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Sample records for enlargement radiographic pathologic

  1. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included

  2. System for pathology categorization and retrieval in chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Uri; Greenspan, Hayit; Konen, Eli; Sharon, Michal; Goldberger, Jacob

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present an overview of a system we have been developing for the past several years for efficient image categorization and retrieval in large radiograph archives. The methodology is based on local patch representation of the image content, using a bag of visual words approach and similarity-based categorization with a kernel based SVM classifier. We show an application to pathology-level categorization of chest x-ray data, the most popular examination in radiology. Our study deals with pathology detection and identification of individual pathologies including right and left pleural effusion, enlarged heart and cases of enlarged mediastinum. The input from a radiologist provided a global label for the entire image (healthy/pathology), and the categorization was conducted on the entire image, with no need for segmentation algorithms or any geometrical rules. An automatic diagnostic-level categorization, even on such an elementary level as healthy vs pathological, provides a useful tool for radiologists on this popular and important examination. This is a first step towards similarity-based categorization, which has a major clinical implications for computer-assisted diagnostics.

  3. Radiographic and pathologic observations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

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    Jung, Lae Won [Busan Nationa University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Jung Dal [Busan Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    This report presents two cases with eosinophilic gastroenteritis in detail. The radiographic and pathologic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are summarized with emphasis on the differential diagnostic features. Radiographic eosinophilic gastritis should be differentiated from gastric carcinoma and lymphoma, and eosinophilic enteritis from intestinal tuberculosis and intussusception of the small bowel in Korea where these entities are prevent. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is pathologically characterized by diffuse infiltration of the submucosa and muscle coats with eosinophilic in conjunction with hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers. This leads to thickening of the gastrointestinal wall resulting in narrowing and obstruction of the lumen. Eosinophilic venulitis is another characteristic feature which is helpful for differentiation this entity from a parasitic infection.

  4. Radiographic and pathologic observations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Lae Won; Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Jung Dal

    1974-01-01

    This report presents two cases with eosinophilic gastroenteritis in detail. The radiographic and pathologic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are summarized with emphasis on the differential diagnostic features. Radiographic eosinophilic gastritis should be differentiated from gastric carcinoma and lymphoma, and eosinophilic enteritis from intestinal tuberculosis and intussusception of the small bowel in Korea where these entities are prevent. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is pathologically characterized by diffuse infiltration of the submucosa and muscle coats with eosinophilic in conjunction with hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers. This leads to thickening of the gastrointestinal wall resulting in narrowing and obstruction of the lumen. Eosinophilic venulitis is another characteristic feature which is helpful for differentiation this entity from a parasitic infection

  5. Right heart enlargement in heartworm-infected dogs: a radiographic, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, C.W.; Ackerman, N.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographically, the size of the right ventricle of 54 heartworm-infected dogs was graded subjectively as normal, 1 +, 2 +, and 3 + and served to classify the dogs into groups A, B, C, and D. With M-mode echocardiograms, right ventricular enlargement ratios (RVE ratios) were determined for each dog by dividing the measured right ventricular internal diastolic dimension (RVIDd) by the expected RVIDd of a normal dog of the same body weight. The normal RVIDd relation to body weight was derived from 25 healthy heartworm-free control dogs. These two variables were linearly related with a correlation coefficient r 2 = 0.59. Means and standard deviations of the RVE ratio were calculated for each group. Despite wide ranges and considerable overlap, the ratio was significantly different (t-test, p < 0.005) between groups with the exception of groups A and B, and C and D. The incidence of electrocardiographic signs of right ventricular hypertrophy was also determined for each group; it was 38% in group C and 62% in group D. From this data, it was concluded that M-mode echocardiography is a very sensitive technique for the documentation of right ventricular dilatation in heartworm-infected dogs, correlating with radiographic impressions of right ventricular enlargement. (author)

  6. Radiographic findings of gastrointestinal anisakiasis: clinical and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; And Others

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the radiographic findings of gastrointestinal anisakiasis with clinical and pathologic correlation. In ten patients, findings were retrospectively analysed. There were two cases of the gastric variety of gastrointestinal anisakiasis and eight of the intestinal, and they were diagnosed during gastroscopy, by resection during surgery, and on the basis of typical clinical findings. All ten patients underwent both plain radiography and CT scanning of the abdomen. US was performed in five patients and an upper gastrointestinal series in one. Clinical data were evaluated with regard to a history of raw fish ingestion, time from ingestion of raw fish to onset of symptoms, location of abdominal pain, and laboratory data. Radiologic findings were analysed in terms of wall thickening and appearance, mesenteric infiltration, bowel dilatation proximal to lesion, and ascites. All patients had a history of recent ingestion of raw fish and complained of severe abdominal pain that occurred approximately 7-48 hours later. Pain occurred in the lower abdomen in five patients, the epigastrium in four, and the right lower abdomen in two. Laboratory test disclosed the leukocytosis in eight patients and eosinophilia in three. In all cases of intestinal anisakiasis, ileus was demonstrated on plain radiographs of the abdomen, while the upper gastrointestinal series showed mucosal thickening and multiple filling defects. US findings were bowel thickening and dilation, and on CT images, wall thickening revealed a target sign. Mesenteric infiltration and ascites were seen in seven patients. In four who underwent surgery, a cross-section through the lesion revealed submucosal eosinophilic granuloma with anisakis larva. Although the CT findings are non-specific, taken in conjunction with characteristic clinical findings, they may be helpful in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal anisakiasis. (author)

  7. Radiographic findings of gastrointestinal anisakiasis: clinical and pathologic correlation

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    Chung, Tae Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Yong Yeon [Medical School, Chonnam University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the radiographic findings of gastrointestinal anisakiasis with clinical and pathologic correlation. In ten patients, findings were retrospectively analysed. There were two cases of the gastric variety of gastrointestinal anisakiasis and eight of the intestinal, and they were diagnosed during gastroscopy, by resection during surgery, and on the basis of typical clinical findings. All ten patients underwent both plain radiography and CT scanning of the abdomen. US was performed in five patients and an upper gastrointestinal series in one. Clinical data were evaluated with regard to a history of raw fish ingestion, time from ingestion of raw fish to onset of symptoms, location of abdominal pain, and laboratory data. Radiologic findings were analysed in terms of wall thickening and appearance, mesenteric infiltration, bowel dilatation proximal to lesion, and ascites. All patients had a history of recent ingestion of raw fish and complained of severe abdominal pain that occurred approximately 7-48 hours later. Pain occurred in the lower abdomen in five patients, the epigastrium in four, and the right lower abdomen in two. Laboratory test disclosed the leukocytosis in eight patients and eosinophilia in three. In all cases of intestinal anisakiasis, ileus was demonstrated on plain radiographs of the abdomen, while the upper gastrointestinal series showed mucosal thickening and multiple filling defects. US findings were bowel thickening and dilation, and on CT images, wall thickening revealed a target sign. Mesenteric infiltration and ascites were seen in seven patients. In four who underwent surgery, a cross-section through the lesion revealed submucosal eosinophilic granuloma with anisakis larva. Although the CT findings are non-specific, taken in conjunction with characteristic clinical findings, they may be helpful in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal anisakiasis. (author)

  8. Multivariate analysis of morphological pathology in ventricular enlargement by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Satoru

    1981-01-01

    Several ventricular segments were first measured linearly on the CT image to determine the normal upper limit in adolescent and mature subjects. On the basis of the values obtained, large ventricules were defined, and discriminant analysis with the increase and decrease of the variable was applied. The error ratio of discrimination between pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy was 8.4%. The temporal horn and trigone are larger in pressure hydrocephalus than in cerebral atrophy, in which the anterior horn is larger. The error ratio of discrimination between obstructive hydrocephalus and communicating hydrocephalus was 11.3%. The hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle and the body of the lateral ventricle are larger in obstructive hydrocephalus than in communicating hydrocephalus, in which the anterior horn and the cellae mediae at the level of the head of caudate nuclei are relatively large. Enlarged ventricles were divided into three groups with characteristic segment: one with large temporal horn and trigone in pressure hydrocephalus; one with larger hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle and larger body of the lateral ventricle in obstructive hydrocephalus than in communicating hydrocephalus; and relatively large anterior horn, cellae mediae at the level of the head of caudate nuclei, and thalamic segment of the third ventricle in cerebral atrophy and communicating hydrocephalus. These findings contribute to the pathological evaluation of ventricular enlargement. The hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle assumes a round or oval shape in pressure hydrocephalus but a rectangular or teardrop shape in cerebral atrophy. (J.P.N.)

  9. Rapid liver enlargement and hepatic failure secondary to radiographic occult tumor invasion: two case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Christine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Unfamiliarity with certain clinical presentations, as illustrated in these cases, can lead to delayed diagnoses that in turn cause increased morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and the need for autopsy. Case presentation In Case 1, a 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with hepatic enlargement and insufficiency which progressed and resulted in her death over a period of less than 2 weeks. The patient underwent a detailed workup included magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scan of her liver, which did not reveal the source of her liver enlargement. Due to her progressive liver enlargement and insufficiency, she developed a life-threatening esophageal variceal bleeding during her hospital stay which further delayed the attainment of her diagnosis. She finally underwent a videoscopic laparotomy and liver biopsy which revealed complete replacement and filling in of the liver sinuous with Indian filing lobular breast cancer. The patient died shortly after her diagnosis and before she could be discharged. In Case 2, a 68-year-old Caucasian woman with non-small-cell lung cancer was admitted to our Oncology in-patient service with a presentation of rapid hepatic insufficiency and severe liver enlargement. Like the patient in Case 1, during her hospitalization, this patient underwent a thorough radiographic evaluation, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the source of her symptoms. Radiographic imaging showed only hepatomegaly and no discrete focal lesions. As the multiple imaging studies over a period of a week did not reveal a clear cause for her symptoms, she finally underwent an interventional radiology core biopsy which showed complete replacement of her liver with non-small-cell lung cancer. Her condition rapidly progressed due to continued liver enlargement and she died due to frank liver failure before her diagnosis was affirmed and she could be discharged. Conclusion

  10. Radiographic anatomy and pathology of the child's airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, B.B. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The laryngotracheal airway has been considered the ''bottle-neck'' of the lungs. Any compromise of this already rather small pathway can easily result in a life-threatening situation. Rapid, accurate diagnosis is essential for proper clinical management of a compromised airway. Radiologic studies play a major role in the clinical investigation of patients with serious airway problems. There are notable differences between the anatomy of the upper airway of the adult and that of the young child or infant. In the infant, however, some differences in the radiographic patterns must be kept in mind. In the first 6 months of life, the adenoid shadow is not well defined and is normally absent until 1 month of age. During swallowing there is a lack of air in the pharynx with elevation of the larynx. Air may be seen in the cervical esophagus. All of these physiologic variations must be considered when interpreting radiographs of the neck in the young child

  11. Widespread osteonecrosis of the foot in systemic lupus erythematosus: Radiographic and gross pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, D; Pineda, C; Trudell, D

    1985-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus required an amputation of the foot related to the presence of vascular disease and infection. Radiographs obtained prior to amputation revealed osteonecrosis in virtually every bone of the foot. Radiographic-pathologic correlation documented this widespread osseous involvement. Although ischemic necrosis of bone is a well-known feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, its localization in the small bones of the foot is rare.

  12. Widespread osteonecrosis of the foot in systemic lupus erythematosus: Radiographic and gross pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, D.; Pineda, C.; Trudell, D.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1985-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus required an amputation of the foot related to the presence of vascular disease and infection. Radiographs obtained prior to amputation revealed osteonecrosis in virtually every bone of the foot. Radiographic-pathologic correlation documented this widespread osseous involvement. Although ischemic necrosis of bone is a well-known feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, its localization in the small bones of the foot is rare. (orig.)

  13. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: Correlation of radiographic and pathological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchman, R.F.; Alvarez, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of a child with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Neuroradiological studies indicated a lesion in the cerebellar vermis. A cerebellar biopsy revealed changes consisting of Purkinje and granular cell loss with gliosis. This case report documents the correlation of radiologic and pathological findings in a patient with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (orig.)

  14. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  15. Does radiographic arthrosis correlate with cartilage pathology in Labrador Retrievers affected by medial coronoid process disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael; Heller, Jane; Solano, Miguel; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Sparrow, Tim; Kowaleski, Mike

    2014-02-01

    To compare radiographic elbow arthrosis with arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers with elbow osteoarthritis secondary to medial coronoid process (MCP) disease. Retrospective epidemiological study. Labrador retrievers (n = 317; 592 elbow joints). Data were collected retrospectively (June 2007-June 2011) to identify Labrador retrievers with thoracic limb lameness and elbow pain, a complete set of elbow radiographs, and a comprehensive arthroscopic surgery report. Each radiograph was scored for osteophytosis on the anconeal process and ulnar subtrochlear sclerosis using a modification of the International Elbow Working Group (IEWG) scoring system. Elbows affected by traumatic MCP fracture, humeral condylar osteochondrosis, or ununited anconeal process were excluded. The arthroscopic report was used to generate a composite cartilage score (CCS; 0 = normal, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe) for each elbow joint. Ordinal regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between radiographic arthrosis score and CCS. There was a significant relationship between radiographic elbow arthrosis and CCS (P arthrosis can be used to predict the severity of arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers affected by MCP disease. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. The comparative study of radiograph, MRI and pathology in degeneration of lumbar intervertebral disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Tiesong; Wang Yunzhao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pathology, and MRI features of the degeneration of lumbar intervertebral discs (IVD). Methods: Thirteen human lumbar spine segments with 31 IVDs were harvested from fresh cadavers. High quality radiographs were taken for all specimens. Five segments with 20 IVD underwent MRl. Then, the radiographic and MRI findings were correlated with corresponding 87 pathologic sections. Results: Variant degeneration was observed in pathologic sections in all 31 IVDs. With MRI T 2 WI images, 20 IVDs showed linear and spotty high signal in the annular fibers, or most of the IVD showed high signal. On pathologic cuts, 22 of 31 IVDs showed infolding of annular fibers, 18 of 31 showed outfolding of annular fibers. On MRI T 1 WI and T 2 WI images, infolding and outfolding of annular fibers were seen as low signal. 20 of 31 IVDs had necrotic debris of cells in the nucleus pulposus. 14 of 20 demonstrated spotty low signal areas on MRI T 2 WI images. 7 Schmorl nodules were found. On pathologic sections Schmorl nodules were seen as IVD tissue protruding into vertebral endplates, they were seen as high signal on T 2 WI images. Two large fissures found on sections were seen as low signal on T 2 WI. Degenerative fibrosis seen on 6 IVD, which showed intermediate signal on T 2 WI images. However, radiographs only demonstrated osteophytes on 3 vertebrae, 7 Schmorl's nodules. Sclerotic, concave and irregular endplates were seen in 11 IVDs, the tatter is the indication of cartilaginous endplate disruption, Conclusion: MRI is very useful in demonstrating the degeneration of IVD, radiograph is able to indirectly show the disappearance of cartilaginous endplate

  17. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  18. Radiographic and pathologic features of osteopetrosis in two Peruvian Paso foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.R.; House, J.K.; Poulos, P.P.; Madigan, J.E.; Woodard, J.C.; Pool, R.R.; O'Brien, T.R.; Ackerman, N.

    1994-01-01

    The radiographic and pathologic findings of two Peruvian Paso foals with osteopetrosis are described. Both foals, one male and one female, presented with respiratory difficulty, brachygnathia and failure to rise after birth. Both foals were mildly anemic, hypogammaglobulinemic and had elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase. Increased medullary bone opacity was noted on radiographs of the extremities, spine and skull in both foals. A lack of normal cortical:medullary bone distinction was evident radiographically. The medullary primary spongiosa appeared to run in parallel columns away from the physes of all long bones and the vertebrae. This created a distinctive hour glass appearance to the osteopetrotic bones. One foal developed a bacterial pneumonia. Both foals were euthanized due to failure to thrive. Histopathology and electron microscopy documented these foals to have normal osteoclastic numbers but lack normal ruffled borders, lack of a clear zone and normal lysosomal numbers indicative of cellular dysfunction. These clinical, radiographic and pathologic findings are similar to the juvenile, lethal autosomal recessive form of osteopetrosis described in humans. Osteopetrosis has not been previously described in a female foal

  19. A typical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung: correlation of radiographic and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianwei; Ma Xiaohong; Wu Ning; Zhang Hongtu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study radiographic features of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of lung and correlate them with their pathologic findings, so as to improve the imaging diagnose. Methods: The imaging features of 8 patients with pathology- proved AAH were reviewed. All patients were women with age ranging from 35 to 74 years. All cases had chest radiography and HRCT. The radiographic findings were studied retrospectively and correlated with those of pat hology. Results: On chest X-ray, the foci in five patients presented as nodule-like area of a bit high attenuation, while the chest radiograph in the other three patients were negative. On HRCT, all 8 patients presented as non-solid nodules. All lesions were round or oval shaped with well-defined margin (n=4) or poor-defined margin (n=3). The greatest dimension of the lesions ranged from 5.0 mm to 20.0 mm. Their CT value ranged from -362.7 HU to -485.6 HU, the mean CT value was (-423.0 ± 47.0) HU. Air bronchograms and/or bubbles were seen in 5 lesions. Coarse spiculation and pleural tag was not seen in any lesion. Before operation, all the nodules did not change in size over a follow-up period from one month to six months. Pathologic findings showed atypical epithelial cell proliferation along thickened alveolar septa without alveolar collapse. Conclusion: AAH should be considered in cases with the following features: (1) nodules ate found in lung cancer screening or incidentally detected; (2) the diameter of the nodule is usually less than 10 mm; (3) the lesion presented as non-solid nodule on HRCT, air bronchogram and/or bubble sign can be seen; (4) no coarse spiculation and plural tag was seen. (authors)

  20. Clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance findings in 34 patients with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Koyama, Takashi; Swee, Ronald G.; Inwards, Carrie Y. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, MN 55905, Rochester (United States)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the radiographic features of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS), including the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings, and to correlate them with the histopathologic findings. A retrospective review was carried out of 72 patients with histopathologically confirmed CCCS. Imaging studies were available for 34 patients: conventional radiographs (n=28), CT scans (n=14), and MR images (n=15). Radiographic studies were reviewed by three radiologists who rendered a consensus opinion; the studies were correlated with the histopathologic findings. Of the 34 patients with imaging studies, 30 were male and 4 were female (mean age 38.6 years; range 11-74 years). Twenty-two lesions were in long bones (15, proximal femur; 1, distal femur; 1, proximal tibia; 5, proximal humerus) and 11 were in flat bones (5, vertebra; 4, rib; 1, scapula; 1, innominate). One lesion occurred in the tarsal navicular bone. Typically, long bone lesions were located in the epimetaphysis (19/22) and were lucent with a well-defined sclerotic margin and no cortical destruction or periosteal new bone formation. More than one-third of the long bone lesions contained matrix mineralization with a characteristic chondroid appearance. Pathologic fractures were present in six long bone lesions (4, humerus; 2, femur). Lesions in the proximal humerus were more likely to have indistinct margins (4/5) and extend into the diaphysis. Flat bone lesions were typically lytic and expansile and occasionally demonstrated areas of cortical disruption. Typically, matrix mineralization, when present, was amorphous. MR imaging, when available, was superior to conventional radiographs for demonstrating the intramedullary extent of a lesion as well as soft tissue extension. CT images better delineated the presence of cortical destruction and the character of matrix mineralization patterns. CCCS lesions were typically low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and moderately or significantly

  1. Clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance findings in 34 patients with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Mark S.; Koyama, Takashi; Swee, Ronald G.; Inwards, Carrie Y.

    2003-01-01

    To describe the radiographic features of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS), including the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings, and to correlate them with the histopathologic findings. A retrospective review was carried out of 72 patients with histopathologically confirmed CCCS. Imaging studies were available for 34 patients: conventional radiographs (n=28), CT scans (n=14), and MR images (n=15). Radiographic studies were reviewed by three radiologists who rendered a consensus opinion; the studies were correlated with the histopathologic findings. Of the 34 patients with imaging studies, 30 were male and 4 were female (mean age 38.6 years; range 11-74 years). Twenty-two lesions were in long bones (15, proximal femur; 1, distal femur; 1, proximal tibia; 5, proximal humerus) and 11 were in flat bones (5, vertebra; 4, rib; 1, scapula; 1, innominate). One lesion occurred in the tarsal navicular bone. Typically, long bone lesions were located in the epimetaphysis (19/22) and were lucent with a well-defined sclerotic margin and no cortical destruction or periosteal new bone formation. More than one-third of the long bone lesions contained matrix mineralization with a characteristic chondroid appearance. Pathologic fractures were present in six long bone lesions (4, humerus; 2, femur). Lesions in the proximal humerus were more likely to have indistinct margins (4/5) and extend into the diaphysis. Flat bone lesions were typically lytic and expansile and occasionally demonstrated areas of cortical disruption. Typically, matrix mineralization, when present, was amorphous. MR imaging, when available, was superior to conventional radiographs for demonstrating the intramedullary extent of a lesion as well as soft tissue extension. CT images better delineated the presence of cortical destruction and the character of matrix mineralization patterns. CCCS lesions were typically low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and moderately or significantly

  2. Relationship of Radiographic and Clinical Parameters With Hallux Valgus and Second Ray Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbin, Caitlin K; Ellis, Scott J; Nguyen, Joseph; Williamson, Emilie; Cody, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Hallux valgus is frequently associated with additional forefoot pathologies, including hammertoes and midfoot osteoarthritis (OA). However, the pathogenesis of these concurrent pathologies remains to be elucidated. We sought to determine whether there is a relationship between demographic and radiographic parameters and the incidence of secondary pathologies in the setting of a bunion, with an emphasis on second tarsometatarsal (TMT) OA and hammertoes. A total of 153 patients (172 feet) who underwent reconstruction for hallux valgus were divided into 3 groups: (1) bunion only (61 patients), (2) bunion with hammertoe without second TMT joint OA (78 patients), and (3) bunion with second TMT joint OA (14 patients). Preoperative age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) as well as hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), metatarsus adductus angle (MAA), ratio of second to first metatarsal length, and Meary's angle were recorded. One-way analysis of variance (normality demonstrated) and Kruskal-Wallis (normality not demonstrated) tests were used to assess differences in continuous variables. Post hoc tests were conducted with the Bonferroni technique. Associations between discrete variables and the study groups were analyzed using χ 2 tests. Following the univariate analysis, multinomial logistic regression models were built to determine potential risk factors for hammertoe or TMT OA group placement. Patients in the hammertoe and TMT OA groups were significantly older than patients in the bunion only group ( P hallux valgus who are at greater risk for developing secondary pathologies. Level III, retrospective comparative series.

  3. Clinical, radiographic, pathologic, and genetic features of osteochondrodysplasia in Scottish Deerhounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breur, G.J.; Zerbe, C.A.; Slocombe, R.F.; Padgett, G.A.; Braden, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Clinical, radiographic, pathologic, and genetic features of a form of osteochondrodysplasia in 5 related Scottish Deerhound pups from 2 litters were evaluated. All pups appeared to be phenotypically normal at birth. At approximately 4 or 5 weeks, exercise intolerance and retarded growth were observed. Kyphosis, limb deformities, and joint laxity gradually developed. Radiography of the affected pups revealed skeletal changes characterized by abnormalities in long bones and vertebrae, with involvement of epiphyses, growth plates, and metaphyses. Short long bones and vertebrae and irregular and delayed epiphyseal ossification were most noticeable in younger pups; in older pups, bony deformities became more prominent. In skeletally mature dogs, osteopenia and severe deformities were seen. The histologic changes of the growth plate were compatible with a diagnosis of chondrodysplasia. Growth plate chondrocytes contained periodic acid Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant cytoplasmic inclusions. A single autosomal recessive mode of inheritance was suspected

  4. The development and evaluation of an audit tool for measuring reporting accuracy of radiographers compared with radiologists for intra-luminal pathology detected at computed tomography colonography (CTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimes, Susan Jane; Fox, Danial; Knapp, Karen M.; Meertens, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To design and test an audit tool to measure the reporting accuracy of radiographers using radiologist reports as the gold standard. Design: A database was designed to capture radiographer and radiologist report data. The radiographer preliminary evaluation of intraluminal pathology was given a score (PDS score) by the reporting radiologist based on the pathology present, the discrepancy between the preliminary evaluation and the final report and the significance of that discrepancy on the clinical management of the patient. To test the reliability of this scoring system, 30 randomly selected cases (n = 1815) were retrospectively compared and assessed for accuracy using the PDS score by 3 independent practitioners. Inter rater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement and kappa scores. Results: There was 100% agreement between participants for all significant pathologies. Inter rater agreement was 80–93% for normal studies and insignificant pathologies. Conclusion: Results indicate that the tool provides a practical, easy to use and reliable method to record, monitor and evaluate a preliminary evaluation of the colon by radiographers. - Highlights: • Radiographers issue a preliminary clinical evaluation of computed tomography colonography. • A database was set up to collate and audit radiographer preliminary clinical evaluation. • Radiographer primary clinical evaluations were scored for accuracy against the radiology report. • Radiographer accuracy was high when compared with the radiology report. • Radiographers can support radiologists through double reporting of intraluminal pathology

  5. Peritendinous calcinosis of calcaneus tendon associated with dermatomyositis: correlation between conventional radiograph, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and gross surgical pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Gomide, Lidyane Marques de Paula; Lemes, Marcella Stival

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial calcinosis is an uncommon condition in which there is either localized or widely disseminated deposition of calcium in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, and tendons. Calcinosis is often associated with collagen diseases, scleroderma and dermatomyositis. The authors report a case of interstitial calcinosis associated with dermatomyositis studied with conventional radiograph, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and correlate the imaging findings with the results of surgical pathology gross examination. (author)

  6. Injuries to the cranial cruciate ligament and associated structures: summary of clinical, radiographic, arthroscopic and pathological findings from 10 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, M.; Grant, B.D.; Turner, T.A.; Nixon, A.J.; Brown, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic, arthroscopic and pathological findings of 10 horses with injury to the cranial cruciate ligament are presented. The most consistent clinical signs included moderate to severe distension of the femoropatellar joint and a Grade III to a Grade V out of V lameness. Craniocaudal instability could be elicited in five horses under general anaesthesia and in one conscious horse. Radiographic evaluation of the stifles revealed that avulsion fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence was the most common finding in six out of 10 horses. Arthroscopic examination of the affected femorotibial joints were performed in five horses. This confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament injury or rupture. Post mortem examinations were performed on two horses which documented partial tears of the cranial cruciate ligament

  7. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis in the setting of lung growth abnormality: radiographic and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Monette; Vade, Aruna; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer Eden [Loyola University Health System, Department of Radiology, Maywood, IL (United States); Masuda, Emi [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Massarani-Wafai, Rasan [Loyola University Health System, Department of Pathology, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare pediatric interstitial lung disease. We report a case of a term boy presenting with tachypnea at birth requiring supplemental oxygen. Chest radiographs followed by high-resolution CT (HRCT) demonstrated hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial markings interspersed with multiple cystic spaces. An open lung biopsy demonstrated a minor component of PIG superimposed upon poor alveolarization. PIG in the setting of lung growth abnormality might be more common than previously described. Additionally, radiographic findings associated with most pediatric interstitial lung diseases are nonspecific, and histopathologic correlation is essential for diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. A taxonomy of anatomical and pathological entities to support commenting on radiographs (preliminary clinical evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosson, Philip; Dash, Robert

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that radiographers have a lot to offer the patient by providing their expert opinion in a timely intervention; including the possibility of Radiographer Led Discharge. Some excellent paper based ‘commenting’ systems have been developed locally and the Society and College of Radiographers has issued national guidance with a pro-forma to support implementation. However, delivery and audit of the PCE service can be burdensome. There is also an ongoing training need linked in to annual reviews. This paper provides a brief introduction to the field of controlled vocabularies and ontologies in radiology and serves to identify their potential for PCE systems. The current work has constructed a prototype taxonomy and accompanying ontology (list of relationships) that enable the generation of radiographer comments using an electronic, fast, and structured web based interface. For example, in the current implementation any one of thousands of possible unique comments could be constructed by making just six selections from filtered lists of terms. The prototype taxonomy has been tested to refine and validate the concept. The resulting taxonomy and its evolution is described here. Finally, the taxonomy was trialled by 23 participants who generated structured PCE's after reviewing 27 cases on DICOM workstations. An analysis of agreement between participants and the ‘gold standard’ is presented. In conclusion, a taxonomy has been created that would provide for: a standardised framework for training staff and students, efficient and robust delivery of the service, and audit of individual practice

  9. Radiographic and pathologic characterization of lateral palmar intercarpal ligament avulsion fractures in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinlich, Christopher P; Nixon, Alan J

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the radiographic and histologic appearance of lateral palmar intercarpal ligament (LPICL) avulsion in the horse was characterized. Thirty-seven horses with radiographic evidence of avulsion fragments originating from the medial palmar aspect of the ulnar carpal bone were examined. The dorsolateral to palmaromedial projection was useful for evaluating the size and shape of the avulsed bone fragment, and the dorsopalmar projection added information on the relative proximity of the fragment to its fracture bed. Radiographic features that differentiated LPICL avulsion from subchondral cystic lesions of the ulnar carpal bone included a variable-sized osseous opacity adjacent to the lucent concavity of the fracture bed and the consistent location within the palmar transition zone at the confluence of LPICL insertion and hyaline cartilage on the palmar surface of the ulnar carpal bone. All 26 horses having surgical removal of the fragments had arthroscopic confirmation that the fragment was within the LPICL. Histologic examination confirmed the fragments were fracture related rather than developmental or the result of dystrophic mineralization. Many of the fragments had attached remnants of a ligament. This study describes the radiographic, surgical, and histologic features in 37 horses which better characterize LPICL avulsion fracture in the carpus and provide differentiating features to assist in separating this syndrome from true osseous cyst-like lesions within the ulnar carpal bone.

  10. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  11. Enlarged prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for drugs that may make your symptoms worse : SAW PALMETTO Many herbs have been tried for treating an enlarged prostate. Many men use saw palmetto to ease symptoms. Some studies have shown that ...

  12. Gingival Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cover the crowns of the teeth causing periodontal (gum) disease (due to difficulty in keeping the teeth clean) ... localized and/or generalized gingival enlargement such as pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, and leukemia. To the right is ...

  13. Enlarged adenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lips Dry mouth Persistent runny nose or nasal congestion Enlarged adenoids may also cause sleep problems. A ... in the mouth or by inserting a flexible tube (called an endoscope) placed through the nose. Tests ...

  14. NATO Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallis, Paul E

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the last round of NATO enlargement. The report analyzes the key military and political issues in the debate over seven prospective members named at NATO's Prague summit...

  15. Mammography of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: Review of 909 cases with radiographic-pathologic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, Beatrice; Mascarel, Isabelle de; Feuga, Caroline; MacGrogan, Gaetan; Dilhuydy, Marie-Helene; Picot, Veronique; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie; Tunon, Lara Christine de; Bussieres, Emmanuel; Schreer, I.

    2005-01-01

    We retrospectively analysed mammographies of 909 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (1980-1999) and compared our results to those of literature. Microcalcifications were present in 75% of the cases, and soft-tissue abnormalities in 27% cases with association with calcifications in 14% of cases. Palpable masses were found in 12% of the cases and nipple discharge was present in 12% of the cases. The radiographic-pathologic correlation allowed to suspect the DCIS ''aggressiveness'' on radiologic signs. Granular, linear, branching and/or galactophoric topography of the microcalcifications were correlated with necrosis, grade 3, comedocarcinoma type. A number of microcalcifications higher than 20 was correlated with necrosis and grade 3. Mammographic size was correlated to histologic size. Masses were correlated with grade 1. A diagnosis strategy can be proposed with a multidisciplinar approach

  16. Mammography of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: review of 909 cases with radiographic-pathologic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Béatrice; de Mascarel, Isabelle; Feuga, Caroline; MacGrogan, Gaétan; Dilhuydy, Marie-Hélène; Picot, Véronique; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie; de Lara, Christine Tunon; Bussières, Emmanuel; Schreer, I

    2005-04-01

    We retrospectively analysed mammographies of 909 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (1980-1999) and compared our results to those of literature. Microcalcifications were present in 75% of the cases, and soft-tissue abnormalities in 27% cases with association with calcifications in 14% of cases. Palpable masses were found in 12% of the cases and nipple discharge was present in 12% of the cases. The radiographic-pathologic correlation allowed to suspect the DCIS "aggressiveness" on radiologic signs. Granular, linear, branching and/or galactophoric topography of the microcalcifications were correlated with necrosis, grade 3, comedocarcinoma type. A number of microcalcifications higher than 20 was correlated with necrosis and grade 3. Mammographic size was correlated to histologic size. Masses were correlated with grade 1. A diagnosis strategy can be proposed with a multidisciplinar approach.

  17. Fetal musculoskeletal malformations with a poor outcome: ultrasonographic, pathologic, and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    The early and accurate antenatal diagnosis of fetal musculoskeletal malfomations with a poor outcome has important implications for the management of a pregnancy. Careful ultrasonographic examination of a fetus helps detect such anomalies, and a number of characteristic features may suggest possible differential diagnoses. During the last five years, we have encountered 39 cases of such anomalies, and the typical prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of a number of those are described in this article

  18. A Retrospective Radiographic Survey of Pathology Associated with Impacted Third Molars among Patients Seen in Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of College of Dentistry, Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Naveed Ahmad; Khalil, Hesham; Parveen, Kauser; Al-Mutiri, Abdulmajeed; Al-Mutiri, Saif; Al-Saawi, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the type and frequency of pathological conditions around third molar teeth among randomly selected patient's records in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh. Totally, 281 patient panoramic radiographs were selected with detectable pathology among 570 files of patients seen in oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics 2 years retrospectively. Almost 17-55 years age (mean age 25.43) was selected. The following radiographs were analyzed for all pathology associated impacted teeth; dental caries, bone resorption, periodontitis, and apical pathology. The study found caries, external bone resorption and periodontitis are highly frequent to mesioangular and horizontal in mandibular impacted third molar compared to maxillary impacted third molar. Overall result evaluated that tooth #28 related periodontitis is significant (P = 0.021), and tooth #38 related bone resorption, tooth #48 related root caries, bone resorption and apical pathology are highly significant (P = 0.000) comparing to others. This study also concluded the high frequency of root caries, bone resorption and apical pathology reported in relation to mandibular impacted third teeth. Significant results were also achieved with periodontitis in relation to mesiangular and vertical angulation of left impacted maxillary third molars. Prophylactic removal of impacted third molars is recommended in many studies to avoid future risk of associated pathology. Retained asymptomatic impacted third molars imply pathology that could be difficult in later ages as less morbidity in younger ages.

  19. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  20. Hilar enlargement in respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odita, J.C.; Aghahowa, J.E.; Nwankwo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of ten children with hilar enlargement in association with proven Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection are described. Hilar enlargement was seen in 10/35 children with RSV infection, and was invariably unilateral and right sided. It is recommended that RSV pneumonia be considered in children with unilateral hilar enlargement if tuberculosis has been excluded, and the onset of disease is rapid. (orig.)

  1. An experimental study on the radiation-induced injury of the rabbit lung: Correlation of soft-tissue radiograph and high- resolution CT findings with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Byeoung Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook; Lee, Hyung Sik

    1994-01-01

    To describe soft-tissue radiographic and high-resolution CT findings of radiation-induced lung injury of rabbit over time and to correlate them with pathologic findings. 15 rabbits were irradiated in the right lung with one fracture of 2000 cGy. After 4, 6, 12, 20, 24 weeks 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed and soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT of their lung tissue were obtained. Radiological findings were correlated with pathologic findings. On soft-tissue radiogram, radiation pneumonitis shown as consolidation with air- bronchogram occurred in 3 cases after 6 weeks , and in 1 case after 12 weeks of irradiation. In addition, pneumonic consolidation with adjacent pleural contraction was seen in 2 cases after 12 weeks of irradiation. Fibrotic changes indicated by decreased volume occurred after 20 weeks and combined bronchiectatic change and bronchial wall thickening appeared after 20 weeks(N=1), and 24 weeks(N=3). HRCT findings of radiation pneumonitis were homogeneous, increased attention after 4 weeks(N=3), 6 and 12 weeks(each N=1), patchy consolidation after 6 and 12 weeks(each N=2), discrete consolidation after 12, 20 and 24 weeks(each N=1) and solid consolidation after 20 and 24 weeks(each N=2). Pathologically radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary congestion were seen after 4 and 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, collagen and reticulin fibers were detected along alveolar wall. Mixed radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis were detected after 12 weeks. 20 weeks after irradiation, fibrosis was well defined in interstitium and in 24 weeks, decreased number of alveoli and thickening of bronchial wall were defined. Radiation pneumonitis was provoked 4 weeks after irradiation on rabbit lung and progressed into radiation fibrosis 20 weeks after irradiation on soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT. High-resolution CT is more precise in detecting early radiation pneumonitis and detailed pathologic findings

  2. Effect of Knee Extensor Strength on Incident Radiographic and Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis in Individuals with Meniscal Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas B; Felson, David T; Segal, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    months. Separate binomial regression analyses with robust standard errors adjusted for age, history of knee surgery, physical activity level and clinic site were conducted for men and women. RESULTS: High knee extensor strength (normalized by allometric scaling) was associated with a reduced risk...... of radiographic knee OA in women (relative risk: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.94) but not in men (0.56; 0.27 to 1.16). High knee extensor strength did not protect against the development of symptomatic knee OA, either in women or in men. CONCLUSION: The results only partly confirm the hypothesis that high knee...

  3. Automatic Vertebral Fracture Assessment System (AVFAS) for Spinal Pathologies Diagnosis Based on Radiograph X-Ray Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Aouache; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina Abd; Bin Abdul Hamid, Hamzaini; Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal

    Nowadays, medical imaging has become a major tool in many clinical trials. This is because the technology enables rapid diagnosis with visualization and quantitative assessment that facilitate health practitioners or professionals. Since the medical and healthcare sector is a vast industry that is very much related to every citizen's quality of life, the image based medical diagnosis has become one of the important service areas in this sector. As such, a medical diagnostic imaging (MDI) software tool for assessing vertebral fracture is being developed which we have named as AVFAS short for Automatic Vertebral Fracture Assessment System. The developed software system is capable of indexing, detecting and classifying vertebral fractures by measuring the shape and appearance of vertebrae of radiograph x-ray images of the spine. This paper describes the MDI software tool which consists of three main sub-systems known as Medical Image Training & Verification System (MITVS), Medical Image and Measurement & Decision System (MIMDS) and Medical Image Registration System (MIRS) in term of its functionality, performance, ongoing research and outstanding technical issues.

  4. A comparison of the pathological, clinical and radiographical, features of cryptogenic organising pneumonia, acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia and granulomatous organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Marc B; DeSouza, Shilpa A; Moreira, Andre L; Stover, Diane E; Heelan, Robert T; Iyriboz, Tunç A; Taur, Ying; Travis, William D

    2015-06-01

    Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) and acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) are recognised patterns of organising pneumonia (OP), a condition that resembles pneumonia but is not caused by infection. We have recognised granulomatous organising pneumonia (GOP) to be a similar histopathological entity where non-necrotising granulomata are intimately associated with the organising connective tissue. To what degree COP, AFOP and GOP represent distinct clinical and pathological disorders is unknown. This cross-sectional study sought to compare the pathological, clinical, and radiographical features of these OP patterns. Surgical lung biopsy specimens were reviewed for consecutive patients referred with OP to a metropolitan cancer centre. Clinical information and CT images were acquired from the hospital electronic medical record to determine the clinical and CT characteristics of each OP pattern. Sixty-one patients (35 men, 26 women), mean age 61.5 years (range 8-85 years), were available for analysis. Of these, 43 patients (70%) had at least one prior cancer; 27 (44%) had received chemotherapy and 18 (30%) had received radiation. Approximately, half (32 patients) had respiratory symptoms, most commonly cough, dyspnoea and/or wheezing. While symptoms and mortality rates were not different among OP groups, AFOP patients more commonly had fever (p=0.04). GOP patients less commonly had received chemotherapy (p=0.03) and were more likely to present as masses/nodules (p=0.04). AFOP and GOP, a newly described OP form, possess clinical and pathological findings that set it apart from a COP, suggesting an emerging spectrum of OP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Radiographic study of the hepatomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Soo [Busan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    The author studied, with emphasis on the various radiographic projections, the 99 cases of liver enlargement, which underwent the barium meal upper gastrointestinal examinations for the purpose of pursuit of significance of liver enlargement and, at the same time were confirmed by other clinical and pathological methods at Busan National University Hospital for about 2 years from November 1977 to September 1979. The following results were obtained: 1. The incidence of liver enlargement was 63.3% (62 cases) in the 5th decade, which was most prevalent, 18.2% (18 cases) in the 3rd decade, 15.2% (15 cases) in the group over 60, and 3.0% (3 cases) in the age group below 20. Male to female sex ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The causes of the liver enlargement confirmed by the final diagnosis are as follows: Primary hepatic cancer 39 cases (39.3%), liver cirrhosis 30 cases (30.3%), chronic hepatitis 12 cases (12.1%), cancer of the biliary tract 6 cases (6.1%), hepatic fluke 6 cases (6.1%), metastatic tumors 3 cases (3.0%), and hepatic congestion 3 cases (3.0%) 3. In the prone view, the displacement of the duodenal bulb appeared in 18 cases (18.2%). 4. In the routine radiographs, the displacement of the stomach to the left and the pressure indentation of the lesser curvature were noted in 69 cases (69.7%) out of 99 cases. 5.In the left lateral recumbent view, the pressure indentation of the anterior border of the gastric body was seen in 96 cases (97.0%) among the 99 cases, the straightening in 30 cases (27.3%), the marked depression in 30 cases (30.3%), the moderate in 27 cases (27.3%), the minimal in 9 cases (9.1%). 6. Comparing the incidences of the roentgen findings of the liver enlargement in the various projections respectively, the displacement of the duodenal bulb was noted in 18 cases (18.3%) in the prone position. The erect position revealed the displacement of the stomach to the left and the pressure indentation in 57 cases (57.6%), the prone position in 51 cases (51

  6. Thymic enlargement in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Jae Sung; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [College of medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Young [Sejong General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yang Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings and clinical feasibility of thymic enlargement in patients with hyperthyroidism. Seven patients with hyperthyroidism and anterior mediastinal bulging revealed by chest radiography were evaluated. The CT findings were analyzed with regard to the shape of the anterior mediastinal mass, surrounding infiltration, and enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. Whether or not tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, and chorionic embryonic antigen) showed increased levels was determined, and the size and thickness of the anterior mediastinal mass were measured and compared with previously described age-matched thymus data. In addition, changes in the thyroid gland were evaluated. In all seven patients, anterior mediastinal masses were bi-lobed, with no surrounding infiltration or enlarged mediastinal lymph node, and tumor marker levels showed no increase. The masses were therefore considered to be thymus. In six patients, the size of the thymus exceeded two upper standard deviations of mean value and in one patient, it was smaller than this. In three patients, PCNB (percutaneous needle biopsy) revealed normal thymic tissue and in two, follow-up chest PA demonstrated no interval change. CT showed that in three patients, the thyroid glands were diffusely enlarged. In patients with hyperthyroidism, an anterior mediastinal mass seen on chest radiographs was due to thymic enlargement. The recognition of CT findings of thymic enlargement in such patients may avoid unnecessary biopsy. (author)

  7. Enlargement of the iliopsoas comportment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Relea, A.; Narajo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The iliopsoas or iliopectineal comportment is a normal structure that occasionally communicates with the synovial cavity of the hip. Rarely, in association with certain pathologies that raise the intraarticular pressure, it becomes enlarged, producing an inguinal or pelvic mass, also referred to as iliopsas bursitis. We present five cases of this pathology detected over the past year in our hospitals. Three of the patients had undergone previous vascular punctures in the hip involved, one presented brucellosis-related arthropathy and the fifth had generative joint abnormalities. The plain radiography, arthrography, ultrasound, CT,CT-guided arthrography and MR images are provided and discussed. We present an etiological factor of this process (previous vascular puncture) that has not been previously reported in the literature. 13 refs

  8. Peritendinous calcinosis of calcaneus tendon associated with dermatomyositis: correlation between conventional radiograph, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and gross surgical pathology; Calcinose peritendinea do tendao calcaneo associada a dermatomiosite: correlacao entre radiografia convencional, ultra-sonografia, ressonancia magnetica e macroscopia cirurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Gomide, Lidyane Marques de Paula; Lemes, Marcella Stival [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiana, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Costa, Edegmar Nunes; Rocha, Valney Luiz da [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ortopedia; Machado, Marcio Martins; Santos Junior, Rubens Carneiro dos; Barros, Nestor de; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Sernik, Renato Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Nunes, Rodrigo Alvarenga [Universidade do Vale do Sapucai (UNIVAS), Pouso Alegre, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas; Albieri, Alexandre Daher [Hospital de Acidentados de Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Interstitial calcinosis is an uncommon condition in which there is either localized or widely disseminated deposition of calcium in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, and tendons. Calcinosis is often associated with collagen diseases, scleroderma and dermatomyositis. The authors report a case of interstitial calcinosis associated with dermatomyositis studied with conventional radiograph, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and correlate the imaging findings with the results of surgical pathology gross examination. (author)

  9. Enlarged prostate - after care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000398.htm Enlarged prostate - after care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that ...

  10. Enlarged Adenoids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent "sinus" symptoms ongoing middle ear infections or middle ear fluid in a school-aged child If enlarged adenoids are suspected, the doctor may ... apnea repeated infections frequent sinus infections ear infections, ... your child's adenoids removed is especially important if repeated infections ...

  11. Radiographic tales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder

    Purpose Until now a large number of scientific studies have focused on technological aspects of radiography. This study is a step in another direction which examines the relationship between man and technology within radiography instead of considering man and technology as separate entities. Meth...... of their narrative alertness. Errors and failure to keep the time schedule can, however, lead the radiographers to a change of perspective that makes them displace man from the scene of radiography by playing on the premises of technology.......Purpose Until now a large number of scientific studies have focused on technological aspects of radiography. This study is a step in another direction which examines the relationship between man and technology within radiography instead of considering man and technology as separate entities...... a practice in which the relationship between man and technology is marked by a struggle of domination of one over the other. The struggle expresses itself through two competing plots: A diagnostic plot with a prevailing, but not merely chronological structure mostly composed of events tied to pathology...

