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Sample records for enhancing sesquiterpene production

  1. Enhancing sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through in silico driven metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadollahi, Mohammadali; Maury, Jerome; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2009-01-01

    A genome-scale metabolic model was used to identify new target genes for enhanced biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effect of gene deletions on the flux distributions in the metabolic model of S. cerevisiae was assessed using OptGene as the modeling framework...

  2. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

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    Sangkyu Park

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR and squalene synthase (SS genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS, belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA, resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits.

  3. Sesquiterpenes from the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guiyang; Zhou, Li; Ma, Jianghao; Wang, Ying; Ding, Liqin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Three new sesquiterpenes including a new elemane-type sesquiterpene, 5βH-elem-1,3,7,8-tetraen-8,12-olide (1), and two new carabrane-type sesquiterpenes, 7α,11-epoxy-6α-methoxy-carabrane-4,8-dione (2) and 8,11-epidioxy-8-hydroxy-4-oxo-6-carabren (3), together with eight known sesquiterpenes (4-11) were isolated from Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. A possible biogenetic scheme for the related compounds was postulated. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of Farnesyl Diphosphate Pool as Direct Precursor of Sesquiterpenes Through Metabolic Engineering of the Mevalonate Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadollahi, Mohammadali; Maury, Jerome; Schalk, M.

    2010-01-01

    , resulted in higher production of cubebol, a plant originating sesquiterpene, and increased squalene accumulation. Down-regulation of ERG9 by replacing its native promoter with the regulatable MET3 promoter, enhanced cubebol titers but simultaneous overexpression of tHMG1 and repression of ERG9 did...... not further improve cubebol production. Furtheremore, the concentrations of squalene and ergosterol were measured in the engineered strains. Unexpectedly, significant accumulation of squalene and restoring the ergosterol biosynthesis were observed in the ERG9 repressed strains transformed with the plasmids...

  5. Diversion of flux toward sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by fusion of host and heterologous enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Line; Chen, Yun; Bach, Lars Stougaard

    2011-01-01

    be limited by the inability of the heterologous enzymes to collaborate with the native yeast enzymes. This may cause loss of intermediates by diffusion or degradation or due to conversion of the intermediate through competitive pathways. To bypass this problem, we have pursued a strategy in which key enzymes...... increased the production of patchoulol, the main sesquiterpene produced by PTS, up to 2-fold. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the fusion strategy can be used in combination with traditional metabolic engineering to further increase the production of patchoulol. This simple test case of synthetic biology...

  6. Cadinane sesquiterpenes from Curcuma phaeocaulis with their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianghao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yue; Gao, Suyu; Ding, Liqin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Four new cadinane-type sesquiterpenes named phacadinanes A-D (1-4) were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, as well as accurate mass measurements. Compound 4 was the first example of a rare 4,5-seco-cadinane sesquiterpene isolated from the Zingiberaceae family. Furthermore, inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated macrophages were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 2 showed strong inhibitory activities on NO production with IC50 values of 3.88±0.58 and 2.25±0.71 μM, respectively. A possible biogenetic pathway for 4,5-seco-cadinane sesquiterpene (4) was postulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sesquiterpenes from Curcuma wenyujin with their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

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    Gao, Suyu; Xia, Guiyang; Wang, Liqing; Zhou, Li; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Jian; Chen, Lixia

    2017-03-01

    One new sesquiterpene, 7α,11-epoxy-6α-hydroxy-carabrane-4,8-dione, along with 10 known ones were isolated from the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by the CD analysis of the insitu formed [Rh 2 (OCOCF 3 ) 4 ] complex, and the CD data analysis based on the octane rule of cyclohexanone. The inhibitory effects of these sesquiterpenes on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages were also evaluated. Furthermore, the biosynthesis pathway of the isolated compounds was proposed.

  8. Overexpressing 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR in the lactococcal mevalonate pathway for heterologous plant sesquiterpene production.

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    Adelene Ai-Lian Song

    Full Text Available Isoprenoids are a large and diverse group of metabolites with interesting properties such as flavour, fragrance and therapeutic properties. They are produced via two pathways, the mevalonate pathway or the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP pathway. While plants are the richest source of isoprenoids, they are not the most efficient producers. Escherichia coli and yeasts have been extensively studied as heterologous hosts for plant isoprenoids production. In the current study, we describe the usage of the food grade Lactococcus lactis as a potential heterologous host for the production of sesquiterpenes from a local herbaceous Malaysian plant, Persicaria minor (synonym Polygonum minus. A sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minor was successfully cloned and expressed in L. lactis. The expressed protein was identified to be a β-sesquiphellandrene synthase as it was demonstrated to be functional in producing β-sesquiphellandrene at 85.4% of the total sesquiterpenes produced based on in vitro enzymatic assays. The recombinant L. lactis strain developed in this study was also capable of producing β-sesquiphellandrene in vivo without exogenous substrates supplementation. In addition, overexpression of the strain's endogenous 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase (HMGR, an established rate-limiting enzyme in the eukaryotic mevalonate pathway, increased the production level of β-sesquiphellandrene by 1.25-1.60 fold. The highest amount achieved was 33 nM at 2 h post-induction.

  9. Sesquiterpene lactone trilobolide activates production of interferon-γ and nitric oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmoníčková, Eva; Harmatha, Juraj; Vokáč, Karel; Kostecká, Petra; Farghali, H.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 8 (2010), s. 1213-1219 ISSN 0367-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : trilobolide * nitric oxide * sesquiterpene lactones Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.899, year: 2010

  10. New sesquiterpenes from Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descoins, Charles; Bazzocchi, Isabel López; Ravelo, Angel Gutiérrez

    2002-02-01

    A new sesquiterpene evoninate alkaloid (1), and two sesquiterpenes (2, 3) with a dihydro-beta-agarofuran skeleton, along with three known sesquiterpenes (4-6), were isolated from the seeds of Euonymus europaeus. Their structures were elucidated by high resolution mass analysis, and one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR spectroscopy, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation [correlation spectroscopy (COSY), rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC)] experiments.

  11. Ectopic Terpene Synthase Expression Enhances Sesquiterpene Emission in Nicotiana attenuata without Altering Defense or Development of Transgenic Plants or Neighbors1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Meredith C.; Palmer-Young, Evan C.; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoids, with approximately 5,000 structures, are the most diverse class of plant volatiles with manifold hypothesized functions in defense, stress tolerance, and signaling between and within plants. These hypotheses have often been tested by transforming plants with sesquiterpene synthases expressed behind the constitutively active 35S promoter, which may have physiological costs measured as inhibited growth and reduced reproduction or may require augmentation of substrate pools to achieve enhanced emission, complicating the interpretation of data from affected transgenic lines. Here, we expressed maize (Zea mays) terpene synthase10 (ZmTPS10), which produces (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene, or a point mutant ZmTPS10M, which produces primarily (E)-β-farnesene, under control of the 35S promoter in the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata. Transgenic N. attenuata plants had specifically enhanced emission of target sesquiterpene(s) with no changes detected in their emission of any other volatiles. Treatment with herbivore or jasmonate elicitors induces emission of (E)-α-bergamotene in wild-type plants and also tended to increase emission of (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene in transgenics. However, transgenics did not differ from the wild type in defense signaling or chemistry and did not alter defense chemistry in neighboring wild-type plants. These data are inconsistent with within-plant and between-plant signaling functions of (E)-β-farnesene and (E)-α-bergamotene in N. attenuata. Ectopic sesquiterpene emission was apparently not costly for transgenics, which were similar to wild-type plants in their growth and reproduction, even when forced to compete for common resources. These transgenics would be well suited for field experiments to investigate indirect ecological effects of sesquiterpenes for a wild plant in its native habitat. PMID:25187528

  12. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics.

  13. Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Sesquiterpene Lactones and Their Semi-Synthetic Amino Derivatives as Potential Antitrypanosomal Products

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    Stefanie Zimmermann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs are natural products that have potent antitrypanosomal activity in vitro and, in the case of cynaropicrin, also reduce parasitemia in the murine model of trypanosomiasis. To explore their structure-antitrypanosomal activity relationships, a set of 34 natural and semi-synthetic STLs and amino-STLs was tested in vitro against T. b. rhodesiense (which causes East African sleeping sickness and mammalian cancer cells (rat bone myoblast L6 cells. It was found that the α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety is necessary for both antitrypanosomal effects and cytotoxicity. Antitrypanosomal selectivity is facilitated by 2-(hydroxymethylacrylate or 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylenebutylate side chains, and by the presence of cyclopentenone rings. Semi-synthetic STL amines with morpholino and dimethylamino groups showed improved in vitro activity over the native STLs. The dimethylamino derivative of cynaropicrin was prepared and tested orally in the T. b. rhodesiense acute mouse model, where it showed reduced toxicity over cynaropicrin, but also lost antitrypanosomal activity.

  14. The variability of sesquiterpenes emitted from two Zea mays cultivars is controlled by allelic variation of two terpene synthase genes encoding stereoselective multiple product enzymes.

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    Köllner, Tobias G; Schnee, Christiane; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2004-05-01

    The mature leaves and husks of Zea mays release a complex blend of terpene volatiles after anthesis consisting predominantly of bisabolane-, sesquithujane-, and bergamotane-type sesquiterpenes. The varieties B73 and Delprim release the same volatile constituents but in significantly different proportions. To study the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms controlling terpene diversity and distribution in these varieties, we isolated the closely related terpene synthase genes terpene synthase4 (tps4) and tps5 from both varieties. The encoded enzymes, TPS4 and TPS5, each formed the same complex mixture of sesquiterpenes from the precursor farnesyl diphosphate but with different proportions of products. These mixtures correspond to the sesquiterpene blends observed in the varieties B73 and Delprim, respectively. The differences in the stereoselectivity of TPS4 and TPS5 are determined by four amino acid substitutions with the most important being a Gly instead of an Ala residue at position 409 at the catalytic site of the enzyme. Although both varieties contain tps4 and tps5 alleles, their differences in terpene composition result from the fact that B73 has only a single functional allele of tps4 and no functional alleles of tps5, whereas Delprim has only a functional allele of tps5 and no functional alleles of tps4. Lack of functionality was shown to be attributable to frame-shift mutations or amino acid substitutions that greatly reduce the activity of their encoded proteins. Therefore, the diversity of sesquiterpenes in these two maize cultivars is strongly influenced by single nucleotide changes in the alleles of two terpene synthase genes.

  15. Effects of sesquiterpene, flavonoid and coumarin types of compounds from Artemisia annua L. on production of mediators of angiogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhu, X. X.; Yang, L.; Li, Y. J.; Zhang, D.; Chen, Y.; Kostecká, Petra; Kmoníčková, Eva; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2013), s. 410-420 ISSN 1734-1140 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10116 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : sesquiterpenes * flavonoids * immunosuppression Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.165, year: 2013

  16. Sesquiterpenes from the Endophyte Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhen; Li, Li; Qu, Jing; Ma, Shuanggang; Chen, Ridao; Dai, Jungui; Yu, Shishan

    2017-10-27

    From the cultured endophytic fungus Glomerella cingulata isolated from a toxic plant, Gelsemium elegans, one new phenanthrene (1), four new sesquiterpenes (2-5), and three known sesquiterpenes (6-8) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Based on the ECD calculations, the absolute configurations of the new compounds were determined. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in BV2 cells by 50.6, 36.1, and 29.4%, respectively, at 1 μM (positive control curcumin, IC 50 = 4.0 μM).

  17. The effect of bleaching on the terpene chemistry of Plexaurella fusifera: evidence that zooxanthellae are not responsible for sesquiterpene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz-Ross, Jamie L; Enticknap, Julie J; Kerr, Russell G

    2008-01-01

    The close association between marine invertebrates, zooxanthellae, and numerous bacteria gives rise to the question of the identity of the actual producer of secondary metabolites. In fall of 2005, a widespread bleaching event occurred throughout the Caribbean Sea in which some colonies of the gorgonian coral Plexaurella fusifera bleached. This study investigated whether zooxanthellae play a key role in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite terpenes from P. fusifera. The extent of bleaching was examined by chlorophyll A analysis and also by zooxanthellae isolation and cell counting. The bleached and unbleached colonies were found to contain similar concentrations of eremophilene as the major terpene, and both exhibited similar biosynthetic capability as evaluated by the transformation of [C(1)-(3)H]-farnesyl diphosphate to the sesquiterpenes. Differences in bacterial communities between the bleached and unbleached colonies were analyzed using molecular techniques, and preliminary indications are that unbleached and bleached corals are dominated by low G + C firmicutes and gammaproteobacteria, respectively. It therefore appears that terpene biosynthesis can proceed independently of the zooxanthellae in P. fusifera, suggesting that the coral or a bacterium is the biosynthetic source.

  18. Silver ion chromatography for peak resolution enhancement: Application to the preparative separation of two sesquiterpenes using online heart-cutting LC-LC technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yongmin; Wei, Chong; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji

    2018-09-01

    Silver ion chromatography, utilizing columns packed with silver ions bonded to silica gel, has proved to be an invaluable technique for the analysis of some positional isomers. In this work, silver ion chromatography by combination with online heart-cutting LC-LC technique for the preparative separation of two sesquiterpenes positional isomers from a natural product was investigated. On the basis of the evaluation that silver ion content impacts on the separation, the laboratory-made silver ion columns, utilizing silica gel impregnated with 15% silver nitrate as column packing materials, were used for peak resolution improvement of these two isomers and the preparative separation of them in heart-cutting LC-LC. The relationship among the maximal sample load, flow rate and peak resolution in the silver ion column were optimized, and the performance of the silver ion column was compared with conventional C 18 column and silica gel column. Based on the developed chromatographic conditions, online heart-cutting LC-LC chromatographic separation system in combination with a silica gel column and a silver ion column that was applied to preparative separation of these two isomers from a traditional Chinese medicine, Inula racemosa Hook.f., was established. The results showed that the online heart-cutting LC-LC technique by combination of a silica gel column and a silver ion column for the preparative separation of these two positional isomers from this natural plant was superior to the preparative separation performed on a single-column system with C 18 column or silica gel column. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emissions of Sesquiterpenes from Spruce Sawdust During Drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granstroem, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large amounts of sawdust are dried for production of particleboard and Pellets. During processing of wood (i.e. drying, densification), volatile organic compounds are emitted. These contribute in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight to the formation of ground level ozone and other harmful photo-oxidants. In this study sesquiterpene emissions from the drying of fresh Norway Spruce (Picea abies) sawdust in a continuous spouted bed steam dryer at 140-200 deg C have been investigated, and patterns of covariation between sesquiterpene emissions and drying parameters elucidated. Sesquiterpene emissions was about 20% of the monoterpene emissions. Drying in 200 deg C caused markedly larger sesquiterpene emissions than in 140 deg C or 170 deg C. Whereas a change in moisture content had no notable effect on the amount of sesquiterpenes emitted at high wood moisture contents (25-40%), the sesquiterpene emissions increased considerably as drying proceeded at low wood moisture contents (5-15%). While it has long been known that monoterpenes are a dominant VOC emitted during processing of wood, this study shows that sesquiterpenes are of considerable importance

  20. The Sesquiterpenes(E-ß-Farnesene and (E-α-Bergamotene Quench Ozone but Fail to Protect the Wild Tobacco Nicotiana attenuata from Ozone, UVB, and Drought Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan C Palmer-Young

    Full Text Available Among the terpenes, isoprene (C5 and monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10 have been shown to ameliorate abiotic stress in a number of plant species via two proposed mechanisms: membrane stabilization and direct antioxidant effects. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (C15 not only share the structural properties thought to lend protective qualities to isoprene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, but also react rapidly with ozone, suggesting that sesquiterpenes may similarly enhance tolerance of abiotic stresses. To test whether sesquiterpenes protect plants against ozone, UVB light, or drought, we used transgenic lines of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata. The transgenic plants expressed a maize terpene synthase gene (ZmTPS10 which produced a blend of (E-ß-farnesene and (E-α-bergamotene, or a point mutant of the same gene (ZmTPS10M which produced (E-ß-farnesene alone,. (E-ß-farnesene exerted a local, external, and transient ozone-quenching effect in ozone-fumigated chambers, but we found no evidence that enhanced sesquiterpene production by the plant inhibited oxidative damage, or maintained photosynthetic function or plant fitness under acute or chronic stress. Although the sesquiterpenes (E-ß-farnesene and (E-α-bergamotene might confer benefits under intermittent heat stress, which was not tested, any roles in relieving abiotic stress may be secondary to their previously demonstrated functions in biotic interactions.

  1. Functional Characterization of Sesquiterpene Synthase from Polygonum minus

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    Su-Fang Ee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum minus is an aromatic plant, which contains high abundance of terpenoids, especially the sesquiterpenes C15H24. Sesquiterpenes were believed to contribute to the many useful biological properties in plants. This study aimed to functionally characterize a full length sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minus. P. minus sesquiterpene synthase (PmSTS has a complete open reading frame (ORF of 1689 base pairs encoding a 562 amino acid protein. Similar to other sesquiterpene synthases, PmSTS has two large domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal metal-binding domain. It also consists of three conserved motifs: the DDXXD, NSE/DTE, and RXR. A three-dimensional protein model for PmSTS built clearly distinguished the two main domains, where conserved motifs were highlighted. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed that PmSTS belongs to the angiosperm sesquiterpene synthase subfamily Tps-a. To examine the function of PmSTS, we expressed this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transgenic lines, designated as OE3 and OE7, were further characterized, both molecularly and functionally. The transgenic plants demonstrated smaller basal rosette leaves, shorter and fewer flowering stems, and fewer seeds compared to wild type plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the transgenic plants showed that PmSTS was responsible for the production of β-sesquiphellandrene.

  2. Agarofuran sesquiterpenes from Schaefferia argentinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Manuela E; Motrich, Rubén D; Caputto, Beatriz L; Sánchez, Marianela; Palermo, Jorge A; Estévez-Braun, Ana; Ravelo, Angel G; Nicotra, Viviana E

    2013-10-01

    Sixteen dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes were isolated from the aerial parts of Schaefferia argentinensis Speg. Their structures were determined by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. The in vitro antiproliferative activity of the major sesquiterpenes was examined in T47D, MCF7, and MDA-MB231 human cancer cell lines, but was found to be marginal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

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    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  4. Sesquiterpene lactones from Taraxacum obovatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Klaudia; Kisiel, Wanda

    2003-02-01

    Two new guaianolide glucosides, deacetylmatricarin 8-O-beta-glucopyranoside and 11beta-hydroxyleukodin 11-O-beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from roots of Taraxacum obovatum, along with four known sesquiterpene lactones, deacetylmatricarin, sonchuside A, taraxinic acid beta-glucopyranosyl ester and its 11beta,13-dihydro derivative. Their structures were established by spectral methods.

  5. Enhancing hospital productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, B.L.

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare expenditure in Western countries is substantial and outpaces economic growth, therefore cost containment in healthcare is high on the political agenda. One option is to increase productivity in healthcare, do more with less. This thesis uses the Dutch hospitals as a case-study and

  6. Natural sesquiterpen lactones as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

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    HOMA HAJIMEHDIPOOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: The amount of elder people who suffer from Alzheimer disease is continuously increasing every year. Cholinesterase inhibitors have shown to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of the disease, thus opening a field of research for these treatments. Herbal products, owning a reputation as effective agents in many biological studies are now drawing attention for inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, in other words, Alzheimer disease. In the present study, the ability of three sesquiterpene lactones from Inula oculus-christi and I. aucheriana to inhibit AChE has been evaluated through Ellman assay.Materials and Methods: Gaillardin and pulchellin C were obtained from I. oculus-christi and britannin from I. aucheriana by chromatographic methods. They were dissolved in methanol in concentration of 3 mg/mL and the AChEI activity of the compounds was determined by Ellman method using Acethylthiocholine iodide as the substrate and 5, 5′-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid as the reagent, in 96-well plates at 405 nm.Results: AChEI activity of the examined compounds was obtained as 67.0, 25.2 and 10.9% in concentration of 300 µg/L for gaillardin, britannin and pulchellin C, respectively.Conclusion: Among the three sesquiterpene lactones, gaillardin with 67% inhibition of AChE could be considered a good candidate for future Alzheimer studies.

  7. Sesquiterpene lactones from neurolaena oaxacana

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    Passreiter; Sandoval-Ramirez; Wright

    1999-08-01

    Twelve sesquiterpene lactones, two new (1 and 2) and 10 known neurolenin-type germacranolides and furanoheliangolides (3-12) were isolated from Neurolaena oaxacana, and their structures were elucidated by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The chemotaxonomic importance of these findings is discussed. As N. lobata is used against dysenteries, neurolenin B (4) and a mixture of the neurolenins C (5) and D (6) were tested against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis.

  8. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

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    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  9. Sesquiterpenes from the Formosan stolonifer Tubipora musica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, C Y; Chen, K J; El-Gamal, A A; Dai, C F

    2001-11-01

    Eight new sesquiterpenes, tubipolides A-G (1-7) and tubiporone (8) (novel carbon skeleton), and a known sesquiterpene, spirotubipolide, have been isolated from the Formosan stolonifer Tubipora musica. The structures of compounds 1-8 were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis.

  10. Isogermacrene A, a proposed intermediate in sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Thomas; König, Wilfried A; Muhle, Hermann

    2004-08-01

    In the essential oil of the liverwort Saccogyna viticulosa, collected on the island of Madeira, the new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons isogermacrene A (5) and its Cope rearrangement product iso-beta-elemene (6) were identified. 5 is proposed to act as the biogenetic precursor of several new sesquiterpenes identified in the volatiles of S. viticulosa. These include iso-alpha-humulene, alpha-gorgonene, gorgona-1,4(15), 11-triene and gorgon- 11-en-4-ol. In addition, the Cope product of zierene, isozierene, allo-aromadendra-4(15),10(14)-diene, aromadendra-4(15),10(14)-dien-1-ol and a prenylguaiane diterpene alcohol, named viticulol, were identified as new natural products.

  11. Effects of some sesquiterpenes on the stored-product insect Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Efectos de algunos sesquiterpenos sobre el insecto de productos almacenados, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the allelochemical activity of some sesquiterpenes isolated from the native plant Tessaria absinthioides (Hook. et Arn. DC, and some semi synthetic derivatives against Tenebrio molitor L. larvae, we have developed bioassays directed to quantify repellency, larval mortality, and its effects on the development. Although costic aldehyde caused the maximum repellent effect, all the compounds showed a significant effect at some dose or time, indicating behavioral avoidance. The topical application of costic aldehyde produced the largest increase on the duration of the pupal stage. Tessaric acid exhibited the highest toxicity by topical application at the experiment closure. Both eremophilane-1(10,2,11(13-triene-12-oic, and -costic acids induced some morphological deformities.Con el objeto de evaluar sesquiterpenos aislados de la planta nativa Tessaria absinthioides (Hook et Arn y algunos derivados semisintéticos frente a larvas de Tenebrio molitor L., se desarrollaron bioensayos orientados a la cuantificación de la repelencia, mortalidad de larvas y efectos sobre el desarrollo. Aldehído cóstico produjo el mayor incremento en la duración del estado pupal por aplicación tópica. Acido tessárico exhibió el más alto porcentaje de mortalidad al finalizar el período de experimentación. Los productos eremophilan-1(10,2, 11(13-trien-12-oico y ácido -cóstico dieron lugar al mayor número de malformaciones. Si bien aldehído cóstico mostró la máxima actividad de repelencia, todos los compuestos evaluados produjeron efectos significativos en el ensayo de elección.

  12. Within-canopy sesquiterpene ozonolysis in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; YañEz Serrano, A.; Arneth, A.; Abrell, L.; Jardine, A.; van Haren, J.; Artaxo, P.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ishida, F. Y.; Karl, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Saleska, S.; Huxman, T.

    2011-10-01

    Through rapid reactions with ozone, which can initiate the formation of secondary organic aerosols, the emission of sesquiterpenes from vegetation in Amazonia may have significant impacts on tropospheric chemistry and climate. Little is known, however, about sesquiterpene emissions, transport, and chemistry within plant canopies owing to analytical difficulties stemming from very low ambient concentrations, high reactivities, and sampling losses. Here, we present ambient sesquiterpene concentration measurements obtained during the 2010 dry season within and above a primary tropical forest canopy in Amazonia. We show that by peaking at night instead of during the day, and near the ground instead of within the canopy, sesquiterpene concentrations followed a pattern different from that of monoterpenes, suggesting that unlike monoterpene emissions, which are mainly light dependent, sesquiterpene emissions are mainly temperature dependent. In addition, we observed that sesquiterpene concentrations were inversely related with ozone (with respect to time of day and vertical concentration), suggesting that ambient concentrations are highly sensitive to ozone. These conclusions are supported by experiments in a tropical rain forest mesocosm, where little atmospheric oxidation occurs and sesquiterpene and monoterpene concentrations followed similar diurnal patterns. We estimate that the daytime dry season ozone flux of -0.6 to -1.5 nmol m-2 s-1 due to in-canopy sesquiterpene reactivity could account for 7%-28% of the net ozone flux. Our study provides experimental evidence that a large fraction of total plant sesquiterpene emissions (46%-61% by mass) undergo within-canopy ozonolysis, which may benefit plants by reducing ozone uptake and its associated oxidative damage.

  13. Immunosuppressive sesquiterpenes from Buddleja daviddi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Yao, Zhi; Zhang, Yan Wen; Zhang, Xing Xiang; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Duan, Hong Quan

    2010-11-01

    Six new sesquiterpenes, 2,6(12),10-humulatrien-7β-ol-1-one (1), 2 α-acetoxy-5α-methoxy-enantio-caryophylla-8(15)-en-3-one (2), 2α-acetoxy-5α-hydroxy-enantio-caryophylla-8(15)-en-3-one (3), 2α-acetoxy-4β,5α-hydroxy-enantio-caryophylla-8(15)-en-3-one ( 4), 2α-acetoxy-4β,5β-hydroxy-enantio-caryophylla-8(15)-en-3-one (5), 2β-acetoxy-4-caryophyllen-8β-ol-3-one (6), and nineteen known compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of Buddleja daviddi. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 8-11, 14, 16, 17, and 20 showed significant immunosuppressive activities, and 8-11 and 14 were cytotoxic on HeLa and L929 cell lines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Identification and Functional Characterization of Sesquiterpene Synthases from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanjun; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Zhenqiu; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-03-01

    Xanthium strumarium synthesizes various pharmacologically active sesquiterpenes. The molecular characterization of sesquiterpene biosynthesis in X. strumarium has not been reported so far. In this study, the cDNAs coding for three sesquiterpene synthases (designated as XsTPS1, XsTPS2 and XsTPS3) were isolated using the X. strumarium transcriptome that we recently constructed. XsTPS1, XsTPS2 and XsTPS3 were revealed to have primary activities forming germacrene D, guaia-4,6-diene and germacrene A, respectively, by either ectopic expression in yeast cells or purified recombinant protein-based in vitro assays. Quantitative real-time PCRs and metabolite analysis for the different plant parts showed that the transcript abundance of XsTPS1-XsTPS3 is consistent with the accumulation pattern of their enzymatic products, supporting their biochemical functions in vivo. In particular, we discovered that none of the XsTPS2 product, guaia-4,6-diene, can be detected in one of the X. strumarium cultivars used in this study (it was named the Hubei-cultivar), in which a natural deletion of two A bases in the XsTPS2 cDNA disrupts its activity, which further confirmed the proposed biochemical role of XsTPS2 in X. strumarium in vivo. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sesquiterpene lactones in two endemic Anthemis species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staneva, J.; Todorova, M.; Evstatieva, L.; Dimitrov, D.

    2006-01-01

    The aerial parts of Anthemis stribrnyi subsp.tracica and A. macedonica afforded four and nine sesquiterpene lactones, respectively. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods. Acetylisospiciformin is a new natural compound. (authors)

  16. Sesquiterpenes and a phenylpropanoid from Cordia trichotoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Jane Eire S A; Machado, Francisca Elane A; Lemos, Telma Leda G; Silveira, Edilberto R; Braz Filho, Raimundo; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2004-01-01

    Two new secondary metabolites, the phenylpropanoid 3-(2',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoic acid (1) and the sesquiterpene (+)-1beta,4beta,6alpha-trihydroxyeudesmane (2) were isolated from the heartwood of Cordia trichotoma Vell., along with the known sesquiterpenes (-)-1beta,4beta,7alpha-trihydroxyeudesmane (3) and (+)-1beta,4beta,11-trihydroxyoppositane (4). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry.

  17. Sesquiterpenes with TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Utpal K; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-08-01

    The ability of TRAIL to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal cells makes it an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapy. In search of bioactive natural products for overcoming TRAIL-resistance from natural resources, we previously reported a number of active compounds. In our screening program on natural resources targeting overcoming TRAIL-resistance, activity-guided fractionations of the extract of Xanthium strumarium led to the isolation of five sesquiterpene compounds (1-5). 11α,13-dihydroxanthinin (2) and 11α,13-dihydroxanthuminol (3) were first isolated from natural resources and xanthinosin (1), desacetylxanthanol (4), and lasidiol p-methoxybenzoate (5) were known compounds. All compounds (1-5) showed potent TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity at 8, 20, 20, 16, and 16 μM, respectively, in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. Compounds 1 and 5 enhanced the levels of apoptosis inducing proteins DR4, DR5, p53, CHOP, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9 and also decreased the levels of cell survival protein Bcl-2 in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 1 also enhanced the levels of DR4 and DR5 proteins in a time-dependent manner. Thus, compounds 1 and 5 were found to induce both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic cell death. Compound 1 also exhibit TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity in DLD1, DU145, HeLa, and MCF7 cells but did not decrease viability in non-cancer HEK293 cells up to 8 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photosynthesis solutions to enhance productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Ruban, Alexander V; Nixon, Peter J

    2017-09-26

    The concept that photosynthesis is a highly inefficient process in terms of conversion of light energy into biomass is embedded in the literature. It is only in the past decade that the processes limiting photosynthetic efficiency have been understood to an extent that allows a step change in our ability to manipulate light energy assimilation into carbon gain. We can therefore envisage that future increases in the grain yield potential of our major crops may depend largely on increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis. The papers in this issue provide new insights into the nature of current limitations on photosynthesis and identify new targets that can be used for crop improvement, together with information on the impacts of a changing environment on the productivity of photosynthesis on land and in our oceans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Allergenic sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii Cass.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Andersen, Klaus E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) of the Compositae family of plants has become a popular pot and container plant. The plant produces the sesquiterpene lactone allergen calocephalin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sensitizing potential of sesquiterpene lactones from cushion ...

  20. Secondary organic aerosol from sesquiterpene and monoterpene emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Guenther, Alex; Helmig, Detlev; Milford, Jana; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2008-12-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation are believed to be a major source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which in turn comprises a large fraction of fine particulate matter in many areas. Sesquiterpenes are a class of biogenic VOC with high chemical reactivity and SOA yields. Sesquiterpenes have only recently been quantified in emissions from a wide variety of plants. In this study, a new sesquiterpene emission inventory is used to provide input to the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. CMAQ is used to estimate the contribution of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes to SOA concentrations over the contiguous United States. The gas-particle partitioning module of CMAQ was modified to include condensable products of sesquiterpene oxidation and to update values of the enthalpy of vaporization. The resulting model predicts July monthly average surface concentrations of total SOA in the eastern U.S. ranging from about 0.2-0.8 microg m(-3). This is roughly double the amount of SOA produced in this region when sesquiterpenes are not included. Even with sesquiterpenes included, however, the model significantly underpredicts surface concentrations of particle-phase organic matter compared to observed values. Treating all SOA as capable of undergoing polymerization increases predicted monthly average surface concentrations in July to 0.4-1.2 microg m(-3), in closer agreement with observations. Using the original enthalpy of vaporization value in CMAQ in place of the values estimated from the recent literature results in predicted SOA concentrations of about 0.3-1.3 microg m(-3).

  1. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Compositae sensitization are routinely warned against the ingestion of vegetables, spices, teas and herbal remedies from this family of plants. The evidence for the occurrence of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants is mostly anecdotal...

  2. Total synthesis of insect antifeedant drimane sesquiterpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The investigations described in this thesis deal with the total synthesis of sesquiterpenes of the drimane family, named for their widespread occurrence in the stem bark of South American Drimys species. These compounds contain the bicyclofarnesol nucleus

  3. Patch testing with the "sesquiterpene lactone mix"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducombs, G; Benezra, C; Talaga, P

    1990-01-01

    6278 patients were patch tested with a sesquiterpene lactone mix (SL-mix) in 10 European clinics. 4011 patients were tested only with 0.1% SL-mix, 63 (approximately 1.5%) of whom were positive, with 26 (41%) of these cases being considered clinically relevant. There were no cases of active...

  4. Total synthesis of lactarane and marasmane sesquiterpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, R.P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Lactarane and marasmane sesquiterpenes are mostly found in nature as metabolites from mushrooms of the genera Lactarius and Russula . Because a considerable number of these compounds possesses a variety of interesting biological activities, they are

  5. Sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia - influence of glaucolide-A on the growth rate and survival of Lepidopterous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samuel B; Burnett, William C; Coile, Nancy C; Mabry, Tom J; Betkouski, M F

    1979-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A from Vernonia, incorporated in the rearing diets of five species of Lepidoptera, significantly reduced the rate of growth of larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania; fall armyworm, S. frugiperda; and yellowstriped armyworm, S. ornithogalli. Quantitative feeding tests demonstrated that decreased feeding levels and reduced growth resulted from ingestion of a sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of glaucolide-A increased the number of days to pupation in four of the species. In the southern armyworm, it significantly reduced pupal weight. Glaucolide-A decidedly reduced percentage of survival of southern and fall armyworms. Yellow woollybear, Diacrisia virginica, and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larvae were essentially uneffected by the ingestion of the sesquiterpene lactone. Sesquiterpene lactones adversely affect growth rate and survival of certain insects that feed upon plants containing them. They apparently function as defensive products, screening out a portion of the potential herbivores.

  6. New Sesquiterpene Oxidations with CYP260A1 and CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifrin, Alexander; Litzenburger, Martin; Ringle, Michael; Ly, Thuy T B; Bernhardt, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Sesquiterpenes are natural products derived from the common precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) but are highly diverse in structure and function. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) exhibit the unique ability to introduce molecular oxygen into non-activated C-H bonds. In plant biosynthetic pathways, P450s commonly derivatize sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. However, the potential of bacterial P450s for terpene derivatization is still underinvestigated. This work compares the substrate specificities and regioselectivities of the sesquiterpene hydroxylases CYP260A1 and CYP264B1 from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56. Four tested substrate classes (eremophilanes, humulanes, caryophyllanes, and cedranes) were converted by both P450s. The achievable variety of oxidations is demonstrated on the model substrates (+)-nootkatone and zerumbone. Increasing the number of functionally investigated P450s, this study represents a step towards the selective derivatization of sesquiterpenes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Problems concerning product quality enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article analysis of the discrepancies in the production process for selected products in a company producing candles was carried out. Using the Pareto-Lorenzdiagram and the FMEA method the most essential areas having influence on the production of candles were shown. Apart from factors connected with the manufacturing side of the process, factors of the labour organization and requirements concerning the quality of material were also noted. An appropriate quality of equipment constitutes one of the essential conditions of production process functioning and this directly influences manufacturing possibilities of the enterprise. A synthesis of immaterial factors that influence the production of the enterprise, taking into consideration conditions of functioning the production system, was also carried out. The set of factors selected for description was the fourteenth Toyota management principle. Respondents were asked to provide answers which could bring the best improvements.

  8. Hydrioxylation of sesquiterpenes by enzymes from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, de J.W.; Schurink, M.; Franssen, M.C.R.; König, W.A.; Groot, de Æ.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    A microsomal enzyme preparation of chicory roots catalyses the hydroxylation of various sesquiterpene olefins in the presence of NADPH. Most of these hydroxylations take place at an isopropenyl or isopropylidene group. The number of products obtained from any of the substrates is confined to one or,

  9. Compartmentation of mono- and sesqui-terpene biosynthesis of the essential oil in poncirus trifoliata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, G.; Wegener, R.; Schultze, W.

    1980-01-01

    The fruit of Poncirus trifoliata shows glandular cells complexes in the exocarp, which produce a volatile oil rich in monoterpenes but poor in sesquiterpenes and oxigenated compounds. The juice vesicles of the endocarp possess similar cell complexes mainly containing sesquiterpenes and oxigenated compounds, whereas monoterpenes only occur in small amounts. By the use of combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 19 components of the rind oil and 15 compounds of the endocarp oil could be identified. As demonstrated by electron microscopy the terpenes most probably are synthesized predominantly, if not exclusively in plastids. As shown by gasradiochromatography radioactive precursors ( 14 Co 2 and 14 C-leucine) are incorporated into mono- and sesqui-terpenes to a different extent. This is due to two gland types producing essential oils of different composition with regard to their mono- and sesqui-terpene percentage. In fruit development the exocarp glands differentiate earlier than the endocarp glands do. The activity of exogenously applied 14 Co 2 first reaches the peripheral glands and later on appears in the interior glands. Depending upon the growth season, labelled leucine transported by the conducting tissues from lower plant parts leads to a high specific activity of the sesqui-terpenes and oxigenated compounds. It could be argued that in this instance the glands of the pulp are better provided with precursors than the exocarp glands. The successive maxima of essential oil production in both glandular complexes, and the changes in the concentration of individual oil constituents during the ontogeny of the fruit also contribute to different incorporation ratios of radioactive precursors into mono- and sesqui-terpenes. (author)

  10. Enhancing isoprenoid production through systematically assembling and modulating efflux pumps in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Feng; Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Yong

    2013-09-01

    Enhancement of the cellular exportation of heterologous compounds is an important aspect to improve the product yield in microbial cell factory. Efflux pumps can expel various intra- or extra-cellular substances out of microbial hosts and increase the cellular tolerance. Thus in this study, by using the hydrophobic sesquiterpene (amorphadiene) and diterpene (kaurene) as two model compounds, we attempted to improve isoprenoid production through systematically engineering the efflux pumps in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The pleiotropic resistant pumps, AcrAB-TolC, MdtEF-TolC from E. coli and heterologous MexAB-OprM pump from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were overexpressed, assembled, and finely modulated. We found that overexpression of AcrB and TolC components can effectively enhance the specific yield of amorphadiene and kaurene, e.g., 31 and 37 % improvement for amorphadiene compared with control, respectively. The heterologous MexB component can enhance kaurene production with 70 % improvement which is more effective than TolC and AcrB. The results suggest that the three components of tripartite efflux pumps play varied effect to enhance isoprenoid production. Considering the highly organized structure of efflux pumps and importance of components interaction, various component combinations were constructed and the copy number of key components AcrB and TolC was finely modulated as well. The results exhibit that the combination TolC and TolC and AcrB improved the specific yield of amorphadiene with 118 %, and AcrA and TolC and AcrB improved that of kaurene with 104 %. This study indicates that assembling and finely modulating efflux pumps is an effective strategy to improve the production of heterologous compounds in E. coli.

  11. Insight into Biochemical Characterization of Plant Sesquiterpene Synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manczak, Tom; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    A fast and reproducible protocol was established for enzymatic characterization of plant sesquiterpene synthases that can incorporate radioactivity in their products. The method utilizes the 96-well format in conjunction with cluster tubes and enables processing of >200 samples a day. Along...... with reduced reagent usage, it allows further reduction in the use of radioactive isotopes and flammable organic solvents. The sesquiterpene synthases previously characterized were expressed in yeast, and the plant-derived Thapsia garganica kunzeaol synthase TgTPS2 was tested in this method. KM for TgTPS2...... was found to be 0.55 μM; the turnover number, kcat, was found to be 0.29 s-1, kcat for TgTPS2 is in agreement with that of terpene synthases of other plants, and kcat/KM was found to be 0.53 s-1 μM-1 for TgTPS2. The kinetic parameters were in agreement with previously published data....

  12. Anti-allergic activity of sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2011-02-01

    From the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (CRE), several major constituents including the sesquiterpene derivatives (valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide), monoterpenes (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) and 4-cymene were isolated and examined for their anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. In rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells, the sesquiterpenes strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed leukotrienes production. In addition, they inhibited β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, with valencene having the highest inhibitory effect. CRE inhibited leukotrienes production and β-hexosaminidase release at 300 μg/mL. It was also found that the most active sesquiterpene (valencene) and CRE inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation by inhibiting the initial activation reaction, Lyn phosphorylation, in IgE-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, CRE, valencene and nootkatone significantly inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice when administered orally at 50-300 mg/kg. In conclusion, C. rotundus and its constituents, valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide, exert anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. These sesquiterpenes, but not monoterpenes, certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of C. rotundus.

  13. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  14. Production-enhancement partnerships: Successful business arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coble, L.E.; Weitzel, K.R.; Attai, L.F.; Gray, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Production-enhancement projects are creating changes in business relationships between oil and gas and service companies. The most successful projects are building partnerships. Service companies are being asked to share the risk while supplying services to enhance well performance. Risk sharing creates common project objectives and requires the service company's involvement in initial project planning, job design, and reservoir understanding. Service-work compensation is based on well- or field-performance improvement resulting from the treatment(s). This paper presents an integrated approach to the selection and prioritization of well candidates for production-enhancement jobs or treatments. Processes are illustrated, and data requirements and techniques necessary to select well candidates that provide the highest return on investment are discussed. Field examples demonstrate the techniques, critical factors, and appropriate software used by geoscience and field-operations teams to maximize benefits from production-enhancement projects

  15. Dehydrobrachylaenolide: an eudesmanetype sesquiterpene lactone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rademeyer, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-ring eudesmanolide, C15H16O3, is a natural product isolated from Dicoma anomala Sond. (Asteraceae). The compound contains an endo-exo cross conjugated methylenecyclohexenone ring with an envelope conformation trans-fused with cyclohexane...

  16. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related activit...... activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study....

  17. Magnetically-enhanced open string pair production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J. X.

    2017-12-01

    We consider the stringy interaction between two parallel stacks of D3 branes placed at a separation. Each stack of D3 branes in a similar fashion carry an electric flux and a magnetic flux with the two sharing no common field strength index. The interaction amplitude has an imaginary part, giving rise to the Schwinger-like pair production of open strings. We find a significantly enhanced rate of this production when the two electric fluxes are almost identical and the brane separation is on the order of string scale. This enhancement will be largest if the two magnetic fluxes are opposite in direction. This novel enhancement results from the interplay of the non-perturbative Schwinger-type pair production due to the electric flux and the stringy tachyon due to the magnetic flux, and may have realistic physical applications.

  18. Spirocyclopropane-type sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Rita; von Reuss, Stephan H; König, Wilfried A

    2010-08-01

    The essential oil of Schinus terebinthifolius fruits was reinvestigated using GC and GC-MS techniques. Apart from several known compounds three sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with a carbon skeleton exhibiting the rare spiro(cyclopropane) moiety could be isolated by a combination of column chromatography and GLC. Structure assignments were carried out by NMR spectroscopy. These natural products are 9-spiro(cyclopropa)-4,4,8-trimethyl-2-methylenbicyclo[4.3.0]non-1(6)-ene (terebanene), 9-spiro(cyclopropa)-2,4,4,8-tetramethylbicyclo[4.3.0]nona-1,5-diene (teredenene), and (6R*,8R*)-9-spiro(cyclopropa)-2,4,4,8-tetramethylbicyclo[4.3.0]non-1-ene (terebinthene). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6 - O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6 - O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3 - methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  20. Evaluation of factors important to enhance productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity as a measure for output is important to industry and academia. In this research, factors to enhance productivity have been identified from the literature by reviewing various international and national sources to explore this evergreen field of research that is “productivity,” which has always been an increasingly interesting area of research for researchers over decades or perhaps over centuries. In total, 15 number of factors have been identified to enhance productivity. Analytic hierarchy process approach has been appropriately chosen to rank these factors because of its simplicity and effectiveness. The tool has been used by taking perception of experts from the Indian manufacturing industry. Positive attitude and involvement of management, proactive employees, and good working conditions have been ranked as top three factors as per the experts’ opinion. The ranking of factors to enhance productivity, categorization of the factors into four perspectives, and hierarchy of perspective and action plan as a final outcome of the paper may help academia and operations managers toward effective management of “operations and production activities of firms/supply chains.”

  1. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  2. Four new sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis and their iNOS inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiang-Hao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yue; Gao, Su-Yu; Ding, Li-Qin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Li-Xia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Three new guaiane-type sesquiterpenes named phaeocaulisins K-M (1-3), and one germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid with new ring system of 1,5- and 1,8-ether groups named phagermadiol (4), were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1, the first example of norsesquiterpene with tropone backbone, and compound 3 with a novel 1,2-dioxolane sesquiterpene alcohol were isolated from the genus Curcuma. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compound 3 inhibited NO production with IC50 value of 6.05 ± 0.43 μM. The plausible biosynthetic pathway for compounds 3 and 4 in C. phaeocaulis was also discussed.

  3. Production enhancement partnerships -- successful business arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coble, L.; Weitzel, K.; Attai, L.; Gray, K.

    1995-01-01

    Production enhancement projects are creating changes in business relationships between oil and gas and service companies. The most successful projects are building partnerships. Service companies are being asked to share the risk while supplying services to enhance well performance. Risk sharing creates common project objectives and requires the service company's involvement in initial project planning, job design, and reservoir understanding. Service work compensation is based on well or field performance improvement as a result of the treatment(s). This paper presents an integrated approach to the selection and prioritization of well candidates for production enhancement jobs or treatments. Special emphasis is placed on reservoir understanding using field reviews and/or extensive reservoir description studies to provide the essential information for well candidate selection and the best return on investment. Processes are illustrated and discussion gives the data requirements and techniques used to select and prioritize well candidates. Field examples demonstrate the techniques, critical factors, and appropriate software used by geoscience and field operations teams to maximize benefits from production enhancement projects

  4. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXIII. Isolation of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Geppert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from 18 species or subspecies of the genus Centaurea L.: salonitenolide (I was found in C. crithmifolia Vis., C. friderici Vis., C, paniculata L., C. calcitrapa L., C. pontica Prodan et E. L' Nyarady, C. eriophora L., C. alba L. subsp. deusta (Ten. Nyman, C. alba L. subsp. caliacrae (Prodan Dostal and C. weldeniana Reichenb.; cnicin (II was found in: C. vallesiaca (DC. Jordan, C. calcitrapa L., C. aspera L. subsp. aspera, C. sphaerocephala L. subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman, C. sulphurea Willd., C. eriophora L. and C. rocheliana (Heuffel Dostal; cynaropicrin (III was detected in C. debeauxii Gren. et Gordon subsp. thuillieri Dostal; acroptillin (V, repin (VI and janerin (VII in C. bella Trautv. Other unidentified sesquiterpene lactones were also found to be present in the examined plants.

  5. Seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Myneni, R.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple evidences of widespread greening and increasing terrestrial carbon uptake have been documented. In particular, enhanced gross productivity of northern vegetation has been a critical role leading to observed carbon uptake trend. However, seasonal photosynthetic activity and its contribution to observed annual carbon uptake trend and interannual variability are not well understood. Here, we introduce a multiple-source of datasets including ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple process-based global vegetation models to understand how seasonal variation of land surface vegetation controls a large-scale carbon exchange. Our analysis clearly shows a seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity in growing season during last decades. Particularly, increasing gross productivity in late spring and early summer is obvious and dominant driver explaining observed trend and variability. We observe more asymmetric productivity enhancement in warmer region and this spatially varying asymmetricity in northern vegetation are likely explained by canopy development rate, thermal and light availability. These results imply that continued warming may facilitate amplifying asymmetric vegetation activity and cause these trends to become more pervasive, in turn warming induced regime shift in northern land.

  6. Targeted modification of trilobolide and search for related sesquiterpenes with immunobiological properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmatha, Juraj; Buděšínský, Miloš; Vokáč, Karel; Kmoníčková, Eva; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 12 (2011), s. 1400-1400 ISSN 0032-0943. [International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research /59./. 04.09.2011-09.09.2011, Antalya] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : sesquiterpenes * guaianolides * trilobolide * immunomodulation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. (+)-4 beta-hydroxyhernandulcin, a new sweet sesquiterpene from the leaves and flowers of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, N; Lee, I S; Gupta, M P; Soejarto, D D; Kinghorn, A D

    1992-08-01

    From the leaves and flowers of Lippia dulcis collected in Panama, a new sweet sesquiterpene identified as (+)-4 beta-hydroxyhernandulcin [2] was isolated, accompanied by (+)-hernandulcin [1], (-)-epihernandulcin [3] (a novel natural product), and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one [4]. Acteoside (verbascoside) [5], a known bitter phenylpropanoid glycoside, was isolated from the flowers of L. dulcis. The structure of (+)-4 beta-hydroxyhernandulcin was established by interpretation of its spectral data.

  8. Lean Production Practices to Enhance Organisational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Satya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Service sector organisations are constantly overcoming the challenges facing the over-production and waste reduction within their environments. Industries are also becoming very competitive thus forcing them to seek suitable production organisation strategies with the aim towards enhancing their competitiveness and efficiency. The aim of this research study is to investigate the impact of lean production practices on the performance of service based businesses through the case study of a local baked goods supplier. The research framework adopted consists of questionnaire survey method implemented with different end users, thus covering the overall production – retail – customer cycle. The research results and analysis justify the objective of the research that lean production practices enhance the performance of the supplier company and the common tool identified were JIT (Just in Time, Value Steam Mapping (VSP and the 5S methods. The results also suggest that JIT method has a higher impact towards improvement on performance relating to quality, speed, dependability, flexibility and cost of the supplier. However, the research study also identifies that one of the major challenges faced by the organisation while adopting lean practices was the lack of commitment from top management, continuous training and employee engagement measures.

  9. Determination of Sesquiterpenes in Wines by HS-SPME Coupled with GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Cincotta, Fabrizio; Verzera, Antonella; Tripodi, Gianluca; Condurso, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    The sesquiterpene compounds present in red wines were characterized and quantified by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction in combination with Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Sixteen sesquiterpenes were identified, mainly hydrocarbons but also derived oxygenated compounds. Sesquiterpenes were acyclic, monocyclic, byciclic and tryciclic. Sesquiterpenes were detected in SIM (selected ion monitoring) mode using their characteristics ions. All the sesquiterpenes were identi...

  10. Production of (+)-valencene in the mushroom-forming fungus S. commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtmeijer, K.; Beekwilder, J.; Cankar, K.; Wösten, H.A.B.; Lugones, L.G.; Bosch, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Production of commercially interesting sesquiterpenes was previously examined in plants and microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We here investigate the potential of the mushroom Schizophyllum commune for the production of sesquiterpenes. Genomic analysis of S.

  11. Biosynthesis of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, A.M.; Saillard, N.; Yang, T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The daisy-like flowers of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) are used to extract pyrethrins, a botanical insecticide with a long history of safe and effective use. Pyrethrum flowers also contain other potential defense compounds, particularly sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which represent

  12. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, A; Jeyachandran, R; Cindrella, L; Thangadurai, D; Veerapur, V P; Muralidhara Rao, D

    2010-06-01

    The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The diagnostic markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin contents were significantly elevated, whereas significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation, liver weight and liver protein were observed in CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Post-treatment with ETO and SL significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the lower levels of hepatic enzyme markers, such as serum transaminase (ALT, AST), ALP and total bilirubin. Further, significant reduction in the liver weight and liver protein in drug-treated hepatotoxic mice and also reduced oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione content and decreasing lipid peroxidation level has been noticed. The histopathological evaluation of the liver also revealed that ETO and SL reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl 4 . The results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones have a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by the administration of CCl 4 in mice. Furthermore, observed activity of SL may be due to the synergistic action of two sesquiterpene lactones identified from enriched ethyl acetate fraction by HPLC method.

  13. Variability of sesquiterpene lactones in Neurolaena lobata of different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passreiter, C M; Aldana, B E

    1998-06-01

    Leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. originating from Guatemala, were analyzed using HPLC for their qualitative and quantitative sesquiterpene lactone contents. Significant differences in the individual amounts of neurolenins and furanoheliangolides were found between four natural populations. When plants were cultivated on proving fields at two different localities in Guatemala, their sesquiterpene lactone patterns matched the natural population, but differed quantitatively. The meaning of these differences for the use of N. lobata in traditional medicine and its cultivation is discussed.

  14. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpene lactones of artemisinin was isolated from the aboveground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment.The purpose of the study was the review of the information from the open sources about the study for sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua referring to its pharmacological activity.Methods. The study was carried out using informational and search engines (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, and the results of our own researches.Results. It was established that apart from the essential oil and phenolic compounds, aboveground part of Artemisia annua, it contains a significant amount of sesquiterpene lactones. Qualitative content and quantitative composition of sesquiterpene lactones varies depending on the ecological and geographic factors, plants growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of the extracts from Artemisia annua herb with sesquiterpene lactones, as well as individual compounds of this group characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for more profound research.Conclusion. Our analysis of the open materials on the sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua, including phytochemical and pharmacological ones, allows characterization of the Artemisia annua herb as a perspective source for new drugs working out.

  15. Determination of the absolute configurations of natural products via density functional theory calculations of optical rotation, electronic circular dichroism, and vibrational circular dichroism: the cytotoxic sesquiterpene natural products quadrone, suberosenone, suberosanone, and suberosenol A acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, P J; McCann, D M; Devlin, F J; Smith, A B

    2006-07-01

    The determination of the absolute configurations (ACs) of chiral molecules using the chiroptical techniques of optical rotation (OR), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) has been revolutionized by the development of density functional theory (DFT) methods for the prediction of these properties. Here, we demonstrate the significance of these advances for the stereochemical characterization of natural products. Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations of the specific rotations, [alpha](D), of four cytotoxic natural products, quadrone (1), suberosenone (2), suberosanone (3), and suberosenol A acetate (4), are used to assign their ACs. TDDFT calculations of the ECD of 1 are used to assign its AC. The VCD spectrum of 1 is reported and also used, together with DFT calculations, to assign its AC. The ACs of 1 derived from its [alpha](D), ECD, and VCD are identical and in agreement with the AC previously determined via total synthesis. The previously undetermined ACs of 2-4, derived from their [alpha](D) values, have absolute configurations of their tricyclic cores identical to that of 1. Further studies of the ACs of these molecules using ECD and, especially, VCD are recommended to establish more definitively this finding. Our studies of the OR, ECD, and VCD of quadrone are the first to utilize DFT calculations of all three properties for the determination of the AC of a chiral natural product molecule.

  16. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  17. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  18. PRODUCTION WELL PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT USING SONICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Adewumi; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Robert W. Watson; Mario Farias; Glenn Heckman; Johnson Olanrewaju; Eltohami Eltohami; Bruce G. Miller; W. Jack Hughes; Thomas C. Montgomery

    2003-12-17

    The objective of this project is to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focuses on near wellbore formations. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project has been defined with each year consisting of four tasks. The first task is the laboratory-scale study whose goal is to determine the underlying principles of the technology. The second task will develop a scale-up mathematical model to serve as the design guide for tool development. The third task is to develop effective transducers that can operate with variable frequency so that the most effective frequencies can be applied in any given situation. The system, assembled as part of the production string, ensures delivery of sufficient sonic energy to penetrate the near-wellbore formation. The last task is the actual field testing of the tool. The first year of the project has been completed.

  19. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases and the origin of terpene skeletal diversity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Jörg; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The multitude of terpene carbon skeletons in plants is formed by enzymes known as terpene synthases. This review covers the monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases presenting an up-to-date list of enzymes reported and evidence for their ability to form multiple products. The reaction mechanisms of these enzyme classes are described, and information on how terpene synthase proteins mediate catalysis is summarized. Correlations between specific amino acid motifs and terpene synthase function are described, including an analysis of the relationships between active site sequence and cyclization type and a discussion of whether specific protein features might facilitate multiple product formation.

  20. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES OF LEAVES AND FRUITS OF LAURUS NOBILIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L. is common in the Mediterranean region, Europe and America. Widely cultivated in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. As the basic active substances in plants: essential oil components, sesquiterpene lactones, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans are described.In the plant more than 30 sesquiterpene lactones are found. Structural types of these compounds include eudesmanolides, germacranolides, guaianolides.Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from the leaves and fruits of Laurus nobilis, possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and cytotoxic activity. They inhibit the absorption of alcohol increases the activity of hepatic glutathione-S-transferase. Most of these types of activity of sesquiterpene lactones from laurel due to the presence within their structure of α-methylene--butyrolactone part.Thus, sesquiterpene lactones-containing leaves and fruits Laurus nobilis could have been an important source of raw materials for the creation of new medicines

  1. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones in pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Aldana M; Saillard, Nils; Yang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The daisy-like flowers of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) are used to extract pyrethrins, a botanical insecticide with a long history of safe and effective use. Pyrethrum flowers also contain other potential defense compounds, particularly sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which represent...... these reported bioactivities and industrial significance, the biosynthetic origin of pyrethrum sesquiterpene lactones remains unknown. In the present study, we show that germacratrien-12-oic acid is most likely the central precursor for all sesquiterpene lactones present in pyrethrum. The formation...... of the lactone ring depends on the regio- (C6 or C8) and stereo-selective (α or β) hydroxylation of germacratrien-12-oic acid. Candidate genes implicated in three committed steps leading from farnesyl diphosphate to STL and other oxygenated derivatives of germacratrien-12-oic acid were retrieved from a pyrethrum...

  2. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones and other constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolli, El Hadj; Leon, Francisco; Benayache, Samir, E-mail: jfleon@ipna.csic.es, E-mail: sbenayache@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Synthese de Substances Bioactives, Equipe Associee a l' A.N.D.R.S., Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Benayache, Fadila [Laboratoire de Phytochimie et Analyses Physico-Chimiques et Biologiques, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Estevez, Sara; Quintana, Jose; Estevez, Francisco [Departamento de Bioquimica, Unidad Asociada al CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigacion del Cancer, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria (Spain); Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Phytochemical research of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpene lactones, 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin, 4'-acetyl cebellin F and 15-acetyl dehydromelitensin, together with twelve known compounds, seven sesquiterpene lactones, two isoprenoids and three flavonoids. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of extensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS, and by comparison with reported data in the literature. The effect of sesquiterpene lactones on the viability of the human tumor cell lines HL-60 and U937 was also investigated and 3-acetyl cynaropicrin, and 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds against human leukemia cells with an IC{sub 50} values of 2.0 =- 0.9 and 5.1 +- 0.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  3. Aqueous Productivity: An enhanced productivity indicator for water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzema, Randall S.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for scarce water supplies is fueling competition between agricultural production and other municipal and environmental demands, and has heightened the need for effective indicators to measure water performance and support water allocation and planning processes. Water productivity (WP), defined as the ‘ratio of the net benefits from crop, forestry, fishery, livestock, and mixed agricultural systems to the amount of water required to produce those benefits', is one such indicator that has gained prominence, particularly in research-for-development efforts in the developing world. However, though WP is a framework well-suited to systems where water use is directly attributable, particularly via depletion, to definitive benefits, the suitability of the approach becomes questionable when these conditions are not met, such as in multiple use systems with high re-use and non-depleting uses. These factors furthermore make WP highly scale-dependent, complicating comparative studies across scales and systems. This research forwards ‘aqueous productivity' (AP) as an alternative indicator that addresses some inherent limitations in the WP approach and enhances productivity estimates for water in integrated systems. Like WP, AP is expressed as a ratio of benefit to water volume. However, AP uses a systems approach and is based on the concept that elements within a hydrologic system are linked via water flow interactions, and that those elements either ‘extract' value from associated water flows or ‘infuse' value into them. The AP method therefore calculates the ‘aqueous productivity', a ratio indicating the ‘dissolved' production-related economic value of all downstream uses of an individual water flow, for each inter-element and cross-boundary flow in the system. The AP conceptual framework and analytical methodology are presented. The method is then applied to two example hydroeconomic systems and compared to equivalent WP analysis. Discussion

  4. Production Well Performance Enhancement using Sonication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, Michael A; Ityokumbul, M Thaddeus; Watson, Robert W; Eltohami, Eltohami; Farias, Mario; Heckman, Glenn; Houlihan, Brendan; Karoor, Samata Prakash; Miller, Bruce G; Mohammed, Nazia; Olanrewaju, Johnson; Ozdemir, Mine; Rejepov, Dautmamed; Sadegh, Abdallah A; Quammie, Kevin E; Zaghloul, Jose; Hughes, W Jack; Montgomery, Thomas C

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focused on near wellbore formation damage. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project was defined. The entire project was broken into four tasks. The overall objective of all this was to foster a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in sonic energy interactions with fluid flow in porous media and adapt such knowledge for field applications. The fours tasks are: • Laboratory studies • Mathematical modeling • Sonic tool design and development • Field demonstration The project was designed to be completed in three years; however, due to budget cuts, support was only provided for the first year, and hence the full objective of the project could not be accomplished. This report summarizes what was accomplished with the support provided by the US Department of Energy. Experiments performed focused on determining the inception of cavitation, studying thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions, investigating sonic energy interactions with glass beads and oil, and studying the effects of sonication on crude oil properties. Our findings show that the voltage threshold for onset of cavitation is independent of transducer-hydrophone separation distance. In addition, thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions contributed to the mobilization of deposited paraffins and waxes. Our preliminary laboratory experiments suggest that waxes are mobilized when the fluid temperature approaches 40°C. Experiments were conducted that provided insights into the interactions between sonic wave and the fluid contained in the porous media. Most of these studies were carried out in a slim-tube apparatus. A numerical model was developed for simulating the effect of sonication in the nearwellbore region. The numerical model developed was validated using a number of standard testbed problems. However, actual application of the model for scale

  5. Radiation technology for enhancing agriculture productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to develop improved crop varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate of pesticides, to study fertilizer and plant micronutrient uptake and to preserve agricultural produce. This is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has contributed significantly in this area especially in the development of new mutant crop varieties which are benefitting the farmers in enhancing their productivity. With an effective blend of induced mutagenesis and recombination breeding, 42 new crop varieties developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) have been released and Gazette notified by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for commercial cultivation. These include 21 in oilseeds (15-groundnut, 3 mustard , 2 soybean, 1 sunflower), 19 in pulses (8-mungbean, 5-urdbean, 5-pigeonpea, 1-cowpea) and one each in rice and jute. Some of the desirable traits which have been bred through induced mutations in these crops include higher yields, improved quality traits, early maturity and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Several of these varieties have high patronage from the farming community and are grown extensively across the country. Groundnut varieties have given record yields in farmer's fields. Pulses such as mung, urid and tur are popular among farmers in view of their disease resistance and suitability to rice fallow situations. Many of the breeding programmes in national/state systems have been utilizing BARC varieties as parental materials/donors and have developed several other improved varieties using them. (author)

  6. Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes from Ligularia lankongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Hiroshi; Horiguchi, Yurie; Kawaii, Satoru; Kuroda, Chiaki; Hanai, Ryo; Gong, Xun

    2012-04-01

    The chemical constituents of the roots of two Ligularia lankongensis samples collected in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, China, were investigated, together with the DNA sequence of the atpB-rbcL and ITS regions. Four new highly oxygenated bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes (1 - 4) were obtained. Intraspecific diversity in the DNA sequence was found to be limited.

  7. Tricyclic sesquiterpene copaene prevents H2O2-induced neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Copaene (COP, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is present in several essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants and has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic features. But, very little information is known about the effects of COP on oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Method: We used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exposure for 6 h to model oxidative stress. Therefore, this experimental design allowed us to explore the neuroprotective potential of COP in H2O2-induced toxicity in rat cerebral cortex cell cultures for the first time. For this purpose, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assays were carried out to evaluate cytotoxicity. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative stress (TOS parameters were used to evaluate oxidative changes. In addition to determining of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay was also performed for measuring the resistance of neuronal DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Result: The results of this study showed that survival and TAC levels of the cells decreased, while TOS, 8-OH-dG levels and the mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage increased in the H2O2 alone treated cultures. But pre-treatment of COP suppressed the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress which were increased by H2O2. Conclusion: It is proposed that COP as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity in mitigating oxidative injuries in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 21-28

  8. CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56: a fascinating norisoprenoid and sesquiterpene hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thuy T B; Khatri, Yogan; Zapp, Josef; Hutter, Michael C; Bernhardt, Rita

    2012-07-01

    Many terpenes and terpenoid compounds are known as bioactive substances with desirable fragrance and medicinal activities. Modification of such compounds to yield new derivatives with desired properties is particularly attractive. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are potential enzymes for these reactions due to their capability of performing different reactions on a variety of substrates. We report here the characterization of CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 as a novel sesquiterpene hydroxylase. CYP264B1 was able to convert various sesquiterpenes including nootkatone and norisoprenoids (α-ionone and β-ionone). Nootkatone, an important grapefruit aromatic sesquiterpenoid, was hydroxylated mainly at position C-13. The product has been shown to have the highest antiproliferative activity compared with other nootkatone derivatives. In addition, CYP264B1 was found to hydroxylate α- and β-ionone, important aroma compounds of floral scents, regioselectively at position C-3. The products, 3-hydroxy-β-ionone and 13-hydroxy-nootkatone, were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The kinetics of the product formation was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the K ( m ) and k (cat) values were calculated. The results of docking α-/β-ionone and nootkatone into a homology model of CYP264B1 revealed insights into the structural basis of these selective hydroxylations.

  9. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  10. Fumigant and repellent properties of sesquiterpene-rich essential oil from Teucrium polium subsp. capitatum (L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas Khani; Monireh Heydarian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test fumigant and repellent properties of sesquiterpene-rich essential oil from Teucrium polium subsp.capitatum(L.).Methods:The fumigant toxicity test was performed at(27±1)℃,(65±5)% relative humidity, and under darkness condition and24 h exposure time.The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results:The major compounds wereα-cadinol(46.2%), caryophyllene oxide(25.9%), α muurolol epi(8.1%), cadalene(3.7%) and longiverbenone(2.9%).In all cases, considerable differences in mortality of insect to essential oil vapor were observed in different concentrations and exposure times.Callosobruchus maculatus(C. maculates)(LC50=148.9 μL/L air) was more susceptible to the tested plant product thanTeucrium castaneum(T. castaneum) (LC50=360.2 μL/L air) based onLC50 values.In the present investigation, the concentration of3 μL /mL acetone showed60% and52% repellency againstT. casteneumandC. maculatus adults, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggests that sesquiterpene-rich essential oils from the tested plant could be used as a potential control agent for stored-product insects.

  11. Three sesquiterpene compounds biosynthesised from artemisinic acid using suspension-cultured cells of Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zhu, Jianhua; Song, Liyan; Shi, Xiaojian; Li, Xingyi; Yu, Rongmin

    2012-01-01

    A new sesquiterpene glycoside, artemisinic acid 3-β-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 31.24%) and other two biotransformation products, 3-β-hydroxyartemisinic acid (2, 36.69%) and 3-β-hydroxyartemisinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4, 7.03%), were biosynthesised after artemisinic acid (1) was administered to the cultured cells of Averrhoa carambola. The three biotransformation products were obtained for the first time by using the suspension-cultured cells of A. carambola as a new biocatalyst system, and their structures were identified on the basis of the physico-chemical properties, NMR and mass spectral analyses. The results indicate that the cultured cells of A. carambola have the abilities to hydroxylate and glycosylate sesquiterpene compounds in a regio- and stereoselective manner. Furthermore, the anti-tumour activity of compounds 3 and 4 was evaluated against K562 and HeLa cell lines. Compound 4 showed strong activity against HeLa cell line, with the IC₅₀ value of 0.56 µmol mL⁻¹.

  12. Enhanced Phagocytosis and Antibody Production by Tinospora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... antibody production through in vitro and in vivo studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection ..... components with candidicidal activity in human, rabbit and guinea pig leukocytes. Infect. Immun., 11: 1226-1234. Manjrekar ...

  13. Methods and measures of enhancing production capacity of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yuhui

    2013-01-01

    Limited by resource conditions and mining conditions, the production capacity of uranium mines is generally small. The main factors to affect the production capacity determination of uranium mines are analyzed, the ways and measures to enhance the production capacity of uranium mines are explored from the innovations of technology and management mode. (author)

  14. Enhancing the production effect in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L

    2013-01-01

    The production effect is the finding that subsequent memory is better for words that are produced than for words that are not produced. Whereas the current literature demonstrates that reading aloud is the most effective form of production, the distinctiveness account used to explain the production effect predicts that there is nothing special about reading aloud per se: Other forms of vocal production that include an additional distinct element should produce even greater subsequent memory benefits than reading aloud. To test this, we presented participants with study words that they were instructed to read aloud loudly, read aloud, or read silently (Experiment 1); sing, read aloud, or read silently (Experiment 2); and sing, read aloud loudly, read aloud, or read silently (Experiment 3). We observed that both reading items aloud loudly (Experiments 1 and 3) and singing items (Experiments 2 and 3) at study resulted in greater subsequent recognition than reading items aloud in a normal voice; singing had a larger memory benefit than reading aloud loudly (Experiment 3). Our findings support the distinctiveness hypothesis by demonstrating that there are other forms of production, such as singing and reading aloud loudly that have a more pronounced effect on memory than reading aloud.

  15. Heliolactone, a non-sesquiterpene lactone germination stimulant for root parasitic weeds from sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kotomi; Furumoto, Toshio; Umeda, Shuhei; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2014-12-01

    Root exudates of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) line 2607A induced germination of seeds of root parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche minor, Orobanche crenata, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of a germination stimulant designated as heliolactone. FT-MS analysis indicated a molecular formula of C20H24O6. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies established a methylfuranone group, a common structural component of strigolactones connected to a methyl ester of a C14 carboxylic acid via an enol ether bridge. The cyclohexenone ring is identical to that of 3-oxo-α-ionol and the other part of the molecule corresponds to an oxidized carlactone at C-19. It is a carlactone-type molecule and functions as a germination stimulant for seeds of root parasitic weeds. Heliolactone induced seed germination of the above mentioned root parasitic weeds, while dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide, sesquiterpene lactones isolated from sunflower root exudates, were effective only on O. cumana and O. minor. Heliolactone production in aquacultures increased when sunflower seedlings were grown hydroponically in tap water and decreased on supplementation of the culture with either phosphorus or nitrogen. Costunolide, on the other hand, was detected at a higher concentration in well-nourished medium as opposed to nutrient-deficient media, thus suggesting a contrasting contribution of heliolactone and the sesquiterpene lactone to the germination of O. cumana under different soil fertility levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sesquiterpenes from Neurolaena lobata and their antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajter, Ildikó; Vasas, Andrea; Béni, Zoltán; Forgo, Peter; Binder, Markus; Bochkov, Valery; Zupkó, István; Krupitza, Georg; Frisch, Richard; Kopp, Brigitte; Hohmann, Judit

    2014-03-28

    Five new sesquiterpenes, neurolobatin A (1), neurolobatin B (2), 5β-hydroxy-8β-isovaleroyloxy-9α-hydroxycalyculatolide (3), 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4), and 3β-acetoxy-8β-isovaleroyloxyreynosin (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Neurolaena lobata. The structures were established by means of a combined spectroscopic data analysis, including ESIMS, APCI-MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Neurolobatin A (1) and B (2) are unusual isomeric seco-germacranolide sesquiterpenes with a bicyclic acetal moiety, compounds 3 and 4 are unsaturated epoxy-germacranolide esters, and compound 5 is the first eudesmanolide isolated from the genus Neurolaena. The isolated compounds (1-5) were shown to have noteworthy antiproliferative activities against human tumor cell lines (A2780, A431, HeLa, and MCF7). The anti-inflammatory effects of 1-5, evaluated in vitro using LPS- and TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression inhibitory assays, revealed that all these compounds strongly down-regulated the LPS-induced production of IL-8 protein, with neurolobatin B (2) and 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4) being the most effective.

  17. Sesquiterpene lactones and other chemical constituents of Mikania hoehnei R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Juliana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical study of Mikania hoehnei yielded lupeyl acetate, stigmasterol, b-sitosterol, campesterol, b-sitosteryl glucopyranoside, stigmasteryl glucopyranoside, benzil 2,6-dimethoxybenzoate, luteolin, kaempferol and two sesquiterpene lactones: dehydrocostuslactone and 8b-hydroxyzaluzanin D. IR, ¹H and 13C NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses and comparisons with previously reported data were used for the identification of these compounds.

  18. BODIPY-based fluorescent liposomes with sesquiterpene lactone trilobolide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škorpilová, Ludmila; Rimpelová, S.; Jurášek, M.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Lokajová, Jana; Effenberg, R.; Slepička, P.; Ruml, T.; Kmoníčková, Eva; Drašar, P. B.; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, JUL 4 (2017), s. 1316-1324 ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD15012; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : BODIPY conjugates * Cancer targeting * Drug delivery * Liposomes * Natural compounds * Sesquiterpene lactone trilobolide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry ; FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry (UEM-P) OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry ; Pharmacology and pharmacy (UEM-P) Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2016

  19. Tunnel production enhances quality in organic carrot seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2009-01-01

    production of open-pollinated carrot varieties increased the yield and germination percentages when compared with normal field conditions. Yield was in the range of 100-250 g and 2-17 g seeds m-2 respectively, and germination percentage was 84-95 and 43-55, respectively. However, hybrid carrot seed...... production showed lower yields than did their open-pollinated counterparts. Yields ranging from 60-123 g seeds m-2 can be obtained, but the production needs to be carefully planned and monitored. Different growing systems in tunnels have been studied in both open-pollinated and hybrid carrot (Daucus carota L......In Denmark, organic vegetable seed production is possible for some of the late-maturing species when the maturing is performed in lightweight tunnels which are also relevant for the isolation of small-scale production. The tunnel system offers several advantages, e.g., it is possible to control...

  20. Enhancing biogas production from recalcitrant lignocellulosic residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    Lignocellulosic substrates are abundant in agricultural areas around the world and lately, are utilized for biogas production in full-scale anaerobic digesters. However, the anaerobic digestion (AD) of these substrates is associated with specific difficulties due to their recalcitrant nature which...... protects them from enzymatic attack. Hence, the main purpose of this work was to define diverse ways to improve the performance of AD systems using these unconventional biomasses. Thus, mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatments, microaeration and bioaugmentation with hydrolytic microbes were examined...... conductivity, soluble chemical oxygen demand and enzymatic hydrolysis) as a rapid way to predict the methane production. However, the precision of methane yield prediction was not high (R2

  1. Sesquiterpenes of Ocotea lancifolia (Lauraceae); Sesquiterpenos de Ocotea lancifolia (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Maria Jose de; Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Kagamida, Camila Miyuki; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica

    2013-10-01

    Six new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-9-en-12-oic acid (1), (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-1(10)-en-12-oic acid (2), (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-1(10)-en-2-oxo-12-oic acid (3), (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-9-en-12,8{alpha}-olide (4), (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-9-en-12,8{beta}-olide (5) and (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-9{alpha},10{alpha}-epoxy-12-oic acid (6), were isolated from the leaves of a specimen of Ocotea lancifolia (Lauraceae). Two other known sesquiterpenes, 4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-11-en- 10{alpha}-ol (7) reported for the first time in the genus Ocotea, and the aromadendrene sesquiterpene, spathulenol (8), were also isolated. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, UV and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparisons with the literature. (author)

  2. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the aerial parts of Inula aucheriana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Gohari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inula aucheriana DC is a member of the family Asteraceae which is known to produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites noted as sesquiterpene lactones. In the present study, sesquiterpene lactones inuchinenolide B, 6-deoxychamissonolide (stevin and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10,11(13-dien-12,8α-olide were isolated from I. aucheriana. Inuchinenolide B and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10,11(13-dien-12,8α-olide were further evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay to demonstrate cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of (56.6, 19.0, (39.0, 11.8, and (55.7, 15.3 μg/mL against HepG-2, MCF-7 and A-549 cells, respectively. The cytotoxic activity of the two evaluated sesquiterpene lactones partly explains the cytotoxic activity that was previously observed for the extracts of Inula aucheriana. The isolated compounds could be further investigated in cancer research studies.

  3. Enhancing Productivity: A Structured Approach to Downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehm, J. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Organizations that downsize in a rational and orderly manner can increase productivity. School districts can initiate a cost-reduction and restructuring program with an analysis of the responsibilities of each employee followed by communicating with, and renewing the commitment of, remaining employees. (MLF)

  4. Workplace Counselling: Implications For Enhanced Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It further presents a model of workplace counseling and concludes that increase in work related trauma and stress, accidents at the workplace, harassment and bullying, absenteeism, low productivity/poor performance and labour turnover will be nipped in the bud if counseling service is provided at the workplace.

  5. Radio-frequency wave enhanced runaway production rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.S.; McClain, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Enhancement of runaway electron production (over that of an Ohmic discharge) can be achieved by the addition of radio-frequency waves. This effect is studied analytically and numerically using a two-dimensional Fokker--Planck quasilinear equation

  6. Enhanced xanthan production process in shake flasks and pilot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced xanthan production process in shake flasks and pilot scale bioreactors using industrial semidefined medium. ... by the type and concentration of the different carbon and nitrogen source as well as other medium components. The

  7. Enhancement of Diosgenin Production in Plantlet and Cell Cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancement of Diosgenin Production in Plantlet and Cell Cultures of Dioscorea zingiberensis by Palmarumycin C13 from the Endophytic fungus, Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. Y Mou, K Zhou, D Xu, R Yu, J Li, C Yin, L Zhou ...

  8. Integrated agriculture enhances farm productivity and livelihoods in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Farm productivity and Livelihoods in Agro Biodiversity. Farmers in Tamil Nadu adopted locally-adapted cassava, boosting agro-biodiversity while enhancing ... Reducing post-harvest losses in South Asia's mango orchards.

  9. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  10. Determination of Sesquiterpenes in Wines by HS-SPME Coupled with GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Cincotta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The sesquiterpene compounds present in red wines were characterized and quantified by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction in combination with Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS. Sixteen sesquiterpenes were identified, mainly hydrocarbons but also derived oxygenated compounds. Sesquiterpenes were acyclic, monocyclic, byciclic and tryciclic. Sesquiterpenes were detected in SIM (selected ion monitoring mode using their characteristics ions. All the sesquiterpenes were identified by mass spectral data, linear retention indices (LRI, literature data and injection of standards where available. Quantitative results were obtained using the method of standard additions. The method showed an average LOD = 0.05 µg L−1 and LOQ = 0.15 µg L−1. The monocyclic sesquiterpene with the germacrene skeleton, Germacrene D and the bicyclic sesquiterpene with the muurolane skeleton, α-muurolene were present in all the wine samples analysed. Syrah wines were the samples richest in sesquiterpenes in agreement with their typical spicy and woody notes. The results evidenced the possibility to use sesquiterpenes for wine authenticity and traceability.

  11. Higgs Pair Production as a Signal of Enhanced Yukawa Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Martin [Heidelberg U.; Carena, Marcela [Chicago U., KICP; Carmona, Adrián [U. Mainz, PRISMA

    2017-12-31

    We present a non-trivial correlation between the enhancement of the Higgs-fermion couplings and the Higgs pair production cross section in two Higgs doublet models with a flavour symmetry. This symmetry suppresses flavour-changing neutral couplings of the Higgs boson and allows for a partial explanation of the hierarchy in the Yukawa sector. After taking into account the constraints from electroweak precision measurements, Higgs coupling strength measurements, and unitarity and perturbativity bounds, we identify an interesting region of parameter space leading to enhanced Yukawa couplings as well as enhanced di-Higgs gluon fusion production at the LHC reach. This effect is visible in both the resonant and non-resonant contributions to the Higgs pair production cross section. We encourage dedicated searches based on differential distributions as a novel way to indirectly probe enhanced Higgs couplings to light fermions.

  12. Reduced Coniferin and Enhanced 6-Methoxypodophyllotoxin Production in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslan Wirasutisna, Komar; Batterman, Sieben; Koulman, Albert; Kayser, Oliver; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Quax, Wim J

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of cell suspension cultures of Linum flavum L. with Na2EDTA reduced the coniferin and enhanced the 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (6-MPT) production in a concentration-dependent way, in a range of 0.1–5 mM. On day 14 after treatment with Na2EDTA , an inhibition of the coniferin production up to

  13. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance clavulanic acid production using UV-mutagenesis on Streptomyces sp. NRC77. Methods: UV-mutagenesis was used to study the effect of Streptomyces sp. NRC77 on CA production. Phenotypic and genotypic identification methods of the promising mutant strain were characterized. Optimization of the ...

  14. External tank program productivity and quality enhancements - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The optimization of the Manned Space Systems productivity and quality enhancement program is described. The guidelines and standards of the program and the roles played in it by various employee groups are addressed. Aspects of the program involving job/organization redefinition, production and planning in automation, and artificial intelligence and robotics are examined.

  15. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Holland, R.W.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive

  16. Distinct sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from in Salvadoran and Peruvian Celastraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Oliver; Núñez, Marvin J; Perestelo, Nayra R; Reyes, Carolina P; Torres-Romero, David; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2017-10-01

    As part of a bioprospecting program aimed at the discovery of undescribed natural products from Salvadoran and Peruvian flora, the phytochemical investigations of four Celastraceae species, Celastrus vulcanicola, Maytenus segoviarum, Maytenus jeslkii, and Maytenus cuzcoina, were performed. The current study reports the isolation and structural characterization of five previously undescribed macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, named vulcanicoline-A, cuzcoinine, vulcanicoline-B, jelskiine, and vulcanicoline-C, along with sixteen known alkaloids. The structures of the alkaloids were established by spectrometric and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, including COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments. The absolute configurations of alkaloids were proposed based on optical rotation sign, and biogenetic considerations. This study represents the first phytochemical analysis of Maytenus segoviarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Sinularianin Sesquiterpenes from Soft Coral Sinularia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new sesquiterpenes, sinularianins C–F (3–6, together with known sinularianins A (1 and B (2 were identified from a South China Sea soft coral Sinularia sp. Compounds 1–6 were evaluated for inhibition of NF-κB activation using the cell-based HEK293 NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay. Compounds 1 and 4 were exhibited a potent effect with inhibitory rates of 41.3% and 43.0% at the concentration of 10 µg/mL, respectively.

  18. Aedes aegypti Larvicidal Sesquiterpene Alkaloids from Maytenus oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, Seindé; Nirma, Charlotte; Falkowski, Michael; Dusfour, Isabelle; Boulogne, Isabelle; Jahn-Oyac, Arnaud; Coke, Maïra; Azam, Didier; Girod, Romain; Moriou, Céline; Odonne, Guillaume; Stien, Didier; Houël, Emeline; Eparvier, Véronique

    2017-02-24

    Four new sesquiterpene alkaloids (1-4) with a β-dihydroagrofuran skeleton and a new triterpenoid (5) were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Maytenus oblongata stems. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as MS and ECD experiments. The M. oblongata stem EtOAc extract and the pure compounds isolated were tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions, and compounds 2 and 3 were found to be active.

  19. Comparison of simultaneous patch testing with parthenolide and sesquiterpene lactone mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orion, E; Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have pointed out that the sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix is a safe, though inadequate, screen for Compositae allergy. To test the usefulness of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide as a supplementary Compositae screening test to the mix, both were included in the standard series...

  20. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum praeteritum subsp praeteritum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goren, N; Woerdenbag, HJ; BozokJohansson, C

    1996-01-01

    Ten sesquiterpene lactones and one sesquiterpene isolated from Tanacetum praeteritum subsp. praeteritum: 1 alpha,6 alpha-dihydroxyisocostic acid methyl ester (2), 1 alpha-hydroxy-1-deoxoarglanine (3), douglanin (5), santamarin (6), reynosin (7), 1-epi-tatridin B (8), ludovicin A (10), armexin (12),

  1. Hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosols formed by oxidation of cycloalkenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Varutbangkul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments has been conducted in the Caltech indoor smog chamber facility to investigate the water uptake properties of aerosol formed by oxidation of various organic precursors. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA from simple and substituted cycloalkenes (C5-C8 is produced in dark ozonolysis experiments in a dry chamber (RH~5%. Biogenic SOA from monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated terpenes is formed by photooxidation in a humid chamber (~50% RH. Using the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA, we measure the diameter-based hygroscopic growth factor (GF of the SOA as a function of time and relative humidity. All SOA studied is found to be slightly hygroscopic, with smaller water uptake than that of typical inorganic aerosol substances. The aerosol water uptake increases with time early in the experiments for the cycloalkene SOA, but decreases with time for the sesquiterpene SOA. This behavior could indicate competing effects between the formation of more highly oxidized polar compounds (more hygroscopic, and formation of longer-chained oligomers (less hygroscopic. All SOA also exhibit a smooth water uptake with RH with no deliquescence or efflorescence. The water uptake curves are found to be fitted well with an empirical three-parameter functional form. The measured pure organic GF values at 85% RH are between 1.09–1.16 for SOA from ozonolysis of cycloalkenes, 1.01–1.04 for sesquiterpene photooxidation SOA, and 1.06–1.10 for the monoterpene and oxygenated terpene SOA. The GF of pure SOA (GForg in experiments in which inorganic seed aerosol is used is determined by assuming volume-weighted water uptake (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson or 'ZSR' approach and using the size-resolved organic mass fraction measured by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Knowing the water content associated with the inorganic fraction yields GForg values. However, for each precursor, the GForg values computed from different

  2. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production.

  3. In Vitro Antitumor Activity of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Lychnophora trichocarpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Saúde-Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sesquiterpene lactones lychnopholide and eremantholide C were isolated from Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Asteraceae, which is a plant species native to the Brazilian Savannah or Cerrado and popularly known as arnica. Sesquiterpene lactones are known to present a variety of biological activities including antitumor activity. The present paper reports on the evaluation of the in vitro antitumor activity of lychnopholide and eremantholide C, in the National Cancer Institute, USA (NCI, USA, against a panel of 52 human tumor cell lines of major human tumors derived from nine cancer types. Lychnopholide disclosed significant activity against 30 cell lines of seven cancer types with IC100 (total growth concentration inhibition values between 0.41 µM and 2.82 µM. Eremantholide C showed significant activity against 30 cell lines of eight cancer types with IC100 values between 21.40 µM and 53.70 µM. Lychnopholide showed values of lethal concentration 50% (LC50 for 30 human tumor cell lines between 0.72 and 10.00 µM, whereas eremantholide C presented values of LC50 for 21 human tumor cell lines between 52.50 and 91.20 µM. Lychnopholide showed an interesting profile of antitumor activity. The α-methylene-γ-lactone present in the structure of lychnopholide, besides two α,β- unsaturated carbonyl groups, might be responsible for the better activity and higher cytotoxicity of this compound in relation to eremantholide C.

  4. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed.

  5. Enhanced production of glucose oxidase from UVmutant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UV rays were used as mutagen in wild type strain of Aspergillus niger for enhanced production of glucose oxidase. After mutangenization and selection, mutant A. niger strains, resistant to 2-deoxy-Dglucose were obtained. The mutants showed 1.57 and 1.98 fold increase in activities of extra and intra cellular glucose ...

  6. Allocation of financial resource to enhance educational productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the allocation of financial resource to the education industry and how it enhances productivity and students' outcomes of the secondary schools' students in the Unity Colleges in Ogun state. It adopted ex-post factor research design and purposeful sample and sampling technique for the study. Scholars' ...

  7. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L.G.; Elissen, Hellen; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30 °C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm

  8. Collaborative networks in support of service-enhanced products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Koelmel, B.

    2011-01-01

    The development and support of highly customized and service-enhanced products requires new organizational structures, involving the manufacturers, customers and local suppliers in a process of co-creation. This requires the implementation of the glocal enterprise notion with value creation from

  9. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Holland, R.W.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This reprinted article originally appeared in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2009 (Mar), Vol 15(1), 35-45. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2009-03685-005). Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often

  10. Up-regulation of an N-terminal truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase enhances production of essential oils and sterols in transgenic Lavandula latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Sales, Ester; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2007-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oil is widely used in the perfume, cosmetic, flavouring and pharmaceutical industries. Thus, modifications of yield and composition of this essential oil by genetic engineering should have important scientific and commercial applications. We generated transgenic spike lavender plants expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana HMG1 cDNA, encoding the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR1S), a key enzyme of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. Transgenic T0 plants accumulated significantly more essential oil constituents as compared to controls (up to 2.1- and 1.8-fold in leaves and flowers, respectively). Enhanced expression of HMGR1S also increased the amount of the end-product sterols, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol (average differences of 1.8- and 1.9-fold, respectively), but did not affect the accumulation of carotenoids or chlorophylls. We also analysed T1 plants derived from self-pollinated seeds of T0 lines that flowered after growing for 2 years in the greenhouse. The increased levels of essential oil and sterols observed in the transgenic T0 plants were maintained in the progeny that inherited the HMG1 transgene. Our results demonstrate that genetic manipulation of the MVA pathway increases essential oil yield in spike lavender, suggesting a contribution for this cytosolic pathway to monoterpene and sesquiterpene biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of the species.

  11. Further Study on Chemical Constituents of Parnassia wightiana Wall: Four New Dihydro-β-agarofuran Sesquiterpene Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Feng Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four new (1–4, along with six known (5–10 dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters were isolated from the whole plants of Parnassia wightiana. The new compounds were structurally elucidated through spectroscopic analysis including UV (Ultraviolet Spectrum, IR (Infrared Spectrum, 1H-NMR (1Hydrogen-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 13C-NMR (13Carbon-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, DEPT (Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer, 1H-1H COSY (1H-1H Correlation Spectroscopy, HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence, HMBC (Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation, NOESY (Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy and HR-MS (High Resolution Mass Specttrum and their absolute configurations were proposed by comparison of NOESY spectra and specific optical rotations with those of known compounds and biosynthesis grounds. Compound 2 is the first sesquiterpene alkaloid isolated from this plant. New compounds 1–4 exhibited some cytotoxic activities against NB4, MKN-45 and MCF-7 cells at 20 μM and of which 4 showed the highest activity against NB4 and MKN-45 cells with inhibition rates of 85.6% and 30.5%, respectively.

  12. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m -2  s -1 ), temperature (30 °C), CO 2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L -1 ).

  13. Enhanced production and application of acidothermophilic Streptomyces cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budihal, Saikumar R; Agsar, Dayanand; Patil, Sarvamangala R

    2016-01-01

    An efficient cellulolytic and acidothermophilic actinobacterium was isolated from soil, adhered to decomposing tree bark and was identified as Streptomyces DSK59. Screening of synthetic media and the media components identified that, a medium based on starch casein minerals containing carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and beef extract (BE) could support enhanced cellulase production by the organism. CMC, BE, NaCl, temperature and pH were accounted as significant for cellulase production and these were optimized using a response surface central composite design (CCD). Optimization of cellulase production resulted in an enhancement of endoglucanase activity to 27IUml(-1). Acidothermophillic Streptomyces cellulase was found to be efficient for hydrolysis of pretreated sorghum stover and liberated 0.413gg(-1) of total reducing sugars which was higher than previously reported sugar yields obtained using fungal enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of glycerol production by zygosaccharomyces ruxii using strawberry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleigy, S.A; Taha, S.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol is important industrial product that can be produced using osmophilic yeasts. In this study a local isolate of osmophilic yeast, zygosaccharomyces ruxii, was used for glycerol production from strawberry waste. The effects of some important parameters including glucose and urea concentrations, incubation temperature, initial ph and gamma irradiation were investigated. The optimum conditions for maximum glycerol production (126.8 g/l)by z. ruxii were occurred at 31 degree C and initial ph 5 in the presence of 250 g/l glucose and 3 g/l urea in the production medium . Under these optimizing fermentation parameters, enhancement of glycerol production (130 g/l) were recorded when the inoculum of z. ruxii was exposed to 0.25 kGy. also, the present results showed reduction in BOD 5 levels of fermented strawberry waste.

  15. Pharmacological insight into the anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex Cass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, R; Binder, M; Zupkó, I; Afonyushkin, T; Lajter, I; Vasas, A; de Martin, R; Unger, C; Dolznig, H; Diaz, R; Frisch, R; Passreiter, C M; Krupitza, G; Hohmann, J; Kopp, B; Bochkov, V N

    2014-10-15

    Neurolaena lobata is a Caribbean medicinal plant used for the treatment of several conditions including inflammation. Recent data regarding potent anti-inflammatory activity of the plant and isolated sesquiterpene lactones raised our interest in further pharmacological studies. The present work aimed at providing a mechanistic insight into the anti-inflammatory activity of N. lobata and eight isolated sesquiterpene lactones, as well as a structure-activity relationship and in vivo anti-inflammatory data. The effect of the extract and its compounds on the generation of pro-inflammatory proteins was assessed in vitro in endothelial and monocytic cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Their potential to modulate the expression of inflammatory genes was further studied at the mRNA level. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the chemically characterized extract was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats. The compounds and extract inhibited LPS- and TNF-α-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory molecules E-selectin and interleukin-8 in HUVECtert and THP-1 cells. LPS-induced elevation of mRNA encoding for E-selectin and interleukin-8 was also suppressed. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the development of acute inflammation in rats. Sesquiterpene lactones from N. lobata interfered with the induction of inflammatory cell adhesion molecules and chemokines in cells stimulated with bacterial products and cytokines. Structure-activity analysis revealed the importance of the double bond at C-4-C-5 and C-2-C-3 and the acetyl group at C-9 for the anti-inflammatory activity. The effect was confirmed in vivo, which raises further interest in the therapeutic potential of the compounds for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Sesquiterpene lactones and monoterpene glucosides from plant species Picris echoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the constituents of the aerial parts of domestic plant species Picris echoides afforded the sesquiterpene lactones, i.e., guaianolides jacquilenin (1, 11-epi-jacquilenin (2, achillin (3 and eudesmanolide telekin (4. The chemical indentification of the two monoterpene glucosides (–-cis-chrysanthenol-b-D-glucopyranoside (5 and its 6’-acetate 6 is also repoted. The guaianolide achillin (3 and the two monoterpene glucosides 5 and 6 were isolated for the first time from this plant species. Isolation was achieved by column chromatography and the structures were established mainly by the interpretation of their physical and spectral data, which were in agreement with those in the literature.

  17. 7-epizingiberene, a novel bisabolane sesquiterpene from wild tomato leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeden, D.C.; Coates, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    A C 15 hydrocarbon isolated from the leaves of 2 wild tomato species, Lycopersicon hirsutum f glabratum PI 199381 and Lycopersicon hirsutum PI 365906, has been identified as 7 - epizingiberene (2), a diastereomer of zingiberene (1) that occurs in essential oil of ginger. The structure assignment for 2 is based upon its 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, IR, UV, and mass spectral characteristics. All spectral data for zingiberene and epizingiberene are identical except for 9 of 15 13C NMR resonances, which establish the diastereomeric relationship of these sesquiterpenes. The 4S, 7R stereochemistry of epizingiberene was proven by dehydrogenation to (7R)- ar - curcumene (4). The opposite 7R and 7S stereochemistry of the zingiberenes implicates the probable occurrence of opposite sidechain rotations of a common (S)-bisabolyl carbocation intermediate (1OA) to allow stereoelectronically favorable hydride shifts in their respective biosyntheses from (E, E)-farnesyl diphosphate. (author)

  18. Exploitation of physiological and genetic variability to enhance crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.E.; Schrader, L.E.; Howell, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The American Society of Plant Physiologists recognizes the need to identify primary physiological limitations to crop productivity. This basic information is essential to facilitate and accelerate progress towards the goal of enhanced productivity on a global scale. Plant breeders currently select for desirable physiological traits intuitively by selecting for enhanced yield capability. Identification of specific physiological limitations by plant physiologists could potentially foster interdisciplinary research and accelerate progress in breeding for improved cultivars. The recent upsurge in research interest and funding in the area of biotechnology further exemplifies the importance of identification of specific physiological traits which may be amenable to manipulation at the molecular as well as the whole plant level. The theme of this symposium was to focus attention on current progress in identification of possible physiological limitations. The purpose of this publication is to document that progress and hopefully to extend the stimulating ideas to those who were unable to attend the symposium

  19. Field redevelopment optimization to unlock reserves and enhance production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED AL-HASHAMI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A cluster area "H" consists of 4 carbonate gas fields producing dry gas from N-A reservoir in the Northern area of Oman. These fields are producing with different maturity levels since 1968. An FDP (Field Development Plan study was done in 2006 which proposed drilling of 7 additional vertical wells beside the already existing 5 wells to develop the reserves and enhance gas production from the fields. The FDP well planning was based on a seismic amplitude "Qualitative Interpretation (QI" study that recommended drilling the areas with high amplitudes as an indication for gas presence, and it ignored the low amplitude areas even if it is structurally high. A follow up study was conducted in 2010 for "H" area fields using the same seismic data and the well data drilled post FDP. The new static and dynamic work revealed the wrong aspect of the 2006 QI study, and proved with evidence from well logs and production data that low seismic amplitudes in high structural areas have sweet spots of good reservoir quality rock. This has led to changing the old appraisal strategy and planning more wells in low amplitude areas with high structure and hence discovering new blocks that increased the reserves of the fields.Furthermore, water production in these fields started much earlier than FDP expectation. The subsurface team have integrated deeply with the operation team and started a project to find new solutions to handle the water production and enhance the gas rate. The subsurface team also started drilling horizontal wells in the fields to increase the UR, delay the water production and also reduce the wells total CAPEX by drilling less horizontal wells compared to many vertical as they have higher production and recovery. These subsurface and surface activities have successfully helped to stabilize and increase the production of "H" area cluster by developing more reserves and handling the water production.

  20. Enhancement of Biogas Production from Bakery Waste by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    S. Potivichayanon; T. Sungmon; W. Chaikongmao; S. Kamvanin

    2011-01-01

    Production of biogas from bakery waste was enhanced by additional bacterial cell. This study was divided into 2 steps. First step, grease waste from bakery industry-s grease trap was initially degraded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The concentration of byproduct, especially glycerol, was determined and found that glycerol concentration increased from 12.83% to 48.10%. Secondary step, 3 biodigesters were set up in 3 different substrates: non-degraded waste as substrate in fir...

  1. Enhanced limonene production in cyanobacteria reveals photosynthesis limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Xin, Changpeng; Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yanbing; Sun, Su; Li, Runze; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Dai, Susie Y; Rentzepis, Peter M; Yuan, Joshua S

    2016-12-13

    Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study. Computational modeling of limonene flux in response to photosynthetic output has revealed the downstream terpene synthase as a key metabolic flux-controlling node in the MEP (2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate) pathway-derived terpene biosynthesis. By enhancing the downstream limonene carbon sink, we achieved over 100-fold increase in limonene productivity, in contrast to the marginal increase achieved through stepwise metabolic engineering. The establishment of a strong limonene flux revealed potential synergy between photosynthate output and terpene biosynthesis, leading to enhanced carbon flux into the MEP pathway. Moreover, we show that enhanced limonene flux would lead to NADPH accumulation, and slow down photosynthesis electron flow. Fine-tuning ATP/NADPH toward terpene biosynthesis could be a key parameter to adapt photosynthesis to support biofuel/bioproduct production in cyanobacteria.

  2. Antiplasmodial activities and cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, G; Passreiter, CM; Woerdenbag, HJ; VanLooveren, M

    Aqueous and lipophilic extracts of Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), obtained from Guatemala, were tested against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Moreover, sesquiterpene lactones, of the germacranolide and furanoheliangolide type, isolated from N. lobata, were shown to be active against P. falciparum

  3. The proton-pump inhibitor lansoprazole enhances amyloid beta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, Nahuai; Alcalde, Victor; Pujol, Albert; Münter, Lisa-Marie; Multhaup, Gerd; Lleó, Alberto; Coma, Mireia; Soler-López, Montserrat; Aloy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A key event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) species in the brain, derived from the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. Based on a systems biology study to repurpose drugs for AD, we explore the effect of lansoprazole, and other proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), on Aβ production in AD cellular and animal models. We found that lansoprazole enhances Aβ37, Aβ40 and Aβ42 production and lowers Aβ38 levels on amyloid cell models. Interestingly, acute lansoprazole treatment in wild type and AD transgenic mice promoted higher Aβ40 levels in brain, indicating that lansoprazole may also exacerbate Aβ production in vivo. Overall, our data presents for the first time that PPIs can affect amyloid metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes from the aerial parts of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Tsuru, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Hiroaki; Eto, Masashi; Okawa, Masafumi; Abe, Fumiko; Kinjo, Junei; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Six new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes, peroxylippidulcines A-C (3-5), peroxyepilippidulcine B (6), and epilippidulcines B (7) and C (8), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Lippia dulcis, along with two known bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes, seven known flavonoids, and a known triterpenoid. The structures of 3-8 were characterized on the basis of NMR, MS, specific rotation, and X-ray crystallographic analysis data and chemical evidence.

  5. Non-Oxygenated Sesquiterpenes in the Essential Oil of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Increase during the Day in the Dry Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Portella, Roberto de Oliveira; Bufalo, Jennifer; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Facanali, Roselaine; Frei, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of seasonal and diurnal events on the chemical profile of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. This study was performed in a Brazilian savanna named Cerrado. We identified the best harvesting period for obtaining the highest amount of compounds used for commercial and industrial purposes. The chemical profile of the essential oils was evaluated by GC-FID and GC-MS, and the results were assessed through multivariate analyses. The data showed that the time of day and seasonal variations affect the quality of the essential oil obtained. Leaves harvested at the end of the day (5:00 pm) in the dry season resulted in richer essential oils with higher amounts of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes. To the best of our knowledge, environmental conditions induce metabolic responses in the leaves of C. langsdorffii, which changes the patterns of sesquiterpene production. Therefore, these factors need to be considered to obtain better concentrations of bioactive compounds for pharmacological studies.

  6. Enhancing microbial production of biofuels by expanding microbial metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Chen, Xingge; Li, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Fatty acid, isoprenoid, and alcohol pathways have been successfully engineered to produce biofuels. By introducing three genes, atfA, adhE, and pdc, into Escherichia coli to expand fatty acid pathway, up to 1.28 g/L of fatty acid ethyl esters can be achieved. The isoprenoid pathway can be expanded to produce bisabolene with a high titer of 900 mg/L in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Short- and long-chain alcohols can also be effectively biosynthesized by extending the carbon chain of ketoacids with an engineered "+1" alcohol pathway. Thus, it can be concluded that expanding microbial metabolic pathways has enormous potential for enhancing microbial production of biofuels for future industrial applications. However, some major challenges for microbial production of biofuels should be overcome to compete with traditional fossil fuels: lowering production costs, reducing the time required to construct genetic elements and to increase their predictability and reliability, and creating reusable parts with useful and predictable behavior. To address these challenges, several aspects should be further considered in future: mining and transformation of genetic elements related to metabolic pathways, assembling biofuel elements and coordinating their functions, enhancing the tolerance of host cells to biofuels, and creating modular subpathways that can be easily interconnected. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Enhancement of antibiotic productions by engineered nitrate utilization in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Sitong; Wu, Hang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Buchang; Bai, Linquan

    2017-07-01

    Nitrate is necessary for primary and secondary metabolism of actinomycetes and stimulates the production of a few antibiotics, such as lincomycin and rifamycin. However, the mechanism of this nitrate-stimulating effect was not fully understood. Two putative ABC-type nitrate transporters were identified in Streptomyces lincolnensis NRRL2936 and verified to be involved in lincomycin biosynthesis. With nitrate supplementation, the transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes, nitrate-specific ABC1 transporter genes, and lincomycin exporter gene lmrA was found to be enhanced and positively regulated by the global regulator GlnR, whose expression was also improved. Moreover, heterologous expression of ABC2 transporter genes in Streptomyces coelicolor M145 resulted in an increased actinorhodin production. Further incorporation of a nitrite-specific transporter gene nirC, as in nirC-ABC2 cassette, led to an even higher actinorhodin production. Similarly, the titers of salinomycin, ansamitocin, lincomycin, and geldanamycin were increased with the integration of this cassette to Streptomyces albus BK3-25, Actinosynnema pretiosum ATCC31280, S. lincolnensis LC-G, and Streptomyces hygroscopicus XM201, respectively. Our work expanded the nitrate-stimulating effect to many antibiotic producers by utilizing the nirC-ABC2 cassette for enhanced nitrate utilization, which could become a general tool for titer increase of antibiotics in actinomycetes.

  8. Enhanced Sorbitol Production under Submerged Fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nadiya Jan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Sorbitol is a non-toxic and slightly hygroscopic compound with different applications. Zymomonas mobiles produces sorbitol from sucrose or mixtures of glucose and fructose (formation is coupled with the dehydrogenation of glucose to glucono-δ- lactone. Recombinant Zymomonas mobilis may produce sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and fructose using different divalent metal ions with reduced the ethanol yield andsignificantly increased yield of sorbitol. Current study envisaged to alter the media components, physical process parameters and supplementation of amino acids for enhanced sorbitol production.Material and Methods: Several process variables were evaluated on sorbitol production including carbon sources (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, carbon concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 25 g l-1, nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract and organic nitrogen mix, temperatures (25, 29, 33, 37, 41°C, pH (6, 6.5, 7 , 7.5 ,8, agitation rate (50, 100, 150, 200 rpm and amino acids (cysteine, cystine, tryptophanin batch cultivation ofLactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912. Shake flask cultivation performed under optimum conditions like temperature 37°C, pH 7.0 and agitation rate of 150 rpm, resulted in enhanced sorbitol production. Comparative study of sorbitol production in solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation was also evaluated.Results and Conclusion: Batch cultivation under submerged conditions further performed in 7.5-l lab scale bioreactor (working volume 3.0-l under optimized conditions resulted in maximum cell biomass of 8.95±0.03 g g-1 and a sorbitol content of 9.78±0.04 g l-1 after 42.0 h of fermentation. Scale up study on bioreactor resulted in maximum sorbitol yield (Yp/x and productivity of 1.11 g g-1 and 0.50 g l-1 h under submerged fermentation, respectively.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  9. Biotechnological advances towards an enhanced peroxidase production in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Florian W; Gerstmann, Michaela A; Darnhofer, Barbara; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Glieder, Anton

    2016-09-10

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a high-demand enzyme for applications in diagnostics, bioremediation, biocatalysis and medicine. Current HRP preparations are isolated from horseradish roots as mixtures of biochemically diverse isoenzymes. Thus, there is a strong need for a recombinant production process enabling a steady supply with enzyme preparations of consistent high quality. However, most current recombinant production systems are limited at titers in the low mg/L range. In this study, we used the well-known yeast Pichia pastoris as host for recombinant HRP production. To enhance recombinant enzyme titers we systematically evaluated engineering approaches on the secretion process, coproduction of helper proteins, and compared expression from the strong methanol-inducible PAOX1 promoter, the strong constitutive PGAP promoter, and a novel bidirectional promoter PHTX1. Ultimately, coproduction of HRP and active Hac1 under PHTX1 control yielded a recombinant HRP titer of 132mg/L after 56h of cultivation in a methanol-independent and easy-to-do bioreactor cultivation process. With regard to the many versatile applications for HRP, the establishment of a microbial host system suitable for efficient recombinant HRP production was highly overdue. The novel HRP production platform in P. pastoris presented in this study sets a new benchmark for this medically relevant enzyme. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Design and Development of Enhanced Thermal Desorption Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Humble

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on a knowledge-transfer collaboration between The National Centre for Product Design and Development Research (PDR and Markes International Ltd. The aim of the two-year collaboration has been to implement design tools and techniques for the development of enhanced thermal desorption products. Thermal desorption is a highly-specialised technique for the analysis of trace-level volatile organic compounds. This technique allows minute quantities of these compounds to be measured; however, there is an increasing demand from customers for greater sensitivity over a wider range of applications, which means new design methodologies need to be evaluated. The thermal desorption process combines a number of disparate chemical, thermal and mechanical disciplines, and the major design constraints arise from the need to cycle the sample through extremes in temperature. Following the implementation of a comprehensive product design specification, detailed design solutions have been developed using the latest 3D CAD techniques. The impact of the advanced design techniques is assessed in terms of improved product performance and reduced development times, and the wider implications of new product development within small companies are highlighted.  

  11. Enhanced production of bacitracin by a mutant strain bacillus licheniformis UV-MN-HN-8 (enhanced bacitracin production by mutagenesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, M.N.; Ikram-ul-Haq; Baig, S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is focused on the improvement of Bacillus licheniformis through random mutagenesis to obtain mutant having enhanced production of bacitracin. Many isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were isolated and the isolate GP-40 produced maximum bacitracin production (16 +- 0.72 IU/mL). Treatment of Bacillus licheniformis GP-40 with ultraviolet (UV) radiations increased bacitracin production to 29 +- 0.69 IU/mL. Similarly, treatment of vegetative cells of GP-40 with chemicals like N-methyl N'-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG) and Nitrous acid (HNO/sub 2/) increased bacitracin production to 35 +- 1.35 IU/mL and 29 +- 0.89 IU/mL respectively. Studies regarding the combined effect of UV and chemical treatment on parental cells exhibited significantly higher titers of bacitracin with maximum bacitracin production reached to 47.6 +- 0.92 IU/mL. An increase of 2.97 fold production of bacitracin in comparison to wild type was observed. Mutant strain was highly stable and produced consistent yield of bacitracin even after 15 generations. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably mu (h-/sup 1/)max, Yp/x, qp, Qp and Qx mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-MN-HN-8 was found to be a hyper producer of bacitracin. (author)

  12. Biotransformation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene by cytochrome P450cam and P450BM-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Rebecca J; Yasmin, Samina; Rees, Nicholas H; Bell, Stephen G; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2005-01-07

    The sesquiterpenoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds with biological functions and desirable properties. Oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene by wild type and mutants of P450cam from Pseudomonas putida, and of P450BM-3 from Bacillus megaterium, have been investigated as a potential route to (+)-nootkatone, a fine fragrance. Wild type P450cam did not oxidise (+)-valencene but the mutants showed activities up to 9.8 nmol (nmol P450)(-1) min(-1), with (+)-trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone constituting >85% of the products. Wild type P450BM-3 and mutants had higher activities (up to 43 min(-1)) than P450cam but were much less selective. Of the many products, cis- and trans-(+)-nootkatol, (+)-nootkatone, cis-(+)-valencene-1,10-epoxide, trans-(+)-nootkaton-9-ol, and (+)-nootkatone-13S,14-epoxide were isolated from whole-cell reactions and characterised. The selectivity patterns suggest that (+)-valencene has one binding orientation in P450cam but multiple orientations in P450BM-3.

  13. Enhanced Passive Cooling for Waterless-Power Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Recent advances in the literature and at SNL indicate the strong potential for passive, specialized surfaces to significantly enhance power production output. Our exploratory computational and experimental research indicates that fractal and swirl surfaces can help enable waterless-power production by increasing the amount of heat transfer and turbulence, when compared with conventional surfaces. Small modular reactors, advanced reactors, and non-nuclear plants (e.g., solar and coal) are ideally suited for sCO2 coolant loops. The sCO2 loop converts the thermal heat into electricity, while the specialized surfaces passively and securely reject the waste process heat in an environmentally benign manner. The resultant, integrated energy systems are highly suitable for small grids, rural areas, and arid regions.

  14. Probing Electroweak Phase Transition via Enhanced Di-Higgs Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carena, Marcela [Chicago U., KICP; Liu, Zhen [Fermilab; Riembau, Marc [DESY

    2018-01-02

    We consider a singlet extension of the Standard Model (SM) with a spontaneous $Z_2$ breaking and study the gluon-gluon fusion production of the heavy scalar, with subsequent decay into a pair of SM-like Higgs bosons. We find that an on-shell interference effect can notably enhance the resonant di-Higgs production rate up to 40\\%. In addition, consistently taking into account both the on-shell and off-shell interference effects between the heavy scalar and the SM di-Higgs diagrams significantly improves the HL-LHC and HE-LHC reach in this channel. As an example, within an effective field theory analysis in an explicitly $Z_2$ breaking scenario, we further discuss the potential to probe the parameter region compatible with a first order electroweak phase transition. Our analysis is applicable for general potentials of the singlet extension of the SM as well as for more general resonance searches.

  15. Sesquiterpene lactones: Mechanism of antineoplastic activity; relationship of cellular glutathione to cytotoxicity; and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibited the growth of P388 lymphocytic and L1210 lymphoid leukemia, and Ehrlich ascites and KB carcinoma cells. The L1210 leukemia cells were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of helenalin. Helenalin's antineoplastic effects were due to inhibition of DNA synthesis by suppressing the activities of enzymes involved in this biosynthetic pathway; i.e., IMP dehydrogenase, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thioredoxin complex, GSH disulfide oxidoreductase and DNA polymerase α activities. The relationship of reduced glutathione (GSH) to the cytotoxic effects of helanalin was evaluated. L1210 cells, which were more sensitive to helenalin's toxicity, contained lower basal concentrations of GSH. Helenalin decreased the concentration of reduced glutathione in both L1210 and P388 leukemia cells. Concurrent administration of helanalin with agents reported to raise GSH concentrations did not substantially effect GSH levels, nor were survival times of tumor-bearing mice enhanced. Following intraperitoneal administration of 3 H-plenolin, no radioactive drug and/or metabolite was sequestered in the organs of BDF 1 mice. Approximately 50% of 3 H-plenolin and/or its metabolites were eliminated via urine while lesser amounts of radioactive drug and/or metabolites were eliminated in the feces

  16. A solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2014-07-10

    Abstract: Increasing the productivity of solar stills has been the focus of intensive research. Many introduced developments, however, require complex components and entail notable increases in cost and land requirements. Developing a compact, productive, and easy-to-operate system is a main challenge. This paper describes a sustainable modification of the solar still that significantly enhances its productivity without forsaking its basic features. A simple amendment in the form of a slowly rotating drum is introduced allowing the formation of thin water films that evaporate rapidly and are continually renewed. The performance of this system was compared against a control without the introduced drum. Throughout the experiment, the new system gave considerably higher yield than the control with an average increase in daily productivity of 200%. Moreover, during sunshine hours, the increase in yield could surpass 6–8 times that of the control. Important parameters such as ease of handling, material availability, efficacy, low cost, safe water quality, and space conservation are maintained. One side-benefit of this design is solving stagnation problems that usually develop in conventional stills. The new simple modification in this study presents a cost-effective and efficient design to solar stills especially in areas with abundant sunshine.

  17. Enhanced Simulated Annealing for Solving Aggregate Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizam Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated annealing (SA has been an effective means that can address difficulties related to optimisation problems. SA is now a common discipline for research with several productive applications such as production planning. Due to the fact that aggregate production planning (APP is one of the most considerable problems in production planning, in this paper, we present multiobjective linear programming model for APP and optimised by SA. During the course of optimising for the APP problem, it uncovered that the capability of SA was inadequate and its performance was substandard, particularly for a sizable controlled APP problem with many decision variables and plenty of constraints. Since this algorithm works sequentially then the current state will generate only one in next state that will make the search slower and the drawback is that the search may fall in local minimum which represents the best solution in only part of the solution space. In order to enhance its performance and alleviate the deficiencies in the problem solving, a modified SA (MSA is proposed. We attempt to augment the search space by starting with N+1 solutions, instead of one solution. To analyse and investigate the operations of the MSA with the standard SA and harmony search (HS, the real performance of an industrial company and simulation are made for evaluation. The results show that, compared to SA and HS, MSA offers better quality solutions with regard to convergence and accuracy.

  18. Neutron production enhancements for the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-04

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) was the first high energy spallation neutron source in the US dedicated to materials research. It has operated for sixteen years, and in that time has had a very prolific record concerning the development of new target and moderator systems for pulsed spallation sources. IPNS supports a very productive user program on its thirteen instruments, which are oversubscribed by more than two times, meanwhile having an excellent overall reliability of 95%. Although the proton beam power is relatively low at 7 kW, the target and moderator systems are very efficient. The typical beam power which gives an equivalent flux for long-wavelength neutrons is about 60 kW, due to the use of a uranium target and liquid and solid methane moderators, precluded at some sources due to a higher accelerator power. The development of new target and moderator systems is by no means stagnant at IPNS. They are presently considering numerous enhancements to the target and moderators that offer prospects for increasing the useful neutron production by substantial factors. Many of these enhancements could be combined, although their combined benefit has not yet been well established. Meanwhile, IPNS is embarking on a coherent program of study concerning these improvements and their possible combination and implementation. Moreover, any improvements accomplished at IPNS would immediately increase the performance of IPNS instruments.

  19. Neutron production enhancements for the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) was the first high energy spallation neutron source in the US dedicated to materials research. It has operated for sixteen years, and in that time has had a very prolific record concerning the development of new target and moderator systems for pulsed spallation sources. IPNS supports a very productive user program on its thirteen instruments, which are oversubscribed by more than two times, meanwhile having an excellent overall reliability of 95%. Although the proton beam power is relatively low at 7 kW, the target and moderator systems are very efficient. The typical beam power which gives an equivalent flux for long-wavelength neutrons is about 60 kW, due to the use of a uranium target and liquid and solid methane moderators, precluded at some sources due to a higher accelerator power. The development of new target and moderator systems is by no means stagnant at IPNS. They are presently considering numerous enhancements to the target and moderators that offer prospects for increasing the useful neutron production by substantial factors. Many of these enhancements could be combined, although their combined benefit has not yet been well established. Meanwhile, IPNS is embarking on a coherent program of study concerning these improvements and their possible combination and implementation. Moreover, any improvements accomplished at IPNS would immediately increase the performance of IPNS instruments

  20. Enhancing neutron beam production with a convoluted moderator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, E.B., E-mail: iversoneb@ornl.gov [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Baxter, D.V. [Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Muhrer, G. [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ansell, S.; Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Gallmeier, F.X. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kaiser, H. [Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Lu, W. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    We describe a new concept for a neutron moderating assembly resulting in the more efficient production of slow neutron beams. The Convoluted Moderator, a heterogeneous stack of interleaved moderating material and nearly transparent single-crystal spacers, is a directionally enhanced neutron beam source, improving beam emission over an angular range comparable to the range accepted by neutron beam lines and guides. We have demonstrated gains of 50% in slow neutron intensity for a given fast neutron production rate while simultaneously reducing the wavelength-dependent emission time dispersion by 25%, both coming from a geometric effect in which the neutron beam lines view a large surface area of moderating material in a relatively small volume. Additionally, we have confirmed a Bragg-enhancement effect arising from coherent scattering within the single-crystal spacers. We have not observed hypothesized refractive effects leading to additional gains at long wavelength. In addition to confirmation of the validity of the Convoluted Moderator concept, our measurements provide a series of benchmark experiments suitable for developing simulation and analysis techniques for practical optimization and eventual implementation at slow neutron source facilities.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Germacrane Type Sesquiterpenes from Curcuma heyneana Rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiwi Diastuti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of terpenoids from C. heyneana rhizomes and their antibacterial activity have been conducted. The terpenoids were isolated by using vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structures of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic data (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR (1D and 2D. The antibacterial activity was carried out by using microdilution method and evaluated against eight bacteria. Three germacrane type sesquiterpenes have been isolated from C. heyneana rhizhomes and were identified as germacrone, dehydrocurdione, and 1(10,4(5-diepoxygermacrone. Germacrone showed highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa with MIC values of 15.6 µg/mL and MBC values 31.2 µg/mL. Dehydrocurdione showed highest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis with MIC values of 31.2 µg/mL and MBC values of 31.2 µg/mL. However, 1(10,4(5-diepoxygermacrone showed a weak antibacterial activity.

  2. Quantitative Structure ‒ Antiprotozoal Activity Relationships of Sesquiterpene Lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Brun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Prompted by results of our previous studies where we found high activity of some sesquiterpene lactones (STLs against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (which causes East African sleeping sickness, we have now conducted a structure-(in-vitro-activity study on a set of 40 STLs against T. brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, cytotoxic activity against L6 rat skeletal myoblast cells was assessed. Some of the compounds possess high activity, especially against T. brucei (e.g. helenalin and some of its esters with IC50-values of 0.05-0.1 µM, which is about 10 times lower than their cytotoxic activity. It was found that all investigated antiprotozoal activities are significantly correlated with cytotoxicity and the major determinants for activity are a,b-unsaturated structural elements, also known to be essential for other biological activities of STLs. It was observed, however, that certain compounds are considerably more toxic against protozoa than against mammalian cells while others are more cytotoxic than active against the protozoa. A comparative QSAR analysis was therefore undertaken, in order to discern the antiparasitic activity of STLs against T. brucei and cytotoxicity. Both activities were found to depend to a large extent on the same structural elements and molecular properties. The observed variance in the biological data can be explained in terms of subtle variations in the relative influences of various molecular descriptors.

  3. Sesquiterpene amino ether and cytotoxic phenols from Dendrobium wardianum Warner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Liu, Shou-Jin; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Ming-Yan; Li, Jin-Yu; Hou, Bo; Li, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xing-Zhi; Ding, Chang-Chun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2017-10-01

    A new bibenzyl derivative, dendrocandin V (1) and a new sesquiterpene amino ether, wardianumine A (2), together with eleven known compounds, including phenanthrenes (denbinobin (3), 9,10-dihydro-denbinobin (4), mostatin (5), loddigesiinols A (6)), bibenzyls (moscatilin (7), 5-hydroxy-3,4'-dimethoxybibenzyl (8), 3,4-dihydroxy-5,4'-dimethoxy bibenzyl (9), dendrocandin A (10), gigantol (11), dendrocandin U (12)) and an alkaloids (dihydroshihunine, 13) were isolated from the EtOH extraction of stems of Dendrobium wardianum Warner. Isolation of the new compound 2 indicated that N,N-dimethylethanolamine as the key adduction in the synthesis of dendroxine and its analogs in Dendrobium species. The hypothetical biosynthetic pathway of 2 was then postulated. Inspired by literature and traditional usage of the herbal medicine, some compounds were sent for cytotoxic activity and the results indicated that compounds 1, 3, 4, 5 showed cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480) with IC50 from 2.33-38.48μM. Among those compounds, 3 and 4 showed cell line selectivity with strong activity comparable to DDP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. 78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... medical devices to take timely action to correct violative devices or remove them from the marketplace...] Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft Guidance for... draft guidance entitled ``Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting...

  5. Sesquiterpene lactone stereochemistry influences herbivore resistance and plant fitness in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Jeffrey R; Whitney, Kenneth D

    2014-03-01

    Stereochemical variation is widely known to influence the bioactivity of compounds in the context of pharmacology and pesticide science, but our understanding of its importance in mediating plant-herbivore interactions is limited, particularly in field settings. Similarly, sesquiterpene lactones are a broadly distributed class of putative defensive compounds, but little is known about their activities in the field. Natural variation in sesquiterpene lactones of the common cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae), was used in conjunction with a series of common garden experiments to examine relationships between stereochemical variation, herbivore damage and plant fitness. The stereochemistry of sesquiterpene lactone ring junctions helped to explain variation in plant herbivore resistance. Plants producing cis-fused sesquiterpene lactones experienced significantly higher damage than plants producing trans-fused sesquiterpene lactones. Experiments manipulating herbivore damage above and below ambient levels found that herbivore damage was negatively correlated with plant fitness. This pattern translated into significant fitness differences between chemotypes under ambient levels of herbivore attack, but not when attack was experimentally reduced via pesticide. To our knowledge, this work represents only the second study to examine sesquiterpene lactones as defensive compounds in the field, the first to document herbivore-mediated natural selection on sesquiterpene lactone variation and the first to investigate the ecological significance of the stereochemistry of the lactone ring junction. The results indicate that subtle differences in stereochemistry may be a major determinant of the protective role of secondary metabolites and thus of plant fitness. As stereochemical variation is widespread in many groups of secondary metabolites, these findings suggest the possibility of dynamic evolutionary histories within the Asteraceae and other plant families showing

  6. Generalized Enhanced Multivariance Product Representation for Data Partitioning: Constancy Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunga, M. Alper; Demiralp, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced Multivariance Product Representation (EMPR) method is used to represent multivariate functions in terms of less-variate structures. The EMPR method extends the HDMR expansion by inserting some additional support functions to increase the quality of the approximants obtained for dominantly or purely multiplicative analytical structures. This work aims to develop the generalized form of the EMPR method to be used in multivariate data partitioning approaches. For this purpose, the Generalized HDMR philosophy is taken into consideration to construct the details of the Generalized EMPR at constancy level as the introductory steps and encouraging results are obtained in data partitioning problems by using our new method. In addition, to examine this performance, a number of numerical implementations with concluding remarks are given at the end of this paper.

  7. Enhanced production of fructosyltransferase in Aspergillus oryzae by genome shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenghai; Duan, Mengjie; Liu, Yalan; Fan, Sen; Lin, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    To breed Aspergillus oryzae strains with high fructosyltransferase (FTase) activity using intraspecific protoplast fusion via genome-shuffling. A candidate library was developed using UV/LiCl of the conidia of A. oryzae SBB201. By screening for enzyme activity and cell biomass, two mutants (UV-11 and UV-76) were chosen for protoplast fusion and subsequent genome shuffling. After three rounds of genome recombination, a fusion mutant RIII-7 was obtained. Its FTase activity was 180 U g -1 , approximately double that of the original strain, and RIII-7 was genetically stable. In fermentation culture, FTase activity of the genome-shuffled strain reached a maximum of 353 U g -1 using substrate-feeding method, and this value was approximately 3.4-times higher than that of the original strain A. oryzae SBB201. Intraspecific protoplast fusion of A. oryzae significantly enhanced FTase activity and generated a potentially useful strain for industrial production.

  8. Significant enhancement by biochar of caproate production via chain elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biochar was introduced into a chain elongation system to enhance the bioproduction of caproate and caprylate. The concentration of caproate increased to 21.1 g/L upon the addition of biochar, which is the highest level of caproate reported for such a system to date when ethanol was used as electron donor. The addition of biochar created a tougher system with more stable microorganism community structure for chain elongation, in which no obvious inhibition by products or substrates was observed, moreover, the lag phase was reduced 2.3-fold compared to the system without biochar. These reinforcement effect of biochar are attributed to the enhanced conductivity due to the significant enrichment of functional microorganisms via the microbial network surrounding smaller biochar particles, and via the adsorption on the rough surfaces or pores of larger particles, which facilitated electron transfer. Higher amounts of extracellular polymer substances and higher conductivity induced by biochar could contribute to the reinforcement effect in chain elongation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel approach for productivity enhancement of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production by Cupriavidus necator DSM 545.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Nathalie

    2013-01-25

    In the global context of increased concerns for our environment, the use of bioplastics as a replacement for existing petroleum-based polymers is an important challenge. Indeed, bioplastics hardly meet economical and technical constraints. One, of the most promising among currently studied bioplastics, is the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). To circumvent the economical issue for this particular biopolymer one solution can be the enhancement of the overall productivity by the improvement of the nutritional medium of the microorganism producing the biopolymer. Thus, several nutrition media, supplemented or not with sodium glutamate, were tested for the growth and the PHA production by Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 strain. The most efficient for the biomass and the PHA production improvement were found to be the Luria broth (LB) and the Bonnarme's media, both supplemented with 10 g/L sodium glutamate. Hence the overall productivity was 33 times enhanced comparing to traditional cultivation methods. These results open a new route for the PHA production by C. necator which appears to be more suitable on a rich, or enriched, medium with no limiting factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New technique for enhancing helium production in ferritic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Kneff, D.W.

    1987-10-01

    Analyses of iron samples irradiated up to 10 27 n/m 2 in HFIR found more helium than was expected from fast neutron reactions at high neutron fluences. The helium excess increases systematically with neutron exposure, suggesting a transmutation-driven process. The extra helium may be produced in two different ways, either by fast neutron reactions on the transmuted isotopes of iron or by a thermal neutron reaction with the radioactive isotope 55 Fe. Radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements of the iron isotopes composing the irradiated samples have been used to determine limits on the cross sections for each process. Either of these processes can be used to enhance helium production in ferritic materials during irradiations in mixed-spectrum reactors by isotopically enriching the samples. Further work is needed to clarify the reaction mechanisms and helium production cross sections. Our measurements determined the thermal neutron total absorption cross section of 55 Fe to be 13.2 +- 2.1 barns. 16 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  12. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancing Environmental Communication and Products Through Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses two ongoing interdisciplinary case studies that are using qualitative research to design and enhance environmental communication and science products for outreach and decision making purposes. Both cases demonstrate the viability and practical value of qualitative social science methodology, specifically focus group interviews, to better understand the viewpoints of target audiences, improve deliverables, and support project goals. The first case is a NOAA-funded project to conduct process-based modeling to project impact from climate change in general and sea level rise in particular to the natural and built environment. The project spans the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts with concentration on the three National Estuarine Research Reserves. As part of the broader project, four annual focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of coastal resource managers to capture their perspectives and suggestions to better meet their informational and operational needs. The second case is a Florida Sea Grant-funded project that is developing, implementing, and testing a cohesive outreach campaign to promote voluntary careful and responsible recreational boating to help protect sensitive marine life and habitats (especially seagrasses and oyster reefs) in the Mosquito Lagoon. Six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of the target audience of boaters to gain insights, feedback, and ideas on the direction of the campaign and design of the messages and products. The campaign materials created include a branded website, Facebook page, mobile app, information packets, brochures, pledge forms, and promotional items. A comparison of these two case studies will be provided and will explain how the qualitative findings were/are being implemented to tailor and refine the respective communication strategies and techniques including the emerging outreach products. The resulting outcomes are messages and tools that are

  14. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. James

    2006-01-01

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding. PMID:17130454

  15. Enhanced isoprenoid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Suryang; Kim, Soo Rin; Xu, Haiqing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has limited capabilities for producing fuels and chemicals derived from acetyl-CoA, such as isoprenoids, due to a rigid flux partition toward ethanol during glucose metabolism. Despite numerous efforts, xylose fermentation by engineered yeast harboring heterologous xylose metabolic pathways was not as efficient as glucose fermentation for producing ethanol. Therefore, we hypothesized that xylose metabolism by engineered yeast might be a better fit for producing non-ethanol metabolites. We indeed found that engineered S. cerevisiae on xylose showed higher expression levels of the enzymes involved in ethanol assimilation and cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis than on glucose. When genetic perturbations necessary for overproducing squalene and amorphadiene were introduced into engineered S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose, we observed higher titers and yields of isoprenoids under xylose than glucose conditions. Specifically, co-overexpression of a truncated HMG1 (tHMG1) and ERG10 led to substantially higher squalene accumulation under xylose than glucose conditions. In contrast to glucose utilization producing massive amounts of ethanol regardless of aeration, xylose utilization allowed much less amounts of ethanol accumulation, indicating ethanol is simultaneously re-assimilated with xylose consumption and utilized for the biosynthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA. In addition, xylose utilization by engineered yeast with overexpression of tHMG1, ERG10, and ADS coding for amorphadiene synthase, and the down-regulation of ERG9 resulted in enhanced amorphadiene production as compared to glucose utilization. These results suggest that the problem of the rigid flux partition toward ethanol production in yeast during the production of isoprenoids and other acetyl-CoA derived chemicals can be bypassed by using xylose instead of glucose as a carbon source. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2581-2591. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  16. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  17. 3-Ishwarone and 3-Ishwarol, rare sesquiterpenes in essential oil from leaves of Peperomia oreophila Hensch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades]. E-mail: joaolago@iq.usp.br; Oliveira, Alberto de; Kato, Massuo J. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Guimaraes, Elsie F. [Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas

    2007-07-01

    The essential oil from Peperomia oreophila leaves (Piperaceae) was submitted to fractionation in silica gel column. This separation procedure yielded a fraction composed of a hydrocarbon sesquiterpene mixture which was identified as {beta}-elemene, {alpha}-ylangene, {alpha}-guaiene and {beta}-selinene. Besides, spathulenol and two sesquiterpenes with the rare ishwarane skeleton: 3-ishwarol and 3-ishwarone were also identified. 3-ishwarone was the major component of the crude oil (78% weight). Since the alcohol obtained was not sufficient to allow a complete structural determination, the original ketone was reduced to 3-ishwarol in order to give additional quantities. After the two sesquiterpenes purification, they were characterized by spectrometric techniques ({sup 1}H-{sup 1}H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). (author)

  18. Sesquiterpene and Acetogenin Derivatives from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia okamurai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Gui Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to 13 known compounds, four new bisabolane sesquiterpenes, okamurenes A–D (1–4, a new chamigrane derivative, okamurene E (5, and a new C12-acetogenin, okamuragenin (6, were isolated from the marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. The structures of these compounds were determined through detailed spectroscopic analyses. Of these, okamurenes A and B (1 and 2 are the first examples of bromobisabolane sesquiterpenes possessing a phenyl moiety among Laurencia-derived sesquiterpenes, while okamuragenin (6 was the first acetogenin aldehyde possessing a C12-carbon skeleton. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for the brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethal assay and 7-hydroxylaurene displayed potent lethality with LD50 1.8 μM.

  19. New sesquiterpene lactones from sunflower root exudate as germination stimulants for Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupp, Frank M; Spring, Otmar

    2013-11-06

    Orobanche cumana is a serious threat for cultivation of sunflower in Europe and Asia. Germination of the parasite is induced by metabolites released from the host root system. The first germination stimulant from sunflower root exudate was recently identified as dehydrocostus lactone, a sesquiterpene lactone. Bioassay-guided fractionation of root exudates now showed the release of additional sesquiterpene lactones. Besides dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, tomentosin, and 8-epixanthatin were purified and identified spectroscopically. All four compounds induced germination of O. cumana at nano- to micromolar concentrations. Costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone concentrations above 1 μM reduced the activity, and application of 100 μM inhibited germination irreversibly. Seeds of Phelipanche ramosa could not be induced with costunolide. O. cumana seeds also germinated with GR24, a synthetic strigolactone. No bioactive fraction of sunflower contained compounds of this type. This supports previous findings that sesquiterpene lactones instead of strigolactones trigger the sunflower/O. cumana interaction.

  20. 3-Ishwarone and 3-Ishwarol, rare sesquiterpenes in essential oil from leaves of Peperomia oreophila Hensch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Oliveira, Alberto de; Kato, Massuo J.; Guimaraes, Elsie F.

    2007-01-01

    The essential oil from Peperomia oreophila leaves (Piperaceae) was submitted to fractionation in silica gel column. This separation procedure yielded a fraction composed of a hydrocarbon sesquiterpene mixture which was identified as β-elemene, α-ylangene, α-guaiene and β-selinene. Besides, spathulenol and two sesquiterpenes with the rare ishwarane skeleton: 3-ishwarol and 3-ishwarone were also identified. 3-ishwarone was the major component of the crude oil (78% weight). Since the alcohol obtained was not sufficient to allow a complete structural determination, the original ketone was reduced to 3-ishwarol in order to give additional quantities. After the two sesquiterpenes purification, they were characterized by spectrometric techniques ( 1 H- 1 H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). (author)

  1. Effects of Acute Ozone Exposure and Methyl Jasmonate Treatment on White Pine Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wagner, D.; Allwine, E.; Harley, P. C.; Vanreken, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced by plants and include monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives. These BVOCs are one of the principal factors influencing the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in forested regions, and impact both ozone concentration and secondary organic aerosol formation. Under unstressed conditions, the release of BVOCs to the atmosphere is primarily controlled by the vapor pressure of the relevant compounds within the plant tissue, which is in turn dependent on temperature as well as complex biochemical production processes. However, various natural and anthropogenic stressors can alter both the quantity and composition of the BVOCs emitted by plants. Many potential stressors are expected to become stronger as climate change effects escalate. The impacts of most stressors on BVOC emissions have not been well characterized, particularly in a field setting where changes in BVOC emissions could have influential feedbacks with climate. This study investigated the effects of two stressors on monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission rates at a field site in northern Michigan: acute ozone exposure and treatment with methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. The study included six repetitions of the same experiment, each time using a new set of sub-canopy eastern white pine specimens. For each experiment, dynamic branch enclosures were simultaneously used on three specimens for sample collection: one ozone treatment tree, one methyl jasmonate treatment tree, and one control tree. Sampling lines were placed in each enclosure and VOCs were collected onto cartridges packed with Tenax GR adsorbent. Samples were collected several times per day for at least two days before treatment and for five days after treatment. Cartridges were analyzed via thermodesorption with an Agilent GC/MS/FID. This analysis allowed the identification and quantification of several monoterpene and sesquiterpene species in the samples

  2. Neolignans and sesquiterpenes from leaves and embryogenic cultures of Ocotea Catharinensis (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaki, Mariko; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lordello, Ana Luisa L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Viana, Ana Maria [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Botanica; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Floh, Eny I.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The extracts from leaves of Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae) were found to contain fourteen neolignans and two sesquiterpenes: nine benzofuran types (including three new compounds 1e, 2f and 4b), one new seco-benzofuran type (3b), two bicyclo[3.2.1]octane types (including the new compound 5c), two new dimers of bicyclo[3.2.1]octane type (7a and 7b) and two sesquiterpenes (including a new humulanol 9). In addition, seven neolignans were also showed to occur in somatic embryos of O. catharinensis including one new bicyclo[3.2.1]octane type (4a). (author)

  3. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the sesquiterpene lactones cnicin and onopordopicrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Sandra M; Fortuna, Mario A; Attarian, Rodgoun; de Trimarco, Juliana T; Catalán, César A N; Av-Gay, Yossef; Bach, Horacio

    2011-02-01

    The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of chloroform extracts from the weeds Centaurea tweediei and C. diffusa, and the main sesquiterpene lactones isolated from these species, onopordopicrin and cnicin, respectively, were assayed. Results show that the chloroform extracts from both Centaurea species possess antibacterial activities against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Remarkable antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was also measured. Both the extracts and the purified sesquiterpene lactones show high cytotoxicity against human-derived macrophages. Despite this cytotoxicity, C. diffusa chloroform extract and cnicin are attractive candidates for evaluation as antibiotics in topical preparations against skin-associated pathogens.

  4. Sesquiterpenes from Neurolaena lobata and Their Antiproliferative and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Lajter, Ildikó; Vasas, Andrea; Béni, Zoltán; Forgo, Peter; Binder, Markus; Bochkov, Valery; Zupkó, István; Krupitza, Georg; Frisch, Richard; Kopp, Brigitte; Hohmann, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Five new sesquiterpenes, neurolobatin A (1), neurolobatin B (2), 5β-hydroxy-8β-isovaleroyloxy-9α-hydroxycalyculatolide (3), 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4), and 3β-acetoxy-8β-isovaleroyloxyreynosin (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Neurolaena lobata. The structures were established by means of a combined spectroscopic data analysis, including ESIMS, APCI-MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Neurolobatin A (1) and B (2) are unusual isomeric seco-germacranolide sesquiterpenes w...

  5. Neolignans and sesquiterpenes from leaves and embryogenic cultures of Ocotea Catharinensis (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funasaki, Mariko; Kato, Massuo J.

    2009-01-01

    The extracts from leaves of Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae) were found to contain fourteen neolignans and two sesquiterpenes: nine benzofuran types (including three new compounds 1e, 2f and 4b), one new seco-benzofuran type (3b), two bicyclo[3.2.1]octane types (including the new compound 5c), two new dimers of bicyclo[3.2.1]octane type (7a and 7b) and two sesquiterpenes (including a new humulanol 9). In addition, seven neolignans were also showed to occur in somatic embryos of O. catharinensis including one new bicyclo[3.2.1]octane type (4a). (author)

  6. Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    and larger scale. In their article, Onda and Mochida detailed how to use these technologies in fully characterizing the genetic diversity or multigenecity within a particular plant species. The authors discussed the constant innovation of sequencing platforms which has made sequencing technologies become more superior and more powerful than ever before. Additionally, the efforts result in not only further cut down of the sequencing cost and increase in the sequencing speed, but also improvement in sequencing accuracy and extended sequencing application to studies at both DNA and RNA levels. Such knowledge will help the scientists interpret, at least partially, how plants can adapt to various environmental conditions, or how different cultivars can respond differently to the same stress. Another article by Ong et al. also laid emphasis on the importance of various high-throughput sequencing platforms, thanks to which a large number of genomic databases supplied with detailed annotation and useful bioinformatics tools have been established to assist geneticists. Readers can find in this review the summary of available plant-specific genomic databases up-to-date and popular web-based resources that are relevant for comparative genomics, plant evolution and phylogenomics studies. These, along with other approaches, such as quantitative trait locus and genome-wide association study, will lay foundation for prediction and identification of genes or alleles responsible for valuable agronomic traits, contributing to the enhancement of plant productivity by genetic engineering approach. In this thematic issue, specific examples for crop improvement are also demonstrated. The first showcase is given by Nongpiur et al. who provided evidence that synergistic employment of genomics approaches and high-throughput gene expression methods have aided in dissecting the salinity-responsive signaling pathway, identifying genes involved in the stress response and selecting candidate genes

  7. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  8. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  9. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  10. Optimization of prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens using crude glycerol and enhancing production using gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Elkenawy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin is regarded as a promising drug owing to its reported characteristics of possessing anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and immunosuppressive activity. A factorial design was applied to generate a set of 32 experimental combinations to study the optimal conditions for pigment production using crude glycerol obtained from local biodiesel facility as carbon source for the growth of Serratia marcescens. The maximum production (870 unit/cell was achieved at 22 °C, at pH 9 with the addition of 1% (w/v peptone and 109 cell/ml inoculum size after 6 days of incubation. Gamma radiation at dose 200 Gy was capable of doubling the production of the pigment using the optimized conditions and manipulating production temperature. Our results indicate that we have designed an economic medium supporting enhanced Serratia marcescens MN5 prodigiosin production giving an added value for crude glycerol obtained from biodiesel industry.

  11. Summary of strategies for planning Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Summary of NASA Strategies for Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement respond to NASA's eighth top goal: Establish NASA as a leader in the development and application of advanced technology and management practices which contribute to significant increases in both Agency and national productivity. The Strategies provide the framework for development of the agency-wide Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) Plans.

  12. Process improvements for enhanced productivity of PHWR garter springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasula Reddy, S.; Tonpe, Sunil; Saibaba, N.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    final step. Further process optimization was carried out to ensure better stiffness through dimensional control. This paper describes the influence of process parameters during various manufacturing steps such as heat treatment and chemical operations on the hydrogen pickup, residual stresses and coil stiffness in Garter springs used in PHWRs. The improvements carried out in manufacturing process to overcome the above problems and to achieve enhanced productivity were also discussed

  13. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  14. Puupehanol, a Sesquiterpene-Dihydroquinone Derivative from the Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puupehanol (1), a new sesquiterpene-dihydroquinone derivative, was isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios sp., along with the known compounds puupehenone (2) and chloropuupehenone (3). The structure of 1 was established as (20R,21R)-21-hydroxy-20,21-dihydropuupehenone by interpretation of spectros...

  15. Sesquiterpene lactone dermatitis in the young: is atopy a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Otkjaer, Aksel; Andersen, Klaus E

    2008-01-01

    was to present another 2 cases in children and review the literature. Screening with sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix has shown prevalence of 0.5% and 1.8% in 2 studies, while screening with 2 different Compositae mixes detected 4.2% and 2.6% positives among children and adolescents. All individual case reports...

  16. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Novel Sesquiterpene Lactones from Iceberg Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2016-01-13

    Lactuca sativa var. capitate (iceberg lettuce) is a delicious vegetable and popular for its mild taste. Nevertheless, iceberg lettuce is a source of bitter substances, such as the sesquiterpene lactones. Chemical investigations on the n-butanol extract led to the isolation of three novel sesquiterpene lactones. All compounds were isolated by multilayer countercurrent chromatography followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures were verified by means of spectroscopic methods, including NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. For the first time 11ß,13-dihydrolactucin-8-O-sulfate (jaquinelin-8-O-sulfate) was structurally elucidated and identified in plants. In addition, the sesquiterpene lactones cichorioside B and 8-deacetylmatricarin-8-O-sulfate were identified as novel ingredients of iceberg lettuce. Further flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae were examined for the above three compounds. At least one of the compounds was identified in nine plants. The comparison between the lettuce butt end and the leaves of five types of the Cichorieae tribe showed an accumulation of the compounds in the butt end. Further experiments addressed the impact of sesquiterpene lactones on color formation and bitter taste.

  17. Cytotoxic Properties of Selected Sesquiterpene Alcohols on Human Cervix Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryabchenko, B.; Tulupová, Elena; Schmidt, E.; Jaeger, W.; Jirovetz, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2011), s. 316-319 ISSN 0972-060X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : sesquiterpene alcohols * actinomycin D * cis-nerolidol Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2011

  18. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ivanescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation.

  19. ROLE OF MEMBRANE LIPID-COMPOSITION IN THE CYTOTOXICITY OF THE SESQUITERPENE LACTONE EUPATORIOPICRIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERLINDE, JCC; WOERDENBAG, HJ; MALINGRE, TM; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible role of lipid peroxidation in the cytotoxicity of eupatoriopicrin, the principal sesquiterpene lactone from Eupatorum cannabinum L. Incorporation of arachidonic acid acyl chains in the phospholipids of cellular membranes of mouse fibroblast

  20. Immunobiological properties of sesquiterpene lactones obtained by chemically transformed structural modifications of trilobolide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmatha, Juraj; Vokáč, Karel; Buděšínský, Miloš; Zídek, Zdeněk; Kmoníčková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 107, Dec (2015), s. 90-99 ISSN 0367-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/0061 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : sesquiterpene lactones * guaianolides * trilobolide derivatives * nitric oxide * cytokines * immunoactivity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.408, year: 2015

  1. Structure-cytotoxicity relationships of some helenanolide-type sesquiterpene lactones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, AC; Woerdenbag, HJ; vanUden, W; Pras, N; Konings, AWT; Wikstrom, HV; Schmidt, TJ

    This study deals with the cytotoxicity of helenanolide-type (10 alpha-methylpseudoguaianolide) sesquiterpene lactones. We determined the influence of substitution patterns on the toxicity of 21 helenanolides to a cloned Ehrlich ascites tumor cell line, EN2. Within a series of helenalin esters, the

  2. Hirsutane Sesquiterpenes from Cultures of the Basidiomycete Marasmiellus sp. BCC 22389

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Isaka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two new hirsutane sesquiterpenes, marasmiellins A (1 and B (2, were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Marasmiellus sp. BCC 22389. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. The absolute configuration of marasmiellin B was determined by application of the modified Mosher’s method. Graphical Abstract

  3. Routine patch testing with the sesquiterpene lactone mix in Europe: a 2-year experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandão, F M

    1999-01-01

    To test the screening value of the sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in Europe today and describe epidemiological and clinical features of Compositae-sensitive patients, the SL mix 0.1% pet. was included in the standard patch test series in 11 European clinics. 10,695 patients were tested, and 106 (1...

  4. Antiplasmodial activities and cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, G; Passreiter, C M; Woerdenbag, H J; Van Looveren, M

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous and lipophilic extracts of Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), obtained from Guatemala, were tested against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Moreover, sesquiterpene lactones, of the germacranolide and furanoheliangolide type, isolated from N. lobata, were shown to be active against P. falciparum in vitro. In addition to their antiplasmodial activity, their cytotoxic effects on human carcinoma cell lines were evaluated. Structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  5. BODIPY-based fluorescent liposomes with sesquiterpene lactone trilobolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Škorpilová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Like thapsigargin, which is undergoing clinical trials, trilobolide is a natural product with promising anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Similar to thapsigargin, it has limited aqueous solubility that strongly reduces its potential medicinal applications. The targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs can be achieved using liposome-based carriers. Therefore, we designed a traceable liposomal drug delivery system for trilobolide. The fluorescent green-emitting dye BODIPY, cholesterol and trilobolide were used to create construct 6. The liposomes were composed of dipalmitoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropane and phosphatidylethanolamine. The whole system was characterized by atomic force microscopy, the average size of the liposomes was 150 nm in width and 30 nm in height. We evaluated the biological activity of construct 6 and its liposomal formulation, both of which showed immunomodulatory properties in primary rat macrophages. The uptake and intracellular distribution of construct 6 and its liposomal formulation was monitored by means of live-cell fluorescence microscopy in two cancer cell lines. The encapsulation of construct 6 into the liposomes improved the drug distribution in cancer cells and was followed by cell death. This new liposomal trilobolide derivative not only retains the biological properties of pure trilobolide, but also enhances the bioavailability, and thus has potential for the use in theranostic applications.

  6. Critical variables in the performance of a productivity-enhanced solar still

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.; Malaeb, Lilian; Saikaly, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    A new and sustainable modification has been introduced into the conventional solar still, considerably increasing its productivity. This enhancement in the solar still productivity is achieved without forsaking the basic features of the still

  7. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid by thraustochytrid protists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, R.; Raghukumar, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    , thraustochytrids are considered among the most promising. These marine eukaryotic, straminopilan protests have been extensively studied in recent years for DHA production. This paper examines methods to enhance DHA production in thraustochytrids. A cold shock...

  8. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Enedy

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant

  9. Mode of Action of the Sesquiterpene Lactones Psilostachyin and Psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria P Sülsen

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, which is a major endemic disease in Latin America and is recognized by the WHO as one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases in the world. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C, two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Ambrosia spp., have been demonstrated to have trypanocidal activity. Considering both the potential therapeutic targets present in the parasite, and the several mechanisms of action proposed for sesquiterpene lactones, the aim of this work was to characterize the mode of action of psilostachyin and psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi and to identify the possible targets for these molecules. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C were isolated from Ambrosia tenuifolia and Ambrosia scabra, respectively. Interaction of sesquiterpene lactones with hemin, the induction of oxidative stress, the inhibition of cruzipain and trypanothione reductase and their ability to inhibit sterol biosynthesis were evaluated. The induction of cell death by apoptosis was also evaluated by analyzing phosphatidylserine exposure detected using annexin-V/propidium iodide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, assessed with Rhodamine 123 and nuclear DNA fragmentation evaluated by the TUNEL assay. Both STLs were capable of interacting with hemin. Psilostachyin increased about 5 times the generation of reactive oxygen species in Trypanosoma cruzi after a 4h treatment, unlike psilostachyin C which induced an increase in reactive oxygen species levels of only 1.5 times. Only psilostachyin C was able to inhibit the biosynthesis of ergosterol, causing an accumulation of squalene. Both sesquiterpene lactones induced parasite death by apoptosis. Upon evaluating the combination of both compounds, and additive trypanocidal effect was observed. Despite their structural similarity, both sesquiterpene lactones exerted their anti-T. cruzi activity through interaction with different targets. Psilostachyin

  10. Ultrasound-Enhanced Biogas Production from Different Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Fernández, Cristina; Timmers, Rudolphus Antonius; Ruiz, Begona

    2015-01-01

    Among the biofuel production processes using different substrates, the biogas generation process is one of the simplest. Compared with bioethanol or biodiesel production processes, anaerobic digestion is a process where all the organic matter (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) can be biologically...... production. The present chapter is dedicated to providing a review of ultrasound pretreatment applied to different substrates (lignocelullosic materials, manures, sludge and microalgae). The advantages and constraints, that ultrasound pretreatment exhibit towards biogas production, are discussed and compared...

  11. PRODUCTIVITY AND LAND ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: HEALTH, PUBLIC INVESTMENTS, AND SEQUENTIAL ADOPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire; Amacher, Gregory S.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger

    2003-01-01

    The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our research examines the interaction between public investments, community health, and adoption of productivity and land enhancing technologies by households in the northern Ethiopian state of Tigray. Agricultural technology adoption decision...

  12. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  13. Lean manufacturing: A better way for enhancement in productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Ahir, Pankaj; Kumar Yadav, Lalit; Singh Chandrawat, Saurabh

    2012-03-01

    Productivity is the impact of peoples working together. Machines are merely an extended way of collective imagination and energy. Lean Manufacturing is the most used method for continues improvement of business. Organization management philosophy focusing on the reduction of wastage to improve overall customer value. "Lean" operating principles began in manufacturing environments and are known by a variety of synonyms; Lean Manufacturing, Lean Production, Toyota Production System, etc. It is commonly believed that Lean started in Japan "The notable activities in keeping the price of Ford products low is the steady restriction of the production cycle. The longer an article is in the process of manufacture and the more it is moved about, the greater is its ultimate cost." "A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste through continuous improvement, flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection."

  14. CONSUMER ENGAGEMENT AND VALUE ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PRODUCT INDIVIDUALISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Armellini, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Product customisation has always been a regular practice as a form of self or group identification. Previous studies have demonstrated that when investing time and effort to customise a product, an emotional attachment to that product develops. Since the 1980s, new technologies in design, manufacturing and communications have facilitated customisation practices for mass manufacturers as well as for individual consumers. For example, computer algorithms can now automate customisation (i.e. ind...

  15. 9-Hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl Lactone: A New Sesquiterpene Isolated from the Tropical Marine Sponge Dysidea arenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karuso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A new sesquiterpene, 9-hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl lactone, has been isolated from a New Caledonian Dysidea arenaria, along with three known compounds. The possible incorporation of the ethyl ether from the extraction solvent is discussed.

  16. Enhancing the Production of a Novel Exopolysaccharide by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To improve the production of a novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Bacillus mucilaginosus CGMCC5766. Methods: The culture medium for production of EPS was optimized using statistical experiment design. Sucrose, CaCO3 and K2HPO4 were found to be the key factors based on the results obtained from ...

  17. Strategies for Optimizing Algal Biology for Enhanced Biomass Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T., E-mail: rsayre@newmexicoconsortium.org [Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-02

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.

  18. Strategies for Optimizing Algal Biology for Enhanced Biomass Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.

  19. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  20. Domestic Wood Products Manufacturing Trends and Factors to Enhance Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson; Rich Christianson

    2003-01-01

    There is little question that imports have captured a substantial portion of the domestic furniture market. However, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain industry perspectives of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that can enhance domestic competitiveness...

  1. Enhancing product robustness in reliability-based design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Xiaotian; Pan, Rong; Du, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Different types of uncertainties need to be addressed in a product design optimization process. In this paper, the uncertainties in both product design variables and environmental noise variables are considered. The reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is integrated with robust product design (RPD) to concurrently reduce the production cost and the long-term operation cost, including quality loss, in the process of product design. This problem leads to a multi-objective optimization with probabilistic constraints. In addition, the model uncertainties associated with a surrogate model that is derived from numerical computation methods, such as finite element analysis, is addressed. A hierarchical experimental design approach, augmented by a sequential sampling strategy, is proposed to construct the response surface of product performance function for finding optimal design solutions. The proposed method is demonstrated through an engineering example. - Highlights: • A unifying framework for integrating RBDO and RPD is proposed. • Implicit product performance function is considered. • The design problem is solved by sequential optimization and reliability assessment. • A sequential sampling technique is developed for improving design optimization. • The comparison with traditional RBDO is provided

  2. Enhancing ethanol production from cellulosic sugars using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, C C; Azam, M M; Ezeji, T C; Qureshi, N

    2016-07-01

    Studies were performed on the effect of CaCO3 and CaCl2 supplementation to fermentation medium for ethanol production from xylose, glucose, or their mixtures using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Both of these chemicals were found to improve maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity. Use of xylose alone resulted in the production of 20.68 ± 0.44 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.17 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1), while xylose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 24.68 ± 0.75 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.21 ± 0.01 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of xylose plus glucose in combination with 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 47.37 ± 0.55 g L(-1) ethanol (aerobic culture), thus resulting in an ethanol productivity of 0.39 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1). These values are 229 % of that achieved in xylose medium. Supplementation of xylose and glucose medium with 0.40 g L(-1) CaCl2 resulted in the production of 44.84 ± 0.28 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.37 ± 0.02 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of glucose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 57.39 ± 1.41 g L(-1) ethanol under micro-aerophilic conditions. These results indicate that supplementation of cellulosic sugars in the fermentation medium with CaCO3 and CaCl2 would improve economics of ethanol production from agricultural residues.

  3. Single basin solar still with fin for enhancing productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, V.; Gopalakrishnan, M.; Raghu, R.; Srithar, K.

    2008-01-01

    Distilled water productivity of the single basin solar still is very low. In this work, to augment evaporation of the still basin water, fins were integrated at the basin of the still. Thus production rate accelerated. Also, for further increase in exposure area sponges were used. Experimental results were compared with ordinary basin type still and still with wicks. The governing energy balance equations were solved analytically and compared with experimental results. It was found that 29.6% productivity increased, when wick type solar still was used, 15.3% productivity increased when sponges were used and 45.5% increased when fins were used. A good agreement had been achieved with theoretical results

  4. A solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.; Al Hindi, Mahmoud; Malaeb, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Increasing the productivity of solar stills has been the focus of intensive research. Many introduced developments, however, require complex components and entail notable increases in cost and land requirements. Developing a compact

  5. Enhancing the Production of a Novel Exopolysaccharide by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Methods: The culture medium for production of EPS was optimized using statistical experiment design. Sucrose, CaCO3 and ... INTRODUCTION. Microorganism exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are biopolymers which either attach to the cell.

  6. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-22

    Nov 22, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. Probiotic organisms find their potential use in food and ..... complex nutrients, temperature and pH on bacteriocin production by. Bacillus subtilis ... B, Gupta R (2004). Application of statistical experimental.

  7. Optimal Maintenance Crew Composition and Enhancement of Crew Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The South Carolina Department of Transportation dedicates a large portion of both : its budget and other resources to the maintenance of the States transportation : infrastructure. In order to maximize the efficiency and productivity of the State...

  8. Biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene germacrene D in Solidago canadensis: 13C and (2)H labeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis; Wüst, Matthias; Adam, Klaus-Peter; Mosandl, Armin

    2002-05-01

    The biogenetic origin of the isoprenoid building blocks of the sesquiterpene germacrene D was studied in Solidago canadensis. Feeding experiments were carried out with 1-[5,5-D(2)]deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (D(2)-DOXP), [5-13C]mevalonolactone (13C-MVL) and [1-13C]-D-glucose. The hydrodistillate of a cut shoot fed with D(2)-DOXP was investigated by enantio-MDGC-MS and the volatile fraction of a shoot supplied with 13C-MVL was examined by GC-C-IRMS. The incorporation of [1-13C]-D-glucose was analyzed by quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy after isolation of germacrene D from the essential oil. Our labeling studies revealed that the biosynthesis of the C-15 skeleton of sesquiterpene germacrene D in Solidago canadensis proceeds predominantly via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway.

  9. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva

    2014-01-01

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  10. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-08-01

    The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 μg/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9α-hydroxy-8β-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 μM) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 μM). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Forbs enhance productivity of unfertilised grass-clover leys and support low-carbon bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Wen-Feng; Jing, Jingying; Rasmussen, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Intensively managed grasslands are dominated by highly productive grass-clover mixtures. Increasing crop diversity by inclusion of competitive forbs may enhance biomass production and sustainable biofuel production. Here we examined if one or all of three forbs (chicory, Cichorium intybus L.; car...

  12. Role of the Colletotrichum acutatum sesquiterpene synthase CaTPS in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Manczak, Tom; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    biosynthesis is performed by sesquiterpene synthases (TPS). Only a few TPSs have been functionally characterized from filamentous fungi and none from the genus Colletotrichum. Despite being an important fungal pathogen to agriculture, it is poorly understood at the molecular and chemical levels. The terpenoid...... characterization of TPS in Colletotrichum spp. and terpenoid profiles of Coll. acutatum, which could facilitate studies on the role of terpenoids in the ecology of Coll. acutatum....

  13. Total Synthesis of Two 4, 5-Dioxo-seco-eudesmane Sesquiterpenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing FANG; Chen Xi ZHANG; Jin Chun CHEN; Guo Jun ZHENG; Yu Lin LI

    2005-01-01

    A facile synthetic route to two seco-eudesmane, 4, 5-dioxo-10-epi-4, 5-seco-γeudesmane (1) and 4, 5-dioxo-10-epi-4, 5-seco-γ-eudesmol (2) from (+)-dihydrocarvone has been described. Avoiding expensive reagents, this highly economic method especially suits for the synthesis of 4, 5-seco-eudesman-type and ophianon-type sesquiterpenes with a double bond at position 11 and 12.

  14. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIII. Guaianolides in the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh., genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were found to occur in all of the studied species of the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh. Differing compositions were found in the representatives of three sections. In Centaurea declinata MB. from the section Leucophylle (Sosn. Sosn.. 15-deoxyrepin, linichlorin B and cynaropicrin were found. Linichlorin B dominated in Centaurea hypoleucu DC. from section Hypoleucae (Sosn. Sosn., while in the species classified in section Psephellus Sosn., repin, acroptilin, jenerin, centaurepensin and, in some, also cynaropicrin. dominated.

  15. Dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from the seeds of Euonymus hamiltonianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir A. Tantry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Celastraceae family produce various dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids. Two dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquitepene pyridine alkaloids (1,2 apart from four known compounds euojaponin C (3, wilforine (4, austronine (5 and O9-benzoyl-O9-deacetylevonine (6, were isolated from the ripe seeds of Euonymus hamiltonianus. Their chemical structures were elucidated mainly by analysis of NMR and MS spectral data. All compounds were evaluated for insecticidal activity.

  16. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  17. Sesquiterpene lactone mix as a diagnostic tool for Asteraceae allergic contact dermatitis: chemical explanation for its poor performance and Sesquiterpene lactone mix II as a proposed improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mathias; Brinkmann, Jürgen; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    Two preparations are currently in use for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by Asteraceae: (i) Sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix [three pure sesquiterpene lactones (STLs)], whose use has been questioned, owing to an insufficient rate of true-positive results; and (ii) Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae extracts, which is problematic because of lack of standardization and questionable reproducibility. To analyse the reasons for the narrow sensitivity of SL mix from a chemoinformatic point of view, and to propose a solution by rational selection of alternative constituents for a new SL mix II covering a broader cohort of allergic patients. Structural and biological information on allergenic STLs was retrieved from databases and the literature, and molecular modelling and chemoinformatic computations were performed. An explanation for the insufficient hit rate of SL mix is that the three constituents possess extremely similar molecular structures/properties and do not represent well the structural diversity of allergenic STLs. STLs that are known as constituents of Compositae mix plants show much a wider diversity, which explains the higher positive rate. On the basis of their positions in chemical property space, a new collection of STLs that more evenly cover the overall structural diversity spectrum is proposed. SL mix II is likely to detect a larger number of patients sensitized to Asteraceae. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Highlights of contractor initiatives in quality enhancement and productivity improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/Contractor Team efforts are presented as part of NASA's continuing effort to facilitate the sharing of quality and productivity improvement ideas among its contractors. This complilation is not meant to be a comprehensive review of contractor initiative nor does it necessarily express NASA's views. The submissions represent samples from a general survey, and were not edited by NASA. The efforts are examples of quality and productivity programs in private industry, and as such, highlight company efforts in individual areas. Topics range from modernization of equipment, hardware, and technology to management of human resources. Of particular interest are contractor initiatives which deal with measurement and evaluation data pertaining to quality and productivity performance.

  19. Isolation of Persicaria minor sesquiterpene synthase promoter and its deletions for transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Aimi Farehah; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2016-11-01

    Sesquiterpene synthase (SS) catalyzes the formation of sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) via carbocation intermediates. In this study, the promoter region of sesquiterpene synthase was isolated from Persicaria minor to identify possible cis-acting elements in the promoter. The full-length PmSS promoter of P. minor is 1824-bp sequences. The sequence was analyzed and several putative cis-acting regulatory elements were identified. Three cis-acting regulatory elements were selected for deletion analysis which are cis-acting element involved in wound responsiveness (WUN), cis - acting element involved in defense and stress responsiveness (TC) and cis-acting element involved in ABA responsiveness (ABRE). Series of deletions were conducted to assess the promoter activity producing three truncated fragments promoter; Prom 2 1606-bp, Prom 3 1144- bp, and Prom 4 921-bp. The full-length promoter and its deletion series were cloned into the pBGWFS7 vector which contain β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter gene. All constructs were successfully transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana based on PCR of positive BASTA resistance plants.

  20. Enhanced Polyhydroxybutyrate Production for Long-Term Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Ryan J.; Rahman, Asif; Miller, Charles D.; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology holds the promise of advancing long term space fight by the production of medicine, food, materials, and energy. One such application of synthetic biology is the production of biomaterials, specifically polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), using purposed organisms such as Escherichia coli. PHAs are a group of biodegradable bioplastics that are produced by a wide variety of naturally occurring microorganisms, mainly as an energy storage intermediate. PHAs have similar melting point to polypropylene and a Youngs modulus close to polystyrene. Due to limited resources and cost of transportation, large-scale extraction of biologically produced products in situ is extremely cumbersome during space flight. To that end, we are developing a secretion systems for exporting PHA from the cell in order to reduce unit operations. PHAs granules deposited inside bacteria are typically associated with proteins bound to the granule surface. Phasin, a granule bound protein, was targeted for type I secretion by fusion with HlyA signal peptide for indirect secretion of PHAs. In order to validate our secretion strategy, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was tagged to the PHA polymerase enzyme (phaC), this three part gene cassette consists of phaA and phaB and are required for PHA production. Producing PHAs in situ during space flight or planet colonization will enable mission success by providing a valuable source of biomaterials that can have many potential applications thereby reducing resupply requirements. Biologically produced PHAs can be used in additive manufacturing such as three dimensional (3D) printing to create products that can be made on demand during space flight. After exceeding their lifetime, the PHAs could be melted and recycled back to 3D print other products. We will discuss some of our long term goals of this approach.

  1. Enhancing Productivity Through Feedback and Goal Setting. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Robert D.; And Others

    A field test was conducted to research the effects of feedback and goal-setting techniques on increasing productivity. Subjects were regular employees of two autonomous clerical-type units in a credit card and payment processing center of a Southwestern oil company. The study desiqn had three phases--baseline period and two experimental conditions…

  2. Ultrasound pretreatment of filamentous algal biomass for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Kong, Mingeun; Park, Ki Young

    2014-06-01

    The filamentous alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum harvested from a bench-scale wastewater treatment pond was used to evaluate biogas production after ultrasound pretreatment. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment at a range of 10-5000 J/mL were tested with harvested H. reticulatum. Cell disruption by ultrasound was successful and showed a higher degree of disintegration at a higher applied energy. The range of 10-5000 J/mL ultrasound was able to disintegrated H. reticulatum and the soluble COD was increased from 250 mg/L to 1000 mg/L at 2500 J/mL. The disintegrated algal biomass was digested for biogas production in batch experiments. Both cumulative gas generation and volatile solids reduction data were obtained during the digestion. Cell disintegration due to ultrasound pretreatment increased the specific biogas production and degradation rates. Using the ultrasound approach, the specific methane production at a dose of 40 J/mL increased up to 384 mL/g-VS fed that was 2.3 times higher than the untreated sample. For disintegrated samples, the volatile solids reduction was greater with increased energy input, and the degradation increased slightly to 67% at a dose of 50 J/mL. The results also indicate that disintegration of the algal cells is the essential step for efficient anaerobic digestion of algal biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  4. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture conditions of lactose fermenting, spore forming probiotic Bacillus subtilis SK09 isolated from dairy effluent were optimized by response surface methodology to maximize the biomass production. The student's t-test of the Placket-Burman screening design revealed that the effects of pH, ammonium citrate and ...

  5. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Dept., Pharmaceutical Industries Div., National Research Centre, 33 EL ... enzymes produced by many pathogenic bacteria, ... produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces ... enzymes, hence avoiding loss of the beta-lactam ...... strain will explore the economic outcome of.

  6. Improvement and enhancement of clavulanic acid production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... effects of different medium containing vegetable oil on cell growth ... fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 were ... The results of this study can be applied for the efficient production of ... 27064 strain, which requires a source of carbon, nitrogen ... Microorganism and cultivation conditions.

  7. Mixed plantations of Eucalyptus and leguminous trees enhance biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Craig D. Whitesell; Thomas H. Schubert

    1985-01-01

    Two Eucalyptus species-E. saligna Sm. and E. grandis Hill-are especially favored in Hawaii forwood, fiber, and fuel production because of their quick growth and high yields. Their growth is limited, however, on many sites by low levels of available nitrogen. Supplemental nitrogen can be provided by nitrogen-...

  8. Enhancement of L-Serine Production by Corynebacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glutamicum SYPS-062 cultivation process for efficient production of L-serine on a large scale. ... central intermediate for a number of cellular .... impeller, oxygen and pH electrodes, under the ... equation. The yield of L-serine was regressed with respect to the medium ..... is not essential for activity but is required for inhibition.

  9. Corn stover-enhanced cellulase production by Aspergillus niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of extracellular cellulases by Aspergilus niger NRRL 567 on corn stover was studied in liquid state fermentation. In this study, three cellulases, exoglucanase (EXG), endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) were produced by A. niger NRRL 567. The optimal pH, temperature and incubation time for ...

  10. Enhancement of Short Chain Fatty Acid Production from Millet Fibres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... Methods: The effect of millet dietary fibre fermentation on production of short chain fatty ... fildes PYF enrichment solution was used as the .... where Pa is the peak area of SCFA, Ps is the ..... enzymatic- gravimetric method.

  11. Thin stillage supplementation greatly enhances bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyh-Ming; Liu, Ren-Han

    2012-09-01

    Thin stillage (TS), a wastewater from rice wine distillery can well sustain the growth of Gluconacetobacter xylinus for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). When used as a supplement to the traditional BC production medium (Hestrin and Schramm medium), the enhancement of BC production increased with the amount of TS supplemented in a static culture of G. xylinus. When TS was employed to replace distilled water for preparing HS medium (100%TS-HS medium), the BC production in this 100%TS-HS medium was enhanced 2.5-fold to a concentration of 10.38 g/l with sugar to BC conversion yield of 57% after 7 days cultivation. The cost-free TS as a supplement in BC production medium not only can greatly enhance the BC production, but also can effectively dispose the nuisance wastewater of rice wine distillery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Data Base System To Enhance Exploitation Effectiveness And Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisman, Lee

    1989-02-01

    The ever expanding uses of remote sensing continue to drive requirements in industry, Government, and the military for an imagery data base and processing system that provides timely, flexible support to imagery analysts and yet is simple to use. This paper describes a system called the Digital Enhancement Data Base System (DEDS) that allows real-time image processing, storage, display, and enhancement of multisensor imagery, charts, and textual data. It is an imagery analyst's interactive "shoe box" that can replace hundreds of pounds of hardcopy imagery and collateral information by storing that data in digital, video, and analog forms. The system contains a graphics package that allows annotation of the data to be stored. A split-screen display feature allows side-by-side comparison of new imagery or data with collateral information retrieved from the data base. Futhermore, information in the data base can be recalled and distributed via local wide-area communications networks. The complete system is designed to operate within ruggedized, transportable cases.

  13. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen production of 434 mL, 67% higher than raw cassava stillage.

  14. Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Song, Lifu; Lin, Shan; Zhang, Zhaobin; Deng, Zixin; Xu, Ping

    2007-03-01

    High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen to adsorb vanillin in situ during the bioconversion. Resin DM11 was found to be the best, which adsorbed the most vanillin and the least ferulic acid. When 8% resin DM11 (wet w/v) was added to the biotransformation system, 45 g l(-1) ferulic acid could be added continually and 19.2 g l(-1) vanillin was obtained within 55 h, which was the highest vanillin yield by bioconversion until now. This yield was remarkable for exceeding the crystallization concentration of vanillin and therefore had far-reaching consequence in its downstream processing.

  15. Enhanced enzymatic cellulose degradation by cellobiohydrolases via product removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2013-01-01

    Product inhibition by cellobiose decreases the rate of enzymatic cellulose degradation. The optimal reaction conditions for two Emericella (Aspergillus) nidulans-derived cellobiohydrolases I and II produced in Pichia pastoris were identified as CBHI: 52 °C, pH 4.5–6.5, and CBHII: 46 °C, pH 4.......8. The optimum in a mixture of the two was 50 °C, pH 4.9. An almost fourfold increase in enzymatic hydrolysis yield was achieved with intermittent product removal of cellobiose with membrane filtration (2 kDa cut-off): The conversion of cotton cellulose after 72 h was ~19 % by weight, whereas the conversion...

  16. Future enhancements to 3D printing and real time production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Joseph; Jenkins, Jeffery; Wu, Jerry; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    The cost and scope of additive printing machines range from several hundred to hundreds of thousands of dollars. For the extra money, one can get improvements in build size, selection of material properties, resolution, and consistency. However, temperature control during build and fusing predicts outcome and protects the IP by large high cost machines. Support material options determine geometries that can be accomplished which drives cost and complexity of printing heads. Historically, 3D printers have been used for design and prototyping efforts. Recent advances and cost reduction sparked new interest in developing printed products and consumables such as NASA who is printing food, printing consumer parts (e.g. cell phone cases, novelty toys), making tools and fixtures in manufacturing, and recursively print a self-similar printer (c.f. makerbot). There is a near term promise of the capability to print on demand products at the home or office... directly from the printer to use.

  17. Genetic improvement of plants for enhanced bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanghamitra; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between "feedstock versus foodstock" continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.

  18. Rubisco mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enhance photosynthetic hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, T S; Malcata, F X; Arrabaça, J D; Silva, J M; Spreitzer, R J; Esquível, M G

    2013-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an ideal fuel characterized by high enthalpy change and lack of greenhouse effects. This biofuel can be released by microalgae via reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen catalyzed by hydrogenases. The main competitor for the reducing power required by the hydrogenases is the Calvin cycle, and rubisco plays a key role therein. Engineered Chlamydomonas with reduced rubisco levels, activity and stability was used as the basis of this research effort aimed at increasing hydrogen production. Biochemical monitoring in such metabolically engineered mutant cells proceeded in Tris/acetate/phosphate culture medium with S-depletion or repletion, both under hypoxia. Photosynthetic activity, maximum photochemical efficiency, chlorophyll and protein levels were all measured. In addition, expression of rubisco, hydrogenase, D1 and Lhcb were investigated, and H2 was quantified. At the beginning of the experiments, rubisco increased followed by intense degradation. Lhcb proteins exhibited monomeric isoforms during the first 24 to 48 h, and D1 displayed sensitivity under S-depletion. Rubisco mutants exhibited a significant decrease in O2 evolution compared with the control. Although the S-depleted medium was much more suitable than its complete counterpart for H2 production, hydrogen release was observed also in sealed S-repleted cultures of rubisco mutated cells under low-moderate light conditions. In particular, the rubisco mutant Y67A accounted for 10-15-fold higher hydrogen production than the wild type under the same conditions and also displayed divergent metabolic parameters. These results indicate that rubisco is a promising target for improving hydrogen production rates in engineered microalgae.

  19. Enhanced photon production rate on the light-cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy; Gelis, F.; Kobes, R.; Petitgirard, E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies of the high temperature soft photon production rate on the light cone using Braaten-Pisarski resummation techniques have found collinear divergences present. It is shown that there exist a class of terms outside the Braaten-Pisarski framework which, although also divergent, dominate over these previously considered terms. The divergences in these new terms may be alleviated by application of a recently developed resummation scheme for processes sensitive to the light-cone. (author)

  20. ASSESSMENT OF A WIND TURBINE INTELLIGENT CONTROLLER FOR ENHANCED ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed the enhanced energy production which is possible when variable-speed wind turbines are electronically controlled by an intelligent controller for efficiency optimization and performance improvement. The control system consists of three fuzzy- logic controllers...

  1. Enhancing biogas production of corn stover by fast pyrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Deli; Wu, Houkai; Yi, Weiming; Fu, Peng; Li, Yongjun; Li, Zhihe

    2016-10-01

    A new thermo-chemical pretreatment by a lower temperature fast pyrolysis (LTFP) was applied to promote anaerobic digestion (AD) efficiency of corn stover (CS). The pretreatment experiment was performed by a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor at 180, 200 and 220°C with a carrier gas flow rate of 4 and 3m(3)/h. The components characteristics, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and Crystal Intensity (CrI) of the pretreated CS were tested to explore effectiveness of the pretreatment. The results showed that the cumulative methane production at 180°C for 4 and 3m(3)/h were 199.8 and 200.3mL/g TS, respectively. As compared to the untreated CS, the LTFP pretreatment significantly (a<0.05) increased the methane production by 18.07% and 18.33%, respectively. Methane production was well fitted by the Gompertz models, and the maximum methane potential and AD efficiency was obtained at 180°C for 3m(3)/h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced production of nattokinase from UV mutated Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mohanasrinivasan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, nattokinase is one of the most-often employed among the several thrombolytic agents used clinically, particularly because of its lower cost comparing to other thrombolytic agents. In the present research work, Bacillus sp. was isolated from the heterogeneous microbial population present in the soil sample and screened for the production of nattokinase. The production of the enzyme was carried out using two different media (with and without shrimp shell substrate. Nattokinase activity (clot buster was determined by using a modified Holmstorm method. The production strain SFN01 was improved by random mutagenesis (UV radiation and the enzyme activity was checked with the enzyme produced by wild strain. The mutated strains had exhibited a higher clot lysis activity in which 1 unit of the enzyme completely lyses 1 mL of human blood when compared to the wild strain. Nattokinase produced by SFN showed a retention time of 10.6 min in RP-HPLC chromatogram.

  3. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon...... that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen...

  4. Strategies for cost-effective and enhanced production of bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mazhar Ul; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Khan, Shaukat; Shah, Nasrullah; Park, Joong Kon

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial attention because of its high purity, mechanical strength, crystallinity, liquid-absorbing capabilities, biocompatibility, and biodegradability etc. These properties allow BC to be used in various fields, especially in industries producing medical, electronic, and food products etc. A major discrepancy associated with BC is its high production cost, usually much higher than the plant cellulose. To address this limitations, researchers have developed several strategies for enhanced production of BC including the designing of advanced reactors and utilization of various carbon sources. Another promising approach is the production of BC from waste materials such as food, industrial, agricultural, and brewery wastes etc. which not only reduces the overall BC production cost but is also environment-friendly. Besides, exploration of novel and efficient BC producing microbial strains provides impressive boost to the BC production processes. To this end, development of genetically engineered microbial strains has proven useful for enhanced BC production. In this review, we have summarized major efforts to enhance BC production in order to make it a cost-effective biopolymer. This review can be of interest to researchers investigating strategies for enhanced BC production, as well as companies exploring pilot projects to scale up BC production for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Field-enhanced REB deposition and Bremsstrahlung production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbleib, J.A. Sr.; Widner, M.M.

    1977-07-01

    Recently developed models are employed to describe the interaction of a high-current REB (relativistic electron beam) with planar gold foils in the presence of macroscopic electromagnetic fields. It is shown that, under certain conditions, azimuthal magnetic fields which either penetrate into the foil and/or exist on the transmission side of the foil can significantly enhance the specific power deposited in the foil over that which would be deposited for diode fields alone. Similar field effects suggest methods for improving the external conversion efficiencies, softening the spectra and focussing the source intensities of flash x-ray facilities. Finally, preliminary results are shown from a new trajectory-field model for self-consistent REB transport

  6. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  7. The Role of Positive Psychology in Enhancing Satisfaction, Motivation, and Productivity in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology offers scope for enhancing satisfaction, motivation, and productivity in the workplace. Wiegand and Geller (2004, this issue) point to a number of strategies to enhance individuals' success orientation and conclude their discussion with the actively caring model which appears to be a useful means of representing pivotal facets…

  8. Raising the Bar on External Research Funding: Infrastructure and Strategies for Enhancing Faculty Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Nossaman, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Administrators seek faculty who have the expertise to secure external funding to support their research agenda. Administrators also seek strategies to support and enhance faculty productivity across different ranks. In this manuscript, we describe the infrastructure we established and strategies we implemented to enhance the research enterprise at…

  9. Sesquiterpene Synthase-3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Synthase Fusion Protein Responsible for Hirsutene Biosynthesis in Stereum hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Christopher M; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2018-06-01

    The wood-rotting mushroom Stereum hirsutum is a known producer of a large number of namesake hirsutenoids, many with important bioactivities. Hirsutenoids form a structurally diverse and distinct class of sesquiterpenoids. No genes involved in hirsutenoid biosynthesis have yet been identified or their enzymes characterized. Here, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of a hirsutene synthase as an unexpected fusion protein of a sesquiterpene synthase (STS) with a C-terminal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) synthase (HMGS) domain. Both the full-length fusion protein and truncated STS domain are highly product-specific 1,11-cyclizing STS enzymes with kinetic properties typical of STSs. Complementation studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that the HMGS domain is also functional in vivo Phylogenetic analysis shows that the hirsutene synthase domain does not form a clade with other previously characterized sesquiterpene synthases from Basidiomycota. Comparative gene structure analysis of this hirsutene synthase with characterized fungal enzymes reveals a significantly higher intron density, suggesting that this enzyme may be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In contrast, the HMGS domain is clearly related to other fungal homologs. This STS-HMGS fusion protein is part of a biosynthetic gene cluster that includes P450s and oxidases that are expressed and could be cloned from cDNA. Finally, this unusual fusion of a terpene synthase to an HMGS domain, which is not generally recognized as a key regulatory enzyme of the mevalonate isoprenoid precursor pathway, led to the identification of additional HMGS duplications in many fungal genomes, including the localization of HMGSs in other predicted sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic gene clusters. IMPORTANCE Hirsutenoids represent a structurally diverse class of bioactive sesquiterpenoids isolated from fungi. Identification of their biosynthetic pathways will provide

  10. Enhancement of Cellulase Production by Cellulomonas Fimi and Bacillus Subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Two bacterial strains identified as Cellulomonas fimi and Baciliius subtilus are cosidered as highly active cellulytic bacteria. Trials for maximizing the cellulolytic activites of the two strains were conducted. A maximum cellulase production was achieved at 1 and 1.5%carboxy methyl cellulose as carbon source, sodium nitrate and yeast as nitrogen source for Cellulomonas fimi and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Incubation temprature at 30 and 45 degree C, ph at 6 and 7 achieved the highest activity of cellulase for Cellulomonas fimi and bacillus subtilis, respectively

  11. Enhanced monoclonal antibody production by gradual increase of osmotic pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jianqiang; Takagi, Mutsumi; Qu, Yinbo; Gao, Peiji; Yoshida, Toshiomi

    1999-01-01

    The time length required for the adaptation of AFP-27 hybridoma cells to high osmotic pressure and the effect of a gradual increase of osmotic pressure on monoclonal antibody production were investigated. When the cells were subjected to an increase of osmotic pressure from 300 mOsmol kg-1 to 366 mOsmol kg- 1, the intracellular content of osmoprotective free amino acids reached a maximum level 6 h after the osmotic pressure was increased to 366 mOsmol kg-1. The same time period of 6 h incubat...

  12. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  13. DC corona discharge ozone production enhanced by magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekárek, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the effect of a stationary magnetic field on the production of ozone from air at atmospheric pressure by a negative corona discharge in a cylindrical electrode configuration. We used a stainless steel hollow needle placed at the axis of the cylindrical discharge chamber as a cathode. The outer wall of the cylinder was used as an anode. The vector of magnetic induction was perpendicular to the vector of current density. We found that: (a) the magnetic field extends the current voltage range of the discharge; (b) for the discharge in the Trichel pulses regime and in the pulseless glow regime, the magnetic field has no substantial effect on the discharge voltage or on the concentration of ozone that is produced; (c) for the discharge in the filamentary streamer regime for a particular current, the magnetic field increases the discharge voltage and consequently an approximately 30% higher ozone concentration can be obtained; (d) the magnetic field does not substantially increase the maximum ozone production yield. A major advantage of using a magnetic field is that the increase in ozone concentration produced by the discharge can be obtained without additional energy requirements.

  14. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  15. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Agbarya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects.

  16. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O' Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  17. Destroying lignocellulosic matters for enhancing methane production from excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaodi; Hu, Yuansheng; Cao, Daqi

    2016-01-01

    A lot of lignocellulosic matters are usually present in excess sludge, which are hardly degraded in anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus remains mostly in digested sludge. This is a reason why the conversion rate of sludge organics into energy (CH4) is often low. Obviously, the hydrolysis of AD cannot destruct the structure of lignocellulosic matters. Structural destruction of lignocellulosic matters has to be performed in AD. In this study, pretreatments with the same principles as cell disintegration of sludge were applied to destruct lignocellulosic matters so that these materials could be converted to CH4 via AD. Acid, alkali, thermal treatment and ultrasonic were used in the experiments to observe the destructed/degraded efficiency of lignocellulosic matters. Thermal treatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment. Under optimized conditions (T = 150 °C and t = 30  min), pretreated sludge had a degraded rate of 52.6% in AD, due to easy destruction and/or degradation of hemicelluloses and celluloses in pretreatment. The sludge pretreated by thermal treatment could enhance the CH4 yield (mL CH4 g(-1) VSS) by 53.6% compared to raw sludge. Economically, the thermal treatment can balance the input energy with the produced energy (steam and electricity).

  18. Enhancement of refrigerated storage of fishery products using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.F.; Ghadi, S.V.; Doke, S.N.; Venugopal, V.; Alur, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    A processe combining gamma radiation treatment with refrigeration has been suggested for better utilization of sea-foods of which large quantities will be available for processing after the implementation of the expansion programme of the fishing industry in India and the present capacity of refrigeration industry may be found to be inadequate to meet the demands of the expanded fishing industry. Gamma irradiation in the range of 0.1-0.25 Mrad enhances 2-3 fold storage life of refrigerated sea-foods. Low dose radiation treatment inactivates the gram-negative bacteria, the main source of sea-food spoilage, but not C. botulinum the growth of which is inhibited by the gram-negative bacteria in unirradiated sea-foods. Care has, therefore, to be taken to use a radiation dose which does not totally eliminate these bacteria so that a small percentage which survives leads to terminal spoilage and rejection of sea-foods even before C. botulinum produces toxins thus avoiding food poisoning. (M.G.B.)

  19. Enhancing productivity: The strategy-to-operations linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, G. [Kepner-Tregoe, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In its first two decades, commercial nuclear power enjoyed substantial popular acclaim. Why? Because it offered the opportunity to make a cheap product even cheaper when industrial America was dominant. Today, however, the price variable is going in the other direction and with it may go the future of nuclear power. Many approaches are being used to bring down the costs associated with nuclear power, and most are proving to be unsuccessful. What do other industries do when faced with obsolescence? They go back to their strategy and refocus their business consistent with new directions. This paper seeks to promote the results of several decades of of research in a variety of free-market industries regarding the causes of success and failures.

  20. Enhancing productivity: The strategy-to-operations linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, G.

    1995-01-01

    In its first two decades, commercial nuclear power enjoyed substantial popular acclaim. Why? Because it offered the opportunity to make a cheap product even cheaper when industrial America was dominant. Today, however, the price variable is going in the other direction and with it may go the future of nuclear power. Many approaches are being used to bring down the costs associated with nuclear power, and most are proving to be unsuccessful. What do other industries do when faced with obsolescence? They go back to their strategy and refocus their business consistent with new directions. This paper seeks to promote the results of several decades of of research in a variety of free-market industries regarding the causes of success and failures

  1. Material flow enhancement in production assembly lines under application of zoned order picking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Živanić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduced research work relates to the possibility of material flow enhancement in production systems, with the apostrophe on material order picking in production assembly lines. The paper presents basic rules and the results related to formed computer models of zoned order picking systems under the application of developed bound cavities method.

  2. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  3. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane.

  4. Full Product Pattern Recognition in β-Carotene Thermal Degradation through Ionization Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiaoyin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Lance Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hochrein, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The full product pattern including both volatile and nonvolatile compounds was presented for the first time for β-Carotene thermal degradation at variable temperatures up to 600°C. Solvent-enhanced ionization was used to confirm and distinguish between the dissociation mechanisms that lead to even and odd number mass products.

  5. Formate detection by potassium permanganate for enhanced hydrogen production in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Toshinari [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Wood, Thomas K. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3258 (United States); Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli for hydrogen production is difficult since there is no high-throughput screen. Here we describe a method for rapid detection of enhanced hydrogen production by engineered strains by detecting formate via potassium permanganate; in E. coli, hydrogen is synthesized from formate using the formate hydrogen lyase system. (author)

  6. Immunosuppressive effects of sesquiterpene lactones from Laser trilobum (L.) Borkh

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Harmatha, Juraj; Vokáč, Karel; Kmoníčková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 9 (2009), s. 905-905 ISSN 0032-0943. [International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research /57./. 16.08.2009-20.08.2009, Geneva] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : immunosuppressive effects * Laser trilobum Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Thapsigargin and trilobolide - sesquiterpene lactones with immunostimulatory properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmoníčková, Eva; Harmatha, Juraj; Vokáč, Karel; Melkusová, Petra; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 9 (2009), s. 906-906 ISSN 0032-0943. [International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research /57./. 16.08.2009-20.08.2009, Geneva] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : thapsigargin * trilobolide * immunostimulatory properties Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  8. Enhanced extracellular chitinase production in Pseudomonas fluorescens: biotechnological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Alhasawi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is an important renewable biomass of immense commercial interest. The processing of this biopolymer into value-added products in an environmentally-friendly manner necessitates its conversion into N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG, a reaction mediated by the enzyme chitinase. Here we report on the ability of the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens to secrete copious amounts of chitinase in the spent fluid when cultured in mineral medium with chitin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Although chitinase was detected in various cellular fractions, the enzyme was predominantly localized in the extracellular component that was also rich in NAG and glucosamine. Maximal amounts of chitinase with a specific activity of 80 µmol NAG produced mg–1 protein min–1 was obtained at pH 8 after 6 days of growth in medium with 0.5 g of chitin. In-gel activity assays and Western blot studies revealed three isoenzymes. The enzyme had an optimal activity at pH 10 and a temperature range of 22–38 ℃. It was stable for up to 3 months. Although it showed optimal specificity toward chitin, the enzyme did readily degrade shrimp shells. When these shells (0.1 g were treated with the extracellular chitinase preparation, NAG [3 mmoles (0.003 g-mol] was generated in 6 h. The extracellular nature of the enzyme coupled with its physico-chemical properties make this chitinase an excellent candidate for biotechnological applications.

  9. Hydrogen production by absorption enhanced water gas shift (AEWGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo Bretado, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Ave. Veterinaria s/n, Circuito Universitario, Durango 34120 (Mexico); Departamento de Quimica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31109 (Mexico); Delgado Vigil, Manuel D.; Gutierrez, Jesus Salinas; Lopez Ortiz, Alejandro; Collins-Martinez, Virginia [Departamento de Quimica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31109 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    AEWGS is a reaction that combines the WGS reaction and CO{sub 2} capture by a solid absorbent to produce high purity H{sub 2} from synthesis gas in one single step at 600-800 C. This reactor system, if homogeneous, would not require a catalyst. However, previous research on this concept was not conclusive, since a steel reactor was used and reactor walls were suspected to act as catalyst. Therefore, there is a need to address this issue and to select and evaluate suitable CO{sub 2} absorbents for this concept. AEWGS was studied using a quartz-made fixed-bed reactor at; SV = 3000 h{sup -1}, feed; 5% CO, 15% H{sub 2}O, balance He-N{sub 2} at 600 C, 1 atm. CO{sub 2} absorbents tested were CaO*MgO, and Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Empty quartz-reactor tests leaded to conclude that a catalyst is needed for the WGS at temperatures of interest. A 97% H{sub 2} product was obtained with calcined dolomite suggesting this last to act as a WGS catalyst. (author)

  10. Understanding and engineering enzymes for enhanced biofuel production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Volponi, Joanne V.; Sapra, Rajat; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Buffleben, George M.; Roe, Diana C.

    2009-01-01

    Today, carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the United States. The release of greenhouse gases from these fuels has spurred research into alternative, non-fossil energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is renewable resource that is carbon-neutral, and can provide a raw material for alternative transportation fuels. Plant-derived biomass contains cellulose, which is difficult to convert to monomeric sugars for production of fuels. The development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes to transform the cellulosic content of biomass into fuels is hampered by significant roadblocks, including the lack of specifically developed energy crops, the difficulty in separating biomass components, the high costs of enzymatic deconstruction of biomass, and the inhibitory effect of fuels and processing byproducts on organisms responsible for producing fuels from biomass monomers. One of the main impediments to more widespread utilization of this important resource is the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass and techniques that can be utilized to deconstruct cellulosic biomass.

  11. Antifungal activities of the essential oil and its fractions rich in sesquiterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flaviane G; Marquete, Ronaldo; Domingos, Levy T; Rocha, Marco E N; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; Mansur, Elisabeth; Moreira, Davyson L

    2017-01-01

    Casearia genus (Salicaceae) is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as "guaçatonga", "erva-de-tiú", "cafezinho-do-mato". In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%). These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8%) and α-copaene (8.5%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8%) were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains.

  12. Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    strains, C.tyrobutyricum seems the most promising for biological production of butyric acid as it is characterised by higher selectivity and higher tolerance to butyric acid. However, studies on fermentative butyric production from lignocellulosic biomasses are scarce in the international literature...... of continuous fermentation mode and in-situ acids removal by Reverse Enhanced Electro Dialysis (REED) resulted to enhanced sugars consumption rates when 60% PHWS was fermented. Specifically, glucose and xylose consumption rate increased by a factor of 6 and 39, respectively, while butyric acid productivity...

  13. Enhancement of carbon dioxide reduction and methane production by an obligate anaerobe and gas dissolution device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Choi, Kwangkeun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-01-25

    The use of gas dissolution devices to improve the efficiency of H2 dissolution has enhanced CO2 reduction and CH4 production. In addition, the nutrients that initially existed in anaerobic sludge were exhausted over time, and the activities of anaerobic microorganisms declined. When nutrients were artificially injected, CO2 reduction and CH4 production rates climbed. Thus, assuming that the activity of the obligatory anaerobic microorganisms is maintained, a gas dissolution device will further enhance the efficiency of CO2 reduction and CH4 production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Copper and dyes enhance laccase production in gamma-proteobacterium JB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Kanam; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2004-07-01

    Laccase production in gamma-proteobacterium JB was enhanced 13-fold by adding 0.1 mM CuSO(4) 24 h after the onset of growth. Ethidium bromide (2.5 microM), Malachite Green, Phenol Red and Thymol Blue (10 microM each) enhanced laccase production 17-, 19-, 4- and 2-fold, respectively. Among the fourteen aromatic/organic compounds tried, p-aminobenzoic acid and an industrial effluent, from where the organism was isolated, showed 1.2- and 1.26-fold increases in production.

  15. Enhanced productivity in reactor decommissioning and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasinger, Karl

    2014-01-01

    As for any industrial facility, the service live of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities, research and test reactors ends. Decision for decommissioning such facilities may be motivated by technical, economical or political reasons or a combination of it. As of today, a considerable number of research reactors, fuel cycle facilities and power reactors have been completely decommissioned. However, the end point of such facilities' lifetime is achieved, when the facility is finally removed from regulatory control and the site becomes available for further economical utilization. This process is commonly known as decommissioning and involves detailed planning of all related activities, radiological characterization, dismantling, decontamination, clean-up of the site including treatment and packaging of radioactive and/or contaminated material not released for unrestricted recycling or industrial disposal. Decommissioning requires adequate funding and suitable measures to ensure safety while addressing stakeholders' requirements on occupational health, environment, economy, human resources management and the socioeconomic effects to the community and the region. One important aspect in successful management of decommissioning projects and dismantling operation relates to the economical impact of the endeavor, primarily depending on the selected strategy and, as from commencement of dismantling, on total duration until the end point is achieved. Experience gained by Areva in executing numerous decommissioning projects during past 2 decades shows that time injury free execution and optimum productivity turns out crucial to project cost. Areva develops and implements specific 'performance improvement plans' for each of its projects which follow the philosophy of operational excellence based on Lean Manufacturing principles. Means and methods applied in implementation of these plans and improvements achieved are described and examples are given on the way Areva

  16. Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells for Synergistically Enhanced Power Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2011-07-01

    A new type of bioelectrochemical system for producing electrical power, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis cell (MRC), was developed to increase voltages and power densities compared to those generated individually by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems. In RED systems, electrode overpotentials create significant energy losses due to thermodynamically unfavorable electrode reactions, and therefore a large number of stacked cells must be used to have significant energy recovery. This results in high capital costs for the large number of membranes, and increases energy losses from pumping water through a large number of cells. In an MRC, high overpotentials are avoided through oxidation of organic matter by exoelectrogenic bacteria on the anode and oxygen reduction on the cathode. An MRC containing only five pairs of RED cells, fed solutions typical of seawater (600 mM NaCl) and river water (12 mM NaCl) at 0.85 mL/min, produced up to 3.6 W/m2 (cathode surface area) and 1.2-1.3 V with acetate as a substrate. Pumping accounted for <2% of the produced power. A higher flow rate (1.55 mL/min) increased power densities up to 4.3 W/m2. COD removal was 98% with a Coulombic efficiency of 64%. Power production by the individual components was substantially lower with 0.7 W/m2 without salinity driven energy, and <0.015 W/m2 with reduced exoelectrogenic activity due to substrate depletion. These results show that the combination of an MFC and a RED stack synergistically increases performance relative to the individual systems, producing a new type of system that can be used to more efficiently capture salinity driven energy from seawater and river water. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Enhanced productivity in reactor decommissioning and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasinger, Karl [Areva GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    As for any industrial facility, the service live of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities, research and test reactors ends. Decision for decommissioning such facilities may be motivated by technical, economical or political reasons or a combination of it. As of today, a considerable number of research reactors, fuel cycle facilities and power reactors have been completely decommissioned. However, the end point of such facilities' lifetime is achieved, when the facility is finally removed from regulatory control and the site becomes available for further economical utilization. This process is commonly known as decommissioning and involves detailed planning of all related activities, radiological characterization, dismantling, decontamination, clean-up of the site including treatment and packaging of radioactive and/or contaminated material not released for unrestricted recycling or industrial disposal. Decommissioning requires adequate funding and suitable measures to ensure safety while addressing stakeholders' requirements on occupational health, environment, economy, human resources management and the socioeconomic effects to the community and the region. One important aspect in successful management of decommissioning projects and dismantling operation relates to the economical impact of the endeavor, primarily depending on the selected strategy and, as from commencement of dismantling, on total duration until the end point is achieved. Experience gained by Areva in executing numerous decommissioning projects during past 2 decades shows that time injury free execution and optimum productivity turns out crucial to project cost. Areva develops and implements specific 'performance improvement plans' for each of its projects which follow the philosophy of operational excellence based on Lean Manufacturing principles. Means and methods applied in implementation of these plans and improvements achieved are described and examples are given on

  18. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Shizukaol D, a Dimeric Sesquiterpene Isolated from Chloranthus serratus, Represses the Growth of Human Liver Cancer Cells by Modulating Wnt Signalling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Tang

    Full Text Available Natural products have become sources of developing new drugs for the treatment of cancer. To seek candidate compounds that inhibit the growth of liver cancer, components of Chloranthus serratus were tested. Here, we report that shizukaol D, a dimeric sesquiterpene from Chloranthus serratus, exerted a growth inhibition effect on liver cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We demonstrated that shizukaol D induced cells to undergo apoptosis. More importantly, shizukaol D attenuated Wnt signalling and reduced the expression of endogenous Wnt target genes, which resulted in decreased expression of β-catenin. Collectively, this study demonstrated that shizukaol D inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells by modulating Wnt pathway.

  1. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth; Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-glucopyranosyl-3{sup -}methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  2. HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY USE IN ANALYSIS OF SESQUITERPENIC LACTONES OF LAURUS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Senchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a methodology of quantitative determination of sesquiterpenic lactones (costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone in leaves of Laurus nobilis using reversed phase HPLC. We have determined optimal conditions for the substances under study extraction from active parts. Using the developed methods we have established that costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone content in Laurus nobilis samples in terms of absolutely dry active parts is 0.99 and 0.26% correspondingly.

  3. Abscisic acid-type sesquiterpenes and ansamycins from Amycolatopsis alba DSM 44262.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Man; Lu, Chun-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Two new abscisic acid-type sesquiterpenes (1, 2), and one new ansamycin (3), together with four known ansamycins, namely ansacarbamitocins 4-7, were isolated from the fermentation extract of Amycolatopsis alba DSM 44262. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated to be (E)-3-methyl-5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)pent-2-enoic acid (1) and (E)-3-methyl-5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-enyl)pent-2-enoic acid (2), and 9-O-methylansacarbamitocin A1 (3), on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data, respectively. The antimicrobial activities were also evaluated for all seven compounds.

  4. Alkaloids and Sesquiterpenes from the South China Sea Gorgonian Echinogorgia pseudossapo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng-Hai; Wang, Yi-Fei; Li, Shen; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Five zoanthoxanthin alkaloids (1–5) and four sesquiterpenes (6–9) were isolated from the South China Sea gorgonian Echinogorgia pseudossapo. Their structures were determined on the bases of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR data. Among them, pseudozoanthoxanthins III and IV (1–2), 8-hydroxy-6β-methoxy-14- oxooplop-6,12-olide (6) and 3β-methoxyguaian-10(14)-en-2β-ol (7) were new, 1 and 3 showed mild anti-HSV-1 activity, and 7 showed significant antilarval activity towards Balanus amphitrite larvae. PMID:22163197

  5. Antifouling sesquiterpene from the Indian soft coral, Sinularia kavarattiensis Alderslade and Prita

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Kunnath, R.J.; Sathyan, N.

    analysis of preference data, Appl Entomol Zool, 33 (1998) 339-347. 16 Williams D H & Faulkner D J, Two practical syntheses of an anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene furoic acid from Sinularia spp. Tetrahedron, 52 (1996) 4245-4256. 17 Rittschof D, Lai C H..., Kok L M & Teo S L M, Pharmaceuticals as antifoulants: Concept and principles, Biofouling, 19 (2003) 207-212. 18 Kwong T F N, Miao L, Li X & Qian P Y, Novel Antifouling and Antimicrobial Compound from a Marine-Derived Fungus Ampelomyces sp., Mar...

  6. Alkaloids and Sesquiterpenes from the South China Sea Gorgonian Echinogorgia pseudossapo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Qi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Five zoanthoxanthin alkaloids (1–5 and four sesquiterpenes (6–9 were isolated from the South China Sea gorgonian Echinogorgia pseudossapo. Their structures were determined on the bases of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR data. Among them, pseudozoanthoxanthins III and IV (1–2, 8-hydroxy-6β-methoxy-14-oxooplop-6,12-olide (6 and 3β-methoxyguaian-10(14-en-2β-ol (7 were new, 1 and 3 showed mild anti-HSV-1 activity, and 7 showed significant antilarval activity towards Balanus amphitrite larvae.

  7. Sesquiterpene-derived metabolites from the deep water marine sponge Poecillastra sollasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killday, K B; Longley, R; McCarthy, P J; Pomponi, S A; Wright, A E; Neale, R F; Sills, M A

    1993-04-01

    Six sesquiterpene-derived compounds, 1-6, which we call sollasins a-f, have been isolated from a deep water specimen of the sponge Poecillastra sollasi. The structures were elucidated by comparison of spectral data to related metabolites and confirmed using spectroscopic methods. The compounds inhibit the growth of the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans and the P-388 and A-549 tumor cell lines. Compounds 3 and 4 show weak inhibition of binding of [125I] angiotensin II to rat aorta smooth muscle cell membranes.

  8. Oppositines A and B, Sesquiterpene Pyridine Alkaloids from a Sri Lankan Pleurostylia opposita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Emily L.; Mala, S.M.V. Damayanthi; Veltri, Charles. A.; Bugni, Tim S.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Ireland, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, oppositines A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from the plant, Pleurostylia opposita (Celastraceae), collected in Sri Lanka. The compounds were isolated and purified by solvent/solvent partitioning, column chromatography and HPLC. Their structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies as well as analysis by HRESIMS. Oppositines A (1) and B (2) showed moderate cytotoxicity against HCT116 cell lines with EC50 values of 27 ± 2 and 26 ± 3 μM, respectively. PMID:17190474

  9. Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Structural Identification of Sesquiterpene alkaloids from the stems of dendrobium nobile using LC-QToF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendrobium nobile is one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Sesquiterpene alkaloids are the main active components in this plant. Due to weak ultraviolet absorption and low content in D. nobile, these sesquiterpene alkaloids have not been extensively studied using chroma...

  10. Enhancement and Optimization Mechanisms of Biogas Production for Rural Household Energy in Developing Countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is common but vital process used for biogas and fertilizer production as well as one method for waste treatment. The process is currently used in developing countries primarily for biogas production in the household level of rural people. The aim of this review is to indicate possible ways of including rural households who own less than four heads of cattle for the biogas programs in developing countries. The review provides different research out puts on using biogas substrates other than cow dung or its mix through different enhancement and optimization mechanisms. Many biodegradable materials have been studied for alternative methane production. Therefore, these substrates could be used for production by addressing the optimum conditions for each factor and each processes for enhanced and optimized biogas production.

  11. Cascade defect production and irradiation enhanced diffusion in Cu3Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.A.; Funk, L.L.

    1986-03-01

    By using the ordering alloy Cu 3 Au and measuring resistivity changes during and following fast-neutron irradiations at IPNS, we have studied cascade defect production and irradiation enhanced diffusion between 10 and 460 0 K. Ordering and disordering rates were measured as functions of irradiation temperature, neutron dose, neutron dose rate, time following cessation of flux, and step annealing. Free and clustered vacancy production was observed. The temperature dependence of the production of total migrating vacancy concentrations was determined. Vacancy sink production was linear with neutron dose and is compared with recent transmission electron microscopy experiments on the production of dislocation loops in this alloy. Time dependent and quasi-steady state vacancy concentrations were measured and compared with solutions of reaction rate equations for irradiation enhanced diffusion. The influence of recombination of vacancies with interstitials is observed at low sink concentrations (low neutron doses)

  12. Metabolic engineering of Cyanobacteria and microalgae for enhanced production of biofuels and high-value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, M A; Al-Haj, L; Abed, R M M

    2016-10-01

    A lot of research has been performed on Cyanobacteria and microalgae with the aim to produce numerous biotechnological products. However, native strains have a few shortcomings, like limitations in cultivation, harvesting and product extraction, which prevents reaching optimal production value at lowest costs. Such limitations require the intervention of genetic engineering to produce strains with superior properties. Promising advancements in the cultivation of Cyanobacteria and microalgae have been achieved by improving photosynthetic efficiency through increasing RuBisCO activity and truncation of light-harvesting antennae. Genetic engineering has also contributed to final product extraction by inducing autolysis and product secretory systems, to enable direct product recovery without going through costly extraction steps. In this review, we summarize the different enzymes and pathways that have been targeted thus far for improving cultivation aspects, harvesting and product extraction in Cyanobacteria and microalgae. With synthetic biology advancements, genetically engineered strains can be generated to resolve demanding process issues and achieve economic practicality. This comprehensive overview of gene modifications will be useful to researchers in the field to employ on their strains to increase their yields and improve the economic feasibility of the production process. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Knowledge productivity : designing and testing a method to diagnose knowledge productivity and plan for enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Our economy has changed from an industrial into a knowledge economy in which knowledge productivity has become the main challenge. The lack of appropriate techniques to reveal knowledge productivity hinders organizations to design effective policies aiming at improving knowledge-based performance.

  14. Enhanced production of multi-strange hadrons in high-multiplicity proton–proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; An, Mangmang; Andrei, Cristian; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Isakov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Mishra, Tribeni; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Martin; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vickovic, Linda; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yalcin, Serpil; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2017-01-01

    At sufficiently high temperature and energy density, nuclear matter undergoes a transition to a phase in which quarks and gluons are not confined: the quark–gluon plasma (QGP). Such an exotic state of strongly interacting quantum chromodynamics matter is produced in the laboratory in heavy nuclei high-energy collisions, where an enhanced production of strange hadrons is observed. Strangeness enhancement, originally proposed as a signature of QGP formation in nuclear collisions, is more pronounced for multi-strange baryons. Several effects typical of heavy-ion phenomenology have been observed in high-multiplicity proton–proton (pp) collisions, but the enhanced production of multi-strange particles has not been reported so far. Here we present the first observation of strangeness enhancement in high-multiplicity proton–proton collisions. We find that the integrated yields of strange and multi-strange particles, relative to pions, increases significantly with the event charged-particle multiplicity. The me...

  15. Incubation of Aquilaria subintegra with Microbial Culture Supernatants Enhances Production of Volatile Compounds and Improves Quality of Agarwood Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monggoot, Sakon; Kulsing, Chadin; Wong, Yong Foo; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

    2018-06-01

    Incubation with microbial culture supernatants improved essential oil yield from Aquilaria subintegra woodchips. The harvested woodchips were incubated with de man, rogosa and sharpe (MRS) agar, yeast mold (YM) agar medium and six different microbial culture supernatants obtained from Lactobacillus bulgaricus , L. acidophilus , Streptococcus thermophilus , Lactococcus lactis , Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae prior to hydrodistillation. Incubation with lactic acid bacteria supernatants provided higher yield of agarwood oil (0.45% w/w) than that obtained from yeast (0.25% w/w), agar media (0.23% w/w) and water (0.22% w/w). The composition of agarwood oil from all media and microbial supernatant incubations was investigated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Overall, three major volatile profiles were obtained, which corresponded to water soaking (control), as well as, both YM and MRS media, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast supernatant incubations. Sesquiterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives were key components of agarwood oil. Fifty-two volatile components were tentatively identified in all samples. Beta-agarofuran, α-eudesmol, karanone, α-agarofuran and agarospirol were major components present in most of the incubated samples, while S. cerevisiae -incubated A. subintegra provided higher amount of phenyl acetaldehyde. Microbial culture supernatant incubation numerically provided the highest yield of agarwood oil compared to water soaking traditional method, possibly resulting from activity of extracellular enzymes produced by the microbes. Incubation of agarwood with lactic acid bacteria supernatant significantly enhanced oil yields without changing volatile profile/composition of agarwood essential oil, thus this is a promising method for future use.

  16. ENHANCING TRUST OR REDUCING PERCEIVED RISK, WHAT MATTERS MORE WHEN LAUNCHING A NEW PRODUCT?

    OpenAIRE

    ANN-MARIE NIENABER; GERHARD SCHEWE

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection of data among 490 participants from different companies in the field of medical engineering market, we contribute to the role of contact intensity by a business partner when launching new products by introducing trust as a mediator to the concept of perceived risk reduction to enhance the relationship commitment. The findings show that the common concept of risk reduction to enhance the relationship commitment is overrated. In detail, the results show first, that the influe...

  17. New eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes from an Antarctic deepsea derived fungus, Penicillium sp. PR19 N-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aiqun; Wu, Guangwei; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai

    2014-07-01

    Chemical investigation of an Antarctic deepsea derived fungus Penicillium sp. PR19 N-1 yielded five new eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes 1–5 and a new rare lactam-type eremophilane 6, together with three known compounds 7–9. The structures of these diverse sesquiterpenes were determined by extensive NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 4–6, 8 and 9 were evaluated for their cytotoxities against HL-60 and A-549 human cancer cell lines, and 5 was the most active one with IC50 value of 5.2 lM against the A-549 cells.

  18. The application of biotechnology on the enhancing of biogas production from lignocellulosic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Suzhen

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic waste is considered to be an efficient way to answer present-day energy crisis and environmental challenges. However, the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic material forms a major obstacle for obtaining maximum biogas production. The use of biological pretreatment and bioaugmentation for enhancing the performance of anaerobic digestion is quite recent and still needs to be investigated. This paper reviews the status and perspectives of recent studies on biotechnology concept and investigates its possible use for enhancing biogas production from lignocellulosic waste with main emphases on biological pretreatment and bioaugmentation techniques.

  19. Enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity of a nutritionally important cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Usha; Pandey, J

    2008-07-01

    A diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus was evaluated for enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity. N. lobatus showed potentially high antioxidant capacity (46.12 microM AEAC) with significant improvement under immobilized cell cultures (87.05 microM AEAC). When a mixture of P and Fe was supplemented, biomass, pigments, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity increased substantially at pH 7.8. When considered separately, P appeared to be a better supplement than Fe for the production of biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoids. However, for phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity, Fe appeared more effective than P. Our study indicates N. lobatus to be a promising bioresource for enhanced production of nutritionally rich biomass, pigments and antioxidants. The study also suggests that P and Fe are potentially effective supplements for scale-up production for commercial application.

  20. Productivity Enhancement of Solar Still with PV Powered Heating Coil and Chamber Step-Wise Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdallah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need to improve the productivity of single slope solar still. PV generator powered electrical heater and chamber step-wise design were introduced to the conventional solar still. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of adding the above mentioned modifications on the output parameters of the modified solar still. The inclusion of PV-powered heating coil and chamber step-wise design enhanced the productivity of distiller by up to 1098%.

  1. Enhanced production of GDP-L-fucose by overexpression of NADPH regenerator in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Heong; Chin, Young-Wook; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2011-08-01

    Biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-diphosphate-L-fucose (GDP-L-fucose) requires NADPH as a reducing cofactor. In this study, endogenous NADPH regenerating enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (Icd), and NADP(+)-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MaeB) were overexpressed to increase GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli. The effects of overexpression of each NADPH regenerating enzyme on GDP-L-fucose production were investigated in a series of batch and fed-batch fermentations. Batch fermentations showed that overexpression of G6PDH was the most effective for GDP-L-fucose production. However, GDP-L-fucose production was not enhanced by overexpression of G6PDH in the glucose-limited fed-batch fermentation. Hence, a glucose feeding strategy was optimized to enhance GDP-L-fucose production. Fed-batch fermentation with a pH-stat feeding mode for sufficient supply of glucose significantly enhanced GDP-L-fucose production compared with glucose-limited fed-batch fermentation. A maximum GDP-L-fucose concentration of 235.2 ± 3.3 mg l(-1), corresponding to a 21% enhancement in the GDP-L-fucose production compared with the control strain overexpressing GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic enzymes only, was achieved in the pH-stat fed-batch fermentation of the recombinant E. coli overexpressing G6PDH. It was concluded that sufficient glucose supply and efficient NADPH regeneration are crucial for NADPH-dependent GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant E. coli.

  2. Enhancement of biogas production from olive mill effluent (OME) by co-digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, Nuri; Keskin, Tugba; Yuruyen, Aysegul [Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The olive oil has a healthy image during its consumption due to its oleic acid content, which may prevent some human diseases. Ironically, by-products of olive mill production such as olive mill effluent (OME) and olive cake pose a serious environmental risk where it is produced. In this study, feasibility of using some agro-industrial residue streams such as cheese whey (CW) and laying hen litter (LHL) in order to enhance the methane production of OME was investigated. For this purpose, biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was carried out for both raw OME alone and OME mixed with varying amount of other substrates such as LHL and CW in the serum bottles, respectively. Corresponding methane production values for various mixtures of the organic residue streams used in this study were determined. It was demonstrated that co-digestion of OME with LHL significantly enhanced the biodegradability of OME which was too low if it was digested alone. Over 90% increase in biogas production was obtained when digesting OME with LHL. The biogas production increased only 22%, when CW was used for the same purpose. It was demonstrated that the biodegradability of OME could be significantly enhanced by co-digestion and thereby integrated management of OME using anaerobic degradation could be proposed as an economically viable and ecologically acceptable solution for the safe disposal of OME. (author)

  3. Effectiveness of commercial microbial products in enhancing oil degradation in Prince William Sound field plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Allen, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the spring of 1990, previously reported laboratory experiments were conducted on 10 commercial microbial products to test for enhanced biodegradation of weathered crude oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The laboratory tests measured the rate and extent of oil degradation in closed flasks. Weathered oil from the beaches in Alaska and seawater from Prince William Sound were used in the tests. Two of the 10 products were found to provide significantly greater alkane degradation than flasks supplemented with mineral nutrients alone. These two products were selected for further testing on a beach in Prince William Sound. A randomized complete block experiment was designed to compare the effectiveness of these two products in enhancing oil degradation compared to simple fertilizer alone. Four small plots consisting of a no nutrient control, a mineral nutrient plot, and two plots receiving mineral nutrients plus the two products, were laid out on a contaminated beach. These four plots comprised a 'block' of treatments, and this block was replicated four times on the same beach. Triplicate samples of beach sediment were collected at four equally spaced time intervals and analyzed for oil residue weight and alkane hydrocarbon profile changes with time. The objective was to determine if either of the two commercial microbiological products was able to enhance bioremediation of an oil-contaminated beach in Prince William Sound to an extent greater than that achievable by simple fertilizer application. Results indicated no significant differences among the four treatments in the 27-day period of the experiment

  4. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  5. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (-) affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (-) utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-).

  6. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H de Paula Silva

    Full Text Available Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2 enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (- as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (- affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9, and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (- utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%, Chaetomorpha linum (24% and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%, compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-.

  7. Physiochemical parameters optimization for enhanced nisin production by Lactococcus lactis (MTCC 440

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspadhwaja Mall

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various physiochemical parameters on the growth of Lactococcus lactis sub sp. lactis MTCC 440 was studied at shake flask level for 20 h. Media optimization (MRS broth was studied to achieve enhanced growth of the organism and also nisin production. Bioassay of nisin was done with agar diffusion method using Streptococcus agalactae NCIM 2401 as indicator strain. MRS broth (6%, w/v with 0.15μg/ml of nisin supplemented with 0.5% (v/v skimmed milk was found to be the best for nisin production as well as for growth of L lactis. The production of nisin was strongly influenced by the presence of skimmed milk and nisin in MRS broth. The production of nisin was affected by the physical parameters and maximum nisin production was at 30(0C while the optimal temperature for biomass production was 37(0C.

  8. Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.; Liu, Z.L.

    2008-01-01

    -added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the......-isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency...... of substrate utilization and enhanced production of L-(+)-lactic acid from corncob hydrolysate. It increased L-(+)-lactic acid final concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity more than twofold compared with its parental strain. The optimized growth and fermentation conditions for Strain HZS6 were...

  9. Polarized electrode enhances biological direct interspecies electron transfer for methane production in upflow anaerobic bioelectrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qing; Song, Young-Chae; Yoo, Kyuseon; Kuppanan, Nanthakumar; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Lal, Banwari

    2018-08-01

    The influence of polarized electrodes on the methane production, which depends on the sludge concentration, was investigated in upflow anaerobic bioelectrochemical (UABE) reactor. When the polarized electrode was placed in the bottom zone with a high sludge concentration, the methane production was 5.34 L/L.d, which was 53% higher than upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. However, the methane production was reduced to 4.34 L/L.d by placing the electrode in the upper zone of the UABE reactor with lower sludge concentration. In the UABE reactor, the methane production was mainly improved by the enhanced biological direct interspecies electron transfer (bDIET) pathway, and the methane production via the electrode was a minor fraction of less than 4% of total methane production. The polarized electrodes that placed in the bottom zone with a high sludge concentration enhance the bDIET for methane production in the UABE reactor and greatly improve the methane production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of agricultural by-products with manure, for enhanced biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie M.; Fotidis, Ioannis; Kovalovszki, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Biogas is extensively promoted as a promising renewable energy. Therefore, the search of appropriate co-substrates has come into focus. In this study, we examined the potential of using agricultural byproducts as alternative co-substrates for increased biogas production. The biochemical methane p...

  11. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of methane production in low temperature anaerobic digestion at 10 °C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Si; Buisman, Cees; Heijne, ter Annemiek

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion at low temperature is an attractive technology especially in moderate climates, however, low temperature results in low microbial activity and low rates of methane formation. This study investigated if bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can enhance methane production from

  12. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sanz-Martí n, M.; Mesa, E.; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, M.; Hendriks, I.  E.; Garcí a-Corral, L. S.; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A.; Delgado, A.; Reigstad, M.; Wassmann, P.; Agusti, Susana

    2015-01-01

    production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range

  13. Use of magnetic nanoparticles to enhance bioethanol production in syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kee; Lee, Haryeong

    2016-03-01

    The effect of two types of nanoparticles on the enhancement of bioethanol production in syngas fermentation by Clostridium ljungdahlii was examined. Methyl-functionalized silica and methyl-functionalized cobalt ferrite-silica (CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3) nanoparticles were used to improve syngas-water mass transfer. Of these, CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles showed better enhancement of syngas mass transfer. The nanoparticles were recovered using a magnet and reused five times to evaluate reusability, and it was confirmed that their capability for mass transfer enhancement was maintained. Both types of nanoparticles were applied to syngas fermentation, and production of biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid was enhanced. CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles were more efficient for the productivity of syngas fermentation due to improved syngas mass transfer. The biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid production compared to a control were increased by 227.6%, 213.5%, and 59.6%, respectively by addition of CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles. The reusability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by reuse of recovered nanoparticles for fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring opportunities for enhancing innovation in agriculture: The case of oil palm production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a study using key informant interviews, focus group discussions and individual interviews to explore opportunities to enhance innovation in the oil palm sector in Ghana. Current technical innovations at the farm level are insufficient to promote sustainable oil palm production and to

  15. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, E; Van Trijp, J C M; Van Den Borne, J J G C; Zondervan, C

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined.

  16. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  17. Enhanced Enzymatic Production of Cephalexin at High Substrate Concentration with in situ Product Removal by Complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengchao Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalexin (CEX was synthesized with 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA and D(–-phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME using immobilized penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli. It was found that substrate concentration and in situ product could remarkably influence the ratio of synthesis to hydrolysis (S/H and the efficiency of CEX synthesis. The optimal ratio of enzyme to substrate was 65 IU/mM 7-ADCA. High substrate concentration improved the 7-ADCA conversion from 61 to 81 % in the process without in situ product removal (ISPR, while in the synthetic process with ISPR, high substrate concentration increased the 7-ADCA conversion from 88 to 98 %. CEX was easily separated from CEX/β-naphthol complex and its purity and overall yield were 99 and 70 %, respectively.

  18. CYTOTOXICITY OF FLAVONOIDS AND SESQUITERPENE LACTONES FROM ARNICA SPECIES AGAINST THE GLC(4) AND THE COLO-320 CELL-LINES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; MERFORT, [No Value; PASSREITER, CM; SCHMIDT, TJ; WILLUHN, G; VANUDEN, W; PRAS, N; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1994-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of 21 flavonoids and 5 sesquiterpene lactones, as present in Arnica species, was studied in GLC(4), a human small cell lung carcinoma cell line, and in COLO 320, a human colorectal cancer cell line, using the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Following continuous incubation,

  19. Impact of sesquiterpenes from Inula racemosa (Asteraceae) on growth, development and nutrition of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Kumar, Rakesh; Upendrabhai, Deep Patel; Singh, Inder Pal; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2017-05-01

    The use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance all over the world owing to growing awareness of harmful effects of indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides. Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Asteraceae), a medicinally important perennial herb, is rich in sesquiterpenes with many biological activities. The present studies were conducted with the objective to evaluate the sesquiterpenes isolated from I. racemosa for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (F.). Alantolactone and isoalantolactone isolated from I. racemosa exerted growth inhibitory effects on S. litura. Addition of both the sesquiterpenes to larval diet extended the development period and reduced pupation as well as adult emergence. The dietary utilisation experiments on third-instar larvae of S. litura revealed reduction in consumption and growth rates of larvae as well as efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food owing to alantolactone and isoalantolactone. The root extract of I. racemosa, which is rich in two sesquiterpenes, i.e. alantolactone and isoalantolactone, has the potential for management of S. litura. However, there is a need to understand the specific mechanism of action of these compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    of a specific anthelmintic effect rather than generalized toxicity. Ultra-high liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the purified extracts were rich in sesquiterpene lactones (SL), and that the SL profile differed significantly between cultivars. This is the first report of anthelmintic...

  1. Data Fusion of Gridded Snow Products Enhanced with Terrain Covariates and a Simple Snow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, A. M.; Hsieh, W. W.; Cannon, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic planning requires accurate estimates of regional snow water equivalent (SWE), particularly areas with hydrologic regimes dominated by spring melt. While numerous gridded data products provide such estimates, accurate representations are particularly challenging under conditions of mountainous terrain, heavy forest cover and large snow accumulations, contexts which in many ways define the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. One promising avenue of improving SWE estimates is a data fusion approach which combines field observations with gridded SWE products and relevant covariates. A base artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed using three of the best performing gridded SWE products over BC (ERA-Interim/Land, MERRA and GLDAS-2) and simple location and time covariates. This base ANN was then enhanced to include terrain covariates (slope, aspect and Terrain Roughness Index, TRI) as well as a simple 1-layer energy balance snow model driven by gridded bias-corrected ANUSPLIN temperature and precipitation values. The ANN enhanced with all aforementioned covariates performed better than the base ANN, but most of the skill improvement was attributable to the snow model with very little contribution from the terrain covariates. The enhanced ANN improved station mean absolute error (MAE) by an average of 53% relative to the composing gridded products over the province. Interannual peak SWE correlation coefficient was found to be 0.78, an improvement of 0.05 to 0.18 over the composing products. This nonlinear approach outperformed a comparable multiple linear regression (MLR) model by 22% in MAE and 0.04 in interannual correlation. The enhanced ANN has also been shown to estimate better than the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model calibrated and run for four BC watersheds, improving MAE by 22% and correlation by 0.05. The performance improvements of the enhanced ANN are statistically significant at the 5% level across the province and

  2. miR-2861 as novel HDAC5 inhibitor in CHO cells enhances productivity while maintaining product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Simon; Paul, Albert Jesuran; Wagner, Andreas; Mathias, Sven; Geiss, Melanie; Schandock, Franziska; Domnowski, Martin; Zimmermann, Jörg; Handrick, René; Hesse, Friedemann; Otte, Kerstin

    2015-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been exploited for years to improve recombinant protein expression in mammalian production cells. However, global HDAC inhibition is associated with negative effects on various cellular processes. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate gene expression in almost all eukaryotic cell types by controlling entire cellular pathways. Since miRNAs recently have gained much attention as next-generation cell engineering tool to improve Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell factories, we were interested if miRNAs are able to specifically repress HDAC expression in CHO cells to circumvent limitations of unspecific HDAC inhibition. We discovered a novel miRNA in CHO cells, miR-2861, which was shown to enhance productivity in various recombinant CHO cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-2861 might post-transcriptionally regulate HDAC5 in CHO cells. Intriguingly, siRNA-mediated HDAC5 suppression could be demonstrated to phenocopy pro-productive effects of miR-2861 in CHO cells. This supports the notion that miRNA-induced inhibition of HDAC5 may contribute to productivity enhancing effects of miR-2861. Furthermore, since product quality is fundamental to safety and functionality of biologics, we examined the effect of HDAC inhibition on critical product quality attributes. In contrast to unspecific HDAC inhibition using VPA, enforced expression of miR-2861 did not negatively influence antibody aggregation or N-glycosylation. Our findings highlight the superiority of miRNA-mediated inhibition of specific HDACs and present miR-2861 as novel cell engineering tool for improving CHO manufacturing cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.

    2015-08-31

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate1 and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification2, 3. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs4, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production5. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145–2,099 μatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  4. CO-PRODUCT ENHANCEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE MASADA OXYNOL PROCESS PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald V. Watkins

    2010-06-14

    The focus of this project was an overall process improvement through the enhancement of the co-product streams. The enhancement of the process operations and co-products will increase both ethanol production and the value of other process outputs and reduces the amount of waste byproducts. This leads to a more economical and environmentally sound alternative to landfill disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). These enhancements can greatly increase the commercial potential for the production of ethanol from MSW by the Masada CES OxyNol process. Both technological and economical issues were considered for steps throughout the conversion process. The research efforts of this project are varied but synergistic. The project investigated many of the operations involved in the Masada process with the overall goal of process improvements. The general goal of the testing was to improve co-product quality, improve conversions efficiencies, minimize process losses, increase energy efficiency, and mitigate process and commercialization risks. The project was divided into 16 subtasks as described in general terms below. All these tasks are interrelated but not necessarily interdependent.

  5. NF-κB p65 repression by the sesquiterpene lactone, Helenalin, contributes to the induction of autophagy cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chuan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have demonstrated that autophagy plays a vital role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Interestingly, several anticancer agents were found to exert their anticancer effects by triggering autophagy. Emerging data suggest that autophagy represents a novel mechanism that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Pharmacologically active natural compounds such as those from marine, terrestrial plants and animals represent a promising resource for novel anticancer drugs. There are several prominent examples from the past proving the success of natural products and derivatives exhibiting anticancer activity. Helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone has been demonstrated to have potent anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. Albeit previous studies demonstrating helenalin’s multi modal action on cellular proliferative and apoptosis, the mechanisms underlying its action are largely unexplained. Methods To deduce the mechanistic action of helenalin, cancer cells were treated with the drug at various concentrations and time intervals. Using western blot, FACS analysis, overexpression and knockdown studies, cellular signaling pathways were interrogated focusing on apoptosis and autophagy markers. Results We show here that helenalin induces sub-G1 arrest, apoptosis, caspase cleavage and increases the levels of the autophagic markers. Suppression of caspase cleavage by the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, suppressed induction of LC3-B and Atg12 and reduced autophagic cell death, indicating caspase activity was essential for autophagic cell death induced by helenalin. Additionally, helenalin suppressed NF-κB p65 expression in a dose and time dependent manner. Exogenous overexpression of p65 was accompanied by reduced levels of cell death whereas siRNA mediated suppression led to augmented levels of caspase cleavage, autophagic cell death markers and increased cell death. Conclusions Taken together, these results show

  6. Self-organizing maps of molecular descriptors for sesquiterpene lactones and their application to the chemotaxonomy of the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Marcus T; Emerenciano, Vicente; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Scotti, Luciana; Stefani, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcelo S; Mendonça Junior, Francisco Jaime B

    2012-04-20

    The Asteraceae, one of the largest families among angiosperms, is chemically characterised by the production of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). A total of 1,111 SLs, which were extracted from 658 species, 161 genera, 63 subtribes and 15 tribes of Asteraceae, were represented and registered in two dimensions in the SISTEMATX, an in-house software system, and were associated with their botanical sources. The respective 11 block of descriptors: Constitutional, Functional groups, BCUT, Atom-centred, 2D autocorrelations, Topological, Geometrical, RDF, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY and WHIM were used as input data to separate the botanical occurrences through self-organising maps. Maps that were generated with each descriptor divided the Asteraceae tribes, with total index values between 66.7% and 83.6%. The analysis of the results shows evident similarities among the Heliantheae, Helenieae and Eupatorieae tribes as well as between the Anthemideae and Inuleae tribes. Those observations are in agreement with systematic classifications that were proposed by Bremer, which use mainly morphological and molecular data, therefore chemical markers partially corroborate with these classifications. The results demonstrate that the atom-centred and RDF descriptors can be used as a tool for taxonomic classification in low hierarchical levels, such as tribes. Descriptors obtained through fragments or by the two-dimensional representation of the SL structures were sufficient to obtain significant results, and better results were not achieved by using descriptors derived from three-dimensional representations of SLs. Such models based on physico-chemical properties can project new design SLs, similar structures from literature or even unreported structures in two-dimensional chemical space. Therefore, the generated SOMs can predict the most probable tribe where a biologically active molecule can be found according Bremer classification.

  7. Enhanced production of extracellular inulinase by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in xylose catabolic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Hisashi; Kidera, Kenta; Takishita, Ryuta; Fujioka, Nobuhisa; Fukagawa, Taiki; Akada, Rinji

    2018-06-01

    The production of extracellular proteins by the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, which utilizes various sugars, was investigated using media containing sugars such as glucose, galactose, and xylose. SDS-PAGE analysis of culture supernatants revealed abundant production of an extracellular protein when cells were grown in xylose medium. The N-terminal sequence of the extracellular protein was identical to a part of the inulinase encoded by INU1 in the genome. Inulinase is an enzyme hydrolyzing β-2,1-fructosyl bond in inulin and sucrose and is not required for xylose assimilation. Disruption of INU1 in the strain DMKU 3-1042 lost the production of the extracellular protein and resulted in growth defect in sucrose and inulin media, indicating that the extracellular protein was inulinase (sucrase). In addition, six K. marxianus strains among the 16 strains that were analyzed produced more inulinase in xylose medium than in glucose medium. However, expression analysis indicated that the INU1 promoter activity was lower in the xylose medium than in the glucose medium, suggesting that enhanced production of inulinase is controlled in a post-transcriptional manner. The production of inulinase was also higher in cultures with more agitation, suggesting that oxygen supply affects the production of inulinase. Taken together, these results suggest that both xylose and oxygen supply shift cellular metabolism to enhance the production of extracellular inulinase. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of Surfactin and Fengycin Production by Bacillus mojavensis A21: Application for Diesel Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Hanen; Jacques, Philippe; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-01-01

    This work concerns the study of the enhancement of surfactin and fengycin production by B. mojavensis A21 and application of the produced product in diesel biodegradation. The influences of the culture medium and cells immobilization were studied. The highest lipopeptides production was achieved after 72 hours of incubation in a culture medium containing 30 g/L glucose as carbon source and a combination of yeast extract (1 g/L) and glutamic acid (5 g/L) as nitrogen sources with initial pH 7.0 at 30°C and 90% volumetric aeration. The study of primary metabolites production showed mainly the production of acetoin, with a maximum production after 24 h of strain growth. The use of immobilized cells seemed to be a promising method for improving lipopeptides productivity. In fact, the synthesis of both lipopeptides, mainly fengycin, was greatly enhanced by the immobilization of A21 cells. An increase of diesel degradation capacity of approximately 20, 27, and 40% in the presence of 0.5, 1, and 2 g/L of produced lipopeptides, respectively, was observed. Considering these properties, B. mojavensis A21 strain producing a lipopeptide mixture, containing both surfactin and fengycin, may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in bioremediation and crop protection. PMID:29082251

  9. Enhancement of Surfactin and Fengycin Production by Bacillus mojavensis A21: Application for Diesel Biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noomen Hmidet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the study of the enhancement of surfactin and fengycin production by B. mojavensis A21 and application of the produced product in diesel biodegradation. The influences of the culture medium and cells immobilization were studied. The highest lipopeptides production was achieved after 72 hours of incubation in a culture medium containing 30 g/L glucose as carbon source and a combination of yeast extract (1 g/L and glutamic acid (5 g/L as nitrogen sources with initial pH 7.0 at 30°C and 90% volumetric aeration. The study of primary metabolites production showed mainly the production of acetoin, with a maximum production after 24 h of strain growth. The use of immobilized cells seemed to be a promising method for improving lipopeptides productivity. In fact, the synthesis of both lipopeptides, mainly fengycin, was greatly enhanced by the immobilization of A21 cells. An increase of diesel degradation capacity of approximately 20, 27, and 40% in the presence of 0.5, 1, and 2 g/L of produced lipopeptides, respectively, was observed. Considering these properties, B. mojavensis A21 strain producing a lipopeptide mixture, containing both surfactin and fengycin, may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in bioremediation and crop protection.

  10. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  11. Novel fungal consortium pretreatment of waste oat straw to enhance economic and efficient biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-pretreatment using a fungal consortium to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored.  A fungal consortium comprised of T. viride and P. chrysosporium as microbial inoculum was compared with untreated and single-species-inoculated samples. Fungal bio-pretreatment was carried out at atmospheric conditions with limited external energy input.  The effectiveness of the pretreatment is evaluated according to its lignin removal and digestibility. Enhancement of biohydrogen production is observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Fungal consortium pretreatment effectively degraded oat straw lignin (by >47% in 7 days leading to decomposition of cell-wall structure as revealed in SEM images, increasing biohydrogen yield. The hydrogen produced from the fungal consortium pretreated straw increased by 165% 6 days later, and was more than produced from either a single fungi species of T. viride or P. chrysosponium pretreated straw (94% and 106%, respectively. No inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed.

  12. Heterologous production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Shi, R; Zhao, J; Li, G; Bai, X; Han, S; Zhang, Y

    2015-02-01

    The ex situ application of rhamnolipid to enhance oil recovery is costly and complex in terms of rhamnolipid production and transportation, while in situ production of rhamnolipid is restricted by the oxygen-deficient environments of oil reservoirs. To overcome the oxygen-limiting conditions and to circumvent the complex regulation of rhamnolipid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an engineered strain Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl was constructed for heterologous production of rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions. The rhlABRI genes for rhamnolipid biosynthesis were cloned into a facultative anaerobic strain Ps. stutzeri DQ1 to construct the engineered strain Rhl. Anaerobic production of rhamnolipid was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared analysis. Rhamnolipid product reduced the air-water surface tension to 30.3 mN m(-1) and the oil-water interfacial tension to 0.169 mN m(-1). Rhl produced rhamnolipid of 1.61 g l(-1) using glycerol as the carbon source. Rhl anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil up to EI24 ≈ 74. An extra 9.8% of original crude oil was displaced by Rhl in the core flooding test. Strain Rhl achieved anaerobic production of rhamnolipid and worked well for enhanced oil recovery in the core flooding model. The rhamnolipid produced by Rhl was similar to that of the donor strain SQ6. This is the first study to achieve anaerobic and heterologous production of rhamnolipid. Results demonstrated the potential feasibility of Rhl as a promising strain to enhance oil recovery through anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF SESQUITERPENE Γ-LACTONE AHILLIN IN HEPATOMA TISSUE CULTURE (HTC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Investigation of hypolipidemic effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone ahillin in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells.Material and methods. In this study we’ve evaluated the effect of γ-lactone sesquiterpene aсhillin and gemfibrozil (comparator drug on the lipid content in the hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cell which were incubated with a fat emulsion lipofundin by fluorescent method with vital dye Nile Redand staining the cells with the dye Oil Red O. The cell viability was investigated using the MTT-test and staining with Trypan blue.Results. Cultivation cells HTC with aсhillin and gemfibrozilat concentrations ranging from 0.5 to1.5 mM and from0.25 mM to0.5 mM, respectively, resulted in dose-dependent decrease of the fluorescence’s intensity Nile Red. It reflects a decrease in lipid content in the cells. At these concentrations the drugs didn’t have cytotoxic effect and the cell viability didn’t change compared to the control culture.An experimental hyperlipidemia in the hepatoma culture cells was induced by adding to the incubation medium a fat emulsion lipofundin at a final concentration 0.05%. The intensity of fluorescence Nile Red in the cells was increased 4 fold (p < 0.05. This result suggests the significant accumulation of lipids in the cell’s cytosol and confirmed by microscopy after staining neutral lipids with the dye Oil Red O. Under these conditions aсhillin and gemfibrozil reduced lipid content in cells and hadthe effect at concentrations of0.5 mM and0.25 mM respectively.Conclusion. In the lipofundin-mediated model of hyperlipidemia the sesquiterpene lactone aсhillin prevents the lipid accumulation in cells. It confirms by decrease of fluorescence Nile Red and reduction lipid drops which were stained with Oil Red O in cytosol. To establish the molecular targets of aсhillin’saction on lipid metabolism in cell culture HTC we need to investigate a gene expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism.

  14. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Dan; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  15. Assessment of environmental stresses for enhanced microalgal biofuel production-an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eCheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  16. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Dan, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu; He, Qingfang, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  17. PRODUCT CERTIFICATION AND LEGAL PROTECTION TO ENHANCE INDONESIAN TRADITIONAL HERBAL PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to empower traditional herbs producer and help legal protection of Indonesian traditional medicines, implementing Participatory Research and juridical-sociological approaches. Data were collected through literary, questionnaire, interview and Focus Group Discussion. The first year study revealed that Herbal Producer Association worked with all members, persuading government offices to get product certification and effective trademark licenses. In the second year study the researchers and Producers Association trained and facilitated vendors to endorse trademark, label registry, and markets shares. Producers maintain traditional medicine management, because product certification is hard to achieve. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberdayakan produsen jamu/OT dan membantu perlindungan hukumnya, dengan memanfaatkan pendekatan penelitian partisipatoris dan sosiologis yuridis. Data dikumpulkan dengan literatur, kuesioner, wawancara dan Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Pada tahun pertama organisasi gabungan pengusaha jamu (GP Jamu bersama-sama dengan seluruh anggotanya mendorong pemerintah untuk perolehan sertifikasi produk izin edar dan merek secara efektif. Pada tahun kedua, peneliti dan gabungan pengusaha jamu melakukan pelatihan guna perolehan izin edar, pendaftaran merek, dan peningkatan pemasaran. Para pengusaha jamu tradisional perlu terus menerus didampingi karena perolehan izin edar terkesan sulit.

  18. Will enhanced turbulence in inland waters result in elevated production of autochthonous dissolved organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jian; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Tang, Xiangming; Han, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Biological activity in lakes is strongly influenced by hydrodynamic conditions, not least turbulence intensity; which increases the encounter rate between plankter and nutrient patches. To investigate whether enhanced turbulence in shallow and eutrophic lakes may result in elevated biological production of autochthonous chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a combination of field campaigns and mesocosm experiments was used. Parallel factor analysis identified seven components: four protein-like, one microbial humic-like and two terrestrial humic-like components. During our field campaigns, elevated production of autochthonous CDOM was recorded in open water with higher wind speed and wave height than in inner bays, implying that elevated turbulence resulted in increased production of autochthonous CDOM. Confirming the field campaign results, in the mesocosm experiment enhanced turbulence resulted in a remarkably higher microbial humic-like C1 and tryptophan-like C3 (pCDOM. This is consistent with the significantly higher mean concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the enhanced phytoplanktonic alkaline phosphatase activity (PAPA) recorded in the experimental turbulence groups than in the control group (pCDOM samples further suggested their probable autochthonous origin. Our results have implications for the understanding of CDOM cycling in shallow aquatic ecosystems influenced by wind-induced waves, in which the enhanced turbulence associated with extreme weather conditions may be further stimulated by the predicted global climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of β- radiolysis and transient products on irradiation-enhanced corrosion of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaignan, C.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis has been undertaken of the various cases of local enhancement of the corrosion rate of zirconium alloys under irradiation. It is observed that in most cases a strong emission of energetic β - is present leading to a local energy desorption rate higher than the core average. This suggests that the local transient radiolytic oxidising species produced in the coolant by the β - particles could contribute to corrosion enhancement, by increasing the local corrosion potential. This process is applicable to the local enhanced corrosion found in front of stainless steels structural parts, due to the contribution of Mn, in front of Pt inserts and Cu-rich cruds. It explains also the irradiation corrosion enhancement of Cu-rich Zr alloys. Enhanced corrosion around neutron absorbing material is explained similarly by pair production from conversion of high energy capture photons in the cladding, leading to energetic electrons. The same process was found to be active with other highly ionising species like α in Ni-rich alloys and fission products in homogeneous reactors. This mechanism, applicable for an explanation of localised irradiation-enhanced corrosion, is proposed to be extended to the reactor core, where the general enhancement of Zr-alloy corrosion under irradiation would be due to the general radiolysis. It suggests that care should be taken to avoid any source of β - emission or other ionising species in the reactor core that could give an increase of energy deposition rate for radiolysis. Also the corrosion testing conditions for the materials to be used in reactors have to be relevant to the radiolytic environments found in the reactor cores. (orig.)

  20. Enhanced production of pigments by addition of surfactants in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Bobo; Lu, Liping; Huang, Yan; Xu, Ganrong

    2013-10-01

    The production of pigments by Monascus spp. has attracted increasing attention. Modification of the cell membrane structure by addition of surfactants has proved to be effective for the secretion of intracellular metabolites. Hence in this study the effects and underlying mechanism of surfactants on the production of pigments in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102 were systematically investigated. Various surfactants exerted significant but different impacts on the biomass and production of pigments. The maximum production of pigment (304.3 U mL(-1) ) and highest extracellular/intracellular pigment ratio (1.46) were achieved when 15 g L(-1) Triton X-100 was added at 24 h of fermentation, corresponding to significant increases of 88.4 and 240% respectively compared with the control. Meanwhile, the concentration of citrinin (0.94 mg L(-1) ) was 20.6% lower than that of the control. A further study on the fatty acid composition of M. purpureus H1102 showed that the unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and the index of unsaturated fatty acid increased significantly with the addition of Triton X-100. The addition of surfactant Triton X-100 could greatly enhance the production of pigment. It was suggested that Triton X-100 facilitated the secretion of intracellular pigment and therefore enhanced pigment production accordingly. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. IL-29 Enhances CXCL10 Production in TNF-α-stimulated Human Oral Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Ikuko; Shindo, Satoru; Ozaki, Kazumi; Matsuo, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Interleukin-29 (IL-29) is a cytokine belonging to the Type III interferon family. It was recently detected in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients. However, the role of IL-29 in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of IL-29 on C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) production in human oral epithelial cells. We measured CXCL10 production in TR146 cells, which is a human oral epithelial cell line, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We used a Western blot analysis to detect IL-29 receptor expression and the phosphorylation levels of signal transduction molecules, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and nuclear factor (NF)- κB p65, in the TR146 cells. The TR146 cells expressed the IL-29 receptor. IL-29 induced CXCL10 production in the TR146 cells. IL-29 significantly enhanced CXCL10 production in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated TR146 cells. The p38 MAPK, STAT3, and NF-κB pathways were found to be related to the IL-29-induced enhancement of CXCL10 production in TNF-α-stimulated TR146 cells. IL-29 promotes T helper 1-cell accumulation in periodontal lesions by inducing CXCL10 production in oral epithelial cells.

  2. Production of lipids in 10 strains of Chlorella and Parachlorella, and enhanced lipid productivity in Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pribyl, Pavel; Cepak, Vladislav [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Algological Centre and Centre for Bioindication and Revitalization; Zachleder, Vilem [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Lab. of the Cell Cycles of Algae

    2012-04-15

    We tested 10 different Chlorella and Parachlorella strains under lipid induction growth conditions in autotrophic laboratory cultures. Between tested strains, substantial differences in both biomass and lipid productivity as well as in the final content of lipids were found. The most productive strain (Chlorella vulgaris CCALA 256) was subsequently studied in detail. The availability of nitrates and/or phosphates strongly influenced growth and accumulation of lipids in cells by affecting cell division. Nutrient limitation substantially enhanced lipid productivity up to a maximal value of 1.5 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1}. We also demonstrated the production of lipids through large-scale cultivation of C. vulgaris in a thin layer photobioreactor, even under suboptimal conditions. After 8 days of cultivation, maximal lipid productivity was 0.33 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1}, biomass density was 5.7 g l{sup -1} dry weight and total lipid content was more than 30% dry weight. C. vulgaris lipids comprise fatty acids with a relatively high degree of saturation compared with canola oil offering a possible alternative to the use of higher plant oils. (orig.)

  3. Sesquiterpene dimmer (DSF-27) inhibits the release of neuroinflammatory mediators from microglia by targeting spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Janus kinase 2 (Jak2): Two major non-receptor tyrosine signaling proteins involved in inflammatory events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ke-Wu [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Shu [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Analysis, Logistics College of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Tianjin 300162 (China); Dong, Xin; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Tu, Peng-Fei, E-mail: pengfeitu@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases (NRPTKs)-dependent inflammatory signal transduction cascades play key roles in immunoregulation. However, drug intervention through NRPTKs-involved immunoregulation mechanism in microglia (the major immune cells of the central nervous system) has not been widely investigated. A main aim of the present study is to elucidate the contribution of two major NRPTKs (Syk and Jak2) in neuroinflammation suppression by a bioactive sesquiterpene dimmer (DSF-27). We found that LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells activated Syk and further initiated Akt/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. This Syk-dependent Akt/NF-κB inflammatory pathway can be effectively ameliorated by DSF-27. Moreover, Jak2 was activated by LPS, which was followed by transcriptional factor Stat3 activation. The Jak2/Stat3 signal was suppressed by DSF-27 through inhibition of Jak2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, promotion of Jak/Stat3 inhibitory factors PIAS3 expression, and down-regulation of ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, DSF-27 protected cortical and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons against neuroinflammatory injury. Taken together, our findings indicate NRPTK signaling pathways including Syk/NF-κB and Jak2/Stat3 cascades are potential anti-neuroinflammatory targets in microglia, and may also set the basis for the use of sesquiterpene dimmer as a therapeutic approach for neuroinflammation via interruption of these pathways. - Highlights: • Sesquiterpene dimmer DSF-27 inhibits inflammatory mediators' production in microglia. • Syk-dependent Akt/NF-κB pathway is important for DSF-27's anti-inflammation activity. • Jak2/Stat3 pathway is important for DSF-27's anti-inflammation activity. • Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway is partly regulated by ERK and p38 MAPKs and PIAS3. • DSF-27 protects neurons against microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory injury.

  4. Simultaneous determination of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV and HPLC-TOF-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-11-01

    UPLC-UV and HPLC-TOF-MS methods have been developed for the analysis of major sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. (Family, Asteracea) and dietary supplements claiming to contain P. hybridus. The best results were obtained with Acquity UPLC™ HSS T3 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, I.D., 1.8 μm) column system using a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium formate (50mM) and acetonitrile (0.05% formic acid) at a constant flow rate of 0.25 mL/min via UPLC-UV. The newly developed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. The limits of detection were found to be 5 μg/mL and 0.1 μg/mL for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and sesquiterpenes, respectively by UPLC-UV and 0.001 and 0.01 μg/mL, respectively using HPLC-TOF-MS. The methods were successfully used to analyze different P. hybridus market products, as well as to distinguish between two other Petasites species. The total content of petasins was found to be in the range of 0.02-11.6 mg/dosage form for 15 dietary supplements and no petasins were detected in an additional six dietary supplements. Additionally, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are considered to be toxic for the liver, were detected in seven dietary supplements. The amount of petasin in seven dietary supplements was found to be within limits of label claim and no pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected. HPLC-mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the identification and confirmation of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from plant extracts and dietary supplements that claim to contain P. hybridus as well as different species of Petasites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioactive constituents of Chinese natural medicines. I. New sesquiterpene ketones with vasorelaxant effect from Chinese moxa, the processed leaves of Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant.: moxartenone and moxartenolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M; Shimada, H; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

    1996-09-01

    Two new sesquiterpene ketones, moxartenone and moxartenolide, and three octadecadienoic acids were isolated from Chinese moxa, the processed leaves of Artemisia argyi LEVL. et VANT., together with two sesquiterpenes, five triterpenes, two phenyl propanoids and three polyoxyflavones. The chemical structures of new sesquiterpenes, moxartenone, moxartenolide, and octadecadienoic acids were determined on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence. Moxartenolide was found to inhibit the contractions induced by a high concentration of K+, by norepinephrine, and by serotonin in isolated aortic strips of rat, while moxartenone showed little activity.

  6. Enhanced methane production of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by hydrolytic enzymes addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, Ahmed; Mendez, Lara; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methane production of microalgae biomass is hampered by their cell wall. • Pretreatment should be designed in accordance to the microalgae specie. • Fresh Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibited high anaerobic biodegradability. • Chlorella vulgaris anaerobic biodegradability was enhanced by 50% using protease pretreatment. - Abstract: The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on microalgae organic matter solubilisation and methane production was investigated in this study. Even though both biomasses, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris, exhibited similar macromolecular distribution, their cell wall composition provided different behaviors. The addition of carbohydrolase (Viscozyme) and protease (Alcalase) resulted in high carbohydrates and protein solubilisation on both biomasses (86–96%). Despite the high carbohydrate solubilisation with the carbohydrolase, methane production was enhanced by 14% for C. vulgaris, while hydrolyzed C. reinhardtii did not show any improvement. The addition of protease to C. reinhardtii increased methane production by 1.17-fold. The low enhancement achieved together with the inherent high biodegradability of this biomass would not justify the cost associated to the enzyme addition. On the other hand, C. vulgaris hydrolyzed with the protease resulted in 86% anaerobic biodegradability compared to 54% of the raw biomass. Therefore, the application of protease prior anaerobic digestion of C. vulgaris could be a promising approach to decrease the energetic input required for cell wall disruption

  7. Production, Characterization and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket J. Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses or date molasses, as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33+0.57mN m-1 and 2.47+0.32mN m-1 respectively within 72h, at 40 C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67°+1.6° to 19.54°+0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor. The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial enhanced oil recovery processes.

  8. Covalent Modification of Human Serum Albumin by the Natural Sesquiterpene Lactone Parthenolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plöger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of parthenolide (PRT, a natural sesquiterpene lactone from Tanacetum parthenium (Asteraceae, with human serum albumin (HSA was studied by UHPLC/+ESI-QqTOF MS analysis after tryptic digestion of albumin samples after incubation with this compound. It was found that the single free cysteine residue, C34, of HSA (0.6 mM reacted readily with PRT when incubated at approximately 13-fold excess of PRT (8 mM. Time-course studies with PRT and its 11β,13-dihydro derivative at equimolar ratios of the reactants revealed that PRT under the chosen conditions reacts preferably with C34 and does so exclusively via its α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety, while the epoxide structure is not involved in the reaction.

  9. Sesquiterpene Lactones of Amphoricarpos autariatus ssp. autariatus from Montenegro - Antifungal Leaf - Surface Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Jadranin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition of leaf cuticular neutral lipids of Amphoricarpos autariatus ssp. autariatus collected at canyon of river Tara (North Montenegro was investigated by GC/MS (nonpolar fraction, LC-ESI TOF MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy (more polar fraction. The nonpolar fraction (ca. 15% of the whole surface extract contained C 27 - 33 n-alkanes, those with odd-number of carbons predominating. The LC-ESI MS and 1H NMR of the more polar fraction revealed 13 sesquiterpene lactones, constituting ca. 97.5% of the lactone mixture, identified as the known guaianolides, so-called amphoricarpolides, found previously in the aerial parts of the genus. The lactone fraction exhibited considerable in vitro effect against eight fungi, i.e. Aspergillus ochraceus , A. niger, A. versicolor , Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, Trichoderma viride, Fusarium verticillioides and Fulvia fulvum.

  10. Stelliosphaerols A and B, Sesquiterpene-Polyol Conjugates from an Ecuadorian Fungal Endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcina, Giovanni C; Castro, Amaya; Bokesch, Heidi R; Spakowicz, Daniel J; Legaspi, Michelle E; Kucera, Kaury; Villota, Stephany; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; McMahon, James B; Gustafson, Kirk R; Strobel, Scott A

    2015-12-24

    Endophytic fungi are plant tissue-associated fungi that represent a rich resource of unexplored biological and chemical diversity. As part of an ongoing effort to characterize Amazon rainforest-derived endophytes, numerous fungi were isolated and cultured from plants collected in the Yasuní National Park in Ecuador. Of these samples, phylogenetic and morphological data revealed a previously undescribed fungus in the order Pleosporales that was cultured from the tropical tree Duroia hirsuta. Extracts from this fungal isolate displayed activity against Staphylococcus aureus and were thus subjected to detailed chemical studies. Two compounds with modest antibacterial activity were isolated, and their structures were elucidated using a combination of NMR spectroscopic analysis, LC-MS studies, and chemical degradation. These efforts led to the identification of stelliosphaerols A (1) and B (2), new sesquiterpene-polyol conjugates that are responsible, at least in part, for the S. aureus inhibitory activity of the fungal extract.

  11. New Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenes from the Aerial Parts of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Morinaga, Hiroaki; Masuoka, Chikako; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2005-09-01

    Two new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes, lippidulcine A (3) and epilippidulcine A (4), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Lippia dulcis TREV. along with five known flavonoids, cirsimaritin (5), salvigenin (6), eupatorin (7), 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (8) and 5,3'-dihydroxy-6,7,4',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (9), three known phenylethanoid glycosides, decaffeoylverbascoside (10), acteoside (11) and isoacteoside (12), and two known iridoid glucosides, 8-epiloganin (13) and lamiide (14). Their chemical structures have been determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. Among them, 5, 7, and 9 exhibited almost the same activity as that of alpha-tocopherol, and 10-12 were identified as stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol using the ferric thiocyanate method.

  12. Phytotoxic eremophilane sesquiterpenes from the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Paulina; Figueroa, Mario; Mata, Rachel

    2015-02-27

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an extract from the grain-based culture of the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14 led to the isolation of a new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene, 3R,6R-dihydroxy-9,7(11)-dien-8-oxoeremophilane (1), along with three known analogues, namely, isopetasol (2), sporogen AO-1 (3), and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4). The structure of 1 was elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Assignment of absolute configuration at the stereogenic centers of 1 was achieved using ECD spectroscopy combined with time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Sporogen AO-1 (3) and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4) caused significant inhibition of radicle growth against Amaranthus hypochondriacus (IC50 = 0.17 mM for both compounds) and Echinochloa crus-galli (IC50 = 0.17 and 0.30 mM, respectively).

  13. Neopetrosiquinones A and B, sesquiterpene benzoquinones isolated from the deep-water sponge Neopetrosia cf. proxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Priscilla L; Baker, Heather L; Linley, Patricia; Guzmán, Esther A; Pomponi, Shirley A; Diaz, M Cristina; Reed, John K; Wright, Amy E

    2011-11-15

    Two new marine-derived sesquiterpene benzoquinones which we designate as neopetrosiquinones A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from a deep-water sponge of the family Petrosiidae. The structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibit the in vitro proliferation of the DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line with IC(50) values of 3.7 and 9.8 μM, respectively, and the PANC-1 human pancreatic carcinoma cell line with IC(50) values of 6.1 and 13.8 μM, respectively. Neopetrosiquinone A (1) also inhibited the in vitro proliferation of the AsPC-1 human pancreatic carcinoma cell line with an IC(50) value of 6.1 μM. The compounds are structurally related to alisiaquinone A, cyclozonarone, and xestoquinone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytotoxic properties of cnicin, a sesquiterpene lactone fromcentaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, R G; Locken, L J

    1987-01-01

    Water and solvent extracts from the aerial tissues ofCentaurea maculosa, spotted knapweed, inhibited the root growth of lettuce. Column chromatography and lettuce bioassay of a chloroform extract led to the isolation of cnicin, a sesquiterpene lactone. Pure cnicin was bioassayed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/5 ml water with lettuce, created wheatgrass, bluebunch wheatgrass, rough fescue, western larch, lodgepole pine, and spotted knapweed. Germination was inhibited at one or more concentrations for all species except lodgepole pine and spotted knapweed. Growth, particularly of the roots, was retarded between 1 and 4 mg of cnicin. Lettuce, bluebunch wheatgrass, and spotted knapweed were inhibited significantly at all concentrations tested.

  15. Antiphytoviral Activity of Sesquiterpene-Rich Essential Oils from Four Croatian Teucrium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franko Burčul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil profiles of four Croatian Teucrium species (Lamiaceae, as determined by GC and GC/MS, with their antiphytoviral efficiency. A phytochemical analysis showed that T. polium, T. flavum, T. montanum and T. chamaedrys are characterized by similar essential oil compositions. The investigated oils are characterized by a high proportion of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons β-caryophyllene (7.1–52.0% and germacrene D (8.7–17.0%. Other important components were β-pinene from T. montanum and α-pinene from T. flavum. The investigated essential oils were proved to reduce lesion number in the local host Chenopodium quinoa Willd. infected with Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, with reductions of 41.4%, 22.9%, 44.3% and 25.7%, respectively.

  16. Preisocalamendiol, Shyobunol and Related Oxygenated Sesquiterpenes from Bolivian Schinus molle Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Alexis; Mathieu, Michel; Levasseur, Virginie; Ovando, Jesús Flores; Escamilla, Ruben; Marceau, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Five batches of Bolivian Schinus molle essential oils were obtained from pilot and industrial-scale hydrodiffusions. They were analyzed by gas chromatography to find 80 known compounds and two unknown molecules. In particular, preisocalamendiol (5.6-11.0 %) was found to be an important constituent of these oils, along with shyobunol (0.6-3.2 %) and several other related oxygenated sesquiterpenes. These compounds, usually found in Acorus calamus, had not been reported altogether in S. molle essential oils previously. These findings, in light of the GABAA positive modulating effect of shyobunone and preisocalamendiol, along with some traditional uses of S. molle, suggest that further investigation of the tranquilizing properties of these Bolivian oils would be of interest.

  17. How eco-evolutionary principles can guide tree breeding and tree biotechnology for enhanced productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Oskar; Palmroth, Sari; Näsholm, Torgny

    2014-11-01

    Tree breeding and biotechnology can enhance forest productivity and help alleviate the rising pressure on forests from climate change and human exploitation. While many physiological processes and genes are targeted in search of genetically improved tree productivity, an overarching principle to guide this search is missing. Here, we propose a method to identify the traits that can be modified to enhance productivity, based on the differences between trees shaped by natural selection and 'improved' trees with traits optimized for productivity. We developed a tractable model of plant growth and survival to explore such potential modifications under a range of environmental conditions, from non-water limited to severely drought-limited sites. We show how key traits are controlled by a trade-off between productivity and survival, and that productivity can be increased at the expense of long-term survival by reducing isohydric behavior (stomatal regulation of leaf water potential) and allocation to defense against pests compared with native trees. In contrast, at dry sites occupied by naturally drought-resistant trees, the model suggests a better strategy may be to select trees with slightly lower wood density than the native trees and to augment isohydric behavior and allocation to defense. Thus, which traits to modify, and in which direction, depend on the original tree species or genotype, the growth environment and wood-quality versus volume production preferences. In contrast to this need for customization of drought and pest resistances, consistent large gains in productivity for all genotypes can be obtained if root traits can be altered to reduce competition for water and nutrients. Our approach illustrates the potential of using eco-evolutionary theory and modeling to guide plant breeding and genetic technology in selecting target traits in the quest for higher forest productivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  18. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Gynoxys verrucosa and their Anti-MRSA Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Paola E.; Quave, Cassandra L.; Reynolds, William F.; Varughese, Kottayil I.; Berry, Brian; Breen, Philip J.; Malagón, Omar; Smeltzer, Mark S.; Compadre, Cesar M.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Because of its virulence and antibiotic resistance, Staphylococcus aureus is a more formidable pathogen now than at any time since the pre-antibiotic era. In an effort to identify and develop novel antimicrobial agents with activity against this pathogen, we have examined Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd (Asteraceae), an herb used in traditional medicine in southern Ecuador for the treatment and healing of wounds. Materials and Methods The sesquiterpene lactones leucodine (1) and dehydroleucodine (2) were extracted and purified from the aerial parts of G. verrucosa, and their structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The in vitro anti-microbial activity of G. verrucosa extracts and its purified constituents was determined against six clinical isolates including S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains with different drug-resistance profiles, using the microtiter broth method. Results Compound 1 has very low activity, while compound 2 has moderate activity with MIC50s between 49 and195 μg/mL. The extract of G. verrucosa has weak activity with MIC50s between 908 and 3290 μg/mL. Conclusions We are reporting the full assignment of the 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR of both compounds, and the crystal structure of compound 2, for the first time. Moreover, the fact that compound 2 has antimicrobial activity and compound 1 does not, demonstrates that the exocyclic conjugated methylene in the lactone ring is essential for the antimicrobial activity of these sesquiterpene lactones. However, the weak activity observed for the plants extracts, does not explain the use of G. verrucosa in traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds and skin infections. PMID:21782013

  19. Affibody scaffolds improve sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Stefan; Anfelt, Josefine; David, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Enzyme fusions have been widely used as a tool in metabolic engineering to increase pathway efficiency by reducing substrate loss and accumulation of toxic intermediates. Alternatively, enzymes can be co-localized through attachment to a synthetic scaffold via non-covalent interactions. Here we d...

  20. Enhancement of Shikonin Production in Suspension Cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Cells by Gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Myung Hwa; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; An, Beyoung Chul; Lee, Young Bok

    2005-01-01

    The shikonin and several derivatives produced by the roots of Boraginacae family plants are purple compounds that have been used in several parts of the World as antimicrobial and antitumor agents in human pharmaceuticals. Shikonin has been reported as the most successful specimen of the mass production of plant secondary metabolites by cell suspension culture. Numerous studies have elucidated the regulation of production of these compounds in cell suspension cultures. It has known that ultrasonic and gamma irradiation can enhance the production of secondary metabolites. Thus, in present study, we investigate the effects of gamma-irradiation on the shikonin production and the key enzymes in the shikonin biosynthetic pathway of L. erythrorhizon cells

  1. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Marinšek Logar, Romana

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Various oils and detergents enhance the microbial production of farnesol and related prenyl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2008-09-01

    The object of this research was improvement of prenyl alcohol production with squalene synthase-deficient mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 64031. On screening of many kinds of additives, we found that oils and detergents significantly enhanced the extracellular production of prenyl alcohols. Soybean oil showed the most prominent effect among the additives tested. Its effect was accelerated by a high concentration of glucose in the medium. The combination of these cultivation conditions led to the production of more than 28 mg/l of farnesol in the soluble fraction of the broth. The addition of these compounds to the medium was an effective method for large-scale production of prenyl alcohols with microorganisms.

  3. Enhanced hydrogen production by coupled system of Halobacterium halobium and chloroplast after entrapment within reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Dubey, R.S. [Banaras Hindhu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Biochemistry; Pandey, K.D. [Banaras Hindhu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    1999-08-01

    Reverse micelles were used for the enhanced rate of photoproduction of hydrogen using the coupled system of Halobacterium halobium and chloroplasts organelles. Different combinations of organic solvents and surfactants were used for generating reverse micelles. A several fold enhancement in the rate of H{sub 2} production was observed when the coupled system was entrapped within reverse micelles as compared to the aqueous suspension where no detectable H{sub 2} was produced. The coupled system immobilized in reverse micelles formed by sodium lauryl sulfate and carbon tetrachloride yielded maximum rate of H{sub 2} evolution. The optimum temperature for such hydrogen production was 40{sup o}C using light of 520-570 nm wavelength and 100 lux intensity. (author)

  4. Enhanced Production of Glucose Oxidase Using Penicillium notatum and Rice Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Sabir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase (GOD is an important enzyme that finds a wide range of applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. In this investigation the feasibility of using rice polish as a substrate for the production of GOD by Penicillium notatum in submerged fermentation (SmF has been evaluated. The intention was to enhance total GOD activity by the selection of economical substrate, microorganism and consecutive optimization of various cultural conditions. Maximum GOD activity of (112±5 U/mL was achieved under optimum growth conditions: rice polish 5 g, incubation period 72 h, buffering agent 3 % (by mass per volume, incubation temperature (30±1 °C and pH=6.0. Addition of carbon and nitrogen sources further enhanced the enzyme yield, indicating an economically attractive process for GOD production.

  5. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane. For every two molecules of CO2 injected, roughly one molecule of methane is produced. The work included an investigation of the potential CBM reserves in the Dutch underground and the related CO2 s...

  6. Enhanced biohydrogen production by the N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis strain TISTR 8012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khetkorn, Wanthanee [Program of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Laboratory of Cyanobacterial Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-75120, Uppsala (Sweden); Lindblad, Peter [Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-75120, Uppsala (Sweden); Incharoensakdi, Aran [Laboratory of Cyanobacterial Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    The efficiency of hydrogen production depends on several factors. We focused on external conditions leading to enhanced hydrogen production when using the N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012, a novel strain isolated from a rice paddy field in Thailand. In this study, we controlled key factors affecting hydrogen production such as cell age, light intensity, time of light incubation and source of carbon. Our results showed an enhanced hydrogen production when cells, at log phase, were adapted under N{sub 2}-fixing condition using 0.5% fructose as carbon source and a continuous illumination of 200 {mu}E m{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 12 h under anaerobic incubation. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 32 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg chl a{sup -1} h{sup -1}. This rate was higher than that observed in the model organisms Anabaena PCC 7120, Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Synechocystis PCC 6803. This higher production was likely caused by a higher nitrogenase activity since we observed an upregulation of nifD. The production did not increase after 12 h which was probably due to an increased activity of the uptake hydrogenase as evidenced by an increased hupL transcript level. Interestingly, a proper adjustment of light conditions such as intensity and duration is important to minimize both the photodamage of the cells and the uptake hydrogenase activity. Our results indicate that A. siamensis TISTR 8012 has a high potential for hydrogen production with the ability to utilize sugars as substrate to produce hydrogen. (author)

  7. Enhanced production of lovastatin by Omphalotus olearius (DC.) Singer in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlı, Burcu; Yamaç, Mustafa; Yıldız, Zeki; Isikhuemnen, Omoanghe S

    2015-01-01

    Although lovastatin production has been reported for different microorganism species, there is limited information about lovastatin production by basidiomycetes. The optimization of culture parameters that enhances lovastatin production by Omphalotus olearius OBCC 2002 was investigated, using statistically based experimental designs under solid state fermentation. The Plackett Burman design was used in the first step to test the relative importance of the variables affecting production of lovastatin. Amount and particle size of barley were identified as efficient variables. In the latter step, the interactive effects of selected efficient variables were studied with a full factorial design. A maximum lovastatin yield of 139.47mg/g substrate was achieved by the fermentation of 5g of barley, 1-2mm particle diam., at 28°C. This study showed that O. olearius OBCC 2002 has a high capacity for lovastatin production which could be enhanced by using solid state fermentation with novel and cost-effective substrates, such as barley. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Bio-immobilization of dark fermentative bacteria for enhancing continuous hydrogen production from cornstalk hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Cao, Guang-Li; Sheng, Tao; Ren, Hong-Yu; Wang, Ai-Jie; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Ying-Juan; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-11-01

    Mycelia pellets were employed as biological carrier in a continuous stirred tank reactor to reduce biomass washout and enhance hydrogen production from cornstalk hydrolysate. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent substrate concentration played critical roles on hydrogen production of the bioreactor. The maximum hydrogen production rate of 14.2mmol H 2 L -1 h -1 was obtained at optimized HRT of 6h and influent concentration of 20g/L, 2.6 times higher than the counterpart without mycelia pellets. With excellent immobilization ability, biomass accumulated in the reactor and reached 1.6g/L under the optimum conditions. Upon further energy conversion analysis, continuous hydrogen production with mycelia pellets gave the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 17.8%. These results indicate mycelia pellet is an ideal biological carrier to improve biomass retention capacity of the reactor and enhance hydrogen recovery efficiency from lignocellulosic biomass, and meanwhile provides a new direction for economic and efficient hydrogen production process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of guanosine nucleotides biosynthetic pathways enhanced GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Heong; Shin, So-Yeon; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Han, Nam Soo; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-03-01

    Guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) is the key substrate for biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose. In this study, improvement of GDP-L-fucose production was attempted by manipulating the biosynthetic pathway for guanosine nucleotides in recombinant Escherichia coli-producing GDP-L-fucose. The effects of overexpression of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) synthetase (GuaB and GuaA), GMP reductase (GuaC) and guanosine-inosine kinase (Gsk) on GDP-L-fucose production were investigated in a series of fed-batch fermentations. Among the enzymes tested, overexpression of Gsk led to a significant improvement of GDP-L-fucose production. Maximum GDP-L-fucose concentration of 305.5 ± 5.3 mg l(-1) was obtained in the pH-stat fed-batch fermentation of recombinant E. coli-overexpressing Gsk, which corresponds to a 58% enhancement in the GDP-L-fucose production compared with the control strain overexpressing GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic enzymes. Such an enhancement of GDP-L-fucose production could be due to the increase in the intracellular level of GMP.

  10. Finding Sales Promotion and Making Decision for New Product Based on Group Analysis of Edge-Enhanced Product Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Tan, Jianbin; Wu, Bin

    A novel method is proposed in this paper to find the promotive relationship of products from a network point of view. Firstly, a product network is built based on the dataset of handsets’ sale information collected from all outlets of a telecom operator of one province of China, with a period from Jan. 2006 to Jul. 2008. Then the edge enhanced model is applied on product network to divide all the products into several groups, according to which each outlet is assigned to class A or class B for a certain handset. Class A is defined as the outlet which sell the certain handset and contains all of handsets of its group, while other situation for class B which sell the certain handset too. It’s shown from the result of analysis on these two kinds of outlets that many handsets are sold better in outlets of class A than that of class B, even though the sales revenue of all these outlets in the time period is close. That is to say the handsets within a group would promote the sale for each other. Furthermore, a method proposed in this paper gives a way to find out the important attributes of the handsets which lead them to br divided into the same group, and it also explains how to add a new handset to an existing group and where would the new handset be sold best.

  11. Enhancement of ASTEC and COCOSYS regarding fission product release during MCCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agethen, Kathrin [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2016-10-15

    The focus in this paper is on the enhancement of the fission product release model during molten core concrete interaction in the severe accident analysis codes ASTEC and COCOSYS. After both codes are harmonised and the model interaction as well as the input parameters are adapted, extended model approaches are implemented. These lead to an improvement of the release rates for selected semi-volatile species validated against the ACE tests under ex-vessel conditions.

  12. Enhanced biological production off Chennai triggered by October 1999 super cyclone (Orissa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhu, N.V.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Jyothibabu, R.; Sunil, V.; Revichandran, C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    COMMUNICATIONS CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 82, NO. 12, 25 JUNE 2002 *For correspondence. (e - mail: madhu@niokochi.org) Enhanced biological production off Chennai triggered by October 1999 super cyclone (Orissa) N. V. Madhu*, P. A. Maheswaran, R... in the world?s oceans typically have duration of only a few days, but the physical and biological effects due to this perturbation can last up to several weeks 1 ? 4 . The integrated effect from these storm events has the potential to account for a...

  13. Enhanced Production of Glucose Oxidase Using Penicillium notatum and Rice Polish

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia Sabir; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Muhammad Anjum Zia; Munir Ahmad Sheikh

    2007-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) is an important enzyme that finds a wide range of applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. In this investigation the feasibility of using rice polish as a substrate for the production of GOD by Penicillium notatum in submerged fermentation (SmF) has been evaluated. The intention was to enhance total GOD activity by the selection of economical substrate, microorganism and consecutive optimization of various cultural conditions. Maximum GOD activity of (112±5) U/m...

  14. A study of best management practices for enhancing productivity in building projects: construction methods perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gurmu, Argaw Tarekegn; Aibinu, Ajibade Ayodeji; Chan, Toong Khuan

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry...

  15. Use of radiation hygienised municipal sewage sludge as a soil conditioner to enhance agricultural productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Nareshkumar; Sabharwal, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a report on the applications that have been developed and demonstrated in the radiation hygienisation of municipal sewage sludge for use in the agriculture as value added manure. Radiation hygienization process effectively eliminates the pathogenic bacteria present in the sewage sludge. Application of sludge to agricultural land enhances the yield and quality of agricultural products due to macronutrients and micronutrients present in the sludge. The process benefits municipal sewage treatment plant authorities as well as farming community. (author)

  16. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  18. Rumen bacteria at work: bioaugmentation strategies to enhance biogas production from cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E G; Akyol, Ç; Ince, B; Karakoç, C; Ince, O

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different bioaugmentation strategies for enhancing the biogas production from cow manure and evaluate microbial community patterns. Co-inoculation with cow rumen fluid and cow rumen-derived enriched microbial consortia was evaluated in anaerobic batch tests at 36°C and 41°C. Singular addition of both rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture had a promising enhancement on methane yields; however, the highest methane yield (311 ml CH 4 per gram VS at 41°C) was achieved when the anaerobic seed sludge was co-inoculated together with rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture. Bacterial community profiles were investigated by Ion PGM Platform, and specific lignocellulolytic bacteria dynamics in batch tests were assessed by qPCR. The temperature had minor effects on the abundance of bacterial community; in which Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in all digesters. Furthermore, Rikenellaceae, Clostridiaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Ruminococcaceae played a crucial role during the anaerobic degradation of cow manure. There was an important impact of Firmicutes flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus at 41°C, which in turn positively affected the methane production. The degree of enhancement in biogas production can be upgraded by the co-inoculation of rumen-derived bioaugmentation culture with anaerobic seed sludge with high methanogenic activity. A close look at the biotic interactions and their associations with abiotic factors might be valuable for evaluating rumen-related bioaugmentation applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Enhancement of Nucleoside Production in Hirsutella sinensis Based on Biosynthetic Pathway Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Shan; Baker, Peter James; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Xue, Ya-Ping; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Yuan, Shui-Jin; Teng, Yi; Wu, Ling-Fang

    2017-01-01

    To enhance nucleoside production in Hirsutella sinensis, the biosynthetic pathways of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides were constructed and verified. The differential expression analysis showed that purine nucleoside phosphorylase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, and guanosine monophosphate synthase genes involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis were significantly upregulated 16.56-fold, 8-fold, and 5.43-fold, respectively. Moreover, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, uridine nucleosidase, uridine/cytidine monophosphate kinase, and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase genes participating in pyrimidine nucleoside biosynthesis were upregulated 4.53-fold, 10.63-fold, 4.26-fold, and 5.98-fold, respectively. To enhance the nucleoside production, precursors for synthesis of nucleosides were added based on the analysis of biosynthetic pathways. Uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 5.04 mg/g and 3.54 mg/g when adding 2 mg/mL of ribose, resulting in an increase of 28.6% and 296% compared with the control, respectively. Meanwhile, uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 10.83 mg/g 2.12 mg/g when adding 0.3 mg/mL of uracil, leading to an increase of 176.3% and 137.1%, respectively. This report indicated that fermentation regulation was an effective way to enhance the nucleoside production in H. sinensis based on biosynthetic pathway analysis. PMID:29333435

  20. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.

  1. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. ► Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. ► Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  2. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B 1 and G 1 with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author)

  3. A project management framework for enhanced productivity performance using building information modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Liao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Singapore government has mandated submissions of building plans in building information modelling (BIM format since July 2013, this does not yet seem to lead to enhanced productivity performance. BIM collaboration between designers and downstream contractors appears to remain inadequate. While many studies have been conducted on using BIM for better project outcomes, studies that relate BIM with the identification of non-value adding activities in the project lifecycle and the reduction of the resulting wastes are at infancy stage. This paper aims to propose a project management framework for enhancing the productivity of building projects in Singapore, which forms Phase I of an ongoing research project. A two-pronged approach is presented. Firstly, non-value adding activities in the current project delivery process that uses BIM partially in Singapore are identified by comparing the typical current process with full BIM-based processes; such activities are cut down after process transformation in terms of people, process, and technology. Secondly, time savings derived from reducing the wastes caused by these activities are quantified. The proposed framework was validated by a case study of a local residential project. It was concluded that this framework provides a valuable tool for project teams to enhance productivity performance.

  4. Enhanced kefiran production by mixed culture of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2003-01-09

    In a batch mixed culture of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which could assimilate lactic acid, cell growth and kefiran production rates of L. kefiranofaciens significantly increased, compared with those in pure cultures. The kefiran production rate was 36 mg l(-1) h(-1) in the mixed culture under the anaerobic condition, which was greater than that in the pure culture (24 mg l(-1) h(-1)). Under the aerobic condition, a more intensive interaction between these two strains was observed and higher kefiran production rate (44 mg l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained compared with that under the anaerobic condition. Kefiran production was further enhanced by an addition of fresh medium in the fed-batch mixed culture. In the fed-batch mixed culture, a final kefiran concentration of 5.41 g l(-1) was achieved at 87 h, thereby attaining the highest productivity at 62 mg l(-1) h(-1). Simulation study considered the reduction of lactic acid in pure culture was performed to estimate the additional effect of coculture with S. cerevisiae. Slightly higher cell growth and kefiran production rates in the mixed culture than those expected from pure culture by simulation were observed. These results suggest that coculture of L. kefiranofaciens and S. cerevisiae not only reduces the lactic acid concentration by consumption but also stimulates cell growth and kefiran production of L. kefiranofaciens.

  5. Process optimization for enhancing production of cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline by engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kequan; Pang, Yang; Zhang, Bowen; Feng, Jiao; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Xin; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2017-11-22

    Understanding the bioprocess limitations is critical for the efficient design of biocatalysts to facilitate process feasibility and improve process economics. In this study, a proline hydroxylation process with recombinant Escherichia coli expressing L-proline cis-4-hydroxylase (SmP4H) was investigated. The factors that influencing the metabolism of microbial hosts and process economics were focused on for the optimization of cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline (CHOP) production. In recombinant E. coli, SmP4H synthesis limitation was observed. After the optimization of expression system, CHOP production was improved in accordance with the enhanced SmP4H synthesis. Furthermore, the effects of the regulation of proline uptake and metabolism on whole-cell catalytic activity were investigated. The improved CHOP production by repressing putA gene responsible for L-proline degradation or overexpressing L-proline transporter putP on CHOP production suggested the important role of substrate uptake and metabolism on the whole-cell biocatalyst efficiency. Through genetically modifying these factors, the biocatalyst activity was significantly improved, and CHOP production was increased by twofold. Meanwhile, to further improve process economics, a two-strain coupling whole-cell system was established to supply co-substrate (α-ketoglutarate, α-KG) with a cheaper chemical L-glutamate as a starting material, and 13.5 g/L of CHOP was successfully produced. In this study, SmP4H expression, and L-proline uptake and degradation, were uncovered as the hurdles for microbial production of CHOP. Accordingly, the whole-cell biocatalysts were metabolically engineered for enhancing CHOP production. Meanwhile, a two-strain biotransformation system for CHOP biosynthesis was developed aiming at supplying α-KG more economically. Our work provided valuable insights into the design of recombinant microorganism to improve the biotransformation efficiency that catalyzed by Fe

  6. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesh Iyer; Himanshu Gupta; Danny Wong; Liang-Shih Fan

    2005-09-30

    Hydrogen production from coal gasification can be enhanced by driving the equilibrium limited Water Gas Shift reaction forward by incessantly removing the CO{sub 2} by-product via the carbonation of calcium oxide. This project aims at using the OSU patented high-reactivity mesoporous precipitated calcium carbonate sorbent for removing the CO{sub 2} product. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the show the superior performance of the PCC sorbent over other naturally occurring calcium sorbents. Gas composition analyses show the formation of 100% pure hydrogen. Novel calcination techniques could lead to smaller reactor footprint and single-stage reactors that can achieve maximum theoretical H{sub 2} production for multicyclic applications. Sub-atmospheric calcination studies reveal the effect of vacuum level, diluent gas flow rate, thermal properties of the diluent gas and the sorbent loading on the calcination kinetics which play an important role on the sorbent morphology. Steam, which can be easily separated from CO{sub 2}, is envisioned to be a potential diluent gas due to its enhanced thermal properties. Steam calcination studies at 700-850 C reveal improved sorbent morphology over regular nitrogen calcination. A mixture of 80% steam and 20% CO{sub 2} at ambient pressure was used to calcine the spent sorbent at 820 C thus lowering the calcination temperature. Regeneration of calcium sulfide to calcium carbonate was achieved by carbonating the calcium sulfide slurry by bubbling CO{sub 2} gas at room temperature.

  7. Modeling of process parameters for enhanced production of coenzyme Q10 from Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumaran, Palanisamy Athiyaman; Meenakshisundaram, Sankaranarayanan

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays an indispensable role in ATP generation through oxidative phosphorylation and helps in scavenging superoxides generated during electron transfer reactions. It finds extensive applications specifically related to oxidative damage and metabolic dysfunctions. This article reports the use of a statistical approach to optimize the concentration of key variables for the enhanced production of CoQ10 by Rhodotorula glutinis in a lab-scale fermenter. The culture conditions that promote optimum growth and CoQ10 production were optimized and the interaction of significant variables para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB, 819.34 mg/L) and soybean oil (7.78% [v/v]) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). CoQ10 production increased considerably from 10 mg/L (in control) to 39.2 mg/L in batch mode with RSM-optimized precursor concentration. In the fed-batch mode, PHB and soybean oil feeding strategy enhanced CoQ10 production to 78.2 mg/L.

  8. Bioaggregate of photo-fermentative bacteria for enhancing continuous hydrogen production in a sequencing batch photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Rui-Qing; Ding, Jie; Ren, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Xu; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2015-11-05

    Hydrogen recovery through solar-driven biomass conversion by photo-fermentative bacteria (PFB) has been regarded as a promising way for sustainable energy production. However, a considerable fraction of organic substrate was consumed for the growth of PFB as biocatalysts, furthermore, these PFB were continuously washed out from the photobioreactor in continuous operation because of their poor flocculation. In this work, PFB bioaggregate induced by L-cysteine was applied in a sequencing batch photobioreactor to enhance continuous hydrogen production and reduce biomass washout. The effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent concentration and light intensity on hydrogen production of the photobioreactor were investigated. The maximum hydrogen yield (3.35 mol H2/mol acetate) and production rate (1044 ml/l/d) were obtained at the HRT of 96 h, influent concentration of 3.84 g COD/l, and light intensity of 200 W/m(2). With excellent settling ability, biomass accumulated in the photobioreactor and reached 2.15 g/l under the optimum conditions. Structural analysis of bioaggregate showed that bacterial cells were covered and tightly linked together by extracellular polymeric substances, and formed a stable structure. Therefore, PFB bioaggregate induced by L-cysteine is an efficient strategy to improve biomass retention capacity of the photobioreactor and enhance hydrogen recovery efficiency from organic wastes.

  9. Bioaggregate of photo-fermentative bacteria for enhancing continuous hydrogen production in a sequencing batch photobioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Rui-Qing; Ding, Jie; Ren, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Xu; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen recovery through solar-driven biomass conversion by photo-fermentative bacteria (PFB) has been regarded as a promising way for sustainable energy production. However, a considerable fraction of organic substrate was consumed for the growth of PFB as biocatalysts, furthermore, these PFB were continuously washed out from the photobioreactor in continuous operation because of their poor flocculation. In this work, PFB bioaggregate induced by L-cysteine was applied in a sequencing batch photobioreactor to enhance continuous hydrogen production and reduce biomass washout. The effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent concentration and light intensity on hydrogen production of the photobioreactor were investigated. The maximum hydrogen yield (3.35 mol H2/mol acetate) and production rate (1044 ml/l/d) were obtained at the HRT of 96 h, influent concentration of 3.84 g COD/l, and light intensity of 200 W/m2. With excellent settling ability, biomass accumulated in the photobioreactor and reached 2.15 g/l under the optimum conditions. Structural analysis of bioaggregate showed that bacterial cells were covered and tightly linked together by extracellular polymeric substances, and formed a stable structure. Therefore, PFB bioaggregate induced by L-cysteine is an efficient strategy to improve biomass retention capacity of the photobioreactor and enhance hydrogen recovery efficiency from organic wastes.

  10. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m -1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m -1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (S or ). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

  11. Rainwater harvesting to enhance water productivity of rainfed agriculture in the semi-arid Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahinda, Jean-marc Mwenge; Rockström, Johan; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Dimes, John

    Zimbabwe’s poor are predominantly located in the semi-arid regions and rely on rainfed agriculture for their subsistence. Decline in productivity, scarcity of arable land, irrigation expansion limitations, erratic rainfall and frequent dry spells, among others cause food scarcity. The challenge faced by small-scale farmers is to enhance water productivity of rainfed agriculture by mitigating intra-seasonal dry spells (ISDS) through the adoption of new technologies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH). The paper analyses the agro-hydrological functions of RWH and assesses its impacts (at field scale) on the crop yield gap as well as the Transpirational Water Productivity ( WPT). The survey in six districts of the semi-arid Zimbabwe suggests that three parameters (water source, primary use and storage capacity) can help differentiate storage-type-RWH systems from “conventional dams”. The Agricultural Production Simulator Model (APSIM) was used to simulate seven different treatments (Control, RWH, Manure, Manure + RWH, Inorganic Nitrogen and Inorganic Nitrogen + RWH) for 30 years on alfisol deep sand, assuming no fertiliser carry over effect from season to season. The combined use of inorganic fertiliser and RWH is the only treatment that closes the yield gap. Supplemental irrigation alone not only reduces the risks of complete crop failure (from 20% down to 7% on average) for all the treatments but also enhances WPT (from 1.75 kg m -3 up to 2.3 kg m -3 on average) by mitigating ISDS.

  12. Enhanced dissolved lipid production as a response to the sea surface warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Tihana; Godrijan, Jelena; Pfannkuchen, Daniela Marić; Djakovac, Tamara; Mlakar, Marina; Baricevic, Ana; Tanković, Mirta Smodlaka; Gašparović, Blaženka

    2018-04-01

    The temperature increase in oceans reflects on marine ecosystem functioning and surely has consequences on the marine carbon cycle and carbon sequestration. In this study, we examined dissolved lipid, lipid classes and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production in the northern Adriatic Sea, isolated diatom Chaetoceros pseudocurvisetus batch cultures grown in a wide temperature range (10-30 °C) and in contrasting nutrient regimes, phosphorus (P)-depleted and P-replete conditions. Additionally, lipids and DOC were analyzed in the northern Adriatic (NA) in two stations characterized with different P availability, occupied from February to August 2010 that covered a temperature range from 9.3 to 31.1 °C. To gain insight into factors governing lipid and lipid classes' production in the NA, apart from temperature (T), Chlorophyll a, phytoplankton community abundance and structure, nutrient concentrations were measured together with hydrographic parameters. We found enhanced accumulation of dissolved lipids, particulary glycolipids, with increasing T, especially during the highest in situ temperature. The effect of T on enhanced dissolved lipid release is much more pronounced under P-deplete conditions indicating that oligotrophic regions might be more vulnerable to T rise. Temperature between 25 and 30 °C is a threshold T range for C. pseudocurvisetus, at which a significant part of lipid production is directed toward the dissolved phase. Unlike monocultures, there are multiple factors influencing produced lipid composition, distribution and cycling in the NA that may counteract the T influence. The possible role of enhanced dissolved lipid concentration for carbon sequestration at elevated T is discussed. On the one hand, lipids are buoyant and do not sink, which enhances their retention at the surface layer. In addition, they are surface active, and therefore prone to adsorb on sinking particles, contributing to the C sequestration.

  13. Production acceleration and injectivity enhancement using steam-propane injection for Hamaca extra-heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, J. A.; Mamora, D. D. [Texas A and M University, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The possibility of enhanced recovery in the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela, the world's largest known hydrocarbon deposit, by using propane as a steam additive, is discussed. In a laboratory study the steam-propane injection accelerated the start of oil production by 21 per cent, compared to production with steam alone. The experiments illustrated that the inclusion of even small amounts of propane has considerable beneficial effect on the rate of bitumen production. Even though total bitumen recovery and ultimate residual oil saturation did not change, the acceleration of bitumen recovery is considered to have a significant impact on the net present value of the recovery process. 17 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  14. Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banat, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    Surfactants are widely used for various purposes in industry, but for many years were mainly chemically synthesized. It has only been in the past few decades that biological surface-active compounds (biosurfactants) have been described. Biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over for a number of important industrial uses, due to their advantages of biodegradability, production on renewable resources and functionality under extreme conditions; particularly those pertaining during tertiary crude-oil recovery. Conflicting reports exist concerning their efficacy and the economics of both their production and application. The limited successes and applications for biosurfactants production, recovery, use in oil pollution control, oil storage tank clean-up and enhanced oil-recovery are reviewed from the technical point of view. (author)

  15. Biofilm lifestyle enhances diesel bioremediation and biosurfactant production in the Antarctic polyhydroxyalkanoate producer Pseudomonas extremaustralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribelli, Paula M; Di Martino, Carla; López, Nancy I; Raiger Iustman, Laura J

    2012-09-01

    Diesel is a widely distributed pollutant. Bioremediation of this kind of compounds requires the use of microorganisms able to survive and adapt to contaminated environments. Pseudomonas extremaustralis is an Antarctic bacterium with a remarkable survival capability associated to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production. This strain was used to investigate the effect of cell growth conditions--in biofilm versus shaken flask cultures--as well as the inocula characteristics associated with PHAs accumulation, on diesel degradation. Biofilms showed increased cell growth, biosurfactant production and diesel degradation compared with that obtained in shaken flask cultures. PHA accumulation decreased biofilm cell attachment and enhanced biosurfactant production. Degradation of long-chain and branched alkanes was observed in biofilms, while in shaken flasks only medium-chain length alkanes were degraded. This work shows that the PHA accumulating bacterium P. extremaustralis can be a good candidate to be used as hydrocarbon bioremediation agent, especially in extreme environments.

  16. Biocatalytic production of psilocybin and derivatives in tryptophan synthase-enhanced reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, Felix; Baldeweg, Florian; Fricke, Janis; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2018-05-11

    Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the main alkaloid of the fungal genus Psilocybe, the so-called "magic mushrooms". The pharmaceutical interest in this psychotropic natural product as a future medication to treat depression and anxiety is strongly re-emerging. Here, we present an enhanced enzymatic route of psilocybin production by adding TrpB, the tryptophan synthase of the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis, to the reaction. We capitalized on its substrate flexibility and show psilocybin formation from 4-hydroxyindole and L-serine, which are less cost-intensive substrates, compared to the previous method. Further, we show enzymatic production of 7-phosphoryloxytryptamine (isonorbaeocystin), a non-natural congener of the Psilocybe alkaloid norbaeocystin (4-phosphoryloxytryptamine), and of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) via the same in vitro approach. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ergonomics productivity enhancement at government-owned sugar cane factories in east Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuaba, A

    1995-06-01

    To cope, both with the increasing demand for sugar and to win the global competition as well, government-owned sugar cane limited number xxi-xxii, has decided to enhance its productivity, among other things, by implementing ergonomics principles within their factories. In the execution, ergonomics application have been carried out since 1992, which resulted in safer, healthier, and more efficient working conditions and environment. Some of the improvements yielded economic gains through higher productivity via increased output, lower cost, faster processing, etc. Improvements related to cane transloading and unloading processes resulted in a higher amount of cane being transferred from the trucks to the lorries as well as from the lorries to the cane table. Fewer clinical visits, lower health care costs, more efficient inspection, and fewer fatigue complaints are also achieved by improvement steps, which increase the productivity as end results. With all those economic gains, full and long lasting management's concern and commitment could be created without a doubt.

  18. Lippia dulcis shoot cultures as a source of the sweet sesquiterpene hernandulcin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, M; Flores, H E; Yamazaki, T; Shimomura, K

    1991-04-01

    The axenic shoot culture of Lippia dulcis Trev., Verbenaceae, was established on hormone-free Murashige-Skoog solid medium containing 3% sucrose. Shoots were cultured in various liquid or solid media. Woody Plant liquid medium was best for shoot multiplication, but the production of hernandulcin was relatively low. The highest hernandulcin content (2.9% dry wt) was obtained after 28 days of culture on Murashige-Skoog solid medium containing 2% sucrose. The addition of chitosan to the culture media enhanced the growth of shoots as well as the production of hernandulcin, especially with the liquid medium.

  19. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  20. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae, E-mail: chidkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  1. Enhanced production of recombinant proteins with Corynebacterium glutamicum by deletion of insertion sequences (IS elements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Yim, Sung Sun; Kim, Min Jeong; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2015-12-29

    In most bacteria, various jumping genetic elements including insertion sequences elements (IS elements) cause a variety of genetic rearrangements resulting in harmful effects such as genome and recombinant plasmid instability. The genetic stability of a plasmid in a host is critical for high-level production of recombinant proteins, and in this regard, the development of an IS element-free strain could be a useful strategy for the enhanced production of recombinant proteins. Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a workhorse in the industrial-scale production of various biomolecules including recombinant proteins, also has several IS elements, and it is necessary to identify the critical IS elements and to develop IS element deleted strain. From the cultivation of C. glutamicum harboring a plasmid for green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression, non-fluorescent clones were isolated by FACS (fluorescent activated cell sorting). All the isolated clones had insertions of IS elements in the GFP coding region, and two major IS elements (ISCg1 and ISCg2 families) were identified. By co-cultivating cells harboring either the isolated IS element-inserted plasmid or intact plasmid, it was clearly confirmed that cells harboring the IS element-inserted plasmids became dominant during the cultivation due to their growth advantage over cells containing intact plasmids, which can cause a significant reduction in recombinant protein production during cultivation. To minimize the harmful effects of IS elements on the expression of heterologous genes in C. glutamicum, two IS element free C. glutamicum strains were developed in which each major IS element was deleted, and enhanced productivity in the engineered C. glutamicum strain was successfully demonstrated with three models: GFP, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). Our findings clearly indicate that the hopping of IS elements could be detrimental to the production of recombinant proteins in C

  2. Drug-enhanced carbon monoxide production from heme by cytochrome P450 reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragic Vukomanovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO formed endogenously is considered to be cytoprotective, and the vast majority of CO formation is attributed to the degradation of heme by heme oxygenases-1 and -2 (HO-1, HO-2. Previously, we observed that brain microsomes containing HO-2 produced many-fold more CO in the presence of menadione and its congeners; herein we explored these observations further. We determined the effects of various drugs on CO production of rat brain microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR; CO was measured by gas chromatography with reductive detection. Brain microsomes of Sprague-Dawley rats or recombinant human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR were incubated with NADPH and various drugs in closed vials in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and 37°C. After 15 minutes, the reaction was stopped by cooling in dry ice, and the headspace gas was analyzed for CO production using gas chromatography with reductive (mercuric oxide detection. We observed drug-enhanced CO production in the presence of both microsomes and recombinant CPR alone; the presence of HO was not required. A range of structurally diverse drugs were capable of amplifying this CO formation; these molecules had structures consistent with redox cycling capability. The addition of catalase to a reaction mixture, that contained activating drugs, inhibited the production of CO. Drug-enhanced CO formation can be catalyzed by CPR. The mechanism of CPR activation was not through classical drug-receptor mediation. Redox cycling may be involved in the drug-induced amplification of CO production by CPR through the production of reactive oxygen species.

  3. Utilizing natural gas huff and puff to enhance production in heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenlong, G.; Shuhong, W.; Jian, Z.; Xialin, Z. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China); Jinzhong, L.; Xiao, M. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2008-10-15

    The L Block in the north structural belt of China's Tuha Basin is a super deep heavy oil reservoir. The gas to oil ratio (GOR) is 12 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} and the initial bubble point pressure is only 4 MPa. The low production can be attributed to high oil viscosity and low flowability. Although steam injection is the most widely method for heavy oil production in China, it is not suitable for the L Block because of its depth. This paper reviewed pilot tests in which the natural gas huff and puff process was used to enhance production in the L Block. Laboratory experiments that included both conventional and unconventional PVT were conducted to determine the physical property of heavy oil saturated by natural gas. The experiments revealed that the heavy oil can entrap the gas for more than several hours because of its high viscosity. A pseudo bubble point pressure exists much lower than the bubble point pressure in manmade foamy oils, which is relative to the depressurization rate. Elastic energy could be maintained in a wider pressure scope than natural depletion without gas injection. A special experimental apparatus that can stimulate the process of gas huff and puff in the reservoir was also introduced. The foamy oil could be seen during the huff and puff experiment. Most of the oil flowed to the producer in a pseudo single phase, which is among the most important mechanisms for enhancing production. A pilot test of a single well demonstrated that the oil production increased from 1 to 2 cubic metres per day to 5 to 6 cubic metres per day via the natural gas huff and puff process. The stable production period which was 5 to 10 days prior to huff and puff, was prolonged to 91 days in the first cycle and 245 days in the second cycle. 10 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  4. Optimal scheduling for enhanced coal bed methane production through CO2 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuping; Zheng, Qipeng P.; Fan, Neng; Aminian, Kashy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel deterministic optimization model for CO 2 -ECBM production scheduling. • Maximize the total profit from both sales of natural gas and CO 2 credits trading in the carbon market. • A stochastic model incorporating uncertainties and dynamics of NG price and CO 2 credit. - Abstract: Enhanced coal bed methane production with CO 2 injection (CO 2 -ECBM) is an effective technology for accessing the natural gas embedded in the traditionally unmineable coal seams. The revenue via this production process is generated not only by the sales of coal bed methane, but also by trading CO 2 credits in the carbon market. As the technology of CO 2 -ECBM becomes mature, its commercialization opportunities are also springing up. This paper proposes applicable mathematical models for CO 2 -ECBM production and compares the impacts of their production schedules on the total profit. A novel basic deterministic model for CO 2 -ECBM production including the technical and chemical details is proposed and then a multistage stochastic programming model is formulated in order to address uncertainties of natural gas price and CO 2 credit. Both models are nonlinear programming problems, which are solved by commercial nonlinear programming software BARON via GAMS. Numerical experiments show the benefits (e.g., expected profit gain) of using stochastic models versus deterministic models

  5. Enhancing lutein productivity of an indigenous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 using light-related strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Wen-Lung; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Lutein, one of the main photosynthetic pigments, is a promising natural product with both nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, light-related strategies were applied to enhance the cell growth and lutein production of a lutein-rich microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3. The results demonstrate that using white LED resulted in better lutein production efficiency when compared to the other three monochromatic LEDs (red, blue, and green). The lutein productivity of S. obliquus FSP-3 was further improved by adjusting the type of light source and light intensity. The optimal lutein productivity of 4.08 mg/L/d was obtained when using a TL5 fluorescent lamp at a light intensity of 300 μmol/m(2)/s, and this performance is better than that reported in most related studies. Moreover, the time-course profile of lutein accumulation in the microalga shows that the maximal lutein content and productivity were obtained at the onset of nitrogen depletion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential for CO2 sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane production in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, D.; Pagnier, H.; Van Bergen, F.; Wolf, K.H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.; Schreurs, H.

    2001-03-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane) in the Netherlands are explored. The potential and the economic performance are worked out for several ECBM recovery concepts and technological issues are outlined. The research includes the following main activities: Inventory of CO2 sources in the Netherlands and techno-economic analysis of CO2 removal and transport. Several scenarios for CO2 transport of different capacities and distances will be assessed. ECBM production locations are determined by analysis of coal reserves and their characteristics. Four potential areas are assessed: one in eastern Gelderland, two in Limburg and one in Zeeland. Description of ECBM theory and production technology resulting in a time dependent model for ECBM production and CO2 injection. Selection and description of various ECBM production/CO2 sequestration systems. Systems considered include direct delivery of methane to the natural gas grid, production of power (on various scales) and hydrogen. Information from the location assessment is combined with modelling results. Costs of CO2 sequestration are calculated for various scales and configurations. Evaluation of main uncertainties, environmental impacts and sensitivity analyses. Comparison of CBM production systems with reference systems and exploration of potential implementation schemes in the Dutch context. 72 refs

  7. A novel free ammonia based pretreatment technology to enhance anaerobic methane production from primary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Xie, Guo-Jun; Duan, Haoran; Wang, Qilin

    2017-10-01

    This study proposed a novel free ammonia (FA, i.e., NH 3 ) pretreatment technology to enhance anaerobic methane production from primary sludge for the first time. The solubilization of primary sludge was substantially enhanced following 24 h FA pretreatment (250-680 mg NH 3 -N/L), by which the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) (i.e., 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS added; VS: volatile solids) was approximately 10 times as much as that without pretreatment (i.e., 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS added). Then, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests demonstrated that FA pretreatment of 250-680 mg NH 3 -N/L was capable of enhancing anaerobic methane production while the digestion time was more than 7 days. Model based analysis indicated that the improved anaerobic methane production was due to an increased biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) of 8-17% (i.e., from 331 to 357-387 L CH 4 /kg VS added), with the highest B 0 achieved at 420 mg NH 3 -N/L pretreatment. However, FA pretreatment of 250-680 mg NH 3 -N/L decreased hydrolysis rate (k) by 24-38% compared with control (i.e., from 0.29 d -1 to 0.18-0.22 d -1 ), which explained the lower methane production over the first 7 days' digestion period. Economic analysis and environmental evaluation demonstrated that FA pretreatment technology was environmentally friendly and economically favorable. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2245-2252. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis B30 and its application in enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Joshi, Sanket; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Shibulal, Biji

    2014-02-01

    The fermentative production of biosurfactants by Bacillus subtilis strain B30 and the evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood were investigated. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, date molasses, cane molasses) were tested to determine the optimal biosurfactant production. The isolate B30 produced a biosurfactant that could reduce the surface tension and interfacial tension to 26.63±0.45 mN/m and 3.79±0.27 mN/m, respectively in less than 12h in both glucose or date molasses based media. A crude biosurfactant concentration of 0.3-0.5 g/l and critical micelle dilution (CMD) values of 1:8 were observed. The biosurfactants gave stable emulsions with wide range of hydrocarbons including light and heavy crude oil. The biosurfactants were partially purified and identified as a mixture of lipopeptides similar to surfactin, using high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biosurfactants were stable over wide range of pH, salinity and temperatures. The crude biosurfactant preparation enhanced light oil recovery by 17-26% and heavy oil recovery by 31% in core-flood studies. The results are indicative of the potential of the strain for the development of ex situ microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using glucose or date molasses based minimal media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  10. Investigation of the Antiproliferative Properties of Natural Sesquiterpenes from Artemisia asiatica and Onopordum acanthium on HL-60 Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Molnár

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants and plant extracts play a crucial role in the research into novel antineoplastic agents. Four sesquiterpene lactones, artecanin (1, 3β-chloro-4α,10α-dihydroxy-1α,2α-epoxy-5α,7αH-guaia-11(13-en-12,6α-olide (2, iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ether (3 and 4β,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (4, were isolated from two traditionally used Asteraceae species (Onopordum acanthium and Artemisia asiatica. When tested for antiproliferative action on HL-60 leukemia cells, these compounds exhibited reasonable IC50 values in the range 3.6–13.5 μM. Treatment with the tested compounds resulted in a cell cycle disturbance characterized by increases in the G1 and G2/M populations, while there was a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, 1–3 elicited increases in the hypodiploid (subG1 population. The compounds elicited concentration-dependent chromatin condensation and disruption of the membrane integrity, as revealed by Hoechst 33258–propidium staining. Treatment for 24 h resulted in significant increases in activity of caspases-3 and -9, indicating that the tested sesquiterpenes induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The proapoptotic properties of the sesquiterpene lactones were additionally demonstrated withannexin V staining. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the Bax/Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expressions of CDK1 and cyclin B2, as determined at the mRNA level by means of RT-PCR. These experimental results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones may be regarded as potential starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents.

  11. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica for Enhanced Production of Lipid and Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abghari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for plant oil for food, feed, and fuel production has led to food-fuel competition, higher plant lipid cost, and more need for agricultural land. On the other hand, the growing global production of biodiesel has increased the production of glycerol as a by-product. Efficient utilization of this by-product can reduce biodiesel production costs. We engineered Yarrowia lipolytica (Y. lipolytica at various metabolic levels of lipid biosynthesis, degradation, and regulation for enhanced lipid and citric acid production. We used a one-step double gene knock-in and site-specific gene knock-out strategy. The resulting final strain combines the overexpression of homologous DGA1 and DGA2 in a POX-deleted background, and deletion of the SNF1 lipid regulator. This increased lipid and citric acid production in the strain under nitrogen-limiting conditions (C/N molar ratio of 60. The engineered strain constitutively accumulated lipid at a titer of more than 4.8 g/L with a lipid content of 53% of dry cell weight (DCW. The secreted citric acid reached a yield of 0.75 g/g (up to ~45 g/L from pure glycerol in 3 days of batch fermentation using a 1-L bioreactor. This yeast cell factory was capable of simultaneous lipid accumulation and citric acid secretion. It can be used in fed-batch or continuous bioprocessing for citric acid recovery from the supernatant, along with lipid extraction from the harvested biomass.

  12. Brief, pre-learning stress reduces false memory production and enhances true memory selectively in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Woelke, Sarah A; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2014-04-10

    Some of the previous research on stress-memory interactions has suggested that stress increases the production of false memories. However, as accumulating work has shown that the effects of stress on learning and memory depend critically on the timing of the stressor, we hypothesized that brief stress administered immediately before learning would reduce, rather than increase, false memory production. In the present study, participants submerged their dominant hand in a bath of ice cold water (stress) or sat quietly (no stress) for 3 min. Then, participants completed a short-term memory task, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, in which they were presented with 10 different lists of semantically related words (e.g., candy, sour, sugar) and, after each list, were tested for their memory of presented words (e.g., candy), non-presented unrelated "distractor" words (e.g., hat), and non-presented semantically related "critical lure" words (e.g., sweet). Stress, overall, significantly reduced the number of critical lures recalled (i.e., false memory) by participants. In addition, stress enhanced memory for the presented words (i.e., true memory) in female, but not male, participants. These findings reveal that stress does not unequivocally enhance false memory production and that the timing of the stressor is an important variable that could mediate such effects. Such results could have important implications for understanding the dependability of eyewitness accounts of events that are observed following stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Hoffman

    Full Text Available Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales, but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales. Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions.

  14. Enhanced biogas production from penicillin bacterial residue by thermal-alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Weizhang; Li, Guixia; Gao, Yan; Li, Zaixing; Geng, Xiaoling; Li, Yubing; Yang, Jingliang; Zhou, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the orthogonal experimental design was used to determine the optimum conditions for the effect of thermal alkaline; pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of penicillin bacterial residue. The biodegradability of the penicillin; bacterial residue was evaluated by biochemical methane potential tests in laboratory. The optimum values of temperature,; alkali concentration, pretreatment time and moisture content for the thermal-alkaline pretreatment were determined as; 70 °C, 6% (w/v), 30 min, and 85%, respectively. Thermal-alkaline pretreatment could significantly enhance the soluble; chemical oxygen demand solubilization, the suspended solid solubilization and the biodegradability. Biogas production; was enhanced by the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, probably as a result of the breakdown of cell walls and membranes of; micro-organisms, which may facilitate the contact between organic molecules and anaerobic microorganisms.; Keywords: penicillin bacterial residue; anaerobic digestion; biochemical methane potential tests; pretreatment

  15. Glucose availability enhances lipopolysaccharide production and immunogenicity in the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elio; Longo, Francesca; Barbagallo, Marialuisa; Peano, Clelia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Jaillon, Sebastian; Garlanda, Cecilia; Landini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii can cause sepsis with high mortality rates. We investigated whether glucose sensing might play a role in A. baumannii pathogenesis. We carried out transcriptome analysis and extracellular polysaccharide determination in an A. baumannii clinical isolate grown on complex medium with or without glucose supplementation, and assessed its ability to induce production of inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages. Growth in glucose-supplemented medium strongly enhanced A. baumannii sugar anabolism, resulting in increasing lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. In addition, glucose induced active shedding of lipopolysaccharide, in turn triggering a strong induction of inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages. Finally, hemolytic activity was strongly enhanced by growth in glucose-supplemented medium. We propose that sensing of exogenous glucose might trigger A. baumannii pathogenesis during sepsis.

  16. Fast Pulling of n-Type Si Ingots for Enhanced Si Solar Cell Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanghun; Park, Sanghyun; Park, Jaechang; Pang, Ilsun; Ryu, Sangwoo; Oh, Jihun

    2018-03-01

    Reducing the manufacturing costs of silicon substrates is an important issue in the silicon-based solar cell industry. In this study, we developed a high-throughput ingot growth method by accelerating the pulling speed in the Czochralski process. By controlling the heat flow of the ingot growth chamber and at the solid-liquid interfaces, the pulling speed of an ingot could be increased by 15% compared to the conventional method, while retaining high quality. The wafer obtained at a high pulling speed showed an enhanced minority carrier lifetime compared with conventional wafers, due to the vacancy passivation effect, and also demonstrated comparable bulk resistivity and impurities. The results in this work are expected to open a new way to enhance the productivity of Si wafers used for Si solar cells, and therefore, to reduce the overall manufacturing cost.

  17. Enhancement of fermentative hydrogen production from green algal biomass of Thermotoga neapolitana by various pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tam-Anh D.; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Sim, Sang Jun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Sun [Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donhue [Department of Biochemical Engineering, Dongyang Mirae College, Seoul 152-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Biomass of the green algae has been recently an attractive feedstock source for bio-fuel production because the algal carbohydrates can be derived from atmospheric CO{sub 2} and their harvesting methods are simple. We utilized the accumulated starch in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the sole substrate for fermentative hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production by the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga neapolitana. Because of possessing amylase activity, the bacterium could directly ferment H{sub 2} from algal starch with H{sub 2} yield of 1.8-2.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and the total accumulated H{sub 2} level from 43 to 49% (v/v) of the gas headspace in the closed culture bottle depending on various algal cell-wall disruption methods concluding sonication or methanol exposure. Attempting to enhance the H{sub 2} production, two pretreatment methods using the heat-HCl treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were applied on algal biomass before using it as substrate for H{sub 2} fermentation. Cultivation with starch pretreated by 1.5% HCl at 121 C for 20 min showed the total accumulative H{sub 2} yield of 58% (v/v). In other approach, enzymatic digestion of starch by thermostable {alpha}-amylase (Termamyl) applied in the SHF process significantly enhanced the H{sub 2} productivity of the bacterium to 64% (v/v) of total accumulated H{sub 2} level and a H{sub 2} yield of 2.5 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. Our results demonstrated that direct H{sub 2} fermentation from algal biomass is more desirably potential because one bacterial cultivation step was required that meets the cost-savings, environmental friendly and simplicity of H{sub 2} production. (author)

  18. Oxidized lipids enhance RANKL production by T lymphocytes: implications for lipid-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lucia S; Parhami, Farhad; Tintut, Yin; Kitchen, Christina M R; Demer, Linda L; Effros, Rita B

    2009-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Whereas osteoclasts and osteoblasts are the main regulators of bone homeostasis, recent studies underscore a key role for the immune system, particularly via activation-induced T lymphocyte production of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL). Well-documented as a mediator of T lymphocyte/dendritic cell interactions, RANKL also stimulates the maturation and activation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Given that lipid oxidation products mediate inflammatory and metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, and since oxidized lipids affect several T lymphocyte functions, we hypothesized that RANKL production might also be subject to modulation by oxidized lipids. Here, we show that short term exposure of both unstimulated and activated human T lymphocytes to minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), but not native LDL, significantly enhances RANKL production and promotes expression of the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). The effect, which is also observed with 8-iso-Prostaglandin E2, an inflammatory isoprostane produced by lipid peroxidation, is mediated via the NFkappaB pathway, and involves increased RANKL mRNA expression. The link between oxidized lipids and T lymphocytes is further reinforced by analysis of hyperlipidemic mice, in which bone loss is associated with increased RANKL mRNA in T lymphocytes and elevated RANKL serum levels. Our results suggest a novel pathway by which T lymphocytes contribute to bone changes, namely, via oxidized lipid enhancement of RANKL production. These findings may help elucidate clinical associations between cardiovascular disease and decreased bone mass, and may also lead to new immune-based approaches to osteoporosis.

  19. Impact of heat stress on the emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic BVOC and green leaf volatiles from several tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Andres, S.; Bohne, A.; Folkers, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2012-07-01

    Changes in the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from European beech, Palestine oak, Scots pine, and Norway spruce exposed to heat stress were measured in a laboratory setup. In general, heat stress decreased the de novo emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. Decreasing emission strength with heat stress was independent of the tree species and whether the de novo emissions being constitutive or induced by biotic stress. In contrast, heat stress induced emissions of green leaf volatiles. It also amplified the release of monoterpenes stored in resin ducts of conifers probably due to heat-induced damage of these resin ducts. The increased release of monoterpenes could be strong and long lasting. But, despite of such strong monoterpene emission pulses, the net effect of heat stress on BVOC emissions from conifers can be an overall decrease. In particular during insect attack on conifers the plants showed de novo emissions of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC which exceeded constitutive monoterpene emissions from pools. The heat stress induced decrease of these de novo emissions was larger than the increased release caused by damage of resin ducts. We project that global change induced heat waves may cause increased BVOC emissions only in cases where the respective areas are predominantly covered with conifers that do not emit high amounts of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. Otherwise the overall effect of heat stress will be a decrease in BVOC emissions.

  20. Dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes from celastraceae species as anti-tumour-promoting agents: Structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Marvin J; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Mendoza, Cristina R; Chavez-Sifontes, Marvin; Martinez, Morena L; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Tokuda, Ryo; Tokuda, Harukuni; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2016-03-23

    Inhibition of tumour promotion in multistage chemical carcinogenesis is considered a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In an ongoing investigation of bioactive secondary metabolites from Celastraceae species, five new dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes (1-5), named Chiapens A-E, and seventeen known ones, were isolated from Maytenus chiapensis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques, and their absolute configurations were determined by circular dichroism studies, chemical correlations and biogenic means. The isolated compounds, along with twenty known sesquiterpenes, previously isolated from Zinowiewia costaricensis, have been tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorpol-13-acetate (TPA). Thirty three compounds from this series showed stronger effects than that of β-carotene, the reference inhibitor. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis revealed that the type of substituent, in particular at the C-1 position of the sesquiterpene scaffold, was able to modulate the anti-tumour promoting activity. Compounds 3, 6, and 33 showed significant effects in an in vivo two-stage mouse-skin carcinogenesis model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Structural Identification of Sesquiterpene Alkaloids from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Using LC-QToF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Abe, Naohito; Wei, Feng; Wang, Mei; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Ali, Zulfiqar; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-05-01

    Dendrobium nobile is one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Sesquiterpene alkaloids are the main active components in this plant. Due to weak ultraviolet absorption and low content in D. nobile, these sesquiterpene alkaloids have not been extensively studied using chromatographic methods. Herein, tandem mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography separation provides a tool for the identification and characterization of the alkaloids from D. nobile. A total of nine sesquiterpene alkaloids were characterized by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. These alkaloids can be classified into two subgroups that are represented by dendrobine and nobilonine. Tandem mass spectrometric studies revealed the fragmentation pathways of these two subgroup alkaloids that were used for the identification and characterization of other alkaloids in D. nobile. Characterization of these alkaloids using accurate mass and diagnostic fragments provided a reliable methodology for the analysis of D. nobile by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was defined as the signal-to-noise ratio equal to 3 : 1. Limits of detection of dendrobine and nobilonine were less than 30 ng/mL. The developed method was applied for the analysis of various Dendrobium species and related dietary supplements. Alkaloids were identified from D. nobile, but not detected from commercial samples including 13 other Dendrobium species and the 7 dietary supplements. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Microbially-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Strategies for Increased Biogenic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K.; Barhart, E. P.; Schweitzer, H. D.; Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.; Hiebert, R.; Fields, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Coal is the largest fossil fuel resource in the United States. Most of this coal is deep in the subsurface making it costly and potentially dangerous to extract. However, in many of these deep coal seams, methane, the main component of natural gas, has been discovered and successfully harvested. Coal bed methane (CBM) currently accounts for approximately 7.5% of the natural gas produced in the U.S. Combustion of natural gas produces substantially less CO2 and toxic emissions (e.g. heavy metals) than combustion of coal or oil thereby making it a cleaner energy source. In the large coal seams of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, CBM is produced almost entirely by biogenic processes. The in situ conversion of coal to CBM by the native microbial community is of particular interest for present and future natural gas sources as it provides the potential to harvest energy from coal seams with lesser environmental impacts than mining and burning coal. Research at Montana State University has shown the potential for enhancing the subsurface microbial processes that produce CBM. Long-term batch enrichments have investigated the methane enhancement potential of yeast extract as well as algal and cyanobacterial biomass additions with increased methane production observed with all three additions when compared to no addition. Future work includes quantification of CBM enhancement and normalization of additions. This presentation addresses the options thus far investigated for increasing CBM production and the next steps for developing the enhanced in situ conversion of coal to CBM.

  3. Enhanced production of bacterial cellulose by using a biofilm reactor and its material property analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirci Ali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial cellulose has been used in the food industry for applications such as low-calorie desserts, salads, and fabricated foods. It has also been used in the paper manufacturing industry to enhance paper strength, the electronics industry in acoustic diaphragms for audio speakers, the pharmaceutical industry as filtration membranes, and in the medical field as wound dressing and artificial skin material. In this study, different types of plastic composite support (PCS were implemented separately within a fermentation medium in order to enhance bacterial cellulose (BC production by Acetobacter xylinum. The optimal composition of nutritious compounds in PCS was chosen based on the amount of BC produced. The selected PCS was implemented within a bioreactor to examine the effects on BC production in a batch fermentation. The produced BC was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. Among thirteen types of PCS, the type SFYR+ was selected as solid support for BC production by A. xylinum in a batch biofilm reactor due to its high nitrogen content, moderate nitrogen leaching rate, and sufficient biomass attached on PCS. The PCS biofilm reactor yielded BC production (7.05 g/L that was 2.5-fold greater than the control (2.82 g/L. The XRD results indicated that the PCS-grown BC exhibited higher crystallinity (93% and similar crystal size (5.2 nm to the control. FESEM results showed the attachment of A. xylinum on PCS, producing an interweaving BC product. TGA results demonstrated that PCS-grown BC had about 95% water retention ability, which was lower than BC produced within suspended-cell reactor. PCS-grown BC also exhibited higher Tmax compared to the control. Finally, DMA results showed that BC from the PCS biofilm reactor increased its mechanical property values, i.e., stress at break and Young's modulus when compared to

  4. A Study on Strategies Applied for Enhancing Anthraquinones Production by Fusarium spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Shahin, A.A.M.; El-Bialy, H.A.; Alsharqawey, A.A.A.; Hassan, E.A.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sixty Fusarium isolates were selected from different isolation sources and screened for their ability to produce anthraquinones; seventeen of which showed high or a moderate ability to produce anthraquinones. Selected Fusarium isolates were screened for Fusaric acid production to exclude toxin synthesis isolates. F. arthosporoides and F. verticellioides showed the highest anthraquinones production since their production yields were 649.1 and 275.7 μg/g; respectively. The anthraquinones derivatives produced by selected Fusarium strains were characterized by HPLC and GC-MS. The optimization of fermentation conditions for F. arthosporoides revealed that the maximum anthraquinones titer was achieved at 10 days of incubation period, ph 6.5 and 30 ° C and under shaking and light conditions. For F. verticellioides, the highest anthraquinones yield was accomplished after the same incubation period at ph 6.0, 25 °C and under static and dark conditions. Results evaluated the positive effect of ionizing (gamma) and non ionizing (UV) irradiations on the anthraquinones production by F. verticellioides since 0.25 kGy and 50 J/m"2 enhanced the anthraquinone yield by nearly 30%. The antimicrobial and dyeing properties of the produced anthraquinone are also studied. The present study succeeded to reduce the cost of anthraquinones production by using kitchen garbage

  5. Molecular improvement of alfalfa for enhanced productivity and adaptability in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Stacy D; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Acharya, Surya

    2017-10-18

    Due to an expanding world population and increased buying power, the demand for ruminant products such as meat and milk is expected to grow substantially in coming years, and high levels of forage crop production will therefore be a necessity. Unfortunately, urbanization of agricultural land, intensive agricultural practices, and climate change are all predicted to limit crop production in the future, which means that the development of forage cultivars with improved productivity and adaptability will be essential. Because alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated perennial forage crops, it has been the target of much research in this field. In this review, we discuss progress that has been made towards the improvement of productivity, abiotic stress tolerance, and nutrient-use efficiency, as well as disease and pest resistance, in alfalfa using biotechnological techniques. Furthermore, we consider possible future priorities and avenues for attaining further enhancements in this crop as a means of contributing to the realization of food security in a changing environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jean L; Engle, David M; Xiao, Xiangming; Saleh, Ali; Tomlinson, Peter; Rice, Charles W; Cole, N Andy; Coleman, Samuel W; Osei, Edward; Basara, Jeffrey; Middendorf, Gerad; Gowda, Prasanna; Todd, Richard; Moffet, Corey; Anandhi, Aavudai; Starks, Patrick J; Ocshner, Tyson; Reuter, Ryan; Devlin, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Ruminant livestock provides meat and dairy products that sustain health and livelihood for much of the world's population. Grazing lands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; climate and water regulation; support of soil formation; nutrient cycling; and cultural services. In the U.S. southern Great Plains, beef production on pastures, rangelands, and hay is a major economic activity. The region's climate is characterized by extremes of heat and cold and extremes of drought and flooding. Grazing lands occupy a large portion of the region's land, significantly affecting carbon, nitrogen, and water budgets. To understand vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of beef production, a multi-institutional Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP), the "grazing CAP," was established. Integrative research and extension spanning biophysical, socioeconomic, and agricultural disciplines address management effects on productivity and environmental footprints of production systems. Knowledge and tools being developed will allow farmers and ranchers to evaluate risks and increase resilience to dynamic conditions. The knowledge and tools developed will also have relevance to grazing lands in semiarid and subhumid regions of the world. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, M R; Klimova, N G; Arita, Y; Gurzenda, E M; Murthy, A; Chawala, K; Lerner, V; Richardson, J; Hanna, N

    2012-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether(s) (PBDE) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that bind and cross the placenta but their effects on pregnancy outcome are unclear. It is possible that environmental contaminants increase the risk of inflammation-mediated pregnancy complications such as preterm birth by promoting a proinflammatory environment at the maternal-fetal interface. We hypothesized that PBDE would reduce IL-10 production and enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with preterm labor/birth by placental explants. Second-trimester placental explants were cultured in either vehicle (control) or 2 μM PBDE mixture of congers 47, 99 and 100 for 72 h. Cultures were then stimulated with 10(6) CFU/ml heat-killed Escherichia coli for a final 24 h incubation and conditioned medium was harvested for quantification of cytokines and PGE(2). COX-2 content and viability of the treated tissues were then quantified by tissue ELISA and MTT reduction activity, respectively. PBDE pre-treatment reduced E. coli-stimulated IL-10 production and significantly increased E. coli-stimulated IL-1β secretion. PBDE exposure also increased basal and bacteria-stimulated COX-2 expression. Basal, but not bacteria-stimulated PGE(2), was also enhanced by PBDE exposure. No effect of PBDE on viability of the explants cultures was detected. In summary, pre-exposure of placental explants to congers 47, 99, and 100 enhanced the placental proinflammatory response to infection. This may increase the risk of infection-mediated preterm birth by lowering the threshold for bacteria to stimulate a proinflammatory response(s). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT, MOCANE-LAVERNE FIELD, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Reeves; Buckley Walsh

    2003-08-01

    In 1996, Advanced Resources International (ARI) began performing R&D targeted at enhancing production and reserves from natural gas fields. The impetus for the effort was a series of field R&D projects in the early-to-mid 1990's, in eastern coalbed methane and gas shales plays, where well remediation and production enhancement had been successfully demonstrated. As a first step in the R&D effort, an assessment was made of the potential for restimulation to provide meaningful reserve additions to the U.S. gas resource base, and what technologies were needed to do so. That work concluded that: (1) A significant resource base did exist via restimulation (multiples of Tcf). (2) The greatest opportunities existed in non-conventional plays where completion practices were (relatively) complex and technology advancement was rapid. (3) Accurate candidate selection is the greatest single factor that contributes to a successful restimulation program. With these findings, a field-oriented program targeted at tight sand formations was initiated to develop and demonstrate successful candidate recognition technology. In that program, which concluded in 2001, nine wells were restimulated in the Green River, Piceance and East Texas basins, which in total added 2.9 Bcf of reserves at an average cost of $0.26/Mcf. In addition, it was found that in complex and heterogeneous reservoirs (such as tight sand formations), candidate selection procedures should involve a combination of fundamental engineering and advanced pattern recognition approaches, and that simple statistical methods for identifying candidate wells are not effective. In mid-2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded ARI an R&D contract to determine if the methods employed in that project could also be applied to stripper gas wells. In addition, the ability of those approaches to identify more general production enhancement opportunities (beyond only restimulation), such as via artificial lift and compression

  9. β-Carotene from Yeasts Enhances Laccase Production of Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae in Co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaolin; Zhao, Liting; Wang, Feng; Lu, Jian; Ding, Zhongyang; Shi, Guiyang

    2017-01-01

    Laccase is widely used in several industrial applications and co-culture is a common method for enhancing laccase production in submerged fermentation. In this study, the co-culture of four yeasts with Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae was found to enhance laccase production. An analysis of sterilization temperatures and extraction conditions revealed that the stimulatory compound in yeasts was temperature-sensitive, and that it was fat-soluble. An LC-MS analysis revealed that the possible stimulatory compound for laccase production in the four yeast extracts was β-carotene. Moreover, the addition of 4 mg β-carotene to 150 mL of P. eryngii var. ferulae culture broth improved laccase production by 2.2-fold compared with the control (i.e., a monoculture), and was similar to laccase production in co-culture. In addition, the enhanced laccase production was accompanied by an increase of lac gene transcription, which was 6.2-time higher than the control on the fifth day. Therefore, it was concluded that β-carotene from the co-cultured yeasts enhanced laccase production in P. eryngii var. ferulae , and strains that produce β-carotene could be selected to enhance fungal laccase production in a co-culture. Alternatively, β-carotene or crude extracts of β-carotene could be used to induce high laccase production in large scale.

  10. Genome-scale model guided design of Propionibacterium for enhanced propionic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Laura; McCubbin, Tim; Gonzalez-Garcia, Ricardo A; Nielsen, Lars K; Marcellin, Esteban

    2018-06-01

    Production of propionic acid by fermentation of propionibacteria has gained increasing attention in the past few years. However, biomanufacturing of propionic acid cannot compete with the current oxo-petrochemical synthesis process due to its well-established infrastructure, low oil prices and the high downstream purification costs of microbial production. Strain improvement to increase propionic acid yield is the best alternative to reduce downstream purification costs. The recent generation of genome-scale models for a number of Propionibacterium species facilitates the rational design of metabolic engineering strategies and provides a new opportunity to explore the metabolic potential of the Wood-Werkman cycle. Previous strategies for strain improvement have individually targeted acid tolerance, rate of propionate production or minimisation of by-products. Here we used the P. freudenreichii subsp . shermanii and the pan- Propionibacterium genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to simultaneously target these combined issues. This was achieved by focussing on strategies which yield higher energies and directly suppress acetate formation. Using P. freudenreichii subsp . shermanii , two strategies were assessed. The first tested the ability to manipulate the redox balance to favour propionate production by over-expressing the first two enzymes of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP), Zwf (glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase) and Pgl (6-phosphogluconolactonase). Results showed a 4-fold increase in propionate to acetate ratio during the exponential growth phase. Secondly, the ability to enhance the energy yield from propionate production by over-expressing an ATP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and sodium-pumping methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MMD) was tested, which extended the exponential growth phase. Together, these strategies demonstrate that in silico design strategies are predictive and can be used to reduce by-product formation in

  11. Genome-scale model guided design of Propionibacterium for enhanced propionic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Navone

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of propionic acid by fermentation of propionibacteria has gained increasing attention in the past few years. However, biomanufacturing of propionic acid cannot compete with the current oxo-petrochemical synthesis process due to its well-established infrastructure, low oil prices and the high downstream purification costs of microbial production. Strain improvement to increase propionic acid yield is the best alternative to reduce downstream purification costs. The recent generation of genome-scale models for a number of Propionibacterium species facilitates the rational design of metabolic engineering strategies and provides a new opportunity to explore the metabolic potential of the Wood-Werkman cycle. Previous strategies for strain improvement have individually targeted acid tolerance, rate of propionate production or minimisation of by-products. Here we used the P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and the pan-Propionibacterium genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs to simultaneously target these combined issues. This was achieved by focussing on strategies which yield higher energies and directly suppress acetate formation. Using P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, two strategies were assessed. The first tested the ability to manipulate the redox balance to favour propionate production by over-expressing the first two enzymes of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP, Zwf (glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase and Pgl (6-phosphogluconolactonase. Results showed a 4-fold increase in propionate to acetate ratio during the exponential growth phase. Secondly, the ability to enhance the energy yield from propionate production by over-expressing an ATP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and sodium-pumping methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MMD was tested, which extended the exponential growth phase. Together, these strategies demonstrate that in silico design strategies are predictive and can be used to reduce by-product formation in

  12. Multi-analytical strategy for unassigned peaks using physical/mathematical separation, fragmental rules and retention index prediction: An example of sesquiterpene metabolites characterization in Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Yan, Pan; Yang, Zhiyu; Ye, Ying; Cao, Dongsheng; Hong, Liang; Yang, Tianbiao; Pei, Rui

    2018-05-30

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC × GC-qMS) can provide powerful physical separation, signal enhancement, and spectral identification for analytes in complex samples. Unassigned peaks are commonly presented in the untargeted profile after a single run with EI-MS spectral matching and retention index (RI) confirmation. The procedure proposed in this work can be applied as a general method for suggesting or narrowing down the candidates of unassigned GC × GC-qMS peaks. To begin, peak purity detection and chemometric resolution are employed to acquire pure mass spectra. In addition, the fragmental rules and in-silico spectra from structures are available for annotating certain unassigned peaks with reference spectra that are not observed in commercial databases. Furthermore, the procedure proposed in this work allows for in silico RI calculation by means of random forest (RF) analysis based on the retention data under the same chromatographic conditions. The calculated RIs can aid in analysis when the RI information of peaks of interest is not available in retention data libraries. Using the proposed strategy, certain unassigned peaks can be attributed to sesquiterpene metabolites in an in-house database for Cyperus rotundus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thapsia garganica L. in vitro plants as a new production platform of thapsigargins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinonero Lopez, Carmen

    Thapsigargin and nortrilobolide are sesquiterpene lactones found in the Mediterranean plant Thapsia garganica L. Thapsigargin is a potent inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump, inducing apoptosis in mammalian cells. Due to its ability to induce apoptosis...... cultures. In this chapter has been described, from the regeneration of in vitro plants of T. garganica, to the establishment and enhancement of thapsigargins production in temporary immersion bioreactors. A part from an alternative production platform for thapsigargins, in vitro plant tissue cultures...... techniques have been described for this medicinal species, which can be used for plant genetic conservation and biodiversity. In the chapters II, III and IV, I present studies on the expression levels of the two biosynthetic genes described in the thapsigargin biosynthesis, TgTPS2 and TgCYP76AE2...

  14. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Frey, M.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Hänsel, S.; Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Kucharski, K.; Macchiolo, A.; Marczewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  15. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Dragicevic, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: dragicevic@oeaw.ac.at; Frey, M. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Thailand) (Germany); Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland); Haensel, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Thailand) (Germany); Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Kucharski, K. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland); Macchiolo, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPI), Munich (Germany); Marczewski, J. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  16. The whale pump: marine mammals enhance primary productivity in a coastal basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Roman

    Full Text Available It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×10(4 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward "whale pump" played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities.

  17. Enhanced lipid productivity and photosynthesis efficiency in a Desmodesmus sp. mutant induced by heavy carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangrong; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Cheng; Wang, Jufang; Li, Wenjian; Hu, Qiang; Li, Fuli

    2013-01-01

    The unicellular green microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 can produce more than 50% total lipid of cell dry weight under high light and nitrogen-limitation conditions. After irradiation by heavy (12)C(6+) ion beam of 10, 30, 60, 90 or 120 Gy, followed by screening of resulting mutants on 24-well microplates, more than 500 mutants were obtained. One of those, named D90G-19, exhibited lipid productivity of 0.298 g L(-1)⋅d(-1), 20.6% higher than wild type, likely owing to an improved maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) of photosynthesis under stress. This work demonstrated that heavy-ion irradiation combined with high-throughput screening is an effective means for trait improvement. The resulting mutant D90G-19 may be used for enhanced lipid production.

  18. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  19. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  20. Macrophage activation induced by Brucella DNA suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via enhancing NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Tang, Bin; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-12-01

    Brucella DNA can be sensed by TLR9 on endosomal membrane and by cytosolic AIM2-inflammasome to induce proinflammatory cytokine production that contributes to partially activate innate immunity. Additionally, Brucella DNA has been identified to be able to act as a major bacterial component to induce type I IFN. However, the role of Brucella DNA in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. Here, we showed that stimulation with Brucella DNA promote macrophage activation in TLR9-dependent manner. Activated macrophages can suppresses wild type Brucella intracellular replication at early stage of infection via enhancing NO production. We also reported that activated macrophage promotes bactericidal function of macrophages infected with VirB-deficient Brucella at the early or late stage of infection. This study uncovers a novel function of Brucella DNA, which can help us further elucidate the mechanism of Brucella intracellular survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Probing the electroweak phase transition via enhanced di-Higgs boson production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, Marcela; Liu, Zhen; Riembau, Marc

    2018-05-01

    We consider a singlet extension of the standard model (SM) with a spontaneous Z2 breaking and study the gluon-gluon fusion production of the heavy scalar, with subsequent decay into a pair of SM-like Higgs bosons. We find that an on-shell interference effect can notably enhance the resonant di-Higgs production rate up to 40%. In addition, consistently taking into account both the on-shell and off-shell interference effects between the heavy scalar and the SM di-Higgs diagrams significantly improves the HL-LHC and HE-LHC reach in this channel. As an example, within an effective field theory analysis in an explicitly Z2 breaking scenario, we further discuss the potential to probe the parameter region compatible with a first-order electroweak phase transition. Our analysis is applicable for general potentials of the singlet extension of the SM as well as for more general resonance searches.

  2. Effect of Discrete Fracture Network Characteristics on the Sustainability of Heat Production in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Damjanac, B.

    2013-12-01

    Viability of an enhanced or engineered geothermal reservoir is determined by the rate of produced fluid at production wells and the rate of temperature drawdown in the reservoir as well as that of the produced fluid. Meeting required targets demands sufficient permeability and flow circulation in a relatively large volume of rock mass. In-situ conditions such overall permeability of the bedrock formation, magnitude and orientation of stresses, and the characteristics of the existing Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) greatly affect sustainable heat production. Because much of the EGS resources are in formations with low permeability, different stimulation techniques are required prior to the production phase to enhance fluid circulation. Shear stimulation or hydro-shearing is the method of injecting a fluid into the reservoir with the aim of increasing the fluid pressure in the naturally fractured rock and inducing shear failure or slip events. This mechanism can enhance the system's permeability through permanent dilatational opening of the sheared fractures. Using a computational modeling approach, the correlation between heat production and DFN statistical characteristics, namely the fracture length distribution, fracture orientation, and also fracture density is studied in this paper. Numerical analyses were completed using two-dimensional distinct element code UDEC (Itasca, 2011), which represents rock masses as an assembly of interacting blocks separated by fractures. UDEC allows for simulation of fracture propagation along the predefined planes only (i.e., the trajectory of the hydraulic fracture is not part of the solution of the problem). Thus, the hydraulic fracture is assumed to be planar, aligned with the direction of the major principal stress. The pre-existing fractures were represented explicitly. They are discontinuities which deform elastically, but also can open and slip (Coulomb slip law) as a function of pressure and total stress changes. The fluid

  3. Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity (MCHCA for enhanced biogas production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof ePoszytek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate in agricultural biogas plants is very popular and yields good results. However, the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, and thus biogas production, is not always satisfactory due to the slow or incomplete degradation (hydrolysis of plant matter. To enhance the solubilization of the lignocellulosic biomass various physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods are used.The aim of this study was to select and characterize cellulose-degrading bacteria, and to construct a microbial consortium, dedicated for degradation of maize silage and enhancing biogas production from this substrate.Over one hundred strains of cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated from: sewage sludge, hydrolyzer from an agricultural biogas plant, cattle slurry and manure. After physiological characterization of the isolates, sixteen strains (representatives of Bacillus, Providencia and Ochrobactrum genera were chosen for the construction of a Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity, called MCHCA. The selected strains had a high endoglucanase activity (exceeding 0.21 IU/mL CMCase activity and a wide range of tolerance to various physical and chemical conditions. Lab-scale simulation of biogas production using the selected strains for degradation of maize silage was carried out in a two-bioreactor system, similar to those used in agricultural biogas plants.The obtained results showed that the constructed MCHCA consortium is capable of efficient hydrolysis of maize silage, and increases biogas production by even 38%, depending on the inoculum used for methane fermentation. The results in this work indicate that the mesophilic Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity has a great potential for application on industrial scale in agricultural biogas plants.

  4. Inhibition of β-Secretase Activity by Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, and C13 Norisoprenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2017-08-01

    Inhibition of β-secretase (BACE1) is currently regarded as the leading treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we aimed to screen the in vitro inhibitory activity of 80 types of aroma compounds (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and C 13 norisoprenoids), including plant-based types, at a 200-μM concentration against a recombinant human BACE1. The results showed that the most potent inhibitor of BACE1 was geranyl acetone followed by (+)-camphor, (-)-fenchone, (+)-fenchone, and (-)-camphor with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of 51.9 ± 3.9, 95.9 ± 11.0, 106.3 ± 14.9, 117.0 ± 18.6, and 134.1 ± 16.4 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanism of inhibition of BACE1 by geranyl acetone was analyzed using Dixon kinetics plus Cornish-Bowden plots, which revealed mixed-type mode. Therefore aroma compounds may be used as potential lead molecules for designing anti-BACE1 agents.

  5. Sesquiterpenes from the Saudi Red Sea: Litophyton arboreum with their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T; Hawas, Usama W; El-Desouky, Samy K; Al-Farawati, Radwan

    2018-01-26

    A new pseudoguaiane-type sesquiterpene named litopharbol (1) was isolated from the methanolic extract of the Red Sea soft coral Litophyton arboreum, along with known sesquiterpenoids alismol (2), alismorientol B (3), teuhetenone A (4), and calamusin I (5); steroid, 24-methyl-cholesta-5,24(28)-diene-3β-ol (6), alkyl glyceryl ether, chimyl alcohol (7); sphingolipid, erythro-N-dodecanoyl-docosasphinga-(4E,8E)-dienine (8); and nitrogenous bases, thymine (9) and thymidine (10). The structures were determined on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR data including heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy, and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy) and mass spectrometric analyses. Compounds 1-5 were explored for antimicrobial activity and cancer cell line sensitivity tests. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with a minimum inhibition concentration of 1.8 μg/mL, whereas compound 3 showed significant potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 (breast cancer cells) with IC50 4.32 μM.

  6. Role of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joensuu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.

  7. Antiprotozoal and Antiglycation Activities of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula narthex Exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exudate of Ferula narthex Boiss. (Apiaceae is widely used in the Indian subcontinent as a spice and because of its health effects. Six sesquiterpene coumarins have been isolated from this exudate: feselol, ligupersin A, asacoumarin A, 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A, 10′R-karatavacinol and 10′R-acetyl-karatavacinol. Based on its use in infectious and diabetic conditions, the isolated constituents were evaluated for antimicrobial and antiglycation activities. Some compounds showed activity against protozoal parasites, asacoumarin A being the most active one against Plasmodium falciparum K1 (IC50 1.3 μM. With regard to antiglycation activity, in the BSA-glucose test, ligupersin A displayed the highest activity (IC50 0.41 mM, being more active than the positive control aminiguanidine (IC50 1.75 mM. In the BSA-MGO assay, the highest activity was shown by 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A (IC50 1.03 mM, being less active than aminoguanidine (IC50 0.15 mM. Hence, the antiglycation activity of the isolated constituents was due to both oxidative and non-oxidative modes of inhibition.

  8. Guaiane sesquiterpenes from seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile and their antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Lipton, A P; Paulraj, R; Chakraborty, Rekha D

    2010-06-01

    Two new guaiane sesquiterpene derivatives, guai-2-en-10alpha-ol (1) and guai-2-en-10alpha-methanol (2), were chromatographically purified as major constituents of the CHCl3/CH3OH (1:1, v/v) soluble fraction of Ulva fasciata. Acetylation of 2 furnished guai-2-en-10alpha-methyl methanoate (3) with acetyl group at C11 position. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometric analysis. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited significant inhibition to the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 25 and 35 microg/mL, respectively. The electronegative C10 acetyl group with high polarisability (7.02x10(-24) cm3) in 3 appeared to withdraw electron cloud from substituted cycloheptyl ring and (R)-3-methylcyclohept-1-ene moiety, thus acting as the nucleophilic center of the molecule resulting in high bioactivity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioherbicidal activity of a germacranolide sesquiterpene dilactone from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Francesco; Monterumici, Chiara Mozzetti; Ferrero, Aldo; Tabasso, Silvia; Negre, Michèle

    2016-12-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed) is an invasive plant whose allelopathic properties have been suggested by its field behaviour and demonstrated through phytotoxicity bioassays. However, the nature of the molecules responsible for the allelopathic activity of common ragweed has not been explored. The main objective of this study was to identify the phytotoxic molecules produced by A. artemisiifolia. A preliminary investigation has indicated that a methanol extract of A. artemisiifolia completely inhibited the germination of cress and radish. Semi-preparative fractionation of the methanol extract allowed separating of phytotoxic fraction which contained a single compound. The structure of this compound was elucidated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS, high-resolution mass spectral, nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared spectra as sesquiterpene lactone isabelin (C 15 H 16 O 4 ). The effect of pure isabelin was tested on four different weed species, confirming the inhibitory activity of molecule. The results indicate directions for the future studies about herbicidal specific activity of isabelin, as pure molecule or in the crude extract, as a potential candidate for biological weed control.

  10. Visible light photocatalytic disintegration of waste activated sludge for enhancing biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Muzammil; Al-Talhi, Hasan A; Mohamed, Saleh A; Kumar, Rajeev; Barakat, M A

    2018-06-15

    Biogas production using waste activated sludge (WAS) is one of the most demanding technologies for sludge treatment and generating energy in sustainable manner. The present study deals with the photocatalytic pretreatment of WAS using ZnO-ZnS@polyaniline (ZnO-ZnS@PANI) nanocomposite as means for increasing its degradability for improved biogas production by anaerobic digestion (AD). Photocatalysis accelerated the hydrolysis of WAS and increased the sCOD by 6.7 folds after 6 h and transform tCOD into bioavailable sCOD. After the AD of WAS, a removal of organic matter (60.6%) and tCOD (69.3%) was achieved in photocatalytic pretreated sludge. The biogas production was 1.6 folds higher in photocatalytic sludge with accumulative biogas up to 1645.1 ml L -1 vs after 45 days compared with the raw sludge (1022.4 ml L -1 VS ). Moreover, the photocatalysis decrease the onset of methanogenesis from 25 to 12 days while achieve the maximum conversion rate of reducing sugars into organic acids at that time. These results suggested that photocatalysis is an efficient pretreatment method and ZnO-ZnS@PANI can degrade sludge efficiently for enhance biogas production in anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Gibberellic Acid on Enhancement Growth of Aspergillus Niger for Chitosan Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.M.; Shash, S.M.; Swailam, H.M.; Aziz, N.H.; Emam, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan is obtained by chemical conversion of chitin, which is a constituent of the exoskeleton of crustacean and insects. An alternative source of chitosan is the cell wall of fungi. The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger, following citric acid production, was used as a source for fungal chitosan extraction. In this research we study the effect of different production media, different concentrations of molass, the effect of addition of gibberellic acid at different concentrations (1-5 mg/l) on mycelial growth and chitosan production from Aspergillus niger. Studying the effect of different incubation time. The results showed that, the best production medium was molass salt medium (MSM) with molass concentration 50 g/l and incubation time 48h. Maximum enhancement was observed at 2 mg gibberellic acid. Gibberellic acid at high concentrations inhibit both growth and chitosan content. The produced fungal chitosan was characterized with deacetylation degree of 81.3%, a molecular weight of 24.2 kDa and their FT-IR spectra were compared with that of shrimp chitosan.

  12. IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

  13. Enhanced cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum for bio-ethanol application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Reetu; Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Adsul, Mukund; Patel, Anil Kumar; Mathur, Anshu; Tuli, Deepak; Singhania, Reeta Rani

    2015-01-01

    Present study was focused on cellulase production from an indigenously isolated filamentous fungal strain, identified as Penicillium oxalicum. Initially, cellulase production under submerged fermentation in shake flasks resulted in cellulase activity of 0.7 FPU/mL. Optimization of process parameters enhanced cellulase production by 1.7-fold and resulted in maximum cellulase activity of 1.2 FPU/mL in 8 days. Cellulase production was successfully scaled-up to 7 L fermenter under controlled conditions and incubation time was reduced from 8 days to 4 days for achieving similar cellulase titer. Optimum pH and temperature for activity of the crude enzyme were pH 5 and 50 °C, respectively. At 50 °C the produced cellulase retained approximately 50% and 26% of its activity at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Hydrolytic efficiency of P. oxalicum was comparable to commercial cellulase preparations which indicate its great potential for application in the lignocellulose hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced Production of Xylitol from Corncob by Pachysolen tannophilus Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the culture medium and process variables for xylitol production using corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pachysolen tannophilus (MTTC 1077 was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on xylitol production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. Peptone, xylose, MgSO4·7H2O, and yeast extract were selected based on their positive influence on xylitol production. The selected components were optimized with Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum levels (g/L were peptone: 6.03, xylose: 10.62, MgSO4·7H2O: 1.39, yeast extract: 4.66. The influence of various process variables on the xylitol production was evaluated. The optimal levels of these variables were quantified by the central composite design using RSM, for establishment of a significant mathematical model with a coefficient determination of . The validation experimental was consistent with the prediction model. The optimum levels of process variables were temperature (36.56°C, pH (7.27, substrate concentration (3.55 g/L, inoculum size (3.69 mL, and agitation speed (194.44 rpm. These conditions were validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced xylitol yield of 0.80 g/g.

  15. Optimization of culture media for enhancing gamma-linolenic acid production by Mucor hiemalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mohammadi Nasr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: g-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid in human nutrition. In the present study, production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292 was evaluated in submerged fermentation. Materials and methods: The fermentation variables were chosen according to the fractional factorial design and further optimized via full factorial method. Four significant variables, glucose, peptone, ammonium nitrate and pH were selected for the optimization studies. The design consisted of total 16 runs consisting of runs at two levels for each factor with three replications of the center points. Results: The analysis of variance and three-dimensional response surface plot of effects indicated that variables were regarded to be significant for production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis. Results indicated that fermentation at the optimum conditions (100 g/l glucose concentration; 1 g/l peptone; 1 g/l ammonium nitrate, and pH of 4.5 enhanced the g-linolenic acid production up to 709 mg/l. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that higher g-linolenic acid yield can be achieved in a simple medium at high glucose and ammonium nitrate, low peptone concentrations and acidic pH by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292. This simple and low cost optimization condition of culture media can be applied for g-linolenic acid production at higher scale for pharmaceutical and nutritional industries. 

  16. A study of best management practices for enhancing productivity in building projects: construction methods perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argaw Tarekegn Gurmu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry-wide survey to prioritize the best practices. Accordingly, project start-up plan, traffic control plan, machinery positioning strategy, project completion plan, and dynamic site layout plan were shown to be the top five best practices for construction methods. The study also revealed that high levels of implementation of best practices are associated with low levels of project delays. The use of best practices also varied according to the project costs. There were no discernible differences between the top five best practices. The authors suggest that they should be implemented jointly to improve productivity in building projects. Contractors could use the logistic regression model developed, to predict the probability of exceeding a baseline productivity factor and, on that basis, implement corrective actions to achieve the desired level of productivity.

  17. Combination of traditional mutation and metabolic engineering to enhance ansamitocin P-3 production in Actinosynnema pretiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Yuan; Qian, Zhi-Gang; Xiao, Han; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Ansamitocin P-3 (AP-3) is a maytansinoid with its most compelling antitumor activity, however, the low production titer of AP-3 greatly restricts its wide commercial application. In this work, a combinatorial approach including random mutation and metabolic engineering was conducted to enhance AP-3 biosynthesis in Actinosynnema pretiosum. First, a mutant strain M was isolated by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutation, which could produce AP-3 almost threefold that of wild type (WT) in 48 deep-well plates. Then, by overexpressing key biosynthetic genes asmUdpg and asm13-17 in the M strain, a further 60% increase of AP-3 production in 250-ml shake flasks was achieved in the engineered strain M-asmUdpg:asm13-17 compared to the M strain, and its maximum AP-3 production reached 582.7 mg/L, which is the highest as ever reported. Both the gene transcription levels and intracellular intermediate concentrations in AP-3 biosynthesis pathway were significantly increased in the M and M-asmUdpg:asm13-17 during fermentation compared to the WT. The good fermentation performance of the engineered strain was also confirmed in a lab-scale bioreactor. This work demonstrated that combination of random mutation and metabolic engineering could promote AP-3 biosynthesis and might be helpful for increasing the production of other industrially important secondary metabolites. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Demonstration of AIRS Total Ozone Products to Operations to Enhance User Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cyclogenesis is a key forecast challenge at operational forecasting centers such as WPC and OPC, so these centers have a particular interest in unique products that can identify key storm features. In some cases, explosively developing extratropical cyclones can produce hurricane force, non-convective winds along the East Coast and north Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean, with the potential to cause significant damage to life and property. Therefore, anticipating cyclogenesis for these types of storms is crucial for furthering the NOAA goal of a "Weather Ready Nation". Over the last few years, multispectral imagery (i.e. RGB) products have gained popularity among forecasters. The GOES-R satellite champion at WPC/OPC has regularly evaluated the Air Mass RGB products from GOES Sounder, MODIS, and SEVIRI to aid in forecasting cyclogenesis as part of ongoing collaborations with SPoRT within the framework of the GOES-R Proving Ground. WPC/OPC has used these products to identify regions of stratospheric air associated with tropopause folds that can lead to cyclogenesis and hurricane force winds. RGB products combine multiple channels or channel differences into multi-color imagery in which different colors represent a particular cloud or air mass type. Initial interaction and feedback from forecasters evaluating the legacy Air Mass RGBs revealed some uncertainty regarding what physical processes the qualitative RGB products represent and color interpretation. To enhance forecaster confidence and interpretation of the Air Mass RGB, NASA SPoRT has transitioned a total column ozone product from AIRS retrievals to the WPC/OPC. The use of legacy AIRS demonstrates future JPSS capabilities possible with CrIS or OMPS. Since stratospheric air can be identified by anomalous potential vorticity and warm, dry, ozone-rich air, hyperspectral infrared sounder ozone products can be used in conjunction with the Air Mass RGB for identifying the role of stratospheric air in explosive

  19. Impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on flower, pollen, and nectar production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, B.J.; Cane, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Intensified ultraviolet-B radiation or UV-B (wavelengths between 280 and 320 nm) can delay flowering and diminish lifetime flower production in a few plants. Here we studied the effects of enhanced UV-B on floral traits crucial to pollination and pollinator reproduction. We observed simultaneous flowering responses of a new crop plant, Limnanthes alba (Limnathaceae), and a wildflower, Phacelia campanularia (Hydrophyllaceae), to five lifetime UV-B dosages ranging between 2.74 and 15.93 kJ·m -2 ·d -1 . Floral traits known to link plant pollination with bee host preference, host fidelity and larval development were measured. Intensified UV-B had no overall effect on nectar and pollen production of L. alba and P. campanularia flowers. A quadratic relationship between UV-B and nectar sugar production occurred in P. campanularia and showed that even subambient UV-B dosages can be deleterious for a floral trait. Other floral responses to UV-B were more dramatic and idiosyncratic. As UV-B dosage increased, L. alba plants were less likely to flower, but suffered no delays in flowering or reductions to lifetime flower production for those that did flower. Conversely, an equal proportion of P. campanularia plants flowered under all UV-B treatments, but these same plants experienced delayed onset to bloom and produced fewer flowers at greater UV-B intensities. Therefore, intensified UV-B elicits idiosyncratic responses in flowering phenology and flower production from these two annual plants. Diurnal patterns in nectar and pollen production strongly coincided with fluctuating humidity and only weakly with UV-B dosage. Overall, our results indicated that intensified UVB can alter some flowering traits that impinge upon plant competition for pollinator services, as well as plant and pollinator reproductive success. (author)

  20. Enhanced Production of Bovine Chymosin by Autophagy Deficiency in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been utilized as a host for heterologous protein production because of its high protein secretory capacity and food-safety properties. However, A. oryzae often produces lower-than-expected yields of target heterologous proteins due to various underlying mechanisms, including degradation processes such as autophagy, which may be a significant bottleneck for protein production. In the present study, we examined the production of heterologous protein in several autophagy (Aoatg) gene disruptants of A. oryzae. We transformed A. oryzae gene disruptants of Aoatg1, Aoatg13, Aoatg4, Aoatg8, or Aoatg15, with a bovine chymosin (CHY) expression construct and found that the production levels of CHY increased up to three fold compared to the control strain. Notably, however, conidia formation by the Aoatg gene disruptants was significantly reduced. As large amounts of conidia are necessary for inoculating large-scale cultures, we also constructed Aoatg gene-conditional expression strains in which the promoter region of the Aoatg gene was replaced with the thiamine-controllable thiA promoter. Conidiation by the resultant transformants was clearly enhanced in the absence of thiamine, while autophagy remained repressed in the presence of thiamine. Moreover, these transformants displayed increased CHY productivity, which was comparable to that of the Aoatg gene disruptants. Consequently, we succeeded in the construction of A. oryzae strains capable of producing high levels of CHY due to defects in autophagy. Our finding suggests that the conditional regulation of autophagy is an effective method for increasing heterologous protein production in A. oryzae. PMID:23658635

  1. A microbial fluidized electrode electrolysis cell (MFEEC) for enhanced hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia

    2014-12-01

    A microbial fluidized electrode electrolysis cell (MFEEC) was used to enhance hydrogen gas production from dissolved organic matter. Flowable granular activated carbon (GAC) particles were used to provide additional surface area for growth of exoelectrogenic bacteria. The use of this exoelectrogenic biofilm on the GAC particles with fluidization produced higher current densities and hydrogen gas recoveries than controls (no recirculation or no GAC), due to intermittent contact of the capacitive particles with the anode. The total cumulative charge of 1688C m-2 with the MFEEC reactor (a recirculation flow rate of 19 mL min-1) was 20% higher than that of the control reactor (no GAC). The highest hydrogen gas yield of 0.82 ± 0.01 mol-H2/mol-acetate (17 mL min-1) was 39% higher than that obtained without recirculation (0.59 ± 0.01 mol-H 2/mol-acetate), and 116% higher than that of the control (no GAC, without recirculation). These results show that flowable GAC particles provide a useful approach for enhancing hydrogen gas production in bioelectrochemical systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced Freshwater Production Using Finned-Plate Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perves Bappy Mohammad Jabed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air Gap membrane distillation (AGMD, a special type of energy efficient membrane distillation process, is a technology for producing freshwater from waste water. Having some benefits over other traditional processes, this method has been able to draw attention of researchers working in the field of freshwater production technologies. In this study, a basic AGMD system with flat coolant plate has been modified using a specially designed channelled coolant plate of portable size to observe its effect over the production rate and performance of the system. Attempt has been made to increase the amount of distillate flux by using the “fin effect” of the channelled coolant plate. A finned plate have been used instead of a flat coolant plate and experiments were conducted to compare the effect. Coolant temperature and feed temperature of the system have been varied from 10°C to 25°C and 40°C to 70°C respectively. Comparing the data, around 50% to 58% distillate enhancement has been observed for channelled coolant plate. Also, it was seen that the enhancement was higher for higher feed temperatures and coolant temperatures. With these findings, a better performing AGMD module has been introduced to mitigate the scarcity of freshwater.

  3. Salinity induced oxidative stress enhanced biofuel production potential of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Trivedi, Khanjan; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass is considered as potential feedstock for biofuel production. Enhancement of biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae is important for the commercialization of microalgal biofuels. In the present study, salinity stress induced physiological and biochemical changes in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 were studied. During single stage cultivation, 33.13% lipid and 35.91% carbohydrate content was found in 400 mM NaCl grown culture. During two stage cultivation, salinity stress of 400 mM for 3 days resulted in 24.77% lipid (containing 74.87% neutral lipid) along with higher biomass compared to single stage, making it an efficient strategy to enhance biofuel production potential of Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Apart from biochemical content, stress biomarkers like hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, ascorbate peroxidase, proline and mineral contents were also studied to understand the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated lipid accumulation in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative proteomics analysis of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced biofuel precursor production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tang

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically modified for enhanced biofuel precursor production by knocking out genes encoding mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase and over-expression of a heterologous ATP-citrate lyase. A comparative iTRAQ-coupled 2D LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to obtain a global overview of ubiquitous protein expression changes in S. cerevisiae engineered strains. More than 300 proteins were identified. Among these proteins, 37 were found differentially expressed in engineered strains and they were classified into specific categories based on their enzyme functions. Most of the proteins involved in glycolytic and pyruvate branch-point pathways were found to be up-regulated and the proteins involved in respiration and glyoxylate pathway were however found to be down-regulated in engineered strains. Moreover, the metabolic modification of S. cerevisiae cells resulted in a number of up-regulated proteins involved in stress response and differentially expressed proteins involved in amino acid metabolism and protein biosynthesis pathways. These LC-MS/MS based proteomics analysis results not only offered extensive information in identifying potential protein-protein interactions, signal pathways and ubiquitous cellular changes elicited by the engineered pathways, but also provided a meaningful biological information platform serving further modification of yeast cells for enhanced biofuel production.

  5. The Effects of Input-Enhanced Instruction on Iranian EFL Learners' Production of Appropriate and Accurate Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavamnia, M.; Eslami-Rasekh, A.; Vahid Dastjerdi, H.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relative effectiveness of four types of input-enhanced instruction on the development of Iranian EFL learners' production of pragmatically appropriate and grammatically accurate suggestions. Over a 16-week course, input delivered through video clips was enhanced differently in four intact classes: (1) metapragmatic…

  6. In-situ ambient quantification of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related oxygenated compounds during BEARPEX 2007: implications for gas- and particle-phase chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Bouvier-Brown

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We quantified ambient mixing ratios of 9 monoterpenes, 6 sesquiterpenes, methyl chavicol, the oxygenated terpene linalool, and nopinone using an in-situ gas chromatograph with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-MS. These measurements were a part of the 2007 Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX at Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first direct in-situ ambient quantification of the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, longifolene, α-farnesene, and β-farnesene. From average diurnal mixing ratio profiles, we show that α-farnesene emissions are dependent mainly on temperature whereas α-bergamotene and β-farnesene emissions are temperature- and light-dependent. The amount of sesquiterpene mass quantified above the canopy was small (averaging a total of 3.3 ppt during the day, but nevertheless these compounds contributed 7.6% to the overall ozone-olefin loss rate above the canopy. Assuming that the monoterpene-to-sesquiterpene emission rate in the canopy is similar to that observed in branch enclosure studies at the site during comparable weather conditions, and the average yield of aerosol mass from these sesquiterpenes is 10–50%, the amount of sesquiterpene mass reacted within the Blodgett Forest canopy alone accounts for 6–32% of the total organic aerosol mass measured during BEARPEX. The oxygenated monoterpene linalool was also quantified for the first time at Blodgett Forest. The linalool mass contribution was small (9.9 ppt and 0.74 ppt within and above the canopy, respectively, but it contributed 1.1% to the total ozone-olefin loss rate above the canopy. Reactive and semi-volatile compounds, especially sesquiterpenes, significantly impact the gas- and particle-phase chemistry of the atmosphere at Blodgett Forest and should be included in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry

  7. Celastraceae sesquiterpenes as a new class of modulators that bind specifically to human P-glycoprotein and reverse cellular multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Lu, Peihua; Cortés-Selva, Fernando; Pérez-Victoria, José María; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Ravelo, Angel G; Sharom, Frances J; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago

    2004-10-01

    Overexpression of ABCB1 (MDR1) P-glycoprotein, a multidrug efflux pump, is one mechanism by which tumor cells may develop multidrug resistance (MDR), preventing the successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae family are natural compounds shown previously to reverse MDR in several human cancer cell lines and Leishmania strains. However, their molecular mechanism of reversion has not been characterized. In the present work, we have studied the ability of 28 dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes to reverse the P-glycoprotein-dependent MDR phenotype and elucidated their molecular mechanism of action. Cytotoxicity assays using human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells allowed us to select the most potent sesquiterpenes reversing the in vitro resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. Flow cytometry experiments showed that the above active compounds specifically inhibited drug transport activity of P-glycoprotein in a saturable, concentration-dependent manner (K(i) down to 0.24 +/- 0.01 micromol/L) but not that of ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1; MRP1), ABCC2 (MRP2), and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein; BCRP) transporters. Moreover, sesquiterpenes inhibited at submicromolar concentrations the P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of [(3)H]colchicine and tetramethylrosamine in plasma membