethality and antimicrobial activities, some chemical tests were performed on crude extracts of the octocorals Eunicea sp., Muricea sp. and Pseudopterogorgia acerosa and the mollusks Pteria colymbus, Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons, collected in Venezuelan waters. The presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, unsaturated sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes in all invertebrates, was evidenced. Additionally, sesquiterpenlactones, saponins, tannins, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides were also detected in some octocoral extracts, suggesting that biosynthesis of these metabolites is typical in this group. From the lethality bioassays, all extracts resulted lethal to Artemia salina (LC50mollusks extracts displayed more activity and a greater action spectrum against different bacterial strains, whereas octocorals also inhibited some fungi strains growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to the antimicrobial power of the extracts (66.7%), whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were not affected. The antibiosis shown by marine organisms extracts indicates that some of their biosynthesized metabolites are physiologically active, and may have possible cytotoxic potential or as a source of antibiotic components.

  8. Effects of UV-B on activities of enzymes of secondary phenolic metabolism in barley primary leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L. [Ohio State Univ., Dept of Horticulture, Columbus, OH (United States); McClure, J.W. [Miami Univ., Dept of Botany, Oxford, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in a glasshouse with 13.56 or 8.84 kJ m{sup -2} biologically effective UV-B (280-320 nm; UV-B-{sub BE}) simulating levels predicted to occur with 25 or 5% ozone depletion at 40 deg. N latitude, with UV-A (320-400 nm), or with no supplemental irradiation. Activities of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone-flavonone isomerase (CFI, EC 5.5.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) were determined from the 5th through the 30th day after planting. PAL regulates diversion of L-phenylalanine into precursors for secondary phenolics, CFI regulates an early step of flavonoid biosynthesis, and peroxidase activates phenolic precursors for cross-linking and rigidifying cell walls. At all ages UV-B decreased soluble protein leaf{sup -1} but had little effect on fresh weight or CFI activity. Exposure to UV-B decreased peroxidase activity only slightly in early growth stages but decreased it about 40% by day 30, PAL activity was highest 5 days after planting under all treatments, decreased thereafter, and was not detectable in control plants after day 10. UV-B prolonged PAL activity through day 15 in plants given the highest level of UV-B. This UV-B prolongation of PAL activity is correlated with, and is a likely underlying mechanism to explain, the UV-B-enhanced accumulation of flavonoids and ferulic acid in barley primary leaves. The results are discussed in terms of barley leaf adaptation to UV-B as a developmental response dependent on conditions of plant growth. (au) (25 refs.)

  9. MYB58 and MYB63 Are Transcriptional Activators of the Lignin Biosynthetic Pathway during Secondary Cell Wall Formation in Arabidopsis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jianli Zhou; Chanhui Lee; Ruiqin Zhong; Zheng-Hua Ye

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been shown that SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1) is a key transcription factor regulating secondary cell wall formation, including the biosynthesis of cellulose, xylan, and lignin...

  10. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

  11. Secondary Metabolites from Jacaranda Mimosifolia and Kigelia Africana (Bignoniaceae and Their Anticandidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazare Sidjui Sidjui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From the stem barks of Jacaranda mimosifolia benzoic acid (1, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 5-carboxy- 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,2,4a-trimethyl-[1S-(1α,2β,4aβ,8aα] ( 2, betulinic acid ( 3, lupeol (4 and ursolic acid (5 were isolated. Similarly, lapachol (6, dehydro-α-lapachone (7, 2- acetylfuro-1, 4-naphthoquinone (8, p-coumaric acid (9, caffeic acid (10, nonacosanoic acid, 2-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl ester (11, β-sitosterol (12, kigelinol (13, oleanolic acid (14, β-friedelinol (15, pomolic acid (16, and kojic acid (17 were isolated from the stem barks of Kigelia africana. All the isolated compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic methods especially 1D and 2D NMR and ESI mass spectrometry and comparison with literature data. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1, 2, 3 and 5, and compounds 11, 14, 15 and 16 were isolated for the first time from Jacaranda mimosifolia and Kigelia africana, respectively. All these compounds were screened for anticandidal activity by agar diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique on four Candida albicans strains (ATCCL26, ATCC12C, ATCCP37039, and ATCCP37037. Among them, compounds 9, 10, and 17 exhibited the highest anticandidal activity that varied between the microbial species (MIC= 0.01 ± 0.00 − 0.03 ± 0.00 mg/mL on C. albicans ATCCL26, ATCCP37037, ATCCP37039 and ATCC12C strains. Compound 17 was likely the most active against the four Candida albicans strains (MIC= 0.01 ± 0.00 − 0.02 ± 0.00 mg/mL.

  12. Metabolitos secundarios y actividad antimicrobiana de Pluchea carolinensis Secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activity of Pluchea carolinensis

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    Wilmer Hervet Perera Córdova

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se le realizó un tamizaje fitoquímico a las hojas de la especie Pluchea carolinensis Jacq. G. Don in Sweet y se sometieron a un fraccionamiento con el empleo de solventes de polaridad creciente. En cada uno de los extractos obtenidos se verificó la presencia de flavonoides y se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana frente a 7 microorganismos. Se detectó la presencia de flavonoides en los extractos CHCl3, AcOEt y n-BuOH, los que presentaron actividad antibacteriana. El extracto CHCl3 presentó actividad biológica frente a Bacillus subtilis a una concentración de 1 000 µg/mL, mientras que los extractos AcOEt y n-BuOH mostraron resultados positivos frente a las bacterias Staphylococcus aureus y Bacillus subtilis a la misma concentraciónA phytochemical screening was carried out in the leaves of the species Pluchea carolinensis Jacq. G. Don in Sweet, and they were subjected to fractioning by using increasing polarity solvents. The presence of flavonoids was confirmed in each of the extracts obtained, and the antimicrobial activity against 7 microorganisms was evaluated. The presence of flavonoids was detected in CHCl3, AcOEt and n-BuOH extracts, which presented antibacterial activity. The CHCl3 extract showed biological activity against Bacillus subtilis at a concentration of 1 000 µg/mL, whereas the AcOEt and n-BuOH extracts had positive results against Staphylococcus aureus y Bacillus subtilis bacteria at the same concentration

  13. Exploring the Chemodiversity and Biological Activities of the Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

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    Wan-Ling Liang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2, together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (11, didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (12 and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6. However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14, a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15, gliotoxin (7 and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8, reduced gliotoxin (9, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthio gliotoxin (11 and bis-N-norgliovictin (13, were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium. This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2–14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7–13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed.

  14. Secondary metabolites from the root wood of Zanthoxylum wutaiense and their antitubercular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yi; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Peng, Chien-Fang; Chen, Si; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2011-05-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the root wood of Zanthoxylum wutaiense led to the isolation of five new compounds, wutaipyranol A (1), 8-methoxywutaipyranol A (2), demethoxywutaiensal (3), demethoxywutaiensol (4), and dihydrodemethoxywutaiensol (5), together with six known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR, as well as MS analyses. Among the isolates, wutaipyranol A (1), 8-methoxywutaipyranol A (2), and demethoxywutaiensal (3) exhibited antitubercular activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37) Rv in vitro, with MIC values of 52.4, 55.6, and 45.8 μg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Up-Regulation of ENO1 by HIF-1α in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells after Hypoxic Challenge Is Not Involved in the Regulation of VEGF Secretion.

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    Feihui Zheng

    Full Text Available Alpha-enolase (ENO1, a major glycolytic enzyme, is reported to be over-expressed in various cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated to be regulated by the Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α, a crucial transcriptional factor implicated in tumor progression and cancer angiogenesis. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV, which is a leading cause of severe vision loss caused by newly formed blood vessels in the choroid, is also engendered by hypoxic stress. In this report, we investigated the expression of ENO1 and the effects of its down-regulation upon cobalt (II chloride-induced hypoxia in retinal pigment epithelial cells, identified as the primary source of ocular angiogenic factors.HIF-1α-diminished retinal pigment epithelial cells were generated by small interfering RNA (siRNA technology in ARPE-19 cells, a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line. Both normal and HIF-1α-diminished ARPE-19 cells were then subjected to hypoxic challenge using cobalt (II chloride (CoCl2 or anaerobic chamber. The relation between ENO1 expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion by retinal pigment epithelial cells were examined. Protein levels of HIF-1α and ENO1 were analyzed using Western Blot, while VEGF secretion was essayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Cytotoxicity after hypoxia was detected by Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH Assay.Upon 24 hr of CoCl2-induced hypoxia, the expression levels of ENO1 and VEGF were increased along with HIF-1α in ARPE-19 cells, both of which can in turn be down-regulated by HIF-1α siRNA application. However, knockdown of ENO1 alone or together with HIF-1α did not help suppress VEGF secretion in hypoxic ARPE-19 cells.ENO1 was demonstrated to be up-regulated by HIF-1α in retinal pigment epithelial cells in response to hypoxia, without influencing VEGF secretion.

  16. Upregulation of ANP and NPR-C mRNA in the kidney and heart of eNOS knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kuichang; Kim, Sun Young; Oh, Young-Bin; Yu, Jiahua; Shah, Amin; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present studywas to examine the question of whether the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system is altered by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). Male eNOS-deficient mice (eNOS-/-) and wild type control mice (eNOS+/+, C57B1/6J) were used. Blood pressure was measured in anesthetized mice by tail cuff plethysmography and renal function was measured. Expression of ANP, natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A, NPR-C, and tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Localization of (125)I-ANP binding sites was measured using in vitro autoradiography. In eNOS-/- mice, systolic blood pressure increased and left ventricular hypertrophy was observed. Urine volume and osmolarity did not change. Expression of ANP markedly increased in the heart and kidney of eNOS-/- mice. Expression of NPR-A and NPR-C increased in the heart and tended to increase in the kidney of eNOS-/- mice. In the renal medulla in particular, increased expression of NPR-C was more prominent. Expression of TonEBP mRNA was markedly decreased in the renal medulla, but not in the renal cortex. Maximum binding capacity (B(max)) of ANP and C-ANP increased in the renal medulla in eNOS-/- mice. These results suggest that the eNOS-NO system may be partly involved in regulation of ANP, NPR-A, -C, and TonEBP mRNA expression in the kidney. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of the antagonistic activity of secondary metabolites of propionic acid bacteria

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    L. Krupytska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Тhe practical value of the culture liquid of probiotic bacteria was demonstrated. The culture fluid contains the products of vital activity of probiotic bacteria. It is the product of waste in the manufacture of classical probiotics. The culture liquid can be used to create metabiotics, due to the content of valuable exometabolites in its composition. The results of data on the positive effect of various amounts of culture liquid of propionic acid bacteria on the growth of bifidobacteria were presented. Microbiological studies have shown that 2 – 3 % of the filtrate was effectively reflected in the accumulation of biomass of bifidobacteria. The antagonistic activity of the culture fluid filtrate 2 – 3 % of the strain P.shermanii-4 against opportunistic (Escherichia coli-ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus -ONU-223, Bacillus cereus-ATCC 11778 and pathogenic microorganisms (Salmonella enteritidis ‑ ONU-466 was studied. It was found that the use of a 2 % culture supernatant inhibits the growth of all opportunistic microorganisms, in addition to the pathogenic strain Salmonella enterica-ONU-466. With an increase in the dose of the filtrate, a small delay in the growth of Salmonella enteritidis-ONU-466 and an increase in the sensitivity of opportunistic microorganisms were observed.

  18. Does dysregulated complement activation contribute to haemolytic uraemic syndrome secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rodney D; Nagra, Arvind; Haq, Mushfequr R

    2013-09-01

    We describe two patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) associated with invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Both patients had transiently reduced serum concentrations of complement C3. One had reduced expression of CD46 and never recovered renal function. No constitutive defect in regulation of the alternative pathway of complement activation was demonstrated in the second patient but there was an apparent improvement in her condition after administration of eculizumab. The most widely accepted mechanism for pneumococcal HUS is endothelial cell damage by pre-formed antibodies against the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen. This explanation does not bear rigorous scrutiny. We postulate that transiently dysregulated complement activation may play a role in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. We further postulate that the mechanism could be enhanced binding of factor H to the neuraminidase-altered surface of endothelial cells or reduced binding of factor H to the endothelial cell surface mediated by competitive binding of factor H by pneumococcal surface protein C (pspC). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of the cofactor binding sites on the activities of secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Xiangjun; Han, Jun; Ma, Sichun; Wang, Jianmei; Li, Xufeng; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    SADHs from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are enzymes that, together with various cofactors, catalyze the reversible reduction of carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols. To explore how cofactors bind to SADH, TeSADH was cloned in this study, and Ser(199) and Arg(200) were replaced by Tyr and Asp, respectively. Both sites were expected to be inside or adjacent to the cofactor-binding domain according to computational a prediction. Analysis of TeSADH activities revealed that the enzymatic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the S199Y mutant was noticeably enhanced using by NADH, NADPH as cofactors, and similar with that of wild-type using by NADP(+), NAD(+). Conversely, the activity of the R200D mutant significantly decreased with all cofactors. Furthermore, in yeast, the S199Y mutant substantially elevated the ethanol concentration compared with the wild type. Molecular dynamics simulation results indicated the H-bonding network between TeSADH and the cofactors was stronger for the S199Y mutant and the binding energy was simultaneously increased. Moreover, the fluorescence results indicated the S199Y mutant exhibited an increased preference for NAD(P)H, binding with NAD(P)H more compactly compared with wild type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  1. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

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    Annamaria Giorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae, also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled, dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A screening on phenolic content (the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and antiradical activity (DPPH assay of seeds was also conducted. In addition, the repellent properties of seed extracts against Aedes aegypti L. were investigated. Volatile compounds detected in B. orellana samples consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and arenes: α-humulene is the major volatile compound present in seed extracts followed by D-germacrene, γ-elemene, and caryophyllene. B. orellana proved to be a good source of antioxidants. Preliminary data on repellency against A. aegypti of three different dried seed extracts (hexane, ethanol, and ethanol/water indicated a significant skin protection activity. A protection of 90% and 73% for hexane and ethanol/water extracts was recorded.

  2. Meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus.

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    Hiroki eNakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that meditation inhibits or relieves pain perception. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and neurophysiological methods, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG, have been used. However, it has been difficult to interpret the results, because there is some paradoxical evidence. For example, some studies reported increased neural responses to pain stimulation during meditation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and insula, whereas others showed a decrease in these regions. There have been inconsistent findings to date. Moreover, in general, since the activities of the ACC and insula are correlated with pain perception, the increase in neural activities during meditation would be related to the enhancement of pain perception rather than its reduction. These contradictions might directly contribute to the ‘mystery of meditation’. In this review, we presented previous findings for brain regions during meditation and the anatomical changes that occurred in the brain with long-term meditation training. We then discussed the findings of previous studies that examined pain-related neural activity during meditation. We also described the brain mechanisms responsible for pain relief during meditation, and possible reasons for paradoxical evidence among previous studies. By thoroughly overviewing previous findings, we hypothesized that meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the ACC, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus. We suggest that the characteristics of the modulation of this activity may depend on the kind of meditation and/or number of years of experience of meditation, which were associated with paradoxical findings among previous studies that investigated pain-related neural activities during meditation.

  3. Meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that meditation inhibits or relieves pain perception. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, and neurophysiological methods, such as magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography, have been used. However, it has been difficult to interpret the results, because there is some paradoxical evidence. For example, some studies reported increased neural responses to pain stimulation during meditation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula, whereas others showed a decrease in these regions. There have been inconsistent findings to date. Moreover, in general, since the activities of the ACC and insula are correlated with pain perception, the increase in neural activities during meditation would be related to the enhancement of pain perception rather than its reduction. These contradictions might directly contribute to the ‘mystery of meditation.’ In this review, we presented previous findings for brain regions during meditation and the anatomical changes that occurred in the brain with long-term meditation training. We then discussed the findings of previous studies that examined pain-related neural activity during meditation. We also described the brain mechanisms responsible for pain relief during meditation, and possible reasons for paradoxical evidence among previous studies. By thoroughly overviewing previous findings, we hypothesized that meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the ACC, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus. We suggest that the characteristics of the modulation of this activity may depend on the kind of meditation and/or number of years of experience of meditation, which were associated with paradoxical findings among previous studies that investigated pain-related neural activities during meditation. PMID:25566158

  4. Activation of Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin Resistance into the Deep-Sea Fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3

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    Yuan Dong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(d-Pro-d-Phe (1, cyclo(d-Tyr-d-Pro (2, phenethyl 5-oxo-l-prolinate (3, cyclo(l-Ile-l-Pro (4, cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro (5 and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6, were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1–6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1, 72.9% (2, 23.5% (3, 29.6% (4, 30.9% (5 and 51.1% (6 at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent

  5. FACTORS SUCCESS OFF PUPILS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KOSOVO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES

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    Abedin Ibrahimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the emperical results of verification of factors that affect students success of high schools in Kosova. It’s presented metodology of research and are given all results preliminary of anlalysis to all variables,in which the research is based. In this group of factors entered also physical activity and sport,and neither all circumstancers socio-economic wher live the all tested people.

  6. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica Prof. Delby Fernandes de Medeiros; Silva, Davi Antas e [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides {beta}-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-{beta}-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  7. Secondary Metabolites from Two Species of Tolpis and Their Biological Activities

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    Francisco León

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical research of two Tolpis species, T. proustii and T. lagopoda, led to the isolation of three new compounds: 30-chloro-3β-acetoxy-22α-hydroxyl-20(21-taraxastene (1, 3β,22α-diacetoxy-30-ethoxy-20(21-taraxastene (2 and 3β,28-dihydroxy-11α-hydroperoxy-12-ursene (3. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of extensive IR, NMR, and MS data and by comparison of data reported in the literature. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods. The cytotoxicity of several known compounds and its derivatives was also assessed against human myeloid leukemia K-562 and K-562/ADR cell lines.

  8. Alterations in endothelial control of the pulmonary circulation in exercising swine with secondary pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Daphne; Houweling, Birgit; de Beer, Vincent J; Everon, Zaida; Duncker, Dirk J

    2007-05-01

    Secondary pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction (MI) has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and activation of the endothelin (ET) system. Here, we investigated whether an increased ET-mediated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence contributes to pulmonary hypertension after MI, and whether this increased ET vasoconstriction is caused by impaired nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoid production. For this purpose, chronically instrumented swine with and without MI ran on a treadmill at 0-4 km h(-1). Mixed ET(A)/ET(B) receptor blockade (tezosentan) was performed in the absence and presence of single or combined inhibition of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX, with indometacin). In normal swine, mixed ET(A)/ET(B) blockade decreased pulmonary vascular resistance, but only during exercise. In MI swine, an increased ET-mediated vasoconstrictor influence was observed in the pulmonary circulation both at rest and during exercise. Inhibition of COX resulted in pulmonary vasoconstriction at rest in MI, but not in normal swine; this vasoconstriction in MI swine was normalized by ET(A)/ET(B) receptor blockade. Inhibition of eNOS enhanced the vasodilator response to ET(A)/ET(B) blockade, indicating that NO blunts the pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence of ET. However, this vasodilator response was enhanced to a similar degree in MI and normal swine. In summary, swine with a recent MI are characterized by an exaggerated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence of ET. This increased ET-mediated pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence is not caused by a loss of NO bioavailability, and is blunted by an increased prostanoid-mediated vasodilatation. In conclusion, an increased ET-mediated vasoconstriction, which does not appear to be the result of loss of endothelial vasodilators, contributes to pulmonary hypertension after MI.

  9. [Effect of change in levels of motor activity and innervation on basic and secondary rhythms of rat heart rate and respiration in ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, A V; Dmitrieva, L E; Sizonov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the heart basic rhythm, its rhythmical variations on periodograms, and level of spontaneos motor activity were studied on offspring of white rats from newborn to 3-week age at transition from the state of active wakefulness to narcosis as well as under conditions of blockade of M-cholinoreceptors with atropine. It is shown that the endogenous rhythmical activity can be regulated not only by a change in frequency of basic rhythms, but also by action on all parameters and properties of their rhythmical variations and secondary rhythms. The changes in power of the heart secondary rhythms exceed considerably the frequency oscillations of basic rhythms during blockade of cholinergic innervation or a change in the motor activity level that affects both the basic rhythm circulation and respiration and their variations--secondary rhythms. The atropine blockade of M-cholinoreceptors at the studied ages changes the heart beating rhythm within the limits of 10% of bradicardia in newborns to tachycardia in the 3-week old animals. At the same time, power of the cardiac rhythm secondary oscillations changes several times. These data indicate that the cholinergic mechanisms play the key role in formation of the secondary rhythms and their correlation with motor activity.

  10. Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. Report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Lending and secondary market activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) since it began operations in 1973 were reviewed. Specific areas of review were: the Association's legislative development and financial activities, its profitability compared to commercial banks and other government-sponsored enterprises that provide…

  11. A method for noninvasive on-line secondary path modeling for the filtered-X LMS algorithm for active control of periodic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Benjamin Jung

    A novel method for noninvasive on-line secondary path modeling for the filtered-X LMS algorithm is proposed for the active control of periodic noise. Previous noninvasive algorithms have utilized iterative search methods that have proven unsuccessful in delivering sufficiently accurate secondary path models for use by the filtered-X LMS-based control system, especially in time-varying systems, resulting in poor performance and instability. The proposed method, based in the frequency domain, uses the concept of linear independence of two equations/two unknowns to arrive at the secondary path estimate. Linear independence of the two equations is achieved by adjusting the control filter output via the filter coefficients prior to the acquisition of the second set of data corresponding to the second equation. The proposed method is tested on a unique "sound-free" system designed and built specifically for the validation of active noise control algorithms. A summing junction circuit simulates the interference between the primary and secondary disturbances while a computer housing a manually adjustable filter provides a time-varying secondary path; signal generators provide the reference signal. Sinusoidal and dual-frequency signals are used to validate the proposed method. In order to demonstrate the ability of the proposed secondary path modeler to track system changes, tests are conducted where the frequencies are shifted and also where the secondary path is evolving. The secondary path estimates are then compared to the correct estimates ascertained using an LMS-based adaptive filter. The results reflect a simple and elegant secondary path modeling algorithm that provides estimates of unprecedented accuracy for time-varying systems. This accuracy in turn allows for stable operation of the filtered-X LMS-based control filter and thus reliable noise cancellation performance.

  12. Evaluation of wound healing activity of atranorin, a lichen secondary metabolite, on rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana S. S. Barreto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the wound healing activity of atranorin cream (Patent requested on excision wounds. Seventy-two male rats were anesthetized and an excisional wound was performed. Then the rats were randomly assigned into three groups: untreated control group; atranorin 1 (group treated with 1% AT ointment; and atranorin 5 (group treated with 5% AT ointment. Six animals of each group were euthanized 3, 7, 14 or 21 days after surgical procedures and the wounded areas were analyzed and removed. Serial histological sections were obtained and stained by histochemical techniques (Hematoxilin-Eosin-HEand Sirius red and immunohistochemical techniques. Topical application of atranorin reduced wound areas, induced earlier granulation tissue formation, increased cell proliferation, improved collagenization and modulated the myofibroblasts differentiation when compared to control animals. It is suggested that atranorin modulates the wound healing process. These data suggest that this formulation based on atranorin extracted from Cladina kalbii AHTI may be a new biotechnological product for wound healing clinical applications.

  13. Polymorphism of the gene eNOS G894T (Glu298Asp) in symptomatic patients with aterosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campedelli, F L; E Silva, K S F; Rodrigues, D A; Martins, J V M; Costa, I R; Lagares, M H; Barbosa, A M; de Morais, M P; Moura, K K V O

    2017-05-04

    Atherosclerotic and its cardiovascular complications are responsible for 17.5 million deaths a year, according to the World Health Organization. There is consensus that atherosclerosis involves multiple pathogenic processes initiated by endothelial dysfunction, with inflammation and vascular proliferation determining alterations in the matrix, with consequent formation of the atheromatous plaque and its clinical implications. Risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and smoking are widely known. Currently, genotyping, which is not directly related to these factors, is not accepted to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases, but strong evidence indicates several polymorphic genes as factors of risk and progression leading to complications of the disease. Among the genes involved, eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene), which is responsible for the production of endothelial nitric oxide (an important arterial vasodilator), when presented in polymorphic variation can determine production, malfunction, and predisposition to atherosclerosis. In the present study, we analyzed the G894T polymorphism of the eNOS gene in groups of individuals diagnosed with atherosclerosis and in a control group. We collected 200 blood samples from patients previously diagnosed with atherosclerosis and 100 samples formed the control group. The genotyping analysis for polymorphism of the eNOS gene was determined by PCR. We considered variables such as gender, smoking, smoking history, and alcohol consumption; statistical differences were found in the distribution of case and control groups (P = 0.0378) and in non-smoking patients (P = 0.0263). In the other associations, no statistically significant difference was found. In the population studied, the frequency of the heterozygous genotype (GT) was much higher than in the other populations (GG and TT) in both groups (case and control). The GG genotype showed greater susceptibility to atherosclerosis

  14. Konsumsi Antioksidan dan Ekspresi Gen eNOS3 Alel -786T>C pada Penderita Hipertensi Etnik Minangkabau

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    Delmi Sulastri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene of eNOS 3 allel -786T>C is one of the important genes which is related to the high prevalence of hypertension. Polymorphism of this gene decreases nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme synthesis result in reduction of nitric oxide (NO. Nitric oxide causes vasodilatation, which decreases peripheral resistant and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of an antioxidant consumption on eNOS3 gene -786T>C allel expression in hypertension patients with Minangkabau ethnicity. Cross sectional study was done on 130 hypertension and normotension subjects, 30–65 years old in 4 districts, Padang, Sumatera Barat during 2009. The interview about antioxidant consumption by food frequency questioner, the assessment of eNOS3 gene by polymerase chain reaction and NO plasma level by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were done. The data were analyzed using t-test and chi-square. The results showed that the hypertensive’s and normotensive’s plasma NO concentration were 26.91±15.40 μM/L and 25.79±15.04 μM/L, respectively. There were thymine to cytosine substitution found at 786 position in 1.5% of the hypertensive subjects and 9.2% of the normotensive subjects. A low plasma NO levels (67.2% was found in subjects with heterozygote TC alleles.There was a significant relationship between consumption of antioxidant (vitamin E and NO plasma level in hypertension subjects with TC heterozygote allel. In conclusions, vitamin E influences NO plasma level in hypertension patients with heterozygote TC alleles.

  15. eNOS gene Glu298Asp and 4b/a polymorphisms are associated with renal function parameters in Mexican patients with Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Medina, A; Brambila-Tapia, A J L; Picos-Cárdenas, V J; Gallegos-Arreola, M P; Figuera, L E

    2016-10-24

    Fabry disease (FD) is an inherited X-linked lysosomal disease that causes renal failure in a high percentage of affected individuals. The eNOS gene encodes for endothelial nitric oxide synthase, which plays an important role in glomerular hemodynamics. This gene has two main polymorphisms (Glu298Asp and 4b/a) that have been studied in the context of many different diseases, including those involving cardiovascular and renal alterations. Considering the lack of information regarding eNOS variants and FD, we investigated whether there were associations between eNOS genetic variants and renal function parameters in Mexican patients with FD and renal impairment. In total, 15 FD patients with renal alterations were included in the present study, and associations between eNOS polymorphisms and renal function parameters (urea, creatinine, and GFR) were evaluated. The Asp298 and 4a alleles of the eNOS gene were found to be significantly associated with increased levels of urea and creatinine, and a decreased glomerular filtration rate in FD patients, and this association behaved in a co-dominant fashion. Our results coincide with previous reports showing an association between these polymorphisms and kidney disease, and along with other studies regarding their role in the nitric oxide pathway, suggest that these variants affect the severity of nephropathy in patients with FD.

  16. Ric-8A, a G protein chaperone with nucleotide exchange activity induces long-range secondary structure changes in Gα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Zeng, Baisen; Thomas, Celestine J; Bothner, Brian; Sprang, Stephen R

    2016-12-23

    Cytosolic Ric-8A has guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity and is a chaperone for several classes of heterotrimeric G protein α subunits in vertebrates. Using Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange-Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) we show that Ric-8A disrupts the secondary structure of the Gα Ras-like domain that girds the guanine nucleotide-binding site, and destabilizes the interface between the Gαi1 Ras and helical domains, allowing domain separation and nucleotide release. These changes are largely reversed upon binding GTP and dissociation of Ric-8A. HDX-MS identifies a potential Gα interaction site in Ric-8A. Alanine scanning reveals residues crucial for GEF activity within that sequence. HDX confirms that, like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), Ric-8A binds the C-terminus of Gα. In contrast to GPCRs, Ric-8A interacts with Switches I and II of Gα and possibly at the Gα domain interface. These extensive interactions provide both allosteric and direct catalysis of GDP unbinding and release and GTP binding.

  17. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE. PMID:27483327

  18. Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol: Part 1 – Evidence from measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wex

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA studied in previous laboratory experiments generally showed only slight hygroscopic growth, but a much better activity as a CCN (Cloud Condensation Nucleus than indicated by the hygroscopic growth. This discrepancy was examined at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, using a portable generator that produced SOA particles from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, and adding butanol or butanol and water vapor during some of the experiments. The light scattering signal of dry SOA-particles was measured by the LACIS optical particle spectrometer and was used to derive a refractive index for SOA of 1.45. LACIS also measured the hygroscopic growth of SOA particles up to 99.6% relative humidity (RH, and a CCN counter was used to measure the particle activation. SOA-particles were CCN active with critical diameters of e.g. 100 nm and 55 nm at super-saturations of 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. But only slight hygroscopic growth with hygroscopic growth factors ≤1.05 was observed at RH<98% RH. At RH>98%, the hygroscopic growth increased stronger than would be expected if a constant hygroscopicity parameter for the particle/droplet solution was assumed. An increase of the hygroscopicity parameter by a factor of 4–6 was observed in the RH-range from below 90% to 99.6%, and this increase continued for increasingly diluted particle solutions for activating particles. This explains an observation already made in the past: that the relation between critical super-saturation and dry diameter for activation is steeper than what would be expected for a constant value of the hygroscopicity. Combining measurements of hygroscopic growth and activation, it was found that the surface tension that has to be assumed to interpret the measurements consistently is greater than 55 mN/m, possibly close to that of pure water, depending on the different SOA-types produced, and therefore only in part accounts for the discrepancy

  19. Cloud condensation nuclei activity, droplet growth kinetics, and hygroscopicity of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs with Anthropogenic VOC (AVOC affects the physicochemical properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. We investigated cloud droplet activation (CCN activity, droplet growth kinetics, and hygroscopicity of mixed anthropogenic and biogenic SOA (ABSOA compared to pure biogenic SOA (BSOA and pure anthropogenic SOA (ASOA. Selected monoterpenes and aromatics were used as representative precursors of BSOA and ASOA, respectively.We found that BSOA, ASOA, and ABSOA had similar CCN activity despite the higher oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C of ASOA compared to BSOA and ABSOA. For individual reaction systems, CCN activity increased with the degree of oxidation. Yet, when considering all different types of SOA together, the hygroscopicity parameter, κCCN, did not correlate with O/C. Droplet growth kinetics of BSOA, ASOA, and ABSOA were comparable to that of (NH42SO4, which indicates that there was no delay in the water uptake for these SOA in supersaturated conditions.In contrast to CCN activity, the hygroscopicity parameter from a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA measurement, κHTDMA, of ASOA was distinctively higher (0.09–0.10 than that of BSOA (0.03–0.06, which was attributed to the higher degree of oxidation of ASOA. The ASOA components in mixed ABSOA enhanced aerosol hygroscopicity. Changing the ASOA fraction by adding biogenic VOC (BVOC to ASOA or vice versa (AVOC to BSOA changed the hygroscopicity of aerosol, in line with the change in the degree of oxidation of aerosol. However, the hygroscopicity of ABSOA cannot be described by a simple linear combination of pure BSOA and ASOA systems. This indicates that additional processes, possibly oligomerization, affected the hygroscopicity.Closure analysis of CCN and HTDMA data showed κHTDMA was lower than κCCN by 30–70 %. Better closure was achieved for ASOA compared to BSOA. This discrepancy can be attributed to

  20. Cloud condensation nuclei activity, droplet growth kinetics, and hygroscopicity of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D. F.; Buchholz, A.; Kortner, B.; Schlag, P.; Rubach, F.; Fuchs, H.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Watne, Å. K.; Hallquist, M.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.; Kristensen, K.; Hansen, A. M. K.; Glasius, M.; Kourtchev, I.; Kalberer, M.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2016-02-01

    Interaction of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with Anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) affects the physicochemical properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We investigated cloud droplet activation (CCN activity), droplet growth kinetics, and hygroscopicity of mixed anthropogenic and biogenic SOA (ABSOA) compared to pure biogenic SOA (BSOA) and pure anthropogenic SOA (ASOA). Selected monoterpenes and aromatics were used as representative precursors of BSOA and ASOA, respectively.We found that BSOA, ASOA, and ABSOA had similar CCN activity despite the higher oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) of ASOA compared to BSOA and ABSOA. For individual reaction systems, CCN activity increased with the degree of oxidation. Yet, when considering all different types of SOA together, the hygroscopicity parameter, κCCN, did not correlate with O/C. Droplet growth kinetics of BSOA, ASOA, and ABSOA were comparable to that of (NH4)2SO4, which indicates that there was no delay in the water uptake for these SOA in supersaturated conditions.In contrast to CCN activity, the hygroscopicity parameter from a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) measurement, κHTDMA, of ASOA was distinctively higher (0.09-0.10) than that of BSOA (0.03-0.06), which was attributed to the higher degree of oxidation of ASOA. The ASOA components in mixed ABSOA enhanced aerosol hygroscopicity. Changing the ASOA fraction by adding biogenic VOC (BVOC) to ASOA or vice versa (AVOC to BSOA) changed the hygroscopicity of aerosol, in line with the change in the degree of oxidation of aerosol. However, the hygroscopicity of ABSOA cannot be described by a simple linear combination of pure BSOA and ASOA systems. This indicates that additional processes, possibly oligomerization, affected the hygroscopicity.Closure analysis of CCN and HTDMA data showed κHTDMA was lower than κCCN by 30-70 %. Better closure was achieved for ASOA compared to BSOA. This discrepancy can be attributed to several reasons

  1. Determination of some selected secondary metabolites and their invitro antioxidant activity in commercially available Ethiopian tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizuayehu, Dereje; Atlabachew, Minaleshewa; Ali, Mirtachew Tihar

    2016-01-01

    Eight brands of tea (Camellia sinensis),which are cultivated and commercially available in Ethiopian market, were analyzed for estimation of their total secondary metabolites (polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins) content and free radical scavenging activity which is expressed on dry weight basis. In this present study, the total polyphenols, tannin and flavonoid contents were studied spectrophotometrically using Folin-Dennis, Folin-Dennis/protein precipitation and aluminium chloride methods respectively. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by using DPPH radical assay. Results of the analysis revealed that the total polyphenol content varied from 21.3 ± 0.24 to 31.6 ± 0.31 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dry matter. Total flavonoids content in the tea samples varied from 8.17 ± 0.68 to 23.2 ± 0.68 mg of catechin equivalent/g of dry weight and tannin content varied from 5.64 ± 0.39 7.45 ± 0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of dry weight basis. The free radical scavenging activity among the tea brand samples ranged from 28.8 ± 1.86 to 80.0 ± 0.63 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50%) values varied from 7.3 ± 1.35 to 64.0 ± 2.81 µg/mL of extract. The correlation between the antioxidant activity with total polyphenol content (R = 0.91325), with flavonoids (R = 0.80658) and with tannin (R = 0.73125) was calculated and maximum correlation value was found between polyphenol content and the free radical scavenging activity of the tea samples. The results in this study also revealed that green tea had the higher polyphenolic content and found to have the most promising antioxidant activity. This study further confirmed that Ethiopia tea is reach in phenolic compounds as compared to some overseas tea cultivars/varieties.

  2. Reduced Voluntary Activation During Brief and Sustained Contractions of a Hand Muscle in Secondary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkorte, Ria; Heersema, Dorothea J; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-05-01

    Secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients have structural cortical damage resulting in increased compensatory cortical activity during (submaximal) performance. However, functional effects of changed cortical output are difficult to measure. The interpolated-twitch technique allows for measurement of voluntary activation (VA) necessary for force production. This study aimed to determine VA, force, and muscle fatigue during brief and sustained contractions in SPMS patients. Because fatigue effects are not confined to the motor system, we additionally examined fatiguing effects on cognitive performance. Twenty-five SPMS and 25 sex-, age-, and education-matched participants performed brief (5 seconds) and sustained (2 minutes) maximal index finger abductions. To evaluate VA, double-pulse twitches were evoked before, during, and after contractions. Additionally, data were compared with data obtained in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Subjects also performed choice-reaction time tasks before and after the sustained contraction. During brief contractions, VA (85% vs 94%,P= .004) and force (25 N vs 32 N,P= .011) were lower for SPMS patients than controls. During sustained contractions, VA (P= .001) was also lower, resulting in greater force decline (73% vs 63%,P< .001) and reduced peripheral fatigue (19% vs 50%,P< .001). Comparisons with RRMS resulted in lower VA, greater force decline, and greater estimated central fatigue in SPMS. SPMS patients were slower (P< .001) and made more errors (P< .001) than controls, but neither group reduced their performance after the sustained contraction. SPMS patients had lower VA than RRMS patients and controls. The importance of voluntary activation for muscle force and fatigability warrants targeted rehabilitation strategies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Sprint interval and endurance training are equally effective in increasing muscle microvascular density and eNOS content in sedentary males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Matthew; Shaw, Christopher S; Shepherd, Sam O; Fisher, James P; Ranasinghe, Aaron M; Barker, Thomas A; Tipton, Kevin D; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2013-02-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) has been proposed as a time efficient alternative to endurance training (ET) for increasing skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and improving certain cardiovascular functions. In this study we sought to make the first comparisons of the structural and endothelial enzymatic changes in skeletal muscle microvessels in response to ET and SIT. Sixteen young sedentary males (age 21 ± SEM 0.7 years, BMI 23.8 ± SEM 0.7 kg m(-2)) were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of ET (40-60 min cycling at ∼65% , 5 times per week) or SIT (4-6 Wingate tests, 3 times per week). Muscle biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis before and following 60 min cycling at 65% to measure muscle microvascular endothelial eNOS content, eNOS serine(1177) phosphorylation, NOX2 content and capillarisation using quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy. Whole body insulin sensitivity, arterial stiffness and blood pressure were also assessed. ET and SIT increased skeletal muscle microvascular eNOS content (ET 14%; P < 0.05, SIT 36%; P < 0.05), with a significantly greater increase observed following SIT (P < 0.05). Sixty minutes of moderate intensity exercise increased eNOS ser(1177) phosphorylation in all instances (P < 0.05), but basal and post-exercise eNOS ser(1177) phosphorylation was lower following both training modes. All microscopy measures of skeletal muscle capillarisation (P < 0.05) were increased with SIT or ET, while neither endothelial nor sarcolemmal NOX2 was changed. Both training modes reduced aortic stiffness and increased whole body insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in sedentary males SIT and ET are effective in improving muscle microvascular density and eNOS protein content.

  4. Secondary parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. ...

  5. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase-related regions encode proteins that are active enolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblatt, M J; Richard Albert, J; Mattie, S; Zakaib, J; Dayanandan, S; Hanic-Joyce, P J; Joyce, P B M

    2013-02-01

    In addition to two genes (ENO1 and ENO2) known to code for enolase (EC4.2.1.11), the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains three enolase-related regions (ERR1, ERR2 and ERR3) which could potentially encode proteins with enolase function. Here, we show that products of these genes (Err2p and Err3p) have secondary and quaternary structures similar to those of yeast enolase (Eno1p). In addition, Err2p and Err3p can convert 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate, with kinetic parameters similar to those of Eno1p, suggesting that these proteins could function as enolases in vivo. To address this possibility, we overexpressed the ERR2 and ERR3 genes individually in a double-null yeast strain lacking ENO1 and ENO2, and showed that either ERR2 or ERR3 could complement the growth defect in this strain when cells are grown in medium with glucose as the carbon source. Taken together, these data suggest that the ERR genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode a protein that could function in glycolysis as enolase. The presence of these enolase-related regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their absence in other related yeasts suggests that these genes may play some unique role in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further experiments will be required to determine whether these functions are related to glycolysis or other cellular processes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Mortensen, A; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    . Concentration response curves to carbamylcholine chloride, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and l-NAME were evaluated after precontraction with potassium. Total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and eNOS quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). RESULTS: Plasma cholesterol...... in any of the arteries. Correspondingly, eNOS mRNA was similarly expressed in all treatment groups in both arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of cerebral endothelial function by estrogen or soy isoflavones in ovariectomized WHHL rabbits is not supported by the present data. The findings may be unique...

  7. Activating Junior Secondary School Students’ Prior Knowledge for the Development of Vocabulary, Concepts and Mathematics through Instructional Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Oyinloye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the activation of students’ prior knowledge for the development of vocabulary, concepts and mathematics. It has been observed that many secondary school students are not performing well in the examination conducted by the West African Examinations Council and National Examinations Council of Nigeria. The situation became worrisome because of the dwindling performance of students in English Language and Mathematics which are compulsory subjects for securing admission into tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Four research questions were formulated and translated to test whether a significant difference exist between students’ achievement in comprehension in English Language and Mathematics before and after the treatment. The study is a quasi experimental which involves two hundred and sixty students selected through random sampling technique. The experimental sessions lasted six weeks. The experimental groups were engaged in collaborative work in smaller groups where they discussed issues related to the new topics using their prior knowledge. Experimental and control groups were given pre-test before the commencement of the study and achievement test after the experiment. The data collected was subjected to t-test statistics and the findings of the study show that the students in the experimental group performed better than those in the control group.

  8. CONTENT OF SECONDARY METABOLITES WITH INSECTICIDAL AND REPELLENT ACTIVITY IN THE ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT AND ESSENTIAL OIL OF CHAEROPHYLLUM AROMATICUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. VORONOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most of plant secondary metaboliteshave a safety function to protect plants from pathogens and herbivorous. The important role in the protection of plants from insect pests plays terpenoids and their derivatives.We studied the Chaerophyllumaromaticumessential oil composition in order toreveal the substances which have an insecticidal and repellent activity. This knowledge can make us closer to understand the biochemical basis of host choice in phytophagous, such as close related species of aphids that feed and not feed on Ch.aromaticum.An alcoholic extract and essential oil of Ch.aromaticum were prepared and analyzed with gas chromatography. The alcoholic extract of Ch.aromaticumcontained 39 individual substances.Aninsecticidal and repellent activityis known for14 of them. The average content of sabinenduring the growing season was 15.8 per cent(3.06 and 23.68 per cent at the beginning and at the end of season respectfully.Pinene (13.87%, limonene (1%,γ-terpinene (9.32%, germacrene (6.27%, catechol (3.12%, hydroquinone (3.21% were also presented in the high concentration. Thymol (0.52%, hydrocoumarin (0.71%, β-caryophyllene (0.87%, trans-β-farnesene (4.91%, carotol (3.82% were rarely detected during the growing season. 3-hexen-1-ol which is the phytophagous predator attractant,was only found at the end of the spring in a concentration near 1.5 percent.The total concentrationof metabolites with insecticidal and repellent activity in the Ch. aromaticumessential oil was 6.49 per cent in May, 24.35 per cent in June, and 37.37 per cent in July.The component composition of theessential oil varied during the period of observation. Except of sabinen, catechol and hydroquinone were only presented at the beginning of May.In June the number of toxic componentsincreases to 10 substances, but in July decreases to 8 ones.

  9. The mobile GeoBus outreach project: hands-on Earth and Mars activities for secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruth; Pike, Charlotte; Roper, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Just under 35,000 pupils have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities since the project began in 2012, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run 50 - 80 minute workshops, and half- or whole-day Enterprise Challenges and field excursions. Workshops are aimed at a class of up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are increasingly popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. Enterprise Challenge are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Topics include "Journey to Mars", "Scotland's Rocks", "Drilling for Oil", and "Renewable Energy". Both of the energy Enterprise Challenges were designed to incorporates ideas and

  10. Self-Reported Learning Effects of a Tagging Activity Carried out in a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) by Secondary-School Pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique; Glahn, Christian; Chatti, Amine; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Verpoorten, D., Glahn, C., Chatti, A., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2011). Self-Reported Learning Effects of a Tagging Activity Carried out in a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) by Secondary-School Pupils. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education, 2(1), 276-284.

  11. Secondary School Chemistry Teacher's Current Use of Laboratory Activities and the Impact of Expense on Their Laboratory Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Livermore, Robin A.

    2018-01-01

    In the United States with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)'s emphasis on learning science while doing science, laboratory activities in the secondary school chemistry continues to be an important component of a strong curriculum. Laboratory equipment and consumable materials create a unique expense which chemistry teachers and schools…

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of the Medium of Instruction on Science Learning of Hong Kong Secondary Students: Instructional Activities in Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan; Coyle, Do; Tsang, Wing-Kwong

    2007-01-01

    This article reports part of the findings of a longitudinal study on the effects of a language policy implemented in 1998 on the science learning of junior secondary students. It focuses on the effects of the instructional medium on the instructional activities in science lessons. According to students' responses to a questionnaire, EMI (English…

  13. Simple Protocol for Secondary School Hands-On Activity: Electrophoresis of Pre-Stained Nucleic Acids on Agar-Agar Borate Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britos, Leticia; Goyenola, Guillermo; Orono, Silvia Umpierrez

    2004-01-01

    An extremely simple, inexpensive, and safe method is presented, which emulates nucleic acids isolation and electrophoretic analysis as performed in a research environment, in the context of a secondary school hands-on activity. The protocol is amenable to an interdisciplinary approach, taking into consideration the electrical and chemical…

  14. The Effect of Carrying out Writing to Learn Activities on Academic Success of Fifth Grade Students in Secondary School on the Subject of "Force and Motion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Sabriye; Koksal, Asiye Pinar; Kocak, Gulsen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of writing poems and keeping a journal as writing-to-learn activities on the academic achievement of students in teaching the Force and Motion unit in the Science class of fifth grade students in secondary school. Sample of the study consists of 50 students who study in the fifth grade of two…

  15. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lust Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  16. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Ehlinger, Edward; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary

    2010-04-26

    Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions). The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use) differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  17. Correlates for psycho-active substance use among boarding secondary school adolescents in Enugu, South East, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manyike, Pius C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Chinawa, Awoere T; Obu, Herbert A; Nwokocha, Ada R C; Odetunde, Odutola I

    2016-01-01

    ...; the substances involved and the extent of the problem in this locale. This is a cross-sectional study that assesses the pattern of psychoactive substance use among secondary school adolescents in Enugu, south East, Nigeria...

  18. Provision of secondary frequency control via demand response activation on thermostatically controlled loads: Solutions and experiences from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    loads, they represent a suitable alternative to conventional sources for providing such control. An experimental investigation with domestic fridges representing the TCLs was conducted in an islanded power system to evaluate the secondary frequency control. The investigation quantifies the flexibility...

  19. No structure without culture? A survey study of 15-19 year olds’ practices, preferences and perceptions of physical activity in a Danish upper secondary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Nielsen, Glen; Ottesen, Laila

    2017-01-01

    education (PE), sport and exercise. The study illustrates young people’s practices, preferences and perceptions when physical activity is a gender-integrated activity as is the case in Denmark. The results are discussed in a figurational perspective viewing PE, sport and exercise as interdependent...... the significance of cultural rather than structural circumstances while studying practices, preferences and perceptions of physical activity among young people.......This article presents the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in a Danish upper secondary school where alternative options of physical activity have been provided to the students. The purpose of the study is to gain knowledge about the perspectives of the students concerning physical...

  20. Secondary fractionation processes of dissolved inorganic carbon and CO2 in thermal waters from active and quiescent volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Vaselli, O.; Cabassi, J.; Capecchiacci, F.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the main component of the dry gas phase in hydrothermal and volcanic fluids, being mainly produced by mantle degassing and thermometamorphic reactions on limestone at which a shallow contribution from microbial activity is commonly added. These three different sources can be recognized on the basis of the d13C values, since biogenic CO2 typically shows an isotopic signature significantly more negative (-7‰ V-PDB). Intermediate d13C values are commonly interpreted as due to mixing processes between deep and shallow sources. In this study, the d13C values of CO2 and total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) in thermal waters from distinct hydrothermal/volcanic systems, located in Italy (Campi Flegrei and Vulcano Island) and Chilean Andes (El Tatio), are reported. This dataset includes several carbon isotopic ratios that are not consistent with a pure shallow or deep CO2 origin. Nevertheless the relatively high CO2 concentrations and the water chemistry of these samples clearly indicate that they are not resulting by mixing between the deep and shallow end-members. Calcite deposition, which produces a strong isotopic fractionation on the pristine CO2, seems to represent a reliable alternative explanation for the observed data. It is worth noting that these peculiar isotopic and chemical features have recurrently been recognized in thermal water discharges from different volcanic areas. These results demonstrate that the release of CO2 from primary sources is strongly affected by secondary processes since they act as sinks of CO2. As a consequence, they play an important role for the evaluation of the global budget of CO2 discharged from these natural systems.

  1. Reduction of adhesion molecule production and alteration of eNOS and endothelin-1 mRNA expression in endothelium by Euphorbia hirta L. through its beneficial β-amyrin molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Mei Fen; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2014-07-18

    The inflammatory reaction in large blood vessels involves up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. These vascular dysfunctions are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. β-Amyrin, an active component of Euphorbia hirta L., has potent anti-inflammatory effects. So far, its preventive effects against the expression of inflammatory mediator-induced adhesion molecules have not been investigated. Endothelial cells (SVEC4-10 cell line) were treated with 50% RAW conditioned media (i.e., normal SVEC4-10 culture media contains 50% of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage culture media) without or with β-amyrin (0.6 and 0.3 µM). The production levels of E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in the SVEC4-10 cells were measured with ELISA assay kits. Under the same treatment conditions, expression of endothelin (ET)-1 and endothelial type of NO synthase (eNOS) mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. With β-amyrin, the 50% RAW conditioned media-induced E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels as well as ET-1 gene expression were all suppressed. β-Amyrin treatment also restored the 50% RAW conditioned media-suppressed eNOS mRNA expression. These data indicate that β-amyrin is potentially useful in preventing chronic inflammation-related vascular diseases.

  2. Highly enantioselective organocatalytic oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols using chiral alkoxyamines as precatalysts: catalyst structure, active species, and substrate scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiichi; Sasano, Yusuke; Tomizawa, Masaki; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Kwon, Eunsang; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2014-12-17

    The development and characterization of enantioselective organocatalytic oxidative kinetic resolution (OKR) of racemic secondary alcohols using chiral alkoxyamines as precatalysts are described. A number of chiral alkoxyamines have been synthesized, and their structure-enantioselectivity correlation study in OKR has led us to identify a promising precatalyst, namely, 7-benzyl-3-n-butyl-4-oxa-5-azahomoadamantane, which affords various chiral aliphatic secondary alcohols (ee up to >99%, k(rel) up to 296). In a mechanistic study, chlorine-containing oxoammonium species were identified as the active species generated in situ from the alkoxyamine precatalyst, and it was revealed that the chlorine atom is crucial for high reactivity and enantioselectivity. The present OKR is the first successful example applicable to various unactivated aliphatic secondary alcohols, including heterocyclic alcohols with high enantioselectivity, the synthetic application of which is demonstrated by the synthesis of a bioactive compound.

  3. Xuezhikang, extract of red yeast rice, improved abnormal hemorheology, suppressed caveolin-1 and increased eNOS expression in atherosclerotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yuan Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xuezhikang is the extract of red yeast rice, which has been widely used for the management of atherosclerotic disease, but the molecular basis of its antiatherosclerotic effects has not yet been fully identified. Here we investigated the changes of eNOS in vascular endothelia and RBCs, eNOS regulatory factor Caveolin-1 in endothelia, and hemorheological parameters in atherosclerotic rats to explore the protective effects of Xuezhikang. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 12/group group C, controls; group M, high-cholesterol diet (HCD induced atherosclerotic models; group X, HCD+Xuezhikang; and group L, HCD +Lovastatin. In group X, Xuezhikang inhibited oxidative stress, down-regulated caveolin-1 in aorta wall (P<0.05, up-regulated eNOS expression in vascular endothelia and erythrocytes (P<0.05, increased NOx (nitrite and nitrate in plasma and cGMP in erythrocyte plasma and aorta wall (P<0.05, increased erythrocyte deformation index (EDI, and decreased whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity (P<0.05, with the improvement of arterial pathology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Xuezhikang up-regulated eNOS expression in vascular endothelia and RBCs, increased plasma NOx and improved abnormal hemorheology in high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerotic rats. The elevated eNOS/NO and improved hemorheology may be beneficial to atherosclerotic disease.

  4. Disruption of COX-2 and eNOS does not confer protection from cardiovascular failure in lipopolysaccharide-treated conscious mice and isolated vascular rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Mette; Madsen, Kirsten; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) that was significant after 3 h and was sustained throughout the experiment (8 h). The LPS-induced changes in MAP and HR were not different from control in COX-2(-/-) and eNOS(-/-) mice. A prostacyclin receptor antagonist (BR5064) blocked the hypotensive effect...

  5. Characterization of aerosol photooxidation flow reactors: heterogeneous oxidation, secondary organic aerosol formation and cloud condensation nuclei activity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the need to develop instrumental techniques for characterizing organic aerosol aging, we report on the performance of the Toronto Photo-Oxidation Tube (TPOT and Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM flow tube reactors under a variety of experimental conditions. The PAM system was designed with lower surface-area-to-volume (SA/V ratio to minimize wall effects; the TPOT reactor was designed to study heterogeneous aerosol chemistry where wall loss can be independently measured. The following studies were performed: (1 transmission efficiency measurements for CO2, SO2, and bis(2-ethylhexyl sebacate (BES particles, (2 H2SO4 yield measurements from the oxidation of SO2, (3 residence time distribution (RTD measurements for CO2, SO2, and BES particles, (4 aerosol mass spectra, O/C and H/C ratios, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity measurements of BES particles exposed to OH radicals, and (5 aerosol mass spectra, O/C and H/C ratios, CCN activity, and yield measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA generated from gas-phase OH oxidation of m-xylene and α-pinene. OH exposures ranged from (2.0 ± 1.0 × 1010 to (1.8 ± 0.3 × 1012 molec cm−3 s. Where applicable, data from the flow tube reactors are compared with published results from the Caltech smog chamber. The TPOT yielded narrower RTDs. However, its transmission efficiency for SO2 was lower than that for the PAM. Transmission efficiency for BES and H2SO4 particles was size-dependent and was similar for the two flow tube designs. Oxidized BES particles had similar O/C and H/C ratios and CCN activity at OH exposures greater than 1011 molec cm−3 s, but different CCN activity at lower OH exposures. The O/C ratio, H/C ratio, and yield of m-xylene and α-pinene SOA was strongly affected by reactor design and

  6. A qualitative examination of factors related to the decrease in physical activity behavior in adolescent girls during the transition from primary to secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa; Fawkner, Samantha

    2011-11-01

    Quantitative research has suggested that the decline in physical activity levels for adolescent girls is most marked during the transition from primary school to secondary school yet understanding the contributing factors for this decline may be advanced through qualitative research methods to gain an individual perspective of the girls' school transition experience. This study explored factors related to the decrease in physical activity behavior in 14 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.6 ± 0.3 years) during the transition between primary and secondary school through the use of narrative interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. The findings suggested that a change in the environment was central to understanding the decline in physical activity levels since primary school. During secondary school, a positive environment can be created by ensuring a choice of activities in Physical Education lessons; allowing a girls-only environment, to reduce the focus on competence and competition, and recognizing the importance of social support. These could enhance self-perceptions, reduce self-presentational concerns, increase enjoyment, and subsequently reduce the decrease in physical activity behavior during this key transitional period.

  7. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C S Boa

    Full Text Available Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30 starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change, return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30, high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET (HFEX, n = 30 and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30. Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM (HF4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8 M (HF87.9±2.7%; (HFSC*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6 M (HF95.3±3.1%; (HFSC*126±6.2%; (HFEX*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4 M (HF109.5±4.8%; (HFSC*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF40.5±4.2; (HFSC*19.0±1.6; (HFEX*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2, decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial-independent microvascular

  8. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boa, Beatriz C S; Souza, Maria das Graças C; Leite, Richard D; da Silva, Simone V; Barja-Fidalgo, Thereza Christina; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30) starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change), return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30), high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET) (HFEX, n = 30) and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30). Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM) (HF)4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX)4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC)*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX)*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8) M (HF)87.9±2.7%; (HFSC)*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX)*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX)*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6) M (HF)95.3±3.1%; (HFSC)*126±6.2%; (HFEX)*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX)*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4) M (HF)109.5±4.8%; (HFSC)*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX)*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX)*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF)40.5±4.2; (HFSC)*19.0±1.6; (HFEX)*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX)* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2), decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial

  9. A Multilevel Prediction of Physiological Response to Challenge: Interactions among Child Maltreatment, Neighborhood Crime, eNOS and GABRA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins – i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment – and specific genetic polymorphisms of eNOS and GABRA6. A total of 186 children were recruited at age 4. At this time, the presence or absence of child maltreatment was determined, as was the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge – i.e., change in the amplitude of RSA – was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. Results confirmed that complex G x G, E x E, and G x E interactions were associated with different patterns of RSA reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed. PMID:26535938

  10. Changes in physical activity during the transition from primary to secondary school in Belgian children: what is the role of the school environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Key life periods have been associated with changes in physical activity (PA). This study investigated (1) how PA changes when primary school children transfer to secondary school, (2) if school environmental characteristics differ between primary and secondary schools and (3) if changes in school environmental characteristics can predict changes in PA in Belgian schoolchildren. Moderating effects of gender and the baseline level of PA were investigated for the first and third research question. Methods In total, 736 children (10–13 years) of the last year of primary school participated in the first phase of this longitudinal study. Two years later, 502 of these children (68.2%) agreed to participate in the second phase. Accelerometers, pedometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to measure PA. School environmental characteristics were reported by the school principals. Cross-classified regression models were conducted to analyze the data. Results S elf-reported active transport to school and accelerometer weekday moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) increased after the transition to secondary school while self-reported extracurricular PA and total PA decreased. Pedometer weekday step counts decreased, but this decrease was only apparent among those who achieved the PA guidelines in primary school. Secondary schools scored higher on the school environmental characteristics: provision of sports and PA during lunch break, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy but lower on sports and PA after-school than primary schools. Changes in the school environmental characteristics: active commuting to school, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy resulted in changes in self-reported extracurricular PA, total PA , pedometer/accelerometer determined step counts and accelerometer determined MVPA. Moderating effects were found for baseline PA and gender. Conclusion PA changed after the transition to

  11. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=12), HIIT for an acute bout (AT1), short term HIIT for 3 and 5 sessions (ST3 and ST5), long-term training for 8 weeks (LT) (6 in each group). The rats of the training groups were made to run on a treadmill for 60 min in three stages: 6 min running for warm-up, 7 intervals of 7 min running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 min with an intensity of 80-110% VO2max and 3 min at 50-60% VO2max), and 5-min running for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Rats were sacrificed and the hearts were extracted to analyze the levels of UCP2, UCP3 and eNOS mRNA by RT-PCR. Results: UCP3 expression was increased significantly following an acute training bout. Repeated HIIT for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in UCPs mRNA and a significant increase in eNOS expression in cardiac muscle. Conclusion: This study indicates that Long term HIIT through decreasing UCPs mRNA and increasing eNOS mRNA expression may enhance energy efficiency and physical performance. PMID:27114795

  12. Highly glycosylated alpha1-acid glycoprotein is synthesized in myelocytes, stored in secondary granules, and released by activated neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Jacobsen, Lars C; Rasmussen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    enriched in promyelocytes, myelocytes/metamyelocytes (MYs), and BM neutrophils. These analyses demonstrated a transient, high mRNA expression of genuine secondary/tertiary granule proteins and AGP in MYs. In agreement with this, immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of AGP protein and the secondary...... granule protein lactoferrin in cells from the MY stage and throughout granulocytic differentiation. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated the colocalization of AGP and lactoferrin in secondary granules of neutrophils. This finding was substantiated by the failure to detect AGP and lactoferrin in blood......Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is an acute-phase protein produced by hepatocytes and secreted into plasma in response to infection/injury. We recently assessed the transcriptional program of terminal granulocytic differentiation by microarray analysis of bone marrow (BM) populations highly...

  13. Increased capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia as a marker of abnormal sensory activity in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, V; Cruwys, S; Kidd, B

    1998-07-10

    In this study, capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia was assessed as a marker of abnormal nociceptive processing in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The area of mechanical secondary hyperalgesia induced by a standard solution of capsaicin placed on the volar forearm was measured in ten patients with FM and the results compared to those obtained in ten patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ten normal subjects. The area of secondary hyperalgesia was found to be substantially increased in both the FM and RA groups compared with controls. In the FM group the area of hyperalgesia correlated with the overall pain score and with the joint tenderness score. The results suggest that in FM there is enhanced sensitivity of nociceptive neurones at a spinal level, thereby supporting the concept of a generalised disturbance of pain modulation in this disorder.

  14. Teaching molecular diffusion using an inquiry approach : diffusion activities in a secondary school inquiry-learning community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rens, L.; van der Schee, J.; Pilot, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch chemistry curriculum for upper secondary schools has prescribed inquiry-based student learning since 1997. For some decades inquiry tasks have been a feature of school science in various countries (1). As in other countries, some of our chemistry teachers are used to recipe-geared

  15. Organizing and Establishing a Media and Research Services Center in a Secondary Vocational-Technical School: Procedures, Activities, Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Anne

    Intended both as a report on an Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) Title IV project and as a guide for others wishing to initiate centralized media services in vocational-technical schools, this document describes the planning, funding, establishment, and the 1980 to 1983 operations of the Natchez Vocational Media and Research…

  16. Activation of the dormant secondary metabolite production by introducing gentamicin-resistance in a marine-derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yun-Jing; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Tian, Cong-Kui; Hua, Wei

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to activate silent gene clusters for dormant secondary metabolite production has been developed by introducing gentamicin-resistance to an originally inactive, marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium purpurogenum G59. Upon treatment of the G59 spores with a high concentration of gentamicin in aqueous DMSO, a total of 181 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. In contrast to the strain G59, the EtOAc extracts of nine mutant cultures showed inhibitory effects on K562 cells, indicating that the nine mutants had acquired capability to produce antitumor metabolites. This was evidenced by TLC and HPLC analysis of EtOAc extracts of G59 and the nine mutants. Further isolation and characterization demonstrated that four antitumor secondary metabolites, janthinone (1), fructigenine A (2), aspterric acid methyl ester (3) and citrinin (4), were newly produced by mutant 5-1-4 compared to the parent strain G59, and which were also not found in the secondary metabolites of other Penicillium purpurogenum strains. However, Compounds 1-4 inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells with inhibition rates of 34.6% (1), 60.8% (2), 31.7% (3) and 67.1% (4) at 100 μg/mL, respectively. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of a simple, yet practical approach to activate the production of dormant fungal secondary metabolites by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, which could be applied to the studies for eliciting dormant metabolic potential of fungi to obtain cryptic secondary metabolites.

  17. Changing from primary to secondary school highlights opportunities for school environment interventions aiming to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour: a longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M.; Strugnell, Claudia; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little empirical evidence of the impact of transition from primary to secondary school on obesity-related risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a change of school system on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in pre-early adolescents. Methods Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia were recruited at random from the bottom two strata of a five level socio-economic scale. In nine schools, students in year 6 primary school transition...

  18. Light-induced fluctuations in biomass accumulation, secondary metabolites production and antioxidant activity in cell suspension cultures of Artemisia absinthium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2014-11-01

    Light is an important factor influencing plant morphogenesis and biochemical pathways, including biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites. In the present study, we investigated the differential effect of light on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolites production in cell suspension cultures of Artemisia absinthium L. A prolonged log phase of 21 days was followed by light-grown cultures. Light-grown cultures displayed 3.9-fold maximum increase (8.88 g/l) in dry biomass on day 30 of culture which was comparable to 3.7-fold maximum increase (9.2 g/l) on day 27 in dark-grown cultures. Compared to dark grown-cultures, enhanced levels of total phenolic content (5.32 mg/g DW), total phenolic production (42.96 mg/l) and total secondary metabolites (6.79 mg/g) were found in light-grown suspension cultures during the log phase of growth. Further, a positive correlation among maximum levels of antioxidant activity (63.8%), total phenolic production (42.96 mg/l) and total secondary metabolites (6.79 mg/g DW) was displayed by light-grown suspension cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Secondary amenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot of weight suddenly (for example, from strict or extreme diets or after gastric bypass surgery ) ... secondary amenorrhea and precocious puberty: etiology, diagnostic evaluation, management. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz ...

  20. Evaluation of Protective Immune Responses Induced by Recombinant TrxLp and ENO2 Proteins against Toxoplasma gondii Infection in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan that can infect almost all species of warm-blooded animals. As any chemical-based drugs could not act against the tissue cyst stage of T. gondii, vaccination may be one of the ideal control strategies. In the present study, two new vaccine candidates, named TgENO2 and TgTrxLp, were purified from Escherichia coli with pET-30a(+ expression system and then were injected into BALB/c mice to evaluate the protective efficacy against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. The results showed that both the recombinant proteins, either alone or in combination, could elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses with a higher level of IgG antibodies, IFN-γ, IL-2, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells as compared to those in mice from control groups. After acute challenge with tachyzoites of the GJS strain, mice immunized with rTgTrxLp (8±2.77 d, rTgENO2 (7.4±1.81 d, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 (8.38±4.57 d proteins showed significantly longer survival time than those that received Freund’s adjuvant (6.78±2.08 d and PBS (6.38±4.65 d (χ2 = 9.687, df = 4, P=0.046. The protective immunity of rTgTrxLp, rTgENO2, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 proteins against chronic T. gondii infection showed 69.77%, 58.14%, and 20.93% brain cyst reduction as compared to mice that received PBS. The present study suggested that both TgENO2 and TgTrxLp were potential candidates for the development of multicomponent vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

  1. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  2. Investigation on Secondary Structure Perturbations of Proteins Embedded in Solid Lipid Matrices as a Novel Indicator of their Biological Activity upon In Vitro Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeeshan, Farrukh; Tabbassum, Misbah; Jorgensen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    Protein biologics are prone to conformational changes during formulation development. Limited methods are available for conformational analysis of proteins in solid state and in the presences of formulation excipients. The aim of this study was to investigate the secondary structures of proteins...... encased in solid lipid matrices as a novel indicator of their stability upon in vitro release. Model proteins namely catalase and lysozyme were incorporated into lipid namely Precirol® AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58°C) at 30% w/w loading using melting and mixing and wet granulation...... methods. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and biological activity analyses were performed. The information about secondary structure was acquired using second derivative analysis of amide-I band (1600-1700 cm(-1)). ATR analysis demonstrated...

  3. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samdal Oddrun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Results Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.93–10.44 higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65–11.28, outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32–2.40, playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.42 and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18–2.10 were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might

  4. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Mortensen, A; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of estrogen replacement therapy or soy isoflavones supplement on endothelium-dependent relaxation in vitro and gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cerebral arteries in a rabbit model of human hypercholesterolemia. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty....... Concentration response curves to carbamylcholine chloride, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and l-NAME were evaluated after precontraction with potassium. Total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and eNOS quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). RESULTS: Plasma cholesterol...... was significantly higher at termination in the SoyLife group (Pendothelium-dependent responses to carbamylcholine chloride or l-NAME or the endothelium-independent response to SNP...

  5. Production of cyathane type secondary metabolites by submerged cultures ofHericium erinaceusand evaluation of their antibacterial activity by direct bioautography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T; Morlock, G; Zorn, H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota are well-known to form a broad spectrum of biologically active secondary metabolites, especially low molecular weight compounds such as terpenoids. Hericium erinaceus produces various cyathane type diterpenoids including erinacines. However, no quantitative data and production kinetics have been reported on the biosynthesis of the erinacines C and P in submerged cultures. In the present study, the production of erinacine C was optimized, and the product formation kinetics as well as the antimicrobial activity were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and direct bioautography. Oatmeal and Edamin ® K were identified to be crucial media components for an efficient production of erinacine C. The highest concentrations of erinacine C were obtained in the optimized culture medium on the 9 th culture day (approximately 260 mg L -1 ). The production of erinacine P was strongly time dependent. The maximum concentration of erinacine P of 184 mg L -1 was observed on the third culture day. Afterwards, the concentrations of erinacine P decreased while the concentrations of erinacine C steadily increased. Comparable results were obtained by HPTLC with UV detection and HPLC with diode-array detection (DAD) analyses. Direct bioautography allowed for an additional analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the secondary metabolites. The C and N sources oatmeal and Edamin ® K induced the formation of erinacine C. Detailed product formation kinetics of the erinacines C and P have been reported for the first time. HPTLC combined with the Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay allowed for an instant detection of cyathane diterpenoids in crude extracts and for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the secondary metabolites directly on the plate.

  6. A structure-activity study of Ni-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling. Improved catalysts for coupling of secondary alkyl halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peng; Vechorkin, Oleg; von Allmen, Kim; Scopelliti, Rosario; Hu, Xile

    2011-05-11

    A structure-activity study was carried out for Ni catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Kumada-type cross coupling reactions. A series of new nickel(II) complexes including those with tridentate pincer bis(amino)amide ligands ((R)N(2)N) and those with bidentate mixed amino-amide ligands ((R)NN) were synthesized and structurally characterized. The coordination geometries of these complexes range from square planar, tetrahedral, to square pyramidal. The complexes had been examined as precatalysts for cross coupling of nonactivated alkyl halides, particularly secondary alkyl iodides, with alkyl Grignard reagents. Comparison was made to the results obtained with the previously reported Ni pincer complex [((Me)N(2)N)NiCl]. A transmetalation site in the precatalysts is necessary for the catalysis. The coordination geometries and spin-states of the precatalysts have a small or no influence. The work led to the discovery of several well-defined Ni catalysts that are significantly more active and efficient than the pincer complex [((Me)N(2)N)NiCl] for the coupling of secondary alkyl halides. The best two catalysts are [((H)NN)Ni(PPh(3))Cl] and [((H)NN)Ni(2,4-lutidine)Cl]. The improved activity and efficiency was attributed to the fact that phosphine and lutidine ligands in these complexes can dissociate from the Ni center during catalysis. The activation of alkyl halides was shown to proceed via a radical mechanism. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus O.; Mortensen, Alicja; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    recordings. Concentration response curves to carbamylcholine chloride, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and L-NAME were evaluated after precontraction with potassium. Total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and eNOS quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). Results: Plasma...... be unique to the WHHL rabbit in which the hypocholesterolemic effect of estrogens mediated by upregulation of liver LDL receptors is excluded....

  8. eNOS overexpressing bone marrow cells are safe and effective in a porcine model of myocardial regeneration following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael R; Connelly, Kim A; Vijayaraghavan, Ram; Vaags, Andrea K; Graham, John J; Foltz, Warren; Hough, Margaret R; Stewart, Duncan J; Dick, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Cell therapy has been shown to be effective in improving LV function postmyocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that eNOS-transfected bone marrow cells (BMCs) are safe in a swine model of myocardial infarction (MI). We also hypothesized that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) transfection would enhance cell function, as assessed by myocardial functional recovery post-MI. Fifteen female Yorkshire pigs underwent bone marrow aspiration and creation of MI. Bone marrow cells were cultured for 7 days, and each pig received either autologous BMCs transiently transfected with eNOS plasmid (eNOS-BMC, n = 5), nontransfected BMCs (nt-BMC, n = 4), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (n = 6). Cardiac MRI was performed at baseline (1 week post-MI) and 6 weeks post-MI. There was no difference in safety outcomes between groups. Absolute left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 6 weeks showed a trend toward improvement in both cell therapy groups compared with baseline but worsened in the PBS control group. The absolute improvement in LVEF was significantly greater in both cell therapy groups compared with PBS control. Infarct mass was significantly lower in the eNOS-BMC group between baseline and 6 weeks, but the absolute change in infarct mass was not different between groups. Finally, there was a trend toward reduced LV mass in the eNOS-BMC group. Bone marrow cell delivery, with and without eNOS overexpression, is safe and leads to improvement in LVEF when administered in the coronary circulation 7 days following acute MI in swine. Transfection of healthy BMCs with eNOS resulted in some improvement in left ventricular remodeling. Further study is warranted in a preclinical model that approximates the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on BMC function. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Secondary dressings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Wound management imposes a defined approach to each phase of healing and thereby the need for in-depth knowledge of the various medical devices available: primary and secondary dressings. Secondary dressings are essential as they have an impact on the efficacy of the primary dressing. Their role is to protect, reinforce and cover the primary dressing. In practice, it is usually nurses who have the responsibility of selecting and prescribing the most suitable dressing for the wound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between eNOS 4b/a Polymorphism and the Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-jun Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have assessed the association between eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR among type 2 diabetic subjects. However, the results are inconsistent. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the association, a meta-analysis was conducted. Fifteen studies with 3, 183 cases and 3, 410 controls were enrolled by searching the databases of Pubmed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and Chinese Wanfang Database. Summary odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. The main analysis indicated no significant association between eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of DR in overall population [allelic model: OR=0.94 (0.79–1.11; additive model: OR=0.91 (0.73–1.14; recessive model: OR=1.01 (0.81–1.25; dominant model: OR=0.91 (0.75–1.09]. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity also indicated no significant association. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis did not observe any association between the polymorphism of eNOS 4b/a and the risk of DR among type 2 diabetic subjects. However, larger well-designed studies are required to confirm this finding.

  11. Exercise Training Could Improve Age-Related Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow and Capillary Vascularity through the Upregulation of VEGF and eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheepsumon Viboolvorakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise training on age-induced microvascular alterations in the brain. Additionally, the association with the protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was also assessed. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary-young (SE-Young, n=5, sedentary aged (SE-Aged, n=8, immersed-aged (IM-Aged, n=5, and exercise trained-aged (ET-Aged, 60 minutes/day and 5 days/week for 8 weeks, n=8 rats. The MAPs of all aged groups, SE-Aged, IM-Aged, and ET-Aged, were significantly higher than that of the SE-Young group. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the SE-Aged and IM-Aged was significantly decreased as compared to SE-Young groups. However, rCBF of ET-Aged group was significantly higher than that in the IM-Aged group (P<0.05. Moreover, the percentage of capillary vascularity (%CV and the levels of VEGF and eNOS in the ET-Aged group were significantly increased compared to the IM-Aged group (P<0.05. These results imply that exercise training could improve age-induced microvascular changes and hypoperfusion closely associated with the upregulation of VEGF and eNOS.

  12. Counselling low-back-pain patients in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2012-01-01

    physical activity and maximum oxygen uptake, supported compliance and adherence to the part of the intervention focusing on enhanced physical activity. CONCLUSION: Two short counselling sessions by an OP combining advice on meeting workplace barriers and enhancing physical activity had a substantial effect...

  13. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  14. Secondary dyslipidaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    (e.g. metabolic syndrome, syndrome X), play a dominant role in causing dyslipi- daemia and in the genesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Secondary causes of dyslipidaemia should always be consid- ered and may be important for several reasons: • they uncover other underlying diseases that require specific treatment.

  15. Screening of the in vitro antileishmanial activities of compounds and secondary metabolites isolated from Maytenus guianensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae chichuá Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION Maytenus guianensis is a member of the Celastraceae family that is used in traditional medicine, particularly for its anti-parasitic and anti-cancer effects. To explore the ethnopharmacological potential of this plant, the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antileishmanial activities of extracts and compounds isolated from M. guianensis. METHODS Maytenus guianensis stems and leaves were extracted in acetone, followed by the preparation of eluates and isolation of secondary metabolites using chromatography on a glass column with silica gel as the fixed phase. The chemical components were identified using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen-1 and carbon-13, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of these eluates and compounds were evaluated by direct promastigote counting and viability assays. RESULTS It was found that the hexane bark eluate produced the strongest anti-L. amazonensis effect, with 90-100% inhibition of the promastigote form. The isolated metabolite that produced the best result was tingenone B, followed by a compound formed by the union of tingenone and tingenone B (80-90% inhibition. CONCLUSIONS Maytenus guianensis shows anti-parasite activity that warrants further investigation to determine the mechanisms underlying this antileishmanial effect and to evaluate the pharmacological potential of these eluates and isolated secondary metabolites, while minimizing any adverse effects.

  16. Screening of the in vitro antileishmanial activities of compounds and secondary metabolites isolated from Maytenus guianensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae) chichuá Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira; Lima, Renato Abreu; Hurtado, Fernanda Bay; Passarini, Guilherme Matos; Macedo, Sharon Rose Aragão; Barros, Neuza Biguinati de; Oliveira, Flávio Augusto de Souza; Medeiros, Patrícia Soares de Maria de; Militão, Júlio Sancho Linhares Teixeira; Nicolete, Roberto; Facundo, Valdir Alves

    2016-01-01

    Maytenus guianensis is a member of the Celastraceae family that is used in traditional medicine, particularly for its anti-parasitic and anti-cancer effects. To explore the ethnopharmacological potential of this plant, the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antileishmanial activities of extracts and compounds isolated from M. guianensis. Maytenus guianensis stems and leaves were extracted in acetone, followed by the preparation of eluates and isolation of secondary metabolites using chromatography on a glass column with silica gel as the fixed phase. The chemical components were identified using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen-1 and carbon-13, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of these eluates and compounds were evaluated by direct promastigote counting and viability assays. It was found that the hexane bark eluate produced the strongest anti-L. amazonensis effect, with 90-100% inhibition of the promastigote form. The isolated metabolite that produced the best result was tingenone B, followed by a compound formed by the union of tingenone and tingenone B (80-90% inhibition). Maytenus guianensis shows anti-parasite activity that warrants further investigation to determine the mechanisms underlying this antileishmanial effect and to evaluate the pharmacological potential of these eluates and isolated secondary metabolites, while minimizing any adverse effects.

  17. AKT3, ANGPTL4, eNOS3, and VEGFA associations with high altitude sickness in Han and Tibetan Chinese at the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buroker, Norman E; Ning, Xue-Han; Zhou, Zhao-Nian; Li, Kui; Cen, Wei-Jun; Wu, Xiu-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Scott, C Ronald; Chen, Shi-Han

    2012-08-01

    Mountain sickness (MS) occurs among humans visiting or inhabiting high altitude environments. We conducted genetic analyses of the AKT3, ANGPTL4, eNOS3 and VEGFA genes in lowland (Han) and highland (Tibetan) Chinese. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated in Han and Tibetan patients with acute (A) and chronic (C) MS. We compared 74 patients with AMS to 79 Han unaffected with MS, as well as 48 CMS patients to 31 unaffected Tibetans. The ten SNPs studied are AKT3 (rs4590656, rs2291409), ANGPTL4 (rs1044250), eNOS3 (rs1007311, rs1799983) and VEGFA (rs79469752, rs13207351, rs28357093, rs1570360, rs3025039). Direct sequencing was used to identify individual genotypes for these SNPs. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and red blood cell count (RBC) were found to be significantly associated with the AKT3 SNP (rs4590656), Hb was found to be associated with the eNOS3 SNP (rs1007311), and RBC was found to be significantly associated with the VEGFA SNP (rs1570360) in Tibetan patients with CMS. CMS patients were found to diverge significantly for both eNOS3 SNPs as measured by genetic distance (0.042, 0.047) and for the VEGFA SNP (rs28357093) with a genetic distance of 0.078 compared to their Tibetan control group. Heart rate (HR) was found to be significantly associated with the eNOS3 SNP (rs1799983) and arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) was found to be significantly associated with the VEGFA SNPs (rs13207351, rs1570360) in Han patients with AMS. The Han and Tibetan control groups were found to diverge significantly for the ANGPTL4 SNP and VEGFA SNP (rs28357093), as measured by genetic distances of 0.049 and 0.073, respectively. Seven of the SNPs from non-coding regions are found in the transcriptional factor response elements and their possible role in gene regulation was evaluated with regard to MS. AMS and CMS were found to be significantly associated with the four genes compared to their Han and Tibetan control groups, respectively

  18. Barriers to Physical Activity in Low Back Pain Patients following Rehabilitation: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schaller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Promoting health-enhancing physical activity following rehabilitation is a well-known challenge. This study analysed the barriers to leisure time activity among low back pain patients. Methods. A subset of 192 low back pain patients who participated in a randomized controlled trial promoting physical activity was analysed. Physical activity, barriers, and sociodemographic and indication-related variables were assessed by a questionnaire. Differences in barriers between active and inactive participants were tested by Pearson’s chi squared test. A logistic regression model was fitted to identify influencing factors on physical activity at six months following rehabilitation. Results. Inactive and active participants differed significantly in nine of the 19 barriers assessed. The adjusted regression model showed associations of level of education (OR = 5.366 [1.563; 18.425]; p value = 0.008 and fear of pain (OR = 0.612 [0.421; 0.889]; p value = 0.010 with physical activity. The barriers included in the model failed to show any statistically significant association after adjustment for sociodemographic factors. Conclusions. Low back pain patients especially with a low level of education and fear of pain seem to need tailored support in overcoming barriers to physical activity. This study is registered at German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00004878.

  19. Relationship between Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity among Primary and Secondary School Students: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…

  20. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  1. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  2. Changing from primary to secondary school highlights opportunities for school environment interventions aiming to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Strugnell, Claudia; Allender, Steven

    2015-05-08

    There is little empirical evidence of the impact of transition from primary to secondary school on obesity-related risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a change of school system on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in pre-early adolescents. Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia were recruited at random from the bottom two strata of a five level socio-economic scale. In nine schools, students in year 6 primary school transitioned to a different school for year 7 secondary school, while in six schools (combined primary-secondary), students remained in the same school environment from year 6 to year 7. Time 1 (T1) measures were collected from students (N=245) in year 6 (age 11-13). Time 2 (T2) data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original student cohort when in year 7. PA and sedentary behaviour data were collected objectively (via ActiGraph accelerometer) and subjectively (via child self-report recall questionnaire). School environment data were collected via school staff survey. Change of behaviour analyses were conducted longitudinally i) for all students and ii) by change/no change of school. Mixed model regression analysis tested for behavioural interaction effects of changing/not changing school. Sixty-three percent (N=152) changed schools from T1 to T2. Across all students we observed declines in average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (-4 min) and light PA (-23 min), and increases in average daily sedentary behaviour (16 min), weekday leisure screen time (17 min) and weekday homework screen time (25 min), all Penvironment, students who changed school reported a greater reduction in PA intensity at recess and lunch, less likelihood to cycle to/from school, greater increase in weekday (41 mins) and weekend (45 mins) leisure screen time (Penvironments.

  3. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Sun Lee

    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  4. Inhaled nitric oxide decreases pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in normal newborn rat lungs

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    Thông Hua-Huy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO is commonly used in the treatment of very ill pre-term newborns. Previous studies showed that exogenous NO could affect endothelial NO synthase (eNOS activity and expression in vascular endothelial cell cultures or adult rat models, but this has never been fully described in newborn rat lungs. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of iNO on eNOS expression and activity in newborn rats. Rat pups, post-natal day (P 0 to P7, and their dams were placed in a chamber containing NO at 5 ppm (iNO-5 ppm group or 20 ppm (iNO-20 ppm group, or in room air (control group. Rat pups were sacrificed at P7 and P14 for evaluation of lung eNOS expression and activity. At P7, eNOS protein expression in total lung lysates, in bronchial and arterial sections, was significantly decreased in the iNO-20 ppm versus control group. At P14, eNOS expression was comparable among all three groups. The amounts of eNOS mRNA significantly differed at P7 between the iNO-20 ppm and control groups. NOS activity decreased in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7 and returned to normal levels at P14. There was an imbalance between superoxide dismutase and NOS activities in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7. Inhalation of NO at 20 ppm early after birth decreases eNOS gene transcription, protein expression and enzyme activity. This decrease might account for the rebound phenomenon observed in patients treated with iNO.

  5. Demographic factors, workplace factors and active transportation use in the USA: a secondary analysis of 2009 NHTS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Tyler D; Jakicic, John M; Fertman, Carl I; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2017-05-01

    While active transportation has health, economic and environmental benefits, participation within the USA is low. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships of demographic and workplace factors with health-enhancing active transportation and commuting. Participants in the 2009 National Household Travel Survey reported demographics, workplace factors (time/distance to work, flextime availability, option to work from home and work start time) and active transportation (for any purpose) or commuting (to and from work, workers only) as walking or biking (≥10 min bouts only). Multiple logistic regression examined cross-sectional relationships between demographics and workplace factors with active transportation and commuting. Among 152 573 participants, active transportation was reported by 1.11% by biking and 11.74% by walking. Among 111 808 working participants, active commuting was reported by 0.80% by biking and 2.76% by walking. Increased odds (ptransportation were associated with younger age, lower income, urban dwelling, and the highest and lowest education categories. Males had greater odds of commuting and transporting by bike but decreased odds of walk transporting. Inconsistent patterns were observed by race, but whites had greater odds of any biking (ptransportation differed across demographic and workplace factors. These relationships could inform infrastructure policy decisions and workplace wellness programming targeting increased active transportation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Thrombin-induced lysosomal exocytosis in human platelets is dependent on secondary activation by ADP and regulated by endothelial-derived substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, Anna L; Svensson Holm, Ann-Charlotte B; Ramström, Sofia; Lindström, Eva G; Grenegård, Magnus; Öllinger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Exocytosis of lysosomal contents from platelets has been speculated to participate in clearance of thrombi and vessel wall remodelling. The mechanisms that regulate lysosomal exocytosis in platelets are, however, still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the pathways underlying platelet lysosomal secretion and elucidate how this process is controlled by platelet inhibitors. We found that high concentrations of thrombin induced partial lysosomal exocytosis as assessed by analysis of the activity of released N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) and by identifying the fraction of platelets exposing the lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1 on the cell surface by flow cytometry. Stimulation of thrombin receptors PAR1 or PAR4 with specific peptides was equally effective in inducing LAMP-1 surface expression. Notably, lysosomal exocytosis in response to thrombin was significantly reduced if the secondary activation by ADP was inhibited by the P2Y12 antagonist cangrelor, while inhibition of thromboxane A2 formation by treatment with acetylsalicylic acid was of minor importance in this regard. Moreover, the NO-releasing drug S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) or the cyclic AMP-elevating eicosanoid prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) significantly suppressed lysosomal exocytosis. We conclude that platelet inhibitors that mimic functional endothelium such as PGI2 or NO efficiently counteract lysosomal exocytosis. Furthermore, we suggest that secondary release of ADP and concomitant signaling via PAR1/4- and P2Y12 receptors is important for efficient platelet lysosomal exocytosis by thrombin.

  7. Knowledge of patients after myocardial infarction on the role of physical activity in secondary prevention and factors that determine its

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іndyka S.Y.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of research of knowledge of patients are expounded after the heart attack of myocardium about the role of physical activity in the second prophylaxis. Questionnaires are conducted 333 patients. Collected socially-demographic information in relation to education of patients, domestic state, employment and financial status. It is set that only 37,3 % patients engaged in physical exercises. In 28 % patients insufficient motive activity is marked. The low level of knowledge is exposed in relation to the role of physical activity in the decline of risk of the repeated heart attack of myocardium.

  8. Controlling Surface Morphology and Circumventing Secondary Phase Formation in Non-polar m-GaN by Tuning Nitrogen Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. W.; Wadekar, P. V.; Guo, S. S.; Cheng, Y. J.; Chou, M.; Huang, H. C.; Hsieh, W. C.; Lai, W. C.; Chen, Q. Y.; Tu, L. W.

    2018-01-01

    For the development of non-polar nitrides based optoelectronic devices, high-quality films with smooth surfaces, free of defects or clusters, are critical. In this work, the mechanisms governing the topography and single phase epitaxy of non-polar m-plane gallium nitride ( m-GaN) thin films are studied. The samples were grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane sapphire substrates. Growth of pure m-GaN thin films, concomitant with smooth surfaces is possible at low radio frequency powers and high growth temperatures as judged by the high resolution x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy measurements. Defect types and densities are quantified using transmission electron microscopy, while Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the in-plane stress in the thin films which matches the lattice mismatch analysis. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence support a congruent growth and a dominant near band edge emission. From the analysis, a narrow growth window is discovered wherein epitaxial growth of pure m-plane GaN samples free of secondary phases with narrow rocking curves and considerable smooth surfaces are successfully demonstrated.

  9. Controlling Surface Morphology and Circumventing Secondary Phase Formation in Non-polar m-GaN by Tuning Nitrogen Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. W.; Wadekar, P. V.; Guo, S. S.; Cheng, Y. J.; Chou, M.; Huang, H. C.; Hsieh, W. C.; Lai, W. C.; Chen, Q. Y.; Tu, L. W.

    2017-09-01

    For the development of non-polar nitrides based optoelectronic devices, high-quality films with smooth surfaces, free of defects or clusters, are critical. In this work, the mechanisms governing the topography and single phase epitaxy of non-polar m-plane gallium nitride (m-GaN) thin films are studied. The samples were grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane sapphire substrates. Growth of pure m-GaN thin films, concomitant with smooth surfaces is possible at low radio frequency powers and high growth temperatures as judged by the high resolution x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy measurements. Defect types and densities are quantified using transmission electron microscopy, while Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the in-plane stress in the thin films which matches the lattice mismatch analysis. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence support a congruent growth and a dominant near band edge emission. From the analysis, a narrow growth window is discovered wherein epitaxial growth of pure m-plane GaN samples free of secondary phases with narrow rocking curves and considerable smooth surfaces are successfully demonstrated.

  10. Measurement of secondary cosmic ray intensity at Regener-Pfotzer height using low-cost weather balloons and its correlation with solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Pal, Partha Sarathi; Bhowmick, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic ray flux in our planetary system is primarily modulated by solar activity. Radiation effects of cosmic rays on the Earth strongly depend on latitude due to the variation of the geomagnetic field strength. To study these effects we carried out a series of measurements of the radiation characteristics in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays from various places (geomagnetic latitude: ∼14.50°N) in West Bengal, India, located near the Tropic of Cancer, for several years (2012-2016) particularly covering the solar maximum in the 24th solar cycle. We present low energy (15-140 keV) secondary radiation measurement results extending from the ground till the near space (∼40 km) using a scintillator detector on board rubber weather balloons. We also concentrate on the cosmic ray intensity at the Regener-Pfotzer maxima and find a strong anti-correlation between this intensity and the solar activity even at low geomagnetic latitudes.

  11. Secondary metabolites from Ganoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushrooms. This review deals with secondary metabolites isolated from Ganoderma and their biological significance. Phytochemical studies over the last 40years led to the isolation of 431 secondary metabolites from various Ganoderma species. The major secondary compounds isolated are (a) C30 lanostanes (ganoderic acids), (b) C30 lanostanes (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, glycosides, lactones, ketones), (c) C27 lanostanes (lucidenic acids), (d) C27 lanostanes (alcohols, lactones, esters), (e) C24, C25 lanostanes (f) C30 pentacyclic triterpenes, (g) meroterpenoids, (h) farnesyl hydroquinones (meroterpenoids), (i) C15 sesquiterpenoids, (j) steroids, (k) alkaloids, (l) prenyl hydroquinone (m) benzofurans, (n) benzopyran-4-one derivatives and (o) benzenoid derivatives. Ganoderma lucidum is the species extensively studied for its secondary metabolites and biological activities. Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma colossum, Ganoderma sinense, Ganoderma cochlear, Ganoderma tsugae, Ganoderma amboinense, Ganoderma orbiforme, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma hainanense, Ganoderma concinna, Ganoderma pfeifferi, Ganoderma neo-japonicum, Ganoderma tropicum, Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Ganoderma fornicatum, Ganoderma lipsiense (synonym G. applanatum), Ganoderma mastoporum, Ganoderma theaecolum, Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma capense and Ganoderma annulare are the other Ganoderma species subjected to phytochemical studies. Further phytochemical studies on Ganoderma could lead to the discovery of hitherto unknown biologically active secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bio-Activity and Dereplication-Based Discovery of Ophiobolins and Other Fungal Secondary Metabolites Targeting Leukemia Cells

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    Tanja Thorskov Bladt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize fungal natural products (NPs with in vitro bioactivity towards leukemia cells. We based our screening on a combined analytical and bio-guided approach of LC-DAD-HRMS dereplication, explorative solid-phase extraction (E-SPE, and a co-culture platform of CLL and stromal cells. A total of 289 fungal extracts were screened and we tracked the activity to single compounds in seven of the most active extracts. The novel ophiobolin U was isolated together with the known ophiobolins C, H, K as well as 6-epiophiobolins G, K and N from three fungal strains in the Aspergillus section Usti. Ophiobolins A, B, C and K displayed bioactivity towards leukemia cells with induction of apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations. The remaining ophiobolins were mainly inactive or only slightly active at micromolar concentrations. Dereplication of those ophiobolin derivatives possessing different activity in combination with structural analysis allowed a correlation of the chemical structure and conformation with the extent of bioactivity, identifying the hydroxy group at C3 and an aldehyde at C21, as well as the A/B-cis ring structure, as indispensible for the strong activity of the ophiobolins. The known compounds penicillic acid, viridicatumtoxin, calbistrin A, brefeldin A, emestrin A, and neosolaniol monoacetate were identified from the extracts and also found generally cytotoxic.

  13. Bio-Activity and Dereplication-Based Discovery of Ophiobolins and Other Fungal Secondary Metabolites Targeting Leukemia Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Dürr, Claudia; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize fungal natural products (NPs) with in vitro bioactivity towards leukemia cells. We based our screening on a combined analytical and bio-guided approach of LC-DAD-HRMS dereplication, explorative solid-phase extraction (E-SPE), and a co......-culture platform of CLL and stromal cells. A total of 289 fungal extracts were screened and we tracked the activity to single compounds in seven of the most active extracts. The novel ophiobolin U was isolated together with the known ophiobolins C, H, K as well as 6-epiophiobolins G, K and N from three fungal...... strains in the Aspergillus section Usti. Ophiobolins A, B, C and K displayed bioactivity towards leukemia cells with induction of apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations. The remaining ophiobolins were mainly inactive or only slightly active at micromolar concentrations. Dereplication of those ophiobolin...

  14. α-Glucosidase Inhibition and Antibacterial Activity of Secondary Metabolites from the Ecuadorian Species Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth Govaerts

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    Vladimir Morocho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of both volatile and fixed metabolites of Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth Govaerts (Lamiaceae was performed for the first time. It allowed the isolation and characterization of the essential oil and six known compounds: carvacrol (1, squalane (2, uvaol (3, erythrodiol (4, ursolic acid (5, and salvigenin (6. Their structures were identified and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS, and corroborated by literature. The essential oil of the leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation in two different periods and analyzed by GC-MS and GC coupled to Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. A total of 54 compounds were detected, of which 42 were identified (including trace constituents. The major constituents were carvacrol methyl ether (18.9–23.2%, carvacrol (13.8–16.3% and, carvacryl acetate (11.4–4.8%. The antibacterial activities were determined as Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. The hexane and methanol extracts exhibited activity only against Klebsiella pneumoniae (250 and 500 μg/mL respectively, while the ethyl acetate extract was inactive. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by the in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract showed strong inhibitory activity with IC50 = 24.88 µg/mL, however methanolic and hexanic extracts showed weak activity. As a pure compound, only ursolic acid showed a strong inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 72.71 μM.

  15. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-03-28

    High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%-0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds.

  16. Detection of secondary eclipses of WASP-10b and Qatar-1b in the Ks band and the correlation between Ks-band temperature and stellar activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Patricia; Barrado, David; Lillo-Box, Jorge; Diaz, Marcos; López-Morales, Mercedes; Birkby, Jayne; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hodgkin, Simon

    2017-10-01

    The Calar Alto Secondary Eclipse study was a program dedicated to observe secondary eclipses in the near-IR of two known close-orbiting exoplanets around K-dwarfs: WASP-10b and Qatar-1b. Such observations reveal hints on the orbital configuration of the system and on the thermal emission of the exoplanet, which allows the study of the brightness temperature of its atmosphere. The observations were performed at the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). We used the OMEGA2000 instrument (Ks band) at the 3.5m telescope. The data was acquired with the telescope strongly defocused. The differential light curve was corrected from systematic effects using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The final light curve was fitted using an occultation model to find the eclipse depth and a possible phase shift by performing a MCMC analysis. The observations have revealed a secondary eclipse of WASP-10b with depth of 0.137%, and a depth of 0.196% for Qatar-1b. The observed phase offset from expected mid-eclipse was of -0.0028 for WASP-10b, and of -0.0079 for Qatar-1b. These measured offsets led to a value for |ecosω| of 0.0044 for the WASP-10b system, leading to a derived eccentricity which was too small to be of any significance. For Qatar-1b, we have derived a |ecosω| of 0.0123, however, this last result needs to be confirmed with more data. The estimated Ks-band brightness temperatures are of 1647 K and 1885 K for WASP-10b and Qatar-1b, respectively. We also found an empirical correlation between the (R'HK) activity index of planet hosts and the Ks-band brightness temperature of exoplanets, considering a small number of systems.

  17. Stabilization of cytochrome b5 by a conserved tyrosine in the secondary sphere of heme active site: A spectroscopic and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shan; He, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Wen, Ge-Bo; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2017-03-01

    Heme proteins perform a large array of biological functions, with the heme group bound non-covalently or covalently. To probe the stabilization role of conserved tyrosine residue in the secondary sphere of heme site in heme proteins, we herein used cytochrome b5 (Cyt b5) as a model protein, and mutated Tyr30 to Phe or His by removal of Tyr30 associated H-bond network and hydrophobic interaction. We performed thermal-induced unfolding studies for the two mutants, Y30F Cyt b5 and Y30H Cyt b5, as monitored by both UV-Vis and CD spectroscopy, as well as heme transfer studies from these proteins to apo-myoglobin, with wild-type Cyt b5 under the same conditions for comparison. The reduced stability of both mutants indicates that both the H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions associated with Tyr30 contribute to the protein stability. Moreover, we performed molecular modeling studies, which revealed that the hydrophobic interaction in the local region of Y30F Cyt b5 was well-remained, whereas Y30H Cyt b5 formed an H-bond network. These observations suggest that the conserved Tyr30 in Cyt b5 is not replaceable due to the presence of both the H-bond network and hydrophobic interaction in the secondary sphere of the heme active site. As demonstrated here for Cyt b5, it may be of practical importance for design of artificial heme proteins by engineering a Tyr in the secondary sphere with improved properties and functions.

  18. The Roles of Physical Activity and Health in Enhancing Student Engagement: Implications for Leadership in Post Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressy, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates that student engagement supports academic success (Kuh, 2001). Engagement is broader than the amount of time and effort that students devote to their studies. University curriculum, allocation of resources, educationally purposeful activities, and support services also facilitate the student experience and outcomes. Leaders…

  19. Unconjugated secondary bile acids activate the unfolded protein response and induce golgi fragmentation via a src-kinase-dependant mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchika; Quilty, Francis; Gilmer, John F.; Long, Aideen; Byrne, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are components of gastro-duodenal refluxate and regarded as causative agents in oesophageal disease but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Here we demonstrate that a specific subset of physiological bile acids affect the protein secretory pathway by inducing ER stress, activating the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and causing disassembly of the Golgi apparatus in oesophageal cells. Deoxycholic acid (DCA), Chemodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and Lithocholic acid (LCA) activated the PERK arm of the UPR, via phosphorylation of eIF2α and up-regulation of ATF3, CHOP and BiP/GRP78. UPR activation by these bile acids is mechanistically linked with Golgi fragmentation, as modulating the UPR using a PERK inhibitor (GSK2606414) or salubrinal attenuated bile acid-induced effects on Golgi structure. Furthermore we demonstrate that DCA, CDCA and LA activate Src kinase and that inhibition of this kinase attenuated both bile acid-induced BiP/GRP78 expression and Golgi fragmentation. This study highlights a novel mechanism whereby environmental factors (bile acids) impact important cellular processes regulating cell homeostasis, including the UPR and Golgi structure, which may contribute to cancer progression in the oesophagus. PMID:27888615

  20. Crystal Structure of the CTP1L Endolysin Reveals How Its Activity Is Regulated by a Secondary Translation Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Matthew; Leicht, Stefan; Krichel, Boris; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Thompson, Andrew; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Svergun, Dmitri I; Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Garde, Sonia; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Narbad, Arjan; Mayer, Melinda J; Meijers, Rob

    2016-03-04

    Bacteriophages produce endolysins, which lyse the bacterial host cell to release newly produced virions. The timing of lysis is regulated and is thought to involve the activation of a molecular switch. We present a crystal structure of the activated endolysin CTP1L that targets Clostridium tyrobutyricum, consisting of a complex between the full-length protein and an N-terminally truncated C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). The truncated CBD is produced through an internal translation start site within the endolysin gene. Mutants affecting the internal translation site change the oligomeric state of the endolysin and reduce lytic activity. The activity can be modulated by reconstitution of the full-length endolysin-CBD complex with free CBD. The same oligomerization mechanism applies to the CD27L endolysin that targets Clostridium difficile and the CS74L endolysin that targets Clostridium sporogenes. When the CTP1L endolysin gene is introduced into the commensal bacterium Lactococcus lactis, the truncated CBD is also produced, showing that the alternative start codon can be used in other bacterial species. The identification of a translational switch affecting oligomerization presented here has implications for the design of effective endolysins for the treatment of bacterial infections. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Crystal Structure of the CTP1L Endolysin Reveals How Its Activity Is Regulated by a Secondary Translation Product*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Matthew; Leicht, Stefan; Krichel, Boris; Thompson, Andrew; Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Garde, Sonia; Narbad, Arjan; Mayer, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages produce endolysins, which lyse the bacterial host cell to release newly produced virions. The timing of lysis is regulated and is thought to involve the activation of a molecular switch. We present a crystal structure of the activated endolysin CTP1L that targets Clostridium tyrobutyricum, consisting of a complex between the full-length protein and an N-terminally truncated C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). The truncated CBD is produced through an internal translation start site within the endolysin gene. Mutants affecting the internal translation site change the oligomeric state of the endolysin and reduce lytic activity. The activity can be modulated by reconstitution of the full-length endolysin-CBD complex with free CBD. The same oligomerization mechanism applies to the CD27L endolysin that targets Clostridium difficile and the CS74L endolysin that targets Clostridium sporogenes. When the CTP1L endolysin gene is introduced into the commensal bacterium Lactococcus lactis, the truncated CBD is also produced, showing that the alternative start codon can be used in other bacterial species. The identification of a translational switch affecting oligomerization presented here has implications for the design of effective endolysins for the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:26683375

  2. Teaching Speaking Skills in English Language Using Classroom Activities in Secondary School Level in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudu, Benter Oseno

    2015-01-01

    There is a general public concern in Kenya that majority of Form Four school leavers lack communicative and linguistic competence and thus cannot sustain conversation in English language without occasionally code switching to "Sheng" or Kiswahili. This study sought to find out the classroom activities used by teachers to promote…

  3. Popular Culture, English Out-of-Class Activities, and Learner Autonomy among Highly Proficient Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoi Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning [1]. Out-of-class…

  4. Alginate microbeads are coagulation compatible, while alginate microcapsules activate coagulation secondary to complement or directly through FXII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravastrand, Caroline; Hamad, Shamal; Fure, Hilde; Steinkjer, Bjørg; Ryan, Liv; Oberholzer, Josè; Lambris, John D; Lacík, Igor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Espevik, Terje; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Rokstad, Anne Mari

    2017-08-01

    Alginate microspheres are presently under evaluation for future cell-based therapy. Their ability to induce harmful host reactions needs to be identified for developing the most suitable devices and efficient prevention strategies. We used a lepirudin based human whole blood model to investigate the coagulation potentials of alginate-based microspheres: alginate microbeads (Ca/Ba Beads), alginate poly-l-lysine microcapsules (APA and AP microcapsules) and sodium alginate-sodium cellulose sulfate-poly(methylene-co-cyanoguanidine) microcapsules (PMCG microcapsules). Coagulation activation measured by prothrombin fragments 1+2 (PTF1.2) was rapidly and markedly induced by the PMCG microcapsules, delayed and lower induced by the APA and AP microcapsules, and not induced by the Ca/Ba Beads. Monocytes tissue factor (TF) expression was similarly activated by the microcapsules, whereas not by the Ca/Ba Beads. PMCG microcapsules-induced PTF1.2 was abolished by FXII inhibition (corn trypsin inhibitor), thus pointing to activation through the contact pathway. PTF1.2 induced by the AP and APA microcapsules was inhibited by anti-TF antibody, pointing to a TF driven coagulation. The TF induced coagulation was inhibited by the complement inhibitors compstatin (C3 inhibition) and eculizumab (C5 inhibition), revealing a complement-coagulation cross-talk. This is the first study on the coagulation potentials of alginate microspheres, and identifies differences in activation potential, pathways and possible intervention points. Alginate microcapsules are prospective candidate materials for cell encapsulation therapy. The material surface must be free of host cell adhesion to ensure free diffusion of nutrition and oxygen to the encapsulated cells. Coagulation activation is one gateway to cellular overgrowth through deposition of fibrin. Herein we used a physiologically relevant whole blood model to investigate the coagulation potential of alginate microcapsules and microbeads. The

  5. Identification of phenolic secondary metabolites from Schotia brachypetala Sond. (Fabaceae and demonstration of their antioxidant activities in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Mansour Sobeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Schotia brachypetala Sond. (Fabaceae is an endemic tree of Southern Africa whose phytochemistry and pharmacology were slightly studied. The present work aimed at profiling the major phenolics compounds present in the hydro-alcohol extract from S. brachypetala leaves (SBE using LC/HRESI/MS/MS and NMR and prove their antioxidant capabilities using novel methods. Methods In vitro assays; DPPH, TEAC persulfate decolorizing kinetic and FRAP assays, and in vivo assays: Caenorhabditis elegans strains maintenance, Intracellular ROS in C. elegans, Survival assay, GFP expression and Subcellular DAF-16 localization were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Results More than forty polyphenols, including flavonoid glycosides, galloylated flavonoid glycosides, isoflavones, dihydrochalcones, procyanidins, anthocyanins, hydroxy benzoic acid derivatives, hydrolysable tannins, and traces of methylated and acetylated flavonoid derivatives were identified. Three compounds were isolated and identified from the genus Schotia for the first time, namely gallic acid, myricetin-3-O-α-L-1C4-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-L-1C4-rhamnoside. The total phenolics content of SBE was (376 mg CAE/g, followed by flavonoids (67.87 QE/g. In vitro antioxidant activity of SBE was evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 of 9 µg/mL, FRAP ferric reducing activity (5,000 mol Fe2+ E/mg and ABTS peroxide inhibiting activity (1,054 mM Trolox E/mg. The tested extract was able to protect the worms against juglone induced oxidative stress, an increased survival rate (up to 41% was recorded, when compared with the control group (11% and attenuate the reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation in dose-dependent and reached up to 72% for the highest tested concentration. SBE was also able to attenuate the levels of heat shock protein (HSP expression in dose-dependent up to 60% in the 150 µg SBE/mL group. In DAF-16 Subcellular localization SBE treated worms showed

  6. Iatrogenic osteoporosis, bilateral HIP osteonecrosis, and secondary adrenal suppression in an HIV-infected man receiving inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir-boosted highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Nargess; Bukberg, Phillip; Manessis, Anastasios; Yen, Vincent; Young, Iven

    2011-01-01

    To report the first case of severe osteoporosis associated with a vertebral pathologic fracture and osteonecrosis of femoral heads in an HIV-infected man receiving inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir-boosted antiretroviral therapy. We describe an HIV-infected man with severe osteoporosis, bilateral hip osteonecrosis, and secondary adrenal suppression, including detailed clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data, and review the related literature. A 60-year-old man with a 15-year history of HIV infection and a medical history of long-standing bronchiectasis treated with inhaled corticosteroids and hypogonadism treated with testosterone was referred to the endocrinology clinic after experiencing an osteoporotic vertebral fracture. He was taking ritonavir-boosted antiretroviral therapy. Osteonecrosis of both hips was also diagnosed, which required total hip replacement therapy. Laboratory evaluation revealed adrenal insufficiency due to increased effect of exogenous inhaled steroids and no other secondary causes of osteoporosis. A bone densitometry study showed osteoporosis of both hips and the lumbar spine. He was treated with intravenous pamidronate. During treatment, he developed bilateral femoral fractures after minor trauma. Given the potential for increased serum levels of inhaled corticosteroids in patients taking ritonavir-boosted highly active antiretroviral therapy, attention must be paid to the risk of bone loss in HIV-infected patients taking inhaled corticosteroids. Prescribing calcium and vitamin D supplementation and considering early osteoporosis screening are reasonable measures for this patient population. Interaction between inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir may increase risk of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression.

  7. Previous injury as a risk factor for reinjury in rock climbing: a secondary analysis of data from a retrospective cross-sectional cohort survey of active rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth; Llewellyn, David; Johnson, Mark I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the findings of a secondary analysis of a previous injury study to consider previous injury as a risk factor for reinjury in rock climbing. We completed a secondary analysis of 201 questionnaires that were gathered as part of a retrospective cross-sectional cohort survey that investigated the epidemiology of injuries in a representative sample of British rock climbers. Participants had actively engaged in rock climbing over the previous 12-month period and were recruited from six indoor climbing centres and five outdoor climbing venues (men n=163, mean±SD, age=35.2±11.8 years, participating in rock climbing=13.88+11.77 years; women n=38, mean±SD, age=35.1±10.7 years, participating in rock climbing=11.62+9.19 years). Of the 101 participants who sustained a previous injury, 36 were found to have sustained at least one reinjury. The total number of reinjuries was 82, with the average probability of sustaining at least one reinjury being 35.6% (95% CI 34.71% to 36.8%; pclimbing behaviours were significantly associated with repetitive overuse reinjury. As participatory figures increase, so does the likelihood that a high proportion of climbers may sustain a reinjury of the upper extremity.

  8. Comparative genomics of maize ear rot pathogens reveals expansion of carbohydrate-active enzymes and secondary metabolism backbone genes in Stenocarpella maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaron, Alex Z; Woloshuk, Charles P; Bluhm, Burton H

    2017-11-01

    Stenocarpella maydis is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes Diplodia ear rot, one of the most destructive diseases of maize. To date, little information is available regarding the molecular basis of pathogenesis in this organism, in part due to limited genomic resources. In this study, a 54.8 Mb draft genome assembly of S. maydis was obtained with Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies, and analyzed. Comparative genomic analyses with the predominant maize ear rot pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium graminearum revealed an expanded set of carbohydrate-active enzymes for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in S. maydis. Analyses of predicted genes involved in starch degradation revealed six putative α-amylases, four extracellular and two intracellular, and two putative γ-amylases, one of which appears to have been acquired from bacteria via horizontal transfer. Additionally, 87 backbone genes involved in secondary metabolism were identified, which represents one of the largest known assemblages among Pezizomycotina species. Numerous secondary metabolite gene clusters were identified, including two clusters likely involved in the biosynthesis of diplodiatoxin and chaetoglobosins. The draft genome of S. maydis presented here will serve as a useful resource for molecular genetics, functional genomics, and analyses of population diversity in this organism. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antitumor activity of hierridin B, a cyanobacterial secondary metabolite found in both filamentous and unicellular marine strains.

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    Pedro N Leão

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are widely recognized as a valuable source of bioactive metabolites. The majority of such compounds have been isolated from so-called complex cyanobacteria, such as filamentous or colonial forms, which usually display a larger number of biosynthetic gene clusters in their genomes, when compared to free-living unicellular forms. Nevertheless, picocyanobacteria are also known to have potential to produce bioactive natural products. Here, we report the isolation of hierridin B from the marine picocyanobacterium Cyanobium sp. LEGE 06113. This compound had previously been isolated from the filamentous epiphytic cyanobacterium Phormidium ectocarpi SAG 60.90, and had been shown to possess antiplasmodial activity. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from both strains confirmed that these cyanobacteria derive from different evolutionary lineages. We further investigated the biological activity of hierridin B, and tested its cytotoxicity towards a panel of human cancer cell lines; it showed selective cytotoxicity towards HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

  10. Depressive symptoms among older adults with long-term spinal cord injury: Associations with secondary health conditions, sense of coherence, coping strategies and physical activity

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    Sophie Jörgensen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the presence of depressive symptoms among older adults with long-term spinal cord injury and investigate the association with sociodemographic and injury characteristics; and to determine how potentially modifiable factors, i.e. secondary health conditions, sense of coherence, coping strategies and leisure-time physical activity, are associated with depressive symptoms. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 122 individuals (70% men, injury levels C1–L5, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A–D, mean age 63 years, mean time since injury 24 years. Methods: Data from the Swedish Aging with Spinal Cord Injury Study, collected using the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, the 13-item Sense of Coherence Scale, the Spinal Cord Lesion-related Coping Strategies Questionnaire and the Physical Activity Recall Assessment for people with Spinal Cord Injury. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Results: A total of 29% reported clinically relevant depressive symptoms and 5% reported probable depression. Sense of coherence, the coping strategy Acceptance, neuropathic pain and leisure-time physical activity explained 53% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Older adults with long-term spinal cord injury report a low presence of probable depression. Mental health may be supported through rehabilitation that strengthens the ability to understand and confront life stressors, promotes acceptance of the injury, provides pain management and encourages participation in leisure-time physical activity.

  11. mRNA expression and localization of bNOS, eNOS and iNOS in human cervix at preterm and term labour

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    Byström Birgitta

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the primary cause of the neonatal mortality and morbidity. There will be no preterm birth without a cervical softening. Nitric oxide (NO is shown to be a mediator of term cervical ripening. The aim of this study was to investigate mRNA expression of the three isomers of NO synthases (NOS and to identify them by immunohistochemistry in the human cervix at preterm birth compared to term. Methods The three isomers of NOS- inducible (iNOS, endothelial (eNOS and neuronal (bNOS – were investigated in the human cervix. The expression of mRNA was determined using Real-Time Multiplex RT-PCR. The localisation of synthases in the cervical tissue was analysed using immunohistochemistry. Cervical biopsies were obtained from 4 groups of women without clinical signs of infection: preterm (PTL, term labour (TL, preterm not in labour (PTnotL and term not in labour (TnotL patients. One-Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Student t-test or Mann-Whitney test were applied as appropriate to determine statistically significant differences among the groups. Results Patients in preterm labour had significantly (p Conclusion The mRNA levels were higher in the preterm labour group compared to the women at term labour. The significant increase of the eNOS mRNA expression, from the unripe to the favourable cervical state during labour, may indicate a role of eNOS and supports the role of NO in the cervical ripening process. All the three synthases were identified by immunohistochemistry in all the groups of study.

  12. IL-8 and eNOS polymorphisms predict bevacizumab-based first line treatment outcomes in RAS mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvatore, Mariantonietta; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Orlandi, Armando; Del Re, Marzia; Berenato, Rosa; Rossi, Ernesto; Caporale, Marta; Guarino, Donatella; Martinetti, Antonia; Basso, Michele; Mennitto, Roberta; Santonocito, Concetta; Mennitto, Alessia; Schinzari, Giovanni; Bossi, Ilaria; Capoluongo, Ettore; Danesi, Romano; de Braud, Filippo; Barone, Carlo

    2017-03-07

    Predictive biomarkers of efficacy and toxicity of bevacizumab have not yet been validated. This study assessed the influence of IL-8, eNOS and VEGF-A polymorphisms in RAS mutated metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving bevacizumab-based chemotherapy. 120 patients treated with first-line combination FOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab were included. A historical cohort of 112 RAS mutated colorectal cancer patients treated with FOLFOX6 alone served as control group. The following SNPs were analyzed: IL-8 c.-251T>A; eNOS c.-786T>C and c.-894G>T; VEGF-A c.936C>T, c.958T>C, c.1154A>G and c.2578C>A. Correlation of SNPs, baseline IL-8 serum levels and bevacizumab-efficacy was done. In the bevacizumab group, carriers of the IL-8 alleles c.-251TA+AA showed a shorter PFS (P=0.002) and OS (P=0.03) compared to TT alleles. Patients with pre-treatment IL-8 8.25 pg/ml showed significantly longer median PFS and OS (PFS: 10.9 vs 7.6 months, P=0.005; OS: 30.7 vs 18.2 months, P18,25 pg/ml). IL-8 c.-251TA+AA carriers had significantly higher IL-8 levels (PT was found associated with higher severe toxicity (P=0.0002) in patients carrying the c.-894TT genotype. Although our data need prospective validation, IL-8 and eNOS SNPs may be have a role as predictive biomarkers for bevacizumab efficacy and toxicity.

  13. Human umbilical cord expresses several vasoactive peptides involved in the local regulation of vascular tone: protein and gene expression of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS

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    Aldo Gerbino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Full-term human umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: two arteries coiled around a vein and surrounded by Wharton’s jelly, a mucous tissue with few mesenchymal stromal cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Umbilical vessels lack innervations, thus endothelial cells must play a role in the control of blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate in human umbilical cord the expression of five peptides that could be involved in the regulation of vascular tone: Orphanin FQ, Oxytocin, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP, endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS. The expression of these molecules in full-term human umbilical cord was investigated through immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for Orphanin FQ was detected in Wharton’s jelly, vessel musculature and endothelium; Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS were expressed by the umbilical epithelium, Wharton’s jelly and endothelium, whereas iNOS only by endothelial cells. RT-PCR analysis showed transcriptional expression of Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS mRNAs. The presence of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS proteins was identified in the human umbilical cord. mRNA expression for Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS suggest that these molecules are synthesized by umbilical cord cells themselves. The expression of these vasoactive molecules could be part of a general mechanism locally regulating vascular tone. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 211–218

  14. Human umbilical cord expresses several vasoactive peptides involved in the local regulation of vascular tone: protein and gene expression of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Annamaria; Buscemi, Maria; Provenzano, Salvatore; Gerbino, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Full-term human umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: two arteries coiled around a vein and surrounded by Wharton's jelly, a mucous tissue with few mesenchymal stromal cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Umbilical vessels lack innervations, thus endothelial cells must play a role in the control of blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate in human umbilical cord the expression of five peptides that could be involved in the regulation of vascular tone: Orphanin FQ, Oxytocin, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP), endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS). The expression of these molecules in full-term human umbilical cord was investigated through immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for Orphanin FQ was detected in Wharton's jelly, vessel musculature and endothelium; Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS were expressed by the umbilical epithelium, Wharton's jelly and endothelium, whereas iNOS only by endothelial cells. RT-PCR analysis showed transcriptional expression of Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS mRNAs. The presence of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS proteins was identified in the human umbilical cord. mRNA expression for Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS suggest that these molecules are synthesized by umbilical cord cells themselves. The expression of these vasoactive molecules could be part of a general mechanism locally regulating vascular tone.

  15. Concentrations of eNOS, VEGF, ACE and PlGF in maternal blood as predictors of impaired fetal growth in pregnancy complicated by gestational hypertension/preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Iciek, Rafał; Brązert, Jacek

    2015-02-01

    To investigate into an association between circulating levels of vascular factors (VF: ACE, eNOS, PlGF and VEGF) and impaired fetal growth measured as a small for gestational age newborn (SGA) in women with gestational hypertension/preeclampsia. A prospective observational trial in 46 patients in singleton pregnancies. Concentrations of VF were compared between participants who delivered SGA versus non-SGA newborns. only low levels of ACE were associated with significantly increased risk for SGA (for a cut-off value, LR: 1.4-3.6). Circulating levels of VF are not sufficient predictors of SGA in pregnancies complicated by gestational hypertension/preeclampsia.

  16. Papel de eNOS, nNOS y NT-3 en patología cardiovascular y angiogénesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Miralles, Diana

    2013-01-01

    El óxido nítrico es un mediador implicado en el desarrollo de la patología cardiovascular, la principal causa de mortalidad en nuestro entorno, pero su papel no ha sido completamente esclarecido. Recientemente, se ha establecido el mecanismo a través del cual actúa la NT-3 liberada en el endotelio vascular y se ha demostrado su capacidad para, a través de la activación de su receptor TrkC, fosforilar la eNOS y, como consecuencia, aumentar la síntesis de NO en las células que expresan este r...

  17. Influence of genetic variations in platelet glycoproteins and eNOS in the development of arterial ischaemia of lower limbs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Ruivães, Ema; Pina-Cabral, Luis Bernardo; Mesquita, Bárbara; Oliveira, Flávio; Monteiro, Maria Céu; Criado, Maria Begoña

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial and platelet dysfunction increase the atherothrombotic risk in diabetes mellitus patients. Therefore, arterial ischaemia of lower limbs is an important complication in diabetes mellitus. In the present work, type 2 diabetic patients were classified by a podiatrist into presence or absence of arterial ischaemia of lower limbs. Several polymorphisms in platelet glycoproteins and eNOS genes were evaluated. Our results suggest that the -5CC genotype in Kozak sequence of GPIbα may be associated with a higher risk of developing arterial ischaemia of lower limbs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Secondary metabolites from the endophytic Botryosphaeria dothidea of Melia azedarach and their antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yu-Qi; Tang, Jiang-Jiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2014-04-23

    Two new metabolites, an α-pyridone derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one (1), and a ceramide derivative, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (2), and a new natural product, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (3), along with 15 known compounds including chaetoglobosin C (7) and chaetoglobosin F (8) were isolated from the solid culture of the endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea KJ-1, collected from the stems of white cedar (Melia azedarach L). The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR experiments and by mass spectrometric measurements), and the structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. These metabolites were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity activities. Pycnophorin (4) significantly inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus with equal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25 μM. Stemphyperylenol (5) displayed a potent antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Alternaria solani with MIC of 1.57 μM comparable to the commonly used fungicide carbendazim. Both altenusin (9) and djalonensone (10) showed markedly DPPH radical scavenging activities. In addition, stemphyperylenol (5) and altenuene (6) exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HCT116 cancer cell line with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.13 μM in comparison with the positive control etoposide (IC50 = 2.13 μM). This is the first report of the isolation of these compounds from the endophytic B. dothidea.

  19. Temporal bone chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as an intracranial mass with clinical seizure activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Christopher J; Walcott, Brian P; Linskey, Katy R; Kahle, Kristopher T; Nahed, Brian V; Asaad, Wael F

    2011-06-01

    Chondroblastomas are rare tumors that characteristically arise from the epiphyseal cartilage of long bones of the immature skeleton. Intracranial involvement is uncommon, though the squamous portion of the temporal bone is preferentially affected due to its cartilaginous origin. Patients with temporal bone chondroblastomas classically present with otologic symptoms, while primary neurological complaints are rare. In this report, we describe a 33 year-old man with a chondroblastoma of the temporal bone and an associated aneurysmal bone cyst constituting a large intracranial mass lesion who presented with new-onset seizure activity. We review issues relevant to the pathology and treatment of these lesions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation of Secondary Metabolites from the Soil-Derived Fungus Clonostachys rosea YRS-06, a Biological Control Agent, and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ming-Ming; Qi, Feng-Ming; Li, Jie; Jiang, Chun-Xiao; Hou, Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Di, Duo-Long; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Wu, Quan-Xiang

    2016-03-23

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea is widely distributed all over the world. The destructive force of this fungus, as a biological control agent, is very strong to lots of plant pathogenic fungi. As part of the ongoing search for antibiotics from fungi obtained from soil samples, the secondary metabolites of C. rosea YRS-06 were investigated. Through efficient bioassay-guided isolation, three new bisorbicillinoids possessing open-ended cage structures, tetrahydrotrichodimer ether (1) and dihydrotrichodimer ether A and B (2 and 3), and 12 known compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined via extensive NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and CD spectroscopic analyses and X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1-3 are rare bisorbicillinoids with a γ-pyrone moiety. The biological properties of 1-15 were evaluated against six different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Bisorbicillinoids, 2-5, and TMC-151 C and E, 14 and 15, showed potent antibacterial activity.

  1. Cataract: A major secondary complication of diabetes, its epidemiology and an overview on major medicinal plants screened for anticataract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel DK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is a visual impairment caused due to opacification or optical dysfunction of crystallin lens affecting more than 17 million people around the world. Even though the incidences of cataract are increasing day by day among the elderly persons but, still except surgery no other ways of treatment have been successfully developed so far. Thus, the aim of writing the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of cataract along with discussing the remedies available for the disorder. The review also describes different experimental models with their relevant mechanism and significance such as galactose-induced, naphthalene-induced and selenite-induced cataract models which are mainly used for evaluating the anticataract activity of a particular drug (mainly of natural origin. The review includes list of plants and their phytoconstituents which have been so far evaluated pharmacologicaly for the treatment of cataract. From the survey, it was confirmed that the antioxidant property of plants phytoconstituents are basically responsible for their effective anticataract activity. Thus, the valuable information provided in the present review will help researches in developing an alternative method rather than surgery for the treatment of cataract which will minimize the rate of blindness due to cataract thus, benefiting and extending protective aspects of eyes, an integral part of human body.

  2. Activity and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in secondary forest and manioc plantations of Amazonian Dark Earth and their adjacent soils

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    Amanda eBarbosa Lima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in upland soils is mostly mediated by uncultivated groups of microorganisms that have been identified solely by molecular markers, such as the sequence of the pmoA gene encoding the β-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme. The objective of this work was to compare the activity and diversity of methanotrophs in Amazonian Dark Earth soil (ADE, Hortic Anthrosol and their adjacent non-anthropic soil. Secondly, the effect of land use in the form of manioc cultivation was examined by comparing secondary forest and plantation soils. CH4 oxidation potentials were measured and the structure of the methanotroph communities assessed by qPCR and amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes. The oxidation potentials at low CH4 concentrations (10 ppm of volume were relatively high in all the secondary forest sites of both ADE and adjacent soils. CH4 oxidation by the ADE soil only recently converted to a manioc plantation was also relatively high. In contrast, both the adjacent soils used for manioc cultivation and the ADE soil with a long history of agriculture displayed lower CH4 uptake rates. Amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes indicated that USCα, Methylocystis and the tropical upland soil cluster (TUSC were the dominant groups depending on the site. By qPCR analysis it was found that USCα pmoA genes, which are believed to belong to atmospheric CH4 oxidizers, were more abundant in ADE than adjacent soil. USCα pmoA genes were abundant in both forested and cultivated ADE soil, but were below the qPCR detection limit in manioc plantations of adjacent soil. The results indicate that ADE soils can harbor high abundances of atmospheric CH4 oxidizers and are potential CH4 sinks, but as in other upland soils this activity can be inhibited by the conversion of forest to agricultural plantations.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in secondary school physical education lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Jenna L; Sutherland, Rachel; Williams, Amanda J; Campbell, Elizabeth; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2017-04-24

    Schools play an important role in physical activity promotion for adolescents. The systematic review aimed to determine the proportion of secondary (middle and high) school physical education (PE) lesson time that students spend in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and to assess if MVPA was moderated by school level (middle and high school), type of physical activity measurement and type of PE activities. A systematic search of nine electronic databases was conducted (PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009649). Studies were eligible if they were published between 2005 and 2014; written in English; assessed MVPA in PE lessons of secondary (middle and high) school students; and used a quantitative MVPA measure (i.e., accelerometry, heart rate monitoring, pedometers or observational measures). Two reviewers examined the retrieved articles, assessed risk of bias, and performed data extraction. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled estimate of the percent of PE lesson time spent in MVPA and to assess moderator effects where data allowed. The search yielded 5,132 potentially relevant articles; 28 articles representing 25 studies (7 middle and 18 high school) from seven countries were included. Twelve studies measured MVPA through observational measures, seven used accelerometers, five used heart rate monitors and four used pedometers (including three studies using a mix of measures). Meta-analysis of 15 studies found that overall, students spent a mean (95% CI) of 40.5% (34.8-46.2%) of PE in MVPA. Middle school students spent 48.6% (41.3-55.9%) of the lesson in MVPA (n = 5 studies) and high school students 35.9% (28.3-43.6%) (n = 10 studies). Studies measuring MVPA using accelerometers (n = 5) showed that students spent 34.7% (25.1-44.4%) of the lesson in MVPA, while 44.4% (38.3-50.5%) was found for lessons assessed via observation (n = 9), 43.1% (24.3-61.9%) of the lesson for a heart rate based study, and 35.9% (31.0-40.8%) for a

  4. Secondary Analysis for Results Tracking Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Secondary Analysis and Results Tracking (SART) activity provides support for the development of two databases to manage secondary and third-party data, data...

  5. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students’ Class-Work and Active Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students’ reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement. PMID:26617432

  6. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students' reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement.

  7. Recurrent myocardial infarctions in a young football player secondary to thrombophilia, associated with elevated factor VIII activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Thomas P; Yu, Shipeng; Rehman, Shahnaz; Grubb, Blair P; Kosinski, Daniel; Verghese, Cherian; Eltahawy, Ehab A; Shafiq, Qaiser

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) due to coronary atherosclerosis in young adults is uncommon; rare causes such as cocaine abuse, arterial dissection, and thromboembolism should be considered. A 21-year-old football player, and otherwise healthy African American man, developed chest pain during exercise while bench-pressing 400 lbs. Acute MI was diagnosed based on physical examination, electrocardiography findings, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary arteriography showed a thrombus occluding the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD). Aggressive antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide was pursued, in addition to standard post-MI care. This led to the successful resolution of symptoms and dissolution of the thrombus, demonstrated by repeat coronary arteriography. Five months later, he presented with similar symptoms during exercise after lifting heavy weights, and was found to have another acute MI. Coronary arteriography again showed a thrombus occluding the LAD. No evidence of coronary artery dissection or vasospasm was found. Only mild atherosclerotic plaque burden was observed on both occasions by intravascular ultrasound. A bare metal stent was placed at the site as it was thought this site had acted as a nidus for small plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Elevated serum factor VIII activity at 205% (reference range 60%-140%) was found, a rare cause of hypercoagulability. Further workup revealed a patent foramen ovale during a Valsalva maneuver by transesophageal echocardiography. Both events occurred during weight lifting, which can transiently increase right heart pressure in a similar way to the Valsalva maneuver. In light of all the findings, we concluded that an exercise-related increase in factor VIII activity led to coronary arterial thrombosis in the presence of a small ruptured plaque. Alternatively, venous clots may have traversed the patent foramen ovale and occluded the LAD. In addition to continuing aggressive risk

  8. Recurrent myocardial infarctions in a young football player secondary to thrombophilia, associated with elevated factor VIII activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacek TP

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Vacek, Shipeng Yu, Shahnaz Rehman, Blair P Grubb, Daniel Kosinski, Cherian Verghese, Ehab A Eltahawy, Shafiq Qaiser Department of Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Myocardial infarction (MI due to coronary atherosclerosis in young adults is uncommon; rare causes such as cocaine abuse, arterial dissection, and thromboembolism should be considered. A 21-year-old football player, and otherwise healthy African American man, developed chest pain during exercise while bench-pressing 400 lbs. Acute MI was diagnosed based on physical examination, electrocardiography findings, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary arteriography showed a thrombus occluding the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD. Aggressive antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide was pursued, in addition to standard post-MI care. This led to the successful resolution of symptoms and dissolution of the thrombus, demonstrated by repeat coronary arteriography. Five months later, he presented with similar symptoms during exercise after lifting heavy weights, and was found to have another acute MI. Coronary arteriography again showed a thrombus occluding the LAD. No evidence of coronary artery dissection or vasospasm was found. Only mild atherosclerotic plaque burden was observed on both occasions by intravascular ultrasound. A bare metal stent was placed at the site as it was thought this site had acted as a nidus for small plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Elevated serum factor VIII activity at 205% (reference range 60%–140% was found, a rare cause of hypercoagulability. Further workup revealed a patent foramen ovale during a Valsalva maneuver by transesophageal echocardiography. Both events occurred during weight lifting, which can transiently increase right heart pressure in a similar way to the Valsalva maneuver. In light of all the findings, we concluded that an exercise-related increase in factor

  9. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (ɸ and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  10. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

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    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  11. ESTATINAS Y ACV: CONCEPTOS ACTUALES EN PREVENCIÓN PRIMARIA Y SECUNDARIA DEL ATAQUE CEREBRAL Statins in: primary and secondary prevention

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    Carlos Eduardo Rivera Ordoñez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Los inhibidores de la HMG-CoA reductasa reducen la producción de colesterol endógeno. Distintos ensayos clínicos han demostrado que las estatinas reducen la incidencia del ataque cerebrovascular, en tanto continúa discutiéndose el papel del colesterol como factor de riesgo independiente para ataque cerebrovascular. Las estatinas ejercen, además de su acción sobre el colesterol, unas acciones pleiotrópicas y vasculoprotectoras entre las cuales se incluyen las anti-oxidantes, el mejoramiento de la función endotelial, el aumento de la biodisponi­bilidad del óxido nítrico, la inhibición de la respuesta inflamatoria, la modulación de la respuesta inmune y la estabilización de la placa ateroescle­rótica. Algunos modelos en animales han demostrado una actividad neuroprotectora por mecanismos relacionados con la regulación de la sintasa endotelial de óxido nítrico (eNOS. La evidencia sugiere las estatinas podrían disminuir el riesgo de ataque cerebrovascular y mejorar su desenlace. Los estudios de prevención secundaria en curso pretenden demostrar que la intervención temprana con estatinas luego del ataque cerebral mejora el desenlace a corto plazo.Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, by statins, can reduce the production of endogenous cholesterol. Different clinical trials have shown that statins reduce the incidence of stroke; in the meantime the role of cholesterol, as independent risk factor for stroke, continues to be discussed. Statins play, besides their action on the cholesterol, some pleiotropic and vasculoprotective actions in which the antioxidant activity are included, the improvement of the endothelial function, the increase of the biodisponibility of the nitric oxide, the inhibition of the inflammatory response, the modulation of the immune system and the stabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Some animal models have shown a neuroprotective activity, of statins, by mechanisms related to up regulation of the

  12. The coagulation factor V Leiden, MTHFRC677T variant and eNOS 4ab polymorphism in young Chinese population with ischemic stroke.

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    Shi, Congning; Kang, Xixiong; Wang, Yajie; Zhou, Yali

    2008-10-01

    The mechanisms of ischemic stroke in young adults are poorly understood. The main goal of the current investigation was to determine the possible contribution of genes affecting hemostasis, homocysteine metabolism and endothelial function on the occurrence of ischemic stroke in a cohort of young cases and corresponding controls. We evaluated in 97 consecutive patients referred to our center between April 2006 and July 2007 for a history of young adult ischemic stroke (age at first event, V Leiden, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) 4ab gene variants. Ninety-nine subjects age and gender matched (18 to 45 y) from other departments of the Tiantan Hospital served as controls. Homozygosity for the TT genotype of the MTHFR gene was 29 of 97 (29.9%) in patients and 34 of 99 (34.3%) in controls; this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05, chi2). Variation of factor V Leiden was not detected both in patients and in controls of this cohort. Genotype eNOS 4bb was 90 of 97 (92.8%) in patients and 81 of 99 (81.8%) in controls; this difference was statistically significant (pyoung Chinese population.

  13. Apoptosis in testicular tissue of rats after vasectomy: evaluation of eNOS, iNOS immunoreactivities and the effects of ozone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpcan, Serhan; Başar, Halil; Aydos, Tolga Reşat; Kul, Oğuz; Kısa, Üçler; Başar, Murad Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and apoptotic index in rat testicular tissue, as well as serum and seminal plasma sex hormone levels after vasectomy, and the effect of ozone therapy (OT). Adult male Wistar rats were used (n=6 per group). Control (G1), sham for 4 weeks (G2) or 6 weeks (G3), orchiectomy at the 4(th) (G4) or 6(th) (G5) week after left vasectomy, orchiectomy at the 4(th) (G6) or 6(th) (G7) week after bilateral vasectomy, orchiectomy after 6 weeks OT following left (G8) or bilateral (G9) vasectomy, orchiectomy after 6 weeks OT (G10). In the left testes, while there were increases in eNOS and iNOS immunoreactivity and apoptotic indexes in G4 and G5, no changes were observed in contralateral testis. These values increased in G6 and G7, while OT inhibited these parameters in the left testis of G8 and both testes of G9. Sex hormone levels did not show any changes after vasectomy and ozone therapy. While OT was found to be protective against some parameters mentioned above under stress conditions, it seemed to cause some harmful effects when used in healthy conditions.

  14. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225), eNOS (rs1799983), CBS (rs2850144) and ACE (rs4343) gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects.

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    Khatami, Mehri; Ratki, Farzaneh Morteza; Tajfar, Saba; Akrami, Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case-control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively). The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225, eNOS (rs1799983, CBS (rs2850144 and ACE (rs4343 gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects

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    Mehri Khatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case–control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively. The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD.

  16. Secondary metabolites constituents and antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm grown in different locations of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Ashkani, Sadegh

    2015-09-23

    Etlingera elatior is a well-known herb in Malaysia with various pharmaceutical properties. E. elatior flowers grown in three different locations of Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang and Johor), were investigated for differences in their content of secondary metabolites (total phenolics [TPC], total flavonoids [TFC], and total tannin content [TTC]) as well as for their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were isolated and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities. The anticancer activity of extracts was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. When extracted with various solvents (aqueous and ethanolic), samples from the different locations yielded significantly different results for TPC, TFC, and TTC as well as antioxidant activity. Aqueous extracts of E. elatior flowers collected from Kelantan exhibited the highest values: TPC (618.9 mg/100 g DM), TFC (354.2 mg/100 g DM), TTC (129.5 mg/100 g DM), DPPH (76.4 %), and FRAP (6.88 mM of Fe (II)/g) activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL compared with extracts of flowers collected from the other two locations. The most important phenolic compounds isolated in this study, based on concentration, were: gallic acid > caffeic acid > tannic acid > chlorogenic acid; and the most important flavonoids were: quercetin > apigenin > kaempferol > luteolin > myricetin. Extracts of flowers from Kelantan exhibited potent anticancer activity with a IC50of 173.1 and 196.2 μg/mL against the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, compared with extracts from Pahang (IC50 = 204.5 and 246.2 μg/mL) and Johor samples (IC50 = 277.1 and 296.7 μg/mL). Extracts of E. elatior flowers also showed

  17. The effect of dance mat exergaming systems on physical activity and health-related outcomes in secondary schools: results from a natural experiment.

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    Azevedo, Liane B; Burges Watson, Duika; Haighton, Catherine; Adams, Jean

    2014-09-12

    Exergaming has been proposed as an innovative method for physical activity promotion. However, large effectiveness studies are rare. In January 2011, dance mat systems were introduced in secondary schools in two districts in England with the aim of promoting an innovative opportunity for physical activity. The aim of this natural experiment was to examine the effect of introducing the dance mat exergaming systems on physical activity and health-related outcomes in 11-13 year old students using a non-randomised controlled design and mixed methods. Participants were recruited from five schools in intervention districts (n = 280) and two schools in neighbouring control districts (n = 217). Data on physical activity (accelerometer), anthropometrics (weight, BMI and percentage of body fat), aerobic fitness (20-m multistage shuttle run test), health-related quality of life (Kidscreen questionnaire), self-efficacy (children's physical activity self-efficacy survey), school attendance, focus groups with children and interviews with teachers were collected at baseline and approximately 12 months follow-up. There was a negative intervention effect on total physical activity (-65.4 cpm CI: -12.6 to -4.7), and light and sedentary physical activity when represented as a percentage of wear time (Light: -2.3% CI: -4.5 to 0.2; Sedentary: 3.3% CI: 0.7 to 5.9). However, compliance with accelerometers at follow-up was poor. There was a significant positive intervention effect on weight (-1.7 kg, 95% CI: -2.9 to -0.4), BMI (-0.9 kg/m2, 95% CI: -1.3 to -0.4) and percentage of body fat (-2.2%, 95% CI: -4.2 to -0.2). There was also evidence of improvement in some health-related quality of life parameters: psychological well-being (2.5, 95% CI: 0.1 to 4.8) and autonomy and parent relation (4.2, 95% CI: 1.4 to 7.0). The implementation of a dance mat exergaming scheme was associated with improvement in anthropometric measurements and parameters of health-related quality of life. However

  18. Immunothrombotic Activity of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns and Extracellular Vesicles in Secondary Organ Failure Induced by Trauma and Sterile Insults.

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    Eppensteiner, John; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barbas, Andrew S; Kwun, Jean; Lee, Jaewoo

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in injury prevention and emergency response, injury-related death and morbidity continues to increase in the US and worldwide. Patients with trauma, invasive operations, anti-cancer treatment, and organ transplantation produce a host of danger signals and high levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs). DAMPs (e.g., nucleic acids, histone, high-mobility group box 1 protein, and S100) are molecules released from injured, stressed, or activated cells that act as endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors, whereas EVs (e.g., microparticle and exosome) are membranous vesicles budding off from plasma membranes and act as messengers between cells. DAMPs and EVs can stimulate multiple innate immune signaling pathways and coagulation cascades, and uncontrolled DAMP and EV production causes systemic inflammatory and thrombotic complications and secondary organ failure (SOF). Thus, DAMPs and EVs represent potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for SOF. High plasma levels of DAMPs and EVs have been positively correlated with mortality and morbidity of patients or animals with trauma or surgical insults. Blocking or neutralizing DAMPs using antibodies or small molecules has been demonstrated to ameliorate sepsis and SOF in animal models. Furthermore, a membrane immobilized with nucleic acid-binding polymers captured and removed multiple DAMPs and EVs from extracellular fluids, thereby preventing the onset of DAMP- and EV-induced inflammatory and thrombotic complications in vitro and in vivo . In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of DAMPs, EVs, and SOF and discuss potential therapeutics and preventive intervention for organ failure secondary to trauma, surgery, anti-cancer therapy, and allogeneic transplantation.

  19. Immunothrombotic Activity of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns and Extracellular Vesicles in Secondary Organ Failure Induced by Trauma and Sterile Insults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eppensteiner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in injury prevention and emergency response, injury-related death and morbidity continues to increase in the US and worldwide. Patients with trauma, invasive operations, anti-cancer treatment, and organ transplantation produce a host of danger signals and high levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and extracellular vesicles (EVs. DAMPs (e.g., nucleic acids, histone, high-mobility group box 1 protein, and S100 are molecules released from injured, stressed, or activated cells that act as endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors, whereas EVs (e.g., microparticle and exosome are membranous vesicles budding off from plasma membranes and act as messengers between cells. DAMPs and EVs can stimulate multiple innate immune signaling pathways and coagulation cascades, and uncontrolled DAMP and EV production causes systemic inflammatory and thrombotic complications and secondary organ failure (SOF. Thus, DAMPs and EVs represent potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for SOF. High plasma levels of DAMPs and EVs have been positively correlated with mortality and morbidity of patients or animals with trauma or surgical insults. Blocking or neutralizing DAMPs using antibodies or small molecules has been demonstrated to ameliorate sepsis and SOF in animal models. Furthermore, a membrane immobilized with nucleic acid-binding polymers captured and removed multiple DAMPs and EVs from extracellular fluids, thereby preventing the onset of DAMP- and EV-induced inflammatory and thrombotic complications in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of DAMPs, EVs, and SOF and discuss potential therapeutics and preventive intervention for organ failure secondary to trauma, surgery, anti-cancer therapy, and allogeneic transplantation.

  20. Association analysis of genetic variations of eNOS and α2ß1 integrin genes with type 2 diabetic retinopathy

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    Azmy R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rania Azmy,1 Ashraf Dawood,1 Ayman Kilany,1 Yasser El-Ghobashy,1 Amin Faisal Ellakwa,2 May El-Daly31Medical Biochemistry Department, 2Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, 3National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shebin Elkom, EgyptBackground: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is classically defined as a microvasculopathy that primarily affects the small blood vessels of the inner retina as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO and α2β1 integrin (a platelet receptor for collagen play an important role in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications in DR.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of two candidate genes involved in the regulation of retinal vasculature, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and α2β1 integrin (ITGA2 genes, with the development of DR in Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to investigate whether genetic variants will affect the type of retinopathy (proliferative or nonproliferative.Methods: In this study, 70 patients were enrolled and categorized into two groups: (1 a DR group consisting of 50 patients with DR, which was further subclassified into 25 patients with nonproliferative DR (NPDR group and 25 patients with proliferative DR (PDR group and (2 a diabetes without retinopathy (DWR group, comprising 20 patients with type 2 diabetes of more than 10 years' duration who showed no signs of DR. Associations of the genetic polymorphisms of eNOS (G894T and ITGA2 (BgI II were studied. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed for all samples to evaluate the genotypes and correlate with the phenotype of the disease.Results: The allele frequencies of both polymorphisms showed considerable differences between patients with and without DR. The GG genotype of G894T polymorphism of eNOS was associated with a 9.75-fold increased risk of DR (95% confidence interval 1.7–55.4 and the

  1. Parents’ reactions to testing for herpes simplex virus type 2 as a biomarker of sexual activity in Botswana junior secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Haddi J.; Lasswell, Sarah M.; Miller, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of sexual activity biomarkers in HIV prevention trials has been widely supported to validate self-reported data. When such trials involve minors, researchers may face challenges in obtaining parental buy-in, especially if return of results procedures uphold the confidentiality and privacy rights of minors and preclude parental access to test results. In preparation for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with junior secondary school (JSS) students in Botswana, a formative assessment was conducted to assess parents’ opinions and concerns about testing for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (biomarker of sexual activity) as part of the RCT. Methods Six focus groups were held with parents (n = 32) of JSS students from urban, peri-urban and rural communities. Parents were asked their opinions of students being tested for HSV-2 and procedures for blood sample collection and return of results. Results Overall, parents were supportive of HSV-2 testing, which they thought was a beneficial sexual health resource for adolescents and parents, and a motivation for parent–child communication about HSV-2, sexual activity and sexual abuse. Some parents supported the proposed plan to disclose HSV-2 test results to adolescents only, citing the importance of adolescent privacy and the possibility of HSV-2 positive adolescents being stigmatized by family members. Conversely, opposing parents requested parental access to results. These parents were concerned that adolescents may experience distress following a positive result and withhold this information thereby reducing parents’ abilities to provide support. Parents were also concerned about support for victims of sexual abuse. Conclusion Although the present study demonstrates that parents can be accepting of sexual activity biomarker testing of adolescents, more research is needed to identify best approaches for returning test results. PMID:26886026

  2. Parents' reactions to testing for herpes simplex virus type 2 as a biomarker of sexual activity in Botswana junior secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Haddi J; Lasswell, Sarah M; Miller, Kim S

    2016-04-01

    Background Use of sexual activity biomarkers in HIV prevention trials has been widely supported to validate self-reported data. When such trials involve minors, researchers may face challenges in obtaining parental buy-in, especially if return of results procedures uphold the confidentiality and privacy rights of minors and preclude parental access to test results. In preparation for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with junior secondary school (JSS) students in Botswana, a formative assessment was conducted to assess parents' opinions and concerns about testing for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (biomarker of sexual activity) as part of the RCT. Six focus groups were held with parents (n=32) of JSS students from urban, peri-urban and rural communities. Parents were asked their opinions of students being tested for HSV-2 and procedures for blood sample collection and return of results. Overall, parents were supportive of HSV-2 testing, which they thought was a beneficial sexual health resource for adolescents and parents, and a motivation for parent-child communication about HSV-2, sexual activity and sexual abuse. Some parents supported the proposed plan to disclose HSV-2 test results to adolescents only, citing the importance of adolescent privacy and the possibility of HSV-2 positive adolescents being stigmatised by family members. Conversely, opposing parents requested parental access to results. These parents were concerned that adolescents may experience distress following a positive result and withhold this information thereby reducing parents' abilities to provide support. Parents were also concerned about support for victims of sexual abuse. Although the present study demonstrates that parents can be accepting of sexual activity biomarker testing of adolescents, more research is needed to identify best approaches for returning test results.

  3. In vitro antioxidant activities of the novel pentapeptides Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn and Leu-Pro-Phe-Ala-Met and the relationship between activity and peptide secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiwen; Wang, Jia; Lin, Songyi; Ye, Haiqing; Chen, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, two novel antioxidant pentapeptides [Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn (SHECN) and Leu-Pro-Phe-Ala-Met (LPFAM)] were identified from 1-3-kDa soybean protein hydrolysates (SPH). The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Antioxidant activity was measured using in vitro assays, including the cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl or 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) inhibition, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Finally, the secondary structure was determined using circular dichroism (CD). The results revealed that two novel peptides were nontoxic and possessed antioxidant activity. SHECN had significantly higher antioxidant activity than LPFAM (P antioxidant activity, SHECN had a high β-sheet content and reduced α-helix content. The results indicated that SHECN possessed high antioxidant activity. A higher β-sheet content and lower content levels of α-helix appear to be correlated with antioxidant activity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effect of dynamic humeral centring (DHC) treatment on painful active elevation of the arm in subacromial impingement syndrome. Secondary analysis of data from an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreuil, Johann; Lasbleiz, Sandra; Aout, Mounir; Vicaut, Eric; Yelnik, Alain; Bardin, Thomas; Orcel, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    The physiotherapy dynamic humeral centring (DHC) aims to prevent subacromial impingement of rotator cuff tendons during elevation of the arm. The objective of the study was to determine whether DHC acts via an effect on subacromial impingement mechanism by assessing its effect on painful elevation of the arm in subacromial impingement syndrome. This is a secondary analysis of results of a randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of DHC. Sixty-nine patients with subacromial impingement syndrome were prospectively included. Patients and the assessor were blinded to the study hypothesis and treatment, respectively. Patients underwent DHC or non-specific mobilisation as a control for 6 weeks in 15 supervised individual outpatient sessions with home exercises. Outcomes were pain-free range of motion and presence of painful arc of the shoulder, both in active flexion and abduction of the arm at 3 months. At 3 months, pain-free range of motion, both flexion and abduction, was greater in the DHC group than in the mobilisation group. The number of patients with painful arc during flexion was decreased in the DHC group. DHC improves painful active elevation of the arm. We suggest that DHC may act via a specific effect on subacromial impingement mechanism. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. THE CONTRIBUTION OF FACULTATIVE ACTIVITIES - HANDBALL IN TRANSFORMATION OF MOTORIC STATUS OF THE FEMALE STUDENTS OF THE FIRST GRADE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živorad Marković

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was done with the aim of identifying the contribution of facultative activities in transformation of motoric status of female students of the fi rst grade of secondary school. The research was carried as a pedagogical experiment - of longitudinal character, on the specimen of 67 girls of Agricultural-veterinary school with the boarding school “Svilajnac” in Svilajnac during the 2005/2006 school year. For the estimation of the motoric status fi ve standardized movement tasks were applied: long jump from the spot; hanging; a 20 meter running with a fl ying start; slalom with three medicine balls; and standing on one foot on the bench. For processing of data which were got by empirical research, apart from the procedures of descriptive statistics, another thing was applied: multivariant analysis of covariance and univariant analysis of covariance. Positive effects of facultative activities have made statistically signifi cant changes between control and experimental group on the fi nal measurement in four from fi ve variables. Statistically insignifi cant changes were in standing on one foot on the bench

  6. Redox-sensitive up-regulation of eNOS by purple grape juice in endothelial cells: role of PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Alhosin

    Full Text Available The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ, which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase, SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK. Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene.

  7. Toxicity effect of Auxemma oncocalyx fraction and its active principle oncocalyxone A on in vitro culture of caprine secondary follicles and in vitro oocyte maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Leiva-Revilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract of the heartwood of Auxemma oncocalyx (A. oncocalyx and its main component i.e., Oncocalyxone A (onco A, have elevated antioxidant and anti-tumoral activity, but studies on the action of these drugs regarding folliculogenesis are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of A. oncocalyx and onco A on the in vitro culture of isolated secondary follicles and on the in vitro maturation of oocytes from caprine antral follicles grown in vivo. Isolated secondary follicles were randomly distributed in six groups; the non-cultured control was immediately fixed upon isolation. The remaining follicles were cultured for 7 days in ?-MEM+ alone (control or supplemented with DMSO, doxorrubicin, A. oncocalyx or onco A. After culture, follicles were evaluated for antrum formation, growth rate, apoptosis (TUNEL and cellular proliferation (PCNA, as well as gene expression of Bcl2 and Bax. Additionally, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were aspirated and allocated into five treatments for in vitro maturation: control, cultured only in maturation base medium (TCM 199+; or supplemented with DMSO; DXR; A. oncocalyx or onco A. After in vitro maturation, oocyte chromatin configuration and viability were assessed. After 7 days of culture, there was a reduction (P < 0.05 in the percentage of morphologically intact follicles, antrum formation, growth rate and number of PCNA positive granulosa cells in DXR treatment compared to the other treatments. In the DXR treatment a higher percentage (P < 0.05 of TUNEL positive follicles and higher (P < 0.05 relative BAX:BCL2 mRNA ratio’s were observed. After in vitro maturation of the COCs DXR, A. oncocalyx and onco A treatments had a greater (P < 0.05 percentage of abnormal oocytes and a lower (P < 0.05 percentage of viable oocytes as compared with the control group. However, only DXR and onco A treatments increased (P < 0.05 the percentage of alive oocytes with

  8. Shear stress induction of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is calcium-dependent but not calcium-activated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z; Zhang, Z; Ranjan, V; Diamond, S L

    1997-05-01

    Arterial levels of shear stress (25 dynes/cm2) can elevate constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in cultured endothelial cells (Ranjan et al., 1995). By PhosphorImaging of Northern blots, we report that the eNOS/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) messenger RNA (mRNA) ratio in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) increased by 4.8- and 7.95-fold after 6-hr shear stress exposure of 4 and 25 dynes/cm2, respectively. Incubation of BAEC with dexamethasone (1 microM) had no effect on shear stress induction of eNOS mRNA. Buffering of intracellular calcium in BAEC with bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester (BAPTA/AM) reduced shear stress induction of eNOS mRNA by 70%. Yet, stimulation of BAEC with ionomycin (0.1-1.0 microM) for 6-24 hr to elevate intracellular calcium had no effect on eNOS mRNA. These studies indicated that the shear stress induction of eNOS mRNA was a calcium-dependent, but not calcium-activated, process. Shear stress was a very potent and rapid inducer of the eNOS mRNA, which could not be mimicked with phorbol myristrate acetate or endotoxin. Inhibition of tyrosine kinases with genistein (10 microM) or tyrphostin B46 (10 microM) or inhibition of G-protein signaling with guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP-betaS) (600 microM, 6-hr preincubation) did not block the shear stress elevation of eNOS mRNA.

  9. An Internet-supported Physical Activity Intervention Delivered in Secondary Schools Located in Low Socio-economic Status Communities: Study Protocol for the Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Lester, Aidan; Owen, Katherine B; White, Rhiannon L; Moyes, Ian; Peralta, Louisa; Kirwan, Morwenna; Maeder, Anthony; Bennie, Andrew; MacMillan, Freya; Kolt, Gregory S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gore, Jennifer M; Cerin, Ester; Diallo, Thierno M O; Cliff, Dylan P; Lubans, David R

    2016-01-06

    School-based physical education is an important public health initiative as it has the potential to provide students with regular opportunities to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Unfortunately, in many physical education lessons students do not engage in sufficient MVPA to achieve health benefits. In this trial we will test the efficacy of a teacher professional development intervention, delivered partially via the Internet, on secondary school students' MVPA during physical education lessons. Teaching strategies covered in this training are designed to (i) maximize opportunities for students to be physically active during lessons and (ii) enhance students' autonomous motivation towards physical activity. A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with allocation at the school level (intervention vs. usual care control). Teachers and Year 8 students in government-funded secondary schools in low socio-economic areas of the Western Sydney region of Australia will be eligible to participate. During the main portion of the intervention (6 months), teachers will participate in two workshops and complete two implementation tasks at their school. Implementation tasks will involve video-based self-reflection via the project's Web 2.0 platform and an individualized feedback meeting with a project mentor. Each intervention school will also complete two group peer-mentoring sessions at their school (one per term) in which they will discuss implementation with members of their school physical education staff. In the booster period (3 months), teachers will complete a half-day workshop at their school, plus one online implementation task, and a group mentoring session at their school. Throughout the entire intervention period (main intervention plus booster period), teachers will have access to online resources. Data collection will include baseline, post-intervention (7-8 months after baseline) and maintenance phase (14-15 months after baseline

  10. Variations in schools’ commitment to health and implementation of health improvement activities: a cross-sectional study of secondary schools in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham F. Moore

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to improve young people’s health are most commonly delivered via schools. While young people attending the lowest socioeconomic status (SES schools report poorer health profiles, no previous studies have examined whether there is an ‘inverse care law’ in school health improvement activity (i.e., whether schools in more affluent areas deliver more health improvement. Nor have other factors that may explain variations, such as leadership of health improvement activities, been examined at a population level. This paper examines variability in delivery of health improvement actions among secondary schools in Wales, and whether variability is linked to organisational commitment to health, socioeconomic status and school size. Methods Of the 82 schools participating in the 2013/14 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey in Wales, 67 completed a questionnaire on school health improvement delivery structures and health improvement actions within their school. Correlational analyses explore associations of delivery of health improvement activity among schools in Wales with organisational commitment to health, socioeconomic context and school size. Results There is substantial variability among schools in organisational commitment to health, with pupil emotional health identified as a priority by 52 % of schools, and physical health by 43 %. Approximately half (49 % report written action plans for pupil health. Based on composite measures, the quantity of school health improvement activity was greater in less affluent schools and schools reporting greater commitment to health. There was a consistent though non-significant trend toward more health improvement activity in larger schools. In multivariate analysis deprivation (OR = 1.06; 95 % CI = 1.01 to 1.12 and organisational commitment to health were significant independent predictors of the quantity of health improvement (OR = 1.60; 95

  11. Effect of Cadmium and Copper Exposure on Growth, Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity in the Medicinal Plant Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block (RCBD study was designed to investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on the growth, bioaccumulation of the two heavy metals, metabolite content and antibacterial activities in Gyanura procumbens (Lour. Merr. Nine treatments including (1 control (no Cd and Cu; (2 Cd 2 = cadmium 2 mg/L; (3 Cd 4 = cadmium 4 mg/L; (4 Cu 70 = copper 70 mg/L; (5 Cu 140 = copper 140 mg/L; (6 Cd 2 + Cu 70 = cadmium 2 mg/L + copper 70 mg/L; (7 Cd 2 + Cu 140 = cadmium 2 mg/L + copper 70 mg/L; (8 Cd 4 + Cu 70 = cadmium 4 mg/L+ copper 70 mg/L and (9 Cd 4 + Cu 140 = cadmium 4 mg/L + copper 140 mg/L were evaluated in this experiment. It was found that the growth parameters (plant dry weight, total leaf area and basal diameter were reduced with the exposure to increased concentrations of Cd and Cu and further decreased under interaction between Cd and Cu. Production of total phenolics, flavonoids and saponin was observed to be reduced under combined Cd and Cu treatment. The reduction in the production of plant secondary metabolites might be due to lower phenyl alanine lyase (PAL activity under these conditions. Due to that, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP and antibacterial activities was also found to be reduced by the combined treatments. The current experiments show that the medicinal properties of G. procumbens are reduced by cadmium and copper contamination. The accumulation of heavy metal also was found to be higher than the safety level recommended by the WHO in the single and combined treatments of Cd and Cu. These results indicate that exposure of G. procumbens to Cd and Cu contaminated soil may potentially harm consumers due to bioaccumulation of metals and reduced efficacy of the herbal product.

  12. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was

  13. Clustered randomised controlled trial of two education interventions designed to increase physical activity and well-being of secondary school students: the MOVE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymms, Peter B; Curtis, Sarah E; Routen, Ash C; Thomson, Katie H; Bolden, David S; Bock, Susan; Dunn, Christine E; Cooper, Ashley R; Elliott, Julian G; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Tiffin, Paul A; Kasim, Adetayo S

    2016-01-06

    To assess the effectiveness of 2 interventions in improving the physical activity and well-being of secondary school children. A clustered randomised controlled trial; classes, 1 per school, were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention arms or a control group based on a 2×2 factorial design. The interventions were peer-mentoring and participative learning. Year 7 children (aged 11-12) in the peer-mentoring intervention were paired with year 9 children for 6 weekly mentoring meetings. Year 7 children in the participative learning arm took part in 6 weekly geography lessons using personalised physical activity and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Year 7 children in the combined intervention received both interventions, with the year 9 children only participating in the mentoring sessions. 1494 year 7 students from 60 schools in the North of England took part in the trial. Of these, 43 students opted out of taking part in the evaluation measurements, 2 moved teaching group and 58 changed school. Valid accelerometry outcome data were collected for 892 students from 53 schools; and well-being outcome data were available for 927 students from 52 schools. The primary outcomes were mean minutes of accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity per day, and well-being as evaluated by the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. These data were collected 6 weeks after the intervention; a 12-month follow-up is planned. No significant effects (main or interaction) were observed for the outcomes. However, small positive differences were found for both outcomes for the participative learning intervention. These findings suggest that the 2 school-based interventions did not modify levels of physical activity or well-being within the period monitored. Change in physical activity may require more comprehensive individual behavioural intervention, and/or more system-based efforts to address wider environmental influences such as family, peers, physical environment

  14. Population pharmacokinetics analysis of AMG 416, an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor, in subjects with secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Melhem, Murad; Xiao, Jim; Kuchimanchi, Mita; Perez Ruixo, Juan Jose

    2015-06-01

    This study characterizes the population pharmacokinetics of AMG 416, an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor, in subjects with secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving hemodialysis. AMG 416 doses ranging from 2.5 to 60 mg were administered intravenously as single or multiple thrice weekly (TIW) doses at the end of hemodialysis during rinseback. The influence of demographics, concomitant medications, and other disease-related biomarkers on pharmacokinetic parameters was explored. The predictability of the final model was evaluated using bootstrapping and visual predictive checks. A 3-compartment linear pharmacokinetic model that accounts for the hemodialysis clearance best described the data. Plasma clearance (interindividual variability) was 0.564 L/h (14.0%CV). The hemodialysis clearance was 22.2 L/h. The volume of distribution at steady-state was approximately 624 L (82%CV). The mean time to achieve 90% steady-state predialysis concentrations with 3- and 6-hour hemodialysis TIW was 46 and 32 days, respectively. No statistically significant (P AMG 416 exhibits linear and stationary pharmacokinetics within the range of doses evaluated. Within the range of covariate values investigated, pharmacokinetically driven adjustments of AMG 416 dosing on the basis of these covariates were not warranted. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  16. eNOS se correlaciona com a biogênese mitocondrial em corações com cardiopatia congênita e cianose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O programa de biogênese mitocondrial no coração parece apresentar remodelação adaptativa após estresse biomecânico e oxidativo. Os mecanismos adaptativos que protegem o metabolismo do miocárdio durante a hipóxia são coordenados, em parte, pelo óxido nítrico (NO. OBJETIVO: Observar a biogênese mitocondrial e expressão do óxido nítrico sintase (NOS em corações de cardiopatia congênita com cianose; discutir a resposta mitocondrial à hipóxia crônica do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Foram investigados 20 pacientes com defeitos cardíacos cianóticos (n = 10 ou acianóticos (n = 10. Foram estudadas amostras do miocárdio na via de saída ventricular direita, tomadas durante a operação. A análise morfométrica de mitocôndrias foi realizada por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. A relação mtDNA/nDNA foi determinada com PCR em tempo real. Os níveis de transcrição da subunidade I da citocromo c oxidase (COXI, coativador-1α do receptor γ ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma (PGC-1α, o fator respiratório nuclear 1 (NRF1, e fator de transcrição mitocondrial A (Tfam foram detectados por reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR ativado por fluorescência em tempo real. Os níveis proteicos de COXI e nNOS, iNOS e eNOS foram medidos por técnica de Western Blot. RESULTADOS: A densidade volumétrica mitocondrial (Vv e a densidade numérica (Nv foram significativamente elevadas em pacientes com cianose, em comparação com a cardiopatia congênita acianótica. MtDNA elevada e suprarregulação dos níveis de COXI, PGC-1 α, NRF1 e Tfam mRNA foram observadas em pacientes cianóticos. Os níveis de proteína de COXI e eNOS foram significativamente maiores no miocárdio de pacientes cianóticos que nos de acianóticos. Os níveis de transcrição do PGC-1α se correlacionam com os níveis de eNOS. CONCLUSÃO: A biogênese mitocondrial é ativada no miocárdio da via de saída ventricular na

  17. [Effects of aerobic exercise training on antihypertension and expressions of VEGF, eNOS of skeletal muscle in spontaneous hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Yong-Cai

    2014-07-01

    To investigate effects of exercise training on vascular regulators and discuss its antihypertensive mechanism. Rats were divided into three groups (n = 7): spontaneous hypertensive rats control group (SHR-C), training group (SHR-T) and normotensive wistar-kyoto control group (WKY-C). Aerobic exercise consisted of 10 weeks of swimming training for 5 days/week. Exercise duration was 40 min in the first week, then 50 min in the second week, from the third week to the end of training, duration was maintained at 60 min. After training, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other biomarkers in soleus were measured by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. VEGF and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in SHR-C were lower than that in WKY-C (P antihypertensive effects.

  18. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P enhanced (P RNA level fourfold above resting levels. VEGF mRNA and MMP-2 mRNA levels were...... unaffected. The results show that a session of passive leg movement, elevating blood flow and causing passive stretch, augments the interstitial concentrations of VEGF, the proliferative effect of interstitial fluid, and eNOS mRNA content in muscle tissue. We propose that enhanced blood flow and passive......The present study used passive limb movement as an experimental model to study the effect of increased blood flow and passive stretch, without enhanced metabolic demand, in young healthy male subjects. The model used was 90 min of passive movement of the leg leading to a 2.8-fold increase (P

  19. enos nízkofrekvenčního signálu po síti Ethernet v LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Khait, Ranny

    2009-01-01

    Hlavním tématem předkládané práce je přenos nízkofrekvenčního signálu po síti Ethernet v LabVIEW. Práce obsahuje teoretický úvod, ve kterém jsou popsány typy přenosových protokolů, metody komprese, Ethernet, popis programu LabVIEW a jeho použití a biosignály. Praktická část je zaměřená na realizaci odesílání a přijmu dat po síti Ethernet. The main topic of presented thesis is LabVIEW based audio signal transmision via Ethernet. This thesis contains theoretical part, in which are described ...

  20. Equol-Stimulated Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Activate Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Redox Signaling in Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David J.; Chapple, Sarah; Siow, Richard C.M.; Mann, Giovanni E.

    2011-01-01

    We reported previously that dietary isoflavones modulate arterial blood pressure in vivo and that the daidzein metabolite equol rapidly activates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) via Akt and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2– dependent signaling. In this study, we report the first evidence in human endothelial cells that acute stimulation of mitochondrial superoxide generation by equol (100 nmol/L) is required for eNOS activation. Scavengers of superoxide (superoxide dismutase and manganese [III] tetrakis[1-methyl-4-pyridyl]porphyrin) abrogated equol stimulated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, and the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone inhibited Akt, extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2, and eNOS phosphorylation, as well as NO-mediated increases in intracellular cGMP. Equol also induced rapid alterations in F-actin fiber distribution, with depolymerization of F-actin with cytochalasin D abrogating equol-stimulated mitochondrial superoxide generation. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin or inhibition of GPR30/epidermal growth factor receptor kinase transactivation prevented equol-induced activation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 via c-Src, Akt, and eNOS. Moreover, inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activation with AG-1478 abrogated equol-stimulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent kinase and eNOS activation. Our findings suggest that equol-stimulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species modulate endothelial redox signaling and NO release involving transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Identification of these novel actions of equol may provide valuable insights for therapeutic strategies to restore endothelial function in cardiovascular disease. PMID:21300668

  1. Role of C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR and -786 C/T eNOS gene polymorphisms in atrial fibrillation susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Giusti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been suggested to play a role in the NonValvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in genes coding for homocysteine (Hcy metabolism enzymes may be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and NVAF. METHODOLOGIES: 456 NVAF patients and 912 matched controls were genotyped by an electronic microchip technology for C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR, and -786C/T eNOS gene polymorphisms. Hcy was determined by an immunoassay method. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genotype distribution of the four polymorphisms as well as genotype combinations did not differ in patients and controls. Hcy was higher in patients than in controls (15.2, 95%CI 14.7-15.7 vs 11.3, 95%CI 11.0-11.6 micromol/L; p<0.0001. In both populations, a genotype-phenotype association (p<0.0001 between Hcy and C677T MTHFR polymorphism was observed; in controls a significant (p = 0.029 association between tHcy and -786C/T eNOS polymorphism was also observed. At the multivariate analysis the NVAF risk significantly increased in the upper quartiles of Hcy compared to the lowest: OR from 2.8 (1.68-4.54 95%CI in Q2 to 12.9 (7.96-21.06 95%CI in Q4. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated the four polymorphisms, although able, at least in part, to affect Hcy, were not associated with an increased risk of NVAF per se or in combination.

  2. Variation in secondary metabolite production as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) at different stages of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ashkani, Sadegh; Rahmat, Asmah; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Puteh, Adam; Muda Mohamed, Mahmud Tengku

    2016-03-22

    Zingiber zerumbet (L.) is a traditional Malaysian folk remedy that contains several interesting bioactive compounds of pharmaceutical quality. Total flavonoids and total phenolics content from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of Z. zerumbet at 3 different growth stages (3, 6, and 9 months) were determined using spectrophotometric methods and individual flavonoid and phenolic compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) activity was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disc diffusion method. Highest content of total flavonoid [29.7 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry material (DM)] and total phenolic (44.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DM) were detected in the rhizome extracts of 9-month-old plants. As the plant matured from 3 to 9 months, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) decreased in the leaf, but increased significantly in the rhizomes. Among the secondary metabolites identified, the most abundant, based on the concentrations, were as follows: flavonoids, catechin > quercetin > rutin > luteolin > myricetin > kaempferol; phenolic acids, gallic acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid > cinnamic acid. Rhizome extracts from 9-month-old plants demonstrated the highest CHS activity (7.48 nkat/mg protein), followed by the 6-month-old rhizomes (5.79 nkat/mg protein) and 3-month-old leaf (4.76 nkat/mg protein). Nine-month-old rhizomes exhibited the highest DPPH activity (76.42 %), followed by the 6-month-old rhizomes (59.41 %) and 3-month-old leaves (57.82 %), with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 55.8, 86.4, and 98.5 μg/mL, respectively, compared to that of α- tocopherol (84.19 %; 44.8 μg/mL) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (70.25 %; 58

  3. Influencia de ENOS sobre las variaciones interanuales de ciertos ríos en América del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    plusieurs influences qui affectent la partie centrale des Andes tropicales soumise à l’influence du Pacifique équatorial, du bassin amazonien, de l’Océan Atlantique et de la Mer des Caraïbes. Las diferentes respuestas de los ríos sudamericanos a los estímulos de las fases de El Niño/Oscilación del Sur son estudiadas bajo tres condiciones: El Niño (EN, Anti-Niño (AN, y años normales. Ríos de la costa norte del Perú, Ecuador y el sur de Colombia experimentan altos caudales durante los veranos con EN y bajas descargas durante AN. Las descargas son normales en los otros años. Los ríos de los Andes peruanos y el Altiplano tienen bajos caudales durante EN y descargas normales en las otras dos condiciones. Los ríos de Chile central y los Andes de Argentina experimentan altos caudales durante EN y bajos durante AN. En Patagonia y el sur de Chile existe una independencia con respecto a las fases de ENOS ya que las descargas más altas tienen lugar durante años normales. Los ríos de la Pampa, las tierras bajas de la cuenca del Plata y el extremo sur de Brasil, tienen altas descargas durante EN y bajas durante AN. Los ríos de la costa central de Brasil demuestran independencia con respecto a las tres condiciones. En el noreste de Brasil las descargas son bajas durante EN y altas durante AN. La cuenca del Amazonas tiene diversas respuestas: en la sección central los ríos experimentan bajos caudales durante EN mientras que los tributarios de los Andes tienden a ofrecer altas descargas durante algunos EN. Los ríos de las Guayanas, de Venezuela y Colombia expuestos al Caribe experimentan bajos caudales durante EN y altos volúmenes durante AN. En los Andes del sur de Colombia y Ecuador existe una mezcla: algunos ríos tienen altos caudales durante EN extremadamente fuertes, otros durante las fases AN. Esta región sintetiza las distintas influencias que afectan la parte central de los Andes tropicales, sometida a influencias del Pacífico ecuatorial, de la cuenca

  4. Laboratory studies of the chemical composition and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA and oxidized primary organic aerosol (OPOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA and oxidized primary organic aerosol (OPOA were produced in laboratory experiments from the oxidation of fourteen precursors representing atmospherically relevant biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The SOA and OPOA particles were generated via controlled exposure of precursors to OH radicals and/or O3 in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM flow reactor over timescales equivalent to 1–20 days of atmospheric aging. Aerosol mass spectra of SOA and OPOA were measured with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. The fraction of AMS signal at m/z = 43 and m/z = 44 (f43, f44, the hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C ratio, and the oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratio of the SOA and OPOA were obtained, which are commonly used to characterize the level of oxidation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA. The results show that PAM-generated SOA and OPOA can reproduce and extend the observed f44f43 composition beyond that of ambient OOA as measured by an AMS. Van Krevelen diagrams showing H/C ratio as a function of O/C ratio suggest an oxidation mechanism involving formation of carboxylic acids concurrent with fragmentation of carbon-carbon bonds. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of PAM-generated SOA and OPOA was measured as a function of OH exposure and characterized as a function of O/C ratio. CCN activity of the SOA and OPOA, which was characterized in the form of the hygroscopicity parameter κorg, ranged from 8.4×10−4 to 0.28 over measured O/C ratios ranging from 0.05 to 1.42. This range of κorg and O/C ratio is significantly wider than has been previously obtained. To first order, the κorg-to-O/C relationship is well represented by a linear function of the form κorg = (0.18±0.04 ×O/C + 0.03, suggesting that a simple, semi-empirical parameterization of OOA hygroscopicity and

  5. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates

  6. Learning effects of active involvement of secondary school students in scientific research within the Sparkling Science project "FlussAu:WOW!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Scheikl, Sigrid; Heidenreich, Andrea; Kurz, Roman; Schrittwieser, Martin; Muhar, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    ://www.dynalearn.eu) to capture and simulate qualitative causal relationships across disciplines and scales. In "FlussAu:WOW!" students work in groups of two and are guided to think about processes and interactions of hydrological, biological, ecological, spatial and societal elements within a river catchment. They can develop their own causal models and scenarios (e.g., hydrological changes in river run off due to landscape changes in the upper catchment) but also can compare their conceptions to expert models that will be provided. As main benefit, the models help students to reflect their own conceptions in the light of scientific knowledge but also scientists learn about the viewpoints and conceptions young students might have from their environment. The comparison of pre- and post-tests conducted within the "FlussAu:WOW!" project showed that students increased significantly their factual knowledge on different processes in river systems during the first year. Questions regarding functions, processes and elements of riverine landscapes were answered more extensively. This can be ascribed to students` active involvement in scientific research. However, the causal understanding still showed room for improvement, which will be tackled during the next qualitative modelling exercises. Summarizing, involvement of secondary school students in research projects is an effective means to increase scientific literacy when active participation with reflective integration are combined. Ensuring that young people are proficient in system knowledge and understanding makes it more likely that environmental and sustainable considerations are soundly addressed in the future.

  7. Role of TLR4 in olfactory-based spatial learning activity of neonatal mice after developmental exposure to diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nway, Nay Chi; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro; Mar, Ohn; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been reported to have various adverse health impacts. Ambient particulate matter comprises primary particles released directly via engine exhaust and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from oxidative reactions of the ultrafine particle fraction of diesel exhaust (DE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known to initiate the inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. However, whether and how DE and DE-SOA exposure influences TLR4 signaling in the immature brain remains unclear. We attempted to evaluate the roles of TLR-4, inflammatory mediators and microglial markers in the impaired spatial learning ability of neonatal mice exposed to DE and DE-SOAs. Pregnant C3H/HeN (TLR4-intact) and C3H/HeJ (TLR4- mutated) mice were exposed to clean air, DE or DE-SOA from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND) 10 (5h/day for 5days) in exposure chambers. PND11 neonatal mice were examined for their performance in the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After the spatial learning test, the hippocampi of the mice were removed and real-time RT-PCR analysis was performed to examine the neurological and immunological markers. Both male and female C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ neonatal mice exposed to DE and DE-SOAs showed poor performance in the test phase of spatial learning as compared to the mice exposed to clean air. However, this spatial learning deficit was prominent in C3H/HeJ neonatal mice. In the neonatal C3H/HeN male mice exposed to DE and DE-SOAs, the mRNA expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2B), proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2, oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1, and microglial marker, Iba1, in the hippocampus were significantly increased, but these changes were not observed in female mice. Our findings indicate that activation of the neuroimmune system and TLR4 signaling may possibly be involved in environmental pollutant-induced spatial learning impairment

  8. Evaluation of Teachers' Activities in the Use of Animated Instructional Resource Materials in Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data…

  9. "Reflective Co-Education" or Male-Oriented Physical Education? Teachers' Views about Activities in Co-Educational PE Classes at German Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Valerie; Kleindienst-Cachay, Christa

    2016-01-01

    As much as the principle of co-education may appear to make sense in physical education (PE) lessons, trends in its development have emerged over the past years, especially in secondary schools, which were certainly not intended by the pedagogical programme of "reflective co-education", which stands for respect for equality…

  10. Uganda's Universal Secondary Education Policy and Its Effect on "Empowered" Women: How Reduced Income and Moonlighting Activities Differentially Impact Male and Female Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneaux, Kristen J.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007 Uganda embarked on a strategy to implement a nationwide Universal Secondary Education (USE) policy. This article investigates how gender differences in Uganda's informal and formal teaching markets, that went unexamined during the implementation process of USE, differentially affected male and female teachers' incomes. In…

  11. Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000330.htm Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary To use the sharing features on ... hormone aldosterone into the blood. Hyperaldosteronism can be primary or secondary. Causes Primary hyperaldosteronism is due to ...

  12. A Moonlighting Enolase from Lactobacillus gasseri does not Require Enzymatic Activity to Inhibit Neisseria gonorrhoeae Adherence to Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurbeck, Rachel R; Harris, Paul T; Raghunathan, Kannan; Arvidson, Dennis N; Arvidson, Cindy Grove

    2015-09-01

    Enolases are generally thought of as cytoplasmic enzymes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, several bacteria have active forms of enolase associated with the cell surface and these proteins are utilized for functions other than central metabolism. Recently, a surface-associated protein produced by Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 with homology to enolase was found to inhibit the adherence of the sexually transmitted pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, to epithelial cells in culture. Here, we show that the protein is an active enolase in vitro. A recombinantly expressed, C-terminal His-tagged version of the protein, His6-Eno3, inhibited gonococcal adherence. Assays utilizing inhibitors of enolase enzymatic activity showed that this inhibitory activity required the substrate-binding site to be in an open conformation; however, the enolase enzymatic activity of the protein was not necessary for inhibition of gonococcal adherence. An L. gasseri strain carrying an insertional mutation in eno3 was viable, indicating that eno3 is not an essential gene in L. gasseri 33323. This observation, along with the results of the enzyme assays, is consistent with reports that this strain encodes more than one enolase. Here we show that the three L. gasseri genes annotated as encoding an enolase are expressed. The L. gasseri eno3 mutant exhibited reduced, but not abolished, inhibition of gonococcal adherence, which supports the hypothesis that L. gasseri inhibition of gonococcal adherence is a multifactorial process.

  13. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT1R Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneesai, Putcharawipa; Prasarttong, Patoomporn; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Tangsucharit, Panot; Prachaney, Parichat; Pakdeechote, Poungrat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT) extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day): captopril (5 mg/kg/day) or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day) plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS. PMID:26938552

  14. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT1R Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putcharawipa Maneesai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day: captopril (5 mg/kg/day or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS.

  15. Mechanotransduction in small intestinal submucosa scaffolds: fabrication parameters potentially modulate the shear-induced expression of PECAM-1 and eNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palencia, Diana; Rathan, Swetha; Ankeny, Casey J; Fogg, Ruth; Briceño, Juan C; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2017-05-01

    In small intestinal submucosa (SIS) scaffolds for functional tissue engineering, the impact of scaffold fabrication parameters on cellular response and tissue regeneration may relate to the mechanotransductory properties of the final arrangement of collagen fibres. We previously proved that two fabrication parameters, (a) preservation (P) or removal (R) of a dense collagen layer present in SIS, and (b) SIS in a final dehydrated (D) or hydrated (H) state, have an effect on the micromechanical environment of SIS. In a continuation of our studies, we herein hypothesized that these fabrication parameters also modulate early mechanotransduction in cells populating the scaffold. Mechanotransduction was investigated by seeding human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on scaffolds, exposing them to pulsatile shear stress (12 ± 4 dyne/cm(2) ) for 1 h (n = 5) in a cone-and-plate shear system, and evaluating the expression of the mechanosensitive genes Pecam1 and Enos by immunofluorescence and qPCR. Expression of mechanosensitive genes was highest in PD grafts, followed by PH and RH grafts. The RD group had similar expression to that of unsheared control cells, suggesting that the RD combination potentially reduced mechanotransduction of shear to cells. We concluded that the two fabrication parameters studied, which modify SIS micromechanics, also potentially modulated the early shear-induced expression of mechanosensitive genes in seeded HUVECs. Our findings suggest that fabrication parameters influence the outcome of SIS as a therapeutic scaffold. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Remodeling of the cardiovascular system and development of chronic kidney disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and obesity: role of eNOS, subunit p22-phox of NADPH-oxidase and MTHFR genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginova, E A; Galliamov, M G; Balatskiĭ, A V; Kolotvin, A V; Severova, M V; Samokhodskaia, L M; Fomin, V V; Krasnova, T N; Mukhin, N A

    2012-01-01

    To examine contribution of polymorphisms of genes of endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS), NADPH-oxidase and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (mTHFR) to development of remodeling of cardiovascular system and chronic disease of the kidneys (CDK) in patients with metabolic syndrome (mS) and obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Standard clinical and device examinations were made and polymorphisms C242T of gene of subunit p22-phox of NADPH-oxidase, G894T of gene of eNOS and C677T of gene of MTHFR were studied in 66 MS patients (49 males and 17 females, age 19-62 years. The presence of even one prognostically poor allele variants of the genes studied was registered in 83 examinees. The genotype 242TTp22-phox of NADPH-oxidase subunit was associated with the highest insulin resistance, allele 894T of gene eNOS- with reduced glomerular filtration rate and progression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Polymorphism of the genes the products of which modulate endothelial function can be considered as potential predictors of severity of MS target organs impairment.

  17. Association between the Polymorphism of Glu298Asp in Exon 7 of the eNOS Gene with Foot Ulcer and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyedeh Maryam; Radfar, Mania; Hamidi, Armita Kakavand; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli; Amoli, Mahsa M

    2017-05-10

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a common and major manifestation in patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in diabetic complications, such as DFU. Nitric oxide deficiency contributes to the impairment of diabetic wound healing. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism and DFU and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Iranian population. In this case-control study, 123 patients with type 2 diabetes and DFU and 134 patients without DFU were recruited. The genotypes of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism in exon 7 were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We measured the levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances and ferric-reducing ability of plasma as the potential markers of OS. There were significant differences in genotype frequencies of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism between case and control groups (GG+TG vs. TT; p=0.002; OR=0.22, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.62). Also, the frequency of the T allele in cases was less common than in controls (p=0.004). There was no significant difference in levels of OS parameters and various genotypes (p>0.05). These results imply that the T allele might be protective against DFU. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracellular acidification reduces l-arginine transport via system y+L but not via system y+/CATs and nitric oxide synthase activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Marco A; Morales, Jorge; Cornejo, Marcelo; Blanco, Elias H; Mancilla-Sierpe, Edgardo; Toledo, Fernando; Beltrán, Ana R; Sobrevia, Luis

    2018-02-02

    l-Arginine is taken up via the cationic amino acid transporters (system y + /CATs) and system y + L in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). l-Arginine is the substrate for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) which is activated by intracellular alkalization, but nothing is known regarding modulation of system y + /CATs and system y + L activity, and eNOS activity by the pHi in HUVECs. We studied whether an acidic pHi modulates l-arginine transport and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Cells loaded with a pH-sensitive probe were subjected to 0.1-20 mmol/L NH 4 Cl pulse assay to generate pHi 7.13-6.55. Before pHi started to recover, l-arginine transport (0-20 or 0-1000 μmol/L, 10 s, 37 °C) in the absence or presence of 200 μmol/L N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) (system y + /CATs inhibitor) or 2 mmol/L l-leucine (systemy + L substrate) was measured. Protein abundance for eNOS and serine 1177 or threonine 495 phosphorylated eNOS was determined. The results show that intracellular acidification reduced system y + L but not system y + /CATs mediated l-arginine maximal transport capacity due to reduced maximal velocity. Acidic pHi reduced NO synthesis and eNOS serine 1177 phosphorylation. Thus, system y + L activity is downregulated by an acidic pHi, a phenomenon that may result in reduced NO synthesis in HUVECs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified...... were similar for nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that maternal smoking reduces eNOS activity in the fetal vascular bed, contributing to retarded fetal growth caused by the reduction of vasodilatory capacity, and suggest that smoking cessation early in pregnancy...

  20. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François

    2010-01-01

    of a healthy lifestyle. These secondary prevention targets are included in the overall goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Cardiac rehabilitation can be viewed as the clinical application of preventive care by means of a professional multi-disciplinary integrated approach for comprehensive risk reduction...... and global long-term care of cardiac patients. The CR approach is delivered in tandem with a flexible follow-up strategy and easy access to a specialized team. To promote implementation of cardiac prevention and rehabilitation, the CR Section of the EACPR (European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention...... and Rehabilitation) has recently completed a Position Paper, entitled 'Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: A condition-oriented approach'. Components of multidisciplinary CR for seven clinical presentations have been addressed. Components include patient assessment, physical activity counselling...

  1. Record Management in Nigerian Secondary School Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakpodia, E. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examined the usefulness of record management in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Record keeping is one of the administrative principles in secondary school administration and it cannot be overemphasized in any organisation. The continuity of any school organisation depends on availability of useful records of past activities. In a complex…

  2. Factors responsible for subclinical mastitis in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes and its susceptibility to antibiotics based on bap, fnbA, eno, mecA, tetK, and ermA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniarz, M; Adaszek, Ł; Dzięgiel, B; Nowaczek, A; Wawron, W; Dąbrowski, R; Szczubiał, M; Winiarczyk, S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize selected factors of virulence determining the adhesion of Staphylococcus chromogenes to cows' udder tissues in subclinical mastitis and to evaluate the susceptibility of this pathogen to antibiotics. The subjects of the study were 38 isolates of Staph. chromogenes from 335 samples of milk from cows with subclinical coagulase-negative staphylococci mastitis. Somatic cell count ranged between 216,000 and 568,000/mL of milk (average 356,000/mL of milk). We confirmed the ability to produce slime in 24 isolates (63.2%), and the ability to produce protease in 29 isolates (76.3%). In each slime-producing isolate, the bap gene was not found, and the fnbA and eno genes were not detected. In vitro tests showed that ceftiofur had the highest effectiveness against Staph. chromogenes (89.5% of susceptible isolates). Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 2µg/mL for susceptible isolates. The minimum concentrations required to inhibit growth of 90 and 50% of the isolates for ceftiofur were at or below the cutoffs recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2 and 0.06µg/mL, respectively). A significant percentage of the isolates were susceptible to other β-lactam antibiotics: amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (84.2%) and ampicillin (81.6%). The lowest effectiveness among β-lactams was for penicillin (73.7% of susceptible isolates), and the minimum inhibitory concentration for penicillin ranged from <0.06 to 8µg/mL. None of the examined isolates had the mecA gene, but β-lactamase was detected in 4 isolates (10.5%). Erythromycin and oxytetracycline exhibited the lowest activity against Staph. chromogenes (71.1 and 63.2% of susceptible isolates, respectively). The genes tetK (6 isolates) and ermA (1 isolate) were also detected. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative efficacy and safety of paricalcitol versus vitamin D receptor activators for dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yifeng Xie; Peiling Su; Yifan Sun; Hongsheng Zhang; Rong Zhao; Liang Li; Lanfen Meng

    2017-01-01

    .... Vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs) are used to treat SHPT, but the comparative efficacy and safety between paricalcitol and other vitamin D receptor activators for management of SHPT in dialysis patients has been unproven...

  4. COMPARISON OF MODERATE-TO-VIGOROUS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION, SCHOOL RECESS AND AFTER-SCHOOL TIME IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS: AN ACCELEROMETER-BASED STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Vega, Daniel; Parra Saldías, Maribel; Viciana, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Regular physical activity is an important factor of health in youth. Unfortunately, in Chile 85% of adolescents do not achieve the 60 min daily recommendation of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Physical education, school recess and after-school time are considered crucial environments for adolescents to meet the recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels. This study compared the moderateto-vigorous physical activity levels between physical education, school recess and a...

  5. Parental Influence on Psychological Value Perception of Co-Curricular Activities: Its Links with Improving Personality Traits of Higher Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G. N. Sunith; Arockiasamy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Co-curricular activities provide prospects for better youth development and growth experiences. These activities are particularly good at providing opportunities for students to work in teams, to exercise leadership, and to take the initiative themselves. The active participation of the students is required to reap out maximum benefits out of such…

  6. A combination of genistein and magnesium enhances the vasodilatory effect via an eNOS pathway and BK(Ca) current amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Hou, Yunlong; Zhao, Tingting; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaoran; Zhang, Liming; Yu, Guichun

    2015-04-01

    The phytoestrogen genistein (GST) and magnesium have been independently shown to regulate vascular tone; however, their individual vasodilatory effects are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the combined effects of GST plus magnesium on vascular tone in mesenteric arteries. The effects of pretreatment with GST (0-200 μmol/L), MgCl2 (0-4.8 mmol/L) and GST plus MgCl2 on 10 μmol/L phenylephrine (PE) precontracted mesenteric arteries in rats were assessed by measuring isometric force. BK(Ca) currents were detected by the patch clamp method. GST caused concentration- and partial endothelium-dependent relaxation. Magnesium resulted in dual adjustment of vascular tone. Magnesium-free solution eliminated the vasodilatation of GST in both endothelium-intact and denuded rings. GST (50 μmol/L) plus magnesium (4.8 mmol/L) caused stronger relaxation in both endothelium-intact and denuded rings. Pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-N-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μmol/L) significantly inhibited the effects of GST, high magnesium, and the combination of GST and magnesium. BK(Ca) currents were amplified to a greater extent when GST (50 μmol/L) was combined with 4.8 versus 1.2 mmol/L Mg(2+). Our data suggest that GST plus magnesium provides enhanced vasodilatory effects in rat mesenteric arteries compared with that observed when either is used separately, which was related to an eNOS pathway and BK(Ca) current amplification.

  7. Innate immunity in multiple sclerosis: myeloid dendritic cells in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis are activated and drive a proinflammatory immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karni, Arnon; Abraham, Michal; Monsonego, Alon; Cai, Guifang; Freeman, Gordon J; Hafler, David; Khoury, Samia J; Weiner, Howard L

    2006-09-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is postulated to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized clinically by a relapsing-remitting (RR) stage followed by a secondary progressive (SP) phase. The progressive phase is felt to be secondary to neuronal degenerative changes triggered by inflammation. The status of the innate immune system and its relationship to the stages of MS is not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional APCs that are central cells of the innate immune system and have the unique capacity to induce primary immune responses. We investigated circulating myeloid DCs isolated directly from the blood to determine whether there were abnormalities in myeloid DCs in MS and whether they were related to disease stage. We found that SP-MS subjects had an increased percentage of DCs expressing CD80, a decreased percentage expressing PD-L1, and an increased percentage producing IL-12 and TNF-alpha compared with RR-MS or controls. A higher percentage of DCs from both RR and SP-MS patients expressed CD40 compared with controls. We then investigated the polarization effect of DCs from MS patients on naive T cells taken from cord blood using a MLR assay. Whereas DCs from RR-MS induced higher levels of Th1 (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-13) cytokines compared with controls, DCs from SP-MS only induced a polarized Th1 response. These results demonstrate abnormalities of DCs in MS and may explain the immunologic basis for the different stages and clinical patterns of MS.

  8. Ultra-low light level imaging and its application to biosciences. Goku bijakuko imaging to sono seitai keisoku eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, T. (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan))

    1992-12-05

    This paper describes an ultra-high sensitivity TV camera (photon counting camera) that can detect photons one by one and image them under ultra-low level light, and its application. Photographing under ultra-low level light has become possible by using a two-dimensional photon counting method. In observing movements of sea urchin roes before and after fertilization, fluidity of the membranes was quantified two-dimensionally and chronologically. In the example of the number of fluorescent molecules sealed in red blood cell ghosts, the number was imaged up to 10 molecules per ghost. Its most characteristic application would be to utilize its capability of imaging performance under as low light as incident photons would not almost superpose with each other in terms of space and time. The number of biological photons after about one week of sowing soybean seeds was several hundred photons per cm[sup 2]/S in a portion receiving abundance of light on a test sample. Other applications may include imaging Ca ions discharged during fertilization of the roes, chronological observation on process of active oxygen release from white blood cells in defective nutrition, and visualization of gene emergence utilizing luciferin-luciferase light emission. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Gifted Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandi, Carla B.; Siegle, Del; Weiner, Jennie M.; Gubbins, E. Jean; Little, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in the Enrichment Triad and Achievement Orientation Models, this qualitative case study builds understanding of the relationship between participation in Type III Enrichment and the achievement orientation attitude of goal valuation in gifted secondary school students. Participants included 10 gifted secondary school students, their…

  10. Motivational Profiles for Secondary School Physical Education and Its Relationship to the Adoption of a Physically Active Lifestyle among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerens, Leen; Kirk, David; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    The promotion of an active lifestyle is one of the central aims of physical education (PE). The present study aimed at investigating the relation between students' motivation for PE and activity levels using self-determination theory as a guiding framework. A retrospective design was used involving 2617 university students, of which 878 (33.5…

  11. Secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sophie A; Miller, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the etiology and management of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) that is appropriate and in response to a stimulus, most commonly low serum calcium. In secondary hyperparathyroidism, the serum calcium is normal and the PTH level is elevated. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by excessive secretion of PTH after longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism, in which hypercalcemia has ensued. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism typically occurs in men and women with chronic kidney disease usually after kidney transplant. The etiology and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism is relatively straightforward whereas data on the management of tertiary hyperparathyroidism is limited to a few small trials with short follow-up. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on secondary metabolite profiling, anti-inflammatory potential, in vitro photoprotective and skin-aging related enzyme inhibitory activities of Malaxis acuminata, a threatened orchid of nutraceutical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Biswajit; Choudhury, Hiranjit; Tandon, Pramod; Kumaria, Suman

    2017-08-01

    Malaxis acuminata D. Don., a small, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000m asl. The dried pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old ayurvedic drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal immune-booster nutraceutical 'Chyavanprash', known to restore vigour, vitality and youthfulness. Considering tremendous medicinal importance of this threatened orchid species, a detailed study was undertaken for the first time to address its antioxidant potential, secondary metabolite contents and biological activities against skin-aging related enzymes (anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase) in different plant parts of wild and in vitro-derived plants of M. acuminata. Methanolic leaf and stem extracts were further evaluated for in vitro photoprotective activity against UV-B and UV-A radiations. Furthermore, secondary metabolite profiling of various plant parts was carried out by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A significantly higher antioxidant potential (DPPH, metal chelating and ABTS(•+)) with a comparative higher yield of secondary metabolites was observed in in vitro-derived plantlets as compared to the wild plants. Among various solvent systems used, methanolic leaf and stem extracts showed promising inhibitory activity against major skin aging-related enzymes and anti-inflammatory potential. Methanolic leaf and stem extracts of both wild and in vitro-derived plants showed promising photoprotective activity against UV-B and UV-A radiations in vitro with comparatively higher sun protection factor (SPF). Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts of leaves and stems of wild as well as in vitro-derived plantlets revealed presence of many bioactive metabolites such as, dietary fatty acids, α-hydroxy acids, phenolic acids, sterols, amino acids, sugars and glycosides which substantially explain the use of M. acuminata

  13. Physical Activity in Primary Versus Secondary Prevention Indication Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients 6–12 Months After Implantation – A Cross-Sectional Study With Register Follow Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe physical activity status among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) according to the indication for ICD implant compared with international guidelines and compared with a matched healthy reference population to detect potential for improved physical...

  14. The effect of dance mat exergaming systems on physical activity and health-related outcomes in secondary schools: results from a natural experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azevedo, Liane B; Burges Watson, Duika; Haighton, Catherine; Adams, Jean

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this natural experiment was to examine the effect of introducing the dance mat exergaming systems on physical activity and health-related outcomes in 11-13 year old students using a non...

  15. Free-radical scavenging activity and bioactive secondary metabolites from various extracts of Glinus oppositifolius (L. Aug. DC. (Molluginaceae roots, stems and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Janet R. Martin-Puzon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Glinus oppositifolius (G. oppositifolius and to determine the presence of phytochemical constituents in ethanol, methanol and chloroform extracts of the roots, stems and leaves of G. oppositifolius. Methods: The extracts were examined for antioxidant property by free–radical [2,2–diphenyl– 1–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH] scavenging activity and screened for the presence of bioactive phytochemical constituents, i.e., alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, sterols, tannins, and terpenes. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were quantified by Folin– Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride method, respectively. Results: The results showed that all the plant parts, i.e., roots, stems and leaves, exhibited free–radical scavenging activity which can be attributed to the presence of phytochemical constituents in the various extracts. The root chloroformic extract had the highest DPPH inhibition activity which was 70% relative to gallic acid, followed by the root methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibiting 37% and 28% DPPH inhibition activity, respectively. Conclusions: This paper has reported for the first time the antioxidant activity of the different parts of G. oppositifolius, i.e., roots and stems. The results demonstrate great potential of the plant as a new source of food supplements, drug components and other materials or ingredients for health and wellness.

  16. Despite the lack of association between different genotypes and the presence of prostate cancer, endothelial nitric oxide synthase a/b (eNOS4a/b) polymorphism may be associated with advanced clinical stage and bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Oner; Kucukgergin, Canan; Gokpinar, Murat; Tefik, Tzevat; Nane, Ismet; Seckin, Sule

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the distribution of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS4a/b) gene polymorphism and clinical features of prostate cancer (PCa). One hundred thirty-two patients with PCa (mean age 64.10 ± 7.23 years) and 158 healthy controls (mean age 62.50 ± 7.53 years) with normal serum total prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels (bone metastasis (Group 2), and patients with bone metastasis (Group 3). Genotypes (aa, bb, ab) for eNOS4a/b gene polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Meanwhile, plasma nitrate and nitrite levels (NO(x)) were used to estimate the amounts of endogenous NO formation for both groups of patients. Despite lack of statistically significant differences between PCa patients and the control group in terms of distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles, plasma NO(x) levels were found to be significantly increased in PCa patients compared with controls. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the group of PCa patients with high and low grade tumors (Gleason score ≥ 7 vs. bone metastasis in comparison with bb genotype. Moreover, multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that eNOS4a/b polymorphism and plasma NOx levels were predictive factors for developing bone metastasis and high stage disease after adjustment for age and BMI. Our data did not reveal any relationship between any of these genotypes and the presence of PCa. However, the finding that PCa patients with bb genotype generally manifest localized disease and develop bone metastasis less frequently in comparison patients with a-allele may indicate an important role for this polymorphism in the molecular pathophysiology of PCa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide association study using a high-density SNP-array and case-control design identifies a novel essential hypertension susceptibility locus in the promoter region of eNOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Erika; Kutalik, Zoltán; Glorioso, Nicola; Benaglio, Paola; Frau, Francesca; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Arima, Hisatomi; Hoggart, Clive; Tichet, Jean; Nikitin, Yury P.; Conti, Costanza; Seidlerova, Jitka; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Johnson, Toby; Devos, Nabila; Zagato, Laura; Guarrera, Simonetta; Zaninello, Roberta; Calabria, Andr