  12. Radiographic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes how to: perform a systematic evaluation of a chest radiograph; state the classic radiographic description of hyaline membrane disease; list the conditions that cause hyperaeration and describe the radiologic feature of hyperaeration; describe the radiograph of a patient with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia; identify optimum placement of an endotracheal tube, gastric feeding tube, and umbilical artery catheter on a radiograph; differentiate between pulmonary interstitial air and hyaline membrane disease; select radiographic features that would indicate the presence of a tension pneumothorax; describe a lateral decubitus projection and state the type of problem it is most often used to identify; explain the procedure used in obtaining a lateral neck radiograph and list two problems that may require this view; and describe the radiograph of a patient with cystic fibrosis

  13. Radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wave-length radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  15. Radiographic Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J; Yang, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report contains theory, procedure technique and interpretation of radiographic examination and written for whom preparing radiographic test Level II. To determine this baseline of technical competence in the examination, the individual must demonstrate a knowledge of radiography physics, radiation safety, technique development, radiation detection and measurement, facility design, and the characteristics of radiation-producing devices and their principles of operation. (author) 98 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Etiologic significance of enlargement of the left atrial appendage in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.E.; Kelley, M.J.; Higgins, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-one patients were divided into two groups: 20 patients with proven rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD) and 31 patients with left atrial enlargement (LAE) of a nonrheumatic etiology. The latter group included patients with ischemic papillary muscle dysfunction, mitral valve prolapse, and congestive cardiomyopathy. Radiographic studies showed that enlargement of the left atrial appendage (LAAE) was present in 18 of 20 rheumatics but in only one of 31 nonrheumatics. There was no direct relationship between enlargement of the LAA and radiographic or echocardiographic left atrial size, degree of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH), or presence of atrial fibrillation. It is postulated that rheumatic influammation of the LAA allows it to dilate out of proportion to the body of the left atrium. In the adult patient with radiographic findings of PVH, LAAE is a valuable and specific radiographic sign of rheumatic mitral valve disease

  17. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook [Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah [Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  18. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Kyeong Ah

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  19. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  20. Reduction of atlantoaxial dislocation prevented by pathological position of the transverse ligament in fixed, irreducible os odontoideum: operative illustrations and radiographic correlates in 41 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhy, Brian J; Policeni, Bruno A; Menezes, Arnold H

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Os odontoideum (OO) is a craniovertebral junction (CVJ) abnormality in which an ossicle (small bone) is cranial to a hypoplastic dens by a variable gap. This abnormality can result in instability, which may be reducible or irreducible. What leads to irreducibility in OO is unclear. Therefore, the authors sought to better understand the causes of irreducibility in OO. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted, which identified more than 200 patients who had undergone surgical treatment for OO between 1978 and 2015 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Only the 41 patients who had irreducible OO were included in this study. All inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed, and patient demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical treatment, and operative findings were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS The cohort of 41 patients who were found to have irreducible OO included both children and adults. A majority of patients were adults (61% were 18 years or older). Clinical presentation included neck pain and headache in the majority of patients (93%). Weakness, sensory disturbances, and myelopathy were invariably present in all 41 patients (100%). Down syndrome was much more common in the pediatric cohort than in the adult cohort; of the 16 pediatric patients, 6 had Down syndrome (38%), and none of the adults did. Of the 16 pediatric patients, 5 had segmentation failure (31%) in the subaxial spine, and none of the adults did. A form of atlantoaxial dislocation was seen in all cases. On CT imaging, atlantoaxial facets were dislocated in all 41 cases but did not have osseous changes that would have prevented reduction. On MRI, the transverse ligament was identified anterior and inferior to the ossicle and superior to the hypoplastic odontoid process in all cases in which these studies were available (i.e., post-MRI era; 36 of 36 cases). The ligament was hypointense on T2-weighted images but also had an

  1. Frequency, location, and association with dental pathology of mucous retention cysts in the maxillary sinus. A radiographic study using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Tanaka, Ray; Khong, Pek-Lan; von Arx, Thomas; Bornstein, Michael M

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency, locations, and dimensions of mucous retention cysts of the maxillary sinus and analyze potential associated dental pathology. A total of 156 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were included in the analysis, resulting in an evaluation of 310 maxillary sinuses. The presence of mucous retention cysts (MRC) manifesting as dome-shaped radiopacities in the sinus was diagnosed. Their locations were recorded, and dimensions (mm) were measured in coronal and sagittal/axial slices. The patients were grouped into (a) patients/sinuses with MRCs (test), and (b) patients/sinuses with healthy or any other changes (control) for further comparison and evaluation. There were 40 sinuses (12.9%) with a presence of a total of 56 MRCs. The mean age of involved patients was 29.0 years. The analysis showed that gender, age, sinus side, status of dentition, endodontic status, and periodontal status did not have a significant influence on the presence of MRCs when compared between test and control groups. Age and endodontic status exhibited a significant association with cyst location. Most of the sinuses analyzed (79.5%) did not present any MRC, and only 28.6% of the cysts diagnosed were found on the floor of the maxillary sinus. The mean dimension of the MRCs measured 6.28 ± 2.93 mm. No influencing factors on the presence or absence of MRCs were found in the present study. Most MRCs were not located on the floor of maxillary sinus. Future studies should assess their impact on surgical interventions in the sinus.

  2. Radiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension from unresolved embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.W. III; Hoeck, B.E.; Chitwood, W.R. Jr.; Lyerly, H.K.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Chen, J.T.T.

    1985-04-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension with chronic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon entity that is potentially treatable with pulmonary embolectomy. Although the classic radiographic features have been described, several recent investigators report a significant percentage of these patients with normal chest radiographs. In a series of 22 patients, no normal radiographs were seen. Findings included cardiomegaly (86.4%) with right-sided enlargement (68.4%), right descending pulmonary artery enlargement (54.5%), azygos vein enlargement (27.3%), mosaic oligemia (68.2%), chronic volume loss (27.3%), atelectasis and/or effusion (22.7%), and pleural thickening (13.6%). Good correlation with specific areas of diminished vascularity was seen on chest radiographs compared with pulmonary angiograms.

  3. Radiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension from unresolved embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.W. III; Hoeck, B.E.; Chitwood, W.R. Jr.; Lyerly, H.K.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Chen, J.T.T.

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension with chronic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon entity that is potentially treatable with pulmonary embolectomy. Although the classic radiographic features have been described, several recent investigators report a significant percentage of these patients with normal chest radiographs. In a series of 22 patients, no normal radiographs were seen. Findings included cardiomegaly (86.4%) with right-sided enlargement (68.4%), right descending pulmonary artery enlargement (54.5%), azygos vein enlargement (27.3%), mosaic oligemia (68.2%), chronic volume loss (27.3%), atelectasis and/or effusion (22.7%), and pleural thickening (13.6%). Good correlation with specific areas of diminished vascularity was seen on chest radiographs compared with pulmonary angiograms

  4. The Next Round of NATO Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    .... Political, geostrategic, and technical factors will frame policy options on enlargement though the shifting importance of these factors will likely influence any decision on enlarging the Alliance...

  5. Fetal adrenal gland enlargement - prenatal and postnatal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackova, Eliska; Cunderlik, Anton; Ticha, Lubica; Gabor, Maria

    2017-11-01

    The enlargement of suprarenal gland is related to preterm birth and the birth weight. The ultrasound measurement of fetal adrenal gland volume may identify women at risk for impending preterm birth. The aim of our study was to investigate the newborns in the region of western Slovakia followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. To set the ratio of prenatally diagnosed suprarenal gland enlargment, postnatal managment and treatment and interventions. The newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were excluded. We have analyzed 6 years of medical records of all cases from the western Slovakia region of suprarenal gland enlargement encountered to 1st Pediatric Department, Children's University Hospital Bratislava Republic in the time period of January 2010 to Janurary 2016. The diagnosis of suprarenal gland enlargement was set by ultrasound examination performed on the 4th postnatal day as an overall screening test. Newborns with positive laboratory screening on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were excluded from our study. We analyzed the origin of surarenal gland enlargement, gestation week on the due date, the birth weight and other comorbidities and genetic pathologies in newborns with the enlarged suprarenal glands. There were 6 newborns followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. All of the patients had diagnosed the adrenal haemorrhage. Adrenal lesions like adrenal cysts or neuroblastomas were not confirmed. All of the adrenal enlargements were benign with no need of other medical or surgical intervention. None of the newborn patients had other genetic abnormalities, mineral or hormonal imbalances, problems with arterial pressure or haemodynamic instability. All of the patients underwent at least 5 prenatal ultrasound tests and at least 2 postnatal ultrasound measurements. The avarage birth weight was 3030 grams (2700 grams - to 3750 grams). The avarage birth lenght was 50 cm (47 centimeter to 53 cm).The average gestation week (gw) on due date

  6. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  7. Comparisons of radiographic and electrocardiographic abnormalities in canine heartworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, C.A.; Losonsky, J.M.; Brown, J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Thoracic radiographs and electrocardiograms from 137 dogs with heartworm infection were independently evaluated and comparisons were made of (1) the presence or absence of right ventricular enlargement as assessed by these two diagnostic tests and (2) the presence or absence of right-sided congestive heart failure relative to the degree of right ventricular enlargement and ECG criteria of RVH. Radiographic evidence of severe, but not moderate, right ventricular enlargement was associated with right-sided congestive heart failure. Similarly the presence of three or more, but not fewer than three, ECG criteria of RVH were associated with right-sided congestive heart failure. If either the thoracic radiographs or the ECG indicated that severe right ventricular enlargement was absent, right-sided congestive heart failure was seldom present. The most accurate correlation of the radiographic evaluation of severe right ventricular enlargement was afforded by the presence of three or more ECG criteria of RVH. ECG criteria of RVH such as R/S v4 , + T v10 MEA x , and S 11 are highly specific tests; while S V2 is a highly sensitive but not highly specific test. The ECG is a good confirmation test of the presence of severe right ventricular enlargement and is a good exclusion test for the absence of right-sided congestive heart failure. (author)

  8. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  9. Radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, S.N.

    1979-01-01

    Raytheon Company, U.S.A. have patented an on-line electronic system of normalising the responses from the photomultiplier tubes used in conjunction with a scintillator in an X-ray radiographic camera. A problem with present cameras is that the individual photomultipliers have different intensity responses which also change in time with respect to each other. The individual responses of each photomultiplier tube are measured with a uniform sheet of radioactive material in front of the camera. The associated electronic equipment then calculates scaling factors which give all photomultiplier tubes an identical response and then places these factors in an addressable store. The store is then addressed in an on-line mode to produce a visual display of the transmitted X-rays. (U.K.)

  10. Radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    This patent application describes a radiographic apparatus including an array of radiation sensors, a source of radiation for projecting a beam through a body and means for moving one of said source and array relative to the body and for producing an electrical signal representative of the movement of the other of said source and array needed to bring the array into register with the beam. Drive means are arranged to move the other of said source and array in response to the electrical signal. In one embodiment, the source is rotated by an amount measured by a grating and associated electronics. The required movement of the array to maintain registration is calculated and transmitted to a driver. Alternatively, a laser may be mounted with the same and the array driven so that the laser beam continuously impinges on a photocell mounted with the array. (author)

  11. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskov, L; Abild, A; Christensen, A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital....

  12. Penis-Enlargement Products: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and surgeries. By Mayo Clinic Staff Ads for penis-enlargement products and procedures are everywhere. A plethora of ... your penis. Companies offer many types of nonsurgical penis-enlargement treatments, and often promote them with serious-looking ...

  13. Penis enlargement: complication of lipotransfer

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, C.G.; Soria, J.H.; Orduna, O.D.; Alcoba, E.

    2012-01-01

    La solicitud de engrosamiento del pene por parte de los pacientes tiene un crecimiento sostenido. El empleo de grasa autóloga como relleno puede causar una deformidad que provoca un menoscabo funcional y estético. Presentamos un caso de complicación que requirió de tratamiento quirúrgico.Penis enlargement is a practice widely requested by the patients. The use of autologous fat transplantation can produce deformity and functional and aesthetic deficiency. The authors present a clinical case o...

  14. Chest radiographs in acquired antibody deficiency syndrome with chronic granulomatous inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiyumi, S.A.A.; Peest, D.; Galanski, M.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1990-01-01

    Ten cases of acquired antibody deficiency syndrome with chronic granulomatous infection were diagnosed in our hospital during the past 10 years. We were able to perform a retrospective analysis of the initial and follow-up chest radiographs in 8 of these patients. The following pathological findings could be demonstrated: 1. increased bronchovascular markings in the basal lung fields, 2. reticular densities in the middle and basal lung fields, 3. confluent nodular densities of varying size in the periphery of the basal and middle fields, 4. pulmonary infiltrates in the middle and lower lobes, 5. hilar node enlargement of moderate extent. Findings 2, 3 and 5 completely disappeared under steroid therapy whereas 1 showed only partial recovery. If both the radiologic and serologic findings are considered, it is possible to differentiate this disease from sarcoidosis. (orig.) [de

  15. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokli, Ami; Neuman, Jeremy; Lukse, Ruby; Koshy, June [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Kong, Fanyi [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  16. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokli, Ami; Neuman, Jeremy; Lukse, Ruby; Koshy, June; Kong, Fanyi; Laor, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  17. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: Series of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Manzur-Villalobos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gingival enlargement (GA is a benign condition of the oral cavity that is characterized by the excessive growth of the gingiva in mass and volume. This lesion is not only caused by hereditary factors or poor oral hygiene, but also by the intake of medications, including antihypertensive, anticonvulsant and immunosuppressive drugs. Objective: To sensitize the prevention or early care in patients with pathologies that merit the use of antihypertensive and anticonvulsants in conjunction with the dentist, to treat or avoid the drug-induced gingival enlargement (DIGE. Materials and methods: A series of clinical cases of patients with gingival enlargement by various drugs are reported, including Phenytoin, Amlodipine and Nifedipine. Periodontal and gingivectomy hygienic phase measures were applied to obtain better effects. Results: Satisfactory results were obtained with a considerable decrease in DIGE. Conclusions: The integral management is important in conjunction with the treating physician to follow up the drug that can be generating gingival enlargement. It is necessary to employ an initial approach with strategies of periodontal hygiene, and in severe cases and, as last resort, the periodontal surgery with gingivectomy and gingivoplasty.

  18. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  19. Effects on haematological parameters and pathology of internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects on haematological parameters and pathology of internal organs of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected albino rats. ... Group A served as the control (uninfected). ... The gross pathological effects on the internal organs showed significant enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly) and slight enlargement of the liver ...

  20. Radiographic imaging. 4 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesney, D.N.; Chesney, M.O.

    1981-01-01

    This is a revised edition of the textbook previously entitled 'Radiographic Photography' and accords with the current syllabus of training for the Diploma of the Royal College of Radiographers. The aim is a non-mathematical approach to provide a guide for the student to the knowledge and understanding of the theoretical concepts which affect the quality of radiographic image; materials and practices are also reviewed, particularly in relation to the characteristics of the radiographic image, and to processing equipment and processing areas. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the photographic process, film materials in x-ray departments, sensitometry, storage of film materials and radiographs, intensifying screens and cassettes, film processing, developing, fixing, rinsing, washing, drying, the processing area and equipment, systems for daylight film handling, the radiographic image, management of the quality, presentation of the radiograph, light images and their recording, fluorography, some special imaging processes, e.g. xerography, copying radiographs. (U.K.)

  1. Evaluation of panoramic radiographs taken from 1056 Turkish children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Panoramic radiographs (PRs) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment planning of a wide range of dental and maxillofacial diseases and conditions. To examine and to determine the status of oral lesions, dental anomalies and pathologies in panoramic radiographs, which were taken at the ...

  2. Evaluation of underexposed conventional radiographs after digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.

    1993-01-01

    Inadequate exposure of analogue radiographs is reported in the literature to occur in 5-25% of cases. Therefore, the present study was performed to test whether selective image processing after digitization could reveal diagnostic details on underexposed radiographs. In addition, the minimal exposure values required for diagnostic purposes after adequate image processing were studied. Phantom studies, organ preparations and measurements of physical parameters with decreasing exposure values were performed. The detection of anatomic and pathologic (nondisplaced fracture lines, microcalcification and renal stones) structures were evaluated by 12 readers. Radiographs with exposure values 20-40% lower than 'ideal' values can provide adequate diagnostic images after digital processing. The diagnostic information is significantly impaired with values under 50% of the correct exposure values. In conclusion, this method is adequate to save underexposed radiographs for diagnostic purposes and to avoid repeated examinations. (orig.) [de

  3. Peroneus longus tears associated with pathology of the os peroneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Kristopher G; Brodsky, James W

    2014-04-01

    There is a range of different types of tears and pathology of the peroneal tendons. One of the least common types is the tear of the peroneus longus associated with fracture, enlargement, or entrapment at the cuboid tunnel of the os peroneum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathologic patterns of these uncommon peroneal tendon tears, to review the treatment, and to report the patient outcomes following treatment with excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. A 5-year retrospective review of all patients with peroneal tendon tears identified 12 patients operatively treated for peroneus longus tendon tears with associated pathology of the os peroneum, and in whom there was a viable peroneus brevis. All patients were treated with an operative procedure consisting of excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. Mean age was 51.5 (range, 33 to 73) years, including 7 males and 5 females. Operative and radiographic records were reviewed to characterize the nature of the peroneus longus tears and associated pathology. Preoperative and postoperative AOFAS hindfoot, SF-36 questionnaires, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were compiled and patient records were reviewed for complications. Mean follow-up after surgery was 63.3 (range, 12 to 114) months. All of the patients had an os peroneum associated with a complex, irreparable tear of the peroneus longus tendon. The peroneus longus was typically enlarged, fibrotic, and adhered to the surrounding tissues. In 8 patients, the peroneus longus tendon tear was associated with a fracture of the os peroneum, and in 4 patients with an enlarged and entrapped os peroneum which prevented movement at the cuboid tunnel. Of the 12 patients, 9 had partial tears of the peroneus brevis, which were treated with debridement and suture repair. AOFAS hindfoot scores increased from a preoperative mean of 61

  4. Long term follow up of idiopathic gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish P Nagarale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition characterized by massive enlargement of the gingiva. It may be associated with other diseases/conditions characterizing a syndrome, but rarely associated with periodontitis. Case Description: This case report describes an unusual clinical form of gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis. Clinical examination revealed diffuse gingival enlargement. The lesion was asymptomatic, firm, and pinkish red. Generalized periodontal pockets were observed. Radiographic evaluation revealed generalized severe alveolar bone loss. Histopathological investigations revealed atrophic epithelium with dense fibrocollagenous tissue. Lesions healed successfully following extraction and surgical excision, and no recurrence was observed after 1 year follow-up but recurrence was observed at 3 and 5-years follow-up. Clinical Implications: Successful treatment of idiopathic gingival enlargement depends on proper identification of etiologic factors and improving esthetics and function through surgical excision of the over growth. However, there may be recurrence.

  5. Long term follow up of idiopathic gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis: A case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarale, Girish P; Ravindra, S; Thakur, Srinath; Setty, Swati

    2013-03-01

    Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition characterized by massive enlargement of the gingiva. It may be associated with other diseases/conditions characterizing a syndrome, but rarely associated with periodontitis. This case report describes an unusual clinical form of gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis. Clinical examination revealed diffuse gingival enlargement. The lesion was asymptomatic, firm, and pinkish red. Generalized periodontal pockets were observed. Radiographic evaluation revealed generalized severe alveolar bone loss. Histopathological investigations revealed atrophic epithelium with dense fibrocollagenous tissue. Lesions healed successfully following extraction and surgical excision, and no recurrence was observed after 1 year follow-up but recurrence was observed at 3 and 5-years follow-up. Successful treatment of idiopathic gingival enlargement depends on proper identification of etiologic factors and improving esthetics and function through surgical excision of the over growth. However, there may be recurrence.

  6. The radiographic investigation of two Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, J; Malott, J C; King, A Y

    1983-01-01

    Radiography is a well-recognized method of nondestructive analysis of art objects and ancient relics. The methods and techniques used in the examination of two ancient Egyptian mummies are presented here. Additionally, the use of radiographic findings to help substantiate alleged historical information and to establish sex, age, and pathology of each specimen is discussed.

  7. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...

  8. Quality of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed on how to get a good radiograph. There are several factors that can make good radiograph such as density of radiograph, the contrast of radiograph, definition of radiograph, the present of artifact and backscattering. All of this factor will discuss detailed on each unit of chapter with some figure, picture to make the reader understand more when read this book. And at the end, the reader will introduce with penetrameter, one of device to determine the level of quality of the radiograph. There are two type of penetrameter like wire type or holes type. This standard must be followed by all the radiographer around the world to produce the good result that is standard and more reliable.

  9. Generalised Leukaemic Gingival Enlargement: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechery Reenesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myeloblastic leukaemia is a malignant bone marrow neoplasm of myeloid precursors of white blood cells. Due to its high morbidity rate, early diagnosis and appropriate medical therapy is essential. Methods: The article highlights normal blood alterations like anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis and advanced diagnostic aids like flow cytometry, special staining as a diagnostic modality as well as for prognostic information in acute leukaemia, particularly as a tool for assigning lineage and facilitating further pathologic classification which may be helpful in influencing treatment strategies.Results: On clinical examination the case presented with features of inflammatory gingival enlargement with presence of local deposits and calculus. Routine blood examination anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis with haemoglobin 5.6 gm% and total leukocyte count of 1,12,000 / cu mm suggestive of leukaemia. Myeloperoxidase and leukocyte nonspecific esterase (NSE special stain were used which showed presence of myeloblasts in the peripheral smear suggestive of acute myelocytic leukaemia. Flow cytometry were done which further helped in interpretation of these cells which showed to be strongly positive for CD45, CD13, CD14, and anti HLADR and moderately positive for CD4, CD34 and Anti MPO confirming to be case of AML-M4 with 57.73% gating.Conclusions: Fact that gingival alterations are sometimes the first manifestations of the disease implies that dental professionals must be sufficiently familiarized with the clinical manifestations of systemic diseases. The timely referral by the general dentist for a suspicious lesion provided an early diagnosis and early intervention reducing the patient morbidity.

  10. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... scholars, should engage with it. This publication will be of key interest to scholars and students of modern European history and politics, the European integration process, EU studies, and more broadly multilateral international institutions, history, law and the social sciences....

  11. Enlarging bilateral femoral condylar bone cysts without scintigraphic uptake in a yearling foal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, K.R.E.; Fessler, J.F.; Cantwell, H.D.; Widmer, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    Bilateral subchondral bone cysts of the femoral condyles were diagnosed by conventional radiography in a 14 month old Appaloosa colt. Surgical debridement was performed, and over the next 18 months the appearance of the cysts was evaluated with radiography and bone scintigraphy. On the preoperative scintigrams, increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was associated with the cysts. Despite continued radiographic enlargement, the cysts did not demonstrate increased radiopharmaceutical uptake post-operatively

  12. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  13. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of the foot in the patient with diabetes mellitus is discussed in this paper. According to the author, it can only be of value when the soft tissue and bony and joint pathologic conditions, which occur more frequently in the diabetic patient are also considered and understood. Although not pathognomic for diabetes mellitus, neuroarthopathy, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, and some rheumatic disorders are present with greater frequency in diabetic populations than in non-diabetic populations. Frequently, edema, erythema, hyperthermia, and tenderness are present as nonspecific clinical findings, in which case radiographic evaluation is called upon to define the specific etiology of a particular patient's pathology. Unfortunately, many radiographic, computerized tomographic, and radionuclide studies demonstrate less than optimal positive and negative predictive values unless interpreted in view of clinical history and examination and integrated with the results of other laboratory data. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot may be utilized to establish the presence of disease, the extent of pedal involvement, and the response to therapy. The establishment of the nature of disease processes from radiographic findings alone, however, may be problematic. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis, for example, rests on the recovery of the offending microorganisms from bone aspiration or culture

  14. The radiographic features of familial expansile osteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, M.D.; Wallace, R.G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The radiographic features of a unique autosomal dominant bone dysplasia are presented. The features are classified as generalised and/or focal. Generalised features are either altered trabecular pattern or modelling abnormalities. Focal features comprise lytic areas which progressively enlarge, producing expansion of the bone and eventual disintegration due to fibrous and finally fatty replacement of the normal medulla. Almost 90% of these lesions occur in the appendicular skeleton. Clinically, hearing loss is the earliest manifestation of the disease, presenting sometimes as early as 4 years of age. Apical and cervical resorption of teeth is extremely common, resulting in premature loss of teeth. Radiologically, the differential diagnosis refers to Paget's disease, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and osteofibrous dysplasia. The progressive destruction of the bone is similar to massive osteolysis (Gorham's disease). The radiographic features in combination with the histopathology render the condition unique. (orig.)

  15. Fast radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Industrial radiography can be performed with shorter exposure times, when instead of X-ray film with lead intensifying screens the radiographic paper with fluorescent screen is used. With paper radiography one can obtain lower material, equipment, and labor costs, shorter exposure and processing times, and easier radiation protection. The speed of the radiographic inspection can also be increased by the use of fluorometallic intensifying screens together with a special brand of X-ray film. Before accepting either of the two fast radiographic systems one must be sure that they can produce radiographs of adequate image quality. Therefore an investigation was performed on that subject using ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters. The radiographic image quality was tested for aluminium and steel up to 30 mm thick using various brands of radiographic paper and X-ray film with fluorometallic screens and comparing them with fast X-ray films with lead screens. Both systems give satisfactory results. (author)

  16. Enlarged facial pores: an update on treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Joanna; Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Enlarged facial pores remain a common dermatologic and cosmetic concern from acne and rosacea, among other conditions, that is difficult to treat due to the multifactorial nature of their pathogenesis and negative impact on patients' quality of life. Enlarged facial pores are primarily treated through addressing associative factors, such as increased sebum production and cutaneous aging. We review the current treatment modalities for enlarged or dense facial pores, including topical retinoids, chemical peels, oral antiandrogens, and lasers and devices, with a focus on newer therapies.

  17. Airport Performance and Construction Enlargement Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanun, Y.; Setiawan, M. I.; Kurniasih, N.; Hasyim, C.; Ahmar, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation of transportation infrastructure project should consider the contribution towards infrastructure growth. This research aims to analyze the effect of Construction enlargement activities towards airport performance. This research is correlation study. The population includes 148 airports in Indonesia. By using total sampling, there were 148 sample airports. The result shows that the construction enlargement activities variable has relatively strong relationship to Airport Performance variable, while the adjusted R Square score shows the increasing construction enlargement activities that affected by the other factors aside from airport performance.

  18. Diagnosis of calcification on abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Kleine, L.J.; McMillan, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    A wide variety of normal and pathologic factors may induce intraabdominal calcification. In general, the most reliable indication of the cause of a calcification is its location; therefore, if the affected organ can be identified the radiographic diagnosis is often straightforward or, at least, limited to relatively few possibilities. With this principle in mind, a series of patients with abdominal calcification are described for the purpose of illustrating the appearance of calcification of various abdominal organs. In addition, etiology for the calcification in each patient is discussed. Certain extraabdominal calcifications which may be seen on abdominal radiographs are also mentioned

  19. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  20. Visual simulation of radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for computer simulation of radiographs has been added to the LLNL version of the solid modeler TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1). This new tool will enable an engineer to compare an actual radiograph of a solid to its computer-generated counterpart. The appearance of discrepancies between the two can be an indication of flaws in the solid object. Simulated radiographs can also be used to preview the placement of x-ray sources to focus on areas of concern before actual radiographs are made

  1. NATO Enlargement: Balancing Economic and Military Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bostick, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The military requirements of NATO Enlargement should be tied to NATO's overall goal of seeking stability in all of Europe such that it does not undermine political and economic success in new member countries...

  2. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized.

  3. Enlargement of filtration with finance in view

    CERN Document Server

    Aksamit, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents classical results of the theory of enlargement of filtration. The focus is on the behavior of martingales with respect to the enlarged filtration and related objects. The study is conducted in various contexts including immersion, progressive enlargement with a random time and initial enlargement with a random variable.  The aim of this book is to collect the main mathematical results (with proofs) previously spread among numerous papers, great part of which is only available in French. Many examples and applications to finance, in particular to credit risk modelling and the study of asymmetric information, are provided to illustrate the theory. A detailed summary of further connections and applications is given in bibliographic notes which enables to deepen study of the topic.  This book fills a gap in the literature and serves as a guide for graduate students and researchers interested in the role of information in financial mathematics and in econometric science. A basic knowledge of...

  4. Legalities of the radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiograph itself plays a major role in medical malpractice cases. Also, many questions arise concerning the rights to and storage of x-ray films. These issues are addressed in this chapter. To keep the terminology simple, the word radiograph represents all imaging documentation on hard copy film (x-rays, nuclear medicine, computer-assisted studies, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging)

  5. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  6. Radiographic and Clinical Analysis of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillito, Matthew; Soong, Maximillian; Martin, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The literature suggests that radiographs may be unnecessary in the initial evaluation of lateral epicondylitis because treatment is rarely altered as a result of the radiographic findings. The most commonly reported radiographic finding is calcification at the lateral epicondyle. Our goal was to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of this finding to determine its importance and possible relationship with various clinical factors and patient-reported measures. All patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis by a single surgeon during a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Age, sex, laterality, hand dominance, pain visual analog scale, duration of symptoms, Quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score, and history of steroid injection were recorded. Calcifications on standard elbow radiographs, acquired digitally and viewed at 200% magnification on a 24-inch monitor, were characterized by size and relationship with the lateral epicondyle. We reviewed 245 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. A total of 115 elbows (47%) demonstrated lateral epicondyle calcifications. Patients with and without calcifications were similar with regard to clinical factors, as were patients with larger or smaller lesions. Eighty-five elbows (35%) had additional radiographic findings. Treatment was not altered by the radiographic findings in any case. Lateral epicondyle calcifications are much more common in lateral epicondylitis than previously reported, possibly owing to modern digital radiography and magnification, although they do not appear to be related to clinical factors including patient-reported measures. Thus, patients and surgeons should be careful to avoid overinterpretation of such findings. Although radiographs may be helpful in ruling out additional pathology, we did not find other clinically important contributions to the initial evaluation and management of this condition, and thus we do not recommend their routine use

  7. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Dumani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  8. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  9. Radiographic manifestations of hypochondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heselson, N G; Cremin, B J [Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Beighton, P

    1979-01-01

    Hypochrondroplasia is an inherited skeletal dysplasia that resembles achondroplasia in mild degree. Radiographic manifestations encountered in 12 affected individuals in South Africa include slight shortening of all segments of the tubular bones, moderate caudal diminution of the lumbar interpedicular distances, increased lumbar lordosis with cacral tilt and distal prolongation of the fibular. Hypochondroplasia can be distinguished from other osteochondrodystrophies such as achondroplasia, pseudo-achondroplasia and metaphyseal chondroplasia by the recognition of it clinical and radiographic manifestations.

  10. Computational Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  11. Liver enlargement demonstrated by scintigraphy in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiger, L.H.; Gordon, M.H.; Ehrlich, G.E.; Shapiro, B.

    1976-03-01

    Scintigraphic scanning employing technetium-99m sulfur colloid was used to assess the size of the liver and spleen in 32 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The data were correlated with clinical and laboratory assessment. Seven patients had enlarged livers, three enlarged spleens. An expected correlation of liver enlargement with Sjogren's syndrome did not materialize. Splenic enlargement and liver enlargement were discordant. Liver enlargement correlation best with elevations of rheumatoid factor as measured by latex fixation. As liver enlargement is not an appreciated feature of rheumatoid arthritis, these findings suggest that hepatomegaly need not necessarily imply adverse treatment results or the development of lymphoproliferative disorders.

  12. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  13. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  14. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7393809

  15. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  16. Penile Enlargement : From Medication to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, Helena M.; Balkema, G. T.; Pascal, A. L.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Nijman, J. M.; Van Driel, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient

  17. Radiographic imaging of otitis media and interna in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlizius, J.; Kluczniok, C.; Bollwahn, W.

    1997-01-01

    Middle and inner ear infections have been reported as a clinical entity in swine, other animal species and humans. In pigs, the anatomical-pathological and microbiological findings have been described. In this report, we describe radiographic findings in affected pigs. A total of 25 pigs with a head tilt and circling, as clinical signs of otitis media and interna, were examined. The majority were weaner-pigs with dyspnea or rhinitis. In radiographs, there was an increased opacity of the bulla tympanica, often accompanied by marginal destruction or thickening of the bulla wall. The radiographic findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis in each affected pig, but there were 5 false positive interpretations

  18. Chest radiographic findings in neurotuberculosis without pulmonary signs and symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, S.; Badshah, M.; Khan, B.R.S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the chest radiographic findings in patients of adult neurotuberculosis, with no pulmonary signs and symptoms. A total of 100 patients fulfilling pre-defined criteria of neurotuberculosis were included. Chest radiographic (CXR) evidence of pulmonary TB was looked for in those patients and its frequency, pattern and association with the clinical grades at presentation was determined by using Chi-square test. Out of the 100 patients of neurotuberculosis, with no clinical evidence of pulmonary TB, radiographic evidence of pulmonary TB was seen in only 30% patients. The predominant patterns on CXR were apical infiltration (26.6%), military mottling (20%) and hilar enlargement (16.6%). Positive CXR was found in 16.7% patients in clinical grade I and 40% and 43.3% in patients in grade II and III respectively. There was a strong association of grade II and grade III with positive chest radiographic findings (p= 0.03). Patients of neurotuberculosis may have chest radiographic evidence of pulmonary TB even in the absence of pulmonary signs and symptoms at presentation. There is a strong association of clinical grade II and grade III with positive chest radiographic findings. (author)

  19. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. Aortic Root Enlargement or Sutureless Valve Implantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos G. Baikoussis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aortic valve replacement (AVR in patients with a small aortic annulus is a challenging issue. The importance of prosthesis–patient mismatch (PPM post aortic valve replacement (AVR is controversial but has to be avoided. Many studies support the fact that PPM has a negative impact on short and long term survival. In order to avoid PPM, aortic root enlargement may be performed. Alternatively and keeping in mind that often some comorbidities are present in old patients with small aortic root, the Perceval S suturelles valve implantation could be a perfect solution. The Perceval sutureless bioprosthesis provides reasonable hemodynamic performance avoiding the PPM and providing the maximum of aortic orifice area. We would like to see in the near future the role of the aortic root enlargement techniques in the era of surgical implantation of the sutureless valve (SAVR and the transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI.

  1. Penile enlargement: from medication to surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugteren, Helena M; Balkema, G T; Pascal, A L; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M; van Driel, M F

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient selection, outcome evaluation, and techniques applied. In our view, sexological counseling and detailed explanation of risks and complications are mandatory before any operative intervention.

  2. Radiographic aspects of xeroradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.U.V.; Fatouros, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of a conventional radiographic image can be characterized in terms of five basic parameters; density, contrast, latitude, resolution and noise. Since xeroradiographic images exhibit very limited broad area contrasts, and image formation is predominantly due to edge enhancement, a straightforward description of image quality using the same five parameters is not adequate. A detailed study was made of the radiographic aspects of xeroradiography with special reference to mammography, and a summary of major findings to date with appropriate references to published papers is presented

  3. Morphology and morphometry of the human sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements of edentulous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Costa Rodrigues de SA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic mouth floor enlargements may be observed in edentulous patients. These masses, which protrude from the mouth floor, may complicate the fitting of dentures and require surgery. Whether this "entity" may be considered an anatomical variation of the mouth floor or represent specific alterations in the sublingual gland is not known. Objective: The aim of this work is to investigate the morphological and morphometric aspects of the sublingual glands of edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements and compare the glands of these patients with the sublingual glands of human cadavers. Material and Methods: Microscopic evaluation was performed on human sublingual glands from edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements (n=20 and edentulous cadavers (n=20. The patients and cadavers were of similar ages. The data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests (p0.05. Only the variables "autolysis" and "congested blood vessels" presented statistical difference between groups (p=0.014; p=0.043. The morphometric study revealed that the volume densities of acini, ducts, stroma and adipose tissue were similar between the groups (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The microscopic characteristics of the sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements in edentulous patients correspond to characteristics associated with the normal aging process. The glands are not pathological and represent an age-related alteration that occurs with or without the presence of the mouth floor enlargements.

  4. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  5. Ventricular enlargement in patients with affective disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murashita, Jun; Kato, Tadafumi; Shioiri, Toshiki; Hamakawa, Inubushi, Toshiro; Hiroshi; Takahashi, Saburo

    1994-01-01

    Ventricular enlargement was determined using linear measurement on MR images in a total of 71 patients with affective disorders, including bipolar affective disorder (41) and depression (30). Fourty-one healthy persons served as controls. Evans ratio, Huckman number and minimum distance of caudate nuclei (MDCN) were used as indices for ventricular enlargment. No significant difference in Evans ratio was observed between both the group of bipolar affective disorder and the group of depression and the control group. Nor did it correlate with age in any of the groups. Huckman number was significantly higher in the group of bipolar affective disorder than the other two groups. It positively correlated with age in the group of depression. MDCN was significantly increased in the group of bipolar affective disorder, as compared with the control group; and there was a positive correlation between MDCN and age in both the group of dipolar affective disorder and the group of depression. In conclusion, ventricular enlargement was dependent upon aging in affetive disorder patients. This tendency was more noticeable in the group of depression. In addition, atrophy of the caudate nuclei was likely to be severer in the group of dipolar affective disorder than the group of depression. (N.K.)

  6. Pathological fractures in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  7. Nondestructive examination - radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    First the basic principles of radiography are to be treated, especially the different radiation sources (X-ray, gamma-ray, neutrons, heat). In the second part those radiographic methods are shown, which are in common use for technical purposes, especially under the aspect of flaw recognition. (orig./RW)

  8. Matching hand radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biometric verification and identification methods of medical images can be used to find possible inconsistencies in patient records. Such methods may also be useful for forensic research. In this work we present a method for identifying patients by their hand radiographs. We use active appearance

  9. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  10. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  11. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is directed towards giving radiographers an introduction to and basic knowledge of computerized tomography. The technical section discusses gantries and x-ray production, computer and disc drive image display, storage, artefacts quality assurance and design of departments. The clinical section includes patient preparation, radiotherapy planning, and interpretation of images from various areas of the anatomy. (U.K.)

  12. Radiographic measurements from the lateromedial projection of the equine foot with navicular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschooten, F.; Roels, J.; Lampo, P.; Desmet, P.; Moor, A. de; Picavet, T.

    1989-01-01

    Radiographic measurements from the lateromedial projection of the equine foot were compared in three groups of horses. Group 1 consisted of 143 normal horses, group 2 were 60 horses with clinical navicular disease and group 3 were 161 horses with clinical and radiographic navicular disease. Several measurements tended to be larger in group 3 and group 1. An enlargement of the navicular bone was observed in proximodistal and dorsopalmar directions. Partial enlargement of the pedal bone was observed between age classes. All horses aged four years and over had an increased length of the hoof in the dorsopalmar direction and a decrease of the cranial angle of the hoof. Enlargement of the navicular bone fits well into the concept of osteroarthrosis. The pedal bone was partly engaged. These findings may be an expression of a regional acceleratory phenomenon

  13. Neutron radiographic findings in light water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1979-06-01

    The assessment of neutron radiographs of nuclear fuel elements can be much easier, faster and simpler if reference can be made to typical defects, which can be revealed by neutron radiography. In other fields of industrial radiography collections of reference radiographs, showing typical defects in welding, or casting have been completed and published long ago. Since 1974 neutron radiography is routinely used at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark, for the quality and performance control of nuclear fuel. About 2000 neutron radiographs were taken, mainly during the post irradiation examination of light water reactor fuel. During assessment of neutron radiographs some typical defects of the fuel were found and it was felt that a classification of such defects will help to speed up the assessment procedure. Therefore an attempt was made to establish such a classification, which is currently used at Risoe now. This classification is presented in this atlas, which contains 36 neutron radiographs reproduced on film (in original size) and on paper (twice enlarged). (author)

  14. Radiographic progession of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siozos, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis can be graded on a 0-IV scala. For this purpose five objective criteria are used: a) destruction, b) osteoporosis, c) narrowing of joint space, d) luxation and e) ankylosis. The grading of the radiographic progression is defined by the extent and the number of the measured alterations. The radiographic progression can be registered yearly. (orig.) [de

  15. Parotid enlargement in children with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soberman, N.; Leonidas, J.C.; Berdon, W.E.; Haller, J.O.; Posner, M.; Bonagura, V.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Painless parotid enlargement has been recently reported as a sign of AIDS, but little is known of the imaging characteristics of parotid involvement in affected children. The aim of this paper is to use US, CT and MR imaging to determine the anatomic changes of the parotid; study their possible association with pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH); and define the immunologic parameters and clinical course. Eighteen children were evaluated clinically, radiologically, and immunologically. All patients underwent US of the parotids and chest radiography; some children had CT of the chest and MR imaging of the parotids

  16. Enlargement of thalamic nuclei in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Ann M; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: The basal ganglia and thalamus together connect in parallel closed-loop circuits with the cortex. Previous imaging studies have shown modifications of the basal ganglia and cortical targets in individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS), but less is known regarding the role of the thalamus......-subcortical circuits constitute an anatomical crossroad wherein enlargement of motor nuclei may represent activity-dependent hypertrophy within this component of cortical-subcortical motor circuits, or an adaptive response within a larger putative compensatory system that could thereby directly modulate activity...

  17. Modeling dental radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Radiological Health has been actively collaborating with the Clinical Investigations Branch, NIDR, in applied research involving diagnostic use of ionizing radiation in dentistry. This work has centered on the search for alternatives to conventional radiographic systems in an attempt to improve diagnostic performance while reducing the required exposure. The basic approach involves analysis of factors limiting performance of properly defined diagnostic tasks and the modeling alternative systems with an eye toward increasing objective measures of performance. Previous collaborative work involved using a nonlinear model to compare various x-ray spectra. The data were expressed as brightness-contrast versus exposure for simulated tasks of clinical interest. This report supplements these findings by extending the number of parameters under investigation and modifying the mode of data display so that an actual radiographic image can be simulated on a television screen

  18. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  19. Radiographic findings in immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, R.; Lynch, D.A.; Cink, T.M.; Newell, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the chest radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans in patients with immunodeficiency disorders and define the role of HRCT. Thirty-three cases were retrospectively graded according to the consensus of two radiologists. Patients with HIV seropositivity and asthma were excluded. HRCT was performed in 12 cases with standard techniques. Diagnoses included common variable hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 19), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 4), chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 4), and selective immunoglobulin g deficiencies (n = 2). Chest radiographs showed bronchiectasis in 11 of 33 cases with a predominant lower lobe distribution (82%). Nodules were present in six cases and mucus plugs in four cases. HRCT showed bronchiectasis in nine of 12 cases; in five of these nine cases, bronchiectasis was not apparent on chest radiographs. Other HRCT findings included segmental air trapping (four of 12), mucus plugs (three of 12), hazy consolidation (four of 12), nodules (five of 12), and bronchiolectasis (two of 12). Therapy was altered in seven of 12 cases in which HRCT was performed. Most pertinent to clinical management were the presence of a thymoma (n = 1) and severe focal of diffuse bronchiectasis

  20. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  1. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  2. Radiograph identifying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible character-indentable plastics embossing tape is backed by and bonded to a lead strip, not more than 0.025 inches thick, to form a tape suitable for identifying radiographs. The lead strip is itself backed by a relatively thin and flimsy plastics or fabric strip which, when removed, allows the lead plastic tape to be pressure-bonded to the surface to be radiographed. A conventional tape-embossing gun is used to indent the desired characters in succession into the lead-backed tape, without necessarily severing the lead; and then the backing strip is peeled away to expose the layer of adhesive which pressure-bonds the indented tape to the object to be radiographed. X-rays incident on the embossed tape will cause the raised characters to show up dark on the subsequently-developed film, whilst the raised side areas will show up white. Each character will thus stand out on the developed film. (author)

  3. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts

  4. Morphological analysis of enlarged ventricle on CT image, using multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Satoru; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Otsuji, Hideyuki; Fukusumi, Akio; Kobayashi, Yasuo.

    1983-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of enlarged cerebral ventricle on CT was undertaken to study the characteristics of ventricular morphology. Several ventricular segments of enlarged ventricle, defined on the basis of the study of normal group, were linearly measured on CT image. Then the discriminant analysis with the increase and decrease of variable was applied. The following are the results obtained. The error ratio of discrimination between pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy was 8.4 %, and between obstructive hydrocephalus and communicating hydrocephalus was 11.3 %. Ventricular segments were divided into three groups according to their character of enlargement: (1) the temporal horn and trigone are large in pressure hydrocephalus; (2) the hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle and the body of lateral ventricle are larger in obstructive hydrocephalus than in communicating hydrocephalus; (3) the anterior horn, cellae mediae at the level of the head of caudate nuclei and thalamic segment of the third ventricle are relatively large in cerebral atrophy and communicating hydrocephalus. The hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle assumes a round or oval shape in pressure hydrocephalus but a rectangular or teardrop shape in cerebral atrophy. These findings are contributory to pathological evaluation of ventricular enlargement. (author)

  5. Myositis ossificans with atypical clinical, radiographic, or pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuovo, M.A.; Chumas, J.; Ackerman, L.V.

    1992-01-01

    Myositis ossificans is a relatively rare, well-defined entity. The 23 cases sent for consultation to two of us (L.V.A. and A. N.) were reviewed. Clinical, radiologic, and microscopic information was reexamined, and special attention was given to features infrequently seen in typical myositis ossificans. Due to the uncommon location of 15 lesions and an unusual presentation in 5, the correct diagnosis was not obvious in these cases. Radiologic studies raised the possibility of a malignant bone-forming tumor in at least three instances; myositis ossificans was originally diagnosed in 6 cases radiologically. In 8 cases, histologic evidence suggested malignancy, including osteosarcoma, either parosteal or extraosseous, in 6. Other diagnoses included epithelioid sarcoma and callus formation. Presentation of these variations from the norm highlights the importance of recognizing the evolution of a nonneoplastic fibro-osseous and cartilaginous entity in which conservative treatment is curative. (orig./GDG)

  6. Medulloblastoma with Excessive Nodularity: Radiographic Features and Pathologic Correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yeh-Nayre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity is a rare subtype of the most common malignant childhood brain tumor and has been associated with more favorable prognosis. The authors report the case of a 10-month-old girl with a posterior fossa tumor of excessive nodularity with decreased diffusivity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences and robust grape-like postgadolinium contrast enhancing features. The unique neuroradiographic features were confirmed by histopathology and a diagnosis of medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity was made. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this unique medulloblastoma subtype preoperatively, as the more favorable outcome may preclude less aggressive medical management.

  7. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  8. An enlarged superfluid model of atomic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, O.; Horoi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The well known superfluid model (or quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (QPNM)) of atomic nucleus is enlarged by including an adequate four-nucleon effective interaction in addition to the pairing and long-range effective residual interactions. New experimental data can be explained without affecting those observables already described by the QPNM and in addition new features can be enumerated: 1) superfluidities of the neutron and proton systems may be generated by one another; 2) the phase structure is enriched by a new superfluid phase dominated by alpha-type correlations (ATC) and 3) superfluid isomers and their bands of elementary excitations are predicted. Unusual large two-nucleon and alpha transfer reactions cross sections as well as some unusual large alpha decay widths can be explained. (author). 46 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Streamlining Education System Through Waqf Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Bahroni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing the development of education systembased on the Waqf Empowerment. It is an experience of Gontor ModernIntegrated Islamic Institution to maintain its existence through the activitiesof Waqf Enlargement. The spirit of self-reliance which has been implementedby Gontor through various economic enterprise activities inside the campus isthe total processes of educational activities, carried out by students andteachers themselves. They act as the subjects and objects of the education atthe same time. They teach themselves through various activities, creativitiesand social interaction for their character and personality building. Thislearning process is purposely undertaken in Gontor, because the basicprinciple of this system is to actualize the community orientation throughwhich the students in the campus guided and prepared to have a spirit ofself reliance. So when they back to the society to undertake the real life theyconfidently take their role to develop their society for the sake of Allah andunity of muslim ummah.

  10. Subsidy policy and the enlargement of choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sunderasan

    2009-01-01

    Development is the enlargement of people's choices. Optimal subsidy policy is intended to create the right incentives for each of the value chain participants. This paper contends that the interest subsidy offered by the Indian federal Ministry of New and Renewable Energy for solar thermal systems, through mainstream banking channels is superior in intent and outcome compared to the capital subsidy as currently offered for solar PV systems, routed through government controlled delivery channels. The interest subsidy enhances innovation, improves service delivery and expands the range of product available to consumers enjoying a wide range of endowments, thus leading to more inclusive development. The simple monopoly model developed by Atkinson [Atkinson AB. Capabilities, exclusion and the supply of goods. In: Basu K, Pattanaik P, Suzumura K, editor, Choice, Welfare and Development. Oxford University Press; 1995] is applied to the context of solar home systems to demonstrate price reduction and choice expansion in a liberalized market, facilitated by an interest subsidy scheme. (author)

  11. Patient with bilateral breast enlargement and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A A; Ahmed, T; Rashid, M M

    2009-01-01

    A 20 year old man was admitted in the surgical unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital on August 2007 presented with Hypospadias & underdeveloped penis from childhood, gradual enlargement of both breasts for the last 10 years, absence of axillary and pubic hair from puberty & painful swelling of both testes for the last 3 years. The patient was regarded as a female upto the age of 10 years. He has got no voice change since puberty. On examination he had average body built, there was bilateral gynaecomastia, hypospadias, rudimentary penis & absence of pubic and axillary hair. His testosterone level, serum prolactin level, serum progesterone level, serum estradiol level was done. Cytology on buccal smear done and ultrasonography revealed no ovary and uterus. Ultimately patient was diagnosed as a case of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience.

  12. Routine transesophageal echocardiography for the diagnosis of aortic disruption in trauma patients without enlarged mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, P; Lagrange, P; Boncoeur, M P; Francois, B; Gastinne, H; Lang, R M

    1996-03-01

    To assess the value of routine transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in diagnosing traumatic disruption of the aorta (TDA) in trauma patients presenting without enlarged mediastinum on chest x-ray films. Prospective study. TEE was routinely performed to exclude the presence of TDA in patients who sustained severe trauma secondary to abrupt deceleration collisions and presented with an upper mediastinum of fewer than 8 cm on supine chest x-ray films. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (group I) or absence (group II) of mediastinal hematoma diagnosed during TEE examination. Radiographic signs regarded as indicators of the presence of TDA were evaluated in both groups. Among the 40 consecutive patients studied, TEE demonstrated two cases of TDA associated with a mediastinal hematoma that were confirmed by both aortography and surgery. One of the patients had a normal mediastinum on presentation chest x-ray films, and the other only exhibited a blurred aortic knob. Radiographic mediastinal abnormalities suggestive of TDA were observed in 13 patients, but chest x-ray films were unremarkable in 12 patients. Twenty patients had multiple rib fractures. The frequency of chest radiographic abnormalities was not significantly higher in group I (n = 6) when compared with group II patients (n = 34). TEE examination demonstrated a normal thoracic aorta in 35 patients and was nondiagnostic in 3 patients (normal aortography). TEE should be routinely performed in victims of violent deceleration collisions, even in patients presenting apparently normal mediastinum on supine chest radiography.

  13. Screening panoramic radiographs in a group of patient visiting a health promotion center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    To report the incidence of radiological findings from screening panoramic radiograph and verify the validity of the panoramic radiography for screening purposes. Six thousand one hundred and sixty panoramic radiographs taken from the patients visiting the Health Promotion Center of CNUH were selected for this retrospective study. Panoramic radiographs were examined into the following pathologic conditions : the presence of periodontal bone loss, dental caries, peri apical radiolucencies, retained roots, impacted supernumerary teeth, impacted third molars, odontoma, cystic lesions other than radicular cyst, sialoliths, and mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions. Number of pathologic conditions and Prevalence values were recorded. The prevalence of pathologic conditions were 72.9% of periodontal bone loss, 32.2% of dental caries, 11.9% of peri apical radiolucencies, 10.8% of retained roots, 0.4% of root fracture, 1.0% of impacted supernumerary teeth, 1.0% of impacted third molars, 0.06% of odontoma, 0.08% of cystic lesion other than radicular cyst, 0.2% of prolonged retention of deciduous tooth, 0.1% of sialolith, and 0.04% of mixed radiopaque and radiolucent lesion. Although the panoramic radiograph should not be used to replace intraoral radiographic and clinical examinations, this study showed that many dental pathologic conditions could be detected on panoramic radiographs. The panoramic radiograph might serve as a diagnostic aid in dental health evaluation programs.

  14. Screening panoramic radiographs in a group of patient visiting a health promotion center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To report the incidence of radiological findings from screening panoramic radiograph and verify the validity of the panoramic radiography for screening purposes. Six thousand one hundred and sixty panoramic radiographs taken from the patients visiting the Health Promotion Center of CNUH were selected for this retrospective study. Panoramic radiographs were examined into the following pathologic conditions : the presence of periodontal bone loss, dental caries, peri apical radiolucencies, retained roots, impacted supernumerary teeth, impacted third molars, odontoma, cystic lesions other than radicular cyst, sialoliths, and mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions. Number of pathologic conditions and Prevalence values were recorded. The prevalence of pathologic conditions were 72.9% of periodontal bone loss, 32.2% of dental caries, 11.9% of peri apical radiolucencies, 10.8% of retained roots, 0.4% of root fracture, 1.0% of impacted supernumerary teeth, 1.0% of impacted third molars, 0.06% of odontoma, 0.08% of cystic lesion other than radicular cyst, 0.2% of prolonged retention of deciduous tooth, 0.1% of sialolith, and 0.04% of mixed radiopaque and radiolucent lesion. Although the panoramic radiograph should not be used to replace intraoral radiographic and clinical examinations, this study showed that many dental pathologic conditions could be detected on panoramic radiographs. The panoramic radiograph might serve as a diagnostic aid in dental health evaluation programs.

  15. Radiographic findings in type 3 b Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.C.; Damaska, B.M.; Tsokos, M.; Kreps, C.; Brady, R.O.; Barton, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the radiographic findings in type 3 b Gaucher disease, a chronic neuronopathic form of the illness with severe systemic manifestations. Between 1980 and 1985 17 consecutive patients were evaluated with radiography of the chest, long bones and spine, CT of the head and chest, abdominal sonography, and MRI of the head, abdomen and spine. Clinical manifestations were severe, and led to death from hepatic, pulmonary or cardiac failure in nine patients. Type 3 b Gaucher disease shares the same spectrum of radiographic findings observed in type 1 disease, but the systemic manifestations are more severe. Pulmonary infiltrates, thoracic lymph node enlargement, vertebral compression fractures and osteonecrosis of the long bones occur much more frequently in patients with type 3 b disease. (orig.). With 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Radiographic evaluation of osteosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Miny, H.; Erlemann, R.; Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Baranowski, D.

    1991-01-01

    Surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and neurosurgeons employ a wide variety of different osteosynthetic devices in the treatment of fractures and in spinal surgery. In order to assess these instruments correctly, the radiologist should be aware of their purpose and normal apperance. The complications should be identified, such as delayed union, pseudarthrosis, dislocation, device loosening, fracture of the device, osteomyelitis, and refracture. To evaluate the fixation device adequately two plain radiographs are mandatory. An normal fracture healing and the most commonly used fixation devices, the abnormalities of fracture healing and their complications are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Digitization of conventional radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Blum, U.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Gufler, H.; Meyer, E.; Ruediger, K.

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic value of a digitization system for analogue films based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) scanner with adjustable resolution of 2.5 or 5 lp/mm was assessed. Some 110 skeletal radiographs, 50 contrast studies, including 25 of patients with Crohn's disease, and 70 abdominal plain films before and after successful lithotripsy for renal stones were digitized. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies showed improved detection of cortical and trabecular defects with contrast-optimized digitized films. Edge enhancement algorithms yielded no additional information. Inflammatory lesions of Crohn's disease were detected equally well by conventional films and digitized images. A statistically significant improvement (p [de

  18. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  19. Radiographic film digitizing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, all film digitizing devices for use with teleradiology or picture archiving and communication systems used a video camera to capture an image of the radiograph for subsequent digitization. The development of film digitizers that use a laser beam to scan the film represents a significant advancement in digital technology, resulting in improved image quality compared with video scanners. This paper discusses differences in resolution, efficiency, reliability, and the cost between these two types of devices. The results of a modified receiver operating characteristic comparison study of a video scanner and a laser scanner manufactured by the same company are also discussed

  20. Chest radiographic findings of tsutsugamushi disease and murine typhus in Chunchon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Tae Giun; Jang, Won Ho; Hwang, Woo Chul; Park, Man Soo; Lee, Myoung Gu; Kim, Yoon Won [School of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Choong Ki [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the chest radiographic findings of rickettsial disease including murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease in Chunchon. Chest radiographic films of 81 cases diagnosed as rickettsial disease(55 cases of tsutsugamushi disease, 26 cases of murine typhus) by immunofluorescence test were retrospectively analyzed. Main serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were Gilliam and Karp. Incidence rate of tsutsugamushi disease was 2.1 times greater than that of murine typhus. Chest radiographs were abnormal in 63.6% of tsutsugamushi disease, and in 30.8% of murine typhus. Radiographic findings were Kerly's B line, reticulonodular densities, hilar enlargement, pleural effusion, and splenomegaly in both entities, but pulmonary consolidation was only found in tsutsugamushi disease. The patients with the abnormal radiographic findings were statistically well correlated with cardiomegaly ({rho} < 0.01) and azygos engorgement ({rho} < 0.05), as compared to the patients with normal radiographic findings. Radiographic findings of both murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease were interstitial pattern. But the chest radiographs in patients with tsutsugamushi disease showed more severe pattern with higher rate of abnormality.

  1. Chest radiographic findings of tsutsugamushi disease and murine typhus in Chunchon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Tae Giun; Jang, Won Ho; Hwang, Woo Chul; Park, Man Soo; Lee, Myoung Gu; Kim, Yoon Won; Park, Choong Ki

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the chest radiographic findings of rickettsial disease including murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease in Chunchon. Chest radiographic films of 81 cases diagnosed as rickettsial disease(55 cases of tsutsugamushi disease, 26 cases of murine typhus) by immunofluorescence test were retrospectively analyzed. Main serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were Gilliam and Karp. Incidence rate of tsutsugamushi disease was 2.1 times greater than that of murine typhus. Chest radiographs were abnormal in 63.6% of tsutsugamushi disease, and in 30.8% of murine typhus. Radiographic findings were Kerly's B line, reticulonodular densities, hilar enlargement, pleural effusion, and splenomegaly in both entities, but pulmonary consolidation was only found in tsutsugamushi disease. The patients with the abnormal radiographic findings were statistically well correlated with cardiomegaly (ρ < 0.01) and azygos engorgement (ρ < 0.05), as compared to the patients with normal radiographic findings. Radiographic findings of both murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease were interstitial pattern. But the chest radiographs in patients with tsutsugamushi disease showed more severe pattern with higher rate of abnormality

  2. Chest radiographic findings of tsutsugamushi disease and murine typhus in Chunchon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Tae Giun; Jang, Won Ho; Hwang, Woo Chul; Park, Man Soo; Lee, Myoung Gu; Kim, Yoon Won [School of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Choong Ki [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the chest radiographic findings of rickettsial disease including murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease in Chunchon. Chest radiographic films of 81 cases diagnosed as rickettsial disease(55 cases of tsutsugamushi disease, 26 cases of murine typhus) by immunofluorescence test were retrospectively analyzed. Main serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were Gilliam and Karp. Incidence rate of tsutsugamushi disease was 2.1 times greater than that of murine typhus. Chest radiographs were abnormal in 63.6% of tsutsugamushi disease, and in 30.8% of murine typhus. Radiographic findings were Kerly's B line, reticulonodular densities, hilar enlargement, pleural effusion, and splenomegaly in both entities, but pulmonary consolidation was only found in tsutsugamushi disease. The patients with the abnormal radiographic findings were statistically well correlated with cardiomegaly ({rho} < 0.01) and azygos engorgement ({rho} < 0.05), as compared to the patients with normal radiographic findings. Radiographic findings of both murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease were interstitial pattern. But the chest radiographs in patients with tsutsugamushi disease showed more severe pattern with higher rate of abnormality.

  3. Radiographic analysis of temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Dong Soo [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-11-15

    The author analysed the bone changes, the positional relationships between condylar head and articular fossa, and the interrelationship between the bone changes and the abnormal position of condylar head, from 1,036 radiographs of 259 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and orthopantomograms. The results were as follows: 1. Among the radiographic bone changes of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis, deformity was 36..90% (217 cases), sclerosis 34.18% (201 cases), erosive change 25.58% (152 cases) and marginal proliferation 3.06% (18 cases) respectively. 2. In the positional changes between condylar head and articular fossa, the downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion was most frequent (36.90%), of which frequency was significantly higher than forward positioning (11.22%) and backward positioning (4.76%) in same condition. Also, radiographs showed that the enlargement of articular space showed higher frequency than its narrowing. In the opening position of mouth, the restrict ed movement of condylar head within articular fossa was most frequent (35.03%). The forward positioning and the downward positioning was 15.65% and 9.52% respectively. Also, radiographs revealed that the incomplete movement or no positional change of condylar head was most frequent. 3. In the interrelationship between bone changes and abnormal position of condylar head, deformity was 42.79% in the cases of downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion and 37.50% in those of normal positioning of condylar head in same condition. This revealed that deformity was most frequent bone change in above condylar positionings. However, erosive change was 34.62% in the cases of downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion and 33 .33% in those of forward positioning. In opening position of condylar head, and deformity in the cases of norma l positioning, forward positioning and

  4. Radiographic analysis of temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1984-01-01

    The author analysed the bone changes, the positional relationships between condylar head and articular fossa, and the interrelationship between the bone changes and the abnormal position of condylar head, from 1,036 radiographs of 259 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and orthopantomograms. The results were as follows: 1. Among the radiographic bone changes of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis, deformity was 36..90% (217 cases), sclerosis 34.18% (201 cases), erosive change 25.58% (152 cases) and marginal proliferation 3.06% (18 cases) respectively. 2. In the positional changes between condylar head and articular fossa, the downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion was most frequent (36.90%), of which frequency was significantly higher than forward positioning (11.22%) and backward positioning (4.76%) in same condition. Also, radiographs showed that the enlargement of articular space showed higher frequency than its narrowing. In the opening position of mouth, the restrict ed movement of condylar head within articular fossa was most frequent (35.03%). The forward positioning and the downward positioning was 15.65% and 9.52% respectively. Also, radiographs revealed that the incomplete movement or no positional change of condylar head was most frequent. 3. In the interrelationship between bone changes and abnormal position of condylar head, deformity was 42.79% in the cases of downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion and 37.50% in those of normal positioning of condylar head in same condition. This revealed that deformity was most frequent bone change in above condylar positionings. However, erosive change was 34.62% in the cases of downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion and 33 .33% in those of forward positioning. In opening position of condylar head, and deformity in the cases of norma l positioning, forward positioning and

  5. Radiographic imaging of the canine intercondylar fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Fitch, R.B.; Hathcock, J.T.; LaPrade, R.F.; Wilson, M.E.; Garrett, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The intercondylar fossa is believed to play an important role in the pathology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture and therefore has received considerable attention in the last decade. Accurate radiographic imaging of the intercondylar fossa requires that the central x-ray beam pass through the center of the intercondylar “tunnel”. The anatomy of the canine intercondylar fossa is similar to humans, however, the orientations of the intercondylar fossa's differ. Consequently, the positioning techniques described for humans are not appropriate for the dog. To pass through the center of the dog, intercondylar fossa, the central x-ray beam should be 12° (S.D. 1.7°) caudal from the femoral diaphysis in the sagittal plane and obliqued caudolateral to craniomedial 7° (S.D. 0.60°) (caudo78°proximo7° lateralcraniodistomedial oblique). Cross table positioning was used with the hip flexed and the radiograph cassette placed on the cranial surface of the stifle. However, superimposition of the tuber ischii and soft tissues caudal to the femur made 15° to 20° the best angle obtainable. There was not a significant difference (p = 0.17) in the notch width index between a 12° versus 20° angle of the central x-ray beam caudal to the femoral diaphysis, both with 7° of external rotation of the stifle. The notch width index of 0.252 obtained from radiographic measurements was not significantly different from measurements obtained grossly of 0.254 (n = 26; p = 0.69). Failure to oblique the central x-ray beam caused a significant (p = 0.0008) decrease in the apparent fossa width radiographically

  6. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  7. Application of artificial neural network in radiographic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piraino, D.; Amartur, S.; Richmond, B.; Schils, J.; Belhobek, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an artificial neural network trained to rate the likelihood of different bone neoplasms when given a standard description of a radiograph. A three-layer back propagation algorithm was trained with descriptions of examples of bone neoplasms obtained from standard radiographic textbooks. Fifteen bone neoplasms obtained from clinical material were used as unknowns to test the trained artificial neural network. The artificial neural network correctly rated the pathologic diagnosis as the most likely diagnosis in 10 of the 15 unknown cases

  8. Radiographic features of pleural effusions in pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bynum, L.J.; Wilson, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    A prospective analysis of 155 patients with pulmonary embolism was undertaken to describe the radiographic characteristics of associated pleural effusions and related abnormalities. Approximately one half of these patients had pleural effusions. Patients with other potential causes of effusion, such as heart failure, pneumonia, or cancer, were eliminated from further analysis. In the remaining 62 patients, radiographic evidence of pulmonary infarction accompanied pleural effusions in one half of the cases. One third of patients with parenchymal consolidation had no evidence of effusion. Atelectasis and other nonspecific radiographic abnormalities occurred in less than one fifth of the cases. Typically, pleural effusions were small and unilateral, appeared soon after symptoms of thromboembolism began, and tended to reach their maximal size very early in the course of the disorder. Pulmonary infarction was associated with larger effusions that cleared more slowly and were more often bloody in appearance on thoracentesis. Chest pain occurred in all but one patient and was a valuable diagnostic clue. Pain and pleural effusions were always ipsilateral and almost always unilateral, but neither correlated well with the presence or time course of infarction. Effusions that were delayed in onset or that enlarged late in the course were associated with recurrent pulmonary embolism or superinfection. These radiographic features may be helpful in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary embolism

  9. A retrospective study of the performance of radiographers in interpreting screening mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.; Warren-Forward, H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper provides data on the continued success of radiographers in reviewing mammograms with similar accuracy to screen readers. Method: The participants consisted of 7 radiographers and 2 current official screen readers. Two hundred and fifty sets of mammograms from 2003 were used in this study. Each participant reviewed each set of mammograms as a Rescreen or Recall. Patient outcomes were assessed by following up the results of any histology or pathology tests in 2003 or the 2005/2006 screening results. Results: The screen reader's sensitivities ranged from 79% to 93% and the specificities ranged from 82% to 84%. The radiographer values ranged from 57% to 97% and 63% to 80% respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity values attained by some radiographers were equivalent to those of both the screen readers. Accuracy rates of the radiographers suggest that screen reading by selected and appropriately trained radiographers should be achievable in Australia.

  10. CT appearance of hilar and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes of coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Daqing; Guan Yansheng; Tang Hongqu; He Wen; Chen Budong; Zhang Yansong; Li Jun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT appearance of the hilar and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes in coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP), its pathological basis and diagnostic value for CWR complicated with lung cancer. Methods: (1) Twelve isolated lungs with CWP obtained at autopsy were inflated and fixed. CT scan was performed. The pathologic findings of enlarged lymph nodes were identified. (2) CT findings of hilar and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes of 71 cases with CWP and 22 cases of CWP complicated with lung cancer were analyzed. Results: (1) Most of the enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes in simple CWR was in third stage of fibrosis. The fourth stage of fibrosis was only seen in lymph nodes of a case with complicated CWP. In this case the necrotic materials of lymph nodes eroded adjacent bronchi and vessels, and coalesced with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). (2) The average number of lymph nodes in cases of complicated CWP was more than that of simple CWP (P 2 cm was 7.4%. (3) The prevalence of lymph nodes calcification in CWP was 61.1%, but egg shell calcification was only 14.7%. (4) In the cases of CWP complicated with lung cancer, lymph node > 2 cm was 20.8%, that was more than CWP (P 3 cm was 7.6%. Conclusion: Lymph nodes up to 1 cm may have dust fibrosis and coal silicosis nodules. The lymph nodes >2 cm is more common in CWP complicated with lung cancer than in simple CWP. The lymph nodes > 3 cm indicates higher probability of CWP with lung cancer than PMF

  11. Radiographer interpretation of trauma radiographs: Issues for radiography education providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Snaith, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Background: The role of radiographers with respect to image interpretation within clinical practice is well recognised. It is the expectation of the professional, regulatory and academic bodies that upon qualification, radiographers will possess image interpretation skills. Additionally, The College of Radiographers has asserted that its aspiration is for all radiographers to be able to provide an immediate written interpretation on skeletal trauma radiographs by 2010. This paper explores the readiness of radiography education programmes in the UK to deliver this expectation. Method: A postal questionnaire was distributed to 25 Higher Education Institutions in the UK (including Northern Ireland) that provided pre-registration radiography education as identified from the Society and College of Radiographers register. Information was sought relating to the type of image interpretation education delivered at pre- and post-registration levels; the anatomical range of image interpretation education; and education delivery styles. Results: A total of 19 responses (n = 19/25; 76.0%) were received. Image interpretation education was included as part of all radiographer pre-registration programmes and offered at post-registration level at 12 academic centres (n = 12/19; 63.2%). The anatomical areas and educational delivery methods varied across institutions. Conclusion: Radiography education providers have embraced the need for image interpretation education within both pre- and post-registration radiography programmes. As a result, UK education programmes are able to meet the 2010 College of Radiographers aspiration.

  12. [Enlargement in managment of lumbar spinal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steib, J P; Averous, C; Brinckert, D; Lang, G

    1996-05-01

    Lumbar stenosis has been well discussed recently, especially at the 64th French Orthopaedic Society (SOFCOT: July 1989). The results of different surgical treatments were considered as good, but the indications for surgical treatment were not clear cut. Laminectomy is not the only treatment of spinal stenosis. Laminectomy is an approach with its own rate of complications (dural tear, fibrosis, instability... ).Eight years ago, J. Sénégas described what he called the "recalibrage" (enlargement). His feeling was that, in the spinal canal, we can find two different AP diameters. The first one is a fixed constitutional AP diameter (FCAPD) at the cephalic part of the lamina. The second one is a mobile constitutional AP diameter (MCAPD) marked by the disc and the ligamentum flavum. This diameter is maximal in flexion, minimal in extension. The nerve root proceeds through the lateral part of the canal: first above, between the disc and the superior articular process, then below, in the lateral recess bordered by the pedicle, the vertebral body and the posterior articulation. With the degenerative change the disc space becomes shorter, the superior articular process is worn out with osteophytes. These degenerative events are complicated by inter vertebral instability increasing the stenosis. The idea of the "recalibrage" is to remove only the upper part of the lamina with the ligamentum flavum and to cut the hypertrophied anterior part of the articular process from inside. If needed the disc and other osteophytes are removed. The surgery is finished with a ligamentoplasty reducing the flexion and preventing the extension by a posterior wedge.Our experience in spine surgery especially in scoliosis surgery, showed us that it was possible to cure a radicular compression without opening the canal. The compression is then lifted by the 3D reduction and restoration of an anatomy as normal as possible. Lumbar stenosis is the consequence of a degenerative process. Indeed, hip

  13. A methodology to enlarge narrow stability windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The stability window in a wellbore design is defined by the difference between fracture pressure and collapse pressure. Deep water environments typically present narrow stability windows, because rocks have low strength due to under-compaction process. Often also, horizontal wells are drilled to obtain a better development of reservoirs placed in thin layers of sandstone. In this scenario, several challenges are faced when drilling in deep water. The traditional approach for predicting instabilities is to determine collapses and fractures at borehole wall. However, the initiation of rupture does not indicate that the borehole fails to perform its function as a wellbore. Thus, a methodology in which the stability window may be enlarged is desirable. This paper presents one practical analytical methodology that consists in allowing wellbore pressures smaller than the conventional collapse pressure, i.e., based upon failure on the borehole wall. This means that a collapse region (shear failure) will be developed around the borehole wall. This collapse region is pre-defined and to estimate its size is used a failure criterion. The aforementioned methodology is implemented in a user-friendly software, which can perform analyses of stress, pore pressure, formation failure, mud weight and mud salinity design for drilling in shale formations. Simulations of a wellbore drilling in a narrow stability window environment are performed to demonstrate the improvements of using the methodology. (author)

  14. The sonographic findings of the scrotal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyen Sook; Han, Chun Hee; Lee, Jung Hee; Chung, Kyu Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1988-01-01

    Clinical differentiation of the various pathological conditions affecting scrotal contents can be difficult. The superficial location of scrotum is suited for sonographic examination. March, 1984 to december, 1987 authors experienced 23 cases of the inflammatory and tumorous condition, which were confirmed by operation and clinical follow up. The results are as follows : 1. Sonographic examination is safe, noninvasive, and useful in screening test of scrotum. 2. Sonography is useful for the confirmation of complicated epididymitis. 3. In palpable mass cases, sonography can differentiate intratesticular and extratesticular lesions. 4. Sonography is useful for detection of primary tumor in clinically uncertain conditions. 5. In epididymitis, sonography shows enlargement and decreased echogenecity of epididymis, reactive hydrocele, and thickening of scrotal wall. 6. In testicular tumor : Seminoma shows hypoechoic solid mass lesion with enlargement. Embryonal cell carcinoma shows ill defined hypoechoic testicular enlargement. Rhabdomyosarcoma shows ill defined hypoechoic mass with central necrosis. Metastatic testicular tumor shows bilaterallity and ill defined abnormal echogenecity, more older age distribution

  15. [Pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinsky, Yael; Iancu, Iulian; Dannon, Pinhas

    2007-10-01

    Gambling behaviour is well-known for many centuries and is growing in popularity and frequency. Its etiology is multi-factorial and in this paper we review new developments in the field of pathological gambling, both regarding etiology and treatment progress. The aim of this review is to increase the physicians' awareness towards this entity.

  16. Atlas of neuroanatomy with radiologic correlation and pathologic illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin, A.B.; Dublin, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    This atlas correlates gross neuroanatomic specimens with radiographs and computed tomographic scans. Pathologic specimens and radiographs are displayed in a similar manner. The first chapter, on embryology, shows the development of the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, and metencephalon through a series of overlays. The anatomical section shows the surface of the brain, the ventricles and their adjacent structures, and the vascular system. CT anatomy is demonstrated by correlating CT scans with pathologic brain specimens cut in the axial plane. Pathologic changes associated with congenital malformations, injections, injuries, tumors, and other causes are demonstrated in the last six chapters

  17. Puncture wounds into the navicular bursa of the horse: role of radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, G.L.; O'Brien, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    Radiography was used to evaluate 32 horses presented for puncture wounds into the navicular bursa. At the initial radiographic examination, 21 horses had no radiographic signs of osteomyelitis, while 11 did. The mean-time interval between injury and radiographic examination was 20.6 days for horses without evidence of osteomyelitis and 59.3 days for those with evidence of osteomyelitis. Radiographic signs of osteomyelitis of the navicular bone included flexor cortical destruction and irregularity of the flexor surface. Other abnormalities included pathologic fracture of the navicular bone, subluxation of the distal interphalangeal joint, or secondary joint disease. The lateromedial and palmaroproximal-palmarodistal oblique projections were most useful for identifying abnormalities of the navicular bone. There was a high correlation between horses that had positive presurgical radiographic signs and surgical findings. However, approximately 50% of horses that had negative radiographic findings initially had positive surgical findings. Ten of 21 horses with negative radiographic findings on initial examination had evidence of bony lesions when reevaluated from 3 weeks to 6 years later. Nine of 11 horses with radiographic signs of osteomyelitis on initial radiographic examination were euthanatized or had an unsatisfactory outcome. Seven of 10 horses with radiographic signs on reexamination were euthanatized. Thirteen of 20 horses with positive surgical findings for navicular bone infection were euthanatized or had an unsatisfactory outcome

  18. Radiographically detectable intracortical porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meema, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Since the measurement of intracortical resorptive spaces by histologic methods is difficult and very few data are available in normal humans, we have measured their lengths and widths and calculated the intracortical porosity in metacarpals and phalanges of 79 normal women and 69 normal men, using fine-detail radiographs of the hands and a computerized semi-automatic image analysis system (Zeiss MOP-3), this being the first study of this kind. Several methodological problems were solved satisfactorily, and the results of this study could serve as a data bank for further investigations concerned with intracortical resorption. Significant differences were found between age and sex versus several intracortical resorptive parameters; also significant correlations were found with age in some cases. Normal intracortical porosity was found to be about three times greater in the proximal phalanges than in the metacarpals. It is concluded that this methodology could be used for further studies of intracortical resorption in osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. (orig.)

  19. Odontogenic keratocyst radiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nartey, N. O.; Saini, T.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical features often patients with odontogenic keratocysts were studied. One patient had Gorlin-GoJtz syndrome. A total of fourteen radiolucent lesions were observed on radiographic examination. All the fourteen lesions were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocyst after histopathclogical examination of biopsied tissue from the patients. The age at diagnosis ranged from 25-72 years with a mean age of 37.6 years. The male : female ratio was 2.3:1. Thirteen of these lesions occurred in the mandible, nine involved the mandibular third molar region. Involvement of the ramus of the mandible produced a sausage-shaped radiolucency. Cystic lesions which have been present for long periods of time showed scalloped margins, due to the regional resorption of the surrounding bone. The bony ledges present on the cortical bones simulated multilocular appearance in such cases. It was also observed that the lesions in older individuals perforated the cortical plates rather than eliciting a periostally induced bony expansion. (author)

  20. A radiographic examination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, A.P.; Cable, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for performing radiographic examination, particularly of large items such as international container units is disclosed. The system is formed as an installation comprising housings for respective linear accelerators transmitting a beam of radiation across the path of a conveyor along which the units can be displaced continuously or incrementally. On either end of the installation are container handling areas including roller conveyors with drag chains and transverse manipulators, and the whole installation is secured within automatically operated doors which seal the high energy region when a container on the conveyor is being subjected to examination. The radiation transmitted through a container is detected in a detector system incorporating a fluoroscopic screen light output from which is detected in a camera system such as a television camera, and transmitted as coded pulsed signals by a coding transfer unit to display screens where an image of the transmitted information can be displayed and/or recorded for further use. (author)

  1. Radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, K.; Holtz, E.; Almen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media are used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the X-ray attenuation between a body structure of interest and the surrounding tissue. A detail becomes perceptible on a roentgenogram only when its contrast exceeds a minimum value in relation to the background. Small areas of interest must have higher contrast than the background. The contrast effect depends on concentration of the contrast media with the body. A high contrast media concentration difference thus gives rise to more morphological details in the radiographs. Contrast media can be divided into negative contrast media such as air and gas which attenuate X-rays less than the body tissues, and positive contrast materials which attenuate X-rays more than the body tissues. The positive contrast media all contain either iodine (atomic number 53) or barium (atomic number 56) and can be divided into water-insoluble and water-soluble contrast media

  2. Chest Radiographic Findings in Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Observations from High School Outbreaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Won Jung; Kwon, O Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yeon Joo [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin; Lew, Woo Jin [Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, En Hi [4Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    To describe the radiographic findings of primary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in previously healthy adolescent patients. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study, with a waiver of informed consent from the patients. TB outbreaks occurred in 15 senior high schools and chest radiographs from 58 students with identical strains of TB were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis by two independent observers. Lesions of nodule(s), consolidation, or cavitation in the upper lung zones were classified as typical TB. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement; lesions of nodule(s), consolidation, or cavitation in lower lung zones; or pleural effusion were classified as atypical TB. Inter-observer agreement for the presence of each radiographic finding was examined by kappa statistics. Of 58 patients, three (5%) had normal chest radiographs. Cavitary lesions were present in 25 (45%) of 55 students. Lesions with upper lung zone predominance were observed in 27 (49%) patients, whereas lower lung zone predominance was noted in 18 (33%) patients. The remaining 10 (18%) patients had lesions in both upper and lower lung zones. Pleural effusion was not observed in any patient, nor was the mediastinal lymph node enlargement. Hilar lymph node enlargement was seen in only one (2%) patient. Overall, 37 (67%) students had the typical form of TB, whereas 18 (33%) had TB lesions of the atypical form. The most common radiographic findings in primary pulmonary TB by recent infection in previously healthy adolescents are upper lung lesions, which were thought to be radiographic findings of reactivation pulmonary TB by remote infection

  3. Radiographic enhancement and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic image enhancement and analysis techniques are discussed as they apply to nondestructive inspection. A system is described which has been developed to enhance and quantitatively evaluate radiographic images using digital computer techniques. Some examples of typical applications are also presented as an introduction to this new inspection technique. (author)

  4. Interpretation and digestion of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography digestion is final test for the radiography to make sure that radiograph produced will inspect their quality of the image before its interpreted. This level is critical level where if there is a mistake, all of the radiography work done before will be unaccepted. So as mention earlier, it can waste time, cost and more worst it can make the production must shut down. So, this step, level two radiographers or interpreter must evaluate the radiograph carefully. For this purpose, digestion room and densitometer must used. Of course all the procedure must follow the specification that mentioned in document. There are several needs must fill before we can say the radiograph is corrected or not like the location of penetrameter, number of penetrameter that showed, the degree of density of film, and usually there is no problem in this step and the radiograph can go to interpretation and evaluation step as will mentioned in next chapter.

  5. Chesneys' radiographic imaging. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Price, T.

    1989-01-01

    This new edition of Chesney and Chesney: Radiographic Imaging has been completely written by two new authors. The book reflects the change in emphasis in radiology from photographic processes towards electronic imaging methods. There is new material on image intensifiers and television imaging, digital imaging and digital subtractions. Analyses of the various characteristics of, and defects in, images on radiographs, xeroradiographs and the television screen are included. The methods, equipment and materials used to record the cathode ray tube image are described and there is new material on the principles of alternative diagnostic imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography and radionuclide imaging which provide cathode ray tube images. The book is primarily for student radiographers studying for the Diploma of the College of Radiographers, but radiographers studying for postdiplomate qualifications such as the Higher Diploma (HDCR) will also find the book helpful. (author)

  6. The radiographic appearance of primary liver neoplasia in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S. M.

    1987-11-15

    The signalment, anamnesis, and histopathologic, gross pathologic, and radiographic findings in 22 dogs with nonvascular, nonhematopoletic primary liver tumors were reviewed. The tumor types represented were hepatoma (8), bile duct cystadenoma (1), hepatocellular carcinoma (5), and cholangiocellular carcinoma (8). The dogs averaged 11.1 years of age. Females were predisposed to cholangiocellular carcinoma. The most common presenting clinical signs were general malaise, anorexia, PU/PD, vomiting, and seizures. Tumors ranged in size from diffuse 0.5-1 cm nodules to an 18-cm solitary mass and were located in any of the liver lobes. Four of the five diffuse tumors were cholangiocellular carcinomas. The most common radiographic appearance for any type of liver tumor was a right cranial abdominal mass causing caudal and left gastric displacement. In 54.5% of the dogs, radiographic evidence of intraperitoneal disease was identified. Nodular interstitial pulmonary masses were seen in 3 of the 22 dogs.

  7. The radiographic appearance of primary liver neoplasia in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The signalment, anamnesis, and histopathologic, gross pathologic, and radiographic findings in 22 dogs with nonvascular, nonhematopoletic primary liver tumors were reviewed. The tumor types represented were hepatoma (8), bile duct cystadenoma (1), hepatocellular carcinoma (5), and cholangiocellular carcinoma (8). The dogs averaged 11.1 years of age. Females were predisposed to cholangiocellular carcinoma. The most common presenting clinical signs were general malaise, anorexia, PU/PD, vomiting, and seizures. Tumors ranged in size from diffuse 0.5-1 cm nodules to an 18-cm solitary mass and were located in any of the liver lobes. Four of the five diffuse tumors were cholangiocellular carcinomas. The most common radiographic appearance for any type of liver tumor was a right cranial abdominal mass causing caudal and left gastric displacement. In 54.5% of the dogs, radiographic evidence of intraperitoneal disease was identified. Nodular interstitial pulmonary masses were seen in 3 of the 22 dogs

  8. Advances in direct radiographic magnification technique: First studies with a 1μ focal spot tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettenbrink, K.B.; Schadel, A.

    1986-01-01

    A direct radiographic enlargement technique mainly depends on the size of the focal spot. Up to now, its reduction was limited for physical reasons; therefore only minor degrees of magnification were applicable. With the new 1 μ focal spot tube, structures of microscopic dimensions can be visualized for the first time in a direct radiographic magnification of up to 100 diameters. First studies in isolated middle ear ossicles and a phantom soft-tissue-skull are demonstrated. Clinical usefullness seems to be limited, whereas its application for experimental research looks promising. (orig.) [de

  9. Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daszkiewicz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)

  10. Enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.

    2007-01-01

    A unified analysis of the enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste (RW) repository RADONS considers the interplay of the existing engineering, safety and infrastructure premises, with the foreseen newly socio-technical features. This enlargement consists in construction of two additional RW disposal vaults and in building a long-term storage facility for spent sealed sources at the RADONS territory. Our approach is based on consecutive analysis of following basic elements: - the origin of enlargement - the RADONS safety analysis and a set of optimal socio-technical solutions of Salaspils research reactor decommissioning waste management; - the enlargement - a keystone of the national RW management concept, including the long-term approach; - the enlargement concept - the result of international co-operation and obligations; - arrangement optimization of new disposal and storage space; - environmental impact assessment for the repository enlargement - the update of socio-technical studies. The study of the public opinion revealed: negative attitude to repository enlargement is caused mainly due to missing information on radiation level and on the RADONS previous operations. These results indicate: basic measures to improve the public attitude to repository enlargement: the safety upgrade, public education and compensation mechanisms. A detailed stakeholders engagement and public education plan is elaborated. (author)

  11. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed Bashir

    2002-07-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  12. [Dual pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, A

    2008-05-01

    Dual pathology is defined as the association of two potentially epileptogenic lesions, hippocampal (sclerosis, neuronal loss) and extrahippocampal (temporal or extratemporal). Epileptic activity may be generated by either lesion and the relative importance of every lesion's epileptogenicity conditions the surgical strategy adopted. Most frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis are cortical dysplasias. The common physiopathology of the two lesions is not clearly established. Extrahippocampal lesions may be undetectable on MRI (microdysgenesis, for example) and ictal discharge patterns may vary among dual pathology patients. The surgical strategy depends on the location of the extrahippocampal lesion and its relative role in seizure generation; however, reported surgical results suggest that simultaneous resection of mesial temporal structures along with the extrahippocampal lesion should be performed.

  13. Microglial pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial ...

  14. Normalization of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Enlargement after Treatment for Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Muraoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients and can cause enlargement of the adrenal glands, although the morphologic changes after treatment have not been reported in detail. We report the case of 24-year-old man with fevers, headaches, and impaired consciousness who had been treated with glucocorticoids for a protein-losing gastroenteropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed cryptococcal meningitis. Computed tomography showed bilateral adrenal enlargement. A retrospective analysis revealed that the enlargement had been detected 5 months before admission and gradually increased. The enlargement was improved with antifungal therapy and normalized 6 months later. This is the first report describing morphological changes in the adrenal glands associated with cryptococcal meningitis. Adrenal enlargement by cryptococcosis can be improved without any abnormal findings, including calcifications, which may be a unique characteristic from other diseases, including tuberculosis.

  15. The interpretation of plain film radiographs in infants and children with cardiac and vascular malformations. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenburg, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    Chest survey radiographs frequently suffice for a differentiation of congenital defects of the heart and the vessels. Finally, angiocardiography will allow exact differentiation of the pathological findings in complex angiocardiopathies. (orig.) [de

  16. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    2013-07-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  17. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee

    2013-01-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  18. Fetal MRI of pathological brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.C.; Prayer, D.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the superior tissue contrast, high spatial resolution, and multiplanar capabilities, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict fetal brain pathologies with high accuracy. Pathological fetal brain development may result from malformations or acquired conditions. Differentiation of these etiologies is important with respect to managing the actual pregnancy or counseling future pregnancies. As a widened ventricular system is a common hallmark of both maldevelopment and acquired conditions, it may cause problems in the differential diagnosis. Fetal MRI can provide detailed morphological information, which allows refinement of the diagnosis of ventricular enlargement in a large number of cases. Systematic work-up of morphological details that may be recognized on MR images provides an approach for achieving a correct diagnosis in cases of ventricle enlargement. (orig.) [de

  19. Conduit enlargement in an eogenetic karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul J.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Screaton, Elizabeth J.; Neuhoff, Philip S.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryMost concepts of conduit development have focused on telogenetic karst aquifers, where low matrix permeability focuses flow and dissolution along joints, fractures, and bedding planes. However, conduits also exist in eogenetic karst aquifers, despite high matrix permeability which accounts for a significant component of flow. This study investigates dissolution within a 6-km long conduit system in the eogenetic Upper Floridan aquifer of north-central Florida that begins with a continuous source of allogenic recharge at the Santa Fe River Sink and discharges from a first-magnitude spring at the Santa Fe River Rise. Three sources of water to the conduit include the allogenic recharge, diffuse recharge through epikarst, and mineralized water upwelling from depth. Results of sampling and inverse modeling using PHREEQC suggest that dissolution within the conduit is episodic, occurring only during 30% of 16 sampling times between March 2003 and April 2007. During low flow conditions, carbonate saturated water flows from the matrix to the conduit, restricting contact between undersaturated allogenic water with the conduit wall. When gradients reverse during high flow conditions, undersaturated allogenic recharge enters the matrix. During these limited periods, estimates of dissolution within the conduit suggest wall retreat averages about 4 × 10 -6 m/day, in agreement with upper estimates of maximum wall retreat for telogenetic karst. Because dissolution is episodic, time-averaged dissolution rates in the sink-rise system results in a wall retreat rate of about 7 × 10 -7 m/day, which is at the lower end of wall retreat for telogenetic karst. Because of the high permeability matrix, conduits in eogenetic karst thus enlarge not just at the walls of fractures or pre-existing conduits such as those in telogenetic karst, but also may produce a friable halo surrounding the conduits that may be removed by additional mechanical processes. These observations stress the

  20. [The importance of conventional radiographs in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; Reinhard, H; Graf, N; Püschel, W; Ziegler, K; Schneider, G

    2002-01-01

    We report about a 12-year-old boy with a history of recurrent patella luxation. Due to persistent pain in the distal left femur a MRI examination was performed in another hospital which suggested a malignant bone tumor. Without validation of the MRI findings by conventional radiographs bone biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination yielded the diagnosis of a chondroblastic osteosarcoma. Before initiating polychemotherapy, plain radiographs for the first time, a nuclear imaging study and an additional MRI examination were performed in our hospital. The results of these studies made the diagnosis of an osteosarcoma unlikely. In particular, plain radiographs did not show any osseous lesion which was characteristic of an osteosarcoma. To establish a definite diagnosis biopsy was repeated with resection of the bone area which showed suspicious changes in MRI studies. An osteosarcoma was ruled out by histopathological examination. The pathologic changes detected in MRI were rated as bone bruise on plain radiographs and seemed to be of traumatic origin. Our case report emphasises the importance of conventional radiographs in establishing the diagnosis of an osteoarcoma respectively bone tumors and tumor-like lesions in general. They still remain the mainstay in diagnosing bone forming tumors. MRI imaging studies may show changes which mimick solid lesions but in deed can be of traumatic origin. Without informing the pathologist about the exact origin of the specimen, histopathological examination may lead to the misdiagnosis of a chondroblastic osteosarcoma if specimen, like in this case report, represents epiphyseal tissue showing cartilaginous areas with reactive bone formation.

  1. Radiographic scanner apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The preferred embodiment of this invention includes a hardware system, or processing means, which operates faster than software. Moreover the computer needed is less expensive and smaller. Radiographic scanner apparatus is described for measuring the intensity of radiation after passage through a planar region and for reconstructing a representation of the attenuation of radiation by the medium. There is a source which can be rotated, and detectors, the output from which forms a data line. The detectors are disposed opposite the planar region from the source to produce a succession of data lines corresponding to the succession of angular orientations of the source. There is a convolver means for convolving each of these data lines, with a filter function, and a means of processing the convolved data lines to create the representation of the radiation attenuation in the planar region. There is also apparatus to generate a succession of data lines indicating radiation attenuation along a determinable path with convolver means. (U.K.)

  2. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Kun Song [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  3. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Kun Song

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  4. T1-weighted MR images in radiographic stage of fragmentation of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumasaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Kishimoto, Harumasa; Higashihara, Tokuro (Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan)); Harada, Koshi; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1991-04-01

    Seven femoral heads of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) in radiographic stage of fragmentation were examined in 6 boys by MRI. Characteristic appearances of capital epiphysis and the surrounding cartilaginous structures can be seen. These were proved by four indices for measurement of cartilaginous contour. Cartilaginous contour of epiphysis is enlarged with crescent like deformity resulting from deformity of growth plate. Characteristic layers or honeycomb pattern of extremely low and intermediate signal intensity can be seen. (author).

  5. T1-weighted MR images in radiographic stage of fragmentation of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumasaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Kishimoto, Harumasa; Higashihara, Tokuro; Harada, Koshi; Kozuka, Takahiro.

    1991-01-01

    Seven femoral heads of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) in radiographic stage of fragmentation were examined in 6 boys by MRI. Characteristic appearances of capital epiphysis and the surrounding cartilaginous structures can be seen. These were proved by four indices for measurement of cartilaginous contour. Cartilaginous contour of epiphysis is enlarged with crescent like deformity resulting from deformity of growth plate. Characteristic layers or honeycomb pattern of extremely low and intermediate signal intensity can be seen. (author)

  6. Chronic valvular disease: correlation between clinical, electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic aspects in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, E.C.; Larsson, M.H.M.A.; Yamato, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Echocardiographic aspects of chronic mitral valvular disease were studied and compared to physical, radiographic and electrocardiographic aspects. Seventy dogs were used, and clinical examination, thoracic radiography, electrocardiogram and echocardiogram were performed. Correlations between regurgitation severity with cardiac failure functional class and murmur intensity were observed. The electrocardiogram showed a low sensibility in detecting cardiac chamber enlargement, caused by mitral regurgitation. All the dogs with severe mitral regurgitation showed cardiomegaly according to thoracic radiographies

  7. The radiographic image: A cultural artefact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the role of the radiographic images produced by diagnostic radiographers. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; that of the radiographic image as a cultural artefact, is explored in this article. The radiographic image is a cultural artefact which radiographers are protective of and take ownership of. Radiographers are conscious of the quality of their images and the images are an important aspect of their work. Radiographers take criticism of their images personally. The radiographic image is a record of the interaction that occurs between the radiographer and the patient. The way in which radiographic images are viewed, used and judged is an important aspect of the role of diagnostic radiographer

  8. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  9. A retrospective review of bone tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons fixed with a metal round cannulated interference screw in the femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Okudaira, Shuzo; Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    To assess bone tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the use of hamstring tendons fixed with a round cannulated interference (RCI) screw in the femur. A consecutive series of 30 ACL reconstructions performed with hamstring tendons fixed with an RCI screw in the femur and with staples via Leeds-Keio ligament in the tibia was retrospectively reviewed. The clinical outcome was evaluated through the Lysholm score. Anterior instability was tested by Telos-SE (Telos Japan, Tokyo, Japan) measurement. The location and angle of each femoral and tibial tunnel were measured with the use of plain radiographs, and bone tunnel enlargement greater than 2 mm detected any time 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively was defined as positive. Each factor (location and angle of the tunnels, sex, affected side, age, Lysholm score, and Telos-SE measurement) was compared between enlarged and nonenlarged groups. Positive enlargement of the bone tunnel (>2.0 mm) was observed in 36.7% (11 of 30) on the femoral side and 33.3% (10 of 30) on the tibial side, and in 6 knees of both sides. Half of patients (15 of 30) had an enlarged tunnel on the femoral or the tibial side until 1 year postoperatively. In most cases, enlargement reached maximum at 6 months postoperatively. Female patients tended to have an enlarged tunnel, especially on the femoral side (P < .05). Tunnel enlargement was not correlated with location and angle of the tunnels. Moreover, no difference was found in Lysholm score and Telos-SE measurement between enlarged and nonenlarged groups, although the nonenlarged group tended to exhibit higher Lysholm score and lesser instability. Bone tunnel enlargement of the femoral or tibial side was observed in half of patients (6 in both sides, 5 only in the femur, and 4 only in the tibia) after ACL reconstruction was performed with a hamstring tendon fixed with an RCI screw. Female patients had a greater chance for enlargement of the femoral tunnel

  10. New View on the Initial Development Site and Radiographic Classification System of Osteoarthritis of the Knee Based on Radiographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Ki-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Radiographic pathology of severe osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) such as severe osteophyte at tibial spine (TS), compartment narrowing, marginal osteophyte, and subchondral sclerosis is well known. Kellgren-Lawrence grading system, which is widely used to diagnose OAK, describes narrowing-marginal osteophyte in 4-grades but uses osteophyte at TS only as evidence of OAK without detailed-grading. However, kinematically the knee employs medial TS as an axis while medial and latera...

  11. Comparison of the critical shoulder angle in radiographs and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaicha, Samy [University of British Columbia, Divison of Arthroscopic, Reconstructive Surgery and Joint Preservation, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver (Canada); Zurich University Hospital, Division of Trauma, Zurich (Switzerland); Ehrmann, Christine [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Slankamenac, Ksenija [Zurich University Hospital, Division of Trauma, Zurich (Switzerland); Regan, William D. [University of British Columbia, Divison of Arthroscopic, Reconstructive Surgery and Joint Preservation, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver (Canada); Moor, Beat K. [Insel University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    The critical shoulder angle (CSA) is an indicator of degenerative shoulder pathologies. CSAs above 35 are associated with degenerative rotator cuff disease, whereas values below 30 are common in osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. Measurements are usually performed on radiographs; however, no data have been reported regarding the reliability of CT scan measurements between different readers or the reproducibility of measurements from radiographs to CT scans. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether CSA measurements on radiographs and CT scans of the same patients show similar values. CSA measurements of 60 shoulders (59 patients) were performed on radiographs and multiplanar reconstructions of corresponding CT scans. Inter-reader reliability and inter-method correlation were calculated. The mean discrepancy between readers was only 0.2 (SD ±1.0 ) on radiographs. CT scan measurements showed a mean discrepancy of 0.3 (SD ±1.2 ). The inter-reader reliability was 0.993 for radiographs and 0.989 for CT scans. There was a very strong inter-method correlation between the CSA measured on radiographs and CT scans (Spearman's rho = 0.974). The mean differences between angles on radiographs and CT measurements were -0.05 (SD ±1.2 ) and 0.1 (SD ±1.2 ), respectively. Measurements of the CSA on anterior-posterior radiographs and CT scans are highly correlated, and inter-modality differences are negligible. (orig.)

  12. Radiologic evaluation of the maxillary natural pathologic conditions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prk, Tae Won; Choi, Soon Chul

    1992-01-01

    The authors evaluated the distribution of the antral pathologic conditions and their radiographic features on the Waters' radiographs of 151 children patients who had been radiographed at the department of Oral Radiology, Seoul National University Hospitals. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The most common pathologic condition was inflammatory change (58%). Percentage of cases showing cystic lesion and fibro-osseous lesion were 25% and 11% respectively. 2. In cases of inflammatory change, odontogenic origins were 12 cases (13%) and bilateral occurrences were 37 cases (39%). 3. The most common radiographic feature of the inflammatory conditions was various types of mucosal thickening (78%). Percentage of cases showing totally increased radiopacity was 18%. 4. Intrinsic cystic lesions were 26 cases (65%) and dentigerous cyst was the most common extrinsic cyst. 5. Most of the fibro-osseous lesions (15 from 17 cases) were fobrous dysplasea. 6. Maxillary sinus hypoplasia (5 cases) and Burkitt's lymphoma (4 cases) were also observed.

  13. Radiologic evaluation of the maxillary natural pathologic conditions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prk, Tae Won; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    The authors evaluated the distribution of the antral pathologic conditions and their radiographic features on the Waters' radiographs of 151 children patients who had been radiographed at the department of Oral Radiology, Seoul National University Hospitals. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The most common pathologic condition was inflammatory change (58%). Percentage of cases showing cystic lesion and fibro-osseous lesion were 25% and 11% respectively. 2. In cases of inflammatory change, odontogenic origins were 12 cases (13%) and bilateral occurrences were 37 cases (39%). 3. The most common radiographic feature of the inflammatory conditions was various types of mucosal thickening (78%). Percentage of cases showing totally increased radiopacity was 18%. 4. Intrinsic cystic lesions were 26 cases (65%) and dentigerous cyst was the most common extrinsic cyst. 5. Most of the fibro-osseous lesions (15 from 17 cases) were fobrous dysplasea. 6. Maxillary sinus hypoplasia (5 cases) and Burkitt's lymphoma (4 cases) were also observed.

  14. Malignant vascular lesions of bone: radiologic and pathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, D.E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Wold, L.E. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The malignant vascular tumors of bone represent an uncommon diverse group of tumors with widely variable clinical and radiographic presentations. Although the radiographic imaging features of the lytic osseous lesions typically seen with this group of tumors are relatively nonspecific, the propensity to develop multifocal disease in an anatomic region is a feature that can be helpful in suggesting the diagnosis of a vascular tumor. The differential diagnosis varies according to the age of the patient and presence of solitary or multifocal disease. The histologic features are variable and range from tumors with vasoformative features to those that mimic mesenchymal neoplasm or metastatic carcinoma. Familiarity with the radiographic and pathologic spectrum of disease is essential for making an accurate diagnosis in this diverse group of neoplasms. This paper will provide a review of the nomenclature for the malignant vascular tumors of bone and discuss the radiographic and pathologic differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Radiographic film cassette unloading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievenart, E.F.; Plessers, H.S.; Neujens, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for unloading cassettes, containing exposed radiographic films, has means for unfastening the cassettes, an inclined pathway for gravity feeding and rotating feed members (rollers or belts) to propel the films into the processor. (UK)

  16. Microglial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-09-26

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial pathology and its significance during aging and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer dementia (AD). The identification of dystrophic (senescent) microglia has created an ostensible conflict with prior work claiming a role for activated microglia and neuroinflammation during normal aging and in AD, and this has raised a basic question: does the brain's immune system become hyperactive (inflamed) or does it become weakened (senescent) in elderly and demented people, and what is the impact on neuronal function and cognition? Here we strive to reconcile these seemingly contradictory notions by arguing that both low-grade neuroinflammation and microglial senescence are the result of aging-associated free radical injury. Both processes are damaging for microglia as they synergistically exhaust this essential cell population to the point where the brain's immune system is effete and unable to support neuronal function.

  17. Method for taking X radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, G.

    1983-01-01

    The method is aimed at obtaining X radiographs of any human organ with the aid of an X-ray-shadowless radiation detector of a dose measuring device, which is arranged between patient and imaging system, and of a controlling microprocessor system, so that the image-forming parameters are automatically adjusted to the specific properties of the patient. This procedure minimices the efforts in preparing the radiograph and the radiation exposure of the patient

  18. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.V.; Foster, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is described which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro

  19. The radiographic manifestations of hypochondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heselson, N.G.; Cremin, B.J.; Beighton, P.

    1979-01-01

    Hypochrondroplasia is an inherited skeletal dysplasia that resembles achondroplasia in mild degree. Radiographic manifestations encountered in 12 affected individuals in South Africa include slight shortening of all segments of the tubular bones, moderate caudal diminution of the lumbar interpedicular distances, increased lumbar lordosis with cacral tilt and distal prolongation of the fibular. Hypochondroplasia can be distinguished from other osteochondrodystrophies such as achondroplasia, pseudo-achondroplasia and metaphyseal chondroplasia by the recognition of it clinical and radiographic manifestations. (author)

  20. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  1. Dentigerous Cystic Changes in the Follicles Associated with Radiographically Normal Impacted Mandibular Third Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Dongol; Alok Sagtani; Mehul Rajesh Jaisani; Arpita Singh; Ashish Shrestha; Anju Pradhan; Pradeep Acharya; Anjani Kumar Yadav; Ram Prasad Yadav; Arun Kumar Mahat; Iccha Kumar Maharjan; Leeza Pradhan

    2018-01-01

    Objective. To assess the incidence of dentigerous cystic changes in the follicles of radiographically normal impacted mandibular third molars. Methods. One hundred and thirteen follicles obtained after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars with radiolucency of less than 2.5 mm in the radiograph were sent for histopathologic evaluation to evaluate pathologic changes. Results. The incidence of dentigerous cystic changes observed was 15.9%, that is, 18 out of 113 patients (51 male...

  2. Assessment of airway compression on chest radiographs in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter-Joubert, Lisel; Andronikou, Savvas; Workman, Lesley; Zar, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Because small, pliable paediatric airways are easily compressed by enlarged lymph nodes, detection of radiographic airway compression might be an objective criterion for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. To investigate the frequency and inter-observer agreement of airway compression on chest radiographs in children with pulmonary tuberculosis compared to those with a different lower respiratory tract infection. Chest radiographs of children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were read by two readers according to a standardised format and a third reader when there was disagreement. Radiographs of children with proven pulmonary tuberculosis were compared to those with a different lower respiratory tract infection. We evaluated frequency and location of radiographic airway compression. Findings were correlated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and age. We assessed inter-observer agreement using kappa statistics. We reviewed radiographs of 505 children (median age 25.9 months, interquartile range [IQR] 14.3-62.2). Radiographic airway compression occurred in 54/188 (28.7%) children with proven pulmonary tuberculosis and in 24/317 (7.6%) children with other types of lower respiratory tract infection (odds ratio [OR] 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-8.3). A higher frequency of radiographic airway compression occurred in infants (22/101, or 21.8%) compared to older children (56/404, or 13.9%; OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-3.0). We found no association between airway compression and HIV infection. Inter-observer agreement ranged from none to fair (kappa of 0.0-0.4). There is a strong association between airway compression on chest radiographs and confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. However this finding's clinical use as an objective criterion for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children is limited by poor inter-observer agreement. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of airway compression on chest radiographs in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter-Joubert, Lisel [Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Department of Radiology, Cape Town (South Africa); Andronikou, Savvas [Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Department of Radiology, Cape Town (South Africa); Bristol Royal Hospital for Children and the University of Bristol, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Workman, Lesley; Zar, Heather J. [University of Cape Town, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2017-09-15

    Because small, pliable paediatric airways are easily compressed by enlarged lymph nodes, detection of radiographic airway compression might be an objective criterion for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. To investigate the frequency and inter-observer agreement of airway compression on chest radiographs in children with pulmonary tuberculosis compared to those with a different lower respiratory tract infection. Chest radiographs of children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were read by two readers according to a standardised format and a third reader when there was disagreement. Radiographs of children with proven pulmonary tuberculosis were compared to those with a different lower respiratory tract infection. We evaluated frequency and location of radiographic airway compression. Findings were correlated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and age. We assessed inter-observer agreement using kappa statistics. We reviewed radiographs of 505 children (median age 25.9 months, interquartile range [IQR] 14.3-62.2). Radiographic airway compression occurred in 54/188 (28.7%) children with proven pulmonary tuberculosis and in 24/317 (7.6%) children with other types of lower respiratory tract infection (odds ratio [OR] 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-8.3). A higher frequency of radiographic airway compression occurred in infants (22/101, or 21.8%) compared to older children (56/404, or 13.9%; OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-3.0). We found no association between airway compression and HIV infection. Inter-observer agreement ranged from none to fair (kappa of 0.0-0.4). There is a strong association between airway compression on chest radiographs and confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. However this finding's clinical use as an objective criterion for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children is limited by poor inter-observer agreement. (orig.)

  4. Prolactin deficiency, obesity, and enlarged testes--a new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, A; Assa, S; Kauli, R; Laron, Z

    1980-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy is described who was obese and slightly mentally retarded. His testes were enlarged. The only endocrine disorder present was a failure to increase plasma prolactin after stimulation. Images Figure PMID:7436524

  5. North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Implications Related to Eastward Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaagland, John

    1997-01-01

    ... Truman's Marshall Plan. The study concludes that the main issue as far as Western security is concerned is not a hasty enlargement of NATO but rather how to guarantee peaceful relations between Russia and NATO...

  6. [Pathologic gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespor, K

    1996-01-31

    The author presents a review on pathological gambling. Similarly as in other addictive diseases, early therapeutic intervention is important. The latter may include: 1: Evaluation of the problem 2. Recommendation that the subject should avoid places where the gambling is pursued. He should not have larger financial sums on him. 3. Recommendations pertaining to lifestyle and prevention of excessive stress. 4. Handling of printed material (the author mentions the text issued to his patients). In the paper therapeutic procedures are described, incl. the author's experience such as the foundation of the group of Gamblers anonymous. Prevention is also considered. It is important that gambling should be less readily available and the demand for it should be smaller.

  7. Doorkeepers and Gatecrashers: EU Enlargement and Negotiation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the eastward enlargement process of the EU in the framework of a simple war of attrition bargaining game. Both players -- the existing EU members and the applicants -- benefit from enlargement, yet for the applicants, reform to the acquis is costly, while the EU prefers subst...... the benefits for new members are all effective negotiation strategies for the EU that have been applied in the process....

  8. Reversible enlargement of the hypophysis in clinically latent hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemichen, C.

    1982-12-01

    A case is reported, in which the combination of high TT/sub 3/- and FT/sub 4/ plasma levels, increased TSH basal secretion and enlargement of the pituitary gland did not reflect secondary hyperthyroidism, but was cuased by clinically latent hypothyroidism, probably due to thyroid hormone antibodies. High doses of thyroid hormones lowered the TSH and prolactin basal secretion, and reduced the enlargement of the pituitary gland.

  9. Reversible enlargement of the hypophysis in clinically latent hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuemichen, C.

    1982-01-01

    A case is reported, in which the combination of high TT 3 - and FT 4 plasma levels, increased TSH basal secretion and enlargement of the pituitary gland did not reflect secondary hyperthyroidism, but was cuased by clinically latent hypothyroidism, probably due to thyroid hormone antibodies. High doses of thyroid hormones lowered the TSH and prolactin basal secretion, and reduced the enlargement of the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  10. Calf enlargement associated with neurologic disease: two uncommon cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, S C; Honet, J C

    1988-01-01

    Muscle enlargement and hypertrophy are rare findings in neurogenic lesions. The two in combination have been reported in cases of peripheral nerve lesions, polyneuropathy, and poliomyelitis. True and pseudo muscle hypertrophy are the two possible etiologies, whereas infiltration, stretch, or exercise of the muscle are the causative factors. We report two cases of unilateral calf enlargement, one occurring after surgery for S1 radiculopathy with associated cramping, and the other after poliomyelitis.

  11. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  12. The performance of a centrifugal fan with enlarged impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunxi; Song Lingwang; Jia Yakui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The influence of impeller enlargement is evaluated numerically and experimentally. → Variation equations of the operation points for enlarged impellers are derived. → Impeller enlargement leads to louder fan noise due to reduced impeller-volute gap. - Abstract: The influence of enlarged impeller in unchanged volute on G4-73 type centrifugal fan performance is investigated in this paper. Comparisons are conducted between the fan with original impeller and two larger impellers with the increments in impeller outlet diameter of 5% and 10% respectively in the numerical and experimental investigations. The internal characteristics are obtained by the numerical simulation, which indicate there is more volute loss in the fan with larger impeller. Experiment results show that the flow rate, total pressure rise, shaft power and sound pressure level have increased, while the efficiency have decreased when the fan operates with larger impeller. Variation equations on the performance of the operation points for the fan with enlarged impellers are suggested. Comparisons between experiment results and the trimming laws show that the trimming laws for usual situation can predict the performance of the enlarged fan impeller with less error for higher flow rate, although the situation of application is not in agreement. The noise frequency analysis shows that higher noise level with the larger impeller fan is caused by the reduced impeller-volute gap.

  13. The performance of a centrifugal fan with enlarged impeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chunxi, E-mail: leechunxi@163.com [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 071003 Baoding, Hebei (China); Song Lingwang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 071003 Baoding, Hebei (China); Jia Yakui [Hebei Electric Power Design and Research Institute, 050031 Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The influence of impeller enlargement is evaluated numerically and experimentally. {yields} Variation equations of the operation points for enlarged impellers are derived. {yields} Impeller enlargement leads to louder fan noise due to reduced impeller-volute gap. - Abstract: The influence of enlarged impeller in unchanged volute on G4-73 type centrifugal fan performance is investigated in this paper. Comparisons are conducted between the fan with original impeller and two larger impellers with the increments in impeller outlet diameter of 5% and 10% respectively in the numerical and experimental investigations. The internal characteristics are obtained by the numerical simulation, which indicate there is more volute loss in the fan with larger impeller. Experiment results show that the flow rate, total pressure rise, shaft power and sound pressure level have increased, while the efficiency have decreased when the fan operates with larger impeller. Variation equations on the performance of the operation points for the fan with enlarged impellers are suggested. Comparisons between experiment results and the trimming laws show that the trimming laws for usual situation can predict the performance of the enlarged fan impeller with less error for higher flow rate, although the situation of application is not in agreement. The noise frequency analysis shows that higher noise level with the larger impeller fan is caused by the reduced impeller-volute gap.

  14. Use of Macrolane VRF 30 in emicircumferential penis enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sito, Giuseppe; Marlino, Sergio; Santorelli, Adriano

    2013-02-01

    Penis enlargement is increasingly in demand. Methods for penis enlargement can be classified into surgical, nonsurgical (filling), and mechanical. Each method has shown only relatively successful results. A new formulation of injectable, stabilized, hyaluronic acid (HA)-based, nonanimal gel is available that may have applications for this use. The authors propose a new technique for emicircumferential-injection filling of the penis and assess the safety and efficacy of this procedure compared with lipofilling. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 83 patients who underwent penis enlargement with either their HA-injection technique or lipofilling between December 2007 and July 2011. Safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction were assessed. The circumferential enlargement obtained from both techniques ranged from 3.2 to 4.5 cm, with a decrement during erection. In all patients, the increase in penis length ranged from 1.8 to 3.6 cm. No complications were seen in patients treated with HA, whereas 8 patients treated with lipofilling developed granuloma, and another experienced fat necrosis. The vast majority (n = 72) of patients reported being "very satisfied" with the results. The ideal technique for penis enlargement should be nonsurgical, with a satisfactory and predictable result, a low rate of complications, and long-term stability. Emicircumferential enlargement with HA filler meets these requirements. However, results have been durable but not definitive, and repeated treatment (with associated costs) is necessary.

  15. Radiographic examination of the equine head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic examinations of the equine head can be performed with portable x-ray machines. The views comprising the examination depend on the area of the head being examined. With a knowledge of radiographic anatomy and radiographic signs of disease, valuable diagnostic information can be obtained from the radiographic examination. In addition, the radiographic information can also be used to develop a prognosis and determine the most appropriate therapy

  16. Radiographic testing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Radiographic testing is a nondestructive inspection technique which uses penetrating radiation. The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Section at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a broad spectrum of equipment and techniques for radiographic testing. These resources include low-energy vacuum systems, low- and mid-energy cabinet and cell radiographic systems, high-energy linear accelerators, portable x-ray machines and radioisotopes for radiographic inspections. For diagnostic testing the NDE Section also has real-time and flash radiographic equipment

  17. Reproductive health of male radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhatreh, Farouk M.

    2001-01-01

    To compare certain reproductive health problems reported in 2 groups of males, one of which was exposed to x-ray radiation (radiographers) and the other group that was not exposed to x-ray radiation. The reproductive health problems were miscarriage, congenital anomalies, still births and infertility. Two groups of men were selected (90 in each group). The first group consisted of radiographers and the other groups consisted of men not exposed to x-ray radiation. The 2 groups were matched for age and source. Relative risk, attributable risk percentage and level of significance were calculated. Incidence rate of reproductive health problems was increasing with the increase in duration of exposure to x-ray radiation ranging between 17% (for those exposed for 1-5 years) to 91% (for those exposed for more than 15 years). There were significant associations between exposure to radiation and miscarriage (relative risk = 1.67, attributable risk percentage = 40%), congenital anomalies (relative risk = 10, attributable risk percentage 90%), still birth (relative risk = 7, attributable risk percentage = 86%), and infertility (relative risk = 4.5, attributable risk = 78%). The incidence rates of reproductive health problems reported by male radiographers were significantly higher than that reported by the non exposed group and higher than the incidence rates reported in community-based studies in Jordan. The incidence rates of fetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth together) and infertility reported by our radiographers were higher than had been reported by the British radiographers. An immediate plan of action is needed to protect our radiographers. Further studies are needed in this field taking into account all extraneous variables that may affect the reproductive health of radiographers. (author)

  18. A radiographic study of mental foramen in intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Choi, Karp Shik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in periapical radiographs. For this study, periapical radiographs of premolar areas were obtained from the 200 adults. Accordingly, the positional and shape changes of mental foramen were evaluated. The authors obtained radiographs according to changes in radiation beam direction in periapical radiographs of premolar areas, and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained: 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (34.3%), round or oval (28.0%), unidentified (25.5%) and diffuse (12.2%) type in descending order of frequency. 2, Horizontal positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (55.3%), the area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (39.6%), the area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (3.4%), the 1st premolar area (1.0%), the area between the canine and 1st premolar (0.7%) in descending order of frequency. 3. Vertical positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the inferior to apex (67.1%), and at apex (24.8%), overlap with apex (6.4%), superior to apex (1.7%) in descending order of frequency. 4. Shapes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the upward 10 degree positioned periapical radiographs. And according to the changes of horizontal and vertical position, they were observed similar to normally positioned periapical radiographs.

  19. Attitudes of radiographers to radiographer-led discharge: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, Laura; Cosson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional role of the Diagnostic Radiographer in image acquisition has gradually been extended through skill-mix, particularly to include abnormality detection. Aims: This research focused on the attitudes of Radiographers to Radiographer-led Discharge (RLD), where Radiographers discharge patients with minor injuries and perform tasks previously undertaken by Accident and Emergency staff. The effects of job role, hospital type, experience and whether RLD was used in the participant's trust were examined. Method: A multiple-indicator online questionnaire assessed attitudes to RLD. Snowball sampling was used with advertisement via emails, posters and cards, containing Quick Response (QR) codes. Statement responses were coded, with reverse coding for negative statements and total scores were calculated. A higher score represented a more positive attitude. Results: 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate) and the mean total score was 84/115. 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement in abnormality detection, with 46.5% selecting RLD as the preferred system for minor injuries patients vs 48.5% preferring commenting alone. Discussion: Participants were positive about extending their role through RLD and felt confident in their image interpretation abilities, though expressed concern for the legal consequences of the role and adequate pay. Generalization of the results is limited due to the possible low response rate. Conclusion: Overall, participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards RLD but they also indicate the need for appropriate payment for any additional responsibility. These findings are promising for successful implementation of RLD, though larger-scale research including radiologists, business managers, A and E staff and patients would be beneficial. - Highlights: • 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate). • 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement

  20. Associations between thoracic radiographic changes and severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension diagnosed in 60 dogs via Doppler echocardiography: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dustin S; Marolf, Angela J; Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro; Randall, Elissa K; Bachand, Annette M

    2017-07-01

    Doppler echocardiography is a noninvasive method for estimating and grading pulmonary arterial hypertension. No current literature associates significance of radiographic findings with severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that the number and conspicuity of radiographic findings suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension would be greater based on the severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Dogs with pulmonary arterial hypertension and normal control dogs were included in this retrospective, case control study. Three radiologists blinded to echocardiographic results scored thoracic radiographs for right ventricular and main pulmonary artery enlargement and pulmonary lobar artery enlargement, tortuosity, and blunting by multiple methods. Presence or absence of each finding was scored in an additive fashion and averaged for each grade of pulmonary arterial hypertension severity. Seventy-one dogs (60 dogs with pulmonary arterial hypertension and 11 control dogs) of which some had multiple studies were included: 20 mild, 21 moderate, 25 severe, and 11 absent pulmonary arterial hypertension. The following radiographic findings were significantly associated with increasing pulmonary arterial hypertension severity: right ventricular enlargement by "reverse D" and "3/5-2/5 cardiac ratio" methods, main pulmonary artery enlargement, and caudal lobar artery enlargement by the "3rd rib" method. Mean scores for severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and normal dogs were significantly different (P-value < 0.0001). Mean scores between different pulmonary arterial hypertension grades increased with severity but were not statistically significant. Individually and in combination, radiographic findings performed poorly in differentiating severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Findings indicated that thoracic radiographs should be utilized in conjunction with Doppler echocardiography in a complete diagnostic work-up for dogs with suspected

  1. A Pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids.

  2. Predicting pathology in impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveek Mukherji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rising incidence of the impacted mandibular third molars and their association with pathologies is now considered a public health problem. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the position of impacted mandibular third molars that are prone to developing pathologies and to determine the frequency and type of pathological conditions associated with these impacted teeth to facilitate planning for their prophylactic removal. Materials and Methods: Consecutive panoramic radiographs and clinical examination of 300 patients with impacted mandibular third molars were collected. They were segregated according to Pell and Gregory’s classification, Winter’s classification, and according to their state of eruption. These were correlated with associated pathologies based on clinical and radiological criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included computation of percentages, mean, and standard deviations. The statistical test applied for the analysis was Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2. For this test, confidence interval and P value were set at 93% and ≤0.03, respectively. Results: The pathology most commonly associated with impacted third molars was pericoronitis, which had the highest frequency of occurrence in partially erupted, distoangular, and IA positioned (as per Pell and Gregory classification impacted teeth. Impacted mandibular third molars, which were in IA position, placed mesially, and partially erupted, were prone to develop pathologies such as dental caries and periodontitis. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographical features of impacted third molar may be correlated to the development of their pathological complications. The partially impacted mandibular third molars with mesioangularly aligned in IA position have the highest potential to cause pathological complications.

  3. Radiographers' performance in chest X-ray interpretation: the Nigerian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, N O; Akpan, B E

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the performance of Nigerian radiographers in interpretation of plain chest radiographs and to assess whether age, years since qualification and sector of practice are associated with performance. Methods: A test set of 50 radiographs containing 23 cases with no pathology (normal) and 27 abnormal cases (cardiopulmonary conditions) independently confirmed by 3 radiologists were presented to 51 radiographers in a random order. Readers independently evaluated radiographs for absence or presence of disease and stated the location, radiographic features and diagnosis. Readers self-reported their age, years since qualification and sector of practice. Receiver operating characteristic was used to assess the performance. Mann–Whitney U test was used to assess whether age, years since qualification and sector of practice were associated with performance. Results: Mean location sensitivity was 88.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.787–0.980]. Mean sensitivity and specificity were 76.9 (95% CI, 0.658–0.864) and 79.8 (95% CI, 0.658–0.864), respectively. Age was not associated with performance (p = 0.07). Number of years qualified as radiographer (p = 0.005) and private practice (p = 0.004) were positively associated with performance. Conclusion: Nigerian radiographers can correctly report chest radiographs to a reasonable standard, and performance is associated with number of years since qualification and the sector of practice. Advances in knowledge: There are less than 300 radiologists serving a Nigerian population of about 170 million; therefore, X-ray interpretation by radiographers deserves consideration. Nigerian radiographers have potential to interpret chest X-ray in the clinical setting, and this may significantly improve radiology service delivery in this region. PMID:25966290

  4. New view on the initial development site and radiographic classification system of osteoarthritis of the knee based on radiographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ki-Ho

    2012-12-01

    Radiographic pathology of severe osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) such as severe osteophyte at tibial spine (TS), compartment narrowing, marginal osteophyte, and subchondral sclerosis is well known. Kellgren-Lawrence grading system, which is widely used to diagnose OAK, describes narrowing-marginal osteophyte in 4-grades but uses osteophyte at TS only as evidence of OAK without detailed-grading. However, kinematically the knee employs medial TS as an axis while medial and lateral compartments carry the load, suggesting that early OAK would occur sooner at TS than at compartment. Then, Kellgren-Lawrence system may be inadequate to diagnose early-stage OAK manifested as a subtle osteophyte at TS without narrowing-marginal osteophyte. This undiagnosed-OAK will deteriorate becoming a contributing factor in an increasing incidence of OAK. This study developed a radiographic OAK-marker based on both osteophyte at TS and compartment narrowing-marginal osteophyte and graded as normal, mild, moderate, and severe. With this marker, both knee radiographs of 1,728 patients with knee pain were analyzed. Among 611 early-stage mild OAK, 562 or 92% started at TS and 49 or 8% at compartment. It suggests the initial development site of OAK, helping develop new site-specific radiographic classification system of OAK accurately to diagnose all severity of OAK at early, intermediate, or late-stage. It showed that Kellgren-Lawrence system missed 92.0% of early-stage mild OAK from diagnosis. A subtle osteophyte at TS is the earliest radiographic sign of OAK. A new radiographic classification system of OAK was suggested for accurate diagnosis of all OAK in severity and at stage.

  5. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  6. Interpretation and evaluation of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After digestion, the interpreter must interpreted and evaluate the image on film, usually many radiograph stuck in this step, if there is good density, so there are no problem. This is a final stage of radiography work and this work must be done by level two or three radiographer. This is a final stages before the radiographer give a result to their customer for further action. The good interpreter must know what kind of artifact, is this artifact are dangerous or not and others. In this chapter, the entire artifact that usually showed will be discussed briefly with the good illustration and picture to make the reader understand and know the type of artifact that exists.

  7. Industrial radiography on radiographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    An investigation was performed to compare the quality of radiographic paper with that of X-ray film, after a review had been made of the rather scarce literature on the subject. The equipment used throughout the investigation is described, and characteristic curves for Agfa-Gevaert and Kodak papers exposed with different intensifying screens in the low and intermediate voltage range are reproduced. The relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed from these curves. The quality of the radiographic image was checked on U/Al blocks and plates, Al and Fe blocks, and fiber-reinforced composites. Exposure charts for Al and Fe were made for various paper and screen combinations. Both the sharpness of the radiographic image as well as the influence of processing on speed and contrast were checked. Examples are given of the practical application of the paper for radiography of castings, weldings, solderings, assemblies, etc. (author)

  8. Digital image analysis of NDT radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeme, W.A. Jr.; Eizember, A.C.; Douglass, J.

    1989-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detectors the majority of image analysis performed on NDT radiographic images was done visually in the analog domain. While some film digitization was being performed, the process was often unable to capture all the usable information on the radiograph or was too time consuming. CCD technology now provides a method to digitize radiographic film images without losing the useful information captured in the original radiograph in a timely process. Incorporating that technology into a complete digital radiographic workstation allows analog radiographic information to be processed, providing additional information to the radiographer. Once in the digital domain, that data can be stored, and fused with radioscopic and other forms of digital data. The result is more productive analysis and management of radiographic inspection data. The principal function of the NDT Scan IV digital radiography system is the digitization, enhancement and storage of radiographic images

  9. PACS influence the radiographer's work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridell, Kent; Aspelin, Peter; Edgren, Lars; Lindskoeld, Lars; Lundberg, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Radiological departments are changing rapidly due to the implementation of digital images and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems). The introduction of new technology seems to dissolve boundaries between the professions in the work environment where the technology is introduced. This process tends to change the organization and its routines. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore changes in radiographers' work with regard to skills, work practice and technology. The study used open-ended interviews to explore the radiographers' perceptions of such changes, and to identify problems and solutions pertaining to work practice. Inspiration is taken from grounded theory to explain the changes in work that were found. Respondents were selected from a total of 133 potential participants as a theoretical or purposive sample. The changing trends within the professional role indicated that radiographers, as image producers, shifted their focus from the ability to set the optimal exposure parameters in order to obtain the optimal image for diagnosis to become expert in exposure parameters, projection techniques and diagnostic practice, having multifaceted skills, as being the jack of all trades. When implementing PACS there was an obvious change in image production. At the start there were visions of new routines, and therefore the radiographers became early adopters to the new technology; in practice the organization was stacked in old routines, as the routines were inflexible and PACS work was pushed into old work routines. Although inflexible, this does not mean that they cannot change, and obviously in 2006 new routines had been implemented making it possible for the radiographers in finding new ways for collaborating with colleagues. The new technology immediately created a vision of improved service to the clinicians. In order to optimize the service the radiographers developed an insight into the need for a more comprehensive change in work using

  10. Nontumorous enlargement of the internal auditory canal. A risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss? A high resolution CT-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmer, H.; Rummeny, E.J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Niedermeyer, H.P. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). ENT-Clinic; Kehl, V. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology

    2015-06-15

    First aim of the study was to define normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal (IAC). In the second part the clinical relevance of IAC-enlargement was analyzed, considering also lesions of the subtle structures at the fundus of the internal auditory canal. 440 high resolution CT-scans of the temporal bone were used for retrospective analysis of the internal auditory canal and its fundus region. The mean value of the IAC diameter in axial and coronal plane was determined. In 20 of 440 patients IAC enlargement was found. In the group with pronounced enlargement (3fold SD) nearly all patients suffered from hearing impairment. In some of them we found structural abnormalities near the IAC fundus in the CSF/perilymph border zone. A new CT-based definition of normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal is presented. There is some evidence that a pathologic transmission of CSF-pressure in case of IAC-enlargement and/or abnormal fistulous communications could play an important role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss.

  11. Surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement - a case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.U.; Nazir, A.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore; Kiran, S.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore

    2014-01-01

    Generalized gingival enlargement is characterized by massive and exuberant gingival overgrowth that poses social, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems for the patient. Therefore, it requires meticulous management. Objective: To describe the surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement by electrosurgical excision of patients presenting to a tertiary care centre. Study Design: Case series. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore, from January 2010 to December 2012. A total of sixteen patients were operated by using electrosurgical approach under general anaesthesia for surgical excision of generalized gingival enlargement. Results: All of the sixteen patients, 11 males and 5 females, showed excellent healing postoperatively without any recurrent gingival overgrowth. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, the current study presents the largest case series of generalized gingival enlargement. Most of these cases were with massive disease due to lack of information of the study population about their disease, delay in referral by the general dental practitioners, painless and innocent nature of the problem. Early referral of such patients to tertiary care centers can prevent the patients from social and psychological embarrassment. Conclusion: Electrosurgical excision is an excellent surgical technique for management of generalized gingival enlargement. Moreover, cross comparative studies are required to establish some diagnostic and therapeutic standards for such patients. (author)

  12. Spinal perimedullary vein enlargement sign: an added value for the differentiation between intradural-extramedullary and intramedullary tumors on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Fei; Chen, Xin; Liu, Yubo; Yang, Li; Chen, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the added value of the perimedullary spinal vein enlargement sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in distinguishing intradural-extramedullary tumors (IDEMTs) from intramedullary spinal tumors (IMTs). Two hundred and eight consecutive spinal intradural tumors with histopathologic confirmation (21 IMTs, 187 IDEMTs) were enrolled. Two readers blinded to the final pathological diagnosis and clinical data independently assessed the venous enlargement sign to determine the agreement between them and jointly distinguished IDEMTs from IMTs according to the common MRI findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of IDEMTs were calculated for the common MRI findings, vein enlargement sign, and a combination of both. Intraobserver agreement and interobserver agreement for both readers was excellent. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of common MRI findings for differentiating IDEMTs from IMTs were 83.4, 95.2, and 89.3 %, respectively. Thirty-one IDEMTs were mistakenly diagnosed as IMTs, in which seven were cases with vein enlargement signs. By applying the vein enlargement sign to the common MRI findings, the specificity remained at 95.2 %, while the sensitivity improved to 89.3 % and the accuracy increased to 92.3 %. The spinal perimedullary vein enlargement sign is useful in assessing intradural tumors and to differentiate IDEMTs from IMTs. (orig.)

  13. Spinal perimedullary vein enlargement sign: an added value for the differentiation between intradural-extramedullary and intramedullary tumors on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Fei; Chen, Xin [Shandong University, Department of Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan (China); Liu, Yubo [Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Jinan (China); Yang, Li [Zhongshan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Chen, Weibo [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the added value of the perimedullary spinal vein enlargement sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in distinguishing intradural-extramedullary tumors (IDEMTs) from intramedullary spinal tumors (IMTs). Two hundred and eight consecutive spinal intradural tumors with histopathologic confirmation (21 IMTs, 187 IDEMTs) were enrolled. Two readers blinded to the final pathological diagnosis and clinical data independently assessed the venous enlargement sign to determine the agreement between them and jointly distinguished IDEMTs from IMTs according to the common MRI findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of IDEMTs were calculated for the common MRI findings, vein enlargement sign, and a combination of both. Intraobserver agreement and interobserver agreement for both readers was excellent. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of common MRI findings for differentiating IDEMTs from IMTs were 83.4, 95.2, and 89.3 %, respectively. Thirty-one IDEMTs were mistakenly diagnosed as IMTs, in which seven were cases with vein enlargement signs. By applying the vein enlargement sign to the common MRI findings, the specificity remained at 95.2 %, while the sensitivity improved to 89.3 % and the accuracy increased to 92.3 %. The spinal perimedullary vein enlargement sign is useful in assessing intradural tumors and to differentiate IDEMTs from IMTs. (orig.)

  14. Peculiar enlargement of the nasopharynx in patients with anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.; Ito, J.; Tokiguchi, S.; Kuwabara, G.; Nishihara, M.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the nasopharynx and brain in 17 patients with anorexia nervosa by CT and compared the findings with those of 44 normal subjects and of 5 patients of the same age with marked emaciation caused by various psychiatric disorders. An enlarged nasopharyngeal space with a flattened posterior wall and enlarged lateral pharyngeal recesses were demonstrated in all patients with anorexia nervosa whose weight was lowest at the time of the CT examination, and these CT features regressed or became normal quickly after they had gained some weight. This characteristic enlargement of the nasopharynx and lateral pharyngeal recesses was observed neither in the markedly emaciated patients (2 with schizophrenia, 1 with major depression, 1 with stupor and the other with an extremely unbalanced diet) nor in 44 normal subjects without emaciation. These features were therefore thought to be characteristic and of diagnostic significance. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. The prevalence of incidentally detected adrenal enlargement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.Z.; Bharwani, N.; Micco, M.; Akker, S.; Rockall, A.G.; Sahdev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and the department's detection rate of adrenocortical hyperplasia. Materials and methods: All computed tomography (CT) examinations of the adrenal glands between February and April 2011 were reviewed. The study excluded patients with known underlying cancer, abdominal trauma, or endocrine disease. The adrenal gland was deemed enlarged if its body was greater than 10 mm diameter, or a limb greater than 5 mm. Results: There were a total of 564 eligible CT studies during this period. A total of 64 cases of incidental adrenal enlargement were found giving a prevalence of 11.3%. Only nine cases were reported in the contemporaneous CT report. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that incidental adrenal enlargement has a significant prevalence. It is often dismissed during reporting, and awareness needs to be raised in the radiological community. Equally, the clinical and biochemical significance needs to be assessed with endocrine correlation

  16. Peculiar enlargement of the nasopharynx in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K. [Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Niigata Univ. (Japan); Ito, J. [Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Niigata Univ. (Japan); Tokiguchi, S. [Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Niigata Univ. (Japan); Kuwabara, G. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Nishihara, M. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    We examined the nasopharynx and brain in 17 patients with anorexia nervosa by CT and compared the findings with those of 44 normal subjects and of 5 patients of the same age with marked emaciation caused by various psychiatric disorders. An enlarged nasopharyngeal space with a flattened posterior wall and enlarged lateral pharyngeal recesses were demonstrated in all patients with anorexia nervosa whose weight was lowest at the time of the CT examination, and these CT features regressed or became normal quickly after they had gained some weight. This characteristic enlargement of the nasopharynx and lateral pharyngeal recesses was observed neither in the markedly emaciated patients (2 with schizophrenia, 1 with major depression, 1 with stupor and the other with an extremely unbalanced diet) nor in 44 normal subjects without emaciation. These features were therefore thought to be characteristic and of diagnostic significance. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yasutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Hoshi, Eishin; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Koyama, Shinichiro; Colby, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF), recently identified as a smoking related change. • Investigation was in 35 smokers. • They underwent lobectomy for lung cancer with pathological confirmation of AEF. • Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of AEF. - Abstract: Purpose: Airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF) has been identified pathologically as a smoking related change. We sought to identify the HRCT findings of AEF and search for distinguishing features from honeycombing. Materials and methods: 50 patients (47 males; mean age 69) were evaluated. All had undergone lobectomy for lung cancer and had confirmed AEF and/or usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) by pathological evaluation. HRCT findings were first evaluated preresection for resected lobes, and then correlated with the subsequent pathological findings in the resection specimens. Three groups were devised: one with AEF alone to determine the HRCT findings of AEF, a second with AEF and UIP and third with UIP alone. HRCT features of AEF and honeycombing were compared. Results: There were 11 patients (10 male; mean age 69) with AEF alone, 24 patients (22 male; mean age 69) with AEF and UIP, and 15 patients (15 male; mean age 68) with UIP alone. The HRCT on the AEF alone showed subpleural (but not abutting the pleura) multiple thin-walled cysts (MTWCs) in 7 and reticular opacities in 3. The HRCT in AEF and UIP showed MTWCs in 10, reticular opacities in 17; and honeycombing in 5. Among these 35 patients with the pathological finding of AEF (with or without UIP), 17 showed MTWCs. The maximum cyst wall thickness of MTWCs (mean 0.81 mm) was significantly thinner than that of honeycombing (mean 1.56 mm). MTWCs did not locate in lung base and was distant from the pleura. HRCT findings correlated with gross findings on both cysts and honeycombing. No MTWCs were seen in the 15 patients with UIP, 8 of 15 had

  18. Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yasutaka, E-mail: yasuyasu@omiya.jichi.ac.jp [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Kawabata, Yoshinori [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kanauchi, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Hoshi, Eishin [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kurashima, Kazuyoshi [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Koyama, Shinichiro [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF), recently identified as a smoking related change. • Investigation was in 35 smokers. • They underwent lobectomy for lung cancer with pathological confirmation of AEF. • Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of AEF. - Abstract: Purpose: Airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF) has been identified pathologically as a smoking related change. We sought to identify the HRCT findings of AEF and search for distinguishing features from honeycombing. Materials and methods: 50 patients (47 males; mean age 69) were evaluated. All had undergone lobectomy for lung cancer and had confirmed AEF and/or usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) by pathological evaluation. HRCT findings were first evaluated preresection for resected lobes, and then correlated with the subsequent pathological findings in the resection specimens. Three groups were devised: one with AEF alone to determine the HRCT findings of AEF, a second with AEF and UIP and third with UIP alone. HRCT features of AEF and honeycombing were compared. Results: There were 11 patients (10 male; mean age 69) with AEF alone, 24 patients (22 male; mean age 69) with AEF and UIP, and 15 patients (15 male; mean age 68) with UIP alone. The HRCT on the AEF alone showed subpleural (but not abutting the pleura) multiple thin-walled cysts (MTWCs) in 7 and reticular opacities in 3. The HRCT in AEF and UIP showed MTWCs in 10, reticular opacities in 17; and honeycombing in 5. Among these 35 patients with the pathological finding of AEF (with or without UIP), 17 showed MTWCs. The maximum cyst wall thickness of MTWCs (mean 0.81 mm) was significantly thinner than that of honeycombing (mean 1.56 mm). MTWCs did not locate in lung base and was distant from the pleura. HRCT findings correlated with gross findings on both cysts and honeycombing. No MTWCs were seen in the 15 patients with UIP, 8 of 15 had

  19. Radiographic testing in concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D. de

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic testing done in concrete structures is used to analyse the homogeneity, position and corrosion of armatures and to detect discontinuity in the concrete such as: gaps, cracks and segregations. This work develops a Image quality Indicator (IQI) with an adequated sensibility to detect discontinuites based on BS4408 norm. (E.G.) [pt

  20. The radiographic findings in diagnosis of pulmonary lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Wang Li; Yan Hongzhen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the radiographic findings in the diagnosis of pulmonary lymphoma and pseudo lymphoma. Methods: Eight patients with pulmonary lymphoma and 2 with pseudo lymphoma were examined by X-ray film, tomography, and CT. Results: Single or multiple nodules or masses were observed in 8 patients with pulmonary lymphoma, shaggy borders or halo of ground-glass attenuation in 7 patients, 2 patients had multiple patchy infiltrates bilaterally, 2 had diffuse interstitial infiltrates and 1 had miliary nodules. Multiple consolidations with air bronchogram and without hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were observed in 2 patients with pulmonary pseudo lymphoma. Conclusion: Radiographic findings of pulmonary lymphoma were varied, the most common findings were the nodules or masses with shaggy borders or halo of ground-glass attenuation. The specific findings of pulmonary pseudo lymphoma were multiple consolidations with air bronchogram and without hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The final diagnosis relied on pathology

  1. The radiographic findings of lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Li Liping; Yan Hongzhen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the radiographic findings of lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung. Methods: Twenty-five patients with lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung were examined by X-ray film, tomography, and CT. Results: Multiple and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were observed in 2 patients with pulmonary pseudolymphoma. Multiple nodules or masses were observed in 4 patients with pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy was observed in each patient with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, 2 patients had multiple nodules or masses, 8 patients had single or multiple patchy infiltrations, 10 had diffuse interstitial infiltrations. 3 patients with Castlemen' disease had a mass in the mediastinum, and another patient had mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: Radiographic findings of lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung are varied, and the final diagnosis relies on pathology

  2. The dilemmas of tax coordination in the enlarged European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Jens; Jensen, Jesper; Svensson, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic effects of corporate tax coordination in the enlarged European Union (EU) using a computable general equilibrium model. Our main findings are as follows: (i) Corporate tax coordination can yield modest aggregate welfare gains. The 2004 enlargement of the EU has...... elaborate compensation mechanisms. (iii) The large and diverse country effects suggest that Enhanced Cooperation for a subset of the Member States may be the most likely route towards tax coordination. (iv) Identifying winners and losers from coordination for the purpose of a compensation mechanism may...

  3. Gingival enlargement unveiling sarcoidosis: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeeha Abbas Kadiwala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is classified as an acquired systemic granulomatous disease. Because of the fact that sarcoidosis affects multiple tissues and organs, it is characterized by many potential signs and symptoms, as well as by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in the organs involved. Although oral sarcoidosis is relatively rare, it may however, present in the oral cavity. This report presents a rare case of sarcoidosis with the initial presenting symptom as severe generalized gingival enlargement. The gingival enlargement was treated by gingivectomy. After histopathological examination of gingival biopsy and certain special investigations, a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made.

  4. Mitral-aortic annular enlargement: modification of Manouguian's technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Mario Gesteira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby present a technical modification for mitral-aortic annular enlargement. The mitral valve is replaced through the retro-septal approach, avoiding patches for left atrial roof closure. We report a mitral-aortic valve replacement in a patient whose original annuli would preclude adequate prostheses. The simultaneous annular enlargement may be necessary for avoiding patient-prosthesis mismatch and for reconstructing destroyed mitral and aortic annuli. The technique may minimize the risk of bleeding and of paravalvular leakage, using an approach well known to cardiac surgeons.

  5. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of radionuclide studies in cases of enlarged prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhvi, S.D.; Shrimali, R.; Singhal, N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present study of radionuclide 131 I hyppuran in 30 positive cases of enlarged prostate and 10 normal subjects has been found effective in giving information about functional status of the kidneys and presence of obstructive unropathy by renography, enlargement of the prostate causing bladder base contour deformity in bladder scan and the presence of residual urine by external counting method over bladder. It is a non-invasive method of investigation and can be undertaken safely in cases sensitive iodine-containing contrast medium. It is also cheap, easy to perform and does not require any pre-examination preparation and can be repeated frequently. (author)

  7. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, and the Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  8. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  9. Correlation between adenoidal nasopharyngeal ratio and symptoms of enlarged adenoids in children with adenoidal hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Olugbemiga Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenoid hypertrophy is one of the most common health problems affecting the paediatric population. This study aims to correlate adenoidal nasopharyngeal ratio (ANR with symptoms of enlarged adenoids in children with enlarged adenoids. Materials and Methods: It was a year, cross-sectional, hospital-based study conducted at Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. ANR was determined by dividing adenoidal depth with nasopharyngeal depth on the plain lateral radiographs. Results: A total of 90 consecutive children consisting of 61 males and 29 females were included in the study with M:F ratio of 2.1:1. Their ages ranged from 8 months to 11 years. All the patients presented with nasal obstruction, mouth breathing and noisy breathing. Majority (64.5% had severe obstructions with preponderance among children of 3-5 years (39.9%. Linear regression analysis showed significant association between age and ANR (t = 10.447, P < 0.001. There was high significant association (P < 0.05 between presenting symptoms and degree of nasopharyngeal airway obstruction; for snoring (r = 0.251, P = 0.000, sleep apnoea (r = 0.594, P = 0.000, nasal discharge (r = 0.314, P = 0.001, excessive daytime sleepiness (r = 0.219, P = 0.019 and failure to thrive (r = 0.240, P = 0.011. Conclusion: Lateral X-ray of the nasopharynx is an effective tool to evaluate children with suspected adenoid hypertrophy. It correlates well with patients′ symptoms and provides objective measures of adenoid hypertrophy.

  10. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  11. Importance of radiographic monitoring of endoscopic sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Shapiro, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic features of endoscopic sphincterotomies performed in 44 patients were evaluated. Radiographic landmarks aided in proper sphincterotome placement and also disclosed conditions and anatomic variations that made catheter placement difficult. Fluoroscopic and radiographic monitoring not only assisted the performance of endoscopic sphincterotomy, but also confirmed successful results and revealed reasons for failure. Radiographic changes in the biliary tract after sphincterotomy, as well as potential complications of sphincterotomy, are discussed and illustrated

  12. [Non-neoplastic enlargement of salivary glands: clinico-histologic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Guevara, Martha Beatriz; Torres Tejero, Marco Antonio; Martínez Mata, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study on non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands at the Oral Histopathology Diagnostic Center of the Autonomous Metropolitan University at Xochimilco (UAM-Xochimilco) in Mexico during a period of 24 years (1979-2003). From 5,625 biopsies received and analyzed, a total of 461 (8.2%) were non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands; for each case, we registered demographic data as well as clinic characteristics. These lesions were characterized as a heterogeneous group of pathologic entities among which we included local, obstructive, infectious, and immunopathologic lesions. The most frequent lesion was the extravasation cyst in 341 (74%) cases, followed by chronic sialoadenitis and Sjögren's syndrome with 54 (11.7%) and 41 (8.8%) cases, respectively, and at a lesser percentage mucous retention cyst, sialosis, benign lymphoepithelial lesions and those related with sialolytes. Females were affected more frequently; mean age was second to third life decades. These lesions were most frequently localized on inferior labial mucosa.

  13. Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia: radiograph and CT features of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hua; Duan Xiaomin; Peng Yun; Zeng Jinjin; Sun Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the imaging features on chest radiograph and CT in children with Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. Methods: The imaging data of chest radiograph and CT in six children with Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay was retrospectively analysis. All patients had chest radiograph at first examination and 4 of them re-examed. One children took CT. Results: All cases showed thick lung markings with varied degrees of pulmonary infiltration and interstitial changes on chest radiograph. Among them, 3 cases showed bilateral pulmonary infiltration and 3 cases showed infiltration in left lung; enlarged hilar was observed in 3 cases. The imaging findings of the pneumonia changed quickly during the follow-up accompanied with the improvement of clinical symptoms. The only one chest CT examination showed bilateral infiltration, multiple ground-glass opacities, small subpleural nodulars, right pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy of lung hila and mediastinum. Conclusions: Chest radiograph and CT revealed certain typical imaging features in the children with influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. However, the final diagnosis of influenza A H1N1 pneumonia still should be made based on epidemiology and laboratory examination. (authors)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic findings of seal finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjelund, S.; Tikkakoski, T.; Isokangas, M.; Raeisaenen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic findings of five patients with seal finger. Material and Methods: The MR images and radiographs of five patients with seal finger were retrospectively evaluated. MRI was performed on four patients in the subacute phase, and follow-up imaging was done on one of them at 5 months. One patient had MRI only at a later stage 5 years after onset. Radiographs were taken three times in the subacute phase and once at a later stage. One patient had had seal finger in another finger previously. Results: Short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence showed extensive subcutaneous soft tissue edema in all four patients in the subacute phase and tenosynovitis of the flexion tendons in two cases. Three patients had edema in 2-3 phalanges, and effusion in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was seen in one case. At the later stage, no signal pathology in soft tissues or bones was seen in STIR images. In the subacute phase, radiographs showed digital soft-tissue swelling in three patients, and one patient had a narrowed DIP joint, periarticular osteoporosis, and a periosteal reaction. At the later stage, flexion contracture of the finger was seen. Conclusion: In addition to soft-tissue infection, seal finger causes bone marrow edema, tenosynovitis, and effusion in the interphalangeal joints visible as increased signal intensity in STIR images. Radiographs reveal periarticular osteoporosis with loss of cartilage in the subacute phase and flexion contracture at the later stage. MRI (STIR) allows more precise delineation of the inflammatory process compared to radiography

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic findings of seal finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjelund, S.; Tikkakoski, T.; Isokangas, M.; Raeisaenen, S. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic findings of five patients with seal finger. Material and Methods: The MR images and radiographs of five patients with seal finger were retrospectively evaluated. MRI was performed on four patients in the subacute phase, and follow-up imaging was done on one of them at 5 months. One patient had MRI only at a later stage 5 years after onset. Radiographs were taken three times in the subacute phase and once at a later stage. One patient had had seal finger in another finger previously. Results: Short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence showed extensive subcutaneous soft tissue edema in all four patients in the subacute phase and tenosynovitis of the flexion tendons in two cases. Three patients had edema in 2-3 phalanges, and effusion in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was seen in one case. At the later stage, no signal pathology in soft tissues or bones was seen in STIR images. In the subacute phase, radiographs showed digital soft-tissue swelling in three patients, and one patient had a narrowed DIP joint, periarticular osteoporosis, and a periosteal reaction. At the later stage, flexion contracture of the finger was seen. Conclusion: In addition to soft-tissue infection, seal finger causes bone marrow edema, tenosynovitis, and effusion in the interphalangeal joints visible as increased signal intensity in STIR images. Radiographs reveal periarticular osteoporosis with loss of cartilage in the subacute phase and flexion contracture at the later stage. MRI (STIR) allows more precise delineation of the inflammatory process compared to radiography.

  16. Examination of the constancy of the medium optical density of conventional chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.; Rupp, N.; Niederhofer, F.; Gfirtner, H.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the medium optical density of conventional chest radiographs is constant. Materials and Methods: 47 PA chest radiographs were digitized to measure the optical density and its dynamic range of normal and pathologically altered lungs. Results: For constant exposure factors and a correctly positioned region of interest, the medium optical density deviates only minimal despite differences in AP chest diameter, entry dose and dynamic range, and is largely independent of the pathologic pulmonary findings. Conclusion: Digitization of the radiograph enables the determination of the physical parameters used to operate the imaging system, such as medium optical density, image contrast, image latitude and density distribution, in accordance to the guidelines of the German Medical Association. If the region of interest encompasses the clinically relevant region of the lung, the measured value of the optical density corresponds with only minor variation to the average value of the entire lung region. (orig.) [de

  17. Prototype system for enhancement of frontal chest radiographs using eigenimage processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, A.; Bones, P.; Hurrell, M.

    2008-01-01

    A prototype system is described for enhancement of radiographic images in the eigen domain. The images chosen to enhance are frontal chest radiographs. This class of images has been chosen because it is both a clinically important examination and an example of the high-resolution images used within radiology. The enhancement method is based on principal components analysis, a multivariate statistical technique first used within image processing for face recognition. The method requires a training set of normal images to identify normal patterns of variance. The enhancement process then removes these normal patterns of variance, often increasing the relative intensity of pathologies. Enhanced images presented in this paper include a range of common pathologies found on chest radiographs. Details of implementation, computing expense and possible applications within radiology are discussed.

  18. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both...

  19. Evaluation of underexposed conventional radiographs after digitization. Auswertung fehlbelichteter konventioneller Roentgenaufnahmen nach Digitalisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, W. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik); Buitrago-Tellez, C. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik); Moenig, H. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie); Niemeier, R. (Digital Diagnostik Deutschland GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany))

    1993-02-01

    Inadequate exposure of analogue radiographs is reported in the literature to occur in 5-25% of cases. Therefore, the present study was performed to test whether selective image processing after digitization could reveal diagnostic details on underexposed radiographs. In addition, the minimal exposure values required for diagnostic purposes after adequate image processing were studied. Phantom studies, organ preparations and measurements of physical parameters with decreasing exposure values were performed. The detection of anatomic and pathologic (nondisplaced fracture lines, microcalcification and renal stones) structures were evaluated by 12 readers. Radiographs with exposure values 20-40% lower than 'ideal' values can provide adequate diagnostic images after digital processing. The diagnostic information is significantly impaired with values under 50% of the correct exposure values. In conclusion, this method is adequate to save underexposed radiographs for diagnostic purposes and to avoid repeated examinations. (orig.)

  20. Radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraga, J.J.; Amrami, K.K.; Swee, R.G. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Wold, L. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States).. Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology; Unni, K.K. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States). Dept. of Surgical Pathology

    2001-03-01

    The radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet are reviewed utilizing cases obtained from the Mayo Clinic patient files and the consultation files of Drs. D.C. Dahlin and K.K. Unni. This series consists of a total of 43 cases of pathologically proven Ewing's sarcoma involving the small bones of the hands and feet. The classic radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma in the long bones, including lytic, permeative destruction, aggressive periosteal reaction, cortical violation, and a soft tissue mass, are also seen in the bones of the hands and feet, with similar frequency. These classic features are most commonly present in lesions affecting the short tubular bones. Lesions affecting the tarsal bones more often demonstrate atypical radiographic features. These atypical radiographic appearances may play a role in the reported delay in diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma within the tarsal bones. (orig.)

  1. Radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraga, J.J.; Amrami, K.K.; Swee, R.G.; Wold, L.; Unni, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet are reviewed utilizing cases obtained from the Mayo Clinic patient files and the consultation files of Drs. D.C. Dahlin and K.K. Unni. This series consists of a total of 43 cases of pathologically proven Ewing's sarcoma involving the small bones of the hands and feet. The classic radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma in the long bones, including lytic, permeative destruction, aggressive periosteal reaction, cortical violation, and a soft tissue mass, are also seen in the bones of the hands and feet, with similar frequency. These classic features are most commonly present in lesions affecting the short tubular bones. Lesions affecting the tarsal bones more often demonstrate atypical radiographic features. These atypical radiographic appearances may play a role in the reported delay in diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma within the tarsal bones. (orig.)

  2. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiographers A Appendix A to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... film evaluation; (k) Methods of patient care; (l) Pathology; (m) Radiologic physics; and (n) Radiation...

  3. Amygdala and hippocampus enlargement during adolescence in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Teluij, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tendolkar, I.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal

  4. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...

  5. Diagnosis Of Thyroid Enlargement: Use Of Fine Needle Aspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ten Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies (FNAC) obtained from 87 patients with thyroid enlargement or nodules were retrospectively reviewed. Aspiration biopsy was accomplished using 21-gauge needle attached with 20-ml plastic syringe. There were 14 males and 73 females involved in the study. Sixty- four ...

  6. Amygdala and Hippocampus Enlargement during Adolescence in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wouter; Teluij, Michelle; Buitelaar, Jan; Tendolkar, Indira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal volume, findings in adolescence are sparse.…

  7. Income, Deprivation and Economic Stress in the Enlarged European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    At risk of poverty indicators based on relative income measures suggest that within the enlarged EU societies located at quite different points on a continuum of affluence have similar levels of poverty. Substantial differences in levels of income between societies do not in themselves invalidate this approach. However, the relative income…

  8. Strategy to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch: aortic root enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Dharmendra Kumar; Sanki, Prokash; Bhattacharya, Subhankar; Siddique, Javed Veqar

    2014-02-01

    The choice of a valve with an effective orifice area matching the body surface area and providing efficient hemodynamics is an important factor affecting mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. Our preventative strategy was to implant a larger prosthetic valve by aortic root enlargement using the Nunez procedure in 17 patients between February 2010 and January 2011. The decision to enlarge the aortic root was taken when the 19-mm sizer could not be negotiated easily through the aortic root, or on the basis of body surface area of the patient or type of prosthesis available. Postoperative reductions in peak and mean pressure gradients across aortic valve of 12.8-16.5 and 10.2-12.6 mm Hg, respectively, were observed. Postoperative effective orifice areas of the aortic valves were 1.1-1.5 cm(2). By upsizing the aortic valve, we were able to eliminate patient-prosthesis mismatch in 5 patients, and reduce severe patient-prosthesis mismatch to moderate in 11. Aortic root enlargement is a safe procedure. Therefore, cardiac surgeons should not be reluctant to enlarge the aortic root with an autologous pericardial patch to permit implantation of an adequate size of aortic valve prosthesis, with minimal additional aortic crossclamp time and no added cost.

  9. Trade integration and synchronization of shocks : implications for EU enlargement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babetskii, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2005), s. 105-138 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : EU enlargement * business cycle * trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.774, year: 2005

  10. [Transient enlargement of craniopharyngioma cysts after stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerkina, N A; Savateev, A N; Gorelyshev, S K; Konovalov, A N; Trunin, Yu Yu; Golanov, A V; Medvedeva, O A; Kalinin, P L; Kutin, M A; Astafieva, L I; Krasnova, T S; Ozerova, V I; Serova, N K; Butenko, E I; Strunina, Yu V

    Stereotactic radiotherapy/radiosurgery (RT/ES) is an effective technique for treating craniopharyngiomas (CPs). However, enlargement of the cystic part of the tumor occurs in some cases after irradiation. The enlargement may be transient and not require treatment or be a true relapse requiring treatment. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of 79 pediatric patients who underwent stereotactic RT or RS after resection of craniopharyngioma. Five-year relapse-free survival after complex treatment of CP was 86%. In the early period after irradiation, 3.5 months (2.7-9.4) on average, enlargement of the cystic component of the tumor was detected in 10 (12.7%) patients; in 9 (11.4%) of them, the enlargement was transient and did not require treatment; in one case, the patient underwent surgery due to reduced visual acuity. In 8 (10.1%) patients, an increase in the residual tumor (a solid component of the tumor in 2 cases and a cystic component of the tumor in 6 cases) occurred in the long-term period after irradiation - after 26.3 months (16.6-48.9) and did not decrease during follow-up in none of the cases, i.e. continued growth of the tumor was diagnosed. A statistical analysis revealed that differences in the terms of transient enlargement and true continued growth were statistically significant (pcraniopharyngioma cyst in the early period (up to 1 year) after RT/RS is usually transient and does not require surgical treatment (except cases where worsening of neurological symptoms occurs, or occlusive hydrocephalus develops).

  11. Diabetic Mastopathy as a Radiographically Occult Palpable Breast Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Thanarajasingam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic mastopathy is an uncommon, benign disease of the breast that can occur in women with diabetes and clinically mimic breast cancer. We describe a patient with long-standing type 1 diabetes who presented with a palpable breast mass with negative imaging findings on mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MRI. Surgical biopsy and histopathology confirmed diabetic mastopathy. We use this case to highlight the recognition, radiographic features, pathology, and management of this benign breast condition and emphasize that, in diabetic patients, the differential diagnosis of a new breast mass should include diabetic mastopathy.

  12. Gold-wire artifacts on diagnostic radiographs: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keestra, Johan Anton Jochum; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Quirynen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This report described a case in which diagnostic radiographs showed irregular dense radiopaque strings and curved lines in the head and neck area. These artifacts could lead to misinterpretation since they may obscure anatomical structures and/or mask critical structures/pathologies. A more detailed history of the patient indicated that these strings originated from a facelift procedure in which a gold-wire technique was used. Considering that such intervention may cause a radiodiagnostic burden, it should be included in the anamnesis prior to radiography.

  13. Gold-wire artifacts on diagnostic radiographs: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keestra, Johan Anton Jochum; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Quirynen, Marc [Dept. of Oral Health Sciences, KU Leuven and Dentistry, University Hospitals, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-03-15

    This report described a case in which diagnostic radiographs showed irregular dense radiopaque strings and curved lines in the head and neck area. These artifacts could lead to misinterpretation since they may obscure anatomical structures and/or mask critical structures/pathologies. A more detailed history of the patient indicated that these strings originated from a facelift procedure in which a gold-wire technique was used. Considering that such intervention may cause a radiodiagnostic burden, it should be included in the anamnesis prior to radiography.

  14. Radiographic evaluation of maxillofacial fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwan, M.; Fliegel, C.

    1986-01-01

    The course and configuration of typical maxillofacial fractures (type Le Fort I-III) and lateral maxillary fractures including the zygomatic arch were reconstructed in detail by application of barium paste on a bony skull and radiogrpahs in standard projections were performed and evaluated. It was obvious from the resulting radiographs that for most maxillofacial fractures a half axial or Water's view was most helpful. Lateral views only give additional information when there is a considerable degree of dislocation of fragments. Comparison with a prediatric skull of 8 years of age demonstrated that fractures of the zygomatic arch in this age group cannot be demonstrated by the typical submento-vertical view, but are shown on a Towne projection. The radiographic appearance of important maxillofacial fractures is demonstrated. The necessity of further studies in cases where reconstructive surgery appears necessary is discussed and CT rather then conventional tomography is advocated. (orig.) [de

  15. Pulmonary edema: radiographic differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Seung Cheol; An, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jee Young; Park, Hee Hong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using chest radiography to differentiate between three different etiologies of pulmonary edema. Plain chest radiographs of 77 patients, who were clinically confirmed as having pulmonary edema, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three groups : group 1 (cardiogenic edema : n = 35), group 2 (renal pulmonary edema : n = 16) and group 3 (permeability edema : n = 26). We analyzed the radiologic findings of air bronchogram, heart size, peribronchial cuffing, septal line, pleural effusion, vascular pedicle width, pulmonary blood flow distribution and distribution of pulmonary edema. In a search for radiologic findings which would help in the differentiation of these three etiologies, each finding was assessed. Cardiogenic and renal pulmonary edema showed overlapping radiologic findings, except for pulmonary blood flow distribution. In cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=35), cardiomegaly (n=29), peribronchial cuffing (n=29), inverted pulmonary blood flow distribution (n=21) and basal distribution of edema (n=20) were common. In renal pulmonary edema (n=16), cardiomegaly (n=15), balanced blood flow distribution (n=12), and central (n=9) or basal distribution of edema (n=7) were common. Permeability edema (n=26) showed different findings. Air bronchogram (n=25), normal blood flow distribution (n=14) and peripheral distribution of edema (n=21) were frequent findings, while cardiomegaly (n=7), peribronchial cuffing (n=7) and septal line (n=5) were observed in only a few cases. On plain chest radiograph, permeability edema can be differentiated from cardiogenic or renal pulmonary edema. The radiographic findings which most reliably differentiated these two etiologies were air bronchogram, distribution of pulmonary edema, peribronchial cuffing and heart size. Only blood flow distribution was useful for radiographic differentiation of cardiogenic and renal edema

  16. Occupational health and the radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronach, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the occupational health hazards faced by radiographers in the hospital environment. There has been very little work done in this area in the past, and as the subject is so large this paper can do little other than raise some of the issues . The hazards addressed include: radiation, ergonomics, chemical, environmental, biological, occupational injury and accident, stress. 14 refs., 2 figs

  17. Observer POD for radiographic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanzler, Daniel; Mueller, Christina; Bertovic, Marija [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Pitkaenen, Jorma [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    The radiographic testing is an important non-destructive testing method, especially in industrial areas where people could be injured in case of failing of a component. There it is a mighty method to find volumetric defects. As bigger the penetrated length of the defect in the component is, as bigger is the radiographic contrast. The detectability of volumetric defects in its turn is not only depending on the contrast but also on the noise, the defect area and its shape. The currently applied POD approach uses mostly only the contrast and the noise as detection threshold. This does not reflect accurately the results of evaluations by human observers. A new approach is introduced, using the widely applied POD evaluation and additionally a detection threshold depending on the area of the defect. The presentation shows the process of calculating the POD curves with simulated data by the modeling software aRTist and with artificial reference data. This approach was developed within a joint project with the company POSIVA, which is constructing a final depository for high active nuclear fuels in Finland. Radiographic testing is one of the NDT-methods they use to test the electron beam welds of the copper canisters. The copper canisters will be used in the depository as a corrosion barrier within the waste management concept. (Published as a poster session.)

  18. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justication for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 10 9 bits per 14 x 17. The equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 (inch) film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (*approx* 16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system (author) [pt

  19. A Radiographic Study of Odontoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the clinical and radiographic features of the odontomas in the jaws. For this study, the authors examined and analyzed the clinical records and radiographs of 119 patients who had lesion of odontoma diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examinations. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Odontoma occurred the most frequently in the 2nd decade (45.4%) and occurred more frequently in males (60.5%) than in females (39.5%). 2. The most common clinical symptom was the delayed eruption of the teeth (34.2%). 3. The type of lesions was mainly observed as compound odontoma (80.8%), and internal pattern of the complex odontoma was unevenly radiopaque (73.9%). 4. The compound odontoma frequently occurred in anterior portion of the maxilla (57.7%) and mandible (30.9%), and complex odontoma frequently occurred in anterior portion of maxilla (34.8%) and posterior portion of mandible (30.5%). 5. The effects on adjacent teeth were impaction of teeth (71.7%) and prolonged retention of deciduous teeth (31.7%). 6. The impaction of the teeth occurred in anterior portion of maxilla (44.2%) amd mandible (19.2%), but root resorption of the adjacent teeth were not seen. 7. The boundary to adjacent structure was well-defined , the lesions appear as radiopaque mass with radiolucent rim.

  20. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Choy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  1. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  2. Radiographic appearances in Crohn's disease. I. Accuracy of radiographic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildell, J; Lindstroem, C; Wenckert, A [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, Pathology and Surgery, Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe, Sweden

    1979-01-01

    Preoperative films of 176 patients operated upon for Crohn's disease were reviewed and compared with microscopic findings in the resected specimens in order to assess the accuracy of the radiographic techniques used. It was found that a diagnosis of the presence and the extent of the disease was often dependent on the demonstration of minor mucosal ulcers and less marked submucosal edema. These lesions were not adequately demonstrated by any of the techniques used for small bowel examination, but were consistently revealed by the double-contrast technique used for examination of the colon.

  3. Breast surgical specimen radiographs: How reliable are they?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, P.D.; Sonoda, L.I.; Yamamoto, A.K.; Koo, B.; Soh, E.; Goud, A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiography of the excised surgical specimen following wire guided localisation of impalpable breast lesions is standard surgical practice. The aims of the study were to establish the reliability of the breast specimen radiograph (SR) in determining lesion excision and to determine whether the radiographic margin correlated with the histological margin. The clinical, imaging, SR and pathological details of 106 patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The reliability of orientation was estimated and the appearance and distance from the mammographic abnormality to each radial margin were measured and correlated with surgical histological findings. The overall accuracy of the specimen radiograph in determining whether the mammographic lesion was present was 99%. The SR could be orientated 'very reliably' or 'reliably' in 80% of patients however in only 48% of patients did the closest margin on the SR correspond with the same nearest margin at final histology. A maximum measurement of 11 mm or more from the lesion to the specimen edge was associated with a 77% likelihood of having a clear final histological margin (taken as 5 mm or more) and if <11 mm a 58% chance of having involved final histological margins. There was however a wide overlap in the results with patients having an apparently wide SR margin but histologically involved margins and vice versa. The SR is reliable at determining whether the target lesion has been removed. The correlation of SR margin orientation and measurement with final histological measurement is however far less reliable.

  4. Asymmetric Meckel Cave Enlargement: A Potential Marker of PHACES Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J N; Wycoco, V

    2017-06-01

    PHACES syndrome is a complex of morphologic abnormalities of unknown cause and includes posterior fossa abnormalities; head and neck infantile hemangiomas; arterial, cardiac, and eye anomalies; and sternal or abdominal wall defects. Accurate identification of the syndrome is important for optimal treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement, a potential novel imaging marker, in a population of patients referred for evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome. Eighty-five patients referred for neuroimaging evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome were identified and stratified on the basis of their ultimate clinical PHACES diagnosis categorization into PHACES, possible PHACES, or not PHACES. MR imaging studies were subsequently reviewed for the presence or absence of unilateral Meckel cave enlargement, with the reviewer blinded to the ultimate PHACES syndrome categorization. Twenty-five of 85 patients (29%) were ultimately categorized as having PHACES or possible PHACES according to consensus guidelines. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was present in 76% (19/25) of these patients and in 82% (19/23) of only those patients with definite PHACES. This finding was present in none of the 60 patients determined not to have PHACES syndrome. In 7/19 patients (37%) with this finding, subtle MR imaging abnormalities consistent with PHACES were missed on the initial MR imaging interpretation. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was a common feature of patients with PHACES in our cohort and may serve as a novel imaging marker. Increased awareness of this imaging feature has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of PHACES. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Pinhole bone scan mapping of metabolic profiles in osteoarthritis of the knee: a radiographic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, H. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chung, S. K.; Bahk, Y. W. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is mixture of damage to a joint and reaction induced therefrom. Heterogeneity, slow change and no proper means of assessing pathology make it a difficult disease to study. Diagnosis can be made by radiography when OA is established. But subtle metabolic change without radiographic alteration can only be detected by bone scan. Present study was performed to assess metabolic profiles of OA of the knee with various radiographic and preradiographic changes using pinhole bone scan (PBS). PBS and radiography were taken at the same time or a few days apart. We used single-head gamma camera and a 4-mm pinhole collimator. Patients were 9 men and 19 women (30-74 yr with mean being 55). PBS was correlated with radiography in each case. Increased tracer uptake was seen in 111 lesions in 28 knees. Intensity was arbitrarily graded into Grade 0-2. The results were divided into group with radiographic change (n=85; Table) and group without (n=26). Generally, tracer uptake was much intense in the sclerotic and cystic form. In radiographically normal group pathological uptake occurred mostly in subchondral bone (n=17) and some in the femoral condyle (n=9) denoting that subchondral bone is the most vulnerable. PBS is sensitive indicator of metabolic alternations in various disease processes of OA in both radiographically normal and abnormal cases.

  6. Dissolution-Enlarged Fractures Imaging Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siami-Irdemoosa, Elnaz

    In recent years the electrical imaging techniques have been largely applied to geotechnical and environmental investigations. These techniques have proven to be the best geophysical methods for site investigations in karst terrain, particularly when the overburden soil is clay-dominated. Karst is terrain with a special landscape and distinctive hydrological system developed by dissolution of rocks, particularly carbonate rocks such as limestone and dolomite, made by enlarging fractures into underground conduits that can enlarge into caverns, and in some cases collapse to form sinkholes. Bedding planes, joints, and faults are the principal structural guides for underground flow and dissolution in almost all karstified rocks. Despite the important role of fractures in karst development, the geometry of dissolution-enlarged fractures remain poorly unknown. These features are characterized by an strong contrast with the surrounding formations in terms of physical properties, such as electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used as the primary geophysical tool to image the subsurface in a karst terrain in Greene County, Missouri. Pattern, orientation and density of the joint sets were interpreted from ERT data in the investigation site. The Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method and coring were employed to validate the interpretation results. Two sets of orthogonal visually prominent joints have been identified in the investigation site: north-south trending joint sets and west-east trending joint sets. However, most of the visually prominent joint sets are associated with either cultural features that concentrate runoff, natural surface drainage features or natural surface drainage.

  7. Enlarged thalamostriate vein causing unilateral Monro foramen obstruction. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Jody; Grand, Walter

    2009-06-01

    Causes of unilateral hydrocephalus resulting from an obstruction at the Monro foramen include foraminal atresia, tumors, gliosis, contralateral shunting, and infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, few reports in the literature cite vascular lesions as the cause of the obstruction. To their knowledge, the authors present the first report of unilateral hydrocephalus occurring due to an abnormally enlarged thalamostriate vein independent of an arteriovenous malformation or developmental venous angioma. The condition was treated successfully by endoscopic septum pellucidum fenestration. A 28-year-old man was referred for evaluation due to a 10-year history of chronic headaches that worsened in severity over the past year. A CT scan of the head revealed unilateral right ventricular dilation. Cranial MR imaging with and without contrast administration showed a dilated right thalamostriate-internal vein complex without any evidence of associated arteriovenous malformation or venous angioma. Endoscopic exploration of the right lateral ventricle showed an enlarged subependymal thalamostriate vein obstructing the Monro foramen. An endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum was performed, resulting in alleviation of the patient's symptoms. Abnormally enlarged venous structures may cause obstructive unilateral hydrocephalus and can be a rare cause of chronic, intermittent headaches in adults. Endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum is an effective treatment.

  8. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  9. THE IMPACT OF EU ENLARGEMENT ON THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred E. Kellermann

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available EU Enlargement is a consequence of the success story of the creation of the European Communities, as many applicant countries were attracted to the new legal order based on the rule of law, rather than to an order or disorder based on the rule of politics. As from May 1st 2004, the EU enlargement, unprecedented in its size, marks a historic milestone for the European Union and its Member States, and also for the whole continent. Given this new context, the EU has to find and define new cooperation partnerships with its neighbours. A major partner, not to be neglected in this new policy is by all means Russia. The first Summit between the enlarged EU and Russia held in Moscow on 21 May 2004 was the first high-level meeting of the 25 EU and Russia following the successful conclusion of negotiations between the European Commission and Russia on the extension of the EU-Russia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA to the ten new EU Member States. The Summit calls for the reinforcement of EU-Russia relations via the creation of Four Common Spaces: a common economic space (with specific reference to environment and energy; a common space of Freedom, Security and Justice; a field of external security; as well as a space of research and education including culture. The next step will be to define shared priorities and concrete measures for each of the Four Common Spaces in a mutually agreed Action Plan.

  10. Radiographic and 2-D echocardiographic findings in eighteen cats experimentally exposed to D. immitis via mosquito bites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcer, B.A.; Newell, S.M.; Mansour, A.E.; McCall, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen cats were exposed to Dirofilaria immitis infected mosquitoes. Thoracic radiography was performed prior to exposure and at 5, 7, and 9 month intervals following exposure. Immunologic testing for adult heartworm antigen was performed on days 168, 195, 210, 224, 237, 254 and 271 post infection. Necropsies were performed on all cats. Adult heartworms were found in 61% of the exposed cats. Radiographic findings in heartworm positive cats included bronchointerstitial lung disease, lobar pulmonary arterial enlargement and pulmonary hyperinflation. In most heartworm positive cats, lobar arterial enlargement resolved as the disease progressed while pulmonary hyperinflation progressively became more common. Pulmonary patterns in heartworm positive cats remained abnormal throughout the study while abnormal pulmonary patterns resolved in over 50% of the heartworm negative cats. Cardiomegaly was seen in less than 50% of the cats with adult heartworms at necropsy. This study suggests that the radiographic appearance of heartworm disease is variable and radiographic changes are dependent on the time post infection at which cats are evaluated. Echocardiographic examinations were randomly performed on 16 of 18 cats. Heartworms were identified in 7 cats. No false positive identifications were made. Persistent pulmonary disease accompanied by resolving vascular disease in heartworm cats with pulmonary hyperinflation may be difficult to distinguish from cats with feline allergic lung. Echocardiograms may be helpful in identifying adult heartworms in cats in which the radiographic signs or immunodiagnostic data are insufficient to provide a diagnosis

  11. Assessment of Radiographic Image Quality by Visual Examination of Neutron Radiographs of the Calibration Fuel Pin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Up till now no reliable radiographic image quality standards exist for neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel. Under the Euratoro Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) Test Program neutron radiographs were produced at different neutron radiography facilities within the European Community...... of a calibration fuel pin. The radiographs were made by the direct, transfer and tracketch methods using different film recording materials. These neutron radiographs of the calibration fuel pin were used for the assessement of radiographic image quality. This was done by visual examination of the radiographs...

  12. Influence of geometrical unsharpness on detection of tight defects by radiographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodson, F.; Crescenzo, E.; Thomas, A.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of geometric unsharpness on defects' visibility for radiographic examinations carried out with Iridium 192 and Cobalt 60 sources. This study enabled the authors to demonstrate that, even in the case of highly detrimental implementation conditions (increase in geometric unsharpness obtained via a reduction in the source-to-film distance, when the defect is not in the beam axis), the worsening in defects' visibility was dependent on defect type, nature of material, thickness radiographed, source energy, and geometric exposure conditions (dimension of the source, enlargement of the defect). Without establishing maximum admissible values, they nevertheless assert that these should be determined by taking these parameters into account. In particular it seems possible to accept greater geometric unsharpness values for small thicknesses than for large ones, in the examination of welded joints using Iridium 192 and Cobalt 60

  13. Isolated amygdala enlargement in temporal lobe epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, S M Jessica; Cook, Mark J; D'Souza, Wendyl J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the seizure characteristics and treatment outcomes in patient groups with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) identified with isolated amygdala enlargement (AE) on magnetic resonance imaging studies. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies using the keywords 'amygdala enlargement', 'epilepsy', and 'seizures' in April 2015. Human studies, written in English, that investigated cohorts of patients with TLE and AE were included. Of 204 abstracts initially identified using the search strategy, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria (11 epilepsy studies and 3 psychiatry studies). Ultimately, 8 full studies on AE and TLE involving 107 unique patients were analyzed. Gender distribution consisted of 50 males and 57 females. Right amygdala enlargement was seen in 39 patients, left enlargement in 58 patients, and bilateral enlargement in 7 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 28 patients, with the most common finding being dysplasia/hamartoma or focal cortical dysplasia. Most studies involved small samples of less than 12 patients. There was a wide discrepancy in the methods used to measure amygdala volume, in both patients and controls, hindering comparisons. Most TLE with AE studies observed a later age of seizure onset (mean: 32.2years) compared with studies involving TLE with HS (mean of mid- to late childhood). A higher frequency of complex partial seizures compared with that of convulsive seizures is seen in patients with AE (67-100% vs. 26-47%), and they have an excellent response to antiepileptic drugs (81.8%-100% of seizure-free patients). All studies that included controls also found a significant difference in frequency of seizure types between their cases and controls. Reliable assessment of amygdala volume remains a critical issue hindering better understanding of the clinical management and research of this focal epilepsy syndrome. Within these limitations, the literature suggests

  14. High Variability of Observed Weight Bearing During Standing Foot and Ankle Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher P; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Walley, Kempland C; Ghaheri, Azadeh; Kwon, John Y

    2017-06-01

    Weight-bearing radiographs are a critical component of evaluating foot and ankle pathology. An underlying assumption is that patients are placing 50% of their body weight on the affected foot during image acquisition. The accuracy of weight bearing during radiographs is unknown and, presumably, variable, which may result in uncertain ability of the resultant radiographs to appropriately portray the pathology of interest. Fifty subjects were tested. The percentage body weight through the foot of interest was measured at the moment of radiographic image acquisition. The subject was then instructed to bear "half [their] weight" prior to the next radiograph. The percentage body weight was calculated and compared to ideal 50% weight bearing. The mean percentage body weight in trial 1 and 2 was 45.7% ± 3.2% ( P = .012 compared to the 50% mark) and 49.2% ± 2.4%, respectively ( P = .428 compared to 50%). The mean absolute difference in percentage weight bearing compared to 50% in trials 1 and 2 was 9.3% ± 2.3% and 5.8% ± 1.8%, respectively ( P = .005). For trial 1, 18/50 subjects were within the "ideal" (45%-55%) range for weight bearing compared to 32/50 on trial 2 ( P = .005). In trial 1, 24/50 subjects had "appropriate" (>45%) weight bearing compared to 39/50 on trial 2 ( P = .002). There was substantial variability in the weight applied during radiograph acquisition. This study raises questions regarding the assumptions, reliability, and interpretation when evaluating weight-bearing radiographs. Level III, comparative study.

  15. MRI reporting by radiographers: Findings of an accredited postgraduate programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Keith [Allied Heath Professions Department, Canterbury Christ Church University, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: keith.piper@canterbury.ac.uk; Buscall, Kaie [Allied Heath Professions Department, Canterbury Christ Church University, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU (United Kingdom); Thomas, Nigel [X-Ray Department, Trafford General Hospital, Manchester M41 5SL (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Aim: To analyse the objective structured examination (OSE) results of the first three cohorts of radiographers (n = 39) who completed an accredited postgraduate certificate (PgC) programme in reporting of general magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations and to compare the agreement rates with those demonstrated for a small group of consultant radiologists. Method: Forty MRI investigations were used in the OSE which included the following anatomical areas and abnormal appearances: knee; meniscal/ligament injuries, bone bruises, effusions and osteochondral defects; lumbar spine: intervertebral disc morphology, vertebral collapse, tumours (bone and soft tissue), spinal stenosis and/or nerve root involvement; internal auditory meati (IAM): acoustic neuroma. Incidental findings included maxillary polyp, arachnoid cyst, renal cyst, hydroureter, pleural effusion and metastases (adrenal, lung, perirenal and/or thoracic spine). Sensitivity, specificity and total percentage agreement rates were calculated for all radiographers (n = 39) using all reports (n = 1560). A small representative subgroup of reports (n = 27) was compared to the three consultant radiologists' reports which were produced when constructing the OSE. Kappa values were estimated to measure agreement in four groups: consultant radiologists only; radiographers and each of the consultant radiologists independently. Results: The sensitivity, specificity and agreement rates for the three cohorts (combined) of radiographers were 99.0%, 99.0% and 89.2%, respectively. For the majority (5/9) of anatomical areas and/or pathological categories no significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the mean Kappa scores (K = 0.47-0.76) for different groups of observers, whether radiographers were included in the group analysis or not. Where differences were apparent, this was in cases (4/9) where the variation was either not greater than found between radiologists and/or of no clinical significance

  16. Total elbow arthroplasty: a radiographic outcome study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue Susan [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 357115, Seattle, WA (United States); Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M. [Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Ha, Alice S. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is becoming a popular alternative to arthrodesis for patients with end-stage elbow arthrosis and comminuted distal humeral fractures. Prior outcome studies have primarily focused on surgical findings. Our purpose is to determine the radiographic outcome of TEA and to correlate with clinical symptoms such as pain. This is an IRB-approved retrospective review from 2005 to 2015 of all patients with semiconstrained TEA. All available elbow radiographs and clinical data were reviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for radiographic and clinical survival. A total of 104 total elbow arthroplasties in 102 patients were reviewed; 75 % were in women and the mean patient age was 63.1 years. Mean radiographic follow-up was 826 days with average of four radiographs per patient. Seventy TEAs (67 %) developed radiographic complications, including heterotopic ossification (48 %), perihardware lucency (27 %), periprosthetic fracture (23 %), hardware subluxation/dislocation (7 %), polyethylene wear (3 %), and hardware fracture/dislodgement (3 %); 56 patients (55 %) developed symptoms of elbow pain or instability and 30 patients (30 %) underwent at least one reoperation. In patients with radiographic complications, 66 % developed elbow pain, compared to 19 % of patients with no radiologic complications (p = 0.001). Of the patients with radiographic complications, 39 % had at least one additional surgery compared to 0 % of patients without radiographic complications (p = 0.056). Radiographic complications are common in patients after total elbow arthroplasty. There is a strong positive association between post-operative radiographic findings and clinical outcome. Knowledge of common postoperative radiographic findings is important for the practicing radiologist. (orig.)

  17. A radiographic analysis of implant component misfit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharkey, Seamus

    2011-07-01

    Radiographs are commonly used to assess the fit of implant components, but there is no clear agreement on the amount of misfit that can be detected by this method. This study investigated the effect of gap size and the relative angle at which a radiograph was taken on the detection of component misfit. Different types of implant connections (internal or external) and radiographic modalities (film or digital) were assessed.

  18. Radiation protection - radiographer's role and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since discovery of x-rays, radiographers has been the prime user of radiation. With the passage of time, the harmful effects of radiation were detected. Some of radiographers, radiologists and public were affected by radiation, but today with enough knowledge of radiation, the prime responsibility of radiation protection lies with the radiographers only. The radiologist and physicist are also associated with radiation protection to some extent

  19. The use and abuse of radiographic grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally accepted that scattered radiation degrades the quality of the radiographic image. When this problem occurs, a radiographic grid may be applied which necessitates an increase in exposure. Investigations are reported in the following areas: reasons for the introduction of a radiographic grid; the ratio between kilovoltage and grid ratio; techniques resulting in higher contrast and resolution at low patient dose and the abuse of grids

  20. Measure by image analysis of industrial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillault, B.

    1988-01-01

    A digital radiographic picture processing system for non destructive testing intends to provide the expert with computer tool, to precisely quantify radiographic images. The author describes the main problems, from the image formation to its characterization. She also insists on the necessity to define a precise process in order to automatize the system. Some examples illustrate the efficiency of digital processing for radiographic images [fr

  1. Radiographic features of periapical cysts and granulomas

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.; Roswati, N.; Ismail, K.

    1989-01-01

    Many studies have been reported on radiographic lesion sizes of periapical lesions. However no studies have been reported on prevalences of subjective radiographic features in these lesions except for the early assumption that a periapical cyst usually exhibit a radiopaque cortex. This study is conducted to evaluate the prevalences of several subjective radiographic features of periapical cysts and granulomas in the hope to identify features that maybe suggestive of either diagnosis. The resu...

  2. Clinical, radiographic, and histological findings of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Song, Byeong Chul; Kimn, Sun Ho; Park, Yang Soon

    2011-01-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasias are a group of disorders known to originate from periodontal ligament tissue and involve, essentially, the same pathological process. They are usually classified into three main groups: periapical, florid, and focal cemental dysplasias depending on their extent and radiographic appearances. Radiographically, florid cementoosseous dysplasia (FCOD) appears as dense, lobulated masses, often symmetrically located in various regions of the jaws. The best management for the asymptomatic FCOD patient consists of regular recall examinations with prophylaxis. The management of the symptomatic patient is more difficult. A case of FCOD occurring in a 52-year-old edentulous Korean female is reported which is rare with regard to race and sex.

  3. Clinical, radiographic, and histological findings of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee; Song, Byeong-Chul; Kim, Sun-Ho; Park, Yang-Soon

    2011-09-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasias are a group of disorders known to originate from periodontal ligament tissue and involve, essentially, the same pathological process. They are usually classified into three main groups: periapical, florid, and focal cemental dysplasias depending on their extent and radiographic appearances. Radiographically, florid cementoosseous dysplasia (FCOD) appears as dense, lobulated masses, often symmetrically located in various regions of the jaws. The best management for the asymptomatic FCOD patient consists of regular recall examinations with prophylaxis. The management of the symptomatic patient is more difficult. A case of FCOD occurring in a 52-year-old edentulous Korean female is reported which is rare with regard to race and sex.

  4. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging of the stifle joint in experimental osteoarthritis of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, W.R.; Buckwalter, K.A.; Braunstein, E.M.; Hill, M.A.; O'Connor, B.L.; Visco, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate osteoarthritis at 2, 6, and 12 weeks following transection of the cranial cruciate ligament of the stifle (femorotibial) joint of 6 dogs. A quantitative radiographic scoring system was used to assess the progression of hard and soft tissue changes of osteoarthritis. Mediolateral (flexed joint) and oblique (extended joint) radiographic projections enabled identification of small osteophytes on the femoral trochlear ridges, which were detected at an earlier stage of development than was previously reported. Magnetic resonance imaging was useful in detecting changes in cartilage thickness, osteophytosis and intraarticular loose bodies. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging were complementary in the assessment of pathologic changes of osteoarthritis

  5. Clinical, radiographic, and histological findings of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Song, Byeong Chul; Kimn, Sun Ho; Park, Yang Soon [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Cemento-osseous dysplasias are a group of disorders known to originate from periodontal ligament tissue and involve, essentially, the same pathological process. They are usually classified into three main groups: periapical, florid, and focal cemental dysplasias depending on their extent and radiographic appearances. Radiographically, florid cementoosseous dysplasia (FCOD) appears as dense, lobulated masses, often symmetrically located in various regions of the jaws. The best management for the asymptomatic FCOD patient consists of regular recall examinations with prophylaxis. The management of the symptomatic patient is more difficult. A case of FCOD occurring in a 52-year-old edentulous Korean female is reported which is rare with regard to race and sex.

  6. Inadequate pelvic radiographs: implications of not getting it right the first time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S; Nagra, N S; Kulkarni, K; Pegrum, J; Barry, S; Hughes, R; Ghani, Y

    2017-09-01

    Introduction Pelvic radiography is a frequent investigation. European guidelines aim to ensure appropriate use and adequate quality. When initial images are inadequate, repeat radiographs are often required, which may have significant patient safety and economic implications. Objectives The study aimed to assess the adequacy of pelvic imaging across three orthopaedic centres, to identify causes for inadequate imaging and to establish the cost of inadequate imaging from financial and patient safety perspectives. Methods Pelvic radiographs were identified on Picture Archiving and Communication System software at three UK hospitals. Radiographs were assessed against European guidelines and indications for repeat imaging were analysed. Results A total of 1,531 sequential pelvic radiographs were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 60 years (range 5 months to 101 years). Of this total, 51.9% of images were suboptimal, with no significant difference across the three hospitals (P > 0.05). Hospital 3 repeated radiographs in 6.3% of cases, compare with 18.1% and 19.7% at hospitals 1 and 2, respectively (P > 0.05). Hospital 3 identified pathology missed on the initial radiograph in 1% of cases, compared with 5.4% and 5.5% at hospitals 1 and 2, respectively (P > 0.05). Out-of-hours imaging is associated with a higher rate of suboptimal quality (69.1%) compared with normal working hours (51.3%; P = 0.006). Adequacy rates vary with age (χ 2 = 43.62, P hours imaging.

  7. Radiographic bone changes in multibacillary leprosy patients in Aburof mission clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, El Rayah Mohamed

    1996-08-01

    Leprosy is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease, caused by M. leprae. It is one of the most seriously disabling and economically important disease. In Sudan it affects about 20 thousands people. In this study 60 patients of MB leprosy were included. Historry and physical examination were carried out for each patient. BI was done for all patients and were subjected to x-ray investigations of the paranasal sinuses, hands and feet. 85%(51) of these patients were found to have radiographic changes in paranasal sinuses, 35 patients with mucosal thickening and 16 with diffuse opacified sinuses. 86.7% (52) of those patients were found to have radiographic bone changes in their hand and feet. 23.6% and 75.4% were found with specific and non-specific bone changes in their hands and feet respectively. A spectrum of radiographic bone changes was found in the hands and feet including; destruction, fractures, phalangeal resoption, distal phalangeal tapering, flexion deformities, osteoarthritic changes, charcot's joints, osteoporosis cystic bone changes and enlarged nutrient bone foramina. The majority of patients with radiographic changes in the paranasal sinsuses, hands and feet, were found to have long duration of the disease and more bacterial load. The disability in hands and feet is the major risk factor in bone affection in MB leprosy. (Author)

  8. Radiographic and ultrasonographic features of hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.R.; Gaschen, F.P.; Ackerman, N.

    1992-01-01

    Hypertrophic fellne musculer dystrophy has been reported as an X-linked inherited deficiency of a cytoskeletal myofiber protein called dystrophin. This report deserlbes the radiographic and ultrasonographic abnormalities of two male littermate domestic short-hair cats and reviews the previous reported findings assoclated with hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy. The thoracic radiographic abnormalities included: progressive cardiomegaly, large convex, scalloped irregularities associated with the vetral aspect of the diaphragm, and variable degrees of esophageal dilation (megaesophagus) with associated cranioventral aspiration pneumonia. Echocardiographic features included: concentric left vetricular wall thickening, increased left ventricular and diastolic and systolic dimensions, and an increase in endocardial echogenicity. Abdominal radiographic abnormalities included: hepatosplenomegaly, peritoneal effusion, renomegaly, adrenal gland mineralization, and paralumbar and diaphragmatic musculature enlargement. Abdomlnal ultrasonographic abnormalities included: irregularly thickened muscular portion of the diaphragm; hypoechogenicity of the liver; peritoneal effusion; hepatosplenomegaly; renomegaly with hyperechoic cortex and medulla; and adrenal gland mineralization. The irregular scalloped appearance of the diaphragm (particularly along the ventral/sternal margin) was a consistenl radiographic abnormlity in the two cats with hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy after the age of 7 months. This finding was confirmed by ultrasound as a thickened irregular, hyperechoic diaphragm. A diagnosis of hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy should be strongly suspected if this abnormality is identified

  9. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justification for automation is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 3x10 (to the power of nine) bits per 14x17. This is equivalent to 2200 computer floppy disks parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, a computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14x27 (inch) film in 6-8 seconds can digitize film in information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for film digital radiography system) is moving toward 50 micron (16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. (Author). 4 refs.; 21 figs

  10. Prognostic radiographic aspects of spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraste, H.; Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of 202 patients (133 men, 69 women) with lumbar spondylolysis were examined radiographically on two occasions, first at the time of diagnosis and later at a follow-up, after an observation period of 20 years or more. The films frompatients in groups without and with moderate and severe olisthesis were evaluated with respect to variables describing lumbosacral lordosis, wedging of the spondylolytic vertebra, lengths of the transverse processes and iliolumbar ligaments, disk height, progression of slipping, and influence on measured olisthesis of lumbar spine flexion and extension at the radiographic examination. The evaluation was made with special attention to possible signs which could be predictive for the prognosis of vertebral slipping. Progression of slipping did not differ between patients diagnosed as adults or adolescents. Reduction of disk height was correlated to the degree of slipping present at the initial examination and to the progression of olisthesis. Flexion and extension of the lumbar spine did not modify the degree of olisthesis. Data concerning the lengths of the transverse processes and the iliolumbar ligaments, and lumbar lordosis, cannot be used for prognostic purposes. The lumbar index reflecting the degree of wedge deformity of the spondylolytic vertebra was shown to be the only variable of prognostic value for the development of vertebral slipping. (orig.)

  11. Prognostic radiographic aspects of spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraste, H; Brostroem, L A; Aparisi, T

    1984-01-01

    A series of 202 patients (133 men, 69 women) with lumbar spondylolysis were examined radiographically on two occasions, first at the time of diagnosis and later at a follow-up, after an observation period of 20 years or more. The films from patients in groups without and with moderate and severe olisthesis were evaluated with respect to variables describing lumbosacral lordosis, wedging of the spondylolytic vertebra, lengths of the transverse processes and iliolumbar ligaments, disk height, progression of slipping, and influence on measured olisthesis of lumbar spine flexion and extension at the radiographic examination. The evaluation was made with special attention to possible signs which could be predictive for the prognosis of vertebral slipping. Progression of slipping did not differ between patients diagnosed as adults or adolescents. Reduction of disk height was correlated to the degree of slipping present at the initial examination and to the progression of olisthesis. Flexion and extension of the lumbar spine did not modify the degree of olisthesis. Data concerning the lengths of the transverse processes and the iliolumbar ligaments, and lumbar lordosis, cannot be used for prognostic purposes. The lumbar index reflecting the degree of wedge deformity of the spondylolytic vertebra was shown to be the only variable of prognostic value for the development of vertebral slipping.

  12. Computational simulation of radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Elicardo A. de S.; Santos, Marcio H. dos; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Oliveira, Luis F. de

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a radiographic film gives its values of speed, spatial resolution and base density. The technical knowledge allows to predict how a film with a known composition works, and simulate how this film will work with changes in composition and exposure. In this paper, characterization of films composed by different emulsions was realized, in a way to know the characteristic curve, and to study how the format, organization and concentration of silver salt crystals set the radiographic film images.This work aims to increase an existing simulator, where parallel programming was used to simulate X-ray fluorescence processes. The setup of source and X-ray interactions with objects stills the same, and the detector constructed in this work was placed to form images. At first, considering the approach that the film is a square matrix where each element has a specific quantity of silver grains, that each grain fills a specific area, and that each interaction to radiation transforms a salt silver grain in to metallic silver grain (black grain), we have a blackening standard, and it should show how is the behavior of a optic density in a specific area of the film. Each matrix element has a degree of blackening, and it is proportional to the black grains area. (author)

  13. Stepped scanner radiographic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The imaging system includes a radiographic camera, a bed for supporting a subject in view of the camera, and a display system. The camera provides X and Y coordinate signals of each radiographic event. The position of the bed relative to the camera is altered sequentially by drive means, between each of a sequence of images provided by the camera. The sequentially occurring images are presented on the display system, each image being positioned on the display in correspondence with the location of the bed relative to the camera. The coordinates of each image point presented on the display is equal to the sum of the respective X and Y coordinate signals from the camera with X and Y coordinate signals provided by a timer which controls the drive means and defines the location of the bed relative to the camera. The camera is electronically decoupled from the display by a gate during movement of the bed relative to the camera from one location to the next location to prevent any smearing effect within the composite image presented on the display. (author)

  14. Digital processing of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  15. Gastric tumors on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Kawanami, Takashi; Russell, W.J.

    1978-04-01

    Gastric neoplasms of three patients protruded into their gas-containing fornices and were first visualized on plain chest radiographs. Endoscopy and/or surgery confirmed these to be a polyp, a leiomyoma, and an adenocarcinoma. The polyp, 1.3 cm in diameter, was the smallest of these three, but smaller lesions may be detectable under suitable conditions. Adequate technique and positioning, sufficiently large lesions in the upper portion of the stomach, a central beam tangential to the tumor, sufficient gas in the stomach, and careful scrutiny by the observer are required. Lesions may be more readily visualized during chest radiography when oral sodium bicarbonate is used to distend the stomach. In chest radiography, exposure limited to the lung fields has been advocated for economy and dose reduction. However, too small an exposure field may result in loss of information potentially beneficial to the patient. Using the smaller of two popular film sizes (35 x 43 cm and 35 x 35 cm), the saving in surface and bone marrow doses is negligible, and the saving in gonad dose may be nil over that when shielding is used. The interest of the observer may be absorbed by a concomitant cardiac or pulmonary lesion. Careful scrutiny of the entire radiograph is therefore essential. (author)

  16. Radiographic localization of unerupted mandibular anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S G

    2000-10-01

    The parallax method and the use of 2 radiographs taken at right angles to each other are the 2 methods generally used to accurately localize teeth. For the parallax method, the combination of a rotational panoramic radiograph with an occlusal radiograph is recommended. This combination involves a vertical x-ray tube shift. Three case reports are presented that illustrate: (1) how this combination can accurately localize unerupted mandibular anterior teeth, (2) how a deceptive appearance of the labiolingual position of the unerupted tooth can be produced in an occlusal radiograph, (3) how increasing the vertical angle of the tube for the occlusal radiograph makes the tube shift easier to discern, (4) why occlusal radiographs are preferable to periapical radiographs for tube shifts, and (5) how localization can also be carried out with 2 radiographs at right angles to each other, one of which is an occlusal radiograph taken with the x-ray tube directed along the long axis of the reference tooth.

  17. Radiographic examination for successful dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    2005-01-01

    Recently implant has become an important field in dental clinic. Radiographic examination of pre- and post-operation is essential for successful treatment. Clinicians should have knowledge about the purpose of the radiographic examination, suitable imaging modality for the cases, anatomic landmarks of tooth and jaw bone, advantage and limitation of panoramic radiographic examination for implant, principle and interpretation of cross-sectional imaging, bone mineral density, post-operative radiographic examination. This paper will be helpful to get above information for dentists who want to do dental implant successfully.

  18. Reference Neutron Radiographs of Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Reference neutron radiographs of nuclear reactor fuel were produced by the Euraton Neutron Radiography Working Group and published in 1984 by the Reidel Publishing Company. In this collection a classification is given of the various neutron radiographic findings, that can occur in different parts...... of pelletized, annular and vibro-conpacted nuclear fuel pins. Those parts of the pins are shown where changes of appearance differ from those for the parts as fabricated. Also radiographs of those as fabricated parts are included. The collection contains 158 neutron radiographs, reproduced on photographic paper...

  19. Hypointensity on postcontrast MR imaging from compression of the sacral promontory in enlarged uterus with huge leiomyoma and adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotani, Kensuke; Monzawa, Shuichi; Adachi, Shuji; Takemori, Masayuki; Kaji, Yasushi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2007-01-01

    In patients with huge leiomyoma and with adenomyosis of the uterus, a peculiar area of hypointensity was occasionally observed on postcontrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the dorsal portion of the enlarged uterus near the sacral promontory. We describe the imaging characteristics of these MR findings and correlate them with histopathological findings to examine whether the areas represent specific pathological changes. Ten patients with huge leiomyomas and two with huge adenomyotic lesions whose imaging revealed the hypointensity were enrolled. All had enlarged uteri that extended beyond the sacral promontory. MR findings of the hypointense areas were evaluated and correlated with histopathological findings in 5 patients with leiomyoma and two with adenomyosis who had hysterectomy. The ten patients with leiomyoma showed flare-shaped hypointensity arising from the dorsal surface of the uterine body that extended deep into the tumor. The base of the hypointense areas was narrow in 5 patients with intramural leiomyoma and broad in five with subserosal leiomyoma. Two patients with adenomyosis showed nodular-shaped areas of hypointensity in front of the sacral promontory. Precontrast T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MR images showed no signal abnormalities in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in any of the 12 patients. Pathological examinations showed no specific findings in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in the 7 patients who had hysterectomy. The areas of hypointensity may represent functional changes, such as decreased localized blood flow caused by compression of the sacral promontory. (author)

  20. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  1. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-04-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  2. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-01-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental oc...

  3. Hearing loss and enlarged internal auditory canal in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Saturnino; Domínguez, M Jesús; Cervera, Javier; Suárez, Alicia; Bueno, Antonio; Bartolomé, Margarita; López, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Among the temporal bone abnormalities that can be found in the etiological study of paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) by imaging techniques, those related to the internal auditory canal (IAC) are the least frequent. The most prevalent of these abnormalities that is associated with SNHL is stenotic IAC due to its association with cochlear nerve deficiencies. Less frequent and less concomitant with SNHL is the finding of an enlarged IAC (>8mm). Retrospective and descriptive review of clinical associations, imaging, audiological patterns and treatment of 9 children with hearing loss and enlarged IAC in the period 1999 to 2012. Two groups of patients are described. The first, without association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, consisted of: 2 patients with SNHL without other temporal bone or systemic abnormalities, one with bilateral mixed HL from chromosome 18q deletion, one with a genetic X-linked DFN3 hearing loss, one with unilateral hearing loss in neurofibromatosis type 2 with bilateral acoustic neuroma, and one with unilateral hearing loss with cochlear nerve deficiency. The second group, with association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, was comprised of: one patient with moderate bilateral mixed hearing loss in branchio-oto-renal syndrome, one with profound unilateral SNHL with recurrent meningitis, and another with profound bilateral SNHL with congenital hypothyroidism. The presence of an enlarged IAC in children can be found in different clinical and audiological settings with relevancies that can range from life-threatening situations, such as recurrent meningitis, to isolated hearing loss with no other associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. MRI of enlarged dorsal ganglia, lumbar nerve roots, and cranial nerves in polyradiculoneuropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, M.; Mukherji, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the MRI findings in four patients with a clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic polyradiculoneuropathies. In two examination of the lumbar spine showed enlarged nerve roots and dorsal ganglia, and similar findings were present in the cervical spine in a third. The cisternal portions of the cranial nerves were enlarged in another patient. MRI allows identification of enlarged nerves in hypertrophic polyradiculopathies. (orig.)

  5. Explosive (chemical) substances. 6. rev. and enlarged ed. Explosivstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R

    1985-01-01

    The sixth edition of this review manual again has been enlarged and actualized, the proved concept has been maintained. The text describes in large more than 550 items alphabetically, among them about 120 chemical compounds attributed with structure formulas and data. The properties, preparation procedures, and application possibilities of these substances and of about 70 additives, fuels and oxidants are presented for the reader. By nearly 1500 keywords in the index, English and French translations, and explanations of abbreviations, this book becomes a comprehensive and actual dictionary, not only for the specialist, but also for translators, interpreters, newspaper editors, and patent lawyers. (orig./HK).

  6. Principles of veterinary radiography. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.W.; Herrtage, M.E.; Williamson, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    This book by Douglas and Williamson about the physical-technical fundamentals of radiology in veterinary medicine was first published in 1977 and the second edition now available has been revised and enlarged. Part 1 gives coverage of the basic physical and technical requirements of the necessary equipment and installations as well as the laws governing radiation protection. In Part 2, exposure techniques and special examinations procedures are described in detail. Contrast-enhanced examinations are dealt with exhaustively. (orig./MG) With 166 figs., 10 tabs [de

  7. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  8. Coil embolization of an enlarging fusiform myxomatous cerebral aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Lazarow, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxomatous cerebral aneurysms are rare sequelae of cardiac atrial myxoma. These aneurysms are generally fusiform, multiple, and distal. Pathogenesis and evolution of these aneurysms is still debated. There are currently no guidelines on the management of aneurysms secondary to atrial myxoma. We present a case of a 52-year-old man with multiple fusiform aneurysms 3 years after resection of a left atrial myxoma. One of these aneurysms was followed with cerebral angiography and showed substantial interval enlargement. This aneurysm was subsequently embolized. All aneurysms were stable 6 months post-embolization. Keywords: Myxomatous aneurysm, Fusiform, Coil embolization

  9. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...... on questionnaires sent out to a wide researcher network in regions of an enlarged Europe, we found differences with regard to ‘input factors’ such as human resources, animal and laboratory facilities and national and international research funding and ‘output factors’ such as inter/national collaboration...

  10. Unusual presentation of hidradenitis suppurativa with massive enlargement of penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Steven M; Cespedes, R Duane

    2004-08-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease affecting the cutaneous apocrine glands and resulting in their obstruction. This enigmatic disease causes recurrent episodes of infection, edema, scarring, and fibrosis of surrounding tissues. We present the case of a 55-year-old man with two decades of inguinal hidradenitis suppurativa that resulted in extensive penile subcutaneous lymphedema and enlargement secondary to scarring and obstructive lymphadenopathy. Reconstructive phalloplasty to restore normal penile function was required. Minimal recurrent induration, normal cutaneous sensation, and normal voiding and erectile function were noted at 3 years of follow-up.

  11. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  12. Picture chamber for radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The picture chamber for a radiographic system is characterised by a base, a first electrode carried in the base, an X-ray irradiation window provided with an outer plate and an inner plate and a conducting surface which serves as a second electrode, which has a plate gripping it at each adjacent edge and which has at the sides a space which is occupied by a filling material, maintained at a steady pressure, by means of the mounting against the base and wherein the inner plate lies against the first electrode and which is provided with a split, and with means for the separation of the split in the area of the inner plate so that a fluid may be retained in the split. (G.C.)

  13. Radiographic techniques for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Katsuhei

    2007-01-01

    Since the differences in X-ray absorption between various breast tissues are small, a dedicated X-ray system for examination of the breast and a high-contrast, high-resolution screen/film system (SFM) (light-receiving system) are employed for X-ray diagnosis. Currently, however, there is a strong trend toward digital imaging in the field of general radiography, and this trend is also reflected in the field of mammographic examination. In fact, approximately 70% of facilities purchasing new mammography systems are now selecting a digital mammography system (DRM). Given this situation, this report reviews the differences between SFM and DRM and discusses the radiographic techniques and quality assurance procedures for digital mammography. (author)

  14. Gout: radiographic findings mimicking infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, I.; Raymond-Tremblay, D.; Cardinal, E.; Beauregard, C.G.; Braunstein, E.M.; Saint-Pierre, A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To describe radiographic features of gout that may mimic infection. Design and patients: We report five patients with acute bacterial gout who presented with clinical as well as radiological findings mimicking acute bacterial septic arthritis or osteomyelitis. Three patients had delay in the appropriate treatment with the final diagnosis being established after needle aspiration and identification of urate crystals under polarized light microscopy. Two patients underwent digit amputation for not responding to antibiotic treatment and had histological findings confirming the diagnosis of gout. Conclusion: It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the radiological manifestations of acute gout that can resemble infection in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and delay in adequate treatment. The definitive diagnosis should rely on needle aspiration and a specific search for urate crystals. (orig.)

  15. Radiographic study of the odontoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    The author studied clinically and radiologically 55 cases which had been diagnosed as odontoma in SNUDH. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In sex distribution, there was no prevalence in both sexes. And the incidence was the highest in the 2nd decade (16 patient, 29%). 2. There were 42 cases of compound odontoma (76%) and 13 cases of complex odontoma (24%). In most cases, compound odontoma was located at the anterior portion (34 cases, 81%) and complex odontoma at the posterior portions (9 cases, 69%). 3. There was no apparent clinical symptom in compound odontoma (83%), but in complex odontoma, 80% of cases show swelling. 4. The adjacent root resorption was not observed in any case. 5. Five cases radiographically diagnosed as cystic odontoma were not confirmed histopathologically.

  16. Radiographic inspection on offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sergio Damasceno; Sperandio, Augusto Gasparoni

    1994-01-01

    One of the great challenges for non-destructive inspection is on offshore platforms, where safety is a critical issue. Inspection by gammagraphy is practically forbidden on the platform deck due to problems to personnel safety and radiological protection. Ir-192 sources are used and the risk of an accident with loss of radioisotope must be considered. It is unfeasible to use gammagraphy, because in case of an accident the rapid evacuation from the platform would be impossible. This problem does not occur when X-ray equipment is used as the radiation source. The limited practicality and portability of the X-ray equipment have prevented its use as a replacement for the gammagraphy. This paper presents the preliminary tests to see the viable use of radiographic tests with constant potential on offshore platforms. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs, 3 photos

  17. Radiographic evaluation of hallux valgus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.L.; Hansen, S.T.; Kilcoyne, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the common preoperative and postoperative findings in hallux valgus, a common foot disorder of multiple etiologies, which can lead to significant foot pain and deformity. Little has been published in radiologic literature about the proper initial radiographic workup and the postoperative follow-up of this very common and very treatable cause of foot pain. Besides the primary findings of varus angulation of the first metatarsal and valgus angulation of the great toe, one may also see dorsal slaying of the first metatarsal head. As increased weight is borne by the central metatarsals, they may develop hyperostosis and stress fractures. Angular deformities of the hallux sesamoid joint and lesser toes may also be seen

  18. Pathology Assistant (C - Gamechanger Of Pathology Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asel Kudaybergenova

    2016-06-01

    When the competition ended, we received many favor- able reviews and we decided to start another project a little bit similar to the competition. Every month we show three interesting and difficult to diagnose cases provided by the leading Russian pathologists. The participants can look through the clinical data and digitized histological slides, and then discuss what they see among their professional society. There are 400  specialists  from  post  USSR countries.  Moreover, we get a few proposal of partnership to start a similar project in EU. And the last product in line is Pathology Assistant. It is a game changer. Pathology Assistant is a Digital Pathology©technology driven application for pathology diagnostics, tool to innovate pathology diagnostics in more simple, proven by analytical algo- rithm, automatically delivering anticipated support way. The service provides vast and structured database of validated cases, intuitive interface, fast and convenient system of analytical search. Pathology Assistant will streamline and simplify pathologist’s way to the right decision. Pathologists from Memorial Sloan Catering and biggest EU labs are working on preparing the con- tent for the project.  

  19. Glass Foreign Body Hand Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia, DO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 27-year-old female sustained an injury to her left hand after she tripped and fell on a vase. She presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of pain over the laceration. Upon examination, patient presented with multiple small abrasions of the medial aspect of the left 5thdigit that are minimally tender. Additionally, she has one 0.5cm linear laceration of the medial aspect of the 5thmetacarpal with severe tenderness in the area and palpable underlying foreign body. Significant findings: Left hand plain radiography demonstrated a subcutaneous foreign body medial to the 5thmetacarpal that is radiopaque, trapezoidal in shape, and measures approximately 11mm x 3mm. Discussion: Laceration repairs are amongst the most common procedures in the emergency department; however, consideration for foreign body is often underdiagnosed. Imaging is performed in only about 11% of all traumatic wounds in the ED.1 Of those injuries relating to the hand that are subsequently imaged, about 15% are found to have a foreign body.2,3 Additionally, it is estimated that foreign bodies are present in 7% to 8.7% of all wounds caused by glass objects.4,5 Glass is among the most common foreign bodies in lacerations, and fortunately they are radiopaque and relatively well visualized radiographically. It has been demonstrated that 2mm glass foreign bodies have a 99% detection rate with radiography, and 1mm glass foreign bodies an 83% detection rate.6 Patient perception of foreign body has a positive predictive value of 31%, making it a poor source in influencing clinical decision-making to obtain wound radiographs.3 Clinicians should have a high suspicion for foreign body in lacerations, particularly those caused by glass, and utilize close physical examination and imaging for evaluation. Topics: Radiography, glass, foreign body, trauma

  20. Conversion into numerical form of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappabianca, C.; Della Rocca, A.B.; Ferriani, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic means are widely used for non destructive testing. However, human and technological factors strongly influence reliability of the results and further use of these technique. Image Processing can help to overtake those difficulties if radiographic films are previously digitized. This paper shows methods and equipments used in this field. The system EDI (Enea Digital. Imagery) operating in Casaccia Energy Research Centre is described

  1. Dental Radiographs Ordered by Dental Professionals: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Even in resource limited settings dental caries is still the regular indication for taking dental radiographs, and periapical views are the most frequent type of radiograph ordered. Maxillary central incisors and mandibular molars were types of teeth commonly x-rayed mainly due to the aesthetic importance of the ...

  2. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Consultant breast radiographers: Where are we now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Zebby

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to: • Evaluate the current role of the consultant breast radiographer. • Compare current practice with the four key components for consultant practice. • Gauge the support of radiologist colleagues. • Determine the other professional commitments involved with the role. This study could be the precursor for a macro study of all consultant radiographer practice in other specialities. Methodology: Methodology used was a comparative ethnographic study. Questionnaires to the 24 consultant breast radiographers currently in post, and consultant breast radiologists, who work with them, were conducted. Data collection was a qualitative thematic approach. Conclusion: Consultant breast radiographers provide high quality care to patients through excellent clinical practice, leadership and good communication. However, this study shows hospital Trusts emphasis for non medical consultants is for clinical practice first. Some radiologists are still a barrier to progression for consultant breast radiographers, and radiologists have a big influence in recruitment decisions. Consultant breast radiographer posts are well established, their numbers are increasing through recognition of the role and of their abilities and performance. Consultant breast radiographers state that becoming a consultant is the major achievement of their career, proving the Society of Radiographers' vision of the four-tier career structure has been well received by the radiography profession

  4. Equipment for fully automatic radiographic pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, G.; Sperl, H.; Weinschenk, K.

    1977-01-01

    The patent describes a device for fully automatic radiographic testing of large pipes with longitudinal welds. Furthermore the invention enables automatic marking of films in radiographic inspection with regard to a ticketing of the test piece and of that part of it where testing took place. (RW) [de

  5. Radiographic arthrosis after elbow trauma: interobserver reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, A.; Karanicolas, P.J.; Bhandari, M.; Ring, D.; Kampen, A. van; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. METHODS: Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  6. Automatic Cobb Angle Determination From Radiographic Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Methods.

  7. Influence of radiographic contrast media on phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, F.; Georgsen, J.; Grunnet, N.; Aalborg Sygehus

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of radiographic contrast media (CM) on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PML), the ability of these cells to ingest latex particles after in vitro exposure to five different radiographic contrast media was investigated. All CM inhibited the phagocytic properties of PML. The inhibition was dose dependent. The inhibitory effect was partly due to hyperosmolality but CM specific inhibition was also evident. (orig.)

  8. Chest Radiographic Findings in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...

  9. Radiographic Arthrosis After Elbow Trauma: Interobserver Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, Anneluuk; Karanicolas, Paul Jack; Bhandari, Mohit; Ring, David; Allan, Cristopher; Axelrod, Terry; Baratz, Mark; Beingessner, Daphne; Cassidy, Charles; Coles, Chad; Conflitti, Joe; Rocca, Gregory Della; van Dijk, C. Niek; Elmans, L. H. G. J.; Feibe, Roger; Frihagen, Frede; Gosens, Taco; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Grosso, Elena; Harness, Neil; van der Heide, Huub; Jeray, Kyle; Kalainov, David; van Kampen, Albert; Kawamura, Sumito; Kloen, Peter; McCormac, Bob; McKee, Michael; Page, Richard; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Peters, Anil; Petrisor, Brad; Poolman, Rudolf; Richardson, Martin; Seiler, John; Swiontkowski, Marc; Trumble, Thomas; Wright, Thomas; Zalavras, Charalampos; Zura, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. Methods Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  10. Pathology of Gaucher's Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-01

    Jun 1, 1974 ... disability in 2 of them. One patient also developed restric- tive lung disease, presumably on the ... Brother of case 9; diagnosed as Gaucher's. 8500 g disease at age 6 yrs on basis of hepato- ... other siblings, one of whom is said to have an enlarged spleen. Estimations of ,a-glucosidase on lymphocytes from.

  11. Are chest radiographs routinely necessary following thoracostomy tube removal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacharn, Preeyacha; Heller, Daniel N.D.; Kammen, Bamidele F.; Bryce, Thomas J.; Bailey, Richard A.; Brasch, Robert C.; Reddy, Mohan V.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are routinely obtained at many institutions in all pediatric patients following thoracostomy tube removal to search for pneumothorax (PTX). To aid in evaluating the necessity of this practice, this study investigates whether clinical signs and symptoms may be a sensitive predictor of PTX in such patients. Materials and methods: Reports from CXRs obtained following chest tube removal in all pediatric patients (374 patients) who underwent cardiac surgery with chest tube placement over 1 year were reviewed. For cases with reported PTX, the PTX was quantified and chart review was performed to assess whether signs and symptoms of PTX preceded the CXR result. Results: Fifty-one of 374 children (13.6%) had a radiographically defined PTX within 6 h after thoracostomy tube removal. The PTX was large (>40%) in 2 children, moderate (20-40%) in 5 children, and small (<20%) in 44 children. Symptoms (dyspnea, tachypnea, respiratory distress) or signs (increased oxygen requirement, worsening arterial blood gas and/or hypotension) of respiratory distress were present at the time of the initial CXR in six of seven patients, who later underwent a major clinical intervention, and in one patient who did not. Major clinical interventions were performed in all patients with a large PTX, four of five patients with a moderate PTX, and one patient with a small PTX that later enlarged. Conclusions: Clinical signs and symptoms identified nearly all patients with significant pneumothoraces. Future prospective investigations may examine reserving chest radiography following chest tube removal for select groups, such as symptomatic patients or those with tenuous cardiovascular status. (orig.)

  12. Validity of radiographic assessment of ankylosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenvik, A.; Beyer-Olsen, E.; Aabyholm, F.; Haanaes, H.R.; Gerner, N.W.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy and sensitivity of radiographic assessments of reactive processes in dental tissues were evaluated by comparison of radiographs and histologic sections. Experimental lesions inflicted on the roots of 10 monkey incisors had been observed by means of serially obtained radiographs over a period of 315 to 370 days. The material was used for evaluation of radiographic assessment of ankylosis. For comparative purposes, assessment of the experimental lesion penetrating to the pulp and periapical radiolucency was added. True and falsely positive or negative recordings formed the basis for calculation of the accuracy and sensitivity of the radiographic assessment. The sensitivity, or the obsevers ability to detect the actual changes, was high for pulp penetration, intermediate for inflammation, and low for ankylosis. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Maehle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  14. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Lesley J., E-mail: l.forsyth@rgu.ac.u [School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom); Maehle, Valerie [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  15. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation.

  16. Enlargement gingival treatment on teeth 11 and 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Ghoni Tjiptoningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement in the interdental papillae, thickened, rounded gingival contour and discomfort became major issues that must be treated in order to be optimal appearance and function. Gingival enlargement that experienced fibrosis would not disappear with only plaque control, but required surgery that is gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. The 24-year-old woman came to the periodonsia clinic with complaints maxillary anterior gingiva swelled at teeth 11-21 with plaque index 52%. The depth of the tooth pocket 11: labial (mesial: 4, medial: 1, distal: 3. Palatal (mesial: 3, medial: 2, distal 1. The depth of the tooth pocket 21 is labial (mesial: 4, medial: 1, distal: 1, palatal (mesial: 3, medial: 1, distal 1. Gingivectomy treatment and gingivoplasty were performed with the aim of eliminating pockets and restore physiologic gingival contour which can help prevent the recurrence of the disease periodontal. In performing surgical gingivectomy and gingivoplasty, which must be considered is to minimize the disposal of gingival tissue to maintain the aesthetic, adequate access to the bone defect in order to make good corrections, and the minimization of bleeding and discomfort after surgery.

  17. The radiographic acromiohumeral interval is affected by arm and radiographic beam position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehringer, Edward V.; Rosipal, Charles E.; Rhodes, David A.; Lauder, Anthony J.; Feschuk, Connie A.; Mormino, Matthew A.; Hartigan, David E. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Omaha, NE (United States); Puumala, Susan E. [Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Preventive and Societal Medicine, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The objective was to determine whether arm and radiographic beam positional changes affect the acromiohumeral interval (AHI) in radiographs of healthy shoulders. Controlling for participant's height and position as well as radiographic beam height and angle, from 30 right shoulders of right-handed males without shoulder problems four antero-posterior (AP) radiographic views each were obtained in defined positions. Three independent, blinded physicians measured the AHI to the nearest millimeter in 120 randomized radiographs. Mean differences between measurements were calculated, along with a 95% confidence interval. Controlling for observer effect, there was a significant difference between AHI measurements on different views (p<0.01). All pair-wise differences were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (all p values <0.01). Even in healthy shoulders, small changes in arm position and radiographic beam orientation affect the AHI in radiographs. (orig.)

  18. CHANGING FROM WITHIN? THE INTRA-ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velibor JAKOVLESKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper opens up the black box of enlargement, focusing on how the intra-organizational relationships among the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, and the European Parliament affect the process of enlargement. Formally speaking, enlargement is an intergovernmental process, suggesting that member states are firmly in control of its outcomes. However, the EU’s supranational actors, specifically the European Parliament and European Commission also attempt to influence enlargement at various stages. I posit that the process of enlargement to the Western Balkans has evolved, influenced by changing constraints which are operating on the aforementioned actors. The added value of this work is in disaggregating the enlargement process based on its institutionalized relationships in both a vertical and horizontal dimension. It provides a supply-side argument for how enlargement policy has evolved from within the EU, rather than simply as a function of external factors.

  19. Digital subtraction radiographic evaluation of the standardize periapical intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo

    1993-01-01

    The geometrically standardized intraoral radiographs using 5 occlusal registration material were taken serially from immediate, 1 day, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after making the bite blocks. The qualities of those subtracted images were evaluated to check the degree of reproducibility of each impression material. The results were as follows: 1. The standard deviations of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were 4.9 for Exaflex, 7.2 for Pattern resin, 9.0 for Tooth Shade Acrylic, 12.2 for XCP only, 14.8 for Impregum. 2. The standard deviation of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were grossly related to those of the localized horizontal line of interest. 3. Exaflex which showed the best subtracted image quality had 15 cases of straight, 14 cases of wave, 1 case of canyon shape. Impregum which showed the worst subtracted image quality had 4 cases of straight, 8 cases of wave, 18 cases of canyon shape respectively.

  20. Progression and association with lameness and racing performance of radiographic changes in the proximal sesamoid bones of young Standardbred trotters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grøndahl, A.M.; Gaustad, G.; Engeland, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radiographic examination of the metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal joints was performed on 753 Standardbred trotters (6-21 months of age): 21 showed obvious changes in 26 proximal sesamoid bones on lateromedial projection. The radiographic changes were divided into 6 different types: (1) irregular abaxial margin (8 horses); (2) enlargement of the sesamoid bone (6 horses); (3) 'fracture' or separate centre of ossification of the apex (4 horses); (4) vertical, non-articular fracture of the plantar part of the sesamoid bone (1 horse); (5) a small bony fragment located in a defect in the apical part of the bone (2 horses); and (6) multiple areas of decreased radiodensity (1 horse). Each horse displayed only one type of radiographic change except for one which possessed those of types 3 and 5. Follow-up radiographic examination of 21 of the 26 affected proximal sesamoid bones at approximately 6-month intervals revealed a reduction in the changes in 13 bones and an unaltered condition in 8. Lameness examination was performed on 16 of the 21 horses at 3 years of age and 14 (87.5%) were observed to be lame, but detected lameness did not seem to be referrable to the sesamoid changes. Earnings after the racing season as 3- and 4-year-old horses showed no differences (P > 0.05) between horses with radiographic changes in the proximal sesamoid bones and those without such changes

  1. Full-Mouth Intraoral Radiographic Survey in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Adriana; Legendre, Loïc

    2017-09-01

    Dental pathologies are highly prevalent in pet rabbit populations, making oral radiography an essential tool in the evaluation of lagomorph dentitions. The unique anatomy of the rabbit's mouth limits the examination of the conscious animal to the rostral portion of it's mouth. In addition, the oral examination of an aradicular hypsodont tooth is restricted to the short coronal fraction of its crown. Erstwhile images obtained by the extraoral technique were once considered the most practical and informative tool in rabbit dentistry; however, limited visualization of the key structures of individual teeth became the major drawback of this technique. As new imaging technologies are becoming widely available and affordable for veterinarians, intraoral radiography offers the ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat oral pathologies in lagomorphs. This article describes a step-by-step procedure to obtain a full-mouth radiographic survey in rabbits. For this technique, a standard dental X-ray generator and intraoral storage phosphor plates are used while applying the bisecting angle technique. Among the advantages of this technique are detailed visualization of internal and external dental structures, identification of early lesions, and detection of occult pathologies. Furthermore, intraoral images offer superior resolution and higher diagnostic quality with minimal radiation exposure, making this method safer for the veterinarian, staff members, and their patients.

  2. Are chest radiographs justified in pre-employment examinations. Presentation of legal position and medical evidence based on 1760 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, S.C.; Krause, U.; Ladd, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    The legal and medical basis for chest radiographs as part of pre-employment examinations (PEE) at a University Hospital is evaluated. The radiographs are primarily performed to exclude infectious lung disease. A total of 1760 consecutive chest radiographs performed as a routine part of PEEs were reviewed retrospectively. Pathologic findings were categorized as ''nonrelevant'' or ''relevant.'' No positive finding with respect to tuberculosis or any other infectious disease was found; 94.8% of the chest radiographs were completely normal. Only five findings were regarded as ''relevant'' for the individual. No employment-relevant diagnosis occurred. The performance of chest radiography as part of a PEE is most often not justified. The practice is expensive, can violate national and European law, and lacks medical justification. (orig.) [de

  3. Spinal Schmorl's nodes: Sagittal sectional imaging and pathological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Opeskin, K.

    1999-01-01

    The presence, location and number of Schmorl's nodes was determined in the thoracolumbar spines of 70 motor vehicle accident victims using radiographic examination of a midline sagittal section and subsequent pathological examinations, including histology. In 28% of spines, a greater number of Schmorl's nodes were identified with radiography, while in 44%, pathological examination revealed a greater number of nodes. The visibility of Schmorl's nodes was enhanced by using a sagittal radiographic approach, and, in contrast to previous work, nodes below 0.5 cm 2 were readily detected. The results of the present study offer an additional imaging technique for postmortem analysis of the spine, and support the use of sagittal MR imaging for the evaluation of this condition. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Gamma radiographic exposure time indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risbud, V.H.; Thiagarajan, A.; Gangadharan, P.

    1979-01-01

    In industrial radiography, with the proper selection of source and film, the radiographic quality depends very much on the exposure time, which in turn depends upon the source strength and the source to film distance. Conventional methods to arrive at correct exposure time involve time consuming calculations and in these methods the knowledge of the above mentioned parameters is imperative. An instrument to determine the required exposure time has been developed which indicates exposure times in about 30 secs. This covers two commonly used gamma radiography sources, viz., 192 Ir and 60 Co and six commonly used radiography films of different speeds. Knowledge of source strength and source to film distance is not required with the use of this instrument. With a knowledge of the total exposure required by the film to give the required sensitivity and by the measurement of radiation level at the film location, the correct exposure time is determined. The radiation level is measured by placing a GM counter behind the radiographic specimen at the film location. To match the responses of the film and the GM counter, the counter is incorporated in a suitably designed probe. In this instruments, an integrator to integrate the GM-pulses and a constant current integrator (timer) are started simultaneously. The voltage at the GM-pulse integrator is compared with a preselected voltage, (selected on the basis of film type, source, source strength and order of object thickness) by a comparator. The comparator is so adjusted that when the GM-pulse integrator voltage exceeds the preselected voltage, it switches its state and stops the integration of constant current. The constant current integrator output which is proportional to the time taken for the GM-pulse integrator to reach the preselected voltage, is read on a meter graduated in terms of exposure time. The instrument can measure exposure times from 5 minutes to 10 hours read in two ranges, the range-changing being automatic

  5. Reporting by radiographers: a policy and practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Audrey M.; Price, Richard C.; Thomas, Adrian; Nuttall, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    Reporting by radiographers and other non-medical staff has developed considerably in the past decade, and especially so since the College of Radiographers published its vision paper on reporting by radiographers, in 1997. It was felt necessary, therefore, to develop guidance to assist radiographers and others undertaking radiographic reporting. The guidance provided includes guidance on planning and implementing a reporting service using reporting radiographers; the education, continuing education and support required by reporting radiographers; quality and standards related to reporting; and the nature of a report. Broader issues that will need to be addressed as reporting by radiographers becomes the norm are also raised

  6. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der; Spruijt, R.J.; Mosekilde, L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach's α>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  7. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spruijt, R.J. [Div. of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mosekilde, L. [Dept. of Cell Biology, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)

    1998-11-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach`s {alpha}>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  8. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugwell, Jenna; Maddison, Adele

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  9. Simple (unicameral) bone cyst of the calcaneus: a pathologic variant revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L Brannon; Steffensen, Thora; Walling, Arthur K; Gilbert-Barness, Enid

    2008-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital for surgery of an enlarging, painful mass of the left calcaneus. Preoperative imaging studies suggested either a simple (unicameral) or aneurysmal bone cyst. Intraoperative biopsy of the lesion revealed a simple bone cyst with extensive cholesterol clefts. Such cysts are not uncommon in the calcaneus. However, the pathology of this case is unusual and often overlooked. The typical presentation, treatment, and pathology of these lesions are reviewed.

  10. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs: A comparative plain film-reading performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskov, L.; Abild, A.; Christensen, A.; Holm, O.; Hansen, C.; Christensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital. Materials and methods: Plain radiographs of the appendicular skeleton from 1000 consecutive emergency room patients were included in the study: 500 primarily reported by radiographers and 500 by trainee radiologists. The final reporting was subsequently undertaken by a consultant radiologist in consensus with an orthopaedic surgeon. Two observers classified reports as either true positive/negative or false positive/negative based on the final report, which was considered the reference standard. To evaluate the severity of incorrect primary reports, errors were graded into three categories concerning clinical impact and erroneous reports graded as the most severe category were subsequently analysed. Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests were used to compare differences and associations between radiographers versus trainee radiologists regarding film reporting. Results: The sensitivity for correct diagnosis was 99% for reporting radiographers and 94% for trainee radiologists. The specificity was found to be 97% for reporting radiographers and 99% for trainee radiologists. Radiographers missed significantly fewer fractures (n = 2) than trainee radiologists (n = 14; p = 0.006) but had a higher, but not significant, degree of overcalling. No significant difference was found between groups regarding clinical impact of incorrect reporting. Conclusion: Trained radiographers report accident radiographs of the extremities with high accuracy and constitute a qualified resource to help meet increasing workload and demands in quality standards.

  11. A Digitally Programmable Differential Integrator with Enlarged Time Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Debroy

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Operational Amplifier (OA-RC integrator network is described. The novelties of the design are used of single grounded capacitor, ideal integration function realization with dual-input capability and design flexibility for extremely large time constant involving an enlargement factor (K using product of resistor ratios. The aspect of the digital control of K through a programmable resistor array (PRA controlled by a microprocessor has also been implemented. The effect of the OA-poles has been analyzed which indicates degradation of the integrator-Q at higher frequencies. An appropriate Q-compensation design scheme exhibiting 1 : |A|2 order of Q-improvement has been proposed with supporting experimental observations.

  12. The Staff Association (SA) in the Enlarged Directorate (ED) meeting!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The Vice-President and the President presented the plan of activities of the Staff Association for 2017 and expressed the Staff Association’s concerns at the meeting of the Enlarged Directorate (Directors and Heads of Departments and Units) on 3 April. Five topics were presented, starting with the implementation of the decisions made during the 2015 Five-Yearly Review. Five-Yearly Review – Follow-up (see Echo No. 257) 2016 – Key points of implementation Several changes were already implemented in 2016: review of the Staff Rules and Regulations in January 2016 for the diversity aspects, and in September 2016 to incorporate the new career structure and the new salary grid with grades; review of the Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 11) on the “Recognition of Merit”; placement in grades and provisional placement in benchmark jobs of all staff members; definition of guidelines for the 2017 MERIT exercise. The Staff Association was extensively involved in the...

  13. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-01-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T 3 -RU, T 3 , T 4 , TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

  14. Hemorrhage from an enlarged emphysematous bulla during commercial air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Li, Min-Hui; Yan, Horng-Chin; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary bullae are a common late complication in patients with emphysema. Non-communicating emphysematous bullae may expand during air travel when the ambient pressure is reduced, resulting in various forms of barotrauma including pneumothorax and air embolism. We report a 62-yr-old man with emphysema who developed hemoptysis during international commercial air travel. CT scan of the chest obtained after the travel showed air-fluid level in an enlarged bulla. He underwent resection of the bulla and had a full recovery. This is a unique presentation of stretch injury of a bulla as a form of pulmonary barotrauma occurring during commercial air travel. With the most recent ruling by the Federal Aviation Administration to allow patients with advanced chronic obstructive lung disease to travel by air with their own supplemental oxygen devices, physicians need to be aware of this type of pulmonary barotrauma and properly advise such patients who are planning to travel by air.

  15. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2014-01-01

    characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase......The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL...... methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST...

  16. An introduction to environmental law. 2. enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Mueller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The author outlines the environmental law in the Federal Republic of Germany and surveys the main legal regulations in the field of environmental protection. Inter alia he deals with problems of installations subject to permission and with legal questions of transfrontier environmental pollution. This second edition brings up to date or enlarges the first by information and facts concerning in particular the deficits in enforcement, informal acts of the administration, the protection of animals and endangered species of wild fauna and flora, the environmental impact statement, liability for environmental pollution, the problems involved in the management of waste found at abandoned industrial sites or dumps, radiological protection issues, and environmental protection provided by the EEC Treaty. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-08-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T/sub 3/-RU, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06.

  18. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkazik, Figen Basaran E-mail: demirkaz@dialup.ankara.edu.tr; Ariyuerek, O. Macit; Oezcelik, Ugur; Goecmen, Ayhan; Hassanabad, Hossein K.; Kiper, Nural

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P<0.0001) and clinical points (r=0.67, P<0.0001) of the Shwachman-Kulczycki system, FVC (r=0.71 P=0.004) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry.

  19. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirkazik, Figen Basaran; Ariyuerek, O. Macit; Oezcelik, Ugur; Goecmen, Ayhan; Hassanabad, Hossein K.; Kiper, Nural

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P 1 (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV 1 (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry

  20. Incidence of Radiographic Cystic Lesions Associated With Unerupted Teeth in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Sam G; Krakowski Volker, Mary; Luskin, Ira R

    2016-12-01

    Medical records and radiographs were retrospectively reviewed over a 3-year period (2012-2015) from dogs presented to a private dental referral practice. Medical records were evaluated for the diagnosis of impacted or embedded teeth. The identified dogs' radiographs were reviewed for the presence of radiographically significant cystic lesions that were associated with the impacted or embedded teeth. Radiographic criteria were established by the authors for the purposes of identifying cystic lesions in dogs of different breeds and sizes, using established indices from human dental pathology as a basis. When histopathology results were available, they were reviewed and reported. In this study, 136 dogs ranging in age from 3 months to 17 years were diagnosed with 213 unerupted teeth during the study period. There were 62 (29.1%) of the 213 radiographically apparent cystic lesions identified based on the criteria proposed in this study. In this study, 146 (68.5%) of the 213 unerupted teeth were identified as mandibular first premolar teeth. Histopathology was obtained on 28 (45.1%) of the 62 diagnosed cystic lesions. Dentigerous cysts accounted for 20 (71.4%) of the 28 cystic lesions. Brachycephalic breeds were overrepresented in this study. Boxer, pug, Shih Tzu, and Boston terrier dogs were most likely to present with cystic lesions associated with unerupted teeth. Seventeen (85%) of the 20 cases with a histopathologic diagnosis of dentigerous cyst were found within these 4 brachycephalic breeds.

  1. Unicystic Jaw Lesions: A Radiographic Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giju George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The unilocular radiolucencies remain the topic of much interest for the clinicians and histhopathologists for decades. Adequate use of diagnostic aids and careful observation will clinically help the dentist to arrive at a proper diagnosis and renders quality treatment to patients. Despite of the development of various cross-sectional imaging modalities, the radiograph still remains as the first and most important investigation. Jaw bone lesions, especially unilocular ones, are difficult to diagnose radiologically because of their similar radiographic appearance. It is, thus, very important for the clinician to have a sound knowledge of various radiographic features of the tooth and its supporting structures.

  2. A case of a found radiographic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucelj, B.; Korun, M.; Kavsek, D.; Kreft, Z.; Krizman, M.; Martincic, R.; Rosman, M.; Sutej, T.

    1996-01-01

    High dose-rate levels were detected outdoors in the vicinity of a bunker used for storage of radiographic sources in a plant which manufactures metallic products. The investigation revealed that radiation was due to a buried sealed radiographic source, containing 28 GBq of 137 Cs. A special republic radiological emergency team removed the source in a carefully planned operation. There was no evidence for overexposure of the population or of radiographic and other workers of the plant. The highest dose to the recovery team was 50 μSv

  3. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  4. Radiographic observation for tuberculous spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Se; Jung, Marn Kyoon; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Busan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-04-15

    Radiographic observation of 152 cases of tuberculous spondylitis selected from total 194 cases of tuberculous arthritis during the past 6 years and 8 months, was carried out to study. 1. The youngest one was 15 months old male infant of active tuberculous spondylitis. The active tuberculous spondylitis under 10 years of age were 50 percent (28 cases). 2. The ratio of male to female was 1.5:1 3. The most common site of involvement was the lumbar spine which was 44.1 percent of the total tuberculous spondylitis. The next were thoracic spine (33.6%), and thoraco-lumber spine (13.1%). 4. The most common roentgenographic findings are bony destructions of the vertebral bodies which were 97.4 percent. The next were joint space narrowing (93.4%), osteoporosis (79.6%), kyphosis (34.2%), fusion deformity of the vertebral body (25.7%), and cold abscess shadow (16.4%). 5. The most of patients (88.8%) had or have been pulmonary tuberculous lesions. 6. In annual incidence, the number of patients were not changed greatly.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographic features of peripheral enthesopathy at major sites in psoriatic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, P.S.; Porter, G.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that the defining difference between rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy (including psoriatic arthritis) is the initial pathological lesion where the emphasis in psoriatic arthritis is on the enthesis and in rheumatoid arthritis on the synovium. Classical radiological descriptions of seronegative spondyloarthropathy include enthesopathy at major entheseal insertions characterised by erosions and exuberant new bone formation. In this study, the plain radiographic features of spondyloarthropathy are compared between psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis. The CASPAR study collected clinical, radiological and laboratory data on 588 patients with physician diagnosed psoriatic arthritis and 525 controls with other inflammatory arthritis, 70% of which had rheumatoid arthritis. Plain radiographs of the pelvis and heels were part of the study protocol, although radiographs of other potential entheseal sites such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, were interpreted if available. All radiographs were read blind by two observers working in tandem. Significant differences in entheseal erosion and entheseal new bone formation were found between psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and other diagnoses (entheseal erosion, chi-squared 20.8, p = 0.008; entheseal new bone formation, chi-squared 24.5, p = 0.001). These differences were mainly due to a higher proportion of these features in ankylosing spondylitis. No differences in the plain radiographic features of enthesopathy were found between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis except in the case of entheseal new bone formation at sites of attachment of inguinal ligament, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles to the ilium (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.13-8.02). Very few subjects with symptomatic heel involvement had radiographic changes and minimal differences were found between those with and without

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographic features of peripheral enthesopathy at major sites in psoriatic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helliwell, P.S. [University of Leeds, Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal and Rehabilitation Medicine, Leeds (United Kingdom); Porter, G. [Airedale Hospital NHS Trust, Keighley, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    It has been proposed that the defining difference between rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy (including psoriatic arthritis) is the initial pathological lesion where the emphasis in psoriatic arthritis is on the enthesis and in rheumatoid arthritis on the synovium. Classical radiological descriptions of seronegative spondyloarthropathy include enthesopathy at major entheseal insertions characterised by erosions and exuberant new bone formation. In this study, the plain radiographic features of spondyloarthropathy are compared between psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis. The CASPAR study collected clinical, radiological and laboratory data on 588 patients with physician diagnosed psoriatic arthritis and 525 controls with other inflammatory arthritis, 70% of which had rheumatoid arthritis. Plain radiographs of the pelvis and heels were part of the study protocol, although radiographs of other potential entheseal sites such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, were interpreted if available. All radiographs were read blind by two observers working in tandem. Significant differences in entheseal erosion and entheseal new bone formation were found between psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and other diagnoses (entheseal erosion, chi-squared 20.8, p = 0.008; entheseal new bone formation, chi-squared 24.5, p = 0.001). These differences were mainly due to a higher proportion of these features in ankylosing spondylitis. No differences in the plain radiographic features of enthesopathy were found between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis except in the case of entheseal new bone formation at sites of attachment of inguinal ligament, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles to the ilium (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.13-8.02). Very few subjects with symptomatic heel involvement had radiographic changes and minimal differences were found between those with and without

  7. Acrolein Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Causes Airspace Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Masayuki; Natarajan, Ramesh; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the relative abundance and toxic potential of acrolein in inhaled cigarette smoke, it is surprising how little is known about the pulmonary and systemic effects of acrolein. Here we test the hypothesis whether systemic administration of acrolein could cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and lung cell apoptosis, leading to the enlargement of the alveolar air spaces in rats. Methods Acute and chronic effects of intraperitoneally administered acrolein were tested. Mean alveolar airspace area was measured by using light microscopy and imaging system software. TUNEL staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active caspase 3 and Western blot analysis for active caspase 3, and caspase 12 were performed to detect apoptosis. The ER-stress related gene expression in the lungs was determined by Quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Acrolein-protein adducts in the lung tissue were detected by IHC. Results Acute administration of acrolein caused a significant elevation of activated caspase 3, upregulation of VEGF expression and induced ER stress proteins in the lung tissue. The chronic administration of acrolein in rats led to emphysematous lung tissue remodeling. TUNEL staining and IHC for cleaved caspase 3 showed a large number of apoptotic septal cells in the acrolein-treated rat lungs. Chronic acrolein administration cause the endoplasmic reticulum stress response manifested by significant upregulation of ATF4, CHOP and GADd34 expression. In smokers with COPD there was a considerable accumulation of acrolein-protein adducts in the inflammatory, airway and vascular cells. Conclusions Systemic administration of acrolein causes endoplasmic reticulum stress response, lung cell apoptosis, and chronic administration leads to the enlargement of the alveolar air spaces and emphysema in rats. The substantial accumulation of acrolein-protein adducts in the lungs of COPD patients suggest a role of acrolein in the pathogenesis of emphysema. PMID:22675432

  8. Enlarging the underground hydroelectric plant at Villarino, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriard, L.L.

    1997-05-01

    Near the village of Villarino de los Aires, in the province of Salamanca, Spain, was an existing underground hydroelectric power plant. A major enlargement was undertaken to increase the electrical generating capacity, under a contract awarded to a joint venture of Dragados y Construcciones, S. A. (Spain), Entrecanales y Tavora, S. A. (Spain), and S.A. Conrad Zschokke (Switzerland). The enlargement required the excavation of a large and complex underground system of tunnels, shafts and chambers adjacent to existing facilities and interconnected with these facilities. The existing machine hall and transformer chamber were both extended, requiring the blasting of the existing end walls. The drilling, blasting and excavating of the underground system had to be done without damage to existing underground chambers and tunnels, or any of the existing structures, equipment or instrumentation facilities, often within just a few feet of the blasting. This required careful control of vibrations, airblast overpressures and dust. Because the only available non-electric detonating systems were found to be unreliable and unsafe, electric systems would be preferred if they could be used in a safe manner at this site. High electrical potentials existed at the site, and the facilities could not be shut down. Electrical fields were studied carefully, both in the underground environment and above the ground surface. Based on these results, it was concluded that electric detonators could be used if special blasting procedures were developed and followed. In accord with contracting practices of this Spanish agency, the contract was not awarded to the lowest bidder, but to the bidder who demonstrated the best understanding of the project and who presented the best technical proposal for conducting the work to a conclusion that would be satisfactory to the owner. The development of the technical proposal was a two-month effort for a technical group and support staff, prepared in Madrid.

  9. Temporal subtraction of dual-energy chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armato, Samuel G. III; Doshi, Devang J.; Engelmann, Roger; Caligiuri, Philip; MacMahon, Heber

    2006-01-01

    Temporal subtraction and dual-energy imaging are two enhanced radiography techniques that are receiving increased attention in chest radiography. Temporal subtraction is an image processing technique that facilitates the visualization of pathologic change across serial chest radiographic images acquired from the same patient; dual-energy imaging exploits the differential relative attenuation of x-ray photons exhibited by soft-tissue and bony structures at different x-ray energies to generate a pair of images that accentuate those structures. Although temporal subtraction images provide a powerful mechanism for enhancing visualization of subtle change, misregistration artifacts in these images can mimic or obscure abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether dual-energy imaging could improve the quality of temporal subtraction images. Temporal subtraction images were generated from 100 pairs of temporally sequential standard radiographic chest images and from the corresponding 100 pairs of dual-energy, soft-tissue radiographic images. The registration accuracy demonstrated in the resulting temporal subtraction images was evaluated subjectively by two radiologists. The registration accuracy of the soft-tissue-based temporal subtraction images was rated superior to that of the conventional temporal subtraction images. Registration accuracy also was evaluated objectively through an automated method, which achieved an area-under-the-ROC-curve value of 0.92 in the distinction between temporal subtraction images that demonstrated clinically acceptable and clinically unacceptable registration accuracy. By combining dual-energy soft-tissue images with temporal subtraction, misregistration artifacts can be reduced and superior image quality can be obtained

  10. Esophageal Lichen Planus: Clinical and Radiographic Findings in Eight Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschecker, Andreas M; Levine, Marc S; Whitson, Matthew J; Tondon, Rashmi; Rubesin, Stephen E; Furth, Emma E; Metz, David C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the clinical and radiographic findings of esophageal lichen planus. A search of computerized medical records identified 15 patients with pathologic findings of esophageal lichen planus on endoscopic biopsy specimens. Three other patients had presumed esophageal lichen planus, although no biopsy specimens were obtained. Twelve of these 18 patients (67%) had double-contrast esophagography performed at our institution; for eight of the 12 patients (67%), the studies revealed abnormalities in the esophagus. These eight patients constituted our study group. The barium esophagrams and medical records of these eight patients were reviewed to determine the clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings of esophageal lichen planus as well as the treatment and patient outcome. All eight patients were women (median age, 66.5 years), and all eight presented with dysphagia (mean duration, 3.2 years). Four patients had previous lichen planus that involved the skin (n = 1), the oral cavity (n = 2), or both (n = 1), and one patient later had lichen planus that involved the vagina. Five patients had a small-caliber esophagus with diffuse esophageal narrowing. The remaining three patients had segmental strictures in the cervical (n = 1), upper thoracic (n = 1), and distal thoracic (n = 1) esophagus. Esophageal lichen planus typically occurs in older women with longstanding dysphagia and often develops in the absence of extraesophageal disease. Barium esophagrams may reveal a small-caliber esophagus or, less commonly, segmental esophageal strictures. Greater awareness of the radiographic findings of esophageal lichen planus hopefully will lead to earlier diagnosis and better management of this condition.

  11. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  12. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-12-15

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  13. Superior and inferior vena cavae: Embryology, variants, and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.S.; Mitty, H.; Janus, C.; Gendal, E.; Berson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The superior and inferior venae cavae may be involved in a host of disease processes. Knowledge of the normal anatomy and variants of these structures is valuable in interpreting plain films and the results of angiographic procedures and all cross-sectional modalities. The authors review the embryology of venae cavae and proceed to describe their normal anatomy and variants. An awareness of the variants can prevent mistaking variants for pathologic processes. Finally, the authors describe pathology involving these vessels and demonstrate the radiographic manifestations

  14. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  15. Osteosarcoma with a pathologic fracture in a six-month-old dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, L.; Hager, D.; Parker, R.; Yanik, D.

    1986-01-01

    This case history report describes the clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of an osteosarcoma with an associated pathologic fracture in a 6-month-old dog. A 6-month-old intact male Bloodhound was presented with a primary complaint of a right forelimb lameness of one month's duration. In radiographs, a minimally displaced transverse fracture of the proximal humeral metaphysis was seen. There was extensive cortical bone destruction at the fracture site and minimal periosteal new bone suggestive of a primary bone tumor with a pathologic fracture. Biopsy specimens demonstrated neoplastic mesenchymal cells producing osteoid compatible with a diagnosis of osteosarcoma. This case history report constitutes the youngest reported canine osteosarcoma

  16. Radiographic symptoms of peripheral joints; Allgemeine radiologische Symptomatologie peripherer Gelenke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauser, Andrea Sabine [Medizinische Univ. Innsbruck (Austria). Bereich Rheuma und Sportbildgebung; Woertler, Klaus [TU Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Jaschke, Werner R. [Klinikum Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fur Klinische Radiologie

    2010-09-15

    Diagnosis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases is besides clinical parameters mainly based on the potential for differential diagnosis of radiographic symptoms obtained by systematic analysis. The initial analysis should emphasize which part of the joint is involved referring to synovial disease, cartilage disease or disease of the enthesis. Synovial arthropathies are assessed regarding soft tissue swelling, soft tissue opacification and the presence of erosions. Cartilaginous pathology is reflected by reduced or increased joint space, calcifications and subchondral bone changes. Enthesopathy is typically located at tendon-ligament and joint capsule attachment, where osteoproliferative but also erosive changes might occur. Lastly, differential diagnosis of arthropathies is mainly based on distribution and allocation of affected joints. (orig.)

  17. Radiographic features of appendiceal colic in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schisgall, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of appendiceal colic was introduced in 1980 to explain the common problem of recurrent crampy abdominal pain (RAP) in children. Children with appendiceal colic often have inspissated casts of stool as foreign bodies of the appendix. The radiographic findings of 115 children operated upon for appendiceal colic have been reviewed. The radiographic features of this syndrom have included: filling defects of the appendix (83% incidence of inspissated casts of stool within the appendix); partial filling of the appendix (44% incidence of fecal casts); retained barium behind 72 h (92% incidence of fecal casts blocking egress of barium); non-visualization of the appendix (42% incidence of fecal casts); and distention of the appendix (100% incidence of fecal casts). The correlation of radiographic and operative findings will be presented. A rational approach to the radiographic workup of a child with RAP will be presented. (orig.)

  18. The significance of radiology in the diagnosis of pyometra (endometritis post oestrum) in dogs: An evaluation of the correlation between radiographic and laboratoy findings in 131 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bree, H. van; Schepper, J. de; Capiau, E.

    1988-01-01

    In 131 bitches with proven pyometra or endometritis post oestrum (E. P. O.) a retrospective study of the lateral abdominal radiograph was carried out. In 31 (24%) of the cases (group 1) the uterine silhouette could not be perceived on the survey radiograph. In the other 100 cases (group 2) the uterus was clearly visible. Its diameter was measured and compared to the length of the second lumbar vertebra. The values for this ratio ranged between 0.4 and 3.5. The smallest uterine diameter perceived on the plain lateral abdominal radiograph measured 12 mm. Within group 2 the degree of uterine distension was significantly correlated with the number of white blood cells and the serum haptoglobin concentration. This correlation suggests a relation between the degree of uterine distension, the amount of uterine pus, the degree of uterine inflammation and the general inflammatory and stress reaction. Renal failure was more frequently observed in bitches with a greatly enlarged uterus than with a normal or only slightly enlarged uterus, although the degree of renal failure was not correlated to the uterine diameter. Within group 2 the closed type of pyometra was associated with a more enlarged uterus, but not with a higher leucocytosis [de

  19. Radiographers and radiologists reporting plain radiograph requests from accident and emergency and general practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brealey, S.D.; King, D.G.; Hahn, S.; Crowe, M.; Williams, P.; Rutter, P.; Crane, S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess selectively trained radiographers and consultant radiologists reporting plain radiographs for the Accident and Emergency Department (A and E) and general practitioners (GPs) within a typical hospital setting. METHODS: Two radiographers, a group of eight consultant radiologists, and a reference standard radiologist independently reported under controlled conditions a retrospectively selected, random, stratified sample of 400 A and E and 400 GP plain radiographs. An independent consultant radiologist judged whether the radiographer and radiologist reports agreed with the reference standard report. Clinicians then assessed whether radiographer and radiologist incorrect reports affected confidence in their diagnosis and treatment plans, and patient outcome. RESULTS: For A and E and GP plain radiographs, respectively, there was a 1% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 5) and 4% (95% CI -1 to 8) difference in reporting accuracy between the two professional groups. For both A and E and GP cases there was an 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their diagnosis based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 2% and 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their management plans based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 1% and 11% difference in effect on patient outcome of radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. CONCLUSION: There is the potential to extend the reporting role of selectively trained radiographers to include plain radiographs for all A and E and GP patients. Further research conducted during clinical practice at a number of sites is recommended

  20. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (proot resorption (proot resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  1. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected

  2. Pathological gambling and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela

    2009-09-01

    To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.

  3. Pathology annual. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies

  4. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, Peter [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Allerton Building, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.hogg@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, Dianne [Henwood Associates (South East) Ltd, Company Number: 513796, Registered Office: 2 Lakeview Stables, Lower St Clere, Kemsing, Kent, TN15 6NL (United Kingdom); Henwood, Suzanne [East Lancashire Primary Care Trust, Linden Business Centre, Linden Road, Colne. BB8 9BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills.

  5. Computing eye gaze metrics for the automatic assessment of radiographer performance during X-ray image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Bond, Raymond; Hughes, Ciara; McConnell, Jonathan; McFadden, Sonyia

    2017-09-01

    To investigate image interpretation performance by diagnostic radiography students, diagnostic radiographers and reporting radiographers by computing eye gaze metrics using eye tracking technology. Three groups of participants were studied during their interpretation of 8 digital radiographic images including the axial and appendicular skeleton, and chest (prevalence of normal images was 12.5%). A total of 464 image interpretations were collected. Participants consisted of 21 radiography students, 19 qualified radiographers and 18 qualified reporting radiographers who were further qualified to report on the musculoskeletal (MSK) system. Eye tracking data was collected using the Tobii X60 eye tracker and subsequently eye gaze metrics were computed. Voice recordings, confidence levels and diagnoses provided a clear demonstration of the image interpretation and the cognitive processes undertaken by each participant. A questionnaire afforded the participants an opportunity to offer information on their experience in image interpretation and their opinion on the eye tracking technology. Reporting radiographers demonstrated a 15% greater accuracy rate (p≤0.001), were more confident (p≤0.001) and took a mean of 2.4s longer to clinically decide on all features compared to students. Reporting radiographers also had a 15% greater accuracy rate (p≤0.001), were more confident (p≤0.001) and took longer to clinically decide on an image diagnosis (p=0.02) than radiographers. Reporting radiographers had a greater mean fixation duration (p=0.01), mean fixation count (p=0.04) and mean visit count (p=0.04) within the areas of pathology compared to students. Eye tracking patterns, presented within heat maps, were a good reflection of group expertise and search strategies. Eye gaze metrics such as time to first fixate, fixation count, fixation duration and visit count within the areas of pathology were indicative of the radiographer's competency. The accuracy and confidence of

  6. Early characteristic radiographic changes in mucolipidosis II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Lillian M. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Pediatric Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Lachman, Ralph S. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Pediatric Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); University of California, International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Although mucolipidosis type II has similar metabolic abnormalities to those found in all the mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidoses, there are distinctive diagnostic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II in the perinatal/newborn/infant period. To describe the early characteristic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II and to document when these changes manifest and resolve. We retrospectively reviewed radiographs and clinical records of 19 cases of mucolipidosis II from the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry (1971-present; fetal age to 21/2 years). A radiologist with special expertise in skeletal dysplasias evaluated the radiographs. The most common abnormalities were increased vertebral body height (80%, nonspecific), talocalcaneal stippling (86%), periosteal cloaking (74%) and vertebral body rounding (50%). Unreported findings included sacrococcygeal sclerosis (54%) and vertebral body sclerosis (13%). Rickets and hyperparathyroidism-like (pseudohyperparathyroidism) changes (rarely reported) were found in 33% of cases. These changes invariably started in the newborn period and resolved by 1 year of age. The conversion from these early infantile radiographic features to dysostosis multiplex changes occurred in 41% of cases, and within the first year after birth. Several findings strongly suggest the diagnosis of mucolipidosis II, including cloaking in combination with one or more of the following radiographic criteria: talocalcaneal stippling, sacrococcygeal or generalized vertebral body sclerosis, vertebral body rounding, or rickets/hyperparathyroidism-like changes in the perinatal/newborn/infancy period. These findings are not found in the other two forms of mucolipidosis nor in any of the mucopolysaccharidoses. (orig.)

  7. Early characteristic radiographic changes in mucolipidosis II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Lillian M.; Lachman, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    Although mucolipidosis type II has similar metabolic abnormalities to those found in all the mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidoses, there are distinctive diagnostic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II in the perinatal/newborn/infant period. To describe the early characteristic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II and to document when these changes manifest and resolve. We retrospectively reviewed radiographs and clinical records of 19 cases of mucolipidosis II from the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry (1971-present; fetal age to 21/2 years). A radiologist with special expertise in skeletal dysplasias evaluated the radiographs. The most common abnormalities were increased vertebral body height (80%, nonspecific), talocalcaneal stippling (86%), periosteal cloaking (74%) and vertebral body rounding (50%). Unreported findings included sacrococcygeal sclerosis (54%) and vertebral body sclerosis (13%). Rickets and hyperparathyroidism-like (pseudohyperparathyroidism) changes (rarely reported) were found in 33% of cases. These changes invariably started in the newborn period and resolved by 1 year of age. The conversion from these early infantile radiographic features to dysostosis multiplex changes occurred in 41% of cases, and within the first year after birth. Several findings strongly suggest the diagnosis of mucolipidosis II, including cloaking in combination with one or more of the following radiographic criteria: talocalcaneal stippling, sacrococcygeal or generalized vertebral body sclerosis, vertebral body rounding, or rickets/hyperparathyroidism-like changes in the perinatal/newborn/infancy period. These findings are not found in the other two forms of mucolipidosis nor in any of the mucopolysaccharidoses. (orig.)

  8. Radiographic manifestations of arthritis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Z.S.; Norman, A.; Solomon, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to familiarize the radiologist with a newly discovered association between arthritis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic findings in 31 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection referred to their rheumatology clinic with musculoskeletal complaints. The patients carried a wide range of clinical diagnosis including Reiter syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, undifferentiated seronegative arthritis, isolated enthesopathies, rheumatoid arthritis and osteonecrosis. Radiographs were available in 24 of the 31 patients, and in 20 they showed radiographic features of arthritis, which included soft-tissue swelling periarticular osteoporosis, synovial effusions, sacroiliitis, periosteal reaction, joint space narrowing, marginal erosions, and osteonecrosis. Although the radiographic abnormalities were frequently mild, they were significant, given the short duration of disease in many of their patients (weeks to months) at the time radiographs were obtained. The range of radiographic findings in their series was varied and paralleled the wide range of clinical diagnoses. No findings were pathognomonic for HIV-associated arthritis. Nevertheless, HIV infection needs to be considered in any patient belonging to a recognized risk group who presents with musculoskeletal disease. This is particularly important since immunosupressive drugs used for the treatment of arthritis can be detrimental to patients with HIV infection

  9. Radiation protection education and training of radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsakkers, P.

    1995-01-01

    The International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technicians (ISRRT) is an international non-governmental organisation in official relationship with the World Health Organization. Over 50 countries are members of the ISRRT. The ISRRT encourages and facilitates communication between radiographers throughout the world. The ISRRT has produced several documents, e.g. ''The Role of the Radiographer in Europe''. The ISRRT has also done research and developed initiatives to analyse the quality of training of radiographers in the different member states of the EC. Research was done in the member states to analyse the efforts in the field of quality control. An extended study was performed on the current level of education in radiation protection in the European member states. The ICRP recommends in its publications the need of good training and continuing education for all radiographers. An important part of the basic training of radiographers should focus on the performance of radiation protection and quality control tests. Good daily practice can decrease patient dose in many ways. (Author)

  10. Radiographic signs and diagnosis of dental disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellows, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dental radiographs are critical for the complete assessment and treatment of dental diseases. Dental radiography is commonly used to evaluate congenital dental defects, periodontal disease, orthodontic manipulations, oral tumors, endodontic treatments, oral trauma, and any situation where an abnormality is suspected. Although standard radiographic equipment and film can be used to produce dental radiographs, dental X-ray equipment and film provide superior quality images and greater convenience of animal patient positioning. An understanding of normal dental radiographic anatomy is important when interpreting dental radiographs. Stage III periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease at which radiographic abnormalities become apparent. Bone loss associated with periodontal disease can be classified as either horizontal or vertical. Periapical radiolucencies can represent granulomas, cysts, or abscesses, whereas periapical radiodensities may represent sclerotic bone or condensing osteitis. Lytic lesions of the bone of the jaw often represent oral neoplasms. Neoplasms also can displace or disrupt teeth in the dental arch. Resorptive lesions can be external or internal and appear as radiolucent areas involving the external surface of the root or the pulp cavity, respectively. Feline dental resorptive lesions, also known as odontoclastic resorptions, are a specific form of dental resorptive lesions unique to cats

  11. A radiographic study of pediatric ulnar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravino, Mattia; Oni, Julius K; Sala, Debra A; Chu, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The adult ulna has a unique bony architecture that has been described in the literature, but, to the best of our knowledge, the ulnar anatomy in children has not been described. We examined 75 anteroposterior (AP) and 64 lateral radiographs (29 were bilateral) of 50, 0.5- to 11-year-old, healthy children's forearms. On AP radiographs, the total ulnar length, the ulnar proximal angle, the ulnar distal angle, and the distance between each angle from the tip of the triceps insertion; and, on lateral radiographs, the ulnar length and bow deviation were measured. The correlation between age and radiographic measurements, differences based on sex, differences compared with adults' measurements, and interobserver/intraobserver reliability were assessed. Age had a very strong/strong positive correlation with length/distance measurements on both AP and lateral radiographs. Only AP ulnar distal angle was significantly different between sexes (females > males). Compared with the adult ulnar studies, the AP proximal angle in children is significantly smaller and the location of this angle is significantly more distal. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were very good for length/distance measurements on AP and lateral radiographs. The knowledge of pediatric ulnar anatomy could be helpful in the treatment of forearm deformities due to multiple hereditary exostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, and in the treatment of ulnar fractures, particularly in Monteggia variants, where restoration of the correct forearm anatomy is essential to obtain good clinical and functional results. Study of diagnostic test, Level II.

  12. Radiographer performed single contrast small bowel enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert L.; Slack, Nicola; Harvey, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the technical success and reporting sensitivity of radiographer performed small bowel enteroclysis (SBE) undertaken by a specialist radiographer according to a standard technique [Nolan DJ, Cadman PJ. The small bowel enema made easy. Clinical Radiology 1987;38(3):295-301]. Methods: Patients (1413) had 1646 SBE in 10 years from May 1992 to April 2002. The original request card and the separate radiographer and consultant radiologist reports were reviewed. Where the radiology reports were discordant or inconclusive, the clinical notes were also reviewed. Results: Patients (1022) X-ray films were available. Nine hundred and forty-three (93.3%) SBEs had been successfully completed. Radiographer and consultant radiologist reporting had a 99.3% concordance. There was a 98.4% sensitivity for Crohn's disease (181 of 184 cases where Crohn's disease was the clinical final diagnosis). Overall reporting sensitivity was 93.7% although correct 'probably normal and abnormal' reporting bias suggests a sensitivity of 96.9%. Sixty of 943 (6.4%) reports were inconclusive. Of 1022 patients, 68 (6.6%) of small bowel intubations were not achieved, or else consent was withdrawn at the time of the procedure. Conclusion: Specialist radiographers can perform small bowel enteroclysis with a reporting sensitivity equal to that of a consultant radiologist. Radiographers accustomed to providing an SBE service become skilled at passing fine bore feeding tubes into the small bowel and can provide this service also

  13. Comparison of lumbar lordosis in lateral radiographs in standing position with supine MR imaging in consideration of the sacral slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benditz, Achim; Boluki, Daniel; Weber, Markus; Grifka, Joachim; Voellner, Florian; Zeman, Florian

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the influence of sacral slope on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by standing radiographs and magnetic resonance images in supine position (MRI). Little information is available on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by radiographic and MR images. Most relevant studies have shown correlations for the thoracic spine, but detailed analyses on the lumbar spine are lacking. MR images and standing lateral radiographs of 63 patients without actual low back pain or radiographic pathologies of the lumbar spine were analyzed. Standing radiographic measurements included the sagittal parameters pelvic incidence (PI) pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS); MR images were used to additionally measure lumbar L1-S1 lordosis and single level lordosis. Differences between radiographic and MRI measurements were analyzed and divided into 4 subgroups of different sacral slope according to Roussouly's classification. Global lumbar lordosis (L1-S1) was 44.99 (± 10754) on radiographs and 47.91 (±9.170) on MRI, yielding a clinically relevant correlation (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). Measurements of single level lordosis only showed minor differences. At all levels except for L5 / S1, lordosis measured by means of standing radiographs was higher than that measured by MRI. The difference in global lumbar L1-S1 lordosis was -2.9 . Analysis of the Roussouly groups showed the largest difference for L1-S1 (-8.3 ) in group 2. In group 4, when measured on MRI, L5 / S1 lordosis (25.71 ) was lower than L4 / L5 lordosis (27.63 ) compared to the other groups. Although measurements of global lumbar lordosis significantly differed between the two scanning technologies, the mean difference was just 2.9 . MRI in supine position may be used for estimating global lumbar lordosis, but single level lordosis should be determined by means of standing radiographs.

  14. Comparison of lumbar lordosis in lateral radiographs in standing position with supine MR imaging in consideration of the sacral slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benditz, Achim; Boluki, Daniel; Weber, Markus; Grifka, Joachim; Voellner, Florian [Regensburg Univ. Medical Center (Germany). Orthopedic Surgery; Zeman, Florian [Regensburg Univ. Medical Center (Germany). Center for Clinical Studies

    2017-03-15

    To investigate the influence of sacral slope on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by standing radiographs and magnetic resonance images in supine position (MRI). Little information is available on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by radiographic and MR images. Most relevant studies have shown correlations for the thoracic spine, but detailed analyses on the lumbar spine are lacking. MR images and standing lateral radiographs of 63 patients without actual low back pain or radiographic pathologies of the lumbar spine were analyzed. Standing radiographic measurements included the sagittal parameters pelvic incidence (PI) pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS); MR images were used to additionally measure lumbar L1-S1 lordosis and single level lordosis. Differences between radiographic and MRI measurements were analyzed and divided into 4 subgroups of different sacral slope according to Roussouly's classification. Global lumbar lordosis (L1-S1) was 44.99 (± 10754) on radiographs and 47.91 (±9.170) on MRI, yielding a clinically relevant correlation (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). Measurements of single level lordosis only showed minor differences. At all levels except for L5 / S1, lordosis measured by means of standing radiographs was higher than that measured by MRI. The difference in global lumbar L1-S1 lordosis was -2.9 . Analysis of the Roussouly groups showed the largest difference for L1-S1 (-8.3 ) in group 2. In group 4, when measured on MRI, L5 / S1 lordosis (25.71 ) was lower than L4 / L5 lordosis (27.63 ) compared to the other groups. Although measurements of global lumbar lordosis significantly differed between the two scanning technologies, the mean difference was just 2.9 . MRI in supine position may be used for estimating global lumbar lordosis, but single level lordosis should be determined by means of standing radiographs.

  15. The analysis of initial cranial CT of early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    BEI Yu-zhang; CHEN Ben-yang; QI Hao-bo; ZHOU Zheng-ping; LI Yu-bo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive effect of initial cranial CT on early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods Three hundred patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 6 hours after onset were studied. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to detect the related factors which may indicate hematoma enlargement. Results Sixty-one (20.33% ) patients presented hematoma enlargement on cranial CT. Single factor and multivariate...

  16. Analysis of the number of enlarged pores according to site, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Ahn, J Y; Lee, J I; Bae, J Y; Kim, H L; Suh, H Y; Youn, J I; Park, M Y

    2018-02-02

    Increasing the number of enlarged pores causes cosmetic problems. The difference in the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex is unclear. To analyze the distribution of the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex. We analyzed the number of the enlarged pores and the percentage of wrinkles in the nose, forehead, and cheek from 434 polarized images. The measurement results were analyzed according to site, age, and sex. Relationship between enlarged pore counts and wrinkle severity was also analyzed. The study was conducted by using DermaVision,™ which can take cross-polarization, parallel polarization, and ultraviolet light images. The enlarged pores of the nose and forehead were more prominent than in the cheeks. Pore counts were increased with age, and the increment was significant between the 30's and 40's. There was no significant difference by gender. Enlarged pore counts were related to wrinkle severity. The number of enlarged pores differs depending on body site and increased with age. The enlarged pore counts correlate with wrinkle severity and the correlation varies depending on the body site. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Amygdala enlargement: Temporal lobe epilepsy subtype or nonspecific finding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Anny; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; McDonald, Carrie R; Jackson, Graeme D; Vaughan, David N; Blackmon, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Amygdala enlargement (AE) is observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which has led to the suggestion that it represents a distinct TLE subtype; however, it is unclear whether AE is found at similar rates in other epilepsy syndromes or in healthy controls, which would limit its value as a marker for focal epileptogenicity. We compared rates of AE, defined quantitatively from high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, in a large multi-site sample of 136 patients with nonlesional localization related epilepsy (LRE), including TLE and extratemporal (exTLE) focal epilepsy, 34 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and 233 healthy controls (HCs). AE was found in all groups including HCs; however, the rate of AE was higher in LRE (18.4%) than in IGE (5.9%) and HCs (6.4%). Patients with unilateral LRE were further evaluated to compare rates of concordant ipsilateral AE in TLE and exTLE, with the hypothesis that rates of ipsilateral AE would be higher in TLE. Although ipsilateral AE was higher in TLE (19.4%) than exTLE (10.5%), this difference was not significant. Furthermore, among the 25 patients with unilateral LRE and AE, 13 (52%) had either bilateral AE or AE contralateral to seizure onset. Results suggest that AE, as defined with MRI volumetry, may represent an associated feature of nonlesional localization related epilepsy with limited seizure onset localization value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Field-Theoretic Weyl Deformation Quantization of Enlarged Poisson Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Schlafer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available C*-algebraic Weyl quantization is extended by allowing also degenerate pre-symplectic forms for the Weyl relations with infinitely many degrees of freedom, and by starting out from enlarged classical Poisson algebras. A powerful tool is found in the construction of Poisson algebras and non-commutative twisted Banach-*-algebras on the stage of measures on the not locally compact test function space. Already within this frame strict deformation quantization is obtained, but in terms of Banach-*-algebras instead of C*-algebras. Fourier transformation and representation theory of the measure Banach-*-algebras are combined with the theory of continuous projective group representations to arrive at the genuine C*-algebraic strict deformation quantization in the sense of Rieffel and Landsman. Weyl quantization is recognized to depend in the first step functorially on the (in general infinite dimensional, pre-symplectic test function space; but in the second step one has to select a family of representations, indexed by the deformation parameter h. The latter ambiguity is in the present investigation connected with the choice of a folium of states, a structure, which does not necessarily require a Hilbert space representation.

  19. Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Growing plant cells are shaped by an extensible wall that is a complex amalgam of cellulose microfibrils bonded noncovalently to a matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and structural proteins. Cellulose is synthesized by complexes in the plasma membrane and is extruded as a self-assembling microfibril, whereas the matrix polymers are secreted by the Golgi apparatus and become integrated into the wall network by poorly understood mechanisms. The growing wall is under high tensile stress from cell turgor and is able to enlarge by a combination of stress relaxation and polymer creep. A pH-dependent mechanism of wall loosening, known as acid growth, is characteristic of growing walls and is mediated by a group of unusual wall proteins called expansins. Expansins appear to disrupt the noncovalent bonding of matrix hemicelluloses to the microfibril, thereby allowing the wall to yield to the mechanical forces generated by cell turgor. Other wall enzymes, such as (1-->4) beta-glucanases and pectinases, may make the wall more responsive to expansin-mediated wall creep whereas pectin methylesterases and peroxidases may alter the wall so as to make it resistant to expansin-mediated creep.

  20. Reconstruction of deformities resulting from penile enlargement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, G J

    1997-12-01

    More than 30 patients presented for reconstruction of penile deformities secondary to penile enlargement surgery performed by other physicians. Lengthening was performed by releasing the suspensory ligament of the penis and advancing pubic skin with a V-Y advancement flap. Girth was increased by injecting autologous fat. Specific complaints relating to the lengthening procedure involve hypertrophic and/or wide scars, a proximal penile hump from a thick, hair-bearing V-Y flap, and a low hanging penis. Complications relating to autologous fat injections include disappearance of fat, penile lumps and nodules, and shaft deformities. The repair of these deformities is described. From 1994 through October 1996, 19 men underwent 24 various combinations of reconstructive operations, such as scar revisions, V-Y advancement flap reversal, and removal of fat nodules and asymmetrical fat deposits. Penile appearance and function were improved. Complications include 1 hematoma requiring drainage, minor wound complications and 1 inadequately reversed V-Y flap. The methods of various repairs are discussed, including reconstructive limitations, timing and staging. Significant improvement can be achieved with proper reconstruction of penile deformities.

  1. Chest radiograph interpretation by medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, D.R.; Goddard, P.R.; Callaway, M.P.; Greenwood, R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of final year medical students to interpret conventional chest radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten conventional chest radiographs were selected from a teaching hospital radiology department library that were good radiological examples of common conditions. All were conditions that a medical student should be expected to recognize by the end of their training. One normal radiograph was included. The radiographs were shown to 52 final year medical students who were asked to describe their findings. RESULTS: The median score achieved was 12.5 out of 20 (range 6-18). There was no difference between the median scores of male and female students (12.5 and 12.3, respectively, p=0.82) but male students were more likely to be certain of their answers than female students (median certainty scores 23.0 and 14.0, respectively). The overall degree of certainty was low. On no radiograph were more than 25% of students definite about their answer. Students had received little formal radiology teaching (2-42 h, median 21) and few expressed an interest in radiology as a career. Only two (3.8%) students thought they were good at interpreting chest radiographs, 17 (32.7%) thought they were bad or awful. CONCLUSION: Medical students reaching the end of their training do not perform well at interpreting simple chest radiographs. They lack confidence and have received little formal radiological tuition. Perhaps as a result, few are interested in radiology as a career, which is a matter for concern in view of the current shortage of radiologists in the UK

  2. Radiographic evaluation of the maxillary sinus prior to dental implant therapy: A comparison between two dimensional and three dimensional radiographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Fung, Karen; Thacker, Sejal; Mahdian, Mina; Jadhaw, Aniket; Schincaglia, Gian Pietro [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting sinus pathology. This study was based on a retrospective evaluation of patients who had undergone both a panoramic radiograph and a CBCT exam. A total of 100 maxillary sinuses were evaluated. Four examiners with various levels of expertise evaluated the images using a five-point scoring system. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the two modalities. The image analysis was repeated twice, with at least two weeks between the evaluation sessions. Interobserver reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, and intraobserver reliability was assessed using Cohen's kappa. Maxillary sinus pathology was detected in 72% of the patients. High interobserver and intraobserver reliability were observed for both imaging modalities and among the four examiners. Statistical analyses using ROC curves demonstrated that the CBCT images had a larger area under the curve (0.940) than the panoramic radiographs (0.579). Three-dimensional evaluation of the sinus with CBCT was significantly more reliable in detecting pathology than panoramic imaging.

  3. Pathologic-HRCT correlation of pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakata, Keiko

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to detect pneumoconiotic changes, HRCT findings were correlated with pathologic features of 14 inflation-fixed postmortem lungs. The most common pathological feature in all the lungs was irregular peribronchiolar and interlobular fibrosis. This corresponded to an area of hazy increased density or reticular density on HRCT. Although the reticular density on HRCT became coarser with the progression of fibrosis. HRCT failed to detect mild fibrosis. Subpleural curvilinear line, as seen on HRCT in 5 lungs, corresponded to band-like zone of fibrosis containing bronchioles or zone of collapsed alveoli with fibrotic thickening. A subpleural band-like zone of organized pneumonia was recognized in 2 cases. Subpleural patchy density was seen on HRCT in 8 cases, pathologically corresponding to fibrosis in 5, and localized edema, organized pneumonia, and atelectasis without fibrosis in the other one each. Overall, HRCT was capable of detecting nodules in 71% (182/256); however, it failed to show nodules smaller than 1.5 mm in 63% (52/83). Enlarged air space at the periphery of the nodules was seen on HRCT in 78% (122/156). A total of 12 lesions of progressive massive fibrosis were found in 5 lungs. An irregular border, as seen on HRCT in all lesions, was pathologically based on the fibrosis extending into the surrounding alveoli and partially confluencing pneumoconiotic micronodules. Patent residual bronchi, spared from destructive fibrotic change, were seen as strand-like air density on HRCT in 4 of 6 lesions. Focal emphysema, found in 9 lungs, appeared as non-peripheral, small low-attenuation area with a central dot on HRCT. The detectable size on HRCT was 2.0 mm. Emphysema comlicated by pneumonia was seen as honeycomb appearance on HRCT. Thus, HRCT proved to be useful in detecting and quantifying various pneumoconiotic changes of the lung. (N.K.)

  4. Australian rural radiographers' perspectives on disclosure of their radiographic opinion to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squibb, Kathryn; Bull, Rosalind M.; Smith, Anthony; Dalton, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The role of Australian rural radiographers in radiographic interpretation, communication and disclosure of their radiographic opinion with a specific focus on plain film radiography was examined in a two phase, exploratory interpretive study. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews and analysed thematically. This reports one of the key themes identified in the thematic data analysis. ‘Disclosure of Radiographic Opinion to Patients’ comprises the three interrelated sub-themes Acting Ethically, Selective Disclosure and Filtered Truth. It is wholly concerned with the ways in which rural radiographers choose to disclose their radiographic opinion to patients. Without a clear picture of where they stand medico-legally, rural radiographers draw on experience and a strong ethical framework as the basis for these complex decisions. Rural radiographers frame their disclosures to patients in a manner that is governed by the diagnostic, therapeutic and emotional impact the information disclosed may have on the patient. Disclosure to patients was found to be selective, often diagnostically vague and ethically filtered

  5. Radiographic testing - optimum radiographs of plastics and composite materials with dosimeter control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wavelength radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  6. Changes in jawbones of male patients with chronic renal failure on digital panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagistan, Saadettin; Miloglu, Ozkan; Caglayan, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    To compare the existence of gonial cortical bone thickness, antegonial index, mandibular canal bone resorption and gonial angle values and pathologies like ground-glass appearance in jawbones and brown tumor in male patients undergoing dialysis due to chronic renal failure and men from the healthy control group on panoramic radiographs. Panoramic radiographs were taken from 80 male individuals in total (40 normal and 40 dialysis patients). Values obtained from the right and left sides of the mandible were summed and their means were calculated. Gonial cortical thickness, antegonial index and gonial angle values were assessed with the Student's t-test, mandibular canal wall resorption with the Chi-square test, and pathologies such as ground-glass appearance and Brown tumor as "available" or "not available." Statistically significant differences were observed among the antegonial index (P chronic renal failure. Although it is not statistically significant, pathology with ground-glass appearance was detected in a patient, but no pathologies like brown tumor were observed. These findings from patients with chronic renal failure must be evaluated in panoramic radiography.

  7. Your Pathology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pathology Tests Breast Cancer News February 20, 2013 Star-gazing software helps fight breast cancer See More ... Phone: (855) 807-6386 email Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Contact Us Privacy Policy Site Credits Terms of ...

  8. Stem Cell Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  9. Usefulness of MR imaging in pathologic fracture of long bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyo Soon; Park, Jin Gyoon; Song, Jae Min; Chung, Tae Woong; Yoon, Woong; Kang, Heoung Kyun

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging of pathologic fractures of the long bones. In 18 patients aged between four and 75 (mean, 25.8) years with histologically confirmed pathologic fractures of the long bones, plain radiographs and MR images were retrospectively analyzed. The former were examined with regard to location and type of fracture, and the presence or absence of underlying disease causing fracture; and the latter in terms of underlying disease, extraosseous mass formation, and soft tissue change. The long bones involved were the femur in nine patients, the humerus in six, and the tibia in three. Underlying diseases were metastatic tumor (n=6), benign bone tumor (n=5), primary malignant bone tumor (n=4), osteomyelitis (n=2), and eosinophilic granuloma (n=1). Plain radiographs showed the fracture site as the metaphysis in ten cases, the disphysis in five, and the metadisphysis in one. Fractures were either transverse (n=10), oblique (n=3), spiral (n=1), vertical (n=1), or telescopic (n=1). In two cases, the fracture line was not visible. MR images revealed underlying diseases in all cases. Two benign bone tumors took the form of a cystic mass, hematoma was seen in three cases. Where pathologic fracture of a long bone had occurred, or a pathologic fracture in which the findings of plain radiography were equivocal, MR imaging was useful for evaluating the pattern and extent of an underlying lesion

  10. Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Rajeev; Vaideeswar Pradeep; Pandit Shobhana

    2008-01-01

    Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patien...

  11. Radiographic study on temporomandibular joint Arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The author analysed the routine radiographic changes and clinical symptoms of 205 cases of temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The clinical symptoms of the patients were classified and the morphological changes of condylar head, articular eminence, and articular fossa were analyzed and discussed from radiographic view point. The positional change of condylar head and articular fossa relation in TMJ arthrosis were observed. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of complaints and the site of the abnormal images which could be detected were examined. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Bone erosion, deformity, marginal proliferation and sclerosis were selected from many abnormal images as the radiographic diagnostic criteria of TMJ arthritic lesions. 2. Abnormal radiographic findings were revealed in 150 cases (73.9%) of 205 total TMJ arthrosis cases and site with abnormal findings coincided with the site of complaints in 105 cases (70.7%) of 150 cases and coincidence rates were higher above fourth decades than below third decades. 3. Sclerosis of the abnormal radiographic findings could be found more often below third decades than above fourth decades. 4. The positional changes of condylar head were revealed in 176 cases (85.9%) of 205 total cases. 5. Pain complaints were revealed in 170 cases(82.9%) and clicking sounds were revealed in 120 cases (58.6%) of clinical symptoms of TMJ arthrosis. 6. No tendency was found so far the differential diagnosis between pain dysfunction syndrome and osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  12. Radiographic study on temporomandibular joint Arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo

    1980-01-01

    The author analysed the routine radiographic changes and clinical symptoms of 205 cases of temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The clinical symptoms of the patients were classified and the morphological changes of condylar head, articular eminence, and articular fossa were analyzed and discussed from radiographic view point. The positional change of condylar head and articular fossa relation in TMJ arthrosis were observed. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of complaints and the site of the abnormal images which could be detected were examined. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Bone erosion, deformity, marginal proliferation and sclerosis were selected from many abnormal images as the radiographic diagnostic criteria of TMJ arthritic lesions. 2. Abnormal radiographic findings were revealed in 150 cases (73.9%) of 205 total TMJ arthrosis cases and site with abnormal findings coincided with the site of complaints in 105 cases (70.7%) of 150 cases and coincidence rates were higher above fourth decades than below third decades. 3. Sclerosis of the abnormal radiographic findings could be found more often below third decades than above fourth decades. 4. The positional changes of condylar head were revealed in 176 cases (85.9%) of 205 total cases. 5. Pain complaints were revealed in 170 cases(82.9%) and clicking sounds were revealed in 120 cases (58.6%) of clinical symptoms of TMJ arthrosis. 6. No tendency was found so far the differential diagnosis between pain dysfunction syndrome and osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  13. Radiographers' preconditions for evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Liikanen, Eeva

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential in today's health care, but its establishment requires several preconditions from individuals and organizations (e.g. knowledge, understanding, attitudes, abilities, self-confidence, support, and resources). Previous studies suggest that radiographers do generate and use evidence in their work, but evidence-based radiography (EBR) is not yet used routinely as established practice, especially in terms of research utilization. This paper aims to describe radiographers' preconditions for EBR, and their participation in research activities. Main focus is on research utilization. Using an electronic questionnaire developed for this study, a survey was conducted: data collected from Finnish radiographers and radiotherapists (N = 438) were analysed both statistically and qualitatively. The final response rate was 39%. The results suggest radiographers' preconditions for EBR to consist of knowledge of research, significance of research activities, research-orientated way of working, and support. In addition, adequate resourcing is essential. Reading scientific journals, participation in research activities, a higher degree of education, and senior post seem to be significant promoters of EBR and research utilization. The results support the notion that EBR, and especially research utilization, are not yet well-established in Finland, and radiographers' viewpoints concerning the role and significance of research evidence and research activities still seem to vary.

  14. Normal and pathological breast, the histological basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinebretiere, J.M. [Department of Pathology, Centre Rene-Huguenin, 35 rue Dailly, 92210 Saint Cloud (France)]. E-mail: jm.guinebretiere@stcloud-huguenin.org; Menet, E. [Department of Pathology, Centre Rene-Huguenin, 35 rue Dailly, 92210 Saint Cloud (France); Tardivon, A. [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Cherel, P. [Department of Radiology, Centre Rene-Huguenin, 35 rue Dailly, 92210 Saint Cloud (France); Vanel, D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2005-04-01

    Breast tissue is heterogeneous, associating connective and glandular structures, which grow and change cyclically under hormonal regulation. Hormones are also thought to be the main determinant of the major benign and malignant pathologies encountered in the breast. Benign lesions are more frequent and fibrocystic changes are by far the most common among them. They usually associate different entities (adenosis, fibrosis, cysts and hyperplasia) but vary in intensity and extension. Thus, their clinical and radiographic presentation is extremely different from one patient to another. Adenofibroma is the most frequent tumour. It also undergoes modifications according to hormonal conditions. About 90% of malignant tumours are primary carcinoma. The incidence of intra-ductal carcinoma has risen dramatically since the development of screening because of its ability to induce calcification. Two mechanisms could be involved in the formation of calcification: one active (tumour cell secretion of vesicles), the other passive (necrotic cell fragments are released). Invasive carcinoma comprises numerous histological types. Stromal reactions essentially determines their shape: a fibrous reaction commonly found in ductal carcinoma creates a stellate lesion while other stroma, inflammatory (medullary carcinoma), vascular (papillary carcinoma) or mucinous determine nodular lesions whose borders push the surrounding tissue. The histological features which give rise to the radiographic pattern will be emphasised.

  15. Comparison of Lumbar Lordosis in Lateral Radiographs in Standing Position with supine MR Imaging in consideration of the Sacral Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benditz, Achim; Boluki, Daniel; Weber, Markus; Zeman, Florian; Grifka, Joachim; Völlner, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Purpose  To investigate the influence of sacral slope on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by standing radiographs and magnetic resonance images in supine position (MRI). Little information is available on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by radiographic and MR images. Most relevant studies have shown correlations for the thoracic spine, but detailed analyses on the lumbar spine are lacking. Methods  MR images and standing lateral radiographs of 63 patients without actual low back pain or radiographic pathologies of the lumbar spine were analyzed. Standing radiographic measurements included the sagittal parameters pelvic incidence (PI) pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS); MR images were used to additionally measure lumbar L1-S1 lordosis and single level lordosis. Differences between radiographic and MRI measurements were analyzed and divided into 4 subgroups of different sacral slope according to Roussouly's classification. Results  Global lumbar lordosis (L1-S1) was 44.99° (± 10 754) on radiographs and 47.91° (± 9.170) on MRI, yielding a clinically relevant correlation (r = 0.61, p lordosis only showed minor differences. At all levels except for L5 / S1, lordosis measured by means of standing radiographs was higher than that measured by MRI. The difference in global lumbar L1-S1 lordosis was -2.9°. Analysis of the Roussouly groups showed the largest difference for L1-S1 (-8.3°) in group 2. In group 4, when measured on MRI, L5 / S1 lordosis (25.71°) was lower than L4 / L5 lordosis (27.63°) compared to the other groups. Conclusions  Although measurements of global lumbar lordosis significantly differed between the two scanning technologies, the mean difference was just 2.9°. MRI in supine position may be used for estimating global lumbar lordosis, but single level lordosis should be determined by means of standing radiographs. Key Points   · Large

  16. In vitro comparison in a manikin model: increasing apical enlargement with K3 and K3XF rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Juan Gonzalo; Stöber, Eva; García Font, Marc; González, Jose Antonio; Bragado, Pablo; Roig, Miguel; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the K3 and K3XF systems (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA) after 1 and 2 uses by evaluating apical transportation, working length loss, and working time in a manikin model. Mesial canals of 40 extracted first mandibular molars were instrumented. Radiographs taken after instrumentation with #25, #30, #35, and #40 files were superimposed on the preoperative image in both mesiodistal and buccolingual angulations. AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, CA) was used to measure working length loss and apical transportation at 0, 0.5, and 1 mm from the working length (WL). The working time was measured. Group comparison was analyzed using post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference tests (P < .05). No significant differences were found in apical transportation, working length loss between K3 and K3XF systems, or between the number of uses. Significant differences were found when canal enlargement was performed to a #35-40 (P < .05). K3 instrumentation performed significantly faster (29.6 ± 15.4) than with the K3XF system (40.2 ± 17.7) (P < .05). No differences were observed in working time when comparing the number of uses. K3 and R-phase K3XF rotary systems shaped curved root canals safely with minimal apical transportation, even up to a 40/04 file. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vestibular Dysfunction in Patients with Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Chris K; Chien, Wade W; King, Kelly A; Muskett, Julie A; Baron, Rachel E; Butman, John A; Griffith, Andrew J; Brewer, Carmen C

    2015-08-01

    Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is the most common inner ear malformation. While a strong correlative relationship between EVA and hearing loss is well established, its association with vestibular dysfunction is less well understood. In this study, we examine the effects of EVA on the vestibular system in patients with EVA. Prospective, cross-sectional study of a cohort ascertained between 1999 and 2013. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, a federal biomedical research facility. In total, 106 patients with unilateral or bilateral EVA, defined as a midpoint diameter greater than 1.5 mm, were referred or self-referred to participate in a study of the clinical and molecular aspects of EVA. Clinical history was ascertained with respect to the presence or absence of various vestibular signs and symptoms and history of head trauma. Videonystagmography (VNG), cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP), and rotational vestibular testing (RVT) were performed to assess the vestibular function. Of the patients with EVA, 45% had vestibular signs and symptoms, and 44% of tested patients had abnormal VNG test results. An increased number of vestibular signs and symptoms was correlated with the presence of bilateral EVA (P = .008) and a history of head injury (P VNG results also correlated with a history of head injury (P = .018). Vestibular dysfunction is common in patients with EVA. However, not all patients with vestibular signs and symptoms have abnormal vestibular test results. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of vestibular dysfunction in patients with EVA. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  18. Gingival enlargement in orthodontic patients: Effect of treatment duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alice Souza; Alves, Luana Severo; Zenkner, Júlio Eduardo do Amaral; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Maltz, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of the duration of fixed orthodontic treatment on gingival enlargement (GE) in adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 260 subjects (ages, 10-30 years) divided into 4 groups: patients with no fixed orthodontic appliances (G0) and patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 1 year (G1), 2 years (G2), or 3 years (G3). Participants completed a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner and included the plaque index, the gingival index, and the Seymour index. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between group and GE. We observed increasing means of plaque, gingivitis, and GE in G0, G1, and G2. No significant differences were observed between G2 and G3. Adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had a 20 to 28-fold increased risk for GE than did those without orthodontic appliances (G1, rate ratio [RR] = 20.2, 95% CI = 9.0-45.3; G2, RR = 27.0, 95% CI = 12.1-60.3; G3 = 28.1; 95% CI = 12.6-62.5). The duration of orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the occurrence of GE. Oral hygiene instructions and motivational activities should target adolescents and young adults undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haoran; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 10 6 . The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions

  20. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hagen (Germany); Kirchner, Esther Maria [Staedtisches Klinikum Wedau, Clinic for Medicine, Duisburg (Germany); Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  1. U.S. Decision Making and Post-Cold War NATO Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    interactions with one another and by external events. Additionally, enlarging NATO entails modifying the North Atlantic Treaty, which, by constitutional ...III discusses NATO’s second enlargement round, which welcomed Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia into the...membership for Romania and Slovenia , it might give the impression that Russian objections carried weight, discouraging the future pursuit of membership and

  2. The fifth wave of the European Union enlargement: pro et contra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the principal complex of economic and political motivations of the states of Central and Eastern Europe and the EU members related to the EU enlargement towards the East. Special attention is paid to the discussion on the reasonableness of the EU enlargement and the positions of certain EU members.

  3. Immunoglobulin G4-related dacyroadenitis presenting as bilateral chorioretinal folds from severely enlarged lacrimal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Kurokawa

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions and importance: This is the first account of chorioretinal fold formation by severely enlarged lacrimal glands appearing in IgG4-related dacryoadenitis. Chorioretinal fold formation by an enlarged lacrimal gland occurring bilaterally may represent a basis for suspecting IgG4-related dacryoadenitis. Prompt treatment is recommended for patients presenting with very large lacrimal glands to avoid visual impairment.

  4. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma; Kirchner, Esther Maria; Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  5. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyashita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species.

  6. Radiographic findings in tuberculosis of the calvarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patankar, T.; Varma, R.; Krishnan, A.; Prasad, S. [Dept. of Radiology, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Bombay (India); Desai, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Bombay (India); Castillo, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    We reviewed the pattern of involvement of the calvarium by tuberculosis (TB) in five patients and the role of imaging in its management. Four patients presented with localised scalp swelling and one with generalized seizures. Radiographs revealed lucent lesions with minimal surrounding sclerosis in the frontal (2), parietal (2) and occipital (1) bones. CT showed lesions involving the entire thickness of the calvarium and accompanying contrast-enhancing soft tissue. The patient presenting with seizures had a ring-enhancing lesion in the parietal lobe in addition to the extra-axial lesions. Although radiographs in all cases demonstrated calvarial TB, CT showed the extent of the defect, involvement of adjacent soft tissues, and in one case an intra-axial lesion. Radiographs suffice for follow-up of these patients. (orig.)

  7. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  8. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnell, R.M.; Richardson, M.L.; Vincent, J.M.; Godwin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities

  9. Opportunistic esophagitis in AIDS: Radiographic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.S.; Woldenberg, R.; Herlinger, H.; Laufer, I.

    1987-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1986, 35 of 90 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had double-contrast esophagograms to rule out opportunistic esophagitis. The radiographs were reviewed without knowledge of the clinical or endoscopic findings. Candida esophagitis was diagnosed radiographically in 17 patients who had varying degrees of plaque formation and viral esophagitis in three who had discrete ulcers without plaques. All three patients with viral esophagitis (herpes in 2 and cytomegalo virus in one) and 15 of 17 with Candida esophagitis had endoscopic and/or clinical corroboration of the radiographic diagnosis. Thus, the authors' experience suggests that fungal and viral esophagitis can often be differentiated on double-contrast esophagography, so that appropriate antifungal or antiviral therapy can be instituted without need for endoscopic intervention

  10. Development of low-silver radiographic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, V.A.; Novikov, I.A.; Nikitin, V.F.; Krasnyj-Admoni, L.V.; Valevich, M.I.; Belyj, N.G.; Grom, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of investigations on radiographic testing of welded joints of St20, 08Kh18N10T steels, the AMG-6 alloy, copper, titanium using radiographic detectors with the low silver content are presented. The roentgenographic and photographic paper, as well as the samples of experimental films with heavy elements in the photolayer are tested using intensifying screens of different types. Experimental films containing silver 2 times as less as standard X-ray films are shown to provide the similar sensitivity of testing under equal conditions, but the exposure time is two times higher. Prints on the radiophotographic paper in quality and exposure time approach to prints obtained on the RT-1 film containing silver 10 times less than that in the roentgenographic film. The exposure time of the radiographic paper is several times less than that of the ''unibrom'' contrast paper. The testing sensitivity decreases to some extent in this case

  11. Initial image interpretation of appendicular skeletal radiographs: A comparison between nurses and radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, Keith J.; Paterson, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of a short training programme on nurses and radiographers, exploring differences between their performance before and after training. Method: Twenty-two nurses and 18 radiographers interpreted 20 trauma radiographs of the appendicular skeleton before and after training. Normal and abnormal cases of a discriminatory nature were included. Total score, sensitivity and specificity values were calculated for each participant by comparison with an agreed expected answer. The area under the curve (AUC) was analysed using alternate free-response receiver operating characteristic (AFROC) methodology. Results: Significant differences were demonstrated between the total scores achieved by the two groups (pre-training: p = 0.007, post-training: p = 0.04). After training, the mean score increased significantly for both groups (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the radiographers mean pre-training scores and the nurses mean post-training scores (p = 0.66). Sensitivity for both groups increased following training, significantly so for the nurses (nurses: p < 0.001, radiographers: p = 0.06). Specificity reduced significantly after training for the nurses (p < 0.001), and increased for the radiographers but not significantly (p = 0.085). After training, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of sensitivity (p = 0.09) but specificity was significantly higher for the radiographers (p < 0.001). The radiographers achieved higher pre-training AUC values than the nurses (p = 0.04), although a difference remained after training this did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.15). The AUC values increased significantly after training for both groups (nurses: p = 0.012, radiographers: p = 0.004) and again there was no significant difference between the radiographers pre-training performance and the nurses post-training performance (p = 0.62). Conclusion: Improvement after training was seen in both groups

  12. Radiographic indices for lumbar developmental spinal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Pui Yin Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with developmental spinal stenosis (DSS are susceptible to developing symptomatic stenosis due to pre-existing narrowed spinal canals. DSS has been previously defined by MRI via the axial anteroposterior (AP bony spinal canal diameter. However, MRI is hardly a cost-efficient tool for screening patients. X-rays are superior due to its availability and cost, but currently, there is no definition of DSS based on plain radiographs. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop radiographic indices for diagnosing DSS. Methods This was a prospective cohort of 148 subjects consisting of patients undergoing surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (patient group and asymptomatic subjects recruited openly from the general population (control group. Ethics approval was obtained from the local institutional review board. All subjects underwent MRI for diagnosing DSS and radiographs for measuring parameters used for creating the indices. All measurements were performed by two independent investigators, blinded to patient details. Intra- and interobserver reliability analyses were conducted, and only parameters with near perfect intraclass correlation underwent receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis to determine the cutoff values for diagnosing DSS using radiographs. Results Imaging parameters from a total of 66 subjects from the patient group and 82 asymptomatic subjects in the control group were used for analysis. ROC analysis suggested sagittal vertebral body width to pedicle width ratio (SBW:PW as having the strongest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DSS. Cutoff indices for SBW:PW were level-specific: L1 (2.0, L2 (2.0, L3 (2.2, L4 (2.2, L5 (2.5, and S1 (2.8. Conclusions This is the first study to define DSS on plain radiographs based on comparisons between a clinically relevant patient group and a control group. Individuals with DSS can be identified by a simple radiograph using a screening tool allowing for better

  13. Optimizing radiation exposure for CT localizer radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrer, Evelyn; Maeder, Ulf; Fiebich, Martin [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection-IMPS; Schaefer, Stefan; Krombach, Gabriele A. [Univ. Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Noel, Peter B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2017-08-01

    The trend towards submillisievert CT scans leads to a higher dose fraction of localizer radiographs in CT examinations. The already existing technical capabilities make dose optimization of localizer radiographs worthwhile. Modern CT scanners apply automatic exposure control (AEC) based on attenuation data in such a localizer. Therefore not only this aspect but also the detectability of anatomical landmarks in the localizer for the desired CT scan range adjustment needs to be considered. The effective dose of a head, chest, and abdomen-pelvis localizer radiograph with standard factory settings and user-optimized settings was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. CT examinations of an anthropomorphic phantom were performed using multiple sets of acquisition parameters for the localizer radiograph and the AEC for the subsequent helical CT scan. Anatomical landmarks were defined to assess the image quality of the localizer. CTDI{sub vol} and effective mAs per slice of the helical CT scan were recorded to examine the impact of localizer settings on a helical CT scan. The dose of the localizer radiograph could be decreased by more than 90% while the image quality remained sufficient when selecting the lowest available settings (80 kVp, 20 mA, pa tube position). The tube position during localizer acquisition had a greater impact on the AEC than the reduction of tube voltage and tube current. Except for the use of a pa tube position, all changes of acquisition parameters for the localizer resulted in a decreased total radiation exposure. A dose reduction of CT localizer radiograph is necessary and possible. In the examined CT system there was no negative impact on the modulated helical CT scan when the lowest tube voltage and tube current were used for the localizer.

  14. Value of fetal skeletal radiographs in the diagnosis of fetal death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourliere-Najean, B.; Russel, A.S.; Petit, P.; Devred, P.; Panuel, M.; Piercecchi-Marti, M.D.; Fredouille, C.; Sigaudy, S.; Philip, N.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fetal skeletal radiographs in determining the etiology of fetal death. A total of 1193 post-mortem fetal skeletal radiographs were analysed. Fetuses were classified into one of three groups (group I: abnormality diagnosed during pregnancy; group II: maternal pathology; group III: spontaneous abortion of pregnancy, IIIa before 26 weeks of gestation (WG), IIIb after 26 weeks of gestation). Face, supine and lateral skeletal views were performed. Skeletal abnormalities were detected in 33.9% of the fetuses, including 22.7% with minor abnormalities (abnormal rib number, no nasal bone ossification, amesophalangia or P2 hypoplasia of the fifth digit) and 14.5% with major abnormalities (other skeletal abnormalities). Among the fetuses with major abnormalities, 98.8% came from group I, 2.9% came from group II, 2.3% came from group IIIa and none came from group IIIb. Fetal skeletal radiographs are not useful in fetuses arising from spontaneous abortion of pregnancy without abnormality on ultrasound screening, abnormality clinical examination or in fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormality. This practice is valuable only if there is a multidisciplinary team, with all the participants (pathologists, radiologists, geneticists) knowledgeable about fetal pathology. In the absence of this multidisciplinary approach, it is easier to X-ray all fetuses to avoid misdiagnosis and the important consequences for genetic counselling. (orig.)

  15. Protocol of Radiographic Examination of Children in Order to Improve the Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Dj.; Gunek, G.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Zagar, I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Pulmonary radiograms are essential in the diagnostics of lung diseases of children and youth. In childhood, sometimes immediately after a child's birth, there is a need to apply this diagnostic method. Namely, even in the first days of life some pathological conditions can exist which can lead to progressive respiratory failure (respiratory distress syndrome, aspirational syndrome, lung anomaly). An experienced clinician paediatrician can suspect the pathological condition, but for a sure and a timely diagnosis, a radiographic confirmation is necessary. Long lasting cough, fever and chest pain of unexplained ethiology are also indications for a radiographic examination in childhood. In the evaluation of treatment repeated radiograms are often necessary too. Considering that children are radiovulnerable population, and that during these examinations neighbouring organs (bone marrow, thyroid gland) are also irradiated, it is necessary to undertake all measures to minimise harmful consequences of irradiation during diagnostic X-ray examinations. In order to improve radiation protection, a protocol for radiographic examination of small children was worked out. Paediatricians and child-radiologists worked in producing this protocol closely together. In order to achieve a satisfactory protection of patients during respiratory tract examination the doses of radiation were controlled with thermoluminiscent dosimetric systems which had been found adequate for X-ray diagnostics dosimetry. (author)

  16. Value of fetal skeletal radiographs in the diagnosis of fetal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourliere-Najean, B.; Russel, A.S.; Petit, P.; Devred, P. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Panuel, M. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Nord, chemin Bourrelys, 13915 Marseille cedex 20 (France); Piercecchi-Marti, M.D.; Fredouille, C. [Department of Pathology, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Sigaudy, S.; Philip, N. [Department of Genetics, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France)

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fetal skeletal radiographs in determining the etiology of fetal death. A total of 1193 post-mortem fetal skeletal radiographs were analysed. Fetuses were classified into one of three groups (group I: abnormality diagnosed during pregnancy; group II: maternal pathology; group III: spontaneous abortion of pregnancy, IIIa before 26 weeks of gestation (WG), IIIb after 26 weeks of gestation). Face, supine and lateral skeletal views were performed. Skeletal abnormalities were detected in 33.9% of the fetuses, including 22.7% with minor abnormalities (abnormal rib number, no nasal bone ossification, amesophalangia or P2 hypoplasia of the fifth digit) and 14.5% with major abnormalities (other skeletal abnormalities). Among the fetuses with major abnormalities, 98.8% came from group I, 2.9% came from group II, 2.3% came from group IIIa and none came from group IIIb. Fetal skeletal radiographs are not useful in fetuses arising from spontaneous abortion of pregnancy without abnormality on ultrasound screening, abnormality clinical examination or in fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormality. This practice is valuable only if there is a multidisciplinary team, with all the participants (pathologists, radiologists, geneticists) knowledgeable about fetal pathology. In the absence of this multidisciplinary approach, it is easier to X-ray all fetuses to avoid misdiagnosis and the important consequences for genetic counselling. (orig.)

  17. Radiographic Findings in Patients with Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lopes Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted of the records and panoramic radiographs of 35 patients treated with bisphosphonates (BP and diagnosed with MRONJ. Panoramic radiography was used for evaluation, by two examiners, the following findings were subject of search: osteolysis (OT, cortical bone erosion (EC, bone sclerosis focal (FS and diffuse (DS, bone sequestration (BS, thickening of lamina dura (TD, prominence of the inferior alveolar nerve canal (IAN, persisting alveolar sockets (SK, and the presence of a pathological fracture (PF. Medical information and staging were also recorded in order to correlate with radiographic findings. Bone sclerosis was the most frequent alteration, followed by OT and TD. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. There was no significant difference between genders or significant correlation between the number of injuries with age and duration of BP usage. Considering the association between the radiographic findings and MRONJ staging, EC was predominant in stage 3 and DS in stage 2. IAN and PF demonstrated greater association with stage 3. In conclusion, the higher the clinical staging, the greater the severity of the bone alteration. Panoramic radiographic examination is a useful screening tool in patients submitted to antiresorptive therapy.

  18. Atlas of Radiographic Features of Osteoarthritis of the Ankle and Hindfoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Virginia Byers; Kilfoil, Terrence M; Hash, Thomas W.; McDaniel, Gary; Renner, Jordan B; Carrino, John A.; Adams, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a radiographic atlas of osteoarthritis (OA) for use as a template and guide for standardized scoring of radiographic features of OA of the ankle and hindfoot joints. Method Under Institutional Review Board approval, ankle and hindfoot images were selected from a cohort study and from among cases that underwent ankle radiography during a 6-month period at Duke University Medical Center. Missing OA pathology was obtained through supplementation of cases with the assistance of a foot and ankle specialist in Orthopaedic surgery and a musculoskeletal radiologist. Images were obtained and reviewed without patient identifying information. Images went through multiple rounds of review and final images were selected by consensus of the study team. For intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, the kappa statistic was calculated for two readings by 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, a minimum of two weeks apart, of ankle and hindfoot radiographs from 30 anonymized subjects. Results The atlas demonstrates individual radiographic features (osteophyte and joint space narrowing) and Kellgren Lawrence grade for all aspects of the talocrural (ankle joint proper) and talocalcaneal (subtalar) joints. Reliability of scoring based on the atlas was quite good to excellent for most features indicated. Additional examples of ankle joint findings are illustrated including sclerosis, os trigonum, subchondral cysts and talar tilt. Conclusions It is anticipated that this atlas will assist with standardization of scoring of ankle and hindfoot OA by basic and clinical OA researchers. PMID:26318654

  19. Atlas of radiographic features of osteoarthritis of the ankle and hindfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, V B; Kilfoil, T M; Hash, T W; McDaniel, G; Renner, J B; Carrino, J A; Adams, S

    2015-12-01

    To develop a radiographic atlas of osteoarthritis (OA) for use as a template and guide for standardized scoring of radiographic features of OA of the ankle and hindfoot joints. Under Institutional Review Board approval, ankle and hindfoot images were selected from a cohort study and from among cases that underwent ankle radiography during a 6-month period at Duke University Medical Center. Missing OA pathology was obtained through supplementation of cases with the assistance of a foot and ankle specialist in Orthopaedic surgery and a musculoskeletal radiologist. Images were obtained and reviewed without patient identifying information. Images went through multiple rounds of review and final images were selected by consensus of the study team. For intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, the kappa statistic was calculated for two readings by three musculoskeletal radiologists, a minimum of two weeks apart, of ankle and hindfoot radiographs from 30 anonymized subjects. The atlas demonstrates individual radiographic features (osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN)) and Kellgren-Lawrence grade for all aspects of the talocrural (ankle joint proper) and talocalcaneal (subtalar) joints. Reliability of scoring based on the atlas was quite good to excellent for most features indicated. Additional examples of ankle joint findings are illustrated including sclerosis, os trigonum, subchondral cysts and talar tilt. It is anticipated that this atlas will assist with standardization of scoring of ankle and hindfoot OA by basic and clinical OA researchers. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pseudoprominent aorta: Radiographic findings and CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.T.; Shepard, J.A.O.; Stewart, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (LSVC) in the absence of a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) may be suspected on a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph because of a prominent-appearing ascending aorta, which results from the absence of the RSVC. In the absence of an RSVC, the right upper lobe abuts and outlines the course of the ascending aorta, allowing better demonstration of its profile. This report describes a patient with this finding on a PA chest radiograph. Computed tomographic correlation is presented

  1. Inferior hilar window on lateral chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.; Webb, W.R.; Klein, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the accuracy of lateral chest radiography in the detection of masses in the inferior hilar window, a normally avascular hilar region anterior to the lower lobe bronchi. Fifty patients with normal thoracic CT scans and 25 with hilar masses/adenopathy were selected retrospectively. The 75 corresponding lateral chest radiographs were blindly evaluated for visibility of the anterior walls of the lower lobe bronchi and the presence and laterality of abnormal soft tissue (>1 cm) in the inferior hilar window. Only a 7 x 7-cm square of the lateral radiograph was viewed

  2. Pelvic radiograph in skeletal dysplasias: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bony pelvis is constituted by the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum. The pelvic radiograph is an important component of the skeletal survey performed in suspected skeletal dysplasia. Most of the common skeletal dysplasias have either minor or major radiological abnormalities; hence, knowledge of the normal radiological appearance of bony pelvis is vital for recognizing the early signs of various skeletal dysplasias. This article discusses many common and some uncommon radiological findings on pelvic radiographs along with the specific dysplasia in which they are seen; common differential diagnostic considerations are also discussed.

  3. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  4. Cardiac and pericardial calcifications on chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, E.C., E-mail: ecferguson@hotmail.co [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Section of Thoracic Imaging, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Berkowitz, E.A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Section of Thoracic Imaging, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Many types of cardiac and pericardial calcifications identified on chest radiographs can be recognized and distinguished based on characteristic locations and appearances. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the importance of detecting cardiac and pericardial calcifications on chest radiographs, and to illustrate and describe the various types of calcifications that may be encountered and how they may be differentiated from one another. Each type of cardiac and pericardial calcification is discussed, its location and appearance described, and its significance explained. Recognizing and understanding these calcifications is important as they are often encountered in daily practice and play an important role in patient care.

  5. Pattern of scattered exposure from portable radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, D.

    1985-01-01

    Concern periodically arises among the nursing and medical staffs of the institution's intensive care unit regarding their occupational exposure to radiation from the many radiographs taken in the unit. The patients are located in open areas or within individual cubicles whose walls are relatively thin and not shielded. To form a data base for educating the nursing/medical staffs and the technologists, the intensity and distribution of scattered exposure from actual radiographs of patients were measured. Comparison was also made with a simple phantom experiment in which the variables could be more precisely controlled

  6. Pseudoprominent aorta: Radiographic findings and CT correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.T.; Shepard, J.A.O.; Stewart, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    The presence of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (LSVC) in the absence of a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) may be suspected on a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph because of a prominent-appearing ascending aorta, which results from the absence of the RSVC. In the absence of an RSVC, the right upper lobe abuts and outlines the course of the ascending aorta, allowing better demonstration of its profile. This report describes a patient with this finding on a PA chest radiograph. Computed tomographic correlation is presented.

  7. Evaluation of contrast in duplicated radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunthy, K.H.; Weinberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation evaluated changes in the contrast of duplicated radiographs made at different ultraviolet light exposures. Increasing ultraviolet light exposure had different effects on the duplicates of originals of different background densities. When correctly exposed, a duplicate radiograph enhanced contrast. When originals had the same contrast but different background densities, their duplicates did not have the same contrast. It was not possible to duplicate accurately all the different contrasts measured on an original. It was possible, however, to produce duplicates with all contrasts greater than those of the original

  8. A radiographic study of the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Karp Shik; Kim, Dong Youn; Sohn, Jeong Ick; Bae, Yong Chul

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. For this study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from the 200 adults and evaluated the position and shape of mental foramen. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, the author also obtained panoramic radiographs from the 100 adults and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained : 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (43.3%), round or oval (42.5%), unidentified (7.5%) and diffuse (6.7%) type in descending order of frequency. 2. Horizontal position of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (54.2%), and area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (43.1%), area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (2.7%), and at apex (9.7%), overlap with apex (1.9%), superior of apex (0.2%) in descending order of frequency. 4. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, shape changes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the forward 10 mm and chin down 10 degree positioned panoramic radiographs, And changes of horizontal and vertical position were observed in similar to compared with normal positioned panoramic radiographs.

  9. The radiographer's role in child protection: Comparison of radiographers perceptions by use of focus groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Michaela; Reeves, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is taken from a larger study whose aims were to devise a holistic picture of how diagnostic radiographers approach child protection issues and to explore how radiographers and other professionals see the role of radiographers in the chain of evidence in relation to child protection as this applies to children who present at the Imaging Department with suspected non-accidental injuries (NAI). A focus group methodology was used with focus groups being conducted in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The results indicated that both United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland radiographers agreed that they had a role in child protection; however, they identified a wide interpretation as to the extent of that role. Although radiographers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland work within different legal systems there were themes identified which were common to both countries. Although radiographers referred to a duty to the child as to all patients, no radiographer specifically mentioned the system and child care law under which it is assumed they operate. This research revealed an area which would benefit from more detailed research using a wider audience. However, the study revealed a need for training in relation to possible NAI indicators and the correct procedure for documenting their suspicions and initiating an NAI referral

  10. [Adolescent pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2015-05-01

    Although experts have long thought that the problems of gambling involved only adults, recent studies tend to show that teenagers are also affected. The objective of this paper is to show the characteristics of pathological gambling in adolescents. This review focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, psychopathology, prevention and treatment of this disorder. A review of the medical literature was conducted, using PubMed, using the following keywords alone or combined: pathological gambling, dependence, addiction and adolescents. We selected 12 English articles from 1997 to 2014. Recent work estimate that between 4 and 8% of adolescents suffer from problem gambling, and the prevalence of pathological gambling is 2-4 times higher in adolescents than in adults. The term adolescent pathological gambler starts early around the age of 10-12 years, with a quick change of status from casual to that of problem gambler and player. Complications appear quickly and comorbidities are common. There is no curative pharmacological treatment approved by health authorities. Pathological gambling among adolescents has grown significantly in recent years and should be promptly taken care of. Further studies must be performed to improve our understanding of this problem among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beomonte Zobel, B.; Tella, S.; Innacoli, M.; D'Archivio, C.; Cardone, G.; Masciocchi, C.; Gallucci, M.; Passariello, R.; Cappa, F.

    1991-01-01

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

  12. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs: comparison with standard radiographic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M.; Espinosa, Norman

    2013-01-01

    To establish a hindfoot alignment measurement technique based on low-dose biplanar radiographs and compare with hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs, which is the current reference standard. Long axial view radiographs and low-dose biplanar radiographs of a phantom consisting of a human foot skeleton embedded in acrylic glass (phantom A) and a plastic model of a human foot in three different hindfoot positions (phantoms B1-B3) were imaged in different foot positions (20 internal to 20 external rotation). Two independent readers measured hindfoot alignment on long axial view radiographs and performed 3D hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs on two different occasions. Time for three-dimensional (3D) measurements was determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs were characterized by a large positional variation, with a range of 14 /13 valgus to 22 /27 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), whereas the range of 3D hindfoot alignment measurements was 7.3 /6.0 to 9.0 /10.5 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), with a mean and standard deviation of 8.1 ± 0.6/8.7 ± 1.4 respectively. Interobserver agreement was high (ICC = 0.926 for phantom A, and ICC = 0.886 for phantoms B1-B3), and agreement between different readouts was high (ICC = 0.895-0.995 for reader 1, and ICC = 0.987-0.994 for reader 2) for 3D measurements. Mean duration of 3D measurements was 84 ± 15/113 ± 15 s for reader 1/2. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs were independent of foot positioning during image acquisition and reader independent. In this phantom study, the 3D measurements were substantially more precise than the standard radiographic measurements. (orig.)

  13. Radiographer commenting of trauma radiographs: a survey of the benefits, barriers and enablers to participation in an Australian healthcare setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neep, Michael J.; Steffens, Tom; Owen, Rebecca; McPhail, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographer abnormality detection systems that highlight abnormalities on trauma radiographs ('red dot' system) have been operating for more than 30 years. Recently, a number of pitfalls have been identified. These limitations initiated the evolution of a radiographer commenting system, whereby a radiographer provides a brief description of abnormalities identified in emergency healthcare settings. This study investigated radiographers' participation in abnormality detection systems, their perceptions of benefits, barriers and enablers to radiographer commenting, and perceptions of potential radiographer image interpretation services for emergency settings. A cross-sectional survey was implemented. Participants included radiographers from four metropolitan hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Conventional descriptive statistics, histograms and thematic analysis were undertaken. Seventy-three surveys were completed and included in the analysis (68% response rate); 30 (41%) of respondents reported participating in abnormality detection in 20% or less of examinations, and 26(36%) reported participating in 80% or more of examinations. Five overarching perceived benefits of radiographer commenting were identified: assisting multidisciplinary teams, patient care, radiographer ability, professional benefits and quality of imaging. Frequently reported perceived barriers included 'difficulty accessing image interpretation education', 'lack of time' and 'low confidence in interpreting radiographs'. Perceived enablers included 'access to image interpretation education' and 'support from radiologist colleagues'. A range of factors are likely to contribute to the successful implementation of radiographer commenting in addition to abnormality detection in emergency settings. Effective image interpretation education amenable to completion by radiographers would likely prove valuable in preparing radiographers for participation in abnormality detection and commenting systems in

  14. U arm type x-ray radiograph system for circulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Shigeo; Kaga, Yuji; Sato, Masami; Komatsuda, Yasushi; Nishio, Kosaku.

    1979-01-01

    This report is concerned with the function and usefulness of U arm type X-ray radiograph system for circulatory system jointly developed by Yamagata University and Toshiba Medical Co., Ltd. The system was used 560 times in 2 years mostly for cinephotography. It has such features as follows: (1) The compound oblique position radiography mechanism of U arm is useful for the separative radiography around coronary artery. (2) The mechanism of U arm is very quick in photographing with fluoroscopy. (3) Very sharp II indirect biplane photographs without obscurity due to enlarging can be taken. (4) An operator can position objects readily by operating a sterilizing switch. (5) Both short time photographing of 1 m sec and high speed repeated photographing of 12 times/sec can be made with the photo timer. (6) The fog due to mutual scattering in RSC biplane photographing can be removed by II blanking method. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. The future of nuclear energy in the enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Mingiuc, C.; Paraschiva, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the future of nuclear energy at the European level taking into account the main factors which influence its development among which the most important are: - enlargement of EU to 30 member states with different energy structure; - the increase of energy consumption; - the constant increasing of external dependence for energy which is estimated at 70% in the next 20-30 years; - liberalisation of the energy sources and supply sector; - environmental concerns, including climate change. In the Green Paper, nuclear is grouped together with coal, oil, gas and renewables as 'less than perfect' energy options and together with coal it is classed as an 'undesirable' and referred to as a 'source of energy in doubt ' which is ' tainted by the original sin of dual usage (civil and military) in the fuel cycle'. The final conclusion is 'the future of nuclear energy in Europe is uncertain'. It depends on several factors beyond energy demand; including: a solution to the problems of managing nuclear waste, the economic viability of the new generation of power stations, the safety of reactors in Eastern Europe, in particular applicant countries and policies to combat global warming. The 'essential questions' for nuclear is 'How can the community develop fusion technology and reactors for the future, reinforce nuclear safety and find a solution to the problem of nuclear waste?' There are a number of very important factors that will influence the future of nuclear energy inside the European Union. The first and foremost of these is continuing the safe operation of the existing nuclear facilities. The second is the demand for energy, in particular electricity. The third is the nuclear sector's ability to meet a share of this demand in a competitive way. If the demand materialises, there are likely to be reactors available that can further improve nuclear competitiveness while maintaining its recent excellent safety record. It will be the market that

  16. Penile enlargement with methacrylate injection: is it safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cesar Miranda Torricelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXTPenis size is a great concern for men in many cultures. Despite the great variety of methods for penile augmentation, none has gained unanimous acceptance among experts in the field. However, in this era of minimally invasive procedure, injection therapy for penile augmentation has become more popular. Here we report a case of methacrylate injection in the penis that evolved with penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. This work also reviews the investigation and management of this pathological condition.CASE REPORTA 36-year-old male sought medical care with a complaint of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction after methacrylate injection. The treatment administered was surgical removal. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were reached after two months.CONCLUSIONSThere is a need for better structured scientific research to evaluate the outcomes and complication rates from all penile augmentation procedures.

  17. Penile enlargement with methacrylate injection: is it safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Andrade, Enrico Martins de; Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Claro, Joaquim Francisco Almeida; Cury, Jose; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Penis size is a great concern for men in many cultures. Despite the great variety of methods for penile augmentation, none has gained unanimous acceptance among experts in the field. However, in this era of minimally invasive procedure, injection therapy for penile augmentation has become more popular. Here we report a case of methacrylate injection in the penis that evolved with penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. This work also reviews the investigation and management of this pathological condition. CASE REPORT A 36-year-old male sought medical care with a complaint of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction after methacrylate injection. The treatment administered was surgical removal. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were reached after two months. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for better structured scientific research to evaluate the outcomes and complication rates from all penile augmentation procedures.

  18. Radiographic interpretation of the appendicular skeleton: A comparison between casualty officers, nurse practitioners and radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Liz; Piper, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess how accurately and confidently casualty officers, nurse practitioners and radiographers, practicing within the emergency department (ED), recognize and describe radiographic trauma within an image test bank of 20 appendicular radiographs. Method: The participants consisted of 7 casualty officers, 13 nurse practitioners and 18 radiographers. All 20 radiographic examinations selected for the image test bank had been acquired following trauma and included some subtle, yet clinically significant abnormalities. The test bank score (maximum 40 marks), sensitivity and specificity percentages were calculated against an agreed radiological diagnosis (reference standard). Alternative Free-response Receiver Operating Characteristic (AFROC) analysis was used to assess the overall performance of the diagnostic accuracy of these professional groups. The variation in performance between each group was measured using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, to identify any statistical significant differences in the performance in interpretation between these groups. The relationship between the participants' perceived image interpretation accuracy during clinical practice and the actual accuracy of their image test bank score was examined using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r). Results: The results revealed that the radiographers gained the highest mean test bank score (28.5/40; 71%). This score was statistically higher than the mean test bank scores attained by the participating nurse practitioners (21/40; 53%) and casualty officers (21.5/40; 54%), with p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively. When compared with each other, the scores from these latter groups showed no significant difference (p = 0.91). The mean 'area under the curve' (AUC) value achieved by the radiographers was also significantly higher (p < 0.01) in comparison to the AUC values demonstrated by the nurse practitioners and casualty officers, whose results, when compared, showed no significant

  19. Audit in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M P; Opeskin, K

    2000-09-01

    Autopsy numbers in Australian hospitals have declined markedly during the past decade despite evidence of a relatively static rate of demonstrable clinical misdiagnosis during this time. The reason for this decrease in autopsy numbers is multifactorial and may include a general lack of clinical and pathologic interest in the autopsy with a possible decline in autopsy standard, a lack of clinicopathologic correlation after autopsies, and an increased emphasis on surgical biopsy reporting within hospital pathology departments. Although forensic autopsies are currently maintaining their numbers, it is incumbent on forensic pathologists to demonstrate the wealth of important information a carefully performed postmortem examination can reveal. To this end, the Pathology Division of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine has instituted a program of minimum standards in varied types of coroner cases and commenced a system of internal and external audit. The minimum standard for a routine, sudden, presumed natural death is presented and the audit system is discussed.

  20. Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers' posture during mammography activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernean, Nicolai; Serranheira, Florentino; Gonçalves, Pedro; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    To identify alternatives for radiographers' postures while performing mammography that can contribute to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Radiographers' postures to positioning craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated without any intervention for three scenarios: radiographer/patient with similar statures, radiographer smaller than patient and radiographer taller than patient. Actions were taken to modify the postures: seated radiographer; patient on a step; seated patient; radiographer on a step. All the postures were analysed using kinovea 0.8.15 software and the angles were measured twice and classified according to European standard EN1005-4: 2005. The non-acceptable angles were measured mainly during MLO positioning when radiographer was taller than the patient: 139° and 120° for arm-flexion and abduction, 72° for trunk and -24° for head/neck-flexion. The introduction of alternative postures (radiographer seated), allowed improvements in posture (60° and 99° for arm flexion and abduction, 14° for trunk and 0° for head/neck flexion), being classified as acceptable. The alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures. • Radiographers' postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders • Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient) • Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers.