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Sample records for enigmatic lea proteins

  1. Both plant and animal LEA proteins act as kinetic stabilisers of polyglutamine-dependent protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Chakrabortee, Sohini; Li, Ranhui; Zheng, Yizhi; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2011-02-18

    LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that contribute to stress tolerance in plants and invertebrates. Here we show that, when both plant and animal LEA proteins are co-expressed in mammalian cells with self-aggregating polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins, they reduce aggregation in a time-dependent fashion, showing more protection at early time points. A similar effect was also observed in vitro, where recombinant LEA proteins were able to slow the rate of polyQ aggregation, but not abolish it altogether. Thus, LEA proteins act as kinetic stabilisers of aggregating proteins, a novel function in protein homeostasis consistent with a proposed role as molecular shields. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. OsLEA1a, a new Em-like protein of cereal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ming-Der; Huang, Lin-Tzu; Wei, Fu-Jin; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Hoekstra, Folkert A; Hsing, Yue-Ie C

    2010-12-01

    Proteins abundant in seeds during the late stages of development, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, are associated with desiccation tolerance. More than 100 of the group I LEA genes, also termed Em genes, have been identified from plants, bacteria and animals. The wide distribution indicates the functional importance of these genes. In the present study, we characterized a novel Em-like gene, OsLEA1a of rice (Oryza sativa). The encoded OsLEA1a protein has an N-terminal sequence similar to that of other plant Em proteins but lacks a 20-mer motif that is the most significant feature of typical Em proteins. The location of the sole intron indicates that the second exon of OsLEA1a is the mutated product of a typical Em gene. Transcriptome analysis revealed OsLEA1a mainly expressed in embryos, with no or only a few transcripts in osmotic stress-treated vegetative tissues. Structural analysis revealed that the OsLEA1a protein adopts high amounts of disordered conformations in solution and undergoes desiccation-induced conformational changes. Macromolecular interaction studies revealed that OsLEA1a protein interacts with non-reducing sugars and phospholipids but not poly-l-lysine. Thus, although the OsLEA1a protein lost its 20-mer motif, it is still involved in the formation of bioglasses with non-reducing sugars or plasma membrane. However, the protein does not function as a chaperone as do other groups of hydrophilic LEA proteins. The orthologs of the OsLEA1a gene had been identified from various grasses but not in dicot plants. Genetic analysis indicated that rice OsLEA1a locates at a 193 kb segment in chromosome 1 and is conserved in several published cereal genomes. Thus, the ancestor of Em-like genes might have evolved after the divergence of monocot plants.

  3. Liposomes with diverse compositions are protected during desiccation by LEA proteins from Artemia franciscana and trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Daniel S; Hansen, Richard; Hand, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins and the disaccharide trehalose is associated with cellular desiccation tolerance in a number of animal species. Two LEA proteins from anhydrobiotic embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were tested for the ability to protect liposomes of various compositions against desiccation-induced damage in the presence and absence of trehalose. Damage was assessed by carboxyfluorescein leakage after drying and rehydration. Further, using a cytoplasmic-localized (AfrLEA2) and a mitochondrial-targeted (AfrLEA3m) LEA protein allowed us to evaluate whether each may preferentially stabilize membranes of a particular lipid composition based on the protein's subcellular location. Both LEA proteins were able to offset damage during drying of liposomes that mimicked the lipid compositions of the inner mitochondrial membrane (with cardiolipin), outer mitochondrial membrane, and the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Thus liposome stabilization by AfrLEA3m or AfrLEA2 was not dependent on lipid composition, provided physiological amounts of bilayer and non-bilayer-forming lipids were present (liposomes with a non-biological composition of 100% phosphatidylcholine were not protected by either protein). Additive protection by LEA proteins plus trehalose was dependent on the lipid composition of the target membrane. Minimal additional damage occurred to liposomes stored at room temperature in the dried state for one week compared to liposomes rehydrated after 24h. Consistent with the ability to stabilize lipid bilayers, molecular modeling of the secondary structures for AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m revealed bands of charged amino acids similar to other amphipathic proteins that interact directly with membranes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Functional studies of soybean (Glycine max L.) seed LEA proteins GmPM6, GmPM11, and GmPM30 by CD and FTIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The protein and mRNA levels of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes may be linked to osmotic stresses. Here, we characterized three soybean hydrophilic LEA proteins – GmPM11 (LEA I), GmPM6 (LEA II), and GmPM30 (LEA III) – by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  5. ZmLEA3, a multifunctional group 3 LEA protein from maize (Zea mays L.), is involved in biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Li; Xing, Xin; Sun, Liping; Pan, Jiaowen; Kong, Xiangpei; Zhang, Maoying; Li, Dequan

    2013-06-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate to high levels during the late stage of seed maturation and in response to water deficit, and are involved in protecting higher plants from damage caused by environmental stresses, especially drought. In the present study, a novel maize (Zea mays L.) group 3 LEA gene, ZmLEA3, was identified and later characterized using transgenic tobacco plants to investigate its functions in abiotic and biotic stresses. Transcript accumulation demonstrated that ZmLEA3 was induced in leaves by high salinity, low temperature, osmotic and oxidative stress as well as by signaling molecules such as ABA, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The transcript of ZmLEA3 could also be induced by pathogens [Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (pst dc3000)]. ZmLEA3 is located in the cytosol and the nucles. Further study indicated that the ZmLEA3 protein could bind Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). Overexpression of ZmLEA3 in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and yeast (GS115) conferred tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Interestingly, we also found that overexpression of ZmLEA3 in transgenic tobacco increased the hypersensitive cell death triggered by pst dc3000 and enhanced the expression of PR1a, PR2 and PR4 when compared with the wild type. Thus, we proposed that the ZmLEA3 protein plays a role in protecting plants from damage by protecting protein structure and binding metals under osmotic and oxidative stresses. In addition, ZmLEA3 may also enhance transgenic plant tolerance to biotic stress.

  6. The Potential Roles of the G1LEA and G3LEA Proteins in Early Embryo Development and in Response to Low Temperature and High Salinity in Artemia sinica.

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    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA are stress resistance-related proteins that play crucial roles in protecting against desiccation, cold and high salinity in a variety of animals and plants. However, the expression pattern, distribution and functions of LEA proteins in the post-diapause period of Artemia sinica, and under high salinity and low temperature stresses, remain unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the group 1 LEA (As-g1lea and group 3 LEA (As-g3lea genes from A. sinica were cloned. The expression patterns and location of As-G1LEA and As-G1LEA were investigated. The protein abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and Trehalase were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo and under low temperature and high salinity stresses in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-g1lea was 960 bp, encoding a 182 amino acid protein, and As-g3lea was 2089 bp, encoding a 364 amino acid protein. As-g1lea and As-g3lea showed their highest expressions at 0 h of embryonic development and both showed higher relative expression in embryonic, rather than adult, development stages. The abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and trehalose were upregulated under low temperature and downregulated under high salinity stress. These two genes did not show any tissue or organ specific expression. Our results suggested that these LEA proteins might play a pivotal role in stress tolerance in A. sinica.

  7. CpLEA5, the Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Gene from Chimonanthus praecox, Possesses Low Temperature and Osmotic Resistances in Prokaryote and Eukaryotes

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    Yiling Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants synthesize and accumulate a series of stress-resistance proteins to protect normal physiological activities under adverse conditions. Chimonanthus praecox which blooms in freezing weather accumulates late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEAs in flowers, but C. praecox LEAs are little reported. Here, we report a group of five LEA genes of C. praecox (CpLEA5, KT727031. Prokaryotic-expressed CpLEA5 was employed in Escherichia coli to investigate bioactivities and membrane permeability at low-temperature. In comparison with the vacant strains, CpLEA5-containing strains survived in a 20% higher rate; and the degree of cell membrane damage in CpLEA5-containing strains was 55% of that of the vacant strains according to a conductivity test, revealing the low-temperature resistance of CpLEA5 in bacteria. CpLEA5 was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Interestingly, besides low-temperature resistance, CpLEA5 conferred high resistance to salt and alkali in CpLEA5 overexpressing yeast. The CpLEA5 gene was transferred into Arabidopsis thaliana to also demonstrate CpLEA5 actions in plants. As expected, the transgenic lines were more resistant against low-temperature and drought while compared with the wild type. Taken together, CpLEA5-conferred resistances to several conditions in prokaryote and eukaryotes could have great value as a genetic technology to enhance osmotic stress and low-temperature tolerance.

  8. Study of model systems to test the potential function of Artemia group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alden H; Guo, Zhi-hao; Moshi, Sandra; Hudson, John W; Kozarova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, are genetically programmed to develop either ovoviparously or oviparously depending on environmental conditions. Shortly upon their release from the female, oviparous embryos enter diapause during which time they undergo major metabolic rate depression while simultaneously synthesize proteins that permit them to tolerate a wide range of stressful environmental events including prolonged periods of desiccation, freezing, and anoxia. Among the known stress-related proteins that accumulate in embryos entering diapause are the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. This large group of intrinsically disordered proteins has been proposed to act as molecular shields or chaperones of macromolecules which are otherwise intolerant to harsh conditions associated with diapause. In this research, we used two model systems to study the potential function of the group 1 LEA proteins from Artemia. Expression of the Artemia group 1 gene (AfrLEA-1) in Escherichia coli inhibited growth in proportion to the number of 20-mer amino acid motifs expressed. As well, clones of E. coli, transformed with the AfrLEA-1 gene, expressed multiple bands of LEA proteins, either intrinsically or upon induction with isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (IPTG), in a vector-specific manner. Expression of AfrLEA-1 in E. coli did not overcome the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of NaCl and KCl but modulated growth inhibition resulting from high concentrations of sorbitol in the growth medium. In contrast, expression of the AfrLEA-1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not alter the growth kinetics or permit yeast to tolerate high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, or sorbitol. However, expression of AfrLEA-1 in yeast improved its tolerance to drying (desiccation) and freezing. Under our experimental conditions, both E. coli and S. cerevisiae appear to be potentially suitable hosts to study the function of Artemia group 1 LEA proteins under environmentally

  9. Group 1 LEA proteins contribute to the desiccation and freeze tolerance of Artemia franciscana embryos during diapause.

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    Toxopeus, Jantina; Warner, Alden H; MacRae, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    Water loss either by desiccation or freezing causes multiple forms of cellular damage. The encysted embryos (cysts) of the crustacean Artemia franciscana have several molecular mechanisms to enable anhydrobiosis-life without water-during diapause. To better understand how cysts survive reduced hydration, group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, hydrophilic unstructured proteins that accumulate in the stress-tolerant cysts of A. franciscana, were knocked down using RNA interference (RNAi). Embryos lacking group 1 LEA proteins showed significantly lower survival than control embryos after desiccation and freezing, or freezing alone, demonstrating a role for group 1 LEA proteins in A. franciscana tolerance of low water conditions. In contrast, regardless of group 1 LEA protein presence, cysts responded similarly to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, indicating little to no function for these proteins in diapause termination. This is the first in vivo study of group 1 LEA proteins in an animal and it contributes to the fundamental understanding of these proteins. Knowing how LEA proteins protect A. franciscana cysts from desiccation and freezing may have applied significance in aquaculture, where Artemia is an important feed source, and in the cryopreservation of cells for therapeutic applications.

  10. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.)

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    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  11. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco.

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    Akanksha Sharma

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants.

  12. Lea protein expression during cold-induced dehydration in the Arctic collembola Megaphorura arctica

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    Popović Ž.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg, 1876 employs a strategy known as cryoprotective dehydration to survive winter temperatures as low as -25°C. During cryoprotective dehydration, water is lost from the animal to ice in its surroundings as a result of the difference in vapour pressure between the animal’s supercooled body fluids and ice (Worland et al., 1998; Holmstrup and Somme, 1998. This mechanism ensures that as the habitat temperature falls, the concentration of solutes remains high enough to prevent freezing (Holmstrup et al., 2002. In M. arctica, accumulation of trehalose, a cryo/anhydro protectant, occurs in parallel with dehydration. Recent studies have identified a number of genes and cellular processes involved in cryoprotective dehydration in M. arctica (Clark et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2009; Purać et al., 2011. One of them includes late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins. This study, together with that of Bahrndorff et al. (2008, suggests that LEA proteins may be involved in protective dehydration in this species.

  13. Computational Analysis Of Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Protein (Lea In Different Cultivar Of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum

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    Rasouli Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis abundant protein has a crucial role as the cold-acclimation process in the wheat. These proteins encoded by TaWdhn13 gene. This gene is transcriptionally activated and produces the accumulated proteins and metabolites and protection cell structure from freezing damage. The objectives of this study were to isolate the genomic DNA (g-DNA sequence of TaWdhn13, to analyze structure, conserved domains of the gene, and to found a basis for association analysis of the functional sites associated with computational analysis. We here report on the functional assignment to TaWdhn13 gene by computational analysis. The Three-Dimensional (3D model of LEA protein drawing by using the phyre 2 server. For identify the conserved domain and motif of these gene sequence we used the Conserved Domain Database and DNA Motif Searching Database, however, the conserved domains and motif has been recognized. The results showed TaWdhn13 conserved domain incudes: Dehydrin superfamily. Also, motifs structure for this gene includes: 2FE2S_FER_1 Motif, INTEGRIN_BETA Motif, VWFC_1 Motif, EGF_1 Motif and DEFENSIN Motif. Our results reveal that group 2 LEA proteins are most likely to function within the cell nucleus. The analysis of protein property showed that the protein had no trans-membrane domains. The isoelectric point of the protein was 3.41, which was charged with 5.34 negative electrons when pH value of the buffer was 7.0.

  14. DrwH, a novel WHy domain-containing hydrophobic LEA5C protein from Deinococcus radiodurans, protects enzymatic activity under oxidative stress.

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    Jiang, Shijie; Wang, Jin; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yingying; Guo, Cui; Zhang, Liwen; Han, Jiahui; Wu, Xiaoli; Xue, Dong; Gomaa, Ahmed E; Feng, Shuai; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Yun; Ping, Shuzhen; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Li, Liang; Zhou, Zhengfu; Zuo, Kaijing; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi; Lin, Min

    2017-08-24

    Water stress and hypersensitive response (WHy) domain is typically found as a component of atypical late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins closely associated with resistance to multiple stresses in numerous organisms. Several putative LEA proteins have been identified in Deinococcus bacteria; however their precise function remains unclear. This work reports the characterization of a Deinococcus-specific gene encoding a novel WHy domain-containing hydrophobic LEA5C protein (named DrwH) in D. radiodurans R1. The expression of the drwH gene was induced by oxidative and salinity stresses. Inactivation of this gene resulted in increased sensitivity to oxidative and salinity stresses as well as reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes. The WHy domain of the DrwH protein differs structurally from that of a previously studied bacterial LEA5C protein, dWHy1, identified as a gene product from an Antarctic desert soil metagenome library. Further analysis indicated that in E. coli, the function of DrwH is related to oxidative stress tolerance, whereas dWHy1 is associated with freezing-thawing stress tolerance. Under oxidative stress induced by H2O2, DrwH protected the enzymatic activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). These findings provide new insight into the evolutionary and survival strategies of Deinococcus bacteria under extreme environmental conditions.

  15. Isolation and expression analysis of LEA genes in peanut (Arachis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloning and classification of peanut LEA protein genes. Three AhLEA1 genes with full-length ORFs were identified. These genes encoded three different proteins, namely, AhLEA1-1 (96 aa, 10.50 kDa, pI 5.53), AhLEA1-2 (94 aa, 10.14 kDa, pI 6.03) and AhLEA1-3 (98 aa, 10.70 kDa, pI 6.04). The alignment of the identified ...

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations and CD spectroscopy reveal hydration-induced unfolding of the intrinsically disordered LEA proteins COR15A and COR15B from Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Bremer, Anne; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Caballero, Julio; Hincha, Dirk K; González, Wendy; Thalhammer, Anja

    2016-10-07

    The LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins COR15A and COR15B from Arabidopsis thaliana are intrinsically disordered under fully hydrated conditions, but obtain α-helical structure during dehydration, which is reversible upon rehydration. To understand this unusual structural transition, both proteins were investigated by circular dichroism (CD) and molecular dynamics (MD) approaches. MD simulations showed unfolding of the proteins in water, in agreement with CD data obtained with both HIS-tagged and untagged recombinant proteins. Mainly intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed by the protein backbone were replaced by H-bonds with water molecules. As COR15 proteins function in vivo as protectants in leaves partially dehydrated by freezing, unfolding was further assessed under crowded conditions. Glycerol reduced (40%) or prevented (100%) unfolding during MD simulations, in agreement with CD spectroscopy results. H-bonding analysis indicated that preferential exclusion of glycerol from the protein backbone increased stability of the folded state.

  17. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

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    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with /sup 125/I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with /sup 125/I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with /sup 125/I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a group 3 LEA gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) protein is one of the components involved in desiccation tolerance (DT) by maintaining cellular structures in the dry state. In this study, a member of the group 3 LEA, MwLEA1, was cloned from Mongolian wheatgrass (Agropyron mongolium Keng) based on a homologous sequence from ...

  19. The Ubiquitous Distribution of Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins across Cell Compartments in Arabidopsis Offers Tailored Protection against Abiotic Stress[C][W][OPEN

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    Candat, Adrien; Paszkiewicz, Gaël; Neveu, Martine; Gautier, Romain; Logan, David C.; Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Macherel, David

    2014-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are hydrophilic, mostly intrinsically disordered proteins, which play major roles in desiccation tolerance. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 51 genes encoding LEA proteins clustered into nine families have been inventoried. To increase our understanding of the yet enigmatic functions of these gene families, we report the subcellular location of each protein. Experimental data highlight the limits of in silico predictions for analysis of subcellular localization. Thirty-six LEA proteins localized to the cytosol, with most being able to diffuse into the nucleus. Three proteins were exclusively localized in plastids or mitochondria, while two others were found dually targeted to these organelles. Targeting cleavage sites could be determined for five of these proteins. Three proteins were found to be endoplasmic reticulum (ER) residents, two were vacuolar, and two were secreted. A single protein was identified in pexophagosomes. While most LEA protein families have a unique subcellular localization, members of the LEA_4 family are widely distributed (cytosol, mitochondria, plastid, ER, and pexophagosome) but share the presence of the class A α-helix motif. They are thus expected to establish interactions with various cellular membranes under stress conditions. The broad subcellular distribution of LEA proteins highlights the requirement for each cellular compartment to be provided with protective mechanisms to cope with desiccation or cold stress. PMID:25005920

  20. Tekstiilikonverents Hispaanias / Lea Pruuli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruuli, Lea

    1998-01-01

    8. - 16. märtsini Barcelonas ja Madridis European Textile Networki konverentsist. Eesti tekstiilikunstnike delegatsiooni kuulusid Katrin Pere, Signe Kivi, Lylian Meister, Merike Männi, Aune Taamal, Aet Ollisaar, Anne Tootma ja Lea Pruuli. Eesti tekstiilikunstist kõnelesid Signe Kivi, Katrin Pere. K. Pere valiti ETN juhatuse vaatlejaliikmeks.

  1. The Enigmatic Moon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 12. The Enigmatic Moon. Biman Nath. Book Review Volume 13 Issue 12 December 2008 pp 1173-1175. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/12/1173-1175. Author Affiliations.

  2. Complexity of the heat-soluble LEA proteome in Artemia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alden H; Chakrabortee, Sohini; Tunnacliffe, Alan; Clegg, James S

    2012-09-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a well known stress tolerant invertebrate found on most continents. Under certain conditions females produce cysts (encysted gastrulae) that enter diapause, a state of obligate dormancy. During developmental formation of diapause embryos several different types of stress proteins accumulate in large amounts, including the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. In this study we used a combination of heterologous group 3 LEA antibodies to demonstrate that the heat-soluble proteome of the cysts contains up to 12 distinct putative group 3 LEA proteins that complement the group 1 LEA proteins found previously. Most antibody-positive, heat-soluble proteins were larger than 50 kDa although antibody positive proteins of 20-38 kDa were also detected. Both nuclei and mitochondria had distinct complements of the putative group 3 LEA proteins. A few small group 3 LEA proteins were induced by cycles of hydration-dehydration along with one protein of about 62 kDa. The expression of group 3 LEA proteins, unlike members of group 1, was not restricted to encysted diapause embryos. Three to five putative group 3 LEA proteins were expressed in gravid females and in larvae. Cysts of different species from various geographic locations had distinct complements of group 3 LEA proteins suggesting rapid evolution of the LEA proteins or differences in the type of group 3 Lea genes expressed. Our results demonstrate the potential importance of group 3 LEA proteins in embryos and other life cycle stages of this animal extremophile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Meditsiinidoktor Lea Pehme / Alan Altraja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Altraja, Alan, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    7. sept. 2007 kaitses Tartu Ülikooli arstiteaduskonna nõukogu ees doktoriväitekirja "Tuberkuloosi epidemioloogiline olukord Eestis 1991-2003 rõhuasetusega kopsuvälisele tuberkuloosile ja kopsutuberkuloosi diagnoosimise viivitust mõjutavatele teguritele" Lea Pehme

  4. Isolation and functional characterization of a Medicago sativa L. gene, MsLEA3-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yongqin; Yang, Qingchuan; Kang, Junmei; Sun, Yan; Gruber, Margaret; Chao, Yuehui

    2012-03-01

    A full-length cDNA of 1,728 nt, called MsLEA3-1, was cloned from alfalfa by rapid amplification of cDNA ends from an expressed sequence tag homologous to soybean pGmPM10 (accession No. AAA91965.1). MsLEA3-1, encodes a deduced protein of 436 amino acids, a calculated molecular weight of 47.0 kDa, a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.18, and closest homology with late embryogenesis abundant proteins in soybean. Sequence homology suggested a signal peptide in the N terminus, and subcellular localization with GFP revealed that MsLEA3-1 was localized preferentially to the nucleolus. The transcript titre of MsLEA3-1 was strongly enriched in leaves compared with roots and stems of mature alfalfa plants. Gene expression of MsLEA3-1 was strongly induced when seedlings were treated with NaCl and ABA. Expression of the MsLEA3-1 transgenic was detected in transgenic tobacco. Malondialdehyde content and, electrical conductivity content were reduced and electrical conductivity and proline content were increased in transgenic tobacco compared with non-transgenic tobacco under salt stress. The results showed that accumulation of the MsLEA3-1 protein in the vegetative tissues of transgenic plants enhanced their tolerance to salt stress. These results demonstrate a role for the MsLEA3-1 protein in stress protection and suggest the potential of the MsLEA3-1 gene for genetic engineering of salt tolerance.

  5. Enigmatic, ultrasmall, uncultivated Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Brett J. [University of California, Berkeley; Comolli, Luis [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Dick, Gregory J. [University of California, Berkeley; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Hyatt, Philip Douglas [ORNL; Dill, Brian [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    Metagenomics has provided access to genomes of as yet uncultivated microorganisms in natural environments, yet there are gaps in our knowledge particularly for Archaea that occur at relatively low abundance and in extreme environments. Ultrasmall cells (<500 nm in diameter) from lineages without cultivated representatives that branch near the crenarchaeal/euryarchaeal divide have been detected in a variety of acidic ecosystems. We reconstructed composite, near-complete 1-Mb genomes for three lineages, referred to as ARMAN (archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms), from environmental samples and a biofilm filtrate. Genes of two lineages are among the smallest yet described, enabling a 10% higher coding density than found genomes of the same size, and there are noncontiguous genes. No biological function could be inferred for up to 45% of genes and no more than 63% of the predicted proteins could be assigned to a revised set of archaeal clusters of orthologous groups. Some core metabolic genes are more common in Crenarchaeota than Euryarchaeota, up to 21% of genes have the highest sequence identity to bacterial genes, and 12 belong to clusters of orthologous groups that were previously exclusive to bacteria. A small subset of 3D cryo-electron tomographic reconstructions clearly show penetration of the ARMAN cell wall and cytoplasmic membranes by protuberances extended from cells of the archaeal order Thermoplasmatales. Interspecies interactions, the presence of a unique internal tubular organelle [Comolli, et al. (2009) ISME J 3:159 167], and many genes previously only affiliated with Crenarchaea or Bacteria indicate extensive unique physiology in organisms that branched close to the time that Cren- and Euryarchaeotal lineages diverged.

  6. Enigmatic, ultrasmall, uncultivated Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Brett J. [University of California, Berkeley; Comolli, Luis [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Dick, Gregory J. [University of California, Berkeley; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Hyatt, Philip Douglas [ORNL; Dill, Brian [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    Metagenomics has provided access to genomes of as yet uncultivated microorganisms in natural environments, yet there are gaps in our knowledge-particularly for Archaea-that occur at relatively low abundance and in extreme environments. Ultrasmall cells (<500 nm in diameter) from lineages without cultivated representatives that branch near the crenarchaeal/euryarchaeal divide have been detected in a variety of acidic ecosystems. We reconstructed composite, near-complete similar to 1-Mb genomes for three lineages, referred to as ARMAN (archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms), from environmental samples and a biofilm filtrate. Genes of two lineages are among the smallest yet described, enabling a 10% higher coding density than found genomes of the same size, and there are noncontiguous genes. No biological function could be inferred for up to 45% of genes and no more than 63% of the predicted proteins could be assigned to a revised set of archaeal clusters of orthologous groups. Some core metabolic genes are more common in Crenarchaeota than Euryarchaeota, up to 21% of genes have the highest sequence identity to bacterial genes, and 12 belong to clusters of orthologous groups that were previously exclusive to bacteria. A small subset of 3D cryo-electron tomographic reconstructions clearly show penetration of the ARMAN cell wall and cytoplasmic membranes by protuberances extended from cells of the archaeal order Thermoplasmatales. Interspecies interactions, the presence of a unique internal tubular organelle [Comolli, et al. (2009) ISME J 3: 159-167], and many genes previously only affiliated with Crenarchaea or Bacteria indicate extensive unique physiology in organisms that branched close to the time that Cren- and Euryarchaeotal lineages diverged.

  7. 34 CFR 200.71 - LEA eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... least five percent of the LEA's total population ages 5 to 17 years, inclusive. (d) Education finance... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LEA eligibility. 200.71 Section 200.71 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION...

  8. OsLEA3-2, an abiotic stress induced gene of rice plays a key role in salt and drought tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Duan

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are involved in tolerance to drought, cold and high salinity in many different organisms. In this report, a LEA protein producing full-length gene OsLEA3-2 was identified in rice (Oryza sativa using the Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE method. OsLEA3-2 was found to be only expressed in the embryo and can be induced by abiotic stresses. The coding protein localizes to the nucleus and overexpression of OsLEA3-2 in yeast improved growth performance compared with control under salt- and osmotic-stress conditions. OsLEA3-2 was also inserted into pHB vector and overexpressed in Arabidopsis and rice. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings showed better growth on MS media supplemented with 150 mM mannitol or 100 mM NaCl as compared with wild type plants. The transgenic rice also showed significantly stronger growth performance than control under salinity or osmotic stress conditions and were able to recover after 20 days of drought stress. In vitro analysis showed that OsLEA3-2 was able to protect LDH from aggregation on freezing and inactivation on desiccation. These results indicated that OsLEA3-2 plays an important role in tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant group 4 (EgLEA4 gene from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharasuda Hualkasin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Late-Embryogenesis Abundant group 4 (LEA4 genes is a group of genes that have been reported to be involved in stress and hormone responses. The completed LEA4 cDNA sequence was first obtained from a set of EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq, named as EgLEA4. The open reading frame is 486 bp in length, encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 161 residues with a molecular weight of 16.5 kDa and a pI value of about 8.0. Five amino acid motif patterns were found in the EgLEA4 (II, I, III, IV and V and each had a close identity to similar LEA4 patterns of soybean (64%.Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and the genomic DNA demonstrated that the EgLEA4 gene is composed of 2 exons and 1 intron. The 52 untranslated region shows a putative promoter sequence involved in the transcription process, drought stress and hormone responsive elements. RT-PCR analysis showed that the EgLEA4 gene was only expressed in mesocarp, during the late stages of fruit development. It also had a higher expression in induced drought conditions indicating that the EgLEA4 protein may be involved in plant adaptation and stress (drought responsive pathway.

  10. Missugune tuleb X Academica? / Lea Kivi, Lauri Randveer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Lea

    2006-01-01

    Vastavad Lea Kivi ja Lauri Randveer välissuhete osakonnast 23. - 27. septembrini toimuvast Saksa-Eesti akadeemilisest nädalast teemal "Viimane aastakümme Eestis ja Saksamaal: kuhu me oleme jõudnud?"

  11. 34 CFR 300.815 - Subgrants to LEAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subgrants to LEAs. 300.815 Section 300.815 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  12. 34 CFR 300.817 - Reallocation of LEA funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reallocation of LEA funds. 300.817 Section 300.817 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF...

  13. 34 CFR 300.816 - Allocations to LEAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocations to LEAs. 300.816 Section 300.816 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  14. Isolation and expression analysis of LEA genes in peanut

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to isolate peanut genes, an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project was carried out using a peanut seed cDNA library. From 6258 ESTs, 19 LEA-encoding genes were identified and could be classified into eight distinct groups. Expression of these genes in seeds at different developmental stages and in ...

  15. Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware.

  16. Tales and mysteries of the enigmatic sphingomyelin synthase family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, J.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/153674520; Luberto, C.

    2010-01-01

    In the last five years tremendous progress has been made toward the understanding of the mechanisms that govern sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis in animal cells. In line with the complexity of most biological processes, also in the case of SM biosynthesis, the more we learn the more enigmatic and finely

  17. Glycolipid transfer protein: clear structure and activity, but enigmatic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834513; Opacic, M.; Wechselberger, R.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829005; Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; Egmond, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112946593

    2008-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids comprize a small (typically 5–10% by weight) but vital fraction of membrane lipids in eukaryotes (Holthuis et al., 2001). They provide the plasma membrane with chemical and mechanical stabilities and take part in fundamental biological processes including differentiation,

  18. Another Look at an Enigmatic New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    centred at 2 microns. On the right is the NACO/SDI image of the same location showing Titan's surface through the 1.6 micron methane window. A spherical projection with coordinates on Titan is overplotted. ESO PR Photo 04b/05 is a map of Titan taken with NACO at 1.28 micron (a methane window allowing it to probe down to the surface). On the leading side of Titan, the bright equatorial feature ("Xanadu") is dominating. On the trailing side, the landing site of the Huygens probe is indicated. ESO PR Photo 04c/05 ESO PR Photo 04c/05 Titan, the Enigmatic Moon, and Huygens Landing Site (NACO-SDI/VLT and Cassini/ISS) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 589 pix - 40k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1178 pix - 290k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 04c/05 is a comparison between the NACO/SDI image and an image taken by Cassini/ISS while approaching Titan. The Cassini image shows the Huygens landing site map wrapped around Titan, rotated to the same position as the January NACO SDI observations. The yellow "X" marks the landing site of the ESA Huygens probe. The Cassini/ISS image is courtesy of NASA, JPL, Space Science Institute (see http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=36222). The coloured lines delineate the regions that were imaged by Cassini at differing resolutions. The lower-resolution imaging sequences are outlined in blue. Other areas have been specifically targeted for moderate and high resolution mosaicking of surface features. These include the site where the European Space Agency's Huygens probe has touched down in mid-January (marked with the yellow X), part of the bright region named Xanadu (easternmost extent of the area covered), and a boundary between dark and bright regions. ESO PR Photo 04d/05 ESO PR Photo 04d/05 Evolution of the Atmosphere of Titan (NACO/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 902 pix - 40k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1804 pix - 320k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 04d/05 is an image of Titan's atmosphere at 2.12 microns as observed with NACO on the VLT at three different epochs

  19. Lea Endrikson - läheksin Venemaale tagasi, kui tööle kutsuks Gazprom või Lukoil / Lea Endrikson ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Endrikson, Lea, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Ilukaupluste keti TKM Beauty juht ning endine Venemaa Stockmanni kaubamajade turundusjuht Lea Endrikson vastab juhitööd, oma karjääri ning tööpakkumisi puudutavatele küsimustele. Lisa: TKM Beauty; Lea Endrikson

  20. Cracking the enigmatic linker histone code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, James S; Ura, Kiyoe

    2008-03-01

    Recently, the existence of a 'histone code' has been proposed to explain the link between the covalent chemical modification of histone proteins and the epigenetic regulation of gene activity. Although the role of the four 'core' histones has been extensively studied, little is known about the involvement of the linker histone, histone H1 and its variants, in this code. For many years, few sites of chemical modification had been mapped in linker histones, but this has changed recently with the use of functional proteomic techniques, principally mass spectrometry, to characterize these modifications. The functionality of many of these sites, however, remains to be determined.

  1. Storia di Lea Garofalo e di sua figlia Denise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Tota

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo analizza il caso di Lea Garofalo e le modalità, attraverso cui la sua memoria è stata iscritta nel discorso pubblico italiano. In particolare, focalizza l’attenzione sul film “Lea” di Marco Tullio Giordana, dedicato appunto alla storia del femminicidio di Lea Garofalo e alla storia di sua figlia Denise Cosco. Questo caso è emblematico, in quanto mette a tema il destino e le difficoltà che incontrano le donne, quando decidono di opporsi e resistere alla cultura mafiosa e criminale delle famiglie, di cui fanno parte. Inoltre, esso sfida quegli stereotipi, ancora largamente diffusi nel senso comune, secondo i quali questi fenomeni di criminalità organizzata sarebbero diffusi prevalentemente nel sud del nostro paese. Di fatto questo femminicidio dell’n’drangheta avviene a Milano e riguarda attività criminali organizzate nel capoluogo lombardo. Parole chiave: Memoria pubblica, femminicidio, lotta alla criminalità organizzata, testimoni di giustizia   This article deals with Lea Garofalo’s case and the forms that have shaped its cultural memory in the Italian public discourse. Its main focus is related to “Lea”, the movie by the Italian filmmaker Marco Tullio Giordana on the story of this femicide and the relation between Lea Garofalo and her daughter named Denise Cosco. This case is exemplary, because it concerns the destine and the difficulties encountered by women, when they decide to contrast and resist against the mafiosi culture of the families, to which they belong. Moreover, it challenges those stereotypes, still very common, according to which mafia’s and camorra’s criminal activities are overspread mainly in South Italy. This femicide has been committed by n’drangheta in the centre of Milan and it is caused through criminal activities that  took place in the North part of the country. Keywords: Public memory, femicide, fight against organized crime, witnesses

  2. Clinicopathologic diagnostic criteria of an enigmatic entity: Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Belur Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL is a rare, unique type of oral leukoplakia, which is enigmatic in etiology and behaves in a far more aggressive fashion than other forms of leukoplakia. Diagnosis is often late with the disease in an advanced stage when it is especially refractory to treatment. There are no definite criteria that dictate how extensive the leukoplakic changes should be, how many or which oral subsites should be involved, or how many recurrences should have occurred, in order to qualify for the diagnosis of PVL. The lack of definitive diagnostic criteria is the prime reason for PVL not being treated appropriately and in a timely fashion, thereby leading to the very concept of PVL being questioned. This article discusses the various clinicopathologic diagnostic criteria for this enigmatic entity and also reports a case of PVL in a 73-year-old female.

  3. The Functions of Mao Zedong’s Enigmatic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mao Zedong was a voracious reader in various fields and an expert in philosophy and history, and he knew the ancient Chinese history stories so well that he became highly skilled in applying those strategies and deceptions used by the ancient rulers in his own administration. Whenever he was dealing with some tough issues, he would make the past serve the present, using the characters in the ancient Chinese history stories to allude to some people or using the ideas in the philosophical books to explicate something. This special speech style adopted by Mao Zedong is called “enigmatic language”, an indirect language which is quite close to present “riddle”. Its real implied meaning changes with the specific referents and the concrete situations. This paper studies the functions of one of his commonly used enigmatic language styles, that is, his recommendation of the proper books to the people working close to him. Results show that by recommending the different books to those surrounding him he intended to inspire, to warn, to criticize and even to satirize his subordinates or his colleagues, insinuating his real political intentions as well as his purposes of gauging their genuine political loyalty. However, we also find that his enigmatic language depressed most of people surrounding him, who could not interpret his words properly to understand his implied intentions.

  4. The LEA's Role in a Decentralized School System: The School Principals' View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addi-Raccah, Audrey; Gavish, Yakov

    2010-01-01

    Since the wave of school reform decentralization, schools now maintain a more dynamic and diverse relationship with their environment than they did in the past. School principals' relationships with the local educational authority (LEA) are a prominent example of this change in Israel. LEAs try to gain more pedagogic influence over schools while…

  5. ASP53, a thermostable protein from Acacia erioloba seeds that protects target proteins against thermal denaturation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtwisha, L

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available with specific roles suggested for some LEA and LEA-like proteins. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEA-like protein HSP12p has been proposed to act as a plasticiser in the cell wall of the yeast S. cerevisiae (Motshwene et al. 2004; Karreman et al. 2005...: 10.1007/BF00027338 Delgado LM, O’Connor J, Azorin I, Renau-Piqueras J, Gil LM, Gozalbo D (2001) The glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase polypeptides encoded by Saccharomyces cerevisiae TDH1, TDH2, and TDH3 genes are also cell wall proteins...

  6. Enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic Leymus chinensis plants with constitutively expressed wheat TaLEA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Li, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2009-02-01

    Leymus chinensis is an important grassland perennial grass. However, its drought tolerance requires to be improved. LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) genes are believed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, a wheat LEA gene, TaLEA(3), was integrated into L. chinensis. The transgenic lines showed enhanced growth ability under drought stress during which transgenic lines had increased the relative water content, leaf water potential, relative average growth rate, but decreased the malondialdehyde content compared with the non-transgenic plant. Thus, transgenic breeding is an efficient approach to enhance drought tolerance in L. chinensis.

  7. Molecular characterization of some enigmatic Lower Devonian fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Ewbank, Greg; Edwards, Dianne; Wang, Guang-Yu

    1998-04-01

    The coalified remains of three extinct nonvascular Lower Devonian plants ( Prototaxites Dawson, Pachytheca Hooker, and Parka Fleming) have been analysed using flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, FTIR, and 13C solid-state NMR. The affinities of these fossils are unknown and their habitats remain conjectural. Host rock lithology and grain size correlate with the state of morphological and chemical preservation of Prototaxites. The flash pyrolysates of well-preserved Prototaxites and Pachytheca were dominated by aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylphenols. Given their resistance to compression when compared with associated lignified vascular plant fossils, it is possible that Prototaxites and Pachytheca contained an extinct polyphenolic structural biomacromolecule that was a failed experiment during terrestrialization. Precise affinities for the enigmatic fossils Prototaxites, Pachytheca, and Parka are still to be confirmed, although Prototaxites and Pachytheca are chemically distinct from Parka.

  8. Trahv? Herned klassinurgas? Või hoopis ihunuhtlus? / Pilme, Lea; Kivistik, Ly; Sirgmets, Raili; Part, Aivar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Suhtumisest koolijuhtidele trahvimisõiguse andmise ideesse vestlevad Rakvere Põhikooli direktor Lea Pilme, Uhtna Põhikooli direktor Ly Kivistik, Väike-Maarja Gümnaasiumi direktor Raili Sirgmets ja Rakvere Gümnaasiumi direktor Aivar Part

  9. The poignant, the excessive and the enigmatic in sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R

    1998-04-01

    The author offers a contribution to redressing a certain lack of theorization concerning the specific power and meaning of sexuality. This begins with George Klein's suggestion that it is the quality of a specific, poignant sensuality that characterizes sexuality. Bataille's ideas about the violent and excessive aspects of eroticism provide some answers to the question of what makes for this special poignant quality. Bataille captures a profound link between the sacred and the erotic with regard to their both being linked with taboos and their transgression as opposed to habitual 'work mentality' and established order. The excessive dimension highlighted by Bataille is complemented in the work of Laplanche about sexuality as opposed to 'functional', self-preservative ego needs, and the excess of the 'enigmatic message' transmitted by the mother while satisfying the infant's ego needs that establishes the infant's unconscious and sexuality. Losing the nutritive object, a process of fantasizing sets in; the influx of strong sensations that cannot yet be integrated spills over into libidinal excitement. The gap between the other's excess and the child's limited resources can then be sexualized. A picture emerges of non-procreative sexuality as foreign to ordinary experience and as transcending one's limits.

  10. LEA Detection and Tracking Method for Color-Independent Visual-MIMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Ki-Doo

    2016-07-02

    Communication performance in the color-independent visual-multiple input multiple output (visual-MIMO) technique is deteriorated by light emitting array (LEA) detection and tracking errors in the received image because the image sensor included in the camera must be used as the receiver in the visual-MIMO system. In this paper, in order to improve detection reliability, we first set up the color-space-based region of interest (ROI) in which an LEA is likely to be placed, and then use the Harris corner detection method. Next, we use Kalman filtering for robust tracking by predicting the most probable location of the LEA when the relative position between the camera and the LEA varies. In the last step of our proposed method, the perspective projection is used to correct the distorted image, which can improve the symbol decision accuracy. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the possibility of robust detection and tracking of the LEA, which results in a symbol error rate (SER) performance improvement.

  11. Ubiquitous LEA29Y Expression Blocks T Cell Co-Stimulation but Permits Sexual Reproduction in Genetically Modified Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, Andrea; Käser, Tobias; Kemter, Elisabeth; Gerner, Wilhelm; Kurome, Mayuko; Baars, Wiebke; Herbach, Nadja; Witter, Kirsti; Wünsch, Annegret; Talker, Stephanie C; Kessler, Barbara; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Saalmüller, Armin; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully established and characterized a genetically modified pig line with ubiquitous expression of LEA29Y, a human CTLA4-Ig derivate. LEA29Y binds human B7.1/CD80 and B7.2/CD86 with high affinity and is thus a potent inhibitor of T cell co-stimulation via this pathway. We have characterized the expression pattern and the biological function of the transgene as well as its impact on the porcine immune system and have evaluated the potential of these transgenic pigs to propagate via assisted breeding methods. The analysis of LEA29Y expression in serum and multiple organs of CAG-LEA transgenic pigs revealed that these animals produce a biologically active transgenic product at a considerable level. They present with an immune system affected by transgene expression, but can be maintained until sexual maturity and propagated by assisted reproduction techniques. Based on previous experience with pancreatic islets expressing LEA29Y, tissues from CAG-LEA29Y transgenic pigs should be protected against rejection by human T cells. Furthermore, their immune-compromised phenotype makes CAG-LEA29Y transgenic pigs an interesting large animal model for testing human cell therapies and will provide an important tool for further clarifying the LEA29Y mode of action.

  12. 34 CFR 76.792 - How does an SEA allocate funds to eligible charter school LEAs under a covered program in which...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... charter school LEA receives at least a pro rata portion of the proportionate amount of funds for which the charter school LEA is eligible under each covered program. The pro rata amount must be based on the number... SEA may implement procedures to provide the charter school LEA with a pro rata portion of the...

  13. La eminencia intercondílea normal y patológica

    OpenAIRE

    Quiles Casas, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN.- La eminencia intercondílea normal suele describirse en los libros de texto de forma sucinta. OBJETIVOS.- Describir en detalle la anatomía normal del área intercondílea, comparándola con los cambios producidos por la artrosis avanzada, incluyendo estudios de imagen e histológicos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS.- Se utilizaron catorce platillos tibiales de donantes y cien superficies tibiales de enfermos con artrosis de rodilla. En las piezas anatómicas se usó reconstrucción d...

  14. High dietary protein intake and protein-related acid load on bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is an essential nutrient for humans and is required for maintaining optimal bone structure and growth. Consumption of high protein diets in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of (0.8 g protein/kg body weight/d) is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lea...

  15. LEAping to conclusions: A computational reanalysis of late embryogenesis abundant proteins and their possible roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise Michael J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins cover a number of loosely related groups of proteins, originally found in plants but now being found in non-plant species. Their precise function is unknown, though considerable evidence suggests that LEA proteins are involved in desiccation resistance. Using a number of statistically-based bioinformatics tools the classification of a large set of LEA proteins, covering all Groups, is reexamined together with some previous findings. Searches based on peptide composition return proteins with similar composition to different LEA Groups; keyword clustering is then applied to reveal keywords and phrases suggestive of the Groups' properties. Results Previous research has suggested that glycine is characteristic of LEA proteins, but it is only highly over-represented in Groups 1 and 2, while alanine, thought characteristic of Group 2, is over-represented in Group 3, 4 and 6 but under-represented in Groups 1 and 2. However, for LEA Groups 1 2 and 3 it is shown that glutamine is very significantly over-represented, while cysteine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and tryptophan are significantly under-represented. There is also evidence that the Group 4 LEA proteins are more appropriately redistributed to Group 2 and Group 3. Similarly, Group 5 is better found among the Group 3 LEA proteins. Conclusions There is evidence that Group 2 and Group 3 LEA proteins, though distinct, might be related. This relationship is also evident in the overlapping sets of keywords for the two Groups, emphasising alpha-helical structure and, at a larger scale, filaments, all of which fits well with experimental evidence that proteins from both Groups are natively unstructured, but become structured under stress conditions. The keywords support localisation of LEA proteins both in the nucleus and associated with the cytoskeleton, and a mode of action similar to chaperones, perhaps the cold shock chaperones

  16. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: The utility of lipid extracted algae as a protein source in forage or starch-based ruminant diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge-Ivey, S L; Tracey, L N; Salazar, A

    2014-04-01

    (P < 0.01). Microbial efficiency results for Chlorella were more variable for Nannochloropsis with 1 Chlorella spp. increasing microbial efficiency by 36% over SOY (P < 0.05) and the other Chlorella spp. decreasing microbial efficiency by approximately 42% compared with SOY (P < 0.01). Overall, the results from both experiments are promising for LEA as a protein feedstuff in ruminant diets. Further research is necessary to fully understand the interactions and consequences of upstream processes and what role algal strain plays in LEA quality.

  17. 45 CFR 618.420 - Access to schools operated by LEAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to schools operated by LEAs. 618.420 Section 618.420 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... such recipient otherwise makes available to such person, pursuant to the same policies and criteria of...

  18. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Tadashi; Pei, Xiang Yuan; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Takanashi-Yanobu, Rieko; Mototani, Yasumasa; Kanai, Takao; Satoh, Jo; Kimura, Noriko; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rat derived from Long-Evans (LE) strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23691528

  20. 24 CFR 3.420 - Access to schools operated by LEAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access to schools operated by LEAs. 3.420 Section 3.420 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  1. [Lea Kõiv. Paul Johansen und das Stadtarchiv Reval/Tallinn] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Lea Kõiv. Paul Johansen und das Stadtarchiv Reval/Tallinn. - Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Helsinki : Aue-Stiftung; Lübeck : Schmict-Röhmild, 2006. Lk. 45-59. Artiklis on kasutatud seni avalikkusele vähetuntud materjale ja osaliselt käsitletud avalikke vaidlusi, kuhu olid segatud nii Paul Johansen kui järgmine linnaarhivaar Rudolf Kenkmaa

  2. 13 CFR 113.420 - Access to schools operated by LEAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to schools operated by LEAs. 113.420 Section 113.420 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION... operated by such recipient; or (b) Any other school or educational unit operated by such recipient, unless...

  3. The enigmatic dimension of sexual experience: the "otherness" of sexuality and primal seduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R

    1998-10-01

    Sexual experience has an "otherness" about it that distinguishes it from daily, habitual modes of experiencing and relating. This paper attempts to use Freud's and Laplanche's theories of primal seduction by the mother, who sends an "enigmatic signifier" or message of her sexuality to the child whom she nurtures. A tension arc is created between bodily sensations and the enigmatic other carrying over into adult life and constituting a bedrock for the sense of enigma and unfathomableness and the sense of the profound revelation that sometimes accompanies sexual experience. The author articulates links with transference and countertransference forms and offers new possibilities of understanding some clinical phenomena.

  4. Small, Enigmatic Plasmids of the Nosocomial Pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii: Good, Bad, Who Knows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Sum Lean

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen that has become a serious healthcare concern within a span of two decades due to its ability to rapidly acquire resistance to all classes of antimicrobial compounds. One of the key features of the A. baumannii genome is an open pan genome with a plethora of plasmids, transposons, integrons, and genomic islands, all of which play important roles in the evolution and success of this clinical pathogen, particularly in the acquisition of multidrug resistance determinants. An interesting genetic feature seen in majority of A. baumannii genomes analyzed is the presence of small plasmids that usually ranged from 2 to 10 kb in size, some of which harbor antibiotic resistance genes and homologs of plasmid mobilization genes. These plasmids are often overlooked when compared to their larger, conjugative counterparts that harbor multiple antibiotic resistance genes and transposable elements. In this mini-review, we will examine our current knowledge of these small A. baumannii plasmids and look into their genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships. Some of these plasmids, such as the Rep-3 superfamily group and the pRAY-type, which has no recognizable replicase genes, are quite widespread among diverse A. baumannii clinical isolates worldwide, hinting at their usefulness to the lifestyle of this pathogen. Other small plasmids especially those from the Rep-1 superfamily are truly enigmatic, encoding only hypothetical proteins of unknown function, leading to the question of whether these small plasmids are “good” or “bad” to their host A. baumannii.

  5. Expression Profiles of 12 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Genes from Tamarix hispida in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqiu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA genes (named ThLEA-1 to -12 were cloned from Tamarix hispida. The expression profiles of these genes in response to NaCl, PEG, and abscisic acid (ABA in roots, stems, and leaves of T. hispida were assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. These ThLEAs all showed tissue-specific expression patterns in roots, stems, and leaves under normal growth conditions. However, they shared a high similar expression patterns in the roots, stems, and leaves when exposed to NaCl and PEG stress. Furthermore, ThLEA-1, -2, -3, -4, and -11 were induced by NaCl and PEG, but ThLEA-5, -6, -8, -10, and -12 were downregulated by salt and drought stresses. Under ABA treatment, some ThLEA genes, such as ThLEA-1, -2, and -3, were only slightly differentially expressed in roots, stems, and leaves, indicating that they may be involved in the ABA-independent signaling pathway. These findings provide a basis for the elucidation of the function of LEA genes in future work.

  6. Origin of Enigmatic Galactic-center Filaments Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Twenty years ago, astronomers discovered a number of enigmatic radio-emitting filaments concentrated near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. These features initially defied explanation, but a new study of radio images of the Galactic center may point to their possible source. By combining data from the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) astronomer Farhad Yusef-Zadeh of Northwestern University has found evidence that at least some of the filaments spring from the concentrated star-formation regions that populate the Galactic center. Galatic Center Combined VLA and GBT image (green) of the Galactic center, with red inset of GBT data only (red). Bright region on right is location of supermassive black hole. Linear filaments are visible above this area. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Yusef-Zadeh, et.al. (Click on Image for Larger Version) Yusef-Zadeh presented his findings at the Denver, Colorado, meeting of the American Astronomical Society. William Cotton of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia, and William Hewitt of Northwestern University also contributed to this research. "Astronomers have long puzzled over the cause of these striking features," said Yusef-Zadeh, "and the turbulent nature of the Galactic center has made detailed analysis difficult. With new multi-wavelength radio images of the Galactic center, however, we can finally see a link between areas of starburst activity and these long-linear filaments." The filaments, which range from 10 to 100 light-years in length and are perhaps little more than 1 to 3 light-years across, occur only in a very narrow area, within approximately two degrees of the Galactic center (which translates to approximately 900 light-years across). Early theories about the origin of these filaments suggested that they were somehow related to the Milky Way’s own magnetic field. This was due to the fact that the first filaments detected

  7. Co-transforming bar and CsLEA enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyu; Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-03-25

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict alfalfa productivity. A dehydrin protein, CsLEA, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica was transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the bar gene as a selectable marker, and the drought and salt stress tolerances of the transgenic plants were assessed. Thirty-nine of 119 transformants were positive, as screened by Basta, and further molecularly authenticated using PCR and RT-PCR. Phenotype observations revealed that the transgenic plants grew better than the wild-type (WT) plants after 15d of drought stress and 10d of salt stress: the leaves of WT alfalfa turned yellow, whereas the transgenic alfalfa leaves only wilted; after rewatering, the transgenic plants returned to a normal state, though the WT plants could not be restored. Evaluation of physiologic and biochemical indices during drought and salt stresses showed a relatively lower Na(+) content in the leaves of the transgenic plants, which would reduce toxic ion effects. In addition, the transgenic plants were able to maintain a higher relative water content (RWC), higher shoot biomass, fewer photosystem changes, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress injury. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the CsLEA gene can enhance the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa; in addition, carrying the bar gene in the genome may increase herbicide resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Strobilus organization in the enigmatic gymnosperm Bernettia inopinata from the Jurassic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustatscher, E.; van Konijnenburg - van Cittert, J.H.A.; Bauer, K.; Krings, M.

    The enigmatic fossil Bernettia inopinata from Lower Jurassic strata of Upper Franconia, Germany, has been described as a leaf-like structure a leaf-like structure bearing a proximal cluster of densely spaced, pillow-like objects believed to represent ovules or ovule-containing units. The systematic

  9. The physical chemistry of the enigmatic phospholipid diacylglycerol pyrophosphate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strawn, L.; Babb, A.; Testerink, C.; Kooijman, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid second messenger that is formed transiently in plants in response to different stress conditions, and plays a role in recruiting protein targets, ultimately enabling an adequate response. Intriguingly, this increase in PA concentration in plants is generally

  10. P comp Phytoc osition hemic ns of fo al, pro our lea Easte oximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    y of minera e, 2003). Lea nt were Oc ngronema ng. Tel: +2348 e Creative Com al of Biote utrient ed in S rence I. gu State, Nige uations just diets of South ate and ant e scent leaf ema latifolium minary phyto strongly pres hest tannin c ochemicals gnificant va ibre (33.52% y clearly indi xtensive use iable amount en though the.

  11. LEA: An Algorithm to Estimate the Level of Location Exposure in Infrastructure-Based Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy in wireless networks is nowadays a major concern. This is due to the fact that the mere fact of transmitting may allow a network to pinpoint a mobile node. We consider that a first step to protect a mobile node in this situation is to provide it with the means to quantify how accurately a network establishes its position. To achieve this end, we introduce the location-exposure algorithm (LEA, which runs on the mobile terminal only and whose operation consists of two steps. In the first step, LEA discovers the positions of nearby network nodes and uses this information to emulate how they estimate the position of the mobile node. In the second step, it quantifies the level of exposure by computing the distance between the position estimated in the first step and its true position. We refer to these steps as a location-exposure problem. We tested our proposal with simulations and testbed experiments. These results show the ability of LEA to reproduce the location of the mobile node, as seen by the network, and to quantify the level of exposure. This knowledge can help the mobile user decide which actions should be performed before transmitting.

  12. DOUGLAS LEA MEMORIAL LECTURE: From targets to genes: a brief history of radiosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, G. Gordon

    1996-02-01

    The biological work of Douglas Lea spanned the period from 1934 to his early death in 1947, and during this short period he made important contributions to the theory of radiation action. He interpreted experimental data relating to the effects of radiation on viruses, bacteria, bean roots, etc in terms of the inactivation of discrete targets, which he identified with cellular genes. He thus laid the foundation of much subsequent research. It is now well recognized that mammalian cells differ substantially in radiosensitivity, especially in the low-dose region of the survival curve. The dependence of radiosensitivity on dose rate has been widely studied; this has practical significance for clinical radiotherapy as well as mechanistic implications. Since Lea's time there have been a number of efforts to describe models that can relate cell killing to radiation dose, dose rate, and track structure. So far these have not led to a comprehensive and widely accepted picture. Microdosimetric considerations lead to the concept of differing severity of lesions induced in DNA. Much is known about the sequence of processes that subsequently lead to cell inactivation: this can be divided into phases of induction, processing, and manifestation. Chromosomal events are currently attracting much attention, as they did in Lea's time. Considerable progress has also been made in identifying genes that control the repair of radiation damage. It has been found that mutation is frequently associated with the loss of a large segment of the genome around the damage site and this will have important implications for interactive processes between particle tracks.

  13. Petrophysical and geotechnical properties of Lea Park Formation shale from Weyburn, Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Environmental Engineering; Hawkes, C.D. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The petrophysical and geotechnical properties of the shale rock found within the Leak Park Formation were characterized by testing preserved core samples from a well in a mature oil field in Weyburn Saskatchewan. EnCana Corporation has been using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection at the well site since 2000 for enhanced oil recovery. The site is also the focus of a major international research project on carbon storage and monitoring. The objective of the testing program was to determine the potential for this formation to act as a barrier to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) leakage, in the event that CO{sub 2} injected into the Midale unit was to leak through the primary caprock that overlies the injection zone. The core samples had water contents of approximately 17 per cent by weight and a porosity of 22 per cent. Plastic and liquid limits were measured to be 22.5 and 94.7 per cent respectively. The shale consists mainly of quartz, mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite, and illite. Results indicate that the Lea Park Formation is a relatively uniform, ultra low-permeability aquitard that should be effective for mitigating upwards migration of CO{sub 2}. The results of this testing program will also be useful in hydrogeological investigations of field-scale flow patterns in the Weyburn region, the design of drilling programs and drilling fluids for wells that penetrate the Lea Park Formation, and for geotechnical engineering projects that might use the Lea Park Formation as a construction material. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Evaluation from an LEA Perspective: Proceedings from an AERA Symposium. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (66th, New York, New York, March 19-23, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce; And Others

    The views of local education agency (LEA) evaluators tend to be underrepresented in the evaluation literature. This symposium was organized to fill this gap. The non-LEA symposium participants (Carol H. Weiss and Bruce Thompson) were asked to pose questions to the LEA participants (Steven Frankel, Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools; Freda…

  15. Comparison of Lea Symbols chart and Sheridan Gardiner chart in assessing vision screening among pre-school children: a Malaysia perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Rokiah; Hussin, Duratul Ain; Knight, Victor Feizal

    2012-03-01

    Compare the performance of Lea Symbols and Sheridan Gardiner charts against the standard test chart used to determine reduced VA during vision screening among pre-schoolers. Seven hundred seventy five pre-school participated where 389 subjects were boys and 386 subjects were girls were tested using the Lea Symbols chart and the Sheridan Gardiner chart. The mean age of the pre-school children was 5.3 +/- 0.7 years old. The Lea Symbols chart showed a higher sensitivity (97.5%) compared to the Sheridan Gardiner chart (57.1%). While the Sheridan Gardiner chart showed higher specificity (92.0%) compared to the Lea Symbols chart (45.0%). The Lea Symbols chart offers a better pick-up rate of visual impairment during a vision-screening program especially cases of amblyopia among pre-school children compared to the Sheridan Gardiner chart in Malaysia.

  16. Enigmatic Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Clinical Encounters in Sexuality makes an intervention into the fields of clinical psychoanalysis and sexuality studies, in an effort to think about a range of issues relating to sexuality from a clinical psychoanalytic perspective. This book concentrates on a number of concepts, namely identity......, desire, pleasure, perversion, ethics and discourse. The editors, Noreen Giffney and Eve Watson, have chosen queer theory, a sub-field of sexuality studies, as an interlocutor for the clinical contributors, because it is at the forefront of theoretical considerations of sexuality, as well as being both...... a self-reflective attitude in clinical readers about sexuality which historically has tended toward reification. The central questions we present to readers to think about are: 1. What are the discourses of sexuality underpinning psychoanalysis, and how do they impact on clinical practice? 2. In what...

  17. Detection and partial identification of proteins in pearls formed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, more than 20 proteins have been identified in nacre, yet none have been detected in pearl thus far. This study aimed to detect and identify protein in pearl. Two batches of pearls formed in Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea) were purchased from two pearl farms. They were ground into a powder of >10,000 mesh followed by ...

  18. The mythic species Issus analis Brullé, 1833 (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae): still an enigmatic taxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnezdilov, Vladimir M; Bourgoin, Thierry

    2017-01-04

    One Issidae specimen stored in Paris museum historical collections is reported as holotype of Issus analis Brullé, 1833. From the original description, which is confirmed by study of this specimen, the species is moved to the genus Zopherisca Emeljanov, 2001 under a new combination Zopherisca analis (Brullé, 1833), comb. n. Date of description is discussed and modified from 1832 to 1833 accordingly. Unfortunately being a female as type specimen, the species remains quite enigmatic until some molecular analsysis could be undertaken on this old material.

  19. Rheumatic fever in Ireland: the role of Dr Monica Lea Wilson (1889-1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, O Conor

    2013-02-01

    In 1869 William Stokes pointed out that the severity of rheumatic fever in Dublin had declined over recent decades. Similar worldwide decline led to the closure of many internationally famous rheumatic fever centres. The discovery by Robert Collis that rheumatic fever was a sequel to haemolytic streptococcal infection and the subsequent discovery of penicillin accelerated the decline. St Gabriel's Hospital in Dublin opened in 1951 under the clinical direction of Dr Monica Lea Wilson. Contrary to contemporary medical opinion a regimen of very prolonged bed rest was enforced. From 1961 the family doctors became concerned at the adverse psychological effects of the unnecessarily prolonged hospital stay. Twenty-seven of the 56 inpatients were re-assessed. None of them showed any evidence of active rheumatic fever and their parents took them home. The hospital closed in 1968. Dr Lea Wilson distanced herself from mainstream medicine and she is best remembered for having presented an unrecognized Caravaggio painting to the Jesuit Order in recognition of their pastoral support at the time of the controversial assassination in 1920 of her husband Percival, an Inspector in the Royal Irish Constabulary.

  20. Fractura supracondílea de codo en extensión en niños

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vega Fernández, Enrique; Tórrez Hernández, Manuel E; Martínez Mesa, Javier

    2006-01-01

    La fractura supracondílea de húmero en niños es muy frecuente en la primera década de vida y necesita un tratamiento preciso, en aras de obtener un resultado satisfactorio en un hueso que está en formación...

  1. Feng shui väärtus on vaimujõus / Marika Tomberg ; komment. Lea Eermann, komment. Rein Weber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Marika

    1999-01-01

    Feng shui järgi korraldatud Lea Eermanni kodust Nõmmel. Feng shui- ja geobioloogia-alase nõustamisega tegelev arhitekt Rein Weber keskkonna mõjust tervisele, magamistoast. Enda ja maja kaitsmisest halbade mõjude eest. 10 illustratsiooni

  2. 34 CFR 611.47 - What are a scholarship recipient's reporting responsibilities upon the close of the LEA's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are a scholarship recipient's reporting... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.47 What are a scholarship recipient...'s academic year, a scholarship recipient whose LEA reports under § 611.46(a) that he or she is...

  3. Inimesed otsivad kirikust lähedust / Lea Altnurme ; küsitlenud Bianca Mikovitš

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Altnurme, Lea

    2006-01-01

    Vestlus Tartu Ülikooli usuteaduskonna teaduri Lea Altnurmega, kes uuris oma doktoritöös, kuidas on muutunud eestlaste usulised suundumused eelmise sajandi teisel poolel ning leidis, et tänapäeva inimesed tahavad oma usus olla sõltumatud ja vabad

  4. Lea's Pies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a pie company owner to develop an inexpensive container that would protect pies and keep them in a near frozen condition for shipping in 48 hours. A NASA engineer made a thermal barrier envelope from a metalized mylar called 'space blanket material,' developed during the Apollo era. The envelope protects the pies from heat transfer. Pictured, a NASA engineer removes the temperature logger from a pecan pie shipped to him in a prototype envelope.

  5. Two novel heat-soluble protein families abundantly expressed in an anhydrobiotic tardigrade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayami Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration by reversibly switching to an ametabolic state. This ability is called anhydrobiosis. In the anhydrobiotic state, tardigrades can withstand various extreme environments including space, but their molecular basis remains largely unknown. Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins and can prevent protein-aggregation in dehydrated conditions in other anhydrobiotic organisms, but their relevance to tardigrade anhydrobiosis is not clarified. In this study, we focused on the heat-soluble property characteristic of LEA proteins and conducted heat-soluble proteomics using an anhydrobiotic tardigrade. Our heat-soluble proteomics identified five abundant heat-soluble proteins. All of them showed no sequence similarity with LEA proteins and formed two novel protein families with distinct subcellular localizations. We named them Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble (CAHS and Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble (SAHS protein families, according to their localization. Both protein families were conserved among tardigrades, but not found in other phyla. Although CAHS protein was intrinsically unstructured and SAHS protein was rich in β-structure in the hydrated condition, proteins in both families changed their conformation to an α-helical structure in water-deficient conditions as LEA proteins do. Two conserved repeats of 19-mer motifs in CAHS proteins were capable to form amphiphilic stripes in α-helices, suggesting their roles as molecular shield in water-deficient condition, though charge distribution pattern in α-helices were different between CAHS and LEA proteins. Tardigrades might have evolved novel protein families with a heat-soluble property and this study revealed a novel repertoire of major heat-soluble proteins in these anhydrobiotic animals.

  6. Comparison of visual acuity results in preschool children with lea symbols and Bailey-Lovie E chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanker, Nijil; Dhirani, Sayyeda; Bhakat, Premjit

    2013-01-01

    To compare visual acuity with two visual acuity charts in preschool children. Visual acuity measurement with Lea symbols and Bailey-Lovie tumbling E chart was performed on children between 3 and 6 years of age. Visual acuity data from the two charts were analyzed with Bland-Altman plot to determine the limits of agreement. The Wilcoxon signed test was performed in children aged 3-4 years and in children aged 5-6 years separately to evaluate the influence of age. The inter-eye difference between the two charts were further analyzed with the paired t-test. A p value > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 47 children were enrolled for the study. The average logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (LogMAR) monocular visual acuity with Lea symbols (0.17 ± 0.13) was better than the Bailey-Lovie tumbling E chart (0.22 ± 0.14). The mean difference between Bailey-Lovie tumbling E chart and Lea symbol chart was 0.05 ± 0.12 in logMAR units. A second analysis eliminating outliers showed the same result but lower differences (n = 43, 0.05 ± 0.05 logMAR units). Visual acuity results between the two charts in children aged 3-4 years showed a significant difference (p = 0.000), but not for children aged 5-6 years (p = 0.059). Inter-eye differences between the two charts was not statistically significant (p = 0.77). Bailey-Lovie tumbling E chart is comparable to the Lea symbols chart in pre-school children. But preference should be given to Lea symbols for children aged 3-4 years as the symbols are more familiar than a directional test for this age group.

  7. A unique box in 28S rRNA is shared by the enigmatic insect order Zoraptera and Dictyoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Wang

    Full Text Available The position of the Zoraptera remains one of the most challenging and uncertain concerns in ordinal-level phylogenies of the insects. Zoraptera have been viewed as having a close relationship with five different groups of Polyneoptera, or as being allied to the Paraneoptera or even Holometabola. Although rDNAs have been widely used in phylogenetic studies of insects, the application of the complete 28S rDNA are still scattered in only a few orders. In this study, a secondary structure model of the complete 28S rRNAs of insects was reconstructed based on all orders of Insecta. It was found that one length-variable region, D3-4, is particularly distinctive. The length and/or sequence of D3-4 is conservative within each order of Polyneoptera, but it can be divided into two types between the different orders of the supercohort, of which the enigmatic order Zoraptera and Dictyoptera share one type, while the remaining orders of Polyneoptera share the other. Additionally, independent evidence from phylogenetic results support the clade (Zoraptera+Dictyoptera as well. Thus, the similarity of D3-4 between Zoraptera and Dictyoptera can serve as potentially valuable autapomorphy or synapomorphy in phylogeny reconstruction. The clades of (Plecoptera+Dermaptera and ((Grylloblattodea+Mantophasmatodea+(Embiodea+Phasmatodea were also recovered in the phylogenetic study. In addition, considering the other studies based on rDNAs, this study reached the highest congruence with previous phylogenetic studies of Holometabola based on nuclear protein coding genes or morphology characters. Future comparative studies of secondary structures across deep divergences and additional taxa are likely to reveal conserved patterns, structures and motifs that can provide support for major phylogenetic lineages.

  8. Osteosíntesis y artrolisis en el tratamiento de las fracturas supra e intercondíleas graves del codo en el adulto

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Sabaté, Alfons; Ferrer Escobar, Humberto; Alvarez Gonzalez, A.; Latorre Marti, J.; Orduña Serra, Modesto

    1982-01-01

    Los autores estudian la evoluciónen el tratamiento de las fracturas graves de la extremidad distal del hiimero hasta llegar a la técnica actual de la osteosíntesis estable. Presentan y analizan una serie de 21 fracturas condíleas, supracondíleas y supraintercondíleas tratadas quirtirgicamente mediante abordaje por vía transolecraniana, osteosíntesis con placas y tornillos y fijación del olécranon con compresión. La movilización precoz postoperatoria favorece la obtención de un buen arco móvil...

  9. Expression, purification, and initial characterization of different domains of recombinant mouse 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, an enigmatic enzyme from the myelin sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursula Petri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase is an enigmatic enzyme specifically expressed at high levels in the vertebrate myelin sheath, whose function and physiological substrates are unknown. The protein consists of two domains: an uncharacterized N-terminal domain with little homology to other proteins, and a C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain. Findings In order to be able to fully characterize CNPase structurally and functionally, we have set up expression systems for different domains of CNPase, using a total of 18 different expression constructs. CNPase was expressed in E. coli with a TEV-cleavable His-tag. Enzymatic activity assays indicated that the purified proteins were active and correctly folded. The folding of both the full-length protein, as well as the N- and C-terminal domains, was also studied by synchrotron CD spectroscopy. A thermal shift assay was used to optimize buffer compositions to be used during purification and storage. The assay also indicated that CNPase was most stable at a pH of 5.5, and could be significantly stabilized by high salt concentrations. Conclusions We have been able to express and purify recombinantly several different domains of CNPase, including the isolated N-terminal domain, which is folded mainly into a β-sheet structure. The expression system can be used as an efficient tool to elucidate the role of CNPase in the myelin sheath.

  10. Moments of complexity and enigmatic action: a Jungian view of the therapeutic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambray, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    In presenting clinical case material for a panel on archetypes and/or primal phantasies an initial discussion of archetypes as emergent phenomena organizing 'moments of complexity' is given(1) . The relationship of such moments to 'moments of meeting' as developed by the Boston Change Process Study Group is commented on and explored within the context of the case. A condensed report of a multi-year analytic treatment of a bipolar patient having a severe trauma history is offered for discussion. Several unusual, enigmatic events are detailed to illustrate the occurrence of moments of complexity. Dreams highlighting psychological transformation stemming from a changing relationship to emerging archetypal material related to a psychotic process in the patient are offered to further detailed moments of complexity. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. An enigmatic, diminutive theropod footprint in the shallow marine Pliensbachian Hasle Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Surlyk, Finn

    2015-01-01

    A well-preserved three-toed footprint, measuring 34 mm in length from a very small predatory dinosaur with an estimated hip height of 153 mm and a total body length around 50 cm including tail, is reported from the type section of the marine Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian), Hasle Formation...... on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. The morphology of the footprint is similar to the ichnogenus Stenonyx Lull 1904 from the contemporaneous Pliensbachian Szydlowek site in Poland. Apart from the Polish material, footprints from diminutive dinosaurs are rare and reported from few other...... localities around the world. The occurrence of a diminutive dinosaur footprint in a shallow marine sandstone is enigmatic. The well-defined morphology of the footprint, together with the very small size of the trackmaker, excludes the possibility that the track was emplaced by a swimming or wading animal...

  12. Book review: Working with academic literacies: case studies towards transformative practice. Lillis, T., Harrington, K., Lea, M.R. & Mitchell, S. eds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastin Prinsloo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Lillis, T., Harrington, K., Lea, M.R. & Mitchell, S. (eds. 2015. Working with academic literacies: case studies towards transformative practice. Fort Collins, Colorado: WAC Clearinghouse.

  13. Salt deposits in Los Medanos area, Eddy and Lea counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.L.; with sections on Ground water hydrology, Cooley; and Surficial Geology, Bachman

    1973-01-01

    The salt deposits of Los Medanos area, in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico, are being considered for possible use as a receptacle for radioactive wastes in a pilot-plant repository. The salt deposits of the area. are in three evaporite formations: the Castile, Salado, and Rustler Formations, in ascending order. The three formations are dominantly anhydrite and rock salt, but some gypsum, potassium ores, carbonate rock, and fine-grained clastic rocks are present. They have combined thicknesses of slightly more than 4,000 feet, of which roughly one-half belongs to the Salado. Both the Castile and the Rustler are-richer in anhydrite-and poorer in rock salt-than the Salado, and they provide this salt-rich formation with considerable Protection from any fluids which might be present in underlying or overlying rocks. The Salado Formation contains many thick seams of rock salt at moderate depths below the surface. The rock salt has a substantial cover of well-consolidated rocks, and it is very little deformed structurally. Certain geological details essential for Waste-storage purposes are unknown or poorly known, and additional study involving drilling is required to identify seams of rock salt suitable for storage purposes and to establish critical details of their chemistry, stratigraphy, and structure.

  14. Overexpression of TaLEA gene from Tamarix androssowii improves salt and drought tolerance in transgenic poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gao

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarixandrossowii (named TaLEA was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populussimonii × P. nigra via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ribonucleic acid (RNA gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11 showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars.

  15. A new enigmatic Late Miocene mylodontoid sloth from northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Ascanio D.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Solórzano, Andrés; Flores, Mónica Núñez; Ruiz-Ramoni, Damián

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of sloth (Eionaletherium tanycnemius gen. et sp. nov.) recently collected from the Late Miocene Urumaco Formation, Venezuela (northern South America) is herein described based on a partial skeleton including associated femora and tibiae. In order to make a preliminary analysis of the phylogenetic affinities of this new sloth we performed a discriminate analysis based on several characters of the femur and tibia of selected Mylodontoidea and Megatherioidea sloths. The consensus tree produced indicates that the new sloth, E. tanycnemius, is a member of the Mylodontoidea. Surprisingly, the new taxon shows some enigmatic features among Neogene mylodontoid sloths, e.g. femur with a robust lesser trochanter that projects medially and the straight distinctly elongated tibia. The discovery of E. tanycnemius increases the diversity of sloths present in the Urumaco sequence to ten taxa. This taxon supports previous studies of the sloth assemblage from the Urumaco sequence as it further indicates that there are several sloth lineages present that are unknown from the better sampled areas of southern South America. PMID:26064594

  16. A new Cretaceous family of enigmatic two-winged lacewings (Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Makarkin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lacewings (Neuroptera normally bear four well-developed wings. There are a few brachypterous, micropterous or apterous species, found in several extant families; this wing reduction is usually associated with flightlessness. The only documented fossil neuropteran with reduced hind wings (modified to small haltere-like structures is the enigmatic minute genus Mantispidiptera Grimaldi from the Late Cretaceous amber of New Jersey. In this paper, we report a new genus and species from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China (Dipteromantispa brevisubcosta n. gen. et n. sp. resembling Mantispidiptera. We place these two genera in the new family Dipteromantispidae, n. fam. They bear well-developed forewings with reduced venation, and hind wings that are extremely modified as small structures resembling the halteres of Diptera. Dipteromantispidae n. fam. might be specialized descendants of some early Berothidae or of stem group Mantispidae + Berothidae. We presume that dipteromantispids were active fliers. This is a remarkable example of parallel evolution of wing structures in this neuropteran family and Diptera. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300002

  17. Phylogenetic analyses of complete mitochondrial genome sequences suggest a basal divergence of the enigmatic rodent Anomalurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissi Carmela

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic relationships between Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates and their allies (Euarchontoglires have long been debated. While it is now generally agreed that Rodentia constitutes a monophyletic sister-group of Lagomorpha and that this clade (Glires is sister to Primates and Dermoptera, higher-level relationships within Rodentia remain contentious. Results We have sequenced and performed extensive evolutionary analyses on the mitochondrial genome of the scaly-tailed flying squirrel Anomalurus sp., an enigmatic rodent whose phylogenetic affinities have been obscure and extensively debated. Our phylogenetic analyses of the coding regions of available complete mitochondrial genome sequences from Euarchontoglires suggest that Anomalurus is a sister taxon to the Hystricognathi, and that this clade represents the most basal divergence among sampled Rodentia. Bayesian dating methods incorporating a relaxed molecular clock provide divergence-time estimates which are consistently in agreement with the fossil record and which indicate a rapid radiation within Glires around 60 million years ago. Conclusion Taken together, the data presented provide a working hypothesis as to the phylogenetic placement of Anomalurus, underline the utility of mitochondrial sequences in the resolution of even relatively deep divergences and go some way to explaining the difficulty of conclusively resolving higher-level relationships within Glires with available data and methodologies.

  18. A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Pollinger, John P.; Earl, Dent A.; Knowles, James C.; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Sidorovich, Vadim; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Musiani, Marco; Kays, Roland; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput genotyping technologies developed for model species can potentially increase the resolution of demographic history and ancestry in wild relatives. We use a SNP genotyping microarray developed for the domestic dog to assay variation in over 48K loci in wolf-like species worldwide. Despite the high mobility of these large carnivores, we find distinct hierarchical population units within gray wolves and coyotes that correspond with geographic and ecologic differences among populations. Further, we test controversial theories about the ancestry of the Great Lakes wolf and red wolf using an analysis of haplotype blocks across all 38 canid autosomes. We find that these enigmatic canids are highly admixed varieties derived from gray wolves and coyotes, respectively. This divergent genomic history suggests that they do not have a shared recent ancestry as proposed by previous researchers. Interspecific hybridization, as well as the process of evolutionary divergence, may be responsible for the observed phenotypic distinction of both forms. Such admixture complicates decisions regarding endangered species restoration and protection. PMID:21566151

  19. The cochlea of the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata informs mysticete phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Travis; Marx, Felix G; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Evans, Alistair R

    2017-06-01

    The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the least understood extant baleen whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti). Knowledge on its basic anatomy, ecology, and fossil record is limited, even though its singular position outside both balaenids (right whales) and balaenopteroids (rorquals + grey whales) gives Caperea a pivotal role in mysticete evolution. Recent investigations of the cetacean cochlea have provided new insights into sensory capabilities and phylogeny. Here, we extend this advance to Caperea by describing, for the first time, the inner ear of this enigmatic species. The cochlea is large and appears to be sensitive to low-frequency sounds, but its hearing limit is relatively high. The presence of a well-developed tympanal recess links Caperea with cetotheriids and balaenopteroids, rather than balaenids, contrary to the traditional morphological view of a close Caperea-balaenid relationship. Nevertheless, a broader sample of the cetotheriid Herpetocetus demonstrates that the presence of a tympanal recess can be variable at the specific and possibly even the intraspecific level. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Enigmatic barrows without offerings: Monte Deva (Gijón and Berducedo (Allande, in Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Blas Cortina, Miguel Ángel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural simplicity of two large barrows and their lack of grave goods make enigmatic tomb types, that although part of the megalithic tradition, could be located in the Early Bronze Age (Monte Deva V. Their easy classification as “poor tombs” (large poor tombs? ought to raise the possibility of other interpretations. The barrows, built by poorly nucleated societies in a context of very low population density, and with limited possibilities of exchange, are likely to be more due to a concrete funerary form, whose variations are considered, than to exclusively economic reasons.

    La simplicidad estructural de dos grandes túmulos y la carencia de ofrendas sintetizan modalidades sepulcrales enigmáticas que, si bien instaladas en la tradición megalítica, podrían situarse en el Bronce Antiguo (Monte Deva V. A su cómoda catalogación como “tumbas pobres” (¿grandes tumbas pobres? se le debe oponer la plausibilidad de otras opciones.
    Construidos por sociedades poco nucleadas, en un contexto de baja densidad demográfica y de limitadas posibilidades de intercambio, es probable que se deban más a una precisa normativa funeraria, cuyas variantes son consideradas, que a razones exclusivamente económicas.

  1. The Fall of Anarchy: Politics and Anatomy in an Enigmatic Painting by J.M.W. Turner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Smiles

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of Turner’s mysterious unfinished painting, known today as Death on a Pale Horse, is a problem that has baffled generations of scholars. It has been proposed that it is a response to the death of Turner’s father in 1829 or to the cholera outbreak of 1832 but these suggestions are at best circumstantial. This paper offers a new interpretation of this enigmatic painting, linking it principally to the cause of political Reform.

  2. The true nature of the enigmatic copepod genus Limnoncaea from plankton in Japan and the importance of parasito-planktology

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 攻; 長澤, 和也; ,

    2004-01-01

    The history of an enigmatic copepod genus Limnoncaea Kokubo, 1914 is reviewed. Copepods of this genus had been recorded from plankton in many fresh/brackish lakes and ponds of Japan. It is recently concluded that Limnoncaea is relegated to a junior synonym of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832, the species of which are mainly parasitic on fish. Here we explain how lack of interchange between the fields of planktology and parasitology prevented an earlier appreciation of this fact. Recently, postmated a...

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic longtailed rattlesnakes (Crotalus ericsmithi, C. lannomi, and C. stejnegeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Meik, Jesse M; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    The longtailed rattlesnakes of western Mexico represent an enigmatic group of poorly known venomous snake species: Crotalus ericsmithi, C. lannomi, and C. stejnegeri. In the 120 years since their discovery, fewer than twenty individuals have been deposited in natural history collections worldwide. These three species share similar morphological traits, including a particularly long tail that has been interpreted as either an ancestral condition among rattlesnakes or as derived within the longtailed group. An understanding of the phylogenetic distinctiveness and relationships among the longtailed rattlesnakes, and their relationships to other rattlesnake groups, has previously been hampered by a dearth of comparative material and tissues for collection of DNA sequence data. Facilitated by the recent availability of tissue samples from multiple individuals of each species, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships among the longtailed rattlesnakes and their placement among other rattlesnake groups, using DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial and three nuclear gene fragments. We explore phylogenetic signal in our data using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, species tree analyses and hypothesis testing. Our results strongly support the monophyly of longtailed rattlesnakes and suggest the three species diverged from each other during the mid to late Pliocene or early Pleistocene (~1.5-5.6 mya). Contrary to prevailing hypotheses, we find no evidence for an early or basal divergence of the longtailed clade within the rattlesnake tree, and instead estimate that it diverged relatively recently (~6.8 mya) from its sister lineage, composed of the diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox group) and the prairie rattlesnakes (C. viridis group). With our added sampling of lineages and identification of previously used problematic sequences, we provide a revised hypothesis for relationships among Crotalus species, yet underscore the need for future studies and new data to

  4. Enigmatic cranial superstructures among Chamorro ancestors from the Mariana Islands: gross anatomy and microanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Gary M; Bromage, Timothy G; Sava, Vincent J; Hanson, Douglas B; Anderson, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and the meaning of three enigmatic, geographically patterned, and quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSSs), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT, PR, and TSP develop at posterior cranial attachment sites of the upper trapezius, superior oblique, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. Marked expression and co-occurrence of these OSSs are virtually circumscribed within Oceania and reach highest recorded frequencies in protohistoric Chamorros (CHamoru) of the Mariana Islands. Prior to undertaking scanning electron microscopy (SEM) work, our working multifactorial model for OSS development was that early-onset, long-term, and chronic activity-related microtrauma at enthesis sites led to exuberant reactive or reparative responses in a substantial minority of genetically predisposed (and mostly male) individuals. SEM imaging, however, reveals topographic patterning that questions, but does not negate, activity induction of these superstructures. Although OSSs appear macroscopically as relatively large and discrete phenomena, SEM findings reveal a unique, widespread, and seemingly systemic distribution of structures over the occipital surface that have the appearance of OSS microforms. Nevertheless, apparent genetic underpinnings, anatomic relationships with muscle entheses, and positive correlation of OSS development with humeral robusticity continue to suggest that these superstructures have potential to at once bear witness to Chamorro population history and inform osteobiographical constructions of chronic activity patterns in individuals bearing them. Further work is outlined that would illuminate the proximate and ultimate meanings of OSS. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Origin of X-ray Emission from the Enigmatic Be Star γ Cassiopeiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Oskinova, L.; Russell, C. M. P.; Petre, R.; Enoto, T.; Morihana, K.; Ishida, M.

    2017-11-01

    Gamma Cassiopeiae is an enigmatic Be star with unusually hard, strong X-ray emission compared with normal main-sequence B stars. The origin has been debated for decades between two theories: mass accretion onto a hidden compact companion and a magnetic dynamo driven by the star-Be disk differential rotation. There has been no decisive signature found that supports either theory, such as a pulse in X-ray emission or the presence of large-scale magnetic field. In a ~100 ksec duration observation of the star with the Suzaku X-ray observatory in 2011, we detected six rapid X-ray spectral hardening events called ``softness dips''. All the softness dip events show symmetric softness ratio variations, and some of them have flat bottoms apparently due to saturation. The softness dip spectra are best described by either ~40% or ~70% partial covering absorption to kT ~12 keV plasma emission by matter with a neutral hydrogen column density of ~2 - 8 × 1021cm-2, while the spectrum outside of these dips is almost free of absorption. This result suggests that two distinct X-ray emitting spots in the γ Cas system, perhaps on a white dwarf companion with dipole mass accretion, are occulted by blobs in the Be stellar wind, the Be disk, or rotating around the white dwarf companion. The formation of a Be star and white dwarf binary system requires mass transfer between two stars; γ Cas may have experienced such activity in the past.

  6. The descriptive review, from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis of the disease, an enigmatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode, Aremu Shuaib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP, which is caused by the human papilomavirus type 6 and 11, is the most common benign neoplasm in the larynx among infants and the second more frequent cause of the hoarseness in childhood. Is a enigmatic disease that can be devastating for those whom are affected. Is way misunderstood, and the investigation is still on matter. Objective: This review had as objective provide a global vision and an update of what is recognized about the RRP and that is ahead of interns therapies. This surgical and adjuvant was performed through the research of database PubMed, MEDLINE, Cumulative index to nursing and health, Allied Literature and Cochrane. Eletronic library sought to use the headers of the subject "Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis", "Juvenile Laryngeal Papillomatosis", "Respiratory Papillomatosis", "Pediatric Laryngeal Obstruction" and "Airway Management". The obtained results were analyzed of relevance for the theme. Discussion: The human papillomavirus (HPV is a little DNA virus that contain. The recurrent respiratory papillomatosis can affect people of any age, with the younger patient identified in a day of age and the oldest with 84 years. The most common presentation is the supporter of the RRP, it is the hoarseness. The therapy has been repetitive and debulking. The objective is to erradicate the disease, without damaging the normal structures. None modality has proven effective in the eradication of RRP. Conclusion: Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis is a frustrating disease, capricious with the potential of the morbid consequences by the cause of involvement of the airway and the risks of malignant degeneration.

  7. Potash resources in part of Los Medanos area of Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    Los Medanos area of eastern Eddy and western Lea Counties, New Mexico, is being considered for possible siting of a repository Facility for experimental studies of nuclear-waste emplacement in salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The potential repository site encompasses about 29 square miles (75 square kilometres) of sandy terrain near the center of Los Medanos. The site is underlain by evaporite and red bed formations having an aggregate thickness of 4,462 feet (1,360 metres). The Salado Formation, which is the main salt-bearing unit of the area, lies at a depth of 1,000 feet (305 metres). The formation is almost 1,970 feet (600 metres) of rock salt with prominent interbeds of anhydrite, polyhalite, glauberite, some widely spaced seams of fine-grained clastic rocks, and a few potash deposits containing sylvite and langbeinite. The potash deposits occur in salt beds 517-871 feet (158-265 metres) below the top of the formation. The lower half of the formation includes some salt beds which may be used for the experimental emplacement of nuclear wastes. Most, if not nearly all, of the potential repository site is underlain by potash deposits that contain sylvite and langbeinite. The deposits grade 12-13 percent K2O as sylvite and 3-11 percent K2O as langbeinite, and must be regarded as having economic potential for potassium minerals. There is considerable uncertainty concerning the full extent and total range in quality of the ores in the deposit, and subsurface investigation will be required to assess their potential.

  8. HENRY CHARLES LEA Y SU RED DE COLABORADORES LATINOAMERICANOS: RAZONES PARA ESTUDIAR EL SANTO OFICIO EN LA SEGUNDA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda en este artículo la vida y pensamiento de Henry Charles Lea en relación a sus estudios sobre la historia de la Inquisición española. Se esboza brevemente la red de colaboradores que Lea estableció en toda Latinoamérica así como su perfil político e intelectual, subrayando su importancia para la escritura de la obra The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies (1908. Finalmente, se plantean los motivos que llevaron a estos intelectuales a colaborar intensamente con el historiador norteamericano en el marco de los procesos de construcción de identidades sociales y políticas en Latinoamérica en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Se toma como eje conductor de este planteamiento la correspondencia de Juan María Gutiérrez con Henry Charles Lea.

  9. Comparative and functional analysis of the widely occurring family of Nep1-like proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oome, Stan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325800847; van den Ackerveken, Guido|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113853254

    2014-01-01

    Nep1-like proteins (NLP) are best known for their cytotoxic activity in dicot plants. NLP are taxonomically widespread among microbes with very different lifestyles. To learn more about this enigmatic protein family, we analyzed more than 500 available NLP protein sequences from fungi, oomycetes,

  10. Topographic Constraints on the Mode of Formation of an Enigmatic Flow in Cerberus Fossae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Wilson, L.

    2013-12-01

    We use a digital elevation model (DEM), derived from stereo Context Camera (CTX) images referenced to Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data, and shadow length measurements made from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images, to investigate the geometry of a young enigmatic flow in S.W. Cerberus Fossae, Mars. The flow originates from an almost circular (1.2 x 1.5 km) pit within a remnant of a yardang at 0o 35'N, 155o 17'E, within the lower unit of the Medusae Fossae Formation. The flow is ~42 km long and 0.5 to 2.0 km wide, and MOLA data indicate that the flow falls ~50 m along its length. The flow has a broad distal fan of material ~8 x 14 km in size that has a platey surface texture. The source area of the flow displays several sets of semi-concentric ridges with different centers of curvature, and the CTX DEM shows this depression is ~20 m deep, implying a volume of ~0.03 km3 for the removed material. Measurements made from the DEM of the height of the bounding walls of several 160 - 200 m wide constrictions, where 'over-spill' from the flow forms a clear disrupted margin to the flow on the adjacent hills, indicate that the flow was never more than ~8 - 10 m thicker than it currently appears. The total surface area of the flow is ~153 km2 and 25 shadow length measurements made from HiRISE images of the flow margins at 16 different places along the flow give a typical thickness of ~4 m. These measurements imply a volume for the flow of ~0.6 km3, which is 20 times larger than the volume of the flow's source area, thereby demonstrating that a significant amount of new material was erupted to form the flow. The available morphologic and topographic data raise the intriguing probability that the flow is most likely not a lava flow, but is instead a mud flow produced by water reaching the surface within the yardang materials and the subsequent mobilization of the unconsolidated material that comprised the yardang. This proposed mud flow origin

  11. La traducción de la voz. Una lectura de Maldición eterna a quien lea estas páginas de Manuel Puig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Cabrera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the ways in which language and translation function in Puig’s Maldición eterna a quien lea estas páginas, paying special attention to the novel’s multilingual basis as well as to its questioning of the monolingual paradigm.

  12. Use of genomic DNA control features and predicted operon structure in microarray data analysis: ArrayLeaRNA – a Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are widely used for the study of gene expression; however deciding on whether observed differences in expression are significant remains a challenge. Results A computing tool (ArrayLeaRNA has been developed for gene expression analysis. It implements a Bayesian approach which is based on the Gumbel distribution and uses printed genomic DNA control features for normalization and for estimation of the parameters of the Bayesian model and prior knowledge from predicted operon structure. The method is compared with two other approaches: the classical LOWESS normalization followed by a two fold cut-off criterion and the OpWise method (Price, et al. 2006. BMC Bioinformatics. 7, 19, a published Bayesian approach also using predicted operon structure. The three methods were compared on experimental datasets with prior knowledge of gene expression. With ArrayLeaRNA, data normalization is carried out according to the genomic features which reflect the results of equally transcribed genes; also the statistical significance of the difference in expression is based on the variability of the equally transcribed genes. The operon information helps the classification of genes with low confidence measurements. ArrayLeaRNA is implemented in Visual Basic and freely available as an Excel add-in at http://www.ifr.ac.uk/safety/ArrayLeaRNA/ Conclusion We have introduced a novel Bayesian model and demonstrated that it is a robust method for analysing microarray expression profiles. ArrayLeaRNA showed a considerable improvement in data normalization, in the estimation of the experimental variability intrinsic to each hybridization and in the establishment of a clear boundary between non-changing and differentially expressed genes. The method is applicable to data derived from hybridizations of labelled cDNA samples as well as from hybridizations of labelled cDNA with genomic DNA and can be used for the analysis of datasets where

  13. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01

    The Blinebry (Permian) formation of eastern Lea County, NM has a long history of exploitation for petroleum and continues even today to be a strong target horizon for new drilling in the Permian Basin. Because of this long-standing interest it should be classified of strategic interest to domestic oil production; however, the formation has gained a reputation as a primary production target with limited to no flooding potential. In late May of 1999, a project to examine the feasibility of waterflooding the Blinebry formation was proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Petroleum Technology Office (Tulsa, OK). A new well was proposed in one region (the South House area) to examine the reputation by acquiring core and borehole logging data for the collection of formation property data in order to conduct the waterflood evaluation. Notice of the DOE award was received on August 19, 1999 and the preparations for drilling, coring and logging were immediately made for a drilling start on 9/9/99. The Blinebry formation at 6000 feet, foot depth was reached on 9/16/99 and the coring of two 60 foot intervals of the Blinebry was completed on 9/19/99 with more than 98% core recovery. The well was drilled to a total depth of 7800 feet and the Blinebry interval was logged with spectral gamma ray, photoelectric cross section, porosity, resistivity, and borehole image logs on 8/24/99. The well was determined to be likely productive from the Blinebry interval and five & 1/2 inch casing was cemented in the hole on 9/25/99. Detailed core descriptions including environment of deposition have been accomplished. Whole core (a 4-inch diameter) and plug (1.5 inch diameter) testing for formation properties has been completed and are reported. Acquisition and analysis of the borehole logging results have been completed and are reported. Perforation of the Blinebry intervals was accomplished on November 8, 1999. The intervals were acidized and hydrofraced on 11/9 and 11

  14. The enigmatic mitochondrial genome of Rhabdopleura compacta (Pterobranchia reveals insights into selection of an efficient tRNA system and supports monophyly of Ambulacraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2011-05-01

    Rhabdopleura compacta may have arisen by an inversion of the replication direction and adaptation to this bias in the protein sequences leading to an enigmatic mitochondrial genome. Although, phylogenetic analyses of protein coding sequences are hampered, features of the tRNA system of R. compacta support the monophyly of Ambulacraria. The identical reassignment of AGG to Lysine in two distinct groups may have occurred by convergent evolution in the anticodon sequence of the tRNALys.

  15. No bones about it: An enigmatic Devonian fossil reveals a new skeletal framework—A potential role of loss of gene regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johanson, Z.; Kearsley, A.; den Blaauwen, J.; Newman, M.; Smith, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Palaeospondylus gunni (Devonian, Scotland) is an enigmatic vertebrate, assigned to various jawless and jawed groups since its original description. New sections through the whole body allow description of a novel skeletal tissue for Palaeospondylus, comprising the entire skeleton. This tissue is

  16. Review of the enigmatic genus Boalda with transfer of pulcherrima Köhler from Nephelistis and description of a new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enigmatic monobasic genus Boalda Schaus is revised to include Boalda pulcherrima (Köhler) NEW COMBINATION and Boalda poguei NEW SPECIES in addition to the type Boalda gyona Schaus. The habitus and male genitalia of all three species are figured, as are the female genitalia of B. poguei. Indepen...

  17. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  18. Cleavage of group 1 coronavirus spike proteins: how furin cleavage is traded off against heparan sulfate binding upon cell culture adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de C.A.M.; Haijema, B.J.; Schellen, P.; Wichgers Schreur, P.J.; Lintelo, te E.; Vennema, H.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A longstanding enigmatic feature of the group 1 coronaviruses is the uncleaved phenotype of their spike protein, an exceptional property among class I fusion proteins. Here, however, we show that some group 1 coronavirus spike proteins carry a furin enzyme recognition motif and can actually be

  19. PA28αβ: The Enigmatic Magic Ring of the Proteasome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cascio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PA28αβ is a γ-interferon-induced 11S complex that associates with the ends of the 20S proteasome and stimulates in vitro breakdown of small peptide substrates, but not proteins or ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. In cells, PA28 also exists in larger complexes along with the 19S particle, which allows ATP-dependent degradation of proteins; although in vivo a large fraction of PA28 is present as PA28αβ-20S particles whose exact biological functions are largely unknown. Although several lines of evidence strongly indicate that PA28αβ plays a role in MHC class I antigen presentation, the exact molecular mechanisms of this activity are still poorly understood. Herein, we review current knowledge about the biochemical and biological properties of PA28αβ and discuss recent findings concerning its role in modifying the spectrum of proteasome’s peptide products, which are important to better understand the molecular mechanisms and biological consequences of PA28αβ activity.

  20. Line differences in Cor/Lea and fructan biosynthesis-related gene transcript accumulation are related to distinct freezing tolerance levels in synthetic wheat hexaploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hirokazu; Iehisa, Julio C M; Shimosaka, Etsuo; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-03-15

    In common wheat, cultivar differences in freezing tolerance are considered to be mainly due to allelic differences at two major loci controlling freezing tolerance. One of the two loci, Fr-2, is coincident with a cluster of genes encoding C-repeat binding factors (CBFs), which induce downstream Cor/Lea genes during cold acclimation. Here, we conducted microarray analysis to study comprehensive changes in gene expression profile under long-term low-temperature (LT) treatment and to identify other LT-responsive genes related to cold acclimation in leaves of seedlings and crown tissues of a synthetic hexaploid wheat line. The microarray analysis revealed marked up-regulation of a number of Cor/Lea genes and fructan biosynthesis-related genes under the long-term LT treatment. For validation of the microarray data, we selected four synthetic wheat lines that contain the A and B genomes from the tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and the diverse D genomes originating from different Aegilops tauschii accessions with distinct levels of freezing tolerance after cold acclimation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed increased transcript levels of the Cor/Lea, CBF, and fructan biosynthesis-related genes in more freezing-tolerant lines than in sensitive lines. After a 14-day LT treatment, a significant difference in fructan accumulation was observed among the four lines. Therefore, the fructan biosynthetic pathway is associated with cold acclimation in development of wheat freezing tolerance and is another pathway related to diversity in freezing tolerance, in addition to the CBF-mediated Cor/Lea expression pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of membrane protein function by lipid bilayer elasticity—a single molecule technology to measure the bilayer properties experienced by an embedded protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August

    2008-01-01

    Membrane protein function is generally regulated by the molecular composition of the host lipid bilayer. The underlying mechanisms have long remained enigmatic. Some cases involve specific molecular interactions, but very often lipids and other amphiphiles, which are adsorbed to lipid bilayers, r...

  2. Comparison of the Lea Symbols and HOTV charts for preschool vision screening from age 3 to 4.5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the applicability and the development of the normal visual acuity from age 3 to 3.5 years using Lea Symbols and HOTV charts.METHODS: It was a survey research study. Totally, 133 preschoolers(266 eyesbetween 3 to 4.5 years old recruited from two kid-gardens in Guangzhou were tested with both the Lea Symbols chart and the HOTV chart. Outcome measures were monocular logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution(logMARvisual acuity and inter-eye acuity difference in logMAR units for each test. RESULTS: The testability rates of the two charts were high(96.24% vs 92.48%, respectively, but difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The difference between the two kind of monocular vision was not statistically significant(the right eye: t=0.517, P=0.606; the left eye: t=-0.618, P=0.538. There was no significant difference between different eye(Lea Symbols chart: t=0.638, P=0.525; HOTV chart: t=-0.897, P=0.372. The visual acuities of the boys were better than those of the girls, but the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The results which came from visual acuities with the two charts for the corresponding age groups(3-year-old group, 3.5-year-old group, 4-year-old group, 4.5-year-old groupindicated that the visual acuities of the preschoolers were improving with increasing age, but the difference among the visual acuities with the Lea Symbols chart was not statistically significant(the right eye: F=2.662, P=0.052; the left eye: F=1.850, P=0.143. However the difference among the visual acuities with the HOTV chart was statistically significant(the right eye: F=4.518, P=0.005; the left eye: F=3.893, P=0.011.CONCLUSION: Both Lea Symbols and HOTV chars are accepted and appropriate for preschool vision screening from 3 to 4.5 years old. The monocular visual acuity of preschoolers from age 3 to 4.5 years could be assessed was similar using the two charts. There is no correlation between visual acuity and different eye

  3. Barcoding of arrow worms (Phylum Chaetognatha) from three oceans: genetic diversity and evolution within an enigmatic phylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert M; Bucklin, Ann; Pierrot-Bults, Annelies

    2010-04-01

    Arrow worms (Phylum Chaetognatha) are abundant planktonic organisms and important predators in many food webs; yet, the classification and evolutionary relationships among chaetognath species remain poorly understood. A seemingly simple body plan is underlain by subtle variation in morphological details, obscuring the affinities of species within the phylum. Many species achieve near global distributions, spanning the same latitudinal bands in all ocean basins, while others present disjunct ranges, in some cases with the same species apparently found at both poles. To better understand how these complex evolutionary and geographic variables are reflected in the species makeup of chaetognaths, we analyze DNA barcodes of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene, from 52 specimens of 14 species of chaetognaths collected mainly from the Atlantic Ocean. Barcoding analysis was highly successful at discriminating described species of chaetognaths across the phylum, and revealed little geographical structure. This barcode analysis reveals hitherto unseen genetic variation among species of arrow worms, and provides insight into some species relationships of this enigmatic group.

  4. Barcoding of arrow worms (Phylum Chaetognatha from three oceans: genetic diversity and evolution within an enigmatic phylum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Jennings

    Full Text Available Arrow worms (Phylum Chaetognatha are abundant planktonic organisms and important predators in many food webs; yet, the classification and evolutionary relationships among chaetognath species remain poorly understood. A seemingly simple body plan is underlain by subtle variation in morphological details, obscuring the affinities of species within the phylum. Many species achieve near global distributions, spanning the same latitudinal bands in all ocean basins, while others present disjunct ranges, in some cases with the same species apparently found at both poles. To better understand how these complex evolutionary and geographic variables are reflected in the species makeup of chaetognaths, we analyze DNA barcodes of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI gene, from 52 specimens of 14 species of chaetognaths collected mainly from the Atlantic Ocean. Barcoding analysis was highly successful at discriminating described species of chaetognaths across the phylum, and revealed little geographical structure. This barcode analysis reveals hitherto unseen genetic variation among species of arrow worms, and provides insight into some species relationships of this enigmatic group.

  5. Divergent mating patterns and a unique mode of external sperm transfer in Zoraptera: an enigmatic group of pterygote insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, R.; Gottardo, M.; Mercati, D.; Machida, R.; Mashimo, Y.; Matsumura, Y.; Beutel, R. G.

    2013-06-01

    A remarkable external sperm transfer is described for the first time in a species of a group of winged insects (Pterygota), the enigmatic Zoraptera. Mating and sperm transfer of two species of the order were examined in detail, documented, and compared with each other and with patterns described for other species belonging to the order. The behavior differs strikingly in Zorotypus impolitus and Zorotypus magnicaudelli. A copula is performed by males and females of the latter, as it is also the case in other zorapteran species and generally in pterygote insects. In striking contrast to this, males of Z. impolitus do not copulate but deposit small (100 μm in diameter) spermatophores externally on the abdomen of the female. Each spermatophore contains only one giant spermatozoon (3 mm long and 3 μm wide), a unique feature in the entire Hexapoda. External sperm transfer in Pterygota is a highly unusual case of evolutionary reversal. The very small relict group Zoraptera displays a uniform general morphology but exhibits very different reproductive structures and patterns of mating behavior. This may be an extreme form of a more general situation in insects, with a specific form of selection resulting in an accelerated rate of evolution in the reproductive system.

  6. RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF THE ENIGMATIC SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE SOLAR Na i D{sub 1} LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluzzi, Luca [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, CH-6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); Bueno, Javier Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of Na i, with emphasis on the enigmatic D{sub 1} line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polarization observed in the core of the D{sub 1} line may be explained by the effect that one gets when the detailed spectral structure of the anisotropic radiation responsible for the optical pumping is taken into account. This physical ingredient is capable of introducing significant scattering polarization in the core of the Na i D{sub 1} line without the need for ground-level polarization.

  7. The last fossil primate in North America, new material of the enigmatic Ekgmowechashala from the Arikareean of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X; Albright, L Barry; Fremd, Theodore J

    2015-09-01

    Primates were common in North America through most of the Eocene, but vanished in the Chadronian, about 35 million years ago. In the Arikareean, about 6 million years later, the enigmatic primate Ekgmowechashala appeared in the Great Plains and Oregon. This taxon shows little resemblance to other North American primates and its phylogenetic position has long been debated. New material of this taxon allows a revised assessment of its age and how it is related to other primates. Recently collected Ekgmowechashala specimens from the Turtle Cove Member of the John Day Formation in Oregon are described. These specimens are compared to previously collected material from South Dakota and Nebraska, as well as other fossil primates from North America and Asia. Study of the John Day material allows diagnosis of a new, distinct species. Comparison of Ekgmowechashala to a pair of recently described Asian primates, Muangthanhinius and Bugtilemur, suggests that it is a strepsirrhine adapiform, rather than an omomyid. The well-defined stratigraphy and dated marker beds of the Turtle Cove Member provide a refined age for Ekgmowechashala occurrences in Oregon, during the Oligocene (early Arikareean). The age and morphology of these ekgmowechashaline taxa suggest that the group originated in Asia and dispersed to North America in the Oligocene, after the extinction of other primates in North America. Contemporaneous occurrences of Ekgmowechashala in Oregon and the Great Plains indicate the last non-human primates vanished in North America about 26 million years ago. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Strepsiptera-Odyssey: the history of the systematic placement of an enigmatic parasitic insect order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pohl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of the phylogenetic placement of the parasitic insect order Strepsiptera is outlined. The first species was described in 1793 by P. Rossi and assigned to the hymenopteran family Ichneumonidae. A position close to the cucujiform beetle family Rhipiphoridae was suggested by several earlier authors. Others proposed a close relationship with Diptera or even a group Pupariata including Diptera, Strepsiptera and Coccoidea. A subordinate placement within the polyphagan series Cucujiformia close to the wood-associated Lymexylidae was favored by the coleopterist R.A. Crowson. W. Hennig considered a sistergroup relationship with Coleoptera as the most likely hypothesis but emphasized the uncertainty. Cladistic analyses of morphological data sets yielded very different placements, alternatively as sistergroup of Coleoptera, Antliophora, or all other holometabolan orders. Results based on ribosomal genes suggested a sistergroup relationship with Diptera (Halteria concept. A clade Coleopterida (Strepsiptera and Coleoptera was supported in two studies based on different combinations of protein coding nuclear genes. Analyses of data sets comprising seven or nine genes (7 single copy nuclear genes, respectively, yielded either a subordinate placement within Coleoptera or a sistergroup relationship with Neuropterida. Several early hypotheses based on a typological approach − affinities with Diptera, Coleoptera, a coleopteran subgroup, or Neuropterida − were revived using either a Hennigian approach or formal analyses of morphological characters or different molecular data sets. A phylogenomic approach finally supported a sistergroup relationship with monophyletic Coleoptera.

  9. ROLUL NEGUSTORILOR ALOGENI ÎN PROCESUL DE CONSTITUIRE A BURGHEZIEI COMERCIALE DIN PRINCIPATUL MOLDOVA (sfârşitul sec. al XVIII-lea – începutul sec. al XIX-lea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina CEREŞ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available În articol este a investigat rolul comercianţilor străini în crearea burgheziei comerciale în Principatul Moldova (de la sfârşitul secolului al XVIII – începutul secolului al XIX-lea. La sfârşitul secolul al XVIII-lea – începutul secolului al XIX-lea burghezia comercială a Principatului Moldova a fost o categorie ce se afla într-o stare de formare. Astfel, se poate considera că negustorii străini au fost un element im-portant în formarea lentă a burgheziei din zona carpatică. Negustorii străini stabiliţi în Moldova s-au dovedit a fi un factor de progres în ceea ce priveşte evoluţia economiei locale, au contribuit la diversificarea activităţilor economice, la dezvoltarea comerţului interior şi exterior, precum şi la consolidarea rolului burgheziei în formarea categoriilor profesionale productive şi dinamice – de meşteşugari şi meseriaşi.LE RÔLE DES MARCHANDS ALLOGÉNIQUES DANS LE PROCESSUS DE FORMATION DE LA BOURGEOISIE COMMERCIALE DE LA PRINCIPAUTÉ DE MOLDAVIE (À LA FIN DU XVIIIÈME SIÈCLE – DÉBUT DU XIX ÈME SIÈCLE  La Bourgeoisie commerciale de la Principauté de Moldavie existante à la fin du XVIIIème siècle – début du XIXème siècle constitue une catégorie sociale en phase embryonnaire. Ses représentants sont généralement des éléments allogènes, avec peu d’autochtones. On sait qu’en effet toute bourgeoisie a commencé son développement à l’aide des étrangers. La séparation de ceux-ci s’est produite uniquement après une certaine période de temps, après avoir fait leur éducation économique dans le pays d’origine. On rencontre le même processus au cas des Principautés Roumains. Les commerçants étrangers ont constitué l’un des éléments les plus importants dans le processus lent de cristallisation de la bourgeoisie autochtone. Par leurs activités commerciales et par leurs propres intérêts ils on contribué à faire évoluer les activités de commerce de

  10. The enigmatic nitrogen biogeochemistry of Lake Vida, Antarctica: an isolated brine cryoecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, N. E.; Murray, A.; Trubl, G. G.; Kuhn, E.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Vida, located in Victoria Valley, East Antarctica, harbors ice-entrained brine (20 % salt, > 6 times seawater) that has been isolated from the surface for more than 2,800 years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, temperature of -13.4 °C, lack of O2, and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. As an example, the brine contains the highest concentrations of N2O reported for any aquatic ecosystem (86.6 μM) and exceptionally high levels of NH4+ (3.6 mM), NO3- (1.1 mM) and NO2- (27.3 μM). Though this cryoecosystem appears to be relatively inhospitable, microbial life is abundant (>10^7 cell-like particles per mL), is capable of protein production at in situ temperatures, and harbors an assemblage of bacterial phylotypes spanning at least eight phyla. To assess present and past microbial activity in situ and test hypotheses concerning energy generation in the brine cryoecosystem, the stable isotope signatures of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen have been characterized in liquid and dissolved gas phases. The isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ15N = -7.9 ‰, δ18O = 31.7 ‰), ammonium (δ15N = -4.8 ‰) and dinitrogen (δ15N = 0.3 ‰) are all consistent with an atmospheric origin. Given that nearly all non-atmospheric sources of nitrate lack a 17O anomaly, a Δ17O value of nitrate in Lake Vida of 15.9 ‰ suggests that approximately half of the nitrate present is derived from atmospheric deposition. A 17O anomaly was not observed in N2O indicating that this gas was likely formed in the lake. While the bulk δ15N (-22.2 ‰) and site preference (SP; -3.6 ‰) values for N2O are consistent with a microbial origin, the δ18O value (3.0 ‰) is markedly depleted in 18O relative to the vast majority of published values. The soils surrounding Don Juan Pond, which is in a neighboring valley, have been shown to produce N2O with variable δ15N, δ18O and SP values of -45.4 to -34.5 ‰, 50.5 to 76.7 ‰, and -45.2 to 4.1 ‰, respectively, that may reflect

  11. An ancient origin for the enigmatic flat-headed frogs (Bombinatoridae: Barbourula from the islands of Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Blackburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complex history of Southeast Asian islands has long been of interest to biogeographers. Dispersal and vicariance events in the Pleistocene have received the most attention, though recent studies suggest a potentially more ancient history to components of the terrestrial fauna. Among this fauna is the enigmatic archaeobatrachian frog genus Barbourula, which only occurs on the islands of Borneo and Palawan. We utilize this lineage to gain unique insight into the temporal history of lineage diversification in Southeast Asian islands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data, multiple fossil calibration points, and likelihood and Bayesian methods, we estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times for Barbourula. We determine the sensitivity of focal divergence times to specific calibration points by jackknife approach in which each calibration point is excluded from analysis. We find that relevant divergence time estimates are robust to the exclusion of specific calibration points. Barbourula is recovered as a monophyletic lineage nested within a monophyletic Costata. Barbourula diverged from its sister taxon Bombina in the Paleogene and the two species of Barbourula diverged in the Late Miocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The divergences within Barbourula and between it and Bombina are surprisingly old and represent the oldest estimates for a cladogenetic event resulting in living taxa endemic to Southeast Asian islands. Moreover, these divergence time estimates are consistent with a new biogeographic scenario: the Palawan Ark Hypothesis. We suggest that components of Palawan's terrestrial fauna might have "rafted" on emergent portions of the North Palawan Block during its migration from the Asian mainland to its present-day position near Borneo. Further, dispersal from Palawan to Borneo (rather than Borneo to Palawan may explain the current day disjunct distribution of this ancient

  12. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, Southeast New Mexico-Lea County Underground Water Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. The Lea County portion of the aquifer covers approximately the northern two thirds of the 4,393-square-mile county. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context from which to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. Maps representing water-level declines, current (2007) water levels, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Lea County Underground Water Basin were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. Results of this mapping effort show the water level has declined as much as 97 feet in the Lea County Underground Water Basin from predevelopment (1914-54) to 2007 with rates as high as 0.88 feet per year.

  13. Codo de tenis (tendinosis epicondílea externa): tratamiento esclerosante ecoguiado con polidocanol. A propósito de dos casos

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Rey, Guillermo; Álvarez Rey, Ignacio; Álvarez Bustos, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    Dos pacientes (2 varones de 42 y 55 años) con tendinosis epicondílea externa dolorosa fueron tratados mediante un novedoso tratamiento que se basa en la esclerosis con Polidocanol, un agente esclerosante, ecoguiada con Power Color (PC) mediante Doppler color de polidocanol, un agente esclerosante. Tras el tratamiento se produjo una marcada reducción del dolor recogida mediante una escala analógica visual (VAS) y desaparición y disminución de la vascularización en cada caso, respectivamente. E...

  14. Estudio de concordancia de mediciones radiológicas en fracturas supracondíleas de húmero en niños

    OpenAIRE

    Abril Aguilar, Andrés Camilo; Buitrago Buitrago, Luis Guillermo; Vergara Amador, Enrique Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Antecedente. En la valoración radiológica de las fracturas supracondíleas de codo en niños existen algunas mediciones utilizadas como el ángulo de Baumann, el ángulo de inclinación diafisario-condíleo, la línea humeral anterior y la valoración rotacional. No se dispone de evidencia acerca de la concordancia de estas mediciones y los parámetros para determinar un tratamiento o los resultados del mismo, bajo esos criterios. Objetivo. Determinar la concordancia de esas mediciones y su relaci...

  15. Overexpression Analysis of emv2 gene coding for Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Vigna radiata (Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are speculated to protect against water stress deficit in plants. An over expression system for mungbean late embryogenesis abundant protein, emv2 was constructed in a pET29a vector, designated pET-emv2 which is responsible for higher expression under the transcriptional/translational control of T7/lac promoter incorporated in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3.Induction protocol was optimized for pET recombinants harboring the target gene. Overexpressed EMV2 protein was purified to homogeneity and the protein profile monitored by SDS-PAGE.

  16. Examining the Enigmatic Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoon, Koh Aik

    2007-01-01

    Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This…

  17. The Enigmatic Moon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Bhandari begins by pointing out the unique- ness of our Moon amongst the objects in the solar system. No other planet has a satellite so big compared to the planet. It does not seem to have been captured like those of Mars, and it could not have originated alongside the Earth, because the average density of the lunar mate-.

  18. THE ENIGMATIC ORDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and SADF Champion. Shot. Medal. The continually evolving character of the Order is, to reiterate, rooted in the lack of a firm historical foundation. Thus, any discussion of the Order of the. Star of South Africa must first examine ... case of their religious ancestors, gener- ally had a patron saint and sought pa- pal confirmation.

  19. Enigmatic Io: Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. V.

    2002-05-01

    Io is one of the four satellites of Jupiter discovered by Galileo in 1610, and it has played a major role in the history of astronomy and planetary science ever since. Timing of its eclipses by Jupiter, along with the other Galilean moons, provided the first measurement of the speed of light by Roemer. The importance of resonances in celestial mechanics was demonstrated by Laplace's study of the system. The discovery that Io's orbital position controls decametric radio emissions from Jupiter's magnetosphere was the first hint of the strong interactions between giant planet magnetospheres and the satellites embedded within them. Io's bizarre optical properties led to similarly bizarre hypotheses concerning its surface composition and history. Voyager's initial reconnaissance in 1979 led to the discovery of the first active volcanism beyond Earth and recognition of tidal heating as a major energy source for Io. The Galileo mission, originally not slated to study Io due to hazards from Jupiter's radiation belts, has vastly increased our understanding of Io through a remarkable series of distant observations and daring close encounters over the course of its six-plus year mission. This talk will review our changing view of this strange world, Io, the most volcanic world in the solar system, whose map is now emblazoned with the names of gods and goddesses of volcanoes and fire from Earth's diverse cultures.

  20. Effects of increasing use of trifluralin and glyphosate on the microbial activity of a lea soil; Efeito de doses crescentes dos herbicidas trifluralina e glifosato sobre a atividade microbiana de um solo de varzea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Edna Santos de; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Peixoto, Maria de Fatima da Silva Pinto [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Quimica. E-mail: mfsppeix@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Fay, Elizabeth Francisconi [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Jaguariuna, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Defesa da Agricultura. E-mail: bethfay@cnpma.embrapa.com.br

    1997-07-01

    This work considers the importance of the glyphosate and trifluralin, which are the most used herbicides by the brazilian plantations, applying approximately fifteen and nine millions of liters by crop, respectively, for the evaluation of the increasing use of these herbicides effects on the microbial activity of a lea soil which are used for beans cultivation.

  1. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble, as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  2. Subjektiivinen teatterihistoria / Lea Tormis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tormis, Lea, 1932-

    1996-01-01

    Eesti teatriajalugu, näitlejad, teatritegijad, teatrid. Lisaks "Yhteydet yli Suomenlahden", lk. 286; "Tanssitaide kotimaistuu", lk. 288; "Esimerkkejä Viron ja Suomen teatterisuhteiden kehityksestä Viron puolelta katsottuna" (1868-1985)

  3. Saatuslikud kohtumised / Lea Arme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arme, Lea

    2001-01-01

    Laive Poskast, Eesti Eriolümpia rahvuslikust direktorist, vaimupuudega laste ja noorte treenerist. Tema õpilasest Andrei Kolovanist, kes 1995. a. võitis Connecticutis paraolümpiamängudel kahevõistluses tõstmises hõbemedali

  4. Progresso da ferrugem e da cercosporiose do cafeeiro consorciado com grevílea, com ingazeiro e a pleno sol em Lavras - MG Progress of rust and coffee plant cercosporiose mixed with grevílea, with ingazeiro and in the full sunshine in Lavras - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Grandi Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a incidência da ferrugem e da cercosporiose do cafeeiro em diferentes sistemas de cultivo, agroflorestais e a pleno sol, através da curva de progresso dessas doenças. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cafeeiros consorciados com ingazeiro, cafeeiros consorciados com grevílea e cafeeiros cultivados convencionalmente a pleno sol. As avaliações foram realizadas mensalmente no período de abril de 2001 a março de 2003. Realizou-se o cálculo da área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, a qual foi submetida à análise de variância. Para a incidência da ferrugem do cafeeiro o consórcio cafeeiro x ingazeiro mostrou-se com maiores índices da doença, sendo que os tratamentos consórcio cafeeiro x grevílea e cafeeiro a pleno sol não diferiram entre si e apresentaram menores incidências da doença. Diminuição na luz solar direta e maior umidade podem ter favorecido a ferrugem no sistema cafeeiro x ingazeiro. Para a incidência de cercosporiose, os cafeeiros a pleno sol obtiveram maiores valores de incidência da doença, seguidos por cafeeiros x grevílea, e menores taxas da doença foram observadas no consórcio cafeeiros x ingazeiro. A incidência de radiação solar direta pode ter favorecido a maior incidência de cercosporiose nos cafeeiros a pleno sol.The present work aimed to evaluate the incidence of rust and coffee plant cercosporiose in different systems of agroforest cultivation and in the full sunshine through the progress curve of those diseases. The completely randomized design with three treatments and seven replicates was utilized. The treatments were made up of coffee plants mixed with ingazeiro, coffee plants mixed with grevílea and coffee plants cultivated conventionally in the full sunshine. The evaluations were performed monthly during the period of April 2001 to

  5. Conférence de l'EAS "Biotechnologies for quality". Barcelone, Espagne, 20-23 octobre 2004 - Rapport de mission

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Denis

    2004-01-01

    Le congrès annuel de l'EAS (European Aquaculture Society) a rassemblé pendant 4 jours 531 chercheurs, producteurs et responsables institutionnels de 47 nationalités. Il a donné lieu à la présentation de 105 communications orales et de 274 posters. La thématique générale du congrès était construite sur le thème général suivant: Biotechnologies for quality. Il s'agissait de montrer que les biotechnologies, qui font parfois peur au consommateur comme au citoyen, constituent un outil privilégié d...

  6. Towards a functional understanding of protein N-terminal acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Arnesen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein N-terminal acetylation is a major modification of eukaryotic proteins. Its functional implications include regulation of protein-protein interactions and targeting to membranes, as demonstrated by studies of a handful of proteins. Fifty years after its discovery, a potential general function of the N-terminal acetyl group carried by thousands of unique proteins remains enigmatic. However, recent functional data suggest roles for N-terminal acetylation as a degradation signal and as a determining factor for preventing protein targeting to the secretory pathway, thus highlighting N-terminal acetylation as a major determinant for the life and death of proteins. These contributions represent new and intriguing hypotheses that will guide the research in the years to come.

  7. Review of the enigmatic Eocene shark genus Xiphodolamia (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) and description of a new species recovered from Angola, Iran and Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, S.; Hosseinzadeh, R.; Antunes, M. T.; Balbino, A. C.; Kozlov, V. A.; Cappetta, H.

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the extinct Xiphodolamia, a peculiar lamnid shark which inhabited the Eocene seas. The reexamination of a large set of fossilized teeth specimens from the Ypresian of Kazakhstan has enabled the reconstitution of the tooth series of this enigmatic taxa of lamnid shark. Five distinct tooth morphologies seem to occur in X. ensis Leidy [Leidy, J., 1877. Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the phosphate beds of South Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8, 209-261] species revealing a weak ontogenetic variation. Such specific variation in tooth shape means that the other described species may be their junior synonyms. Dental morphology perfectly conforms with a Lamniforme but does not prove the current attribution to the Lamnidae family due to some inconsistent dental features observed, such as the presence of symphysial teeth. This genus could be regarded as an old lineage branched from the stem group of Lamnidae, close to the Isuroids sharks. Several Xiphodolamia teeth, originating both from old collections and new acquisitions, are reported and illustrated in order to provide information about a new species described here: Xiphodolamia serrata nov. sp. This species, currently limited to deposits in Angola, Jordan and Iran and dated at the Late Eocene, is easily distinguishable from the Early-Middle Eocene material belonging to the genus by the presence of serrated cutting edges. Adding to the type species considered here as the only valid taxa during the Early-Middle Eocene period, the temporal range of this genus extends to the Late Eocene, thus setting its upper stratigraphic limit prior to its disappearance as enigmatic as its appearance in the Early Eocene was.

  8. Temporal Changes in Gametogenesis of the Invasive Chinese Pond Mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834) (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from the Konin Lakes System (Central Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hliwa, Piotr; Zdanowski, Bogusław; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Andronowska, Aneta; Król, Jarosław; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Gametogenesis and the temporal changes occurring in the ovaries and testes throughout the reproductive cycle in the invasive alien bivalve, Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea), from the heated Konin lakes system (central Poland) were studied using histological techniques. S. woodiana was confirmed to be a gonochoristic species with overall sex ratio of 1:1. The examined morphological parameters of Chinese pond mussel spermatozoa, i.e. 42 μm mean total length; 4.3 μm mean head length and the maximum size of previtellogenic (34-43 μm) and vitellogenic oocytes (75-83 μm) are consistent with values established for closely related members of the Unionidae family. Our results suggest that S. woodiana in the Konin lakes system are able to spawn throughout March to October, with a season of higher reproductive activity in females extending from March to April. This type of reproductive biology may contribute to the Chinese pond mussel's success in thriving in freshwater ecosystems.

  9. Rediscovery of the enigmatic fungus-farming ant "Mycetosoritis" asper Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Implications for taxonomy, phylogeny, and the evolution of agriculture in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey; Ješovnik, Ana; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Bacci, Mauricio; Schultz, Ted R

    2017-01-01

    We report the rediscovery of the exceedingly rarely collected and enigmatic fungus-farming ant species Mycetosoritis asper. Since the description of the type specimen in 1887, only four additional specimens are known to have been added to the world's insect collections. Its biology is entirely unknown and its phylogenetic position within the fungus-farming ants has remained puzzling due to its aberrant morphology. In 2014 we excavated and collected twenty-one colonies of M. asper in the Floresta Nacional de Chapecó in Santa Catarina, Brazil. We describe here for the first time the male and larva of the species and complement the previous descriptions of both the queen and the worker. We describe, also for the first time, M. asper biology, nest architecture, and colony demographics, and identify its fungal cultivar. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that both M. asper and M. clorindae are members of the genus Cyphomyrmex, which we show to be paraphyletic as currently defined. More precisely, M. asper is a member of the Cyphomyrmex strigatus group, which we also show to be paraphyletic with respect to the genus Mycetophylax. Based on these results, and in the interest of taxonomic stability, we transfer the species M. asper, M. clorindae, and all members of the C. strigatus group to the genus Mycetophylax, the oldest available name for this clade. Based on ITS sequence data, Mycetophylax asper practices lower agriculture, cultivating a fungal species that belongs to lower-attine fungal Clade 2, subclade F.

  10. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsuc, F; Catzeflis, F M; Stanhope, M J; Douzery, E J

    2001-08-07

    The mammalian order Xenarthra (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) is one of the four major clades of placentals, but it remains poorly studied from the molecular phylogenetics perspective. We present here a study encompassing most of the order's diversity in order to establish xenarthrans' intra-ordinal relationships, discuss the evolution of their morphological characters, search for their extant sister group and specify the timing of their radiation with special emphasis on the status of the controversial fossil Eurotamandua. Sequences of three genes (nuclear exon 28 of the Von Willebrand factor and mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNAs) are compared for eight of the 13 living genera. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the order's monophyly and that of its three major lineages: armadillos (Cingulata), anteaters (Vermilingua) and sloths ('Tardigrada', renamed in 'Folivora'), and our results strongly support the grouping of hairy xenarthrans (anteaters and sloths) into Pilosa. Within placentals, Afrotheria might be the first lineage to branch off, followed by Xenarthra. The morphological adaptative convergence between New World xenarthrans and Old World pangolins is confirmed. Molecular datings place the early emergence of armadillos around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, followed by the divergence between anteaters and sloths in the Early Eocene era. These Tertiary dates contradict the concept of a very ancient origin of modern xenarthran lineages. They also question the placement of the purported fossil anteater (Eurotamandua) from the Middle Eocene period of Europe with the Vermilingua and instead suggest the independent and convergent evolution of this enigmatic taxon.

  11. Anatomy of the Enigmatic Reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 (Reptilia: Diapsida from the Upper Triassic of Germany and Its Relevance for the Origin of Sauria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Sobral

    Full Text Available The holotype and only known specimen of the enigmatic small reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 from the Upper Triassic (Norian Arnstadt Formation of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany is redescribed using μCT scans of the material. This re-examination revealed new information on the morphology of this taxon, including previously unknown parts of the skeleton such as the palate, braincase, and shoulder girdle. Elachistosuchus is diagnosed especially by the presence of the posterolateral process of the frontal, the extension of the maxillary tooth row to the posterior margin of the orbit, the free posterior process of the jugal, and the notched anterior margin of the interclavicle. Phylogenetic analyses using two recently published character-taxon matrices recovered conflicting results for the phylogenetic position of Elachistosuchus-either as an archosauromorph, as a lepidosauromorph or as a more basal, non-saurian diapsid. These different placements highlight the need of a thorough revision of critical taxa and new character sets used for inferring neodiapsid relationships.

  12. Anatomy of the Enigmatic Reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Upper Triassic of Germany and Its Relevance for the Origin of Sauria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Gabriela; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Müller, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The holotype and only known specimen of the enigmatic small reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 from the Upper Triassic (Norian) Arnstadt Formation of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) is redescribed using μCT scans of the material. This re-examination revealed new information on the morphology of this taxon, including previously unknown parts of the skeleton such as the palate, braincase, and shoulder girdle. Elachistosuchus is diagnosed especially by the presence of the posterolateral process of the frontal, the extension of the maxillary tooth row to the posterior margin of the orbit, the free posterior process of the jugal, and the notched anterior margin of the interclavicle. Phylogenetic analyses using two recently published character-taxon matrices recovered conflicting results for the phylogenetic position of Elachistosuchus-either as an archosauromorph, as a lepidosauromorph or as a more basal, non-saurian diapsid. These different placements highlight the need of a thorough revision of critical taxa and new character sets used for inferring neodiapsid relationships.

  13. On the Origin of Reverse Transcriptase-Using CRISPR-Cas Systems and Their Hyperdiverse, Enigmatic Spacer Repertoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrit Silas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cas1 integrase is the key enzyme of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-Cas adaptation module that mediates acquisition of spacers derived from foreign DNA by CRISPR arrays. In diverse bacteria, the cas1 gene is fused (or adjacent to a gene encoding a reverse transcriptase (RT related to group II intron RTs. An RT-Cas1 fusion protein has been recently shown to enable acquisition of CRISPR spacers from RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the CRISPR-associated RTs demonstrates monophyly of the RT-Cas1 fusion, and coevolution of the RT and Cas1 domains. Nearly all such RTs are present within type III CRISPR-Cas loci, but their phylogeny does not parallel the CRISPR-Cas type classification, indicating that RT-Cas1 is an autonomous functional module that is disseminated by horizontal gene transfer and can function with diverse type III systems. To compare the sequence pools sampled by RT-Cas1-associated and RT-lacking CRISPR-Cas systems, we obtained samples of a commercially grown cyanobacterium—Arthrospira platensis. Sequencing of the CRISPR arrays uncovered a highly diverse population of spacers. Spacer diversity was particularly striking for the RT-Cas1-containing type III-B system, where no saturation was evident even with millions of sequences analyzed. In contrast, analysis of the RT-lacking type III-D system yielded a highly diverse pool but reached a point where fewer novel spacers were recovered as sequencing depth was increased. Matches could be identified for a small fraction of the non-RT-Cas1-associated spacers, and for only a single RT-Cas1-associated spacer. Thus, the principal source(s of the spacers, particularly the hypervariable spacer repertoire of the RT-associated arrays, remains unknown.

  14. Disorder and function: a review of the dehydrin protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen P Graether

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration proteins (dehydrins are group 2 members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA protein family. The protein architecture of dehydrins can be described by the presence of three types of conserved sequence motifs that have been named the K-, Y- and S-segments. By definition, a dehydrin must contain at least one copy of the lysine-rich K-segment. Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, and salinity cause the upregulation of dehydrin mRNA and protein levels. Despite the large body of genetic and protein evidence of the importance of these proteins in stress response, the in vivo protective mechanism is not fully known. In vitro experimental evidence from biochemical assays and localization experiments suggest multiple roles for dehydrins, including membrane protection, cryoprotection of enzymes, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Membrane binding by dehydrins is likely to be as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequences are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acids. Because of this, dehydrins in solution are intrinsically disordered proteins, that is, they have no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure. Despite their disorder, dehydrins have been shown to gain structure when bound to ligands such as membranes, and to possibly change their oligomeric state when bound to ions. We review what is currently known about dehydrin sequences and their structures, and examine the various ligands that have been shown to bind to this family of proteins.

  15. Emigrare o restare in Germania? Tre differenti risposte di autrici ebree tedesche di seconda generazione (Barbara Honigmann, Lea Fleischmann, Esther Dischereit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Costazza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate, through the analysis of the writings of three German Jewish authors of second generation – Lea Fleischmann, Esther Dischereit and Barbara Honigmann – their different responses to the complex post-war situation of Jews in both West- and East-Germany. Despite the different origins and experiences of their parents under Nazism, all three make in their youth the painful experience of a Judaism lived mainly as absence, as silence about the past and as lack of Jewish tradition and religion. Trying to achieve their own identity, Fleischmann and Dischereit seek a possible integration in post-war West-Germany in the political commitment of the 70s, but must then recognize that anti-Semitism is still widespread in that country. This discovery compels Fleischmann to leave Germany and seek in Israel and eventually in the religion of her fathers a Jewish identity. Esther Dischereit decides on the contrary to perform in Germany her "exercises to be Jewish", assuming the role of critical conscience of German society. Different is the situation of Barbara Honigmann, born and raised in East-Germany, who reacts to the dominant materialism in that state with a need for spirituality that will take her to seek in religion – lived outside of Germany and so far from "negative symbiosis" between Jews and Germans, but also far from Israel - her own diasporic identity. Despite the three different outcomes resulting from the search for Jewish identity in post-war Germany, for all three authors writing plays a crucial function as memory and critical conscience and since this writing is a German one, it imposes eventually a tight and thorough confrontation with German culture.

  16. A KEY PHYSICAL MECHANISM FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ENIGMATIC LINEAR POLARIZATION OF THE SOLAR Ba II AND Na I D{sub 1} LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluzzi, Luca; Trujillo Bueno, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2013-09-10

    The linearly polarized spectrum of the solar limb radiation produced by scattering processes is of great diagnostic potential for exploring the magnetism of the solar atmosphere. This spectrum shows an impressive richness of spectral details and enigmatic Q/I signals, whose physical origin must be clearly understood before they can be exploited for diagnostic purposes. The most enduring enigma is represented by the polarization signals observed in the D{sub 1} resonance lines of Na I (5896 A) and Ba II (4934 A), which were expected to be intrinsically unpolarizable. The totality of sodium and 18% of barium have hyperfine structure (HFS), and it has been argued that the only way to produce a scattering polarization signal in such lines is through the presence of a substantial amount of atomic polarization in their lower HFS levels. The strong sensitivity of these long-lived levels to depolarizing mechanisms led to the paradoxical conclusion that the observed D{sub 1}-line polarization is incompatible with the presence in the lower solar chromosphere of inclined magnetic fields sensibly stronger than 0.01 G. Here we show that by properly taking into account the fact that the solar D{sub 1}-line radiation has a non-negligible spectral structure over the short frequency interval spanned by the HFS transitions, it is possible to produce scattering polarization signals in the D{sub 1} lines of Na I and Ba II without the need of ground-level polarization. The resulting linear polarization is not so easily destroyed by elastic collisions and/or magnetic fields.

  17. A protein-protein interaction dictates Borrelial infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Meghna; Sharma, Kavita; Chao, Kinlin; Smith, Alexis A; Herzberg, Osnat; Pal, Utpal

    2017-06-07

    Two Borrelia burgdorferi interacting proteins, BB0238 and BB0323, play distinct roles in pathogen biology and infectivity although a significance of their interaction remained enigmatic. Here we identified the polypeptide segment essential for BB0238-BB0323 interaction and examined how it supports spirochete infectivity. We show that the interaction region in BB0323 requires amino acid residues 22-200, suggesting that the binding encompasses discontinuous protein segments. In contrast, the interaction region in BB0238 spans only 11 amino acids, residues 120-130. A deletion of these 11 amino acids neither alters the overall secondary structure of the protein, nor affects its stability or oligomerization property, however, it reduces the post-translational stability of the binding partner, BB0323. Mutant B. burgdorferi isolates producing BB0238 lacking the 11-amino acid interaction region were able to persist in ticks but failed to transmit to mice or to establish infection. These results suggest that BB0238-BB0323 interaction is critical for post-translational stability of BB0323, and that this interaction is important for mammalian infectivity and transmission of B. burgdorferi. We show that saturation or inhibition of BB0238-BB0323 interaction could be studied in a luciferase assay, which could be amenable for future identification of small molecule inhibitors to combat B. burgdorferi infection.

  18. ANESTESIA PARA AMPUTACIÓN SUPRACONDÍLEA EN PACIENTE CON SÍNDROME CORONARIO AGUDO / Anesthesia for supracondylar amputation in patient with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Ramírez Méndez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La insuficiencia arterial periférica es una enfermedad que se asocia a factores de riesgo aterogénico reconocidos, y es más frecuente en personas con hiperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus y hábito de fumar. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 67 años de edad, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus e infarto de miocardio antiguo, que ingresa por signos de inflamación aguda del miembro inferior derecho como consecuencia de una insuficiencia arterial periférica. A los 8 días del ingreso presentó un síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del segmento ST, con fallo de bomba Killip II, y una vez compensada fue anunciada para amputación supracondílea de urgencia, debido a una gangrena isquémica. Se decidió utilizar anestesia espinal subaracnoidea selectiva del miembro inferior derecho, a cual se aplicó sin complicaciones y favoreció el adecuado desarrollo de la cirugía planificada. A las 72 horas la paciente fue egresada de la UCI, sin síntomas cardiovasculares y compensación metabólica. / Abstract Peripheral arterial insufficiency is a disease that is associated with known atherogenic risk factors, and is more common in people with hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking habit. A case of a 67-year-old woman with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and old myocardial infarction is presented. She was admitted for signs of acute inflammation of the right leg due to peripheral arterial insufficiency. 8 days after admission she presented an acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation with pump failure (Killip class II, and once compensated she was scheduled for emergency supracondylar amputation due to ischemic gangrene. It was decided to use selective spinal subarachnoid from the right leg, which was applied without complications and favored the proper development of the planned surgery. At 72 hours, the patient was discharged from the ICU, with metabolic compensation and without

  19. Lea County 2010 Census Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  20. Lea County 2000 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  1. Collaborative Lea(r)ning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob S.

    articles, exploring this field and contributing to theory and practice. In an article collection based thesis, the articles are usually summarised and discussed in part one of such a thesis. The present thesis is not following this model. Instead we explore, analyse and discuss the results presented...... in the eight articles from a new perspective. More specifically, we explore two research questions “Which factors enable/disable learning in a collaborative improvement setting and how?” and “To what extent and how does learning affect collaborative improvement performance?”...

  2. Linna luksuslik liider / Lea Veelma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veelma, Lea, 1947-2007

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna vanalinnas asuv Schlössle Hotell arvati ametlikult ülemaailmse luksushotellide keti The Leading Hotels of the World (LHW) liikmeks. Sündmuse puhul viibis Tallinnas LHW asepresident Claudia Roth

  3. Fantastico, belissimo, super! / Lea Sudakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sudakova, Lea, 1959-

    2009-01-01

    Maaülikooli põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituut võõrustas Leonardo da Vinci programmi toetatud projekti ENVOLWE (loodusel baseeruvad ettevõtjad ja kutsehariduse pakkujad õpivad ja töötavad koos) partnereid

  4. Lea County 2010 Census Edges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  5. Lea County 2010 Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  6. Lea County Current Area Landmark

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  7. Lea County Current Point Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  8. Võtke istet, palun! / Lea Arme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arme, Lea

    2000-01-01

    Tooli ajaloost, klassikaks saanud toolide loojaid, erineva kujundusega toolid koduinterjööris. Illustratsiooniks Maile Grünbergi, Phillipe Starcki, Alvar Aalto ja Eero Aarnio toolid koos soovitustega ümbritseva suhtes

  9. Varssavis Itaaliat avastamas / Lea Arme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arme, Lea

    2000-01-01

    Varssavis toimunud Itaalia ja Poola koostööle pühendatud suurüritusest "Italia & Polska Crescendo". Programmist. Näitusehallis olid väljas Itaalia mööbli-, naha-, masina- ja toiduainetetööstuse tooted, valgustid, kosmeetika, käsitööesemed, moedisainer Ken Scott'i looming jm. Kommentaar Jana Vaarikult, Itaalia Väliskaubanduse Instituudi esindajalt Eestis

  10. Lea County 2010 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  11. Fractura Supracondílea de Humero en Niños: (estudio de la Rigidez Postquirúgica del Codo en 100 Casos Intervenidos a través de un Abordaje Posterior)

    OpenAIRE

    Saez Aldana, F.; Francia Sánchez, A.M.; Brusca Palacios, L.

    1991-01-01

    El tratamiento de las fracturas supracondíleas de húmero desplazadas en niños mediante reducción abierta y fijación interna es un procedimiento poco utilizado y que no goza del favor de la mayoría de los cirujanos ortopédicos, debido principalmente a la pérdida permanente de movilidad en el codo que se atribuye a esta técnica. Según algunos autores ésta pérdida es mayor aún si se utiliza un abordaje posterior. Se presenta una importante casuística (100 casos) de fracturas muy d...

  12. Estudio del tratamiento de las fracturas supracondíleas de húmero en la infancia en el Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet de Zaragoza entre 1998 y 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Palacio, Victoria Eugenia; Gil Albarova, Jorge; Herrera Rodríguez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN O MOTIVACIÓN DEL TEMA: Las fracturas supracondíleas de húmero en la infancia es un tema de gran interés, presente en libros de traumatología infantil, en las revistas científicas relacionadas, en cursos y congresos. Este interés se centra, por la gran incidencia de esta patología, presente en el día a día del traumatólogo. Con las múltiples controversias que se pueden encontrar. Además es una patología a la que tengo que hacer frente en el día a día de mi actividad profesional en...

  13. Revisión sistemática de la evidencia actual de la aplicación de ejercicios excéntricos en la tendinopatía crónica aquílea

    OpenAIRE

    Inda Iraceburu, Jaione

    2013-01-01

    Introducción y antecedentes: La tendinopatía crónica Aquílea se determina por la aparición de dolor, inflamación y pérdida de la función del tendón de Aquíles. Es una patología desarrollada por uso excesivo del tendón siendo frecuente en los deportes que implican carrera y salto. Objetivos y/o hipótesis a alcanzar: Observar la evidencia científica actual de los ejercicios excéntricos como tratamiento de dicha patología, analizando los cambios fisiológicos que se dan intentan...

  14. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  15. Alkyltransferase-like proteins: Molecular switches between DNA repair pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Julie L.; Tainer, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Alkyltransferase-like proteins (ATLs) play a role in the protection of cells from the biological effects of DNA alkylation damage. Although ATLs share functional motifs with the DNA repair protein and cancer chemotherapy target O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase, they lack the reactive cysteine residue required for alkyltransferase activity, so its mechanism for cell protection was previously unknown. Here, we review recent advances in unravelling the enigmatic cellular protection provided by ATLs against the deleterious effects of DNA alkylation damage. We discuss exciting new evidence that ATLs aid in the repair of DNA O6-alkylguanine lesions through a novel repair cross-talk between DNA-alkylation base damage responses and the DNA nucleotide excision repair pathway. PMID:20502938

  16. Conservation and Variability of Synaptonemal Complex Proteins in Phylogenesis of Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Grishaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the origin and evolution of meiosis include the enigmatic variability of the synaptonemal complexes (SCs which, being morphology similar, consist of different proteins in different eukaryotic phyla. Using bioinformatics methods, we monitored all available eukaryotic proteomes to find proteins similar to known SC proteins of model organisms. We found proteins similar to SC lateral element (LE proteins and possessing the HORMA domain in the majority of the eukaryotic taxa and assume them the most ancient among all SC proteins. Vertebrate LE proteins SYCP2, SYCP3, and SC65 proved to have related proteins in many invertebrate taxa. Proteins of SC central space are most evolutionarily variable. It means that different protein-protein interactions can exist to connect LEs. Proteins similar to the known SC proteins were not found in Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta, Charophyta, Xanthophyta, Dinoflagellata, and primitive Coelomata. We conclude that different proteins whose common feature is the presence of domains with a certain conformation are involved in the formation of the SC in different eukaryotic phyla. This permits a targeted search for orthologs of the SC proteins using phylogenetic trees. Here we consider example of phylogenetic trees for protozoans, fungi, algae, mosses, and flowering plants.

  17. The identity and taxonomic status of Sitaris lativentris Schaufuss, 1861 and Sitaris melanurus Küster, 1849, two enigmatic Iberian taxa (Coleoptera, Meloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive morphological variability in Nemognatinae has often led to proliferation of species descriptions. Most species of Nemognathinae are seldom encountered in nature and some species remain only known by the specimens used for the original descriptions. Two examples of this problem are represented by Sitaris lativentris Schaufuss, 1861 and Sitaris melanurus Küster, 1849, both described from Spain. The rediscovery of specimens morphologically assignable to S. lativentris in southern Spain, and a careful reading of the original description of S. melanurus, allow us to shed light on the taxonomic status of these enigmatic taxa. Sitaris lativentris has been considered a synonym of Sitaris solieri Pecchioli, 1840 until now; however, neither the lectotype of S. lativentris (here designated, nor the newly found specimens morphologically assignable to S. lativentris, correspond to S. solieri, except in coloration. Alternatively, comparisons between S. lativentris and S. muralis did not render any differences, except in the pattern of elytral coloration and coloration of the pilosity, both variable in other species of Nemognathinae. Therefore S. lativentris is hereby synonymised with S. muralis (new synonymy. The identity of Sitaris melanurus has been overlooked by most researchers, probably because the type specimens seem to be lost. However, the original description provides sufficient information to discard the inclusion of the taxon in Sitaris. Morphological characters presented in the description correspond to traits that, among western European sitarine beetles, are only present in Stenoria apicalis (Latreille, 1804. Küster’s (1849 description corresponds to one of the most frequent color variants of this species. As a consequence we include the name S. melanurus as a new synonym of S. apicalis.La amplia varibilidad morfológica en Nemognathinae a menudo ha originado una proliferación en la descripción de especies distintas. La mayor

  18. Altered Gene Expression in Three Plant Species in Response to Treatment with Nep1, a Fungal Protein That Causes Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keates, Sarah E.; Kostman, Todd A.; Anderson, James D.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2003-01-01

    Nep1 is an extracellular fungal protein that causes necrosis when applied to many dicotyledonous plants, including invasive weed species. Using transmission electron microscopy, it was determined that application of Nep1 (1.0 μg mL–1, 0.1% [v/v] Silwet-L77) to Arabidopsis and two invasive weed species, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), caused a reduction in the thickness of the cuticle and a breakdown of chloroplasts 1 to 4 h after treatment. Membrane breakdown was most severe in cells closest to the surface of application. Differential display was used to isolate cDNA clones from the three species showing differential expression in response to Nep1 treatment. Differential gene expression was observed for a putative serpin (CmSER-1) and a calmodulin-like (CmCAL-1) protein from spotted knapweed, and a putative protein phosphatase 2C (ToPP2C-1) and cytochrome P-450 (ToCYP-1) protein from dandelion. In addition, differential expression was observed for genes coding for a putative protein kinase (AtPK-1), a homolog (AtWI-12) of wound-induced WI12, a homolog (AtLEA-1) of late embryogenesis abundant LEA-5, a WRKY-18 DNA-binding protein (AtWRKY-18), and a phospholipase D (AtPLD-1) from Arabidopsis. Genes showing elevated mRNA levels in Nep1-treated (5 μg mL–1, 0.1% [v/v] Silwet-L77) leaves 15 min after Nep1 treatment included CmSER-1 and CmCAL-1 for spotted knapweed, ToCYP-1 and CmCAL-1 for dandelion, and AtPK-1, AtWRKY-18, AtWI-12, and AtLEA-1 for Arabidopsis. Levels of mRNA for AtPLD-1 (Arabidopsis) and ToPP2C-1 (dandelion) decreased rapidly in Silwet-l77-treated plants between 15 min and 4 h of treatment, but were maintained or decreased more slowly over time in Nep1-treated (5 μg mL–1, 0.1% [v/v] Silwet-L77) leaves. In general, increases in mRNA band intensities were in the range of two to five times, with only ToCYP-1 in dandelion exceeding an increase of 10 times. The identified genes have been shown to be involved

  19. Protein-protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byron, Olwyn; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Responsive formation of protein:protein interaction (PPI) upon diverse stimuli is a fundament of cellular function. As a consequence, PPIs are complex, adaptive entities, and exist in structurally heterogeneous interplays defined by the energetic states of the free and complexed protomers. The bi...

  20. Protein storage vacuoles of Brassica napus zygotic embryos accumulate a BURP domain protein and perturbation of its production distorts the PSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawanichpan, Prapapan; Xia, Qun; Caldwell, Sarah J; Datla, Raju; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2009-11-01

    BNM2is a prototypical member of the enigmatic BURP domain protein family whose members contain the signature FX6-7GX10-28PX25-31CX11-12X2SX45-56CHX10 CHX25-29CHX2TX15-16PX5CH in the C-terminus. This protein family occurs only in plants, and the cognate genes vary very widely in their expression contexts in vegetative and reproductive tissues. None of theBURP family members has been assigned any biochemical function. BNM2 was originally discovered as a gene expressed in microspore derived embryos (MDE) of Brassica napus but we found that MDE do not contain the corresponding protein. We show that BNM2 protein production is confined to the seeds and localized to the protein storage vacuoles (PSV) even though the transcript is found in vegetative parts and floral buds as well. In developing seeds, transcript accumulation precedes protein appearance by more than 18 days. RNA accumulation peaks at approximately 20 days post anthesis (DPA) whereas protein accumulation reaches its maximum at approximately 40 DPA. Transgenic expression of BNM2 does not abrogate this regulation to yield ectopic protein production or to alter the temporal aspect ofBNM2 accumulation. Overexpression ofBNM2 led to spatial distortion of storage protein accumulation within PSV and to some morphological alterations of PSVs. However, the overall storage protein content was not altered.

  1. Fluorescent Protein Expressing Rickettsia buchneri and Rickettsia peacockii for Tracking Symbiont-Tick Cell Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Kurtti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial pathogenicity and motility. We have isolated and characterized two rickettsial symbionts—Rickettsia peacockii and R. buchneri—both from ticks using tick cell cultures. To better track these enigmatic rickettsiae in ticks and at the tick-mammal interface we transformed the rickettsiae to express fluorescent proteins using shuttle vectors based on rickettsial plasmids or a transposition system driving insertional mutagenesis. Fluorescent protein expressing R. buchneri and R. peacockii will enable us to elucidate their interactions with tick and mammalian cells, and track their location and movement within individual cells, vector ticks, and host animals.

  2. Involvement of dietary bioactive proteins and peptides in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Antonucci, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous, severe neurodevelopmental pathologies. These enigmatic conditions have their origins in the interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interactions and communication skills, restricted interests, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are the main core symptoms. Several biochemical processes are associated with ASDs: oxidative stress; endoplasmic reticulum stress; decreased methylation capacity; limited production of glutathione; mitochondrial dysfunction; intestinal impaired permeability and dysbiosis; increased toxic metal burden; immune dysregulation. Current available treatments for ASDs can be divided into behavioural, nutritional and medical approaches, although no defined standard approach exists. Dietary bioactive proteins and peptides show potential for application as health-promoting agents. Nowadays, increasing studies highlight a key role of bioactive proteins and peptides in ASDs. This review will focus on the state-of-the-art regarding the involvement of dietary bioactive proteins and peptides in ASDs. Identification of novel therapeutic targets for ASD management will be also discussed.

  3. Phylogenetic position of the enigmatic clawless eutardigrade genus Apodibius Dastych, 1983 (Tardigrada), based on 18S and 28S rRNA sequence data from its type species A. confusus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabert, Miroslawa; Dastych, Hieronymus; Hohberg, Karin; Dabert, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The systematics of Eutardigrada, the largest lineage among the three classes of the phylum Tardigrada, is based mainly on the morphology of the leg claws and of the buccal apparatus. However, three members of the rarely recorded and poorly known limno-terrestrial eutardigrade genus Apodibius have no claws on their strongly reduced legs, a unique character among all tardigrades. This absence of all claws makes the systematic position of Apodibius one of the most enigmatic among the whole class. Until now all known associates of the genus Apodibius have been located in the incertae sedis species group or, quite recently, included into the Necopinatidae family. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA sequence data from 31 tardigrade species representing four parachelan superfamilies (Isohypsibioidea, Hypsibioidea, Macrobiotoidea, Eohypsibioidea), the apochelan Milnesium tardigradum, and the type species of the genus Apodibius, A. confusus, indicated close relationship of the Apodibius with tardigrade species recently included in the superfamily Isohypsibioidea. This result was well-supported and consistent across all markers (separate 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and combined 18S rRNA+28S rRNA datasets) and methods (MP, ML) applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of life in minor siblings of childhood leukemia survivors, long-term after diagnosis: A LEA study (for Leucemies de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent--childhood and adolescent leukemia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbis, Julie; Oudin, Claire; Alessandrini, Marine; Vercasson, Camille; Barlogis, Vincent; Chambost, Hervé; Michel, Gérard; Auquier, Pascal

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the quality of life (QoL) of siblings of childhood leukemia survivors in comparison with population controls and to identify determinants of sibling's QoL. The nearest-aged siblings (8-17 years) of minor CLS participating in the French LEA cohort (Childhood and Adolescent Leukemia), at the Marseilles center, were included. Siblings' QoL was self-reported using the 'Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent et l'enfant' questionnaire. Results were compared with those obtained for age-matched and sex-matched French controls subjects. Characteristics likely to be associated with siblings' QoL (sibling's and survivor's sociodemographic and health-related and cancer-related characteristics) were explored through multivariate analysis. Fifty-one siblings participated (mean age 12.7 ± 2.8 years, mean follow-up duration from diagnosis to evaluation 8.8 ± 2.5 years). They reported a significantly higher perception of QoL compared with the general population regarding psychological domains, while reporting a lower perception regarding social domains. In multivariate analysis, older age at diagnosis for both siblings and survivors was risk factor for impaired psychological QoL. An elevated leukemia burden index was linked with lower scores in self-esteem dimension, whereas having at least one sequelae for the survivor was linked with better scores in psychological well-being dimension. Low or middle affluence and older sibling's age at diagnosis were risk factors for impaired social QoL. Maximal R(2) was 30%. Minor siblings of CLS reported a relatively good QoL, particularly in psychological domains. Given the low proportion of QoL variability explained, other contributing factors (e.g., family functioning) must be explored. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. ESTUDIO DE CONCORDANCIA DE MEDICIONES RADIOLÓGICAS EN FRACTURAS SUPRACONDÍLEAS DE HÚMERO EN NIÑOS Interobserver agreement in radiological measurements of supracondylar humerus fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Camilo Abril-Aguilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedente. En la valoración radiológica de las fracturas supracondíleas de codo en niños existen algunas mediciones utilizadas como el ángulo de Baumann, el ángulo de inclinación diafisario-condíleo, la línea humeral anterior y la valoración rotacional. No se dispone de evidencia acerca de la concordancia de estas mediciones y los parámetros para determinar un tratamiento o los resultados del mismo, bajo esos criterios. Objetivo. Determinar la concordancia de esas mediciones y su relación con el tratamiento de las fracturas supracondíleas de húmero en niños. Material y métodos. Diseño observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo de concordancia, de serie de casos de fracturas supracondíleas de húmero distal en niños. Se realizaron las mediciones pre y postoperatorias del ángulo de Baumman, ángulo humerocondilar, línea humeral anterior y porcentaje rotacional en la proyección lateral, por tres observadores para obtener la concordancia interobservador segunlos criterios de Landis y Koch para correlación interobservador e intraobservador. El análisis estadístico se obtuvo con la correlación con el valor Kappa en variables nominales y coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para variables continuas. Resultados. 27 niños con edad promedio de 5.7 años. La concordancia interobservador fue buena o excelente para todas las mediciones en la clasificación de Gartland, el tipo de fractura (extensión o flexión, en la medición del ángulo de Baumann pre y post tratamiento y en las evaluaciones de línea humeral anterior y porcentaje rotacional. Los valores fueron aceptables y pobres para las mediciones de la línea humeral anterior y porcentaje rotacional posterior al tratamiento y con mala correlación según los parámetros de Landis y Koch para los tratamientos elegidos y para la duración del mismo así como la aceptación de los resultados del tratamiento. Conclusión. Aunque la concordancia para las mediciones radiol

  6. MAS C-Terminal Tail Interacting Proteins Identified by Mass Spectrometry- Based Proteomic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C Tirupula

    Full Text Available Propagation of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs in cells is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions. MAS is a GPCR that was initially discovered as an oncogene and is now known to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology. Current literature suggests that MAS interacts with common heterotrimeric G-proteins, but MAS interaction with proteins which might mediate G protein-independent or atypical signaling is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that MAS C-terminal tail (Ct is a major determinant of receptor-scaffold protein interactions mediating MAS signaling. Mass-spectrometry based proteomic analysis was used to comprehensively identify the proteins that interact with MAS Ct comprising the PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM. We identified both PDZ and non-PDZ proteins from human embryonic kidney cell line, mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and human heart tissue to interact specifically with MAS Ct. For the first time our study provides a panel of PDZ and other proteins that potentially interact with MAS with high significance. A 'cardiac-specific finger print' of MAS interacting PDZ proteins was identified which includes DLG1, MAGI1 and SNTA. Cell based experiments with wild-type and mutant MAS lacking the PDZ-BM validated MAS interaction with PDZ proteins DLG1 and TJP2. Bioinformatics analysis suggested well-known multi-protein scaffold complexes involved in nitric oxide signaling (NOS, cell-cell signaling of neuromuscular junctions, synapses and epithelial cells. Majority of these protein hits were predicted to be part of disease categories comprising cancers and malignant tumors. We propose a 'MAS-signalosome' model to stimulate further research in understanding the molecular mechanism of MAS function. Identifying hierarchy of interactions of 'signalosome' components with MAS will be a necessary step in future to fully understand the physiological and pathological functions of this enigmatic receptor.

  7. MAS C-Terminal Tail Interacting Proteins Identified by Mass Spectrometry- Based Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupula, Kalyan C; Zhang, Dongmei; Osbourne, Appledene; Chatterjee, Arunachal; Desnoyer, Russ; Willard, Belinda; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in cells is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions. MAS is a GPCR that was initially discovered as an oncogene and is now known to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology. Current literature suggests that MAS interacts with common heterotrimeric G-proteins, but MAS interaction with proteins which might mediate G protein-independent or atypical signaling is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that MAS C-terminal tail (Ct) is a major determinant of receptor-scaffold protein interactions mediating MAS signaling. Mass-spectrometry based proteomic analysis was used to comprehensively identify the proteins that interact with MAS Ct comprising the PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM). We identified both PDZ and non-PDZ proteins from human embryonic kidney cell line, mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and human heart tissue to interact specifically with MAS Ct. For the first time our study provides a panel of PDZ and other proteins that potentially interact with MAS with high significance. A 'cardiac-specific finger print' of MAS interacting PDZ proteins was identified which includes DLG1, MAGI1 and SNTA. Cell based experiments with wild-type and mutant MAS lacking the PDZ-BM validated MAS interaction with PDZ proteins DLG1 and TJP2. Bioinformatics analysis suggested well-known multi-protein scaffold complexes involved in nitric oxide signaling (NOS), cell-cell signaling of neuromuscular junctions, synapses and epithelial cells. Majority of these protein hits were predicted to be part of disease categories comprising cancers and malignant tumors. We propose a 'MAS-signalosome' model to stimulate further research in understanding the molecular mechanism of MAS function. Identifying hierarchy of interactions of 'signalosome' components with MAS will be a necessary step in future to fully understand the physiological and pathological functions of this enigmatic receptor.

  8. Acylation of the Type 3 Secretion System Translocon Using a Dedicated Acyl Carrier Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie P Viala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens often deliver effectors into host cells using type 3 secretion systems (T3SS, the extremity of which forms a translocon that perforates the host plasma membrane. The T3SS encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1 is genetically associated with an acyl carrier protein, IacP, whose role has remained enigmatic. In this study, using tandem affinity purification, we identify a direct protein-protein interaction between IacP and the translocon protein SipB. We show, by mass spectrometry and radiolabelling, that SipB is acylated, which provides evidence for a modification of the translocon that has not been described before. A unique and conserved cysteine residue of SipB is identified as crucial for this modification. Although acylation of SipB was not essential to virulence, we show that this posttranslational modification promoted SipB insertion into host-cell membranes and pore-forming activity linked to the SPI-1 T3SS. Cooccurrence of acyl carrier and translocon proteins in several γ- and β-proteobacteria suggests that acylation of the translocon is conserved in these other pathogenic bacteria. These results also indicate that acyl carrier proteins, known for their involvement in metabolic pathways, have also evolved as cofactors of new bacterial protein lipidation pathways.

  9. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  10. ASPECTE DIN ISTORIA CIRCULAŢIEI MONETARE ÎN GALAŢI ÎN SECOLUL AL XIX-LEA. MATERIALE DIN ARHIVELE MINISTERULUI DE EXTERNE AL FRANŢEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ARCUŞ-JANTOVAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amplasarea geografică a Galaţiului a jucat un rol foarte important în realizarea şi dezvoltarea legăturilor economice nu doar la nivel naţional, ci şi internaţional. Din acest considerent, încă din secolul al XVIII-lea prin Galaţi avea să se realizeze o mare parte din comerţul de la Dunărea de Jos. După semnarea tratatului de la Adrianopol comerţul cunoaşte o mai mare dezvoltare, mai evidentă din 1837, când Galaţiul este declarat port liber. Respectiv, analizând cum se desfă-şura comerţul în acest oraş, în care se aduceau mărfuri din multe părţi ale lumii, se poate observa foarte clar şi tipurile de monede care erau utilizate în comerţ, luând în considerare instabilitatea monetară care se menţinea în secolul al XIX-lea până în 1867, când are loc reforma monetară şi leul devine monedă naţională. Prin Galaţi operaţiile comerciale se efectuau foarte intens în secolul al XVIII-lea. Călătorii străini (Anthoine Antoine-Ignace de Saint-Joseph, W.Chzanovski etc. oferă o seamă de informaţii importante în acest sens. Piastrul şi paraua serveau ca monede de calcul. În arhiva diplomatică a Ministerului Afacerilor Externe din Paris se păstrează fonduri ce conţin corespondenţa comercială cu oraşul Galaţi, din care putem desprinde ce tipuri de monede erau utilizate în exprimarea valorii mărfurilor, fiindcă preţul era exprimat atât în unităţi franceze, cât şi străine. Astfel, când se reglementau preţurile, acestea erau exprimate în piaştri, florini, franci, livre etc. Ceea ce denotă, pe de o parte, complexitatea şi caracterul constant al legăturilor comerciale, iar, pe de altă parte, greutăţile întâmpinate de locuitori la procurarea mărfurilor în urma tuturor schimbărilor din circulaţia mone-tară, căci în aşa circumstanţe speculaţiile erau uşor de realizat. Deci, analizând circulaţia monetară din Galaţi, se poate de înţeles care era situaţia generală a

  11. Protein Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  12. Studies on the Accumulation of Drought-Induced Boiling Soluble Proteins (Hydrophilins at Vegetative and Reproductive Phases of Drought Tolerant and Susceptible Cultivars of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeen RAKHRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major environmental constraints affecting the crops worldwide. Expression of boiling soluble proteins (BSPs is of paramount importance, because they play important roles in the water stress responses and also in plant metabolism. In this study, the effect of drought on BSPs at vegetative (shoots and reproductive (seeds phases of drought tolerant (cv. ‘PBW 527’ and drought susceptible (cv. ‘PBW 343’ cultivars of Triticumaestivum were carried at three different developmental stages. The boiling soluble protein profiles of shoots and seeds were outlined via SDS-PAGE followed by immune-blot analysis using anti-HSP, anti-APase, anti-LEA, anti-SOD, anti-AQUA and anti-CAT antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed that expression of BSPs was modulated differentially in a stress, tissue, developmental stage and cultivar dependent manner. For instance, enhanced expression of seeds BSPs (APase, LEA, CAT, AQUA was observed in the tolerant cv. ‘PBW 527’ after drought stress. However, no such enhancement was observed in the susceptible cultivar. Similarly, in shoots of cv. ‘PBW 527’, a substantial increase of BSP (SOD expression was established after drought stress treatment, indicating their role in drought stress adaptation. Further, to gain an insight into the role of BSPs, a time course pre- and post-stress kinetic studies were also conducted in the seeds of tolerant and susceptible wheat cultivars. Based upon the observations, the possible role of boiling soluble proteins (hydrophilins in water stress tolerance is discussed.

  13. Understanding the Enigmatic SW Sex Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, Paula

    The SW Sex stars are a subgroup of cataclysmic variables that are known for several peculiar features, including high excitation single-peaked lines in their spectra, absorption features in the low excitation lines, phase offsets between the radial velocity curves and photometric eclipse times, unusual high velocity components, and orbital periods between 3-4 hrs. The cause of these peculiarities is controversial, with possibilities ranging from mass transfer stream impact and overflow at high mass transfer rates to magnetic propellers, winds and jets. As many of these suggestions depend on the inclination of the system, we propose to confront such theories by contrasting FUSE observations of the low inclination SW Sex star LS Peg and a more typical high inclination system DW UMa. The high quality, high resolution FUSE spectra we will obtain will allow us to construct detailed models of the inner accretion disk and velocity flows of both systems. This will resolve which of the properties are geometry dependent, and thereby lead to a basic advance in our understanding of this class of objects and ultimately, of the general effects of high mass transfer in close binaries.

  14. Aromatic, Alphatic, Enigmatic: The Chemistry of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    The extraordinary complexity of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry far surpasses that of any other solar system atmosphere. With its thick N2 atmosphere and stable bodies of liquid on its surface, Titan also possesses many physical processes that are similar to those that occur on Earth. The connection between Titan’s surface and atmosphere is unique in our solar system; atmospheric chemistry produces materials that are deposited on the surface and subsequently altered by surface-atmosphere interactions such as aeolian and fluvial processes resulting in the formation of extensive dune fields and expansive lakes and seas. Titan’s atmosphere is favorable for organic haze formation, which combined with the presence of some oxygen-bearing molecules indicates that Titan’s atmosphere may produce molecules of prebiotic interest. The combination of organics and liquid, in the form of water in a subsurface ocean and methane/ethane in the surface lakes and seas, means that Titan may be the ideal place in the solar system to test ideas about habitability, prebiotic chemistry, and the ubiquity and diversity of life in the universe. I will review our current understanding of chemistry on Titan forged from the powerful combination of Earth-based observations, remote sensing and in situ spacecraft measurements, laboratory experiments, and models. I will conclude with some of the questions that remain after Cassini-Huygens.

  15. Enigmatic phylogeny of skuas (Aves Stercorariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, BL; Baker, AJ; Bleschschmidt, K; Dittmann, DL; Furness, RW; Gerwin, JA; de Korte, J.; Marshall, HD; Palma, RL; Peter, HU; Ramli, R; Siebold, [No Value; Willcox, MS; Wilson, RH; Zink, RM

    1997-01-01

    Multiple sources of evidence show that the skuas (Aves: Stercorariidae) are a monophyletic group, closely related to gulls (Laridae). On morphological and behavioural evidence the Stercorariidae are divided into two widely divergent genera, Catharacta and Stercorarius, consistent with observed

  16. Plant sphingolipids today - Are they still enigmatic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassieva, S; Hille, J; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.

    Sphingolipids are a diverse group of lipids found in all eukaryotes and some bacteria, consisting of a hydrophobic ceramide and a hydrophilic head group. We have summarised the contemporary understanding of the structure of plant sphingolipids with an emphasis on glucosylceramides and

  17. [An enigmatic disease in Gregor Mendel's life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivet, Christiane

    2004-11-01

    The great value of the experimental and theoretical work of Gregor Mendel has been recognized more than thirty five years after its publication; in this article, we suggest that his personality has still to be rediscovered.

  18. The enigmatic colors of the Centaur population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Perna, D.; Palumbo, P.; Micheli, M.; Perozzi, E.

    2017-09-01

    In this talk we will present an overview of the current status and of the still open questions about the intriguing issue about the color of Centaurs, also in the more general framework of the dynamical and evolutionary link about groups of small bodies in the Solar System. We will also present the first results of an ongoing large observing program specifically tailored on the Centaurs' colors, and discuss about the investigation of the actual comet-like activity frequency in the group, which could in some case stymie the physical studies about these objects.

  19. The enigmatic reaction of flavins with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaiyen, Pimchai; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea

    The reaction of flavoenzymes with oxygen remains a fascinating area of research because of its relevance for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Several exciting recent studies provide consistent mechanistic clues about the specific functional and structural properties of the oxidase and

  20. Gephyrin, the enigmatic organizer at GABAergic synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tretter, Verena; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Maric, Hans-Michael

    2012-01-01

    GABA(A) receptors are clustered at synaptic sites to achieve a high density of postsynaptic receptors opposite the input axonal terminals. This allows for an efficient propagation of GABA mediated signals, which mostly result in neuronal inhibition. A key organizer for inhibitory synaptic receptors...

  1. Hair-offerings: an enigmatic Egyptian custom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Tassie

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptians did not record the reasons that lay behind the offering of hair. Using an holistic approach, which combines both ethnographic and ethnohistoric evidence, insights may be gained into the ancient remains of these rituals and practices.

  2. The enigmatic whale: the North Atlantic humpback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We know more about the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae than we do for virtually any other cetacean, yet attempts to use this information to describe the status of the populations in this ocean basin have not proven satisfactory. The North Atlantic humpback has been the subject of extensive research over the past few decades, resulting in a substantial amount of knowledge about what has proven to be a species with a very complex life history and population structure. While several population models have been developed to integrate the available information, the data overall are not well described by any of the models. This has left considerable uncertainty about population status, and has raised questions about the interpretation of some of the data. We describe 7 specific areas where puzzling or ambiguous observations have been made; these require closer attention if population status is to be determined. These areas raise several fundamental questions, including: How many breeding populations are there? How much do the populations mix on the feeding grounds? How has the distribution of animals on both feeding and breeding grounds changed? We identify additional research needed to address the 7 areas and these questions in particular, so that population status might be determined.

  3. Enigmatic electrons, photons, and ``empty`` waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, M.H.

    1995-08-22

    A spectroscopic analysis is made of electrons and photons from the standpoint of physical realism. In this conceptual framework, moving particles are portrayed as localized entities which are surrounded by ``empty`` waves. A spectroscopic model for the electron Stands as a guide for a somewhat similar, but in essential respects radically different, model for the photon. This leads in turn to a model for the ``zeron``. the quantum of the empty wave. The properties of these quanta mandate new basis states, and hence an extension of our customary framework for dealing with them. The zeron wave field of a photon differs in one important respect from the standard formalism for an electromagnetic wave. The vacuum state emerges as more than just a passive bystander. Its polarization properties provide wave stabilization, particle probability distributions, and orbit quantization. Questions with regard to special relativity are discussed.

  4. ÎNCADRAREA ŞLEAHTEI POLONEZE ÎN RÂNDURILE NOBILIMII DIN BASARABIA PE PARCURSUL SECOLULUI Al XIX-lea (Cazul familiilor de nobili Celinski şi Cernilev/Cernelevski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GHERASIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available În articolul dat, în baza documentelor de arhivă inedite şi a studiilor monografice publicate, vom analiza problema privind încadrarea nobilimii alogene în rândurile nobilimii din Basarabia, având ca exemplu şleahta poloneză. Basarabia, fiind amplasată strategic, a prezentat un interes deosebit în politica de extindere a Imperiului Rus. Din acest considerent, ţarismul, odată cu anexarea acestui teritoriu, a căutat să-şi creeze aici o baza socială care să susţină şi să promoveze politica imperială. Pe lângă acordarea diferitelor privilegii populaţiei autohtone, în special boierimii, administraţia imperială a promovat o politică de colonizare a teritoriului dintre Prut şi Nistru şi de infiltrare în rândul boierimii autohtone a nobililor sau simplilor funcţionari de origine rusă, precum şi unora veniţi din Austria, Polonia etc. Ca rezultat, pe parcursul sec. al XIX-lea, alături de boierii autohtoni, în procesul de confirmare a titlurilor nobiliare la Comisia instituită în acest sens s-au încadrat şi reprezentanţi ai nobilimii alogene. Analizând dosarele depuse de şleahta poloneză, observăm că reprezentanţilor acesteia li se confirma titlul nobiliar în urma prezentării unei adeverinţe care certifica că Adunarea Deputaţilor Nobilimii din Podolia deja recunoscuse apartenenţa nobiliară a solicitantului. Însă, depistăm şi cazuri când reprezentanţilor şleahtei poloneze, după mai multe încercări, nu li se confirma titlul nobiliar, cu toate că Adunarea Deputaţilor din Podolia îi recunoscuse deja în rândul nobilimii. Din această categorie face parte, spre exemplu, familia de nobili Cernelevski, membrilor căreia la 18 decembrie 1802 Adunarea Deputaţilor din Podolia le-a confirmat titlul nobiliar, ca urmaşi ai boierului moldovean, paharnicului Andronache Cernelevski. Însă, urmaşilor săi le-au fost respinse toate cererile depuse, din considerentul că din dosarul analizat de c

  5. Lea County Blocks, Housing Vacancy Status (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  6. Lea County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  7. Lea County 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  8. Lea County Blocks, Housing Occupancy Status (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  9. Tallinna Linnaarhiiv 1939-1941 / Lea Kõiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõiv, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Sakslaste ümberasumine nihutas põhjalikult paigast linnaarhiivi senised töö rõhuasetused. Eesti valitsuse otsus ümberasujatele kuuluvate kultuurivarade Eestisse jätmise kohta pani Tallinna linnaarhiivile vastutuse ajalooliste dokumendikogude säilimise eest. Arhiivi personalist, kogudest, teadustööst ja teatistest. Lisa : Inspektsiooniaruanne Tallinna Linnavalitsuse jooksva arhiivi kohta 12. märtsil 1943

  10. Tallinna Linnaarhiiv 1941-1944 / Lea Kõiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõiv, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Saksa okupatsiooni esimestest päevadest võeti uuesti kasutusele arhiivi endine nimi Tallinna Linnaarhiiv. Arhiiv evakueeriti Eesti Panga hoonesse 1942. aastal. Küttekriisist ja õhukaitse korraldamisest. Kogude täiendamisest, korrastamisest ja arvestusest. Kogude kasutamisest. Päringutest ja teatistest. 1944. aasta märtsipommitamisest ja kogude viimisest Saksamaale.

  11. Final papers from TS/LEA

    CERN Document Server

    Presland, A; De Jonge, L; Pignard, Christian; Dimovasili, E; Herty, A; Mainaud-Durand, H; Marin, A; Ossart, F; Glaser, M; Ravotti, F; Moll, M; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-ray induced optical absorption in ge and p-doped fibres at the LHC radiation tolerant commercial of the shelf components for the remote readout of radfets and pin diodes radiation induced effects on the sensors of the hydrostatic leveling system for the lhc low beta quadrupoles dosimetry assessments in the irradiation facilities at the cern-ps accelerator.

  12. 1955 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  13. 1949 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. Lea County Block Groups, Housing Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  15. Lea County Blocks, Total Population (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  16. Lea County Block Groups, Total Population (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  17. Karmel Eikner seljatab Stockmanni! / Lea Veelma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veelma, Lea, 1947-2007

    2006-01-01

    Karmel Eikneri koostöö Stockmanni kaubamajaga on lõppemas: kaubamaja korjas müügilt tema brändi Powered by Karmel tooted ja süüdistab ärinaist omavolilises allahindluses. Vandeadvokaadi Meelis Pirni sõnul on Stockmann rikkunud koostöölepingut

  18. 34 CFR 200.52 - LEA improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must— (i) Incorporate strategies, grounded in scientifically based research, that will strengthen... effective methods and instructional strategies grounded in scientifically based research; and (ii) Address...

  19. A non-LEA sofic group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ADITI KAR

    matics 300 (1972) (Berlin: Springer-Verlag). [8] Glasner Y and Monod N, Amenable action, free products and a fixed point property,. Bull. Lond. Math. Soc. 39(1) (2007) 138–150. [9] Gromov M, Endomorphisms of symbolic algebraic varieties, J. European Math. Soc. 1(2). (1999) 109–197. [10] Paunescu L, On sofic actions ...

  20. "Kalevipoeg" ja "Kalevala" Ungaris / Lea Kreinin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreinin, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: Fehérv{u00E1ri, Gyözö. "Dalnak {250}j utat mutattam..." : a Kalevala és a Kalevipoeg összehasonlÍt̤ elemzése, magyarorsz{u00E1gi fogadtat{u00E1sa és hat{u00E1sa. S. l. : Lucidus, 2002

  1. A non-LEA sofic group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 5. Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 5. November 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  2. Artiklikogumik rahvusvahelisele raamatuloolaste ringile / Lea Kõiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõiv, Lea

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Linnaarhiivi ja TLÜ AR ühisväljaandest "Books and libraries in the Baltic Sea Region from the 16th to the 18th century = Bücher und Bibliotheken im Ostseeraum vom 16. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert" (Tallinn, 2006); toimetanud L. Kõiv ja T. Reimo. Raamat sisaldab 2002. a. Tallinnas Tallinna Oleviste raamatukogu 450. aastapäeva puhul toimunud konverentsi materjale

  3. 2010, Lea County, NM, Current Area Hydrography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  4. Haapsalu - Põhjamaade Veneetsia / Viivi Variksaar, Lea Arme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Variksaar, Viivi, 1948-

    2001-01-01

    ARS Interjöörprojekti kujundatud hotellist 'Kongo', hotelli restoranist. Reet Siimeri algatusel puuetega ja töötute inimeste toetamiseks loodud 'Värkstoast', kus õpetatakse käsitööd ja müüakse käsitööesemeid. Kommenteerinud Liina Aavik

  5. Lea County Blocks, Households by Type (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  6. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein daily for 2 years does not improve bone density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Weight loss. Most research suggests that taking whey protein alone, along with diet modifications, or while following an exercise plan does not seem to reduce weight for ...

  7. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  8. Structure-function analysis and genetic interactions of the Yhc1, SmD3, SmB, and Snp1 subunits of yeast U1 snRNP and genetic interactions of SmD3 with U2 snRNP subunit Lea1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwer, Beate; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    Yhc1 and U1-C are essential subunits of the yeast and human U1 snRNP, respectively, that stabilize the duplex formed by U1 snRNA at the pre-mRNA 5' splice site (5'SS). Mutational analysis of Yhc1, guided by the human U1 snRNP crystal structure, highlighted the importance of Val20 and Ser19 at the RNA interface. Though benign on its own, V20A was lethal in the absence of branchpoint-binding complex subunit Mud2 and caused a severe growth defect in the absence of U1 subunit Nam8. S19A caused a severe defect with mud2▵. Essential DEAD-box ATPase Prp28 was bypassed by mutations of Yhc1 Val20 and Ser19, consistent with destabilization of U1•5'SS interaction. We extended the genetic analysis to SmD3, which interacts with U1-C/Yhc1 in U1 snRNP, and to SmB, its neighbor in the Sm ring. Whereas mutations of the interface of SmD3, SmB, and U1-C/Yhc1 with U1-70K/Snp1, or deletion of the interacting Snp1 N-terminal peptide, had no growth effect, they elicited synthetic defects in the absence of U1 subunit Mud1. Mutagenesis of the RNA-binding triad of SmD3 (Ser-Asn-Arg) and SmB (His-Asn-Arg) provided insights to built-in redundancies of the Sm ring, whereby no individual side-chain was essential, but simultaneous mutations of Asn or Arg residues in SmD3 and SmB were lethal. Asn-to-Ala mutations SmB and SmD3 caused synthetic defects in the absence of Mud1 or Mud2. All three RNA site mutations of SmD3 were lethal in cells lacking the U2 snRNP subunit Lea1. Benign C-terminal truncations of SmD3 were dead in the absence of Mud2 or Lea1 and barely viable in the absence of Nam8 or Mud1. In contrast, SMD3-E35A uniquely suppressed the temperature-sensitivity of lea1▵. © 2015 Schwer and Shuman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  9. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  10. Architecturally diverse proteins converge on an analogous mechanism to inactivate Uracil-DNA glycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ambrose R; Ofer, Sapir; Ryzhenkova, Ksenia; Baltulionis, Gediminas; Hornyak, Peter; Savva, Renos

    2013-10-01

    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) compromises the replication strategies of diverse viruses from unrelated lineages. Virally encoded proteins therefore exist to limit, inhibit or target UDG activity for proteolysis. Viral proteins targeting UDG, such as the bacteriophage proteins ugi, and p56, and the HIV-1 protein Vpr, share no sequence similarity, and are not structurally homologous. Such diversity has hindered identification of known or expected UDG-inhibitory activities in other genomes. The structural basis for UDG inhibition by ugi is well characterized; yet, paradoxically, the structure of the unbound p56 protein is enigmatically unrevealing of its mechanism. To resolve this conundrum, we determined the structure of a p56 dimer bound to UDG. A helix from one of the subunits of p56 occupies the UDG DNA-binding cleft, whereas the dimer interface forms a hydrophobic box to trap a mechanistically important UDG residue. Surprisingly, these p56 inhibitory elements are unexpectedly analogous to features used by ugi despite profound architectural disparity. Contacts from B-DNA to UDG are mimicked by residues of the p56 helix, echoing the role of ugi's inhibitory beta strand. Using mutagenesis, we propose that DNA mimicry by p56 is a targeting and specificity mechanism supporting tight inhibition via hydrophobic sequestration.

  11. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    of research are explored. Here we present an overview of the most widely used protein-protein interaction databases and the methods they employ to gather, combine, and predict interactions. We also point out the trade-off between comprehensiveness and accuracy and the main pitfall scientists have to be aware...

  12. Word decoding of protein amino Acid sequences with availability analysis: a linguistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kenta; Fujita, Tomohiro; Tsutsumi, Motosuke; Kikuzato, Satsuki; Nakamura, Morikazu; Otaki, Joji M

    2012-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of proteins determine their three-dimensional structures and functions. However, how sequence information is related to structures and functions is still enigmatic. In this study, we show that at least a part of the sequence information can be extracted by treating amino acid sequences of proteins as a collection of English words, based on a working hypothesis that amino acid sequences of proteins are composed of short constituent amino acid sequences (SCSs) or "words". We first confirmed that the English language highly likely follows Zipf's law, a special case of power law. We found that the rank-frequency plot of SCSs in proteins exhibits a similar distribution when low-rank tails are excluded. In comparison with natural English and "compressed" English without spaces between words, amino acid sequences of proteins show larger linear ranges and smaller exponents with heavier low-rank tails, demonstrating that the SCS distribution in proteins is largely scale-free. A distribution pattern of SCSs in proteins is similar among species, but species-specific features are also present. Based on the availability scores of SCSs, we found that sequence motifs are enriched in high-availability sites (i.e., "key words") and vice versa. In fact, the highest availability peak within a given protein sequence often directly corresponds to a sequence motif. The amino acid composition of high-availability sites within motifs is different from that of entire motifs and all protein sequences, suggesting the possible functional importance of specific SCSs and their compositional amino acids within motifs. We anticipate that our availability-based word decoding approach is complementary to sequence alignment approaches in predicting functionally important sites of unknown proteins from their amino acid sequences.

  13. Word decoding of protein amino Acid sequences with availability analysis: a linguistic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Motomura

    Full Text Available The amino acid sequences of proteins determine their three-dimensional structures and functions. However, how sequence information is related to structures and functions is still enigmatic. In this study, we show that at least a part of the sequence information can be extracted by treating amino acid sequences of proteins as a collection of English words, based on a working hypothesis that amino acid sequences of proteins are composed of short constituent amino acid sequences (SCSs or "words". We first confirmed that the English language highly likely follows Zipf's law, a special case of power law. We found that the rank-frequency plot of SCSs in proteins exhibits a similar distribution when low-rank tails are excluded. In comparison with natural English and "compressed" English without spaces between words, amino acid sequences of proteins show larger linear ranges and smaller exponents with heavier low-rank tails, demonstrating that the SCS distribution in proteins is largely scale-free. A distribution pattern of SCSs in proteins is similar among species, but species-specific features are also present. Based on the availability scores of SCSs, we found that sequence motifs are enriched in high-availability sites (i.e., "key words" and vice versa. In fact, the highest availability peak within a given protein sequence often directly corresponds to a sequence motif. The amino acid composition of high-availability sites within motifs is different from that of entire motifs and all protein sequences, suggesting the possible functional importance of specific SCSs and their compositional amino acids within motifs. We anticipate that our availability-based word decoding approach is complementary to sequence alignment approaches in predicting functionally important sites of unknown proteins from their amino acid sequences.

  14. Studies on the Accumulation of Drought-Induced Boiling Soluble Proteins (Hydrophilins at Vegetative and Reproductive Phases of Drought Tolerant and Susceptible Cultivars of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeen RAKHRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major environmental constraints affecting the crops worldwide. Expression of boiling soluble proteins (BSPs is of paramount importance, because they play important roles in the water stress responses and also in plant metabolism. In this study, the effect of drought on BSPs at vegetative (shoots and reproductive (seeds phases of drought tolerant (cv. ‘PBW 527’ and drought susceptible (cv. ‘PBW 343’ cultivars of Triticumaestivum were carried at three different developmental stages. The boiling soluble protein profiles of shoots and seeds were outlined via SDS-PAGE followed by immune-blot analysis using anti-HSP, anti-APase, anti-LEA, anti-SOD, anti-AQUA and anti-CAT antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed that expression of BSPs was modulated differentially in a stress, tissue, developmental stage and cultivar dependent manner. For instance, enhanced expression of seeds BSPs (APase, LEA, CAT, AQUA was observed in the tolerant cv. ‘PBW 527’ after drought stress. However, no such enhancement was observed in the susceptible cultivar. Similarly, in shoots of cv. ‘PBW 527’, a substantial increase of BSP (SOD expression was established after drought stress treatment, indicating their role in drought stress adaptation. Further, to gain an insight into the role of BSPs, a time course pre- and post-stress kinetic studies were also conducted in the seeds of tolerant and susceptible wheat cultivars. Based upon the observations, the possible role of boiling soluble proteins (hydrophilins in water stress tolerance is discussed.

  15. Dietary Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because your body doesn't store it the way it stores fats or carbohydrates. How much you need depends on your age, sex, health, and level of physical activity. Most Americans eat enough protein in their diet.

  16. Dengue Virus Non-structural Protein 1 Modulates Infectious Particle Production via Interaction with the Structural Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Scaturro

    Full Text Available Non-structural protein 1 (NS1 is one of the most enigmatic proteins of the Dengue virus (DENV, playing distinct functions in immune evasion, pathogenesis and viral replication. The recently reported crystal structure of DENV NS1 revealed its peculiar three-dimensional fold; however, detailed information on NS1 function at different steps of the viral replication cycle is still missing. By using the recently reported crystal structure, as well as amino acid sequence conservation, as a guide for a comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis study, we discovered that in addition to being essential for RNA replication, DENV NS1 is also critically required for the production of infectious virus particles. Taking advantage of a trans-complementation approach based on fully functional epitope-tagged NS1 variants, we identified previously unreported interactions between NS1 and the structural proteins Envelope (E and precursor Membrane (prM. Interestingly, coimmunoprecipitation revealed an additional association with capsid, arguing that NS1 interacts via the structural glycoproteins with DENV particles. Results obtained with mutations residing either in the NS1 Wing domain or in the β-ladder domain suggest that NS1 might have two distinct functions in the assembly of DENV particles. By using a trans-complementation approach with a C-terminally KDEL-tagged ER-resident NS1, we demonstrate that the secretion of NS1 is dispensable for both RNA replication and infectious particle production. In conclusion, our results provide an extensive genetic map of NS1 determinants essential for viral RNA replication and identify a novel role of NS1 in virion production that is mediated via interaction with the structural proteins. These studies extend the list of NS1 functions and argue for a central role in coordinating replication and assembly/release of infectious DENV particles.

  17. Abiotic stress in plants: Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Amara, Imen

    2012-01-01

    [spa] Las proteínas LEA, originalmente fueron descritas en las semillas de algodón; se acumulan en grandes cantidades en estructuras tolerantes a la desecación (semillas, polen) y en tejidos vegetativos sometidos a estrés abiótico, sequía, salinidad y frío. También se hallan en organismos anidrobióticos, en plantas de resurrección, algunos invertebrados y microorganismos. La presencia de proteínas LEA se correlaciona con la adquisición de tolerancia a la desecación. Desde un principio se les ...

  18. Identification of two forms of the Eso1 protein in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiming; Cao, Hongshi; Guo, Weichao; Lu, Yingqiang

    2014-05-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Eso1p is a protein fusion. Two-thirds of its N-terminus is conserved to budding yeast Rad30, which functions in error-free replication of UV-damaged DNA. A third of the C-terminus is highly conserved to budding yeast Eco1, a lysine acetyltransferase, which is essential for the establishment of cohesion. Both Rad30p and Eco1p need to be finely tuned in budding yeast. Given the distinct function existed in Rad30p and Eco1p, it is enigmatic how the Eso1p, the protein fusion regulated in S. pombe, works. We have identified two forms of the Eso1 protein by Western blot, and detected the Eco1-homology fragment by M/S analysis following TAP purification of Eso1 protein. The result raises the possibility that Eso1 might be processed in vivo to release the Eco1-homology fragment, which allows the independent regulation of Rad30-homology and Eco1-homology fragments. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  20. Evolutionary Implications of Metal Binding Features in Different Species’ Prion Protein: An Inorganic Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego La Mendola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Prion disorders are a group of fatal neurodegenerative conditions of mammals. The key molecular event in the pathogenesis of such diseases is the conformational conversion of prion protein, PrPC, into a misfolded form rich in β-sheet structure, PrPSc, but the detailed mechanistic aspects of prion protein conversion remain enigmatic. There is uncertainty on the precise physiological function of PrPC in healthy individuals. Several evidences support the notion of its role in copper homeostasis. PrPC binds Cu2+ mainly through a domain composed by four to five repeats of eight amino acids. In addition to mammals, PrP homologues have also been identified in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. The globular domain of protein is retained in the different species, suggesting that the protein carries out an essential common function. However, the comparison of amino acid sequences indicates that prion protein has evolved differently in each vertebrate class. The primary sequences are strongly conserved in each group, but these exhibit a low similarity with those of mammals. The N-terminal domain of different prions shows tandem amino acid repeats with an increasing amount of histidine residues going from amphibians to mammals. The difference in the sequence affects the number of copper binding sites, the affinity and the coordination environment of metal ions, suggesting that the involvement of prion in metal homeostasis may be a specific characteristic of mammalian prion protein. In this review, we describe the similarities and the differences in the metal binding of different species’ prion protein, as revealed by studies carried out on the entire protein and related peptide fragments.

  1. Evolutionary Implications of Metal Binding Features in Different Species’ Prion Protein: An Inorganic Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mendola, Diego; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Prion disorders are a group of fatal neurodegenerative conditions of mammals. The key molecular event in the pathogenesis of such diseases is the conformational conversion of prion protein, PrPC, into a misfolded form rich in β-sheet structure, PrPSc, but the detailed mechanistic aspects of prion protein conversion remain enigmatic. There is uncertainty on the precise physiological function of PrPC in healthy individuals. Several evidences support the notion of its role in copper homeostasis. PrPC binds Cu2+ mainly through a domain composed by four to five repeats of eight amino acids. In addition to mammals, PrP homologues have also been identified in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. The globular domain of protein is retained in the different species, suggesting that the protein carries out an essential common function. However, the comparison of amino acid sequences indicates that prion protein has evolved differently in each vertebrate class. The primary sequences are strongly conserved in each group, but these exhibit a low similarity with those of mammals. The N-terminal domain of different prions shows tandem amino acid repeats with an increasing amount of histidine residues going from amphibians to mammals. The difference in the sequence affects the number of copper binding sites, the affinity and the coordination environment of metal ions, suggesting that the involvement of prion in metal homeostasis may be a specific characteristic of mammalian prion protein. In this review, we describe the similarities and the differences in the metal binding of different species’ prion protein, as revealed by studies carried out on the entire protein and related peptide fragments. PMID:24970230

  2. Intramembrane protease RasP boosts protein production in Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Jolanda; Bongiorni, Cristina; Goosens, Vivianne J; Schmidt, Brian; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2017-04-04

    The microbial cell factory Bacillus subtilis is a popular industrial platform for high-level production of secreted technical enzymes. Nonetheless, the effective secretion of particular heterologous enzymes remains challenging. Over the past decades various studies have tackled this problem, and major improvements were achieved by optimizing signal peptides or removing proteases involved in product degradation. On the other hand, serious bottlenecks in the protein export process per se remained enigmatic, especially for protein secretion at commercially significant levels by cells grown to high density. The aim of our present study was to assess the relevance of the intramembrane protease RasP for high-level protein production in B. subtilis. Deletion of the rasP gene resulted in reduced precursor processing and extracellular levels of the overproduced α-amylases AmyE from B. subtilis and AmyL from Bacillus licheniformis. Further, secretion of the overproduced serine protease BPN' from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was severely impaired in the absence of RasP. Importantly, overexpression of rasP resulted in threefold increased production of a serine protease from Bacillus clausii, and 2.5- to 10-fold increased production of an AmyAc α-amylase from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus, depending on the culture conditions. Of note, growth defects due to overproduction of the two latter enzymes were suppressed by rasP-overexpression. Here we show that an intramembrane protease, RasP, sets a limit to high-level production of two secreted heterologous enzymes that are difficult to produce in the B. subtilis cell factory. This finding was unexpected and suggests that proteolytic membrane sanitation is key to effective enzyme production in Bacillus.

  3. A new Em-like protein from Lactuca sativa, LsEm1, enhances drought and salt stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dian-Jun; Man, Li-Li; Zhang, Chun-Lan; Peng-Liu; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Gen-Chang

    2018-02-07

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are closely related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In the present study, we identified a novel Em-like gene from lettuce, termed LsEm1, which could be classified into group 1 LEA proteins, and shared high homology with Cynara cardunculus Em protein. The LsEm1 protein contained three different 20-mer conserved elements (C-element, N-element, and M-element) in the C-termini, N-termini, and middle-region, respectively. The LsEm1 mRNAs were accumulated in all examined tissues during the flowering and mature stages, with a little accumulation in the roots and leaves during the seedling stage. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene was also expressed in response to salt, dehydration, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold stresses in young seedlings. The LsEm1 protein could effectively reduce damage to the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protect LDH activity under desiccation and salt treatments. The Escherichia coli cells overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed a growth advantage over the control under drought and salt stresses. Moreover, LsEm1-overexpressing rice seeds were relatively sensitive to exogenously applied ABA, suggesting that the LsEm1 gene might depend on an ABA signaling pathway in response to environmental stresses. The transgenic rice plants overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses than did wild-type (WT) plants on the basis of the germination performances, higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll content, more accumulation of soluble sugar, lower relative electrolyte leakage, and higher superoxide dismutase activity under stress conditions. The LsEm1-overexpressing rice lines also showed less yield loss compared with WT rice under stress conditions. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene had a positive effect on the expression of the OsCDPK9, OsCDPK13, OsCDPK15, OsCDPK25, and rab21 (rab16a) genes in transgenic rice under drought and salt stress conditions, implying that overexpression of these

  4. A New Molecular Mechanism To Engineer Protean Agonism at a G Protein-Coupled Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Min, Anna; Matera, Carlo; Bock, Andreas; Holze, Janine; Kloeckner, Jessica; Muth, Mathias; Traenkle, Christian; De Amici, Marco; Kenakin, Terry; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Dallanoce, Clelia; Kostenis, Evi; Mohr, Klaus; Schrage, Ramona

    2017-04-01

    Protean agonists are of great pharmacological interest as their behavior may change in magnitude and direction depending on the constitutive activity of a receptor. Yet, this intriguing phenomenon has been poorly described and understood, due to the lack of stable experimental systems and design strategies. In this study, we overcome both limitations: First, we demonstrate that modulation of the ionic strength in a defined experimental set-up allows for analysis of G protein-coupled receptor activation in the absence and presence of a specific amount of spontaneous receptor activity using the muscarinic M2 acetylcholine receptor as a model. Second, we employ this assay system to show that a dualsteric design principle, that is, molecular probes, carrying two pharmacophores to simultaneously adopt orthosteric and allosteric topography within a G protein-coupled receptor, may represent a novel approach to achieve protean agonism. We pinpoint three molecular requirements within dualsteric compounds that elicit protean agonism at the muscarinic M2 acetylcholine receptor. Using radioligand-binding and functional assays, we posit that dynamic ligand binding may be the mechanism underlying protean agonism of dualsteric ligands. Our findings provide both new mechanistic insights into the still enigmatic phenomenon of protean agonism and a rationale for the design of such compounds for a G protein-coupled receptor. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. The nucleoid protein Dps binds genomic DNA of Escherichia coli in a non-random manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, F. A.; Toshchakov, S. V.; Dominova, I.; Shvyreva, U. S.; Vrublevskaya, V. V.; Morenkov, O. S.; Panyukov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Dps is a multifunctional homododecameric protein that oxidizes Fe2+ ions accumulating them in the form of Fe2O3 within its protein cavity, interacts with DNA tightly condensing bacterial nucleoid upon starvation and performs some other functions. During the last two decades from discovery of this protein, its ferroxidase activity became rather well studied, but the mechanism of Dps interaction with DNA still remains enigmatic. The crucial role of lysine residues in the unstructured N-terminal tails led to the conventional point of view that Dps binds DNA without sequence or structural specificity. However, deletion of dps changed the profile of proteins in starved cells, SELEX screen revealed genomic regions preferentially bound in vitro and certain affinity of Dps for artificial branched molecules was detected by atomic force microscopy. Here we report a non-random distribution of Dps binding sites across the bacterial chromosome in exponentially growing cells and show their enrichment with inverted repeats prone to form secondary structures. We found that the Dps-bound regions overlap with sites occupied by other nucleoid proteins, and contain overrepresented motifs typical for their consensus sequences. Of the two types of genomic domains with extensive protein occupancy, which can be highly expressed or transcriptionally silent only those that are enriched with RNA polymerase molecules were preferentially occupied by Dps. In the dps-null mutant we, therefore, observed a differentially altered expression of several targeted genes and found suppressed transcription from the dps promoter. In most cases this can be explained by the relieved interference with Dps for nucleoid proteins exploiting sequence-specific modes of DNA binding. Thus, protecting bacterial cells from different stresses during exponential growth, Dps can modulate transcriptional integrity of the bacterial chromosome hampering RNA biosynthesis from some genes via competition with RNA polymerase

  6. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  7. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein

  8. Interaction entropy for protein-protein binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoxi; Yan, Yu N.; Yang, Maoyou; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are at the heart of signal transduction and are central to the function of protein machine in biology. The highly specific protein-protein binding is quantitatively characterized by the binding free energy whose accurate calculation from the first principle is a grand challenge in computational biology. In this paper, we show how the interaction entropy approach, which was recently proposed for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation, can be applied to computing the entropic contribution to the protein-protein binding free energy. Explicit theoretical derivation of the interaction entropy approach for protein-protein interaction system is given in detail from the basic definition. Extensive computational studies for a dozen realistic protein-protein interaction systems are carried out using the present approach and comparisons of the results for these protein-protein systems with those from the standard normal mode method are presented. Analysis of the present method for application in protein-protein binding as well as the limitation of the method in numerical computation is discussed. Our study and analysis of the results provided useful information for extracting correct entropic contribution in protein-protein binding from molecular dynamics simulations.

  9. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Proteins KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Proteins What's in ... from the foods you eat. Different Kinds of Protein Protein from animal sources, such as meat and ...

  10. Activator Protein-1: redox switch controlling structure and DNA-binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhou; Machius, Mischa; Nestler, Eric J.; Rudenko, Gabby

    2017-09-07

    The transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), binds to cognate DNA under redox control; yet, the underlying mechanism has remained enigmatic. A series of crystal structures of the AP-1 FosB/JunD bZIP domains reveal ordered DNA-binding regions in both FosB and JunD even in absence DNA. However, while JunD is competent to bind DNA, the FosB bZIP domain must undergo a large conformational rearrangement that is controlled by a ‘redox switch’ centered on an inter-molecular disulfide bond. Solution studies confirm that FosB/JunD cannot undergo structural transition and bind DNA when the redox-switch is in the ‘OFF’ state, and show that the mid-point redox potential of the redox switch affords it sensitivity to cellular redox homeostasis. The molecular and structural studies presented here thus reveal the mechanism underlying redox-regulation of AP-1 Fos/Jun transcription factors and provide structural insight for therapeutic interventions targeting AP-1 proteins.

  11. Expression analysis of the Theileria parva subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Schmuckli-Maurer

    Full Text Available The intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria parva transforms bovine lymphocytes inducing uncontrolled proliferation. Proteins released from the parasite are assumed to contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell and parasite persistence. With 85 members, genes encoding subtelomeric variable secreted proteins (SVSPs form the largest gene family in T. parva. The majority of SVSPs contain predicted signal peptides, suggesting secretion into the host cell cytoplasm.We analysed SVSP expression in T. parva-transformed cell lines established in vitro by infection of T or B lymphocytes with cloned T. parva parasites. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression for a wide range of SVSP genes. The pattern of mRNA expression was largely defined by the parasite genotype and not by host background or cell type, and found to be relatively stable in vitro over a period of two months. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis carried out on cell lines established from a cloned parasite showed that expression of a single SVSP encoded by TP03_0882 is limited to only a small percentage of parasites. Epitope-tagged TP03_0882 expressed in mammalian cells was found to translocate into the nucleus, a process that could be attributed to two different nuclear localisation signals.Our analysis reveals a complex pattern of Theileria SVSP mRNA expression, which depends on the parasite genotype. Whereas in cell lines established from a cloned parasite transcripts can be found corresponding to a wide range of SVSP genes, only a minority of parasites appear to express a particular SVSP protein. The fact that a number of SVSPs contain functional nuclear localisation signals suggests that proteins released from the parasite could contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell. This initial characterisation will facilitate future studies on the regulation of SVSP gene expression and the potential biological role of these enigmatic

  12. Efficient protein alignment algorithm for protein search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zaixin; Zhao, Zhiyu; Fu, Bin

    2010-01-18

    Proteins show a great variety of 3D conformations, which can be used to infer their evolutionary relationship and to classify them into more general groups; therefore protein structure alignment algorithms are very helpful for protein biologists. However, an accurate alignment algorithm itself may be insufficient for effective discovering of structural relationships among tens of thousands of proteins. Due to the exponentially increasing amount of protein structural data, a fast and accurate structure alignment tool is necessary to access protein classification and protein similarity search; however, the complexity of current alignment algorithms are usually too high to make a fully alignment-based classification and search practical. We have developed an efficient protein pairwise alignment algorithm and applied it to our protein search tool, which aligns a query protein structure in the pairwise manner with all protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to output similar protein structures. The algorithm can align hundreds of pairs of protein structures in one second. Given a protein structure, the tool efficiently discovers similar structures from tens of thousands of structures stored in the PDB always in 2 minutes in a single machine and 20 seconds in our cluster of 6 machines. The algorithm has been fully implemented and is accessible online at our webserver, which is supported by a cluster of computers. Our algorithm can work out hundreds of pairs of protein alignments in one second. Therefore, it is very suitable for protein search. Our experimental results show that it is more accurate than other well known protein search systems in finding proteins which are structurally similar at SCOP family and superfamily levels, and its speed is also competitive with those systems. In terms of the pairwise alignment performance, it is as good as some well known alignment algorithms.

  13. Small heat shock proteins, protein degradation and protein aggregation diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Michel J.; Zijlstra, Marianne P.; Carra, Serena; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Kampinga, Harm H.

    Small heat shock proteins have been characterized in vitro as ATP-independent molecular chaperones that can prevent aggregation of un- or misfolded proteins and assist in their refolding with the help of ATP-dependent chaperone machines (e. g., the Hsp70 proteins). Comparison of the functionality of

  14. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  15. A new metabolic link. The acyl carrier protein of lipid synthesis donates lipoic acid to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Escherichia coli and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S W; Cronan, J E

    1997-07-18

    Lipoic acid is an essential enzyme cofactor that requires covalent attachment to its cognate proteins to confer biological activity. The major lipoylated proteins are highly conserved enzymes of central metabolism, the pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. The classical lipoate ligase uses ATP to activate the lipoate carboxyl group followed by attachment of the cofactor to a specific subunit of each dehydrogenase complex, and it was assumed that all lipoate attachment proceeded by this mechanism. However, our previous work indicated that Escherichia coli could form lipoylated proteins in the absence of detectable ATP-dependent ligase activity raising the possibility of a class of enzyme that attaches lipoate to the dehydrogenase complexes by a different mechanism. We now report that E. coli and mitochondria contain lipoate transferases that use lipoyl-acyl carrier protein as the lipoate donor. This finding demonstrates a direct link between fatty acid synthesis and lipoate attachment and also provides the first direct demonstration of a role for the enigmatic acyl carrier proteins of mitochondria.

  16. Identification of proteins likely to be involved in morphogenesis, cell division, and signal transduction in Planctomycetes by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogler, Christian; Waldmann, Jost; Huang, Xiaoluo; Jogler, Mareike; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Mascher, Thorsten; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Members of the Planctomycetes clade share many unusual features for bacteria. Their cytoplasm contains membrane-bound compartments, they lack peptidoglycan and FtsZ, they divide by polar budding, and they are capable of endocytosis. Planctomycete genomes have remained enigmatic, generally being quite large (up to 9 Mb), and on average, 55% of their predicted proteins are of unknown function. Importantly, proteins related to the unusual traits of Planctomycetes remain largely unknown. Thus, we embarked on bioinformatic analyses of these genomes in an effort to predict proteins that are likely to be involved in compartmentalization, cell division, and signal transduction. We used three complementary strategies. First, we defined the Planctomycetes core genome and subtracted genes of well-studied model organisms. Second, we analyzed the gene content and synteny of morphogenesis and cell division genes and combined both methods using a "guilt-by-association" approach. Third, we identified signal transduction systems as well as sigma factors. These analyses provide a manageable list of candidate genes for future genetic studies and provide evidence for complex signaling in the Planctomycetes akin to that observed for bacteria with complex life-styles, such as Myxococcus xanthus.

  17. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  18. Internal antecubital fold line: A new useful anatomical repair to identify the medial epicondyle and avoid iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury in patients with supracondylar fracture of the humerus Línea del pliegue antecubital interno: Un nuevo reparo anatómico útil para identificar la epitróclea y evitar lesiones iatrogénicas del nervio ulnar en pacientes con fractura supracondílea del humero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis José Cespedes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The supracondylar fracture of the distal humerus is the most common pediatric fracture around the elbow. The currently accepted techniques of fixation are two lateral parallel wires , crosswiring technique from the lateral side, two divergent wires laterally and two retrograde crossed wires. The retrograde crossed wires provide the best mechanical stability. Many children with this fracture have swelling around the elbow, making difficult the feeling of the anatomic landmarks for percutaneous pinning, increasing the risk of ulnar nerve injury. Objective: To evaluate the correspondence of the internal antecubital fold line with the internal epicondyle in patients with supracondylar fracture and the incidence of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injuries . Methods: We conducted a series of clinical cases. In the first group we included 56 children with supracondylar fracture Gartland type III, from August 2000 to September 2007, who underwent closed reduction and crossed retrograde nail fixation. In the second group we included 241 (481 elbows outpatients with no anatomic abnormality. We used the extension of antecubital fold line to find the internal epicondyle in both groups. Results: The prolongation of the antecubital fold line intersected the medial epicondyle in all participants of the first group. In 96.3% of the participants in the second group, the extension of antecubital fold line intersected the internal epicondyle. None patient had iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury. Conclusions: The use of the antecubital internal fold line may be useful to identify the internal epicondyle and thus avoid iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (2: 9-14La fractura supracondílea del húmero distal es la más común alrededor del codo en niños. Las técnicas actualmente aceptadas de fijación son dos clavos laterales paralelos, dos clavos cruzados laterales, dos clavos laterales divergentes y dos clavos retrógrados cruzados. Los clavos retr

  19. Our interests in protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protein interactions. Evolution of P-P partnerships. Evolution of P-P structures. Evolutionary dynamics of P-P interactions. Dynamics of P-P interaction network. Host-pathogen interactions. CryoEM mapping of gigantic protein assemblies.

  20. Evolution of protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution of protein-protein interactions · Our interests in protein-protein interactions · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20.

  1. Purification and Characterization of the Manganese(II) Oxidizing Protein from Erythrobacter sp. SD-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakama, K. R.; Lien, A.; Johnson, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    The manganese(II) oxidizing protein (Mop) found in the alpha-proteobacterium Erythrobacter sp. SD-21 catalyzes the formation of insoluble Mn(III/IV) oxides from soluble Mn(II). These Mn(III/IV) oxides formed are one of the strongest naturally occurring oxides, next to oxygen, and can be used to adsorb and oxidize toxic chemicals from the surrounding environment. Because of the beneficial use in the treatment of contaminated sources, the mechanism and biochemical properties of this novel enzyme are being studied. Due to low expression levels in the native host strain, purification of Mop has been problematic. To overcome this problem the gene encoding Mop, mopA, was cloned from the native host into a C-terminal histidine tag vector and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions have been applied in attempts to purify an active Mop. Western blots have confirmed that the protein is being expressed and is at the expected size of 250 kDa. Preliminary characterization on crude extract containing Mop has shown a Km and vmax value of 2453 uM and 0.025 uM min-1, respectively. Heme and pyrroloquinoline quinone can stimulate Mn(II) oxidizing activity, but hydrogen peroxide does not affect activity, despite the sequence similarity to animal heme peroxidase proteins. Research has been shown that calcium is essential for Mop activity. Purifying an active Mn(II) oxidizing protein will allow for a better understanding behind the enigmatic process of Mn(II) oxidation.

  2. 24-hour urine protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein - 24 hour; Chronic kidney disease - urine protein; Kidney failure - urine protein ... Bladder tumor Heart failure High blood pressure during pregnancy ( preeclampsia ) Kidney disease caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, autoimmune disorders, ...

  3. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  4. Protein-losing enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  5. Copper and Zinc Interactions with Cellular Prion Proteins Change Solubility of Full-Length Glycosylated Isoforms and Induce the Occurrence of Heterogeneous Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Brim

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are characterized biochemically by protein aggregation of infectious prion isoforms (PrPSc, which result from the conformational conversion of physiological prion proteins (PrPC. PrPC are variable post-translationally modified glycoproteins, which exist as full length and as aminoterminally truncated glycosylated proteins and which exhibit differential detergent solubility. This implicates the presence of heterogeneous phenotypes, which overlap as protein complexes at the same molecular masses. Although the biological function of PrPC is still enigmatic, evidence reveals that PrPC exhibits metal-binding properties, which result in structural changes and decreased solubility. In this study, we analyzed the yield of PrPC metal binding affiliated with low solubility and changes in protein banding patterns. By implementing a high-speed centrifugation step, the interaction of zinc ions with PrPC was shown to generate large quantities of proteins with low solubility, consisting mainly of full-length glycosylated PrPC; whereas unglycosylated PrPC remained in the supernatants as well as truncated glycosylated proteins which lack of octarepeat sequence necessary for metal binding. This effect was considerably lower when PrPC interacted with copper ions; the presence of other metals tested exhibited no effect under these conditions. The binding of zinc and copper to PrPC demonstrated differentially soluble protein yields within distinct PrPC subtypes. PrPC-Zn2+-interaction may provide a means to differentiate glycosylated and unglycosylated subtypes and offers detailed analysis of metal-bound and metal-free protein conversion assays.

  6. Copper and Zinc Interactions with Cellular Prion Proteins Change Solubility of Full-Length Glycosylated Isoforms and Induce the Occurrence of Heterogeneous Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brim, Svetlana; Groschup, Martin H.; Kuczius, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized biochemically by protein aggregation of infectious prion isoforms (PrPSc), which result from the conformational conversion of physiological prion proteins (PrPC). PrPC are variable post-translationally modified glycoproteins, which exist as full length and as aminoterminally truncated glycosylated proteins and which exhibit differential detergent solubility. This implicates the presence of heterogeneous phenotypes, which overlap as protein complexes at the same molecular masses. Although the biological function of PrPC is still enigmatic, evidence reveals that PrPC exhibits metal-binding properties, which result in structural changes and decreased solubility. In this study, we analyzed the yield of PrPC metal binding affiliated with low solubility and changes in protein banding patterns. By implementing a high-speed centrifugation step, the interaction of zinc ions with PrPC was shown to generate large quantities of proteins with low solubility, consisting mainly of full-length glycosylated PrPC; whereas unglycosylated PrPC remained in the supernatants as well as truncated glycosylated proteins which lack of octarepeat sequence necessary for metal binding. This effect was considerably lower when PrPC interacted with copper ions; the presence of other metals tested exhibited no effect under these conditions. The binding of zinc and copper to PrPC demonstrated differentially soluble protein yields within distinct PrPC subtypes. PrPC–Zn2+-interaction may provide a means to differentiate glycosylated and unglycosylated subtypes and offers detailed analysis of metal-bound and metal-free protein conversion assays. PMID:27093554

  7. Nanotechnologies in protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizkova, Sona; Heger, Zbynek; Zalewska, Marta; Moulick, Amitava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology became an important research tool for study and detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and a number of other applications. The utilization of nanoparticle-based materials and nanotechnology-based techniques for immobilization allows us not only to extend the surface for biomolecule immobilization resulting in enhanced substrate binding properties, decreased background signals and enhanced reporter systems for more sensitive assays. Generally in contemporarily developed microarray systems, multiple nanotechnology-based techniques are combined. In this review, applications of nanoparticles and nanotechnologies in creating protein microarrays, proteins immobilization and detection are summarized. We anticipate that advanced nanotechnologies can be exploited to expand promising fields of proteins identification, monitoring of protein-protein or drug-protein interactions, or proteins structures.

  8. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  9. Structural Mechanism of Demethylation and Inactivation of Protein Phosphatase 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing,Y.; Li, Z.; Chen, Y.; Stock, J.; Jeffrey, P.; Shi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an important serine/threonine phosphatase that plays a role in many biological processes. Reversible carboxyl methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit is an essential regulatory mechanism for its function. Demethylation and negative regulation of PP2A is mediated by a PP2A-specific methylesterase PME-1, which is conserved from yeast to humans. However, the underlying mechanism of PME-1 function remains enigmatic. Here we report the crystal structures of PME-1 by itself and in complex with a PP2A heterodimeric core enzyme. The structures reveal that PME-1 directly binds to the active site of PP2A and that this interaction results in the activation of PME-1 by rearranging the catalytic triad into an active conformation. Strikingly, these interactions also lead to inactivation of PP2A by evicting the manganese ions that are required for the phosphatase activity of PP2A. These observations identify a dual role of PME-1 that regulates PP2A activation, methylation, and holoenzyme assembly in cells.

  10. The cockayne syndrome B protein is essential for neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaffardini, F; Nicolai, S; Caputo, M; Canu, G; Paccosi, E; Costantino, M; Frontini, M; Balajee, A S; Proietti-De-Santis, L

    2014-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a progressive developmental and neurodegenerative disorder resulting in premature death at childhood and cells derived from CS patients display DNA repair and transcriptional defects. CS is caused by mutations in csa and csb genes, and patients with csb mutation are more prevalent. A hallmark feature of CSB patients is neurodegeneration but the precise molecular cause for this defect remains enigmatic. Further, it is not clear whether the neurodegenerative condition is due to loss of CSB-mediated functions in adult neurogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of CSB in neurogenesis by using the human neural progenitor cells that have self-renewal and differentiation capabilities. In this model system, stable CSB knockdown dramatically reduced the differentiation potential of human neural progenitor cells revealing a key role for CSB in neurogenesis. Neurite outgrowth, a characteristic feature of differentiated neurons, was also greatly abolished in CSB-suppressed cells. In corroboration with this, expression of MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein 2), a crucial player in neuritogenesis, was also impaired in CSB-suppressed cells. Consistent with reduced MAP2 expression in CSB-depleted neural cells, tandem affinity purification and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed a potential role for CSB in the assembly of transcription complex on MAP2 promoter. Altogether, our data led us to conclude that CSB has a crucial role in coordinated regulation of transcription and chromatin remodeling activities that are required during neurogenesis. PMID:24874740

  11. Methylation of protein phosphatase 2A-Influence of regulators and environmental stress factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Maria T; Kolton, Anna; Kataya, Amr R A; Maple-Grødem, Jodi; Averkina, Irina O; Heidari, Behzad; Lillo, Cathrine

    2017-10-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A-C) has a terminal leucine subjected to methylation, a regulatory mechanism conserved from yeast to mammals and plants. Two enzymes, LCMT1 and PME1, methylate and demethylate PP2A-C, respectively. The physiological importance of these posttranslational modifications is still enigmatic. We investigated these processes in Arabidopsis thaliana by mutant phenotyping, by global expression analysis, and by monitoring methylation status of PP2A-C under different environmental conditions. The lcmt1 mutant, possessing essentially only unmethylated PP2A-C, had less dense rosettes, and earlier flowering than wild type (WT). The pme1 mutant, with 30% reduction in unmethylated PP2A-C, was phenotypically comparable with WT. Approximately 200 overlapping genes were twofold upregulated, and 200 overlapping genes were twofold downregulated in both lcmt1 and pme1 relative to WT. Differences between the 2 mutants were also striking; 97 genes were twofold upregulated in pme1 compared with lcmt1, indicating that PME1 acts as a negative regulator for these genes. Analysis of enriched GO terms revealed categories of both abiotic and biotic stress genes. Furthermore, methylation status of PP2A-C was influenced by environmental stress, especially by hypoxia and salt stress, which led to increased levels of unmethylated PP2A-C, and highlights the importance of PP2A-C methylation/demethylation in environmental responses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Fucosylation and protein glycosylation create functional receptors for cholera toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wands, Amberlyn M; Fujita, Akiko; McCombs, Janet E

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) enters and intoxicates host cells after binding cell surface receptors using its B subunit (CTB). The ganglioside (glycolipid) GM1 is thought to be the sole CT receptor; however, the mechanism by which CTB binding to GM1 mediates internalization of CT remains enigmatic. Here we...... in normal human intestinal epithelia and could play a role in cholera....

  13. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  14. FAX1, a novel membrane protein mediating plastid fatty acid export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nannan; Gügel, Irene Luise; Giavalisco, Patrick; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Soll, Jürgen; Philippar, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acid synthesis in plants occurs in plastids, and thus, export for subsequent acyl editing and lipid assembly in the cytosol and endoplasmatic reticulum is required. Yet, the transport mechanism for plastid fatty acids still remains enigmatic. We isolated FAX1 (fatty acid export 1), a novel protein, which inserts into the chloroplast inner envelope by α-helical membrane-spanning domains. Detailed phenotypic and ultrastructural analyses of FAX1 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that FAX1 function is crucial for biomass production, male fertility and synthesis of fatty acid-derived compounds such as lipids, ketone waxes, or pollen cell wall material. Determination of lipid, fatty acid, and wax contents by mass spectrometry revealed that endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-derived lipids decreased when FAX1 was missing, but levels of several plastid-produced species increased. FAX1 over-expressing lines showed the opposite behavior, including a pronounced increase of triacyglycerol oils in flowers and leaves. Furthermore, the cuticular layer of stems from fax1 knockout lines was specifically reduced in C29 ketone wax compounds. Differential gene expression in FAX1 mutants as determined by DNA microarray analysis confirmed phenotypes and metabolic imbalances. Since in yeast FAX1 could complement for fatty acid transport, we concluded that FAX1 mediates fatty acid export from plastids. In vertebrates, FAX1 relatives are structurally related, mitochondrial membrane proteins of so-far unknown function. Therefore, this protein family might represent a powerful tool not only to increase lipid/biofuel production in plants but also to explore novel transport systems involved in vertebrate fatty acid and lipid metabolism.

  15. FAX1, a novel membrane protein mediating plastid fatty acid export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid synthesis in plants occurs in plastids, and thus, export for subsequent acyl editing and lipid assembly in the cytosol and endoplasmatic reticulum is required. Yet, the transport mechanism for plastid fatty acids still remains enigmatic. We isolated FAX1 (fatty acid export 1, a novel protein, which inserts into the chloroplast inner envelope by α-helical membrane-spanning domains. Detailed phenotypic and ultrastructural analyses of FAX1 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that FAX1 function is crucial for biomass production, male fertility and synthesis of fatty acid-derived compounds such as lipids, ketone waxes, or pollen cell wall material. Determination of lipid, fatty acid, and wax contents by mass spectrometry revealed that endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-derived lipids decreased when FAX1 was missing, but levels of several plastid-produced species increased. FAX1 over-expressing lines showed the opposite behavior, including a pronounced increase of triacyglycerol oils in flowers and leaves. Furthermore, the cuticular layer of stems from fax1 knockout lines was specifically reduced in C29 ketone wax compounds. Differential gene expression in FAX1 mutants as determined by DNA microarray analysis confirmed phenotypes and metabolic imbalances. Since in yeast FAX1 could complement for fatty acid transport, we concluded that FAX1 mediates fatty acid export from plastids. In vertebrates, FAX1 relatives are structurally related, mitochondrial membrane proteins of so-far unknown function. Therefore, this protein family might represent a powerful tool not only to increase lipid/biofuel production in plants but also to explore novel transport systems involved in vertebrate fatty acid and lipid metabolism.

  16. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-02-10

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. IGSF9 Family Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene......, whereas vertebrates contain two to four genes. In cnidarians, the gene appears to encode a secreted protein, but transmembrane isoforms of the protein have also evolved, and in many species, alternative splicing facilitates the expression of both transmembrane and secreted isoforms. In most species......, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle...

  18. Peptide segments in protein-protein interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-09-06

    Sep 6, 2006 ... contact surface from the rest of the protein surface have been used to identify the interaction sites (Jones and Thornton. 1997; Neuvirth et al 2004). Protein antigenic sites (epitopes that are recognized by antibodies) could be generally confined to continuous motifs of about 8–24 amino acid residues, or may ...

  19. Surface Mediated Protein Disaggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-03-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is of both biological and industrial importance. Biologically these aggregates are known to cause amyloid type diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Protein aggregation leads to reduced activity of the enzymes in industrial applications. Inter-protein interactions between the hydrophobic residues of the protein are known to be the major driving force for protein aggregation. In the current paper we show how surface chemistry and curvature can be tuned to mitigate these inter-protein interactions. Our results calculated in the framework of the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) lattice model show that, inter-protein interactions can be drastically reduced by increasing the surface hydrophobicity to a critical value corresponding to the adsorption transition of the protein. At this value of surface hydrophobicity, proteins lose inter-protein contacts to gain surface contacts and thus the surface helps in reducing the inter-protein interactions. Further, we show that the adsorption of the proteins inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are most efficient both in reducing inter-protein contacts and simultaneously retaining most of the native-contacts due to strong protein-surface interactions coupled with stabilization due to the confinement. Department of Energy (Grant No DE-FG02-11ER46811).

  20. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  1. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  2. Fracturas supracondíleas del húmero en niños entre 2 y 14 años. Perfil demográfico y de tratamiento en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, Medellín, Colombia = Supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children aged 2-14 years. Demographic profile and therapeutic approach at a third-level hospital in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderrama Molina, Carlos Oliver

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las fracturas supracondíleas del húmero distal son las lesiones más frecuentes de tratamiento quirúrgico en la población pediátrica. Los informes sobre el perfil demográfico y el enfoque terapéutico de las mismas en Medellín son limitados; este trabajo se llevó a cabo para conocer la epidemiología local de estas lesiones y detectar en el seguimiento los aciertos y errores del tratamiento como base para desarrollar estudios de mayor complejidad.Materiales y métodos: mediante una búsqueda exhaustiva en los registros de historias clíni­cas electrónicas se encontraron 205 casos de fracturas supracondíleas del húmero en niños entre dos y 14 años que ingresaron al Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe entre enero de 2005 y septiembre de 2009. Se analizaron en ellas los aspectos demográficos y terapéuticos.Resultados: el 61,5% de los pacientes fueron varones, la media de la edad fue de 6,6 años, en 62,4% de los casos la fractura afectó el lado izquierdo. La clasificación (Gartland fue como sigue: tipo I: 41,5%; tipo II: 12,2%; tipo III: 46,3%. El 95,6% fueron fracturas cerradas. Se hizo tratamiento quirúrgico en 103 casos (50,2%. El tiempo promedio entre el ingreso y la cirugía fue de 6,7 horas. La técnica quirúrgica más frecuente fue la reducción cerrada con fijación percutánea con clavos cruzados (45,6% de los casos. Se observaron 31 casos (15,1% de le­siones neurológicas, 28 de ellas del nervio ulnar; nueve de las 31 lesiones se registraron en la evaluación posquirúrgica inmediata, todas ellas en pacientes tratados con clavos cruzados. No se registraron lesiones vasculares ni síndromes compartimentales.Conclusión: esta serie presenta el estado actual del perfil demográfico de los pacientes con fracturas supracondíleas del húmero distal en niños y de las modalidades de tratamiento en un hospital de tercer nivel de la ciudad de Medellín. Los resultados pueden ser la base para

  3. An ATL78-like RING-H2 finger protein confers abiotic stress tolerance through interacting with RAV2 and CSN5B in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RING finger proteins play an important role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. In the present study, a wild tomato (Solanum habrochaites cold-induced RING-H2 finger gene, ShATL78L, was isolated, which has been identified as an abiotic stress responsive gene in tomato. The results showed that ShATL78L was constitutively expressed in various tissues such as root, lea petiole, stem, flower, and fruit. Cold stress up-regulated ShATL78L in the cold-tolerant S. habrochaites compared to the susceptible cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum. Furthermore, ShATL78L expression was also regulated under different stresses such as drought, salt, heat, wound, osmotic stress, and exogenous hormones. Functional characterization showed that cultivated tomato overexpressing ShATL78L had improved tolerance to cold, drought and oxidative stresses compared to the wild-type and the knockdown lines. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism of ShATL78L regulating abiotic stress responses, we performed yeast one-hybrid and two-hybrid assays and found that RAV2 could bind to the promoter of ShATL78L and activate its transcription, and CSN5B could interact with ShATL78L to regulate abiotic stress responses. Taken together, these results show that ShATL78L plays an important role in regulating plant adaptation to abiotic stresses through bound by RAV2 and interacting with CSN5B.

  4. The Soluble Periplasmic Domains of Escherichia coli Cell Division Proteins FtsQ/FtsB/FtsL Form a Trimeric Complex with Submicromolar Affinity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Marjolein; van den Berg van Saparoea, H. Bart; McLaughlin, Stephen H.; Roseboom, Winfried; Liu, Fan; Koningstein, Gregory M.; Fish, Alexander; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Heck, Albert J. R.; de Jong, Luitzen; Bitter, Wilbert; de Esch, Iwan J. P.; Luirink, Joen

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in Escherichia coli involves a set of essential proteins that assembles at midcell to form the so-called divisome. The divisome regulates the invagination of the inner membrane, cell wall synthesis, and inward growth of the outer membrane. One of the divisome proteins, FtsQ, plays a central but enigmatic role in cell division. This protein associates with FtsB and FtsL, which, like FtsQ, are bitopic inner membrane proteins with a large periplasmic domain (denoted FtsQp, FtsBp, and FtsLp) that is indispensable for the function of each protein. Considering the vital nature and accessible location of the FtsQBL complex, it is an attractive target for protein-protein interaction inhibitors intended to block bacterial cell division. In this study, we expressed FtsQp, FtsBp, and FtsLp individually and in combination. Upon co-expression, FtsQp was co-purified with FtsBp and FtsLp from E. coli extracts as a stable trimeric complex. FtsBp was also shown to interact with FtsQp in the absence of FtsLp albeit with lower affinity. Interactions were mapped at the C terminus of the respective domains by site-specific cross-linking. The binding affinity and 1:1:1 stoichiometry of the FtsQpBpLp complex and the FtsQpBp subcomplex were determined in complementary surface plasmon resonance, analytical ultracentrifugation, and native mass spectrometry experiments. PMID:26160297

  5. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  6. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  7. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  8. Statistical Properties of Protein-Protein Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Mezei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The properties of 1172 protein complexes (downloaded from the Protein Data Bank (PDB have been studied based on the concept of circular variance as a buriedness indicator and the concept of mutual proximity as a parameter-free definition of contact. The propensities of residues to be in the protein, on the surface or form contact, as well as residue pairs to form contact were calculated. In addition, the concept of circular variance has been used to compare the ruggedness and shape of the contact surface with the overall surface.

  9. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    state's regulatory actions in pursuing legitimate policy goals and existing property rights in view of the constitutional property clause. Subsequently we turn to two plausible future regulatory deprivations of intellectual property rights, namely the anticipated plain packaging legislation in the realm of tobacco trade marks and ...

  10. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    Much has been written about the positive role that intellectual property rights play in enhancing economic development.1 Part of this positive role has been identified in the area of technology transfers made possible through foreign direct investment. (FDI).2 Notwithstanding this, the (supposed) positive role that intellectual ...

  11. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    Provided that bona fide engagement in artistic creativity, academic and scientific inquiry, fair and accurate reporting in the public interest or publication of any information, advertisement or notice in accordance with section 16 of the. Constitution, is not precluded by this section. Section 10 of the Equality Act is often criticised ...

  12. Do the enigmatic ``Infrared-Faint Radio Sources'' include pulsars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, George; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Keith, Michael; Mao, Minnie; Champion, David

    2009-04-01

    The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) team have surveyed seven square degrees of sky at 1.4GHz. During processing some unexpected infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS sources) were discovered. The nature of these sources is not understood, but it is possible that some of these sources may be pulsars within our own galaxy. We propose to observe the IFRS sources with steep spectral indices using standard search techniques to determine whether or not they are pulsars. A pulsar detection would 1) remove a subset of the IFRS sources from the ATLAS sample so they would not need to be observed with large optical/IR telescopes to find their hosts and 2) be intrinsically interesting as the pulsar would be a millisecond pulsar and/or have an extreme spatial velocity.

  13. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    already) difficult task of giving to each his (or her) due is complicated by the fact that some of these problems are international in nature. It is suggested that such jurisdictional problems need to be addressed urgently, for instance by multi- or.

  14. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    created an opportunity for the emerging economies, especially the BRICS countries. In this way these emerging ..... two very destructive world wars and the need for a rules-based multilateral system was recognised by ... society, where technologies change rapidly and uncertainty prevails, are increasingly difficult to address ...

  15. The Mammalian Diving Response: An Enigmatic Reflex to Preserve Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian diving response is a remarkable behavior that overrides basic homeostatic reflexes. It is most studied in large aquatic mammals but is seen in all vertebrates. Pelagic mammals have developed several physiological adaptations to conserve intrinsic oxygen stores, but the apnea, bradycardia, and vasoconstriction is shared with those terrestrial and is neurally mediated. The adaptations of aquatic mammals are reviewed here as well as the neural control of cardiorespiratory physiology during diving in rodents. PMID:23997188

  16. Enigmatic Solar Wind Disappearance Events – Do We Understand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nearly 60 Earth radii, the lunar orbit. The event was so dramatic that it has come to be known as the solar wind disappearance event. Though extensive studies of this event were made by many authors in the past, it has only been recently shown that the unusual solar wind flows char- acterizing this event originated from a ...

  17. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    concept to introduce equity into our law of contract would cause such uncertainty that our classical contract ... time, especially if one considers the views expressed by Brand JA in Potgieter v Potgieter 2011. ZASCA 181 .... faith "thus obviates engagement with the equity and fairness of a contract and so defends the lack of a ...

  18. Additional material of the enigmatic golden mole Cryptochloris zyli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two other specimens are now known to exist; one was discovered in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, and the other, which has been mentioned in publication but overlooked, is in the Natural History Museum in London. Differentiation of C. zyli from sympatric chrysochlorids, and from its congener ...

  19. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    This approach portrays CSR as a needless expense with little-or-no financial or other benefit to companies. 160. Aguas Provinciales de Santa Fe S.A, Suez, Sociedad de Aguas de Barcelona SA, and Inter Aguas. Servicios Integrales del Agua SA v The Argentine Republic (ICSID) case number ARB/03/17 of 17. March 2006.

  20. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    graduates as envisaged in the proposed Legal Practice Bill falls beyond the ambit of this paper.1 These two ... what the value of community service is in higher education generally. In the South African ...... An externship offers experiential learning opportunities where a placement in a legal NGO or the like forms part of a ...

  1. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    The Constitutional Court confirmed that the Enforcement of Foreign Civil. Judgments Act 32 of 1988 was not the appropriate vehicle for enforcing international judgments, as it inter alia applied to Magistrate Courts only. As a result the common law remained the only possible avenue through which the SADC Tribunal's ...

  2. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2009 3 SA 152 (CC)], the Court rejected an invitation to develop customary law and to enable this development under court defined guidelines. Instead, it imposed statutory provisions based on civil law concepts of property, inheritance and family." 26. In s 39(2) the Constitution provides that "when developing … customary ...

  3. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    School of Law, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. Email: louw@ukzn.ac.za. This piece is dedicated to the memory of the late Honourable Mr Justice ...... jungle", in The Jungle Book (1894), and it should be noted that an alleged letter by Kipling professing to plagiarism in writing this last work surfaced for auction in 2013.

  4. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    An advertisement to invite prospective students to register for law subjects appeared in an Afrikaans newspaper ..... Another memory that many of the alumni share is Prof Swanepoel's unorthodox way of conducting tests. .... This was followed by a Master's degree in Comparative Child Law in 2007. The Dean of Law at ...

  5. Some enigmatic aspects of the marine cyanobacterial genus, Trichodesmium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.; Verlecar, X.N.

    sensitive to oxygen, the algae protect it from O 2 that ev olves during photosy n thesis. Fay et al. 1 were the first to suggest ?heter o cytes? as well protected centres of nitrogenase a c- tivity. Heter o cysts are vegetative cells specialized... fixation in heterocystous members appeared convincing, the o b servation of Dug dale et al . 2 , iden tifying Trichode s mium , a non - heterocystous g e nus, as a nitrogen fixer stirred the traditional b e lief that only heter o cystous members fix...

  6. Enigmatic Fossils from the Lower Carboniferous Shrimp Bed, Granton, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalski, Mikołaj K; Clarkson, Euan N K

    2015-01-01

    The Lower Carboniferous (Visean) Granton Lagerstätte (Edinburgh, Scotland) is principally known for the discovery of the conodont animal, but has also yielded numerous crustaceans and other faunas. Here we report on small branching colonies, reaching 10 mm in length. They are small, erect, arborescent, and irregularly branched with predominant monopodial and dichotomous growth. They bud in a single plane. In one specimen the wall microstructure is well preserved and it is composed of evenly spaced, linear fibers, running parallel to the axis of the stems, and connected by transverse bars. We discuss possible biological affinities of these organisms; we consider algal, poriferan, hydrozoan and bryozoan affinities. The general pattern of branching, presence of fan-like structures (interpreted here as possible gonophores) and microstructure suggests affinity to Hydrozoa, affinity to non-calcifying algae is less likely. Assuming hydrozoan nature; the microstructure might suggest affinities with the extant family Solanderiidae Marshall, 1892 that possess an internal chitinous skeleton. The EDS analysis shows that fossils discussed here are preserved as phosphates. The skeletons were probably not mineralized, the presence of phosphorus suggests that the colonies were originally composed of chitin. We describe these organisms as Caledonicratis caridum gen. et sp. nov. (Solanderiidae?, Capitata?). Colonies of C. caridum gen et. sp. nov. sometimes encrust the exuviae of crustaceans, which very probably lived in fresh to brackish water thus indicating a likely habitat of Caledonicratis.

  7. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    liberalisation of international trade. Its main function is to ensure and guarantee that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.11 The creation of the. WTO can be seen as one dimension of the gradual process of global liberalisation of trade.12 This organisation started off as the General Agreement on ...

  8. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    Department of Private and Business Law, Faculty of Law, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. E-mail: ... Nwauche 2011 Journal of African Law 182 stated: "34 years after the formation of the Economic. Community of West African ...... which a creature (the international organisation) is more powerful in some respects than its creator ...

  9. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

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    the ICT sector in Nigeria and the institutional regulatory framework for enforcing those laws. Further, the clarification of some important concepts associated with ICT. *. Peter C .... Object Code Domiciliation, Application and Delivery systems in Nigeria;32 (f) rendering ... country, except in the oil and gas industry. The Act ...

  10. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    the Constitution.9 This work investigates the theory of judicial review employed by the courts against the context of the ... The Constitution opted for a model of the relationship between the legislature and executive ..... so, a court should be careful not to attribute to itself superior wisdom in relation to matters entrusted to other ...

  11. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    2012-08-15

    Aug 15, 2012 ... See in general Sparks Mind of South Africa 301-332; Van der Merwe 1989 TSAR 663-692;. Feinstein Economic History 13; Giliomee Afrikaners 8; Changuion and ...... Kane-Berman 2012 www.businessday.co.za. Kane-Berman J 2012 Can Government Learn from its Mistakes on Land. Reform? South.

  12. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    2012-08-15

    Aug 15, 2012 ... development, a theme that has been pursued intensively in the general approach to ... review of land acquisition approaches, especially the willing-buyer-willing seller approach;. • the facilitation of secure access to land for persons who live on farms; ... (Minister and DRLDR 2009 www.pmg.org.za). 19.

  13. Peroxynitrous acid: controversy and consensus surrounding an enigmatic oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, Willem H; Bounds, Patricia L; Nauser, Thomas; Kissner, Reinhard; Rüegger, Heinz

    2012-12-07

    The isomerisation of ONOOH to NO(3)(-) and H(+), some oxidations and all hydroxylations and nitrations of aromatic compounds are first-order in ONOOH and zero-order in the compounds that are modified. These reactions are widely believed to proceed via homolysis of ONOOH into HO˙ and NO(2)˙ to an extent of ca. 30%. We review the evidence pro and contra homolysis in studies that involve (1) thermochemical considerations, (2) isomerisation to NO(3)(-) and H(+), (3) decomposition to NO(2)(-) and O(2), (4) HO˙ scavenger studies, (5) deuterium isotope effects, (6) (18)O-scrambling studies, (7) electrochemistry, (8) CIDNP NMR, and (9) photolysis. Our conclusion is that homolysis may be involved to a minor extent of ca. 5%. The initiation of ONOOH isomerisation may be visualised as an out-of-plane vibration of the terminal HO-group relative to the nitrogen. At ONOO(-) concentrations exceeding 0.1 mM and near neutral pH, disproportionation to NO(2)(-) and O(2) occurs; such disproportionations are typical for peroxy acids. For oxidation and nitration of organic substrates, we favour a mechanism involving initial formation of an adduct between the compound to be oxidised or nitrated and ONOOH.

  14. Serrated Polyposis: An Enigmatic Model of Colorectal Cancer Predisposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosty, Christophe; Parry, Susan; Young, Joanne P.

    2011-01-01

    Serrated polyposis has only recently been accepted as a condition which carries an increased personal and familial risk of colorectal cancer. Described over four decades ago, it remains one of the most underrecognized and poorly understood of all the intestinal polyposes. With a variety of phenotypic presentations, it is likely that serrated polyposis represents a group of diseases rather than a single entity. Further, neoplastic progression in serrated polyposis may be associated with premature aging in the normal mucosa, typified by widespread gene promoter hypermethylation. From this epigenetically altered field, arise diverse polyps and cancers which show a range of molecular features. Despite a high serrated polyp count, only one-third of colorectal cancers demonstrate a BRAF V600E mutation, the molecular hallmark of the canonical serrated pathway, suggesting that though multiple serrated polyps act as a marker of an abnormal mucosa, the majority of CRC in these patients arise within lesions other than BRAF-mutated serrated polyps. PMID:21660283

  15. On the enigmatic – A true constant of spacetime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The situation remained ambiguous and it was left to one's taste to include it or not until the quantum vacuum fluctuations were considered which relative to flat spacetime have the same form for the stress tensor as . That is how it gets slated against the Planck length and to the annoying mismatch of 120 orders of magnitude.

  16. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    of human relations.18 The juridical world outlook is the ideological expression of the political economy of the commodity and is the most appropriate ideational expression of the class interests of the bourgeoisie. It was, according to Engels, the. 15. Pashukanis Law and Marxism 38-39 readily acknowledged his debt to Marx.

  17. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression: Opinion and Judgment (United States Government Printing. Office Washington 1947) 129 (hereafter Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression). 11. The Bible, Book of James 3:8 (King James Version). ... rise of Hitler in German politics. 17. UN Doc A/C.6/SR.84 (1948) 241 (statements by Mr.

  18. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    Stern SM "Residential Protectionism and the Legal Mythology of Home" 2008-. 2009 Mich L Rev 1093-1144. Strydom and Viljoen 2014 PELJ. Strydom J and Viljoen S "Unlawful Occupation of Inner-city Buildings: A. Constitutional Analysis of the Rights and Obligations Involved" 2014 PELJ 1206-. 1261. Tissington Resource ...

  19. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    rights might well reduce or even erode the special social, historical and constitutional value and meaning of housing rights. The outcome of such a reduction might very well be that opposing property rights will continue to outweigh and trump housing rights. A similar set of arguments applies to conflating land rights with ...

  20. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    priorities as well as to the national security or military concerns of the two superpowers, the .... happened in the early days of aviation". See in this regard .... the development of new technologies in the area of human space travel and the. 34.

  1. Enigmatic Qualities of the Gifted That Transcend Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Connie

    2012-01-01

    In "A Quality of Giftedness," Professor Joan Freeman reflects upon her long career working as a psychologist in England with gifted children. She gives particular attention to observations gained during the most recent analysis of her longitudinal study that was published in 2010 as Gifted Lives. This work provides an in-depth look at 20…

  2. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    So what kind of discipline is law?49 There is no consensus on this question and a vast number of possibilities have been offered.50 These possibilities can broadly be ... concerned with organising law into increasingly complex sets of terms and concepts.54 It also sees law as a logical discipline which studies how rules and.

  3. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    There is consensus that PMSCs should be distinguished from mercenaries, even though their operations may occasionally overlap.11 PMSCs are essentially well- organised and registered corporations that offer private military and general security services for hire. They are supposed to be civilian organisations although ...

  4. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    Keep and Midgley,1 it is vital that South Africa's legal culture transforms so as to express also the values that ... African legal culture is one that is cohesive and plural.2 Ubuntu is a distinctively. African value and ...... measures into South Africa's legal system and noted that countries like New Zealand and Canada have ...

  5. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antonios Platsas

    law, Israel, together with New Zealand and the United Kingdom, does not have a. 'written' Constitution,. 16 as in a single consolidated constitutional text/code. Instead it has a sui generis constitution made out of a number of basic laws. 17. When it comes to the cultural forces of Israel, even though Israel is a "Jewish and.

  6. The origins of the enigmatic Falkland Islands wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jeremy J; Soubrier, Julien; Prevosti, Francisco J; Prates, Luciano; Trejo, Valentina; Mena, Francisco; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The origins of the extinct Falkland Islands wolf (FIW), Dusicyon australis, have remained a mystery since it was first recorded by Europeans in the seventeenth century. It is the only terrestrial mammal on the Falkland Islands (also known as the Malvinas Islands), which lie ~460 km from Argentina, leading to suggestions of either human-mediated transport or overwater dispersal. Previous studies used ancient DNA from museum specimens to suggest that the FIW diverged from its closest living relative, the South American maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) around 7 Ma, and colonized the islands ~330 ka by unknown means. Here we retrieve ancient DNA from subfossils of an extinct mainland relative, Dusicyon avus, and reveal the FIW lineage became isolated only 16 ka (8-31 ka), during the last glacial phase. Submarine terraces, formed on the Argentine coastal shelf by low sea-stands during this period, suggest that the FIW colonized via a narrow, shallow marine strait, potentially while it was frozen over.

  7. The Enigmatic Savior of the Union: Abraham Lincoln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Ronald L.; Diamond, Linda W.

    Abraham Lincoln rose from the depths of obscurity to guide the United States successfully through the turbulent and menacing years of the Civil War. Laborer, businessman, postmaster, politician, and lawyer were some of the vocations, not all successful, that Lincoln tried during the years leading to his ascent to the Presidency. This review of the…

  8. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND WATER USE RIGHTS. P King*. C Reddell**. 1 The role of public participation in environmental decision-making. The realisation of environmental rights is grounded in many instances in the proper performance of regulatory (or administrative) functions by Government. Those regulatory ...

  9. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    PER / PELJ 2013(16)4. 234 / 487 target policy and backed by proper legislative framework, is urgently needed. ... and security systems of the hiring state, and consequently more likely to commit serious violations and ..... Perhaps the place to begin in the analysis of this law is what it claims to be its purpose. It is here that the ...

  10. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    being" (CDE Land. Reform 5). 7. For a discussion of pre-apartheid land ownership, see Feinberg 1995 Historia 48-63. 8. Murray and Williams 1994 Review of African Political Economy 316; Badenhorst, Pienaar and. Mostert Law of Property 586.

  11. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    In terms of the South African common law, a landowner affected by an encroaching structure erected by his ... removal of the encroachment.1 The basis for the common law remedy of removal is the right to be free from ...... In Nhlabathi v Fick 2003 2 All SA 323 (LCC) para 29, the Land Claims Court found that even where a ...

  12. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    context of s 39(1)(b) of the Constitution, the phrase "public international law" refers to international law whether it is binding on South Africa or not. Further, the Court emphasised the fact that the courts had to consider both "hard" and "soft" law in the interpretation of the Bill of. Rights. 58. Rosa and Dutschke 2006 SAJHR 3.

  13. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    eXtensible Markup Language. See Van der Merwe 2010 THRHR. 80. eXtensible Business Resources Language. See Van der Merwe 2011 THRHR. 81. See Van der Merwe et al Information Communications Technology Law 64 and the sources quoted. 82. International Standards Organisation. 83. If such a standard is an ...

  14. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    Professor of Law,. University of Cape Town. Email: loretta.feris@uct.ac.za. 1. This includes countries such as the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Norway ..... to enter into a joint mining venture, in which Alexkor will hold a 51 per cent interest, to which the state .... a challenging enterprise. When ...

  15. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    unconstitutional for violating the right to equality), Shilubana (the succession of a woman as Hosi-chief - was confirmed, thereby protecting right to gender equality) and Gumede (where the equal rights of women in marriage was protected).12 In dealing with the consent issue in Mayelane, the Court first of all considered the.

  16. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    2011-09-16

    Sep 16, 2011 ... Lecturer in Law at North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa. ..... environment.38 Even if people who live in rural areas are given more secure rights in .... coin - poverty, relative income inequality, unemployment and ..... enforcement of legislation by law-enforcement agencies; the judicial ...

  17. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    enforcement action" as ... in terms of section 134(1)(c) on the papers before the court a quo, the matter would have been decided on the facts ..... (e) comparative aspect – which deals with the process where the court (if it is necessary and possible) ...

  18. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    interactive, scarcity to abundance, and the accompanying digitalization of all content. Generally, convergence allows both previously separate sectors and entirely new sectors to compete in the same newly expanded market space.'59 For example, there are already numerous examples of markets offering IPTV and mobile.

  19. Weber and Kafka: The rational and the enigmatic bureaucracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Max Weber’s and Franz Kafka’s respective understandings of bureaucracy are as different as night and day. Yet, Kafka’s novel The Castle is best read with Max Weber at hand. In fact, Kafka relates systematically to all the dimensions in Weber’s ideal type of bureaucracy and give us a much......’s painting: Ascending and Descending. Nevertheless, Weber and Kafka can both be right. While Kafka looks at the bureaucratic phenomenon through persons who are marginalized, Weber’s perspective is historic-comparative and top-down. Are the observations of the one more correct than the other? The question...... is meaningless. As two opposite poles, Weber and Kafka ‘magnetize’ each other....

  20. Patrick Pearse: Psychobiographical Reflections on an Enigmatic, Paradoxical Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orr, Patricia Meredith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To date historians have focused almost exclusively on Patrick Pearse’s key role in the 1916 Easter Rising to the extent that there is much less information about his personality development and characteristics. They have portrayed the elusive, paradoxical Patrick as nationalist, revolutionary and martyr or as a flawed and failed human being. Moran, agreeing with comments made at an earlier time by F.S.L. Lyons, suggests that, to have any real understanding of Patrick’s role in the rebellion and the events that led up to it, historians need to focus more attention on understanding the man himself.[1] The approach used in this article is psychobiographical, a methodology that applies psychological theory to biographical information in order to more fully understand an individual’s personality and achievements. In the case of Patrick Pearse the biographical information focuses on consensual aspects of his family background, his life experiences, his role as educator and his emergence as leader and hero. With regard to psychological theory, there are many empirically supported perspectives than could have been applied in this psychobiography. However, for the purposes of this particular article three perspectives have been selected. Drawing on some main tenets of the psychoanalytic, humanistic and trait approaches, the authors hope to provide a broader understanding of the influences and experiences that may have shaped Pearse as son, sibling, peer, educator and ultimately as a main instigator of the 1916 Rising and one of Ireland’s most famous patriots.

  1. The Enigmatic but Unique Nature of the Israeli Legal System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Israeli legal system is unique in that it straddles the two otherwise opposing worlds of tradition and innovation. This creates an enigma for the comparatist, making the exploration of this system an onerous and challenging task. The author wishes to maintain that the system in question is highly innovative and ascribes ...

  2. "Mater puerorum'. A medieval naming for an enigmatic children's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottek, S S

    1981-09-01

    The pediatric clinical entity called "Mater Puerorum' appears first in the latin translation of Rhazes' "Practica Puerorum' and in his "Continens'. His descriptions of the disease could give some likeness either to a diagnosis of night terrors, or of hyperpyretic convulsions, or of a slight form of epilepsy. Mater Puerorum is afterwards described by most pediatric authors till the Renaissance period without much originality. Rhazes being one of their main sources anyway. Mater Puerorum has been considered by Still and Radbill as a synonym for hysterical fits in children. Going back to the Arabic original naming: Ummu's Sibyan, we venture another etymology based on Babylonian-Judeo-Arabic demonology. The "Mother of the Children' could be the female demon Karina--or Lilith--which is said to come to plague the children at night. The naming Mater Puerorum could thus be ascribed to a folklore origin, rather than to hysteria.

  3. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    into law. The Act provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of. 1968 as well ... of Law, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus. .... muzzle-loading firearm, as defined in section 1 of the Firearms Control Act 60 of.

  4. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    The phenomenon of collective violence1 is complex and, as yet, not wholly understood.2 This notwithstanding, the incidence of collective violence is not entirely unpredictable. This is especially true of one particularly egregious form thereof, namely, genocide.3 Inflammatory speech, insidious propaganda and incitement to.

  5. The enigmatic electron a doorway to particle masses

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, Malcolm H

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a new look at the electron. It was the first elementary particle discovered, is probably one of the simplest, and yet is possibly one of the most misunderstood. The author presents here a straightforward classical model that accurately reproduces the main spectroscopic features of the electron, and also its principal quantum aspects. The key to this model is the relativistically spinning sphere, RSS, which has been clamoring for recognition for decades. Although its electrical charge is point-like, the electron itself is Compton-sized, and is composed mainly of non-electromagnetic "mechanical" matter. The bridge between the electron and the other elementary particles is provided by the fine structure constant alpha~1/137, as manifested in the factor-of-137 spacings between the classical electron radius, electron Compton radius, and Bohr orbit radius. An expanded form of the constant alpha leads to equations that define the transformation of electromagnetic energy into electron mass/energy, an...

  6. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    They are at the centre of the process of conflict resolution. It is their process. Others. 58. Christie 1977 British Journal of Criminology 9. 59. Christie 1977 British Journal of Criminology 9 fn 2 derives his position from John Locke's postulate that one possesses a proprietary right in one's own life which cannot be alienated. 60.

  7. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    , which indicates ... Transformative Politics 70; De Vos 2001 SAJHR 260; Stewart 2011 Diritto Pubblico Comparato ed. Europeo 1513 ... well as judges who have written articles, chapters in books and books on issues related to transformative ...

  8. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    legislative design for PES since, as we speak, most countries do not have specific legislation that addresses the subject. Brazil for instance is in the process of drafting its national legislation on Ecosystem Services and there are several important issues that can be raised from this experience. What are Ecosystem Services?

  9. Inference of facultative mobility in the enigmatic Ediacaran organism Parvancorina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Simon A F; Rahman, Imran A; Gibson, Brandt; Racicot, Rachel A; Laflamme, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Establishing how Ediacaran organisms moved and fed is critical to deciphering their ecological and evolutionary significance, but has long been confounded by their non-analogue body plans. Here, we use computational fluid dynamics to quantitatively analyse water flow around the Ediacaran taxon Parvancorina, thereby testing between competing models for feeding mode and mobility. The results show that flow was not distributed evenly across the organism, but was directed towards localized areas; this allows us to reject osmotrophy, and instead supports either suspension feeding or detritivory. Moreover, the patterns of recirculating flow differ substantially with orientation to the current, suggesting that if Parvancorina was a suspension feeder, it would have been most efficient if it was able to re-orient itself with respect to current direction, and thus ensure flow was directed towards feeding structures. Our simulations also demonstrate that the amount of drag varied with orientation, indicating that Parvancorina would have greatly benefited from adjusting its position to minimize drag. Inference of facultative mobility in Parvancorina suggests that Ediacaran benthic ecosystems might have possessed a higher proportion of mobile taxa than currently appreciated from trace fossil studies. Furthermore, this inference of movement suggests the presence of musculature or appendages that are not preserved in fossils, but which would noneltheless support a bilaterian affinity for Parvancorina. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "federalism limits" provide that a legislature (for example, Parliament or a specific provincial legislature or ... has the right to exercise any power concerning a matter reasonably necessary for, or incidental to, the ... In Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality v Gauteng Development Tribunal,11 the. Constitutional Court held ...

  11. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    Conference at the Salt Rock Hotel in Salt Rock on 27 July 2013. 1. S 43(a) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (the Constitution). 2 ... 568 / 612 entitled to pass legislation that deals with the conservation and protection of the. "environment". This issue was considered by the KwaZulu-Natal High Court:.

  12. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    .za. 4. Swartz 2006 www.news24.com. 5. In cl 5(a) of the Green Paper on Land Reform (2011) also referred to as "[t]he land acquisition strategy". 6. This is evident in many newspaper reports. See for instance Sinkins Witness 5; West Business.

  13. Lantana camara L. (sensu lato): an enigmatic complex

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Goyal; Gyan Prakash Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Lantana camara L., considered among the world's worst invaders is in identity crisis and contentiously referred as Lantana camara L. (sensu lato). Taxonomic ambiguity in L. camara L. (sensu lato), a species complex is one of the grim caveats behind incompetence of its management efforts. Recognizing the extent of variability within the complex, we aim to highlight the need to circumscribe its composition to bring effective management and control efforts into practice. There is a need for clea...

  14. Lantana camara L. (sensu lato: an enigmatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lantana camara L., considered among the world’s worst invaders is in identity crisis and contentiously referred as Lantana camara L. (sensu lato. Taxonomic ambiguity in L. camara L. (sensu lato, a species complex is one of the grim caveats behind incompetence of its management efforts. Recognizing the extent of variability within the complex, we aim to highlight the need to circumscribe its composition to bring effective management and control efforts into practice. There is a need for clear terminology to examine weedy, naturalized and/or invasive complex constituents that have been placed under the contentious umbrella of ‘L. camara L. (sensu lato’. The time is ripe for invasion ecologists, cytogeneticists and conservationists to collaboratively focus on disentangling the complex and integrate their knowledge and expertise into management and control programs.

  15. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  16. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    protect the institutional character of each of the three arms of government in a manner that will prevent their ... the judiciary to ensure accountability and for the protection of their basic interest. Today, the judiciary acts both ... falls short of finding the correct balance between the constitutional values of participation, openness,.

  17. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    When these words were written in 1954, three years before the launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 in 1957, the possibility of commercial space tourist flights was at most a distant dream. The launch of Sputnik 1 introduced the Cold War space era, where space activities were intrinsically linked to the political ...

  18. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    by Prakash Shah.7 According to him, Eekelaar's preference for the "purposive abstention" vis-à-vis the ... differences are in need of legal protection and recognition, and also blatantly ignores ...... punishment within the privacy of a family home.

  19. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    When a mortgagor is in default and the mortgagee wants to enforce the debt, the. National Credit Act 34 of 20051 may apply. If the mortgagor (who is a protected consumer in terms of the NCA) is in default, the mortgagee must deliver a section. 129(1) notice to the consumer thereby drawing the default to the attention of the.

  20. Enigmatic Fossils from the Lower Carboniferous Shrimp Bed, Granton, Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj K Zapalski

    Full Text Available The Lower Carboniferous (Visean Granton Lagerstätte (Edinburgh, Scotland is principally known for the discovery of the conodont animal, but has also yielded numerous crustaceans and other faunas. Here we report on small branching colonies, reaching 10 mm in length. They are small, erect, arborescent, and irregularly branched with predominant monopodial and dichotomous growth. They bud in a single plane. In one specimen the wall microstructure is well preserved and it is composed of evenly spaced, linear fibers, running parallel to the axis of the stems, and connected by transverse bars. We discuss possible biological affinities of these organisms; we consider algal, poriferan, hydrozoan and bryozoan affinities. The general pattern of branching, presence of fan-like structures (interpreted here as possible gonophores and microstructure suggests affinity to Hydrozoa, affinity to non-calcifying algae is less likely. Assuming hydrozoan nature; the microstructure might suggest affinities with the extant family Solanderiidae Marshall, 1892 that possess an internal chitinous skeleton. The EDS analysis shows that fossils discussed here are preserved as phosphates. The skeletons were probably not mineralized, the presence of phosphorus suggests that the colonies were originally composed of chitin. We describe these organisms as Caledonicratis caridum gen. et sp. nov. (Solanderiidae?, Capitata?. Colonies of C. caridum gen et. sp. nov. sometimes encrust the exuviae of crustaceans, which very probably lived in fresh to brackish water thus indicating a likely habitat of Caledonicratis.

  1. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    "PAY NOW, ARGUE LATER" RULE – BEFORE AND AFTER THE TAX. ADMINISTRATION ACT. C Keulder*. 1 Introduction. The levying of taxes is imperative for a government to ensure that it achieves its economic objectives1 which, amongst others, include the economic development of the country and regulating the levels ...

  2. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    linked to the strategic objectives of rural development, food security and land reform as identified in the Government's ... benefits of economic growth and decreasing poverty and unemployment by halve by. 2014.1 .... owners without giving payment,11 with Malema reported as have said "if they don't want to give the land ...

  3. ``Hiss, clicks and pops'' - The enigmatic sounds of meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    The improbability of sounds heard simultaneously with meteors allows the phenomenon to remain on the margins of scientific interest and research. This is unjustified, since these audibly perceived electric field effects indicate complex, inconsistent and still unresolved electric-magnetic coupling and charge dynamics; interacting between the meteor; the ionosphere and mesosphere; stratosphere; troposphere and the surface of the earth. This paper reviews meteor acoustic effects, presents illustrating reports and hypotheses and includes a summary of similar and additional phenomena observed during the 2013 February 15 asteroid fragment disintegration above the Russian district of Chelyabinsk. An augmenting theory involving near ground, non uniform electric field production of Ozone, as a stimulated geo-physical phenomenon to explain some hissing `meteor sounds' is suggested in section 2.2. Unlike previous theories, electric-magnetic field fluctuation rates are not required to occur in the audio frequency range for this process to acoustically emit hissing and intermittent impulsive sounds; removing the requirements of direct conversion, passive human transduction or excited, localised acoustic `emitters'. Links to the Armagh Observatory All-sky meteor cameras, electrophonic meteor research and full construction plans for an extremely low frequency (ELF) receiver are also included.

  4. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Public Law, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Email: Liz. ..... I have called this the "Trojan horse effect" of international law, which refers to legislative and constitutional ... International Law (TWAIL) writers, who have consistently challenged the western-centric nature.

  5. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    2009-04-09

    Apr 9, 2009 ... Companies Act ought in principle to differentiate between rights granted to any registered trade union representing employees in the workplace and rights granted. *. Heidi C Schoeman. BLC, LLB (UP), LLM (UNISA), Post Graduate Diploma in Company Law (UJ). Senior lecturer, University of Johannesburg ...

  6. Detection of an enigmatic plethodontid Salamander using Environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Todd W.; Mckee, Anna; Spear, Stephen F.; Maerz, John C.; Camp, Carlos D.; Glenn, Travis C.

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and identification of environmental DNA (eDNA) offers a non-invasive and efficient method for the detection of rare and secretive aquatic wildlife, and it is being widely integrated into inventory and monitoring efforts. The Patch-Nosed Salamander (Urspelerpes brucei) is a tiny, recently discovered species of plethodontid salamander known only from headwater streams in a small region of Georgia and South Carolina. Here, we present results of a quantitative PCR-based eDNA assay capable of detecting Urspelerpes in more than 75% of 33 samples from five confirmed streams. We deployed the method at 31 additional streams and located three previously undocumented populations of Urspelerpes. We compare the results of our eDNA assay with our attempt to use aquatic leaf litterbags for the rapid detection of Urspelerpes and demonstrate the relative efficacy of the eDNA assay. We suggest that eDNA offers great potential for use in detecting other aquatic and semi-aquatic plethodontid salamanders.

  7. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    Gedagtes oor Collaborative Law as geskilbeslegtingsmodel in die beste belang van kinders. 3.1 Inleiding. The consequences (van adversatiewe litigasie) are devastating, not only for the children but for the adult participants as well. As the culture's de facto "high priests" of divorce, we family lawyers have for the most part ...

  8. Serrated Polyposis: An Enigmatic Model of Colorectal Cancer Predisposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Rosty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serrated polyposis has only recently been accepted as a condition which carries an increased personal and familial risk of colorectal cancer. Described over four decades ago, it remains one of the most underrecognized and poorly understood of all the intestinal polyposes. With a variety of phenotypic presentations, it is likely that serrated polyposis represents a group of diseases rather than a single entity. Further, neoplastic progression in serrated polyposis may be associated with premature aging in the normal mucosa, typified by widespread gene promoter hypermethylation. From this epigenetically altered field, arise diverse polyps and cancers which show a range of molecular features. Despite a high serrated polyp count, only one-third of colorectal cancers demonstrate a BRAF V600E mutation, the molecular hallmark of the canonical serrated pathway, suggesting that though multiple serrated polyps act as a marker of an abnormal mucosa, the majority of CRC in these patients arise within lesions other than BRAF-mutated serrated polyps.

  9. Destabilized bioluminescent proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Michael S. (Knoxville, TN); Rakesh, Gupta (New Delhi, IN); Gary, Sayler S. (Blaine, TN)

    2007-07-31

    Purified nucleic acids, vectors and cells containing a gene cassette encoding at least one modified bioluminescent protein, wherein the modification includes the addition of a peptide sequence. The duration of bioluminescence emitted by the modified bioluminescent protein is shorter than the duration of bioluminescence emitted by an unmodified form of the bioluminescent protein.

  10. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  11. Protein - Which is Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  12. Antimicrobial proteins : from old proteins, new tricks

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Val; Dyrynda, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the main types of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) synthesised by crustaceans, primarily those identified in shrimp, crayfish, crab and lobster. It includes an overview of their range of microbicidal activities and the current landscape of our understanding of their gene expression patterns in different body tissues. It further summarises how their expression might change following various types of immune challenges. Included in the review are proteins or protein fragments ...

  13. Analysis of Liver Tumor-Prone Mouse Models of the Hippo Kinase Scaffold Proteins RASSF1A and SAV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Guo, Cai; Wu, Xiwei; Li, Arthur X; Liu, Limin; Tsark, Walter; Dammann, Reinhard; Shen, Hui; Vonderfecht, Steven L; Pfeifer, Gerd P

    2016-05-01

    The tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A is epigenetically silenced in most human cancers. As a binding partner of the kinases MST1 and MST2, the mammalian orthologs of the Drosophila Hippo kinase, RASSF1A is a potential regulator of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. RASSF1A shares these properties with the scaffold protein SAV1. The role of this pathway in human cancer has remained enigmatic inasmuch as Hippo pathway components are rarely mutated in tumors. Here we show that Rassf1a homozygous knockout mice develop liver tumors. However, heterozygous deletion of Sav1 or codeletion of Rassf1a and Sav1 produced liver tumors with much higher efficiency than single deletion of Rassf1a. Analysis of RASSF1A-binding partners by mass spectrometry identified the Hippo kinases MST1, MST2, and the oncogenic IκB kinase TBK1 as the most enriched RASSF1A-interacting proteins. The transcriptome of Rassf1a(-/-) livers was more deregulated than that of Sav1(+/-) livers, and the transcriptome of Rassf1a(-/-), Sav1(+/-) livers was similar to that of Rassf1a(-/-) mice. We found that the levels of TBK1 protein were substantially upregulated in livers lacking Rassf1a. Furthermore, transcripts of several β-tubulin isoforms were increased in the Rassf1a-deficient livers presumably reflecting a role of RASSF1A as a microtubule-stabilizing protein. In human liver cancer, RASSF1A frequently undergoes methylation at the promoter but this was not observed for MST1, MST2, or SAV1. Our results suggest a multifactorial role of RASSF1A in suppression of liver carcinogenesis. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2824-35. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Protein utilization in correlation to protein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová, M; Dibák, O

    1980-01-01

    In a 14-day experiment, weaned and adult rats were given ad libitum isocaloric diets with a mounting casein content (5, 10, 15, 25 and 40% by weight) and growth parameters of protein biological value, PER and NPR, and the utilization parameters NPU (body protein) and LPU (liver protein) were determined together with phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (gluconeogenetic enzyme) and pyruvate kinase (glycolytic enzyme) activity in the animals' liver. The decrease in all the biological value parameters in weaned rats on 25% and 40% casein diets and in adult rats on 15%, 25% and 40% casein diets shows that these concentrations are too high for the organism. The decrease in PER and diminished weight and body and liver nitrogen increments in both age groups in animals with a low protein intake is evidence that 5% casein is an inadequate concentration. The optimum diet for weaned rats is thus a 15% casein diet and for adult rats a 10% casein diet, as confirmed by the linear correlation between weight increments, body and liver nitrogen and protein intake and also by gluconeogenetic enzyme activity. Under the given experimental conditions the study is a contribution to the determination of optimum physiological doses of proteins.

  15. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  16. Protein Function Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; Trefflich, Sheyla; Weiss, Vinícius Almir; Castro, Mauro Antônio Alves

    2017-01-01

    Protein function is a concept that can have different interpretations in different biological contexts, and the number and diversity of novel proteins identified by large-scale "omics" technologies poses increasingly new challenges. In this review we explore current strategies used to predict protein function focused on high-throughput sequence analysis, as for example, inference based on sequence similarity, sequence composition, structure, and protein-protein interaction. Various prediction strategies are discussed together with illustrative workflows highlighting the use of some benchmark tools and knowledge bases in the field.

  17. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  18. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    and chain reactions with alcohols and carbonyls as major products; the latter are commonly used markers of protein damage. Direct oxidation of cysteine (and less commonly) methionine residues is a major reaction; this is typically faster than with H2O2, and results in altered protein activity and function....... Unlike H2O2, which is rapidly removed by protective enzymes, protein peroxides are only slowly removed, and catabolism is a major fate. Although turnover of modified proteins by proteasomal and lysosomal enzymes, and other proteases (e.g. mitochondrial Lon), can be efficient, protein hydroperoxides...

  19. The prion protein constitutively controls neuronal store-operated Ca2+ entry through Fyn kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese eDe Mario

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prion protein (PrPC is a cell surface glycoprotein mainly expressed in neurons, whose misfolded isoforms generate the prion responsible for incurable neurodegenerative disorders. Whereas PrPC involvement in prion propagation is well established, PrPC physiological function is still enigmatic despite suggestions that it could act in cell signal transduction by modulating phosphorylation cascades and Ca2+ homeostasis. Because PrPC binds neurotoxic protein aggregates with high-affinity, it has also been proposed that PrPC acts as receptor for amyloid-β (Aβ oligomers associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and that PrPC-Aβ binding mediates AD-related synaptic dysfunctions following activation of the tyrosine kinase Fyn.Here, use of gene-encoded Ca2+ probes targeting different cell domains in primary cerebellar granule neurons expressing, or not, PrPC allowed us to investigate whether PrPC regulates store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE and the implication of Fyn in this control. Our findings show that PrPC attenuates SOCE, and Ca2+ accumulation in the cytosol and mitochondria, by constitutively restraining Fyn activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of STIM1, a key molecular component of SOCE. This data establishes the existence of a PrPC-Fyn-SOCE triad in neurons.We also demonstrate that treating cerebellar granule and cortical neurons with soluble Aβ(1-42 oligomers abrogates the control of PrPC over Fyn and SOCE, suggesting a PrPC-dependent mechanism for Aβ-induced neuronal Ca2+ dyshomeostasis.

  20. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotsui, Izumi, E-mail: izumi.yotsui@riken.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Serada, Satoshi, E-mail: serada@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji, E-mail: tnaka@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Saruhashi, Masashi, E-mail: s13db001@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Taji, Teruaki, E-mail: t3teruak@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Hayashi, Takahisa, E-mail: t4hayash@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Quatrano, Ralph S., E-mail: rsq@wustl.edu [Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63130-4899 (United States); Sakata, Yoichi, E-mail: sakata@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan)

    2016-03-18

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  1. Pigment-protein complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  2. Protein solubility modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Packing in protein cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  4. Expressed protein ligation for a large dimeric protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagöz, G.E.; Sinnige, T; Hsieh, O.; Rüdiger, S.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    Expressed protein ligation (EPL) is a protein engineering tool for post-translational ligation of protein or peptide fragments. This technique allows modification of specific parts of proteins, opening possibilities for incorporating probes for biophysical applications such as nuclear magnetic

  5. Toxic proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PROTEIN - WHICH IS BEST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Falvo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids, whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function are also reviewed

  7. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  8. Response of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots with Altered Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP Gene Expression to the Clubroot Disease and Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Jülke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot disease of Brassicaceae is caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae. The disease is characterized by abnormal tumorous swellings of infected roots that result in reduced drought resistance and insufficient distribution of nutrients, leading to reduced crop yield. It is one of the most damaging diseases among cruciferous crops worldwide. The acquisition of nutrients by the protist is not well understood. Gene expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana clubroots indicate that lipid transfer proteins (LTPs could be involved in disease development or at least in adaptation to the disease symptoms. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the role of some, of the still enigmatic LTPs during clubroot development. For a functional approach, we have generated transgenic plants that overexpress LTP genes in a root specific manner or show reduced LTP gene expression. Our results showed that overexpression of some of the LTP genes resulted in reduced disease severity whereas the lipid content in clubs of LTP mutants seems to be unaffected. Additional studies indicate a role for some LTPs during salt stress conditions in roots of A. thaliana.

  9. Protein flexibility as a biosignal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinyi

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic properties of a protein are crucial for all protein functions, and those of signaling proteins are closely related to the biological function of living beings. The protein flexibility signal concept can be used to analyze this relationship. Protein flexibility controls the rate of protein conformational change and influences protein function. The modification of protein flexibility results in a change of protein activity. The logical nature of protein flexibility cannot be explained by applying the principles of protein three-dimensional structure theory or conformation concept. Signaling proteins show high protein flexibility. Many properties of signaling can be traced back to the dynamic natures of signaling protein. The action mechanism of volatile anesthetics and universal cellular reactions are related to flexibility in the change of signaling proteins. We conclude that protein dynamics is an enzyme-enhanced process, called dynamicase.

  10. EFFECTS OF EDTA ON LEA indica) SEEDLINGS REPLANTE ECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    with deionized water (Peralta et al, 2000). Lead(II) ion in the concentrations 0.0000,. 0.0025 and 0.025 moldm–3 as Pb(NO3)2 and. 0.000 ,0.005, 0.025 and 0.1000 moldm–3. EDTA were added to the control mixture to prepare. 500cm3each of different hydroponic treatments in triplicates. The solutions were carefully.

  11. Lea County 2010 Census Voting District County-based (VTD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  12. MLU and IPSyn measuring absolute complexity / Lea Nieminen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nieminen, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Mõõdetakse soome laste spontaanseid lauseid struktuurilise keerukuse mõõtmiseks kasutatavate vahenditega, nagu VKP (väljendite keskmine pikkus) ja produktiivse süntaksi indeks IPSyn, et kindlaks teha, milliseid aspekte kumbki mõõdik näitab

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lea County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Lea County Block Groups, Housing Occupancy Status (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  15. Lea County Block Groups, Housing Vacancy Status (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  16. Lea County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  17. Lea County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  18. Lea County Block Groups, Households by Type (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  19. Health Information in Tongan (lea faka-Tonga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... open in a new window. C Expand Section Child Mental Health Protecting Your Child from Suicide - English PDF Protecting Your Child from ... faka-Tonga (Tongan ) PDF ... Brigham Young University D Expand Section Disaster Preparation and Recovery Helping Your Child After a Natural Disaster - English ...

  20. Roads for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Lea County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  2. Academic literacies: looking back in order to look forward | Lea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also points to the ways in which the field is drawing in valuable and complementary theoretical and methodological frames, latterly with respect to significant developments in the digital landscape in higher education. The author concludes that academic literacies researchers have ongoing work to do with regard to the ...

  3. Targad lahendused eakate hooldamises / Lea Kivipõld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivipõld, Lea

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Rakvere kolledži eestvedamisel esitati Interreg IVA Kesk-Läänemere programmi piiriülese koostöö projekt "Innovaatilised lahendused kodus elavate eakate hoolduses" (INNOCARE - Innovative solutions in care of elderly living at home)

  4. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also proven to generate higher water flux, based on the series of experiments conducted. Laboratory tests at NMT demonstrated that an unprecedented water flux of 1300 l/m2/hr (where typical flux is on the order of 0-3 l/m{sup 2}/hr) can be achieved from a properly designed membrane module. The patent pending NMT system, which was designed and developed at NMT was successful in reducing the possibility for concentration polarization and thereby increasing the permeate water flux, while still maintaining a high salt rejection rate of 96% or greater. For feed solutions having a dissolved contaminant concentration greater than 10,000 ppm, preliminary economic analysis demonstrates that a well-designed FO process will outperform an RO process. Most produced water generated in SENM has TDS higher than 10,000 ppm. Therefore, it is logical to use FO to desalinate the water. Since the issues associated with concentration polarization has only recently been solved by our mechanically enhanced membrane module, the level of system maturity is not at the same level as that for RO. Our efforts going forward will be directed at taking the technology to a higher level of system maturity. With the superior cost effectiveness for FO, it is imperative that this technology reach a point that is competitive with RO in order to meet the expanding need for water for industries in SENM. NMT seeks to demonstrate the greater cost effectiveness by proving the process through a scaled up model. To ensure success, NMT feels it is important to demonstrate this technology in a larger system, (~ 100,000 GPD), before venturing to the commercial scale. This will build confidence in the process with the commercial sector. In addition, it will be possible to develop some of the operational processes around renewable energy sources for the scaled up model. This will further lower the operating costs and enhance the environmentally clean aspect of the process.

  5. The three good brothers charm : some historical points / Lea Olsan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olsan, Lea T.

    2011-01-01

    Ravimise loitsudest: keskajal levinud legendaarsest kolme venna (tres boni fratres - lad. k.) loitsust haava parandamiseks; ettekanne rahvusvahelisel konverentsil "Charms, charmers and charming" Bukarestis 2010. a.

  6. Eesti arhiivid Euroopa kontekstis / Lea Kõiv, Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõiv, Lea, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    2005. aastal toimus konverents "Eesti arhiivid Euroopa kontekstis". Selle konverentsil esitatud ettekannete baasil ilmunud kogumikust "Die Archive Estlands im Europäischen Kontxt/Estonian Archives in the European Context". Kogumikus sisalduvatest artiklitest

  7. Kanda hoolt & vastutust / Signe Riisalo ; interv. Lea Arme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riisalo, Signe

    2001-01-01

    EV Sotsiaalministeeriumi hoolekandeasutuste peaspetsialist vanemliku hoolitsuseta lastest, lastekaitsetöötajate tööst Tallinnas, hooldusperedest, kaasuvanemate koolitusest, eestkostest, lapsendamisest

  8. Supramolecular Chemistry Targeting Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dun, Sam; Ottmann, Christian; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Brunsveld, Luc

    2017-10-11

    The specific recognition of protein surface elements is a fundamental challenge in the life sciences. New developments in this field will form the basis of advanced therapeutic approaches and lead to applications such as sensors, affinity tags, immobilization techniques, and protein-based materials. Synthetic supramolecular molecules and materials are creating new opportunities for protein recognition that are orthogonal to classical small molecule and protein-based approaches. As outlined here, their unique molecular features enable the recognition of amino acids, peptides, and even whole protein surfaces, which can be applied to the modulation and assembly of proteins. We believe that structural insights into these processes are of great value for the further development of this field and have therefore focused this Perspective on contributions that provide such structural data.

  9. Computational Protein Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe

    Proteins are the major functional group of molecules in biology. The impact of protein science on medicine and chemical productions is rapidly increasing. However, the greatest potential remains to be realized. The fi eld of protein design has advanced computational modeling from a tool of support...... to a central method that enables new developments. For example, novel enzymes with functions not found in natural proteins have been de novo designed to give enough activity for experimental optimization. This thesis presents the current state-of-the-art within computational design methods together...... with a novel method based on probability theory. With the aim of assembling a complete pipeline for protein design, this work touches upon several aspects of protein design. The presented work is the computational half of a design project where the other half is dedicated to the experimental part...

  10. [Erythrocyte membrane proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, J

    1977-01-01

    Proteins are important constituents of the red blood cell plasma membrane. Several important breakthroughs have occurred in their analysis over the past few years. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis lead to the separation of the major proteins and glycoproteins. Location of most of these proteins -- either on the external, the internal or both surfaces of the membrane -- was determined. The strenght of the binding of the protein to the membrane was established. Hydrophobicity of membrane proteins has so far hindered their purification. However, the major glycoprotein (glycophorin A) was isolated and recently sequenced. The description of several membrane-associated enzyme activities has been followed by some understanding of their specific role in the red blood cell physiology. Abnormalities of glycoproteins, Ca2+-ATPase and of membrane protein phosphorylation have been reported under various conditions: sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytoses, progressive muscular dystrophy.

  11. Algorithms for protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainza, Pablo; Nisonoff, Hunter M; Donald, Bruce R

    2016-08-01

    Computational structure-based protein design programs are becoming an increasingly important tool in molecular biology. These programs compute protein sequences that are predicted to fold to a target structure and perform a desired function. The success of a program's predictions largely relies on two components: first, the input biophysical model, and second, the algorithm that computes the best sequence(s) and structure(s) according to the biophysical model. Improving both the model and the algorithm in tandem is essential to improving the success rate of current programs, and here we review recent developments in algorithms for protein design, emphasizing how novel algorithms enable the use of more accurate biophysical models. We conclude with a list of algorithmic challenges in computational protein design that we believe will be especially important for the design of therapeutic proteins and protein assemblies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mayaro virus proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. S. Mezencio

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus was grown in BHK-21 cells and purified by centrifugation in a potassium-tartrate gradient (5-50%. The electron microscopy analyses of the purified virus showed an homogeneous population of enveloped particles with 69 ñ 2.3 nm in diameter. Three structural virus proteins were identified and designated pl, p2 and p3. Their average molecular weight were p1, 54 KDa; p2, 50 KDa and p3, 34 KDa. In Mayaro virus infected. Aedes albopictus cells and in BHK-21 infected cells we detected six viral proteins, in wich three of them are the structural virus proteins and the other three were products from processing of precursors of viral proteins, whose molecular weights are 62 KDa, 64 KDa and 110 KDa. The 34 KDa protein was the first viral protein sinthesized at 5 hours post-infection in both cell lines studied.

  13. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  14. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...

  15. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, James

    2016-05-15

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. © 2016 Shorter. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. A fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein (FLA mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, fla1, shows defects in shoot regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLAs are an enigmatic class of 21 members within the larger family of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Located at the cell surface, in the cell wall/plasma membrane, they are implicated in many developmental roles yet their function remains largely undefined. Fasciclin (FAS domains are putative cell-adhesion domains found in extracellular matrix proteins of organisms from all kingdoms, but the juxtaposition of FAS domains with highly glycosylated AGP domains is unique to plants. Recent studies have started to elucidate the role of FLAs in Arabidopsis development. FLAs containing a single FAS domain are important for the integrity and elasticity of the plant cell wall matrix (FLA11 and FLA12 and FLA3 is involved in microspore development. FLA4/SOS5 with two FAS domains and two AGP domains has a role in maintaining proper cell expansion under salt stressed conditions. The role of other FLAs remains to be uncovered. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the characterisation of a T-DNA insertion mutant in the FLA1 gene (At5g55730. Under standard growth conditions fla1-1 mutants have no obvious phenotype. Based on gene expression studies, a putative role for FLA1 in callus induction was investigated and revealed that fla1-1 has a reduced ability to regenerate shoots in an in vitro shoot-induction assay. Analysis of FLA1p:GUS reporter lines show that FLA1 is expressed in several tissues including stomata, trichomes, the vasculature of leaves, the primary root tip and in lateral roots near the junction of the primary root. CONCLUSION: The results of the developmental expression of FLA1 and characterisation of the fla1 mutant support a role for FLA1 in the early events of lateral root development and shoot development in tissue culture, prior to cell-type specification.

  17. A fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein (FLA) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, fla1, shows defects in shoot regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kim L; Kibble, Natalie A J; Bacic, Antony; Schultz, Carolyn J

    2011-01-01

    The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLAs) are an enigmatic class of 21 members within the larger family of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Located at the cell surface, in the cell wall/plasma membrane, they are implicated in many developmental roles yet their function remains largely undefined. Fasciclin (FAS) domains are putative cell-adhesion domains found in extracellular matrix proteins of organisms from all kingdoms, but the juxtaposition of FAS domains with highly glycosylated AGP domains is unique to plants. Recent studies have started to elucidate the role of FLAs in Arabidopsis development. FLAs containing a single FAS domain are important for the integrity and elasticity of the plant cell wall matrix (FLA11 and FLA12) and FLA3 is involved in microspore development. FLA4/SOS5 with two FAS domains and two AGP domains has a role in maintaining proper cell expansion under salt stressed conditions. The role of other FLAs remains to be uncovered. Here we describe the characterisation of a T-DNA insertion mutant in the FLA1 gene (At5g55730). Under standard growth conditions fla1-1 mutants have no obvious phenotype. Based on gene expression studies, a putative role for FLA1 in callus induction was investigated and revealed that fla1-1 has a reduced ability to regenerate shoots in an in vitro shoot-induction assay. Analysis of FLA1p:GUS reporter lines show that FLA1 is expressed in several tissues including stomata, trichomes, the vasculature of leaves, the primary root tip and in lateral roots near the junction of the primary root. The results of the developmental expression of FLA1 and characterisation of the fla1 mutant support a role for FLA1 in the early events of lateral root development and shoot development in tissue culture, prior to cell-type specification.

  18. Produção de Madeira de Progênies de Segunda Geração de Grevílea na Região de Avaré, SP Second Generation Half-sib Progenies Wood Production of Grevillea in the Region of Avaré - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Gonçalves Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A grevílea (Grevillea robusta A. Cunn é uma espécie utilizada para o sombreamento de cafezais e de outras culturas agrícolas, áreas de pastagens e apicultura, paisagismo e como cortina quebra- ventos. Sua madeira também é utilizada para desdobro, em serrarias. Um teste com 28 progênies de meios-irmãos de segunda geração foi instalado no Município de Avaré, São Paulo. O objetivo principal foi avaliar e selecionar o material genético mais produtivo em volume de madeira. Dados de altura e diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP foram coletados na área experimental, na idade de três anos. Baseando-se nos dados estimados de volume cilíndrico com casca, as seguintes conclusões foram obtidas: em Avaré, SP, a progênie de segunda geração mais produtiva e com maior taxa de sobrevivência pertencente à procedência australiana de Boyd River (NSW. A progênie de segunda geração mais produtiva, em termos de volume cilíndrico de madeira com casca, foi 138 % superior à media geral do teste. Considerando o valor médio de volume de madeira para apenas as doze progênies de segunda geração mais produtivas, foi possível observar um aumento de 32 % em relação à média geral do experimento. 
    The Grevillea robusta A. Cunn is utilized for coffee plantation shading, crops growing and pasture shading, apiculture, ornamentation and wind breaks. It is also used to produce sawn wood. One test of 28 second generation half-sib progenies was planted in Forestry Institute of São Paulo, with 20°03’S latitude and 48°54’W logitude geographic coordenates and 630m of altitude. The main objectives of this paper were to select genetic material capable to produce more volume of wood. The total heigth and diameter at breast height (DBH were measured on the three yars old second generation half-sib progenies test. The volume was calculated and the results led to the following conclusion: The best

  19. Modular protein domains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesareni, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    ... encodes not only sequence, but somehow explicitly specifies folding, structure, and biological function as well. How, then, can one learn to read this 'language of proteins'? One of the most powerful approaches to 'cracking the protein code' has involved sequence comparisons between and within species, a task now greatly simplified by the ever...

  20. Advances in Protein Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are biological macromolecules, which are among the key components of all living organisms. Proteins are nowadays present in all fields of biotech industry, such as food and feed, synthetic and pharmaceutical industry. They are isolated from their natural sources or produced in different

  1. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  2. Poxviral Ankyrin Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeats of the ankyrin motif (ANK are ubiquitous throughout the kingdoms of life but are absent from most viruses. The main exception to this is the poxvirus family, and specifically the chordopoxviruses, with ANK repeat proteins present in all but three species from separate genera. The poxviral ANK repeat proteins belong to distinct orthologue groups spread over different species, and align well with the phylogeny of their genera. This distribution throughout the chordopoxviruses indicates these proteins were present in an ancestral vertebrate poxvirus, and have since undergone numerous duplication events. Most poxviral ANK repeat proteins contain an unusual topology of multiple ANK motifs starting at the N-terminus with a C-terminal poxviral homologue of the cellular F-box enabling interaction with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. The subtle variations between ANK repeat proteins of individual poxviruses suggest an array of different substrates may be bound by these protein-protein interaction domains and, via the F-box, potentially directed to cellular ubiquitination pathways and possible degradation. Known interaction partners of several of these proteins indicate that the NF-κB coordinated anti-viral response is a key target, whilst some poxviral ANK repeat domains also have an F-box independent affect on viral host-range.

  3. Multidomain proteins under force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Popa, Ionel

    2017-04-28

    Advancements in single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques such as atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers allow investigation of how domain folding under force can play a physiological role. Combining these techniques with protein engineering and HaloTag covalent attachment, we investigate similarities and differences between four model proteins: I10 and I91-two immunoglobulin-like domains from the muscle protein titin, and two α + β fold proteins-ubiquitin and protein L. These proteins show a different mechanical response and have unique extensions under force. Remarkably, when normalized to their contour length, the size of the unfolding and refolding steps as a function of force reduces to a single master curve. This curve can be described using standard models of polymer elasticity, explaining the entropic nature of the measured steps. We further validate our measurements with a simple energy landscape model, which combines protein folding with polymer physics and accounts for the complex nature of tandem domains under force. This model can become a useful tool to help in deciphering the complexity of multidomain proteins operating under force.

  4. NMR of unfolded proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the post-genomic era, as more and more genome sequences are becoming known and hectic efforts are underway to decode the information content in them, it is becoming increasingly evident that flexibility in proteins plays a crucial role in many of the biological functions. Many proteins have intrinsic disorder either ...

  5. Stability of Hyperthermophilic Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiefler-Jensen, Daniel

    in the high stability of hyperthermophilic enzymes. The thesis starts with an introduction to the field of protein and enzyme stability with special focus on the thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes and proteins. After the introduction three original research manuscripts present the experimental data...

  6. Protein expression-yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus H

    2014-01-01

    Yeast is an excellent system for the expression of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. Both endogenous and heterologous proteins can be overexpressed in yeast (Phan et al., 2001; Ton and Rao, 2004). Because yeast is easy to manipulate genetically, a strain can be optimized for the expression of a specific protein. Many eukaryotic proteins contain posttranslational modifications that can be performed in yeast but not in bacterial expression systems. In comparison with mammalian cell culture expression systems, growing yeast is both faster and less expensive, and large-scale cultures can be performed using fermentation. While several different yeast expression systems exist, this chapter focuses on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and will briefly describe some options to consider when selecting vectors and tags to be used for protein expression. Throughout this chapter, the expression and purification of yeast eIF3 is shown as an example alongside a general scheme outline. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MicroProteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eguen, Teinai Ebimienere; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    MicroProteins (miPs) are short, usually single-domain proteins that, in analogy to miRNAs, heterodimerize with their targets and exert a dominant-negative effect. Recent bioinformatic attempts to identify miPs have resulted in a list of potential miPs, many of which lack the defining characterist......MicroProteins (miPs) are short, usually single-domain proteins that, in analogy to miRNAs, heterodimerize with their targets and exert a dominant-negative effect. Recent bioinformatic attempts to identify miPs have resulted in a list of potential miPs, many of which lack the defining...... can extend beyond transcription factors (TFs) to encompass different non-TF proteins that require dimerization for full function....

  8. Protein disulfide engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombkowski, Alan A; Sultana, Kazi Zakia; Craig, Douglas B

    2014-01-21

    Improving the stability of proteins is an important goal in many biomedical and industrial applications. A logical approach is to emulate stabilizing molecular interactions found in nature. Disulfide bonds are covalent interactions that provide substantial stability to many proteins and conform to well-defined geometric conformations, thus making them appealing candidates in protein engineering efforts. Disulfide engineering is the directed design of novel disulfide bonds into target proteins. This important biotechnological tool has achieved considerable success in a wide range of applications, yet the rules that govern the stabilizing effects of disulfide bonds are not fully characterized. Contrary to expectations, many designed disulfide bonds have resulted in decreased stability of the modified protein. We review progress in disulfide engineering, with an emphasis on the issue of stability and computational methods that facilitate engineering efforts. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  10. Sensitizing properties of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott

    2014-01-01

    scientists from academia, government, and industry participated in the symposium. Experts provided overviews on known mechanisms by which proteins in food may cause sensitization, discussed experimental models to predict protein sensitizing potential, and explored whether such experimental techniques may......The scope of allergy risk is diverse considering the myriad ways in which protein allergenicity is affected by physiochemical characteristics of proteins. The complexity created by the matrices of foods and the variability of the human immune system add additional challenges to understanding...... Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, featured presentations on current methods, test systems, research trends, and unanswered questions in the field of protein sensitization. A diverse group of over 70 interdisciplinary...

  11. Sensitizing properties of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The scope of allergy risk is diverse considering the myriad ways in which protein allergenicity is affected by physiochemical characteristics of proteins. The complexity created by the matrices of foods and the variability of the human immune system add additional challenges to understanding...... the relationship between sensitization potential and allergy disease. To address these and other issues, an April 2012 international symposium was held in Prague, Czech Republic, to review and discuss the state-of-the-science of sensitizing properties of protein allergens. The symposium, organized by the Protein...... Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, featured presentations on current methods, test systems, research trends, and unanswered questions in the field of protein sensitization. A diverse group of over 70 interdisciplinary...

  12. [Controversies around diet proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Critical theories regarding proteins of anima origin are still and still popularized, though they are ungrounded from scientific point of view. Predominance of soya proteins over the animal ones in relation to their influence on calcium metabolism, bone break risk or risk of osteoporosis morbidity has not been confirmed in any honest, reliable research experiment. Statement, that sulphur amino acids influence disadvantageously on calcium metabolism of human organism and bone status, is completely groundless, the more so as presence of sulphur amino acids in diet (animal proteins are their best source) is the condition of endogenic synthesis of glutathione, the key antioxidant of the organism, and taurine stimulating brain functioning. Deficiency of proteins in the diet produce weakness of intellectual effectiveness and immune response. There is no doubt that limitation of consumption of animal proteins of standard value is not good for health.

  13. Coarse-grain modelling of protein-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaden, Marc; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review recent advances towards the modelling of protein-protein interactions (PPI) at the coarse-grained (CG) level, a technique that is now widely used to understand protein affinity, aggregation and self-assembly behaviour. PPI models of soluble proteins and membrane proteins are

  14. Swaps in protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, Amit; Motro, Benny; Unger, Ron

    2002-08-01

    An important question in protein evolution is to what extent proteins may have undergone swaps (switches of domain or fragment order) during evolution. Such events might have occurred in several forms: Swaps of short fragments, swaps of structural and functional motifs, or recombination of domains in multidomain proteins. This question is important for the theoretical understanding of the evolution of proteins, and has practical implications for using swaps as a design tool in protein engineering. In order to analyze the question systematically, we conducted a large scale survey of possible swaps and permutations among all pairs of protein from the Swissport database. A swap is defined as a specific kind of sequence mutation between two proteins in which two fragments that appear in both sequences have different relative order in the two sequences. For example, aXbYc and dYeXf are defined as a swap, where X and Y represent sequence fragments that switched their order. Identifying such swaps is difficult using standard sequence comparison packages. One of the main problems in the analysis stems from the fact that many sequences contain repeats, which may be identified as false-positive swaps. We have used two different approaches to detect pairs of proteins with swaps. The first approach is based on the predefined list of domains in Pfam. We identified all the proteins that share at least two domains and analyzed their relative order, looking for pairs in which the order of these domains was switched. We designed an algorithm to distinguish between real swaps and duplications. In the second approach, we used Blast to detect pairs of proteins that share several fragments. Then, we used an automatic procedure to select pairs that are likely to contain swaps. Those pairs were analyzed visually, using a graphical tool, to eliminate duplications. Combining these approaches, about 140 different cases of swaps in the Swissprot database were found (after eliminating

  15. Deletion of the amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) enhances excitatory synaptic transmission, reduces network inhibition but does not impair synaptic plasticity in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnencak, Matej; Paul, Mandy H; Hick, Meike; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Del Turco, Domenico; Müller, Ulrike C; Deller, Thomas; Jedlicka, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) is a transmembrane synaptic protein belonging to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene family. Although the role of this gene family-in particular of APP-has been intensely studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, the physiological roles of its family members remain poorly understood. In particular, the function of APLP1, which is predominantly expressed in the nervous system, has remained enigmatic. Since APP has been implicated in synaptic plasticity, we wondered whether APLP1 could play a similar role. First, using in situ hybridization and laser microdissection combined with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) we observed that Aplp1 mRNA is highly expressed in dentate granule cells. Having this examined, we studied synaptic plasticity at the perforant path-granule cell synapses in the dentate gyrus of APLP1-deficient mice in vivo. Analysis of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of perforant path fibers revealed increased excitatory transmission in APLP1-deficient mice. Moreover, we observed decreased paired-pulse inhibition of population spikes indicating a decrease in network inhibition upon deletion of APLP1. In contrast, short-term presynaptic plasticity (STP) as well as long-term synaptic plasticity (LTP) was unchanged in the absence of APLP1. Based on these results we conclude that APLP1 deficiency on its own does not lead to defects in synaptic plasticity, but affects synaptic transmission and network inhibition in the dentate gyrus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Crystal structure of cytomegalovirus IE1 protein reveals targeting of TRIM family member PML via coiled-coil interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Scherer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all α-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5α We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less

  17. Anchored design of protein-protein interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Lewis

    Full Text Available Few existing protein-protein interface design methods allow for extensive backbone rearrangements during the design process. There is also a dichotomy between redesign methods, which take advantage of the native interface, and de novo methods, which produce novel binders.Here, we propose a new method for designing novel protein reagents that combines advantages of redesign and de novo methods and allows for extensive backbone motion. This method requires a bound structure of a target and one of its natural binding partners. A key interaction in this interface, the anchor, is computationally grafted out of the partner and into a surface loop on the design scaffold. The design scaffold's surface is then redesigned with backbone flexibility to create a new binding partner for the target. Careful choice of a scaffold will bring experimentally desirable characteristics into the new complex. The use of an anchor both expedites the design process and ensures that binding proceeds against a known location on the target. The use of surface loops on the scaffold allows for flexible-backbone redesign to properly search conformational space.This protocol was implemented within the Rosetta3 software suite. To demonstrate and evaluate this protocol, we have developed a benchmarking set of structures from the PDB with loop-mediated interfaces. This protocol can recover the correct loop-mediated interface in 15 out of 16 tested structures, using only a single residue as an anchor.

  18. Antimicrobial proteins: From old proteins, new tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Valerie J; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A

    2015-12-01

    This review describes the main types of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) synthesised by crustaceans, primarily those identified in shrimp, crayfish, crab and lobster. It includes an overview of their range of microbicidal activities and the current landscape of our understanding of their gene expression patterns in different body tissues. It further summarises how their expression might change following various types of immune challenges. The review further considers proteins or protein fragments from crustaceans that have antimicrobial properties but are more usually associated with other biological functions, or are derived from such proteins. It discusses how these unconventional AMPs might be generated at, or delivered to, sites of infection and how they might contribute to crustacean host defence in vivo. It also highlights recent work that is starting to reveal the extent of multi-functionality displayed by some decapod AMPs, particularly their participation in other aspects of host protection. Examples of such activities include proteinase inhibition, phagocytosis, antiviral activity and haematopoiesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multidomain proteins under force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Andrés Rivas-Pardo, Jaime; Popa, Ionel

    2017-04-01

    Advancements in single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques such as atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers allow investigation of how domain folding under force can play a physiological role. Combining these techniques with protein engineering and HaloTag covalent attachment, we investigate similarities and differences between four model proteins: I10 and I91—two immunoglobulin-like domains from the muscle protein titin, and two α + β fold proteins—ubiquitin and protein L. These proteins show a different mechanical response and have unique extensions under force. Remarkably, when normalized to their contour length, the size of the unfolding and refolding steps as a function of force reduces to a single master curve. This curve can be described using standard models of polymer elasticity, explaining the entropic nature of the measured steps. We further validate our measurements with a simple energy landscape model, which combines protein folding with polymer physics and accounts for the complex nature of tandem domains under force. This model can become a useful tool to help in deciphering the complexity of multidomain proteins operating under force.

  20. Evidence for Posttranslational Protein Flavinylation in the Syphilis Spirochete Treponema pallidum: Structural and Biochemical Insights from the Catalytic Core of a Periplasmic Flavin-Trafficking Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Ranjit K; Brautigam, Chad A; Liu, Wei Z; Tomchick, Diana R; Norgard, Michael V

    2015-05-05

    The syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum is an important human pathogen but a highly enigmatic bacterium that cannot be cultivated in vitro. T. pallidum lacks many biosynthetic pathways and therefore has evolved the capability to exploit host-derived metabolites via its periplasmic lipoprotein repertoire. We recently reported a flavin-trafficking protein in T. pallidum (Ftp_Tp; TP0796) as the first bacterial metal-dependent flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD into AMP and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the spirochete's periplasm. However, orthologs of Ftp_Tp from other bacteria appear to lack this hydrolytic activity; rather, they bind and flavinylate subunits of a cytoplasmic membrane redox system (Nqr/Rnf). To further explore this dichotomy, biochemical analyses, protein crystallography, and structure-based mutagenesis were used to show that a single amino acid change (N55Y) in Ftp_Tp converts it from an Mg(2+)-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase to an FAD-binding protein. We also demonstrated that Ftp_Tp has a second enzymatic activity (Mg(2+)-FMN transferase); it flavinylates protein(s) covalently with FMN on a threonine side chain of an appropriate sequence motif using FAD as the substrate. Moreover, mutation of a metal-binding residue (D284A) eliminates Ftp_Tp's dual activities, thereby underscoring the role of Mg(2+) in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The posttranslational flavinylation activity that can target a periplasmic lipoprotein (TP0171) has not previously been described. The observed activities reveal the catalytic flexibility of a treponemal protein to perform multiple functions. Together, these findings imply mechanisms by which a dynamic pool of flavin cofactor is maintained and how flavoproteins are generated by Ftp_Tp locally in the T. pallidum periplasm. Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, exploits its periplasmic lipoproteins for a number of essential physiologic processes. One of these, flavin

  1. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  2. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  3. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...

  4. PDP: protein domain parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Nickolai; Shindyalov, Ilya

    2003-02-12

    We have developed a program for automatic identification of domains in protein three-dimensional structures. Performance of the program was assessed by three different benchmarks: (i) by comparison with the expert-curated SCOP database of structural domains; (ii) by comparison with a collection of manual domain assignments; and (iii) by comparison with a set of 55 proteins, frequently used as a benchmark for automatic domain assignment. In all these benchmarks PDP identified domains correctly in more than 80% of proteins. http://123d.ncifcrf.gov/.

  5. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Penicillin-Binding Protein 3 Demonstrates a Pronounced Preference for Nε-Acylated Substrates†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddi, Sridhar; Nicholas, Robert A.; Gutheil, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are bacterial enzymes involved in the final stages of cell wall biosynthesis, and are the lethal targets of β-lactam antibiotics. Despite their importance, their roles in cell wall biosynthesis remain enigmatic. A series of eight substrates, based on variation of the pentapeptide Boc-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala, were synthesized to test specificity for three features of PBP substrates: 1) the presence or absence of an Nε-acyl group, 2) the presence of D-IsoGln in place of γ-D-Glu, and 3) the presence or absence of the N-terminal L-Ala residue. The capacity of these peptides to serve as substrates for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) PBP3 was assessed. NG PBP3 demonstrated good catalytic efficiency (2.5 × 105 M−1sec−1) with the best of these substrates, with a pronounced preference (50-fold) for Nε-acylated substrates over Nε-nonacylated substrates. This observation suggests that NG PBP3 is specific for the ∼D-Ala-D-Ala moiety of pentapeptides engaged in cross-links in the bacterial cell wall, such that NG PBP3 would act after transpeptidase-catalyzed reactions generate the acylated amino group required for its specificity. NG PBP3 demonstrated low selectivity for γ-D-Glu vs D-IsoGln, and for the presence or absence of the terminal L-Ala residue. The implications of this substrate specificity of NG PBP3 with respect to its possible role in cell wall biosynthesis, and for understanding the substrate specificity of the LMM PBPs in general, are discussed. PMID:19413336

  7. Designing microcapsules based on protein fibrils and protein - polysaccharide complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, K.N.P.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: encapsulation, microcapsule, protein, fibril, protein-polysaccharide complex, controlled release, interfacial rheology, lysozyme, ovalbumin This thesis describes the design of encapsulation systems using mesostructures from proteins and polysaccharides. The approach was to first

  8. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  9. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  10. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  11. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  12. Change in amino acids content during germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... Proteins, amino acids and sugars in mature seeds (I), germinated seeds (II) and seedlings (III) of six accessions of. Cola acuminata ...... Inherited disorders of GABA metabolism. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 16(4): 704-715. Lea PJ, Joy KW (1983). Amino acid interconversion in germinating seeds. In: Nozzolillo, Lea ...

  13. Parallel Computational Protein Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yichao; Donald, Bruce R; Zeng, Jianyang

    2017-01-01

    Computational structure-based protein design (CSPD) is an important problem in computational biology, which aims to design or improve a prescribed protein function based on a protein structure template. It provides a practical tool for real-world protein engineering applications. A popular CSPD method that guarantees to find the global minimum energy solution (GMEC) is to combine both dead-end elimination (DEE) and A* tree search algorithms. However, in this framework, the A* search algorithm can run in exponential time in the worst case, which may become the computation bottleneck of large-scale computational protein design process. To address this issue, we extend and add a new module to the OSPREY program that was previously developed in the Donald lab (Gainza et al., Methods Enzymol 523:87, 2013) to implement a GPU-based massively parallel A* algorithm for improving protein design pipeline. By exploiting the modern GPU computational framework and optimizing the computation of the heuristic function for A* search, our new program, called gOSPREY, can provide up to four orders of magnitude speedups in large protein design cases with a small memory overhead comparing to the traditional A* search algorithm implementation, while still guaranteeing the optimality. In addition, gOSPREY can be configured to run in a bounded-memory mode to tackle the problems in which the conformation space is too large and the global optimal solution cannot be computed previously. Furthermore, the GPU-based A* algorithm implemented in the gOSPREY program can be combined with the state-of-the-art rotamer pruning algorithms such as iMinDEE (Gainza et al., PLoS Comput Biol 8:e1002335, 2012) and DEEPer (Hallen et al., Proteins 81:18-39, 2013) to also consider continuous backbone and side-chain flexibility.

  14. Protein Nitrogen Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The protein content of foods can be determined by numerous methods. The Kjeldahl method and the nitrogen combustion (Dumas) method for protein analysis are based on nitrogen determination. Both methods are official for the purposes of nutrition labeling of foods. While the Kjeldahl method has been used widely for over a hundred years, the recent availability of automated instrumentation for the Dumas method in many cases is replacing use of the Kjeldahl method.

  15. Disease specific protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  16. Fast protein folding kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fast folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well less than 1 ms and has uncovered examples of theoretically predicted phenomena such as downhill folding. The study of fast folders also informs our understanding of even “slow” folding processes: fast folders are small, relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general as well as some work that is left to do. PMID:24641816

  17. Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Thomas; Schlotawa, Lars; Frese, Marc-André; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; von Figura, Kurt; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2009-04-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), mucolipidosis (ML) II/III and Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease are rare but fatal lysosomal storage disorders caused by the genetic defect of non-lysosomal proteins. The NPC1 protein mainly localizes to late endosomes and is essential for cholesterol redistribution from endocytosed LDL to cellular membranes. NPC1 deficiency leads to lysosomal accumulation of a broad range of lipids. The precise functional mechanism of this membrane protein, however, remains puzzling. ML II, also termed I cell disease, and the less severe ML III result from deficiencies of the Golgi enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase leading to a global defect of lysosome biogenesis. In patient cells, newly synthesized lysosomal proteins are not equipped with the critical lysosomal trafficking marker mannose 6-phosphate, thus escaping from lysosomal sorting at the trans Golgi network. MSD affects the entire sulfatase family, at least seven members of which are lysosomal enzymes that are specifically involved in the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, sulfolipids or other sulfated molecules. The combined deficiencies of all sulfatases result from a defective post-translational modification by the ER-localized formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE), which oxidizes a specific cysteine residue to formylglycine, the catalytic residue enabling a unique mechanism of sulfate ester hydrolysis. This review gives an update on the molecular bases of these enigmatic diseases, which have been challenging researchers since many decades and so far led to a number of surprising findings that give deeper insight into both the cell biology and the pathobiochemistry underlying these complex disorders. In case of MSD, considerable progress has been made in recent years towards an understanding of disease-causing FGE mutations. First approaches to link molecular parameters with clinical manifestation have been described and even therapeutical options have been

  18. The effect of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, I.H.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2000-01-01

    It was studied how protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions influence the filtration performance during the ultrafiltration of protein solutions over polymeric membranes. This was done by measuring flux, streaming potential, and protein transmission during filtration of bovine serum albumin

  19. Protein: MPA1 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MPA1 TLR signaling molecules RSAD2 CIG5 Radical S-adenosyl methionine domain-containing protein 2 Cytomegalo...virus-induced gene 5 protein, Viperin, Virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticu

  20. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  1. Toxoplasma DJ-1 Regulates Organelle Secretion by a Direct Interaction with Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Matthew A; Garland, Megan; Foe, Ian; Madzelan, Peter; Treeck, Moritz; van der Linden, Wouter A; Oresic Bender, Kristina; Weerapana, Eranthie; Wilson, Mark A; Boothroyd, John C; Reese, Michael L; Bogyo, Matthew

    2017-02-28

    Human DJ-1 is a highly conserved and yet functionally enigmatic protein associated with a heritable form of Parkinson's disease. It has been suggested to be a redox-dependent regulatory scaffold, binding to proteins to modulate their function. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of the Toxoplasma orthologue Toxoplasma gondii DJ-1 (TgDJ-1) at 2.1-Å resolution and show that it directly associates with calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1). The TgDJ-1 structure identifies an orthologously conserved arginine dyad that acts as a phospho-gatekeeper motif to control complex formation. We determined that the binding of TgDJ-1 to CDPK1 is sensitive to oxidation and calcium, and that this interaction potentiates CDPK1 kinase activity. Finally, we show that genetic deletion of TgDJ-1 results in upregulation of CDPK1 expression and that disruption of the CDPK1/TgDJ-1 complex in vivo prevents normal exocytosis of parasite virulence-associated organelles called micronemes. Overall, our data suggest that TgDJ-1 functions as a noncanonical kinase-regulatory scaffold that integrates multiple intracellular signals to tune microneme exocytosis in T. gondii IMPORTANCE Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium are obligate intracellular parasites that require the protective environment of a host cell in order to replicate and survive within a host organism. These parasites secrete effector proteins from specialized apical organelles to select and invade a chosen host cell. The secretion of these organelles is a tightly regulated process coordinated by endogenous small molecules and calcium-dependent protein kinases. We previously identified the Toxoplasma orthologue of the highly conserved protein DJ-1 as a regulator of microneme secretion, but the molecular basis for this was not known. We have now identified the molecular mechanism for how TgDJ-1 regulates microneme secretion. TgDJ-1 interacts with the kinase responsible for the secretion of these

  2. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.Q. Carvalho

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical explanation of biological concepts, associated with the use of teaching games andmodels, intensify the comprehension and increase students interest, stimulating them to participateactively on the teaching-learning process. The sta of dissemination from Centro de BiotecnologiaMolecular Estrutural (CBME, in partnership with the Centro de Divulgac~ao Cientca e Cultural(CDCC, presents, in this work, a new educational resource denoted: Protein Synthesis Game. Theapproach of the game involves the cytological aspects of protein synthesis, directed to high schoolstudents. Students are presented to day-by-day facts related to the function of a given protein in thehuman body. Such task leads players to the goal of solving out a problem through synthesizing aspecied protein. The game comprises: (1 a board illustrated with the transversal section of animalcell, with its main structures and organelles and sequences of hypothetical genes; (2 cards with thedescription of steps and other structures required for protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells; (3 piecesrepresenting nucleotides, polynucleotides, ribosome, amino acids, and polypeptide chains. In order toplay the game, students take cards that sequentially permit them to acquire the necessary pieces forproduction of the protein described in each objective. Players must move the pieces on the board andsimulate the steps of protein synthesis. The dynamic of the game allows students to easily comprehendprocesses of transcription and translation. This game was presented to dierent groups of high schoolteachers and students. Their judgments have been heard and indicated points to be improved, whichhelped us with the game development. Furthermore, the opinions colleted were always favorable forthe application of this game as a teaching resource in classrooms.

  3. Bioinformatics and moonlighting proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eHernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking or moonlighting is the capability of some proteins to execute two or more biochemical functions. Usually, moonlighting proteins are experimentally revealed by serendipity. For this reason, it would be helpful that Bioinformatics could predict this multifunctionality, especially because of the large amounts of sequences from genome projects. In the present work, we analyse and describe several approaches that use sequences, structures, interactomics and current bioinformatics algorithms and programs to try to overcome this problem. Among these approaches are: a remote homology searches using Psi-Blast, b detection of functional motifs and domains, c analysis of data from protein-protein interaction databases (PPIs, d match the query protein sequence to 3D databases (i.e., algorithms as PISITE, e mutation correlation analysis between amino acids by algorithms as MISTIC. Programs designed to identify functional motif/domains detect mainly the canonical function but usually fail in the detection of the moonlighting one, Pfam and ProDom being the best methods. Remote homology search by Psi-Blast combined with data from interactomics databases (PPIs have the best performance. Structural information and mutation correlation analysis can help us to map the functional sites. Mutation correlation analysis can only be used in very specific situations –it requires the existence of multialigned family protein sequences - but can suggest how the evolutionary process of second function acquisition took place. The multitasking protein database MultitaskProtDB (http://wallace.uab.es/multitask/, previously published by our group, has been used as a benchmark for the all of the analyses.

  4. Direct protein-protein conjugation by genetically introducing bioorthogonal functional groups into proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanggil; Ko, Wooseok; Sung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-11-15

    Proteins often function as complex structures in conjunction with other proteins. Because these complex structures are essential for sophisticated functions, developing protein-protein conjugates has gained research interest. In this study, site-specific protein-protein conjugation was performed by genetically incorporating an azide-containing amino acid into one protein and a bicyclononyne (BCN)-containing amino acid into the other. Three to four sites in each of the proteins were tested for conjugation efficiency, and three combinations showed excellent conjugation efficiency. The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) is technically simple and produces the mutant protein in high yield. In addition, the conjugation reaction can be conducted by simple mixing, and does not require additional reagents or linker molecules. Therefore, this method may prove very useful for generating protein-protein conjugates and protein complexes of biochemical significance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Benchtop Detection of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Varaljay, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    A process, and a benchtop-scale apparatus for implementing the process, have been developed to detect proteins associated with specific microbes in water. The process and apparatus may also be useful for detection of proteins in other, more complex liquids. There may be numerous potential applications, including monitoring lakes and streams for contamination, testing of blood and other bodily fluids in medical laboratories, and testing for microbial contamination of liquids in restaurants and industrial food-processing facilities. A sample can be prepared and analyzed by use of this process and apparatus within minutes, whereas an equivalent analysis performed by use of other processes and equipment can often take hours to days. The process begins with the conjugation of near-infrared-fluorescent dyes to antibodies that are specific to a particular protein. Initially, the research has focused on using near-infrared dyes to detect antigens or associated proteins in solution, which has proven successful vs. microbial cells, and streamlining the technique in use for surface protein detection on microbes would theoretically render similar results. However, it is noted that additional work is needed to transition protein-based techniques to microbial cell detection. Consequently, multiple such dye/antibody pairs could be prepared to enable detection of multiple selected microbial species, using a different dye for each species. When excited by near-infrared light of a suitable wavelength, each dye fluoresces at a unique longer wavelength that differs from those of the other dyes, enabling discrimination among the various species. In initial tests, the dye/antibody pairs are mixed into a solution suspected of containing the selected proteins, causing the binding of the dye/antibody pairs to such suspect proteins that may be present. The solution is then run through a microcentrifuge that includes a membrane that acts as a filter in that it retains the dye/antibody/protein

  6. Self-Assembling Protein Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Niroshan; Hainsworth, Eugenie; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Eisenstein, Samuel; Rosen, Benjamin; Lau, Albert Y.; C. Walter, Johannes; LaBaer, Joshua

    2004-07-01

    Protein microarrays provide a powerful tool for the study of protein function. However, they are not widely used, in part because of the challenges in producing proteins to spot on the arrays. We generated protein microarrays by printing complementary DNAs onto glass slides and then translating target proteins with mammalian reticulocyte lysate. Epitope tags fused to the proteins allowed them to be immobilized in situ. This obviated the need to purify proteins, avoided protein stability problems during storage, and captured sufficient protein for functional studies. We used the technology to map pairwise interactions among 29 human DNA replication initiation proteins, recapitulate the regulation of Cdt1 binding to select replication proteins, and map its geminin-binding domain.

  7. Changes in protein composition and protein phosphorylation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in protein profiles and protein phosphorylation were studied in various stages of germinating somatic and zygotic embryos. Many proteins, which were expressed in cotyledonary stage somatic embryos, were also present in the zygotic embryos obtained from mature dry seed. The intensity of 22 kDa protein was ...

  8. Electrochemical nanomoulding through proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Daniel B.

    The continued improvements in performance of modern electronic devices are directly related to the manufacturing of smaller, denser features on surfaces. Electrochemical fabrication has played a large role in continuing this trend due to its low cost and ease of scaleability toward ever smaller dimensions. This work introduces the concept of using proteins, essentially monodisperse complex polymers whose three-dimensional structures are fixed by their encoded amino acid sequences, as "moulds" around which nanostructures can be built by electrochemical fabrication. Bacterial cell-surface layer proteins, or "S-layer" proteins, from two organisms---Deinococcus radiodurans and Sporosarcina ureae---were used as the "moulds" for electrochemical fabrication. The proteins are easily purified as micron-sized sheets of periodic molecular complexes with 18-nm hexagonal and 13-nm square unit cell lattices, respectively. Direct imaging by transmission electron microscopy on ultrathin noble metal films without sample preparation eliminates potential artifacts to the high surface energy substrates necessary for high nucleation densities. Characterization involved imaging, electron diffraction, spectroscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. The S-layer protein of D. radiodurans was further subjected to an atomic force microscope based assay to determine the integrity of its structure and long-range order and was found to be useful for fabrication from around pH 3 to 12.

  9. Protein Denaturation in Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson; Cui; Darton

    1999-07-15

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which protein molecules become denatured in foam. It was found that damage to the protein is mainly due to surface denaturation at the gas-liquid interface. A fraction of the molecules adsorbed do not refold to their native state when they desorb. The degree of denaturation was found to correlate directly with the interfacial exposure, which, for mobile or partially mobile interfaces, is increased by drainage. Experiments with two different proteins showed that, under the conditions of the tests, around 10% of BSA molecules which had adsorbed at the surface remained denatured when they desorbed. For pepsin the figure was around 75%. Oxidation, which was previously thought to be a major cause of protein damage in foam, was found to be minimal. Neither do the high shear stresses in the liquid bulk encountered during bubble bursting cause denaturation, because energy is dissipated at a much greater length scale than that of the protein molecule. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 654346314 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein Mastigocoleus testarum MLEQIELKPNWERNQVAFLDFIVNGTSLHDQFDHPQVRDLCTVFTSDQYEFDGKSSAAIHASWFLGYGETPFPDDRIPVYICSSGDFDCGTVTAYLTVNDGTIKWSEFRIERLTEELQDQPIELTSVKQCVFERNAYEKLFQPFLRKVID

  11. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 654344406 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein Mastigocoleus testarum MNKTWRVYLSGEIHTDWREQIEAGTKAAGLPVSFAAPVTDHASSDACGAEILGPEENEFWFDNKGAKVNAIRTSTLIKDADIVVVRFGDKYKQWNAAFDAGYAAALGKPIITLHDAELRHPLKEVDGAALAWAQEPSQVVRLLKYVIEGTL

  12. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  14. Thermal hysteresis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J

    2001-02-01

    Extreme environments present a wealth of biochemical adaptations. Thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs) have been found in vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, bacteria and fungi and are able to depress the freezing point of water (in the presence of ice crystals) in a non-colligative manner by binding to the surface of nascent ice crystals. The THPs comprise a disparate group of proteins with a variety of tertiary structures and often no common sequence similarities or structural motifs. Different THPs bind to different faces of the ice crystal, and no single mechanism has been proposed to account for THP ice binding affinity and specificity. Experimentally THPs have been used in the cryopreservation of tissues and cells and to induce cold tolerance in freeze susceptible organisms. THPs represent a remarkable example of parallel and convergent evolution with different proteins being adapted for an anti-freeze role.

  15. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms...... that regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that the DDHD...

  16. Matricellular proteins and biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron H; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2014-07-01

    Biomaterials are essential to modern medicine as components of reconstructive implants, implantable sensors, and vehicles for localized drug delivery. Advances in biomaterials have led to progression from simply making implants that are nontoxic to making implants that are specifically designed to elicit particular functions within the host. The interaction of implants and the extracellular matrix during the foreign body response is a growing area of concern for the field of biomaterials, because it can lead to implant failure. Expression of matricellular proteins is modulated during the foreign body response and these proteins interact with biomaterials. The design of biomaterials to specifically alter the levels of matricellular proteins surrounding implants provides a new avenue for the design and fabrication of biomimetic biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Trisulfides in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus W.; Tachibana, Christine; Hansen, Niels Erik

    2011-01-01

    Trisulfides and other oligosulfides are widely distributed in the biological world. In plants, e.g., garlic, trisulfides are associated with potentially beneficial properties. However, an extra neutral sulfur atom covalently bound between the two sulfur atoms of a pair of cysteines is not a commo...... post-translational modification, and the number of proteins in which a trisulfide has been unambiguously identified is small. Nevertheless, we believe that its prevalence may be underestimated, particularly with the increasing evidence for significant pools of sulfides in living tissues...... and their possible roles in cellular metabolism. This review focuses on examples of proteins that are known to contain a trisulfide bridge, and gives an overview of the chemistry of trisulfide formation, and the methods by which it is detected in proteins....

  18. Cytoglobin expression in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 is regulated by extracellular matrix proteins dependent on FAK-signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Louise Catherine; Thorne, Lorna Susan; Weston, Christopher John; Graham, Mark; Hodges, Nikolas John

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is a physiological response to cellular injury in the liver and is mediated by the activation of hepatic stellate cells resulting in the replacement of hepatocytes with extracellular matrix comprised principally of collagen 1 to form a hepatic scar. Although the novel hexaco-ordinated globin cytoglobin was identified in activated hepatic stellate cells more than 10 years ago, its role in stellate cell biology and liver fibrosis remains enigmatic. In the current study, we investigated the role of different extracellular matrix proteins in stellate cell proliferation, activation (alpha smooth muscle actin expression and retinoic acid uptake) and cytoglobin expression. Our results demonstrate that cytoglobin expression is correlated with a more quiescent phenotype of stellate cells in culture and that cytoglobin is regulated by the extracellular matrix through integrin signalling dependent on activation of focal adhesion kinase. Although further studies are required, we provide evidence that cytoglobin is a negative regulator of stellate cell activation and therefore may represent a novel target for anti-fibrotic treatments in the future.

  19. Epistasis in protein evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Tyler N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The structure, function, and evolution of proteins depend on physical and genetic interactions among amino acids. Recent studies have used new strategies to explore the prevalence, biochemical mechanisms, and evolutionary implications of these interactions—called epistasis—within proteins. Here we describe an emerging picture of pervasive epistasis in which the physical and biological effects of mutations change over the course of evolution in a lineage‐specific fashion. Epistasis can restrict the trajectories available to an evolving protein or open new paths to sequences and functions that would otherwise have been inaccessible. We describe two broad classes of epistatic interactions, which arise from different physical mechanisms and have different effects on evolutionary processes. Specific epistasis—in which one mutation influences the phenotypic effect of few other mutations—is caused by direct and indirect physical interactions between mutations, which nonadditively change the protein's physical properties, such as conformation, stability, or affinity for ligands. In contrast, nonspecific epistasis describes mutations that modify the effect of many others; these typically behave additively with respect to the physical properties of a protein but exhibit epistasis because of a nonlinear relationship between the physical properties and their biological effects, such as function or fitness. Both types of interaction are rampant, but specific epistasis has stronger effects on the rate and outcomes of evolution, because it imposes stricter constraints and modulates evolutionary potential more dramatically; it therefore makes evolution more contingent on low‐probability historical events and leaves stronger marks on the sequences, structures, and functions of protein families. PMID:26833806

  20. Protein biosynthesis in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, A V; Levitskii, S A; Vinogradova, E N; Atkinson, G C; Hauryliuk, V; Zenkin, N; Kamenski, P A

    2013-08-01

    Translation, that is biosynthesis of polypeptides in accordance with information encoded in the genome, is one of the most important processes in the living cell, and it has been in the spotlight of international research for many years. The mechanisms of protein biosynthesis in bacteria and in the eukaryotic cytoplasm are now understood in great detail. However, significantly less is known about translation in eukaryotic mitochondria, which is characterized by a number of unusual features. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about mitochondrial translation in different organisms while paying special attention to the aspects of this process that differ from cytoplasmic protein biosynthesis.

  1. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein...... is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial...

  2. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in

  3. The Formation of Protein Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Dynamically induced curvature owing to long-range excitations along the backbones of protein molecules with non-linear elastic properties may control the folding of proteins.......Dynamically induced curvature owing to long-range excitations along the backbones of protein molecules with non-linear elastic properties may control the folding of proteins....

  4. A simple dependence between protein evolution rate and the number of protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsh Aaron E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown for an evolutionarily distant genomic comparison that the number of protein-protein interactions a protein has correlates negatively with their rates of evolution. However, the generality of this observation has recently been challenged. Here we examine the problem using protein-protein interaction data from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and genome sequences from two other yeast species. Results In contrast to a previous study that used an incomplete set of protein-protein interactions, we observed a highly significant correlation between number of interactions and evolutionary distance to either Candida albicans or Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This study differs from the previous one in that it includes all known protein interactions from S. cerevisiae, and a larger set of protein evolutionary rates. In both evolutionary comparisons, a simple monotonic relationship was found across the entire range of the number of protein-protein interactions. In agreement with our earlier findings, this relationship cannot be explained by the fact that proteins with many interactions tend to be important to yeast. The generality of these correlations in other kingdoms of life unfortunately cannot be addressed at this time, due to the incompleteness of protein-protein interaction data from organisms other than S. cerevisiae. Conclusions Protein-protein interactions tend to slow the rate at which proteins evolve. This may be due to structural constraints that must be met to maintain interactions, but more work is needed to definitively establish the mechanism(s behind the correlations we have observed.

  5. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly...... affected by the lipid environment. Theoretical predictions are pointed out, and compared to experimental findings, if available. Among others, the following phenomena are discussed: interactions of interfacially adsorbed peptides, pore-forming amphipathic peptides, adsorption of charged proteins onto...... oppositely charged lipid membranes, lipid-induced tilting of proteins embedded in lipid bilayers, protein-induced bilayer deformations, protein insertion and assembly, and lipid-controlled functioning of membrane proteins....

  6. Protein degradation systems in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, B F; Weyrich, A S; Lindemann, S

    2013-11-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation are essential processes that allow cells to survive and adapt to their surrounding milieu. In nucleated cells, the degradation and/or cleavage of proteins is required to eliminate aberrant proteins. Cells also degrade proteins as a mechanism for cell signalling and complex cellular functions. Although the last decade has convincingly shown that platelets synthesise proteins, the roles of protein degradation in these anucleate cytoplasts are less clear. Here we review what is known about protein degradation in platelets placing particular emphasis on the proteasome and the cysteine protease calpain.

  7. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  8. Protein requirements of Penaeid shrimp.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanazawa, A

    1989-01-01

    Proteins are indispensable nutrients for growth and maintenance of live of all animals. The optimum protein levels in diets for shrimps are different among the various species. Squid meal is an effective protein source for many penaeids. The effects of dietary protein, lipid, and carbohydrate levels on the growth and survival of larvae of Penaeus japonicus were examined by feeding trials using purified diet with carrageenan as a binder. As a result, the effects of protein levels on growth and...

  9. Protein oxidation and ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linton, S; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T

    2001-01-01

    of redox-active metal ions that could catalyse oxidant formation. As a result of this decrease in antioxidant defences, and increased rate of ROS formation, it is possible that the impact of ROS increases with age. ROS are known to oxidise biological macromolecules, with proteins an important target...

  10. Thermodynamics of meat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the water activity of meat, being a mixture of proteins, salts and water, by the Free-Volume-Flory–Huggins (FVFH) theory augmented with the equation. Earlier, the FVFH theory is successfully applied to describe the thermodynamics to glucose homopolymers like starch, dextrans and

  11. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Nutrition, Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Irene, 1675Republic of South Africa. Although the protein requirement of domestic ruminants may be calculated from a simple one-compartment model, this approach ignores factors such as microbial fermentation in the rumen and the non-equality of feed.

  12. Protein Sorting Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Many computational methods are available for predicting protein sorting in bacteria. When comparing them, it is important to know that they can be grouped into three fundamentally different approaches: signal-based, global-property-based and homology-based prediction. In this chapter, the strengt...

  13. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 1. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins: A Historical Perspective on the Development of Concepts and Techniques. General Article Volume 22 Issue 1 January 2017 pp 37-50 ...

  14. Markers of protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of proteins to radicals in the presence of O2 gives both side-chain oxidation and backbone fragmentation. These processes can be interrelated, with initial side-chain oxidation giving rise to backbone damage via transfer reactions. We have shown previously that alkoxyl radicals formed on...

  15. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acids absorbed into the circulation of the animal. Ideally, therefore, the biological value of a feed protein should be determined from the amount and type of amino acid appearing in the portal circulation of the animal, and not simplythe dissappearance of amino acids from the tract. Ruminant digestion may be more easily ...

  16. Antifreeze Proteins of Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Antifreeze Proteins of Bacteria. M K Chattopadhyay. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 25-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/12/0025-0030. Keywords.

  17. NMR of unfolded proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-01-03

    Jan 3, 2005 ... deposition of data and advanced search on the pattern of PDB.12. Detailed characterization of the unfolded state and consequent identification of the folding initiation sites in a given protein provide valuable insight into its folding mechanism.18 Well-formed or transient residual structures in the unfolded ...

  18. Protein Requirements during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Courtney-Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR and recommended dietary allowance (RDA, respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals.

  19. Protein: CAD [Trypanosomes Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CAD carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotaseCAD... trifunctional proteincarbamoylphosphate synthetase 2/aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotasemultifunctional protein CAD... H.sapiens 47458828 18105007 790 P27708 CAD_(gene) 2.1.3.2|3.5.2.3|6.3.5.5 114010 2p22-p21 hsa00250|hsa00240 ...

  20. Measuring protein breakdown in individual proteins in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Kjær, Michael

    2010-01-01

    be used to determine the breakdown rate of specific proteins and, therefore, do not keep up to the preceding methodological demands in physiological research. A newly developed approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of single proteins seems promising. Its conceptual advantage......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo. RECENT FINDINGS: None of the available methods for determining protein breakdown can...... is that the proteins of interest are the site of measurement. Hence, the application initially demands the proteins to be labeled with stable isotopically labeled amino acids. Subsequently, the loss of label from the proteins will be dependent on the protein breakdown rate when no labeled amino acids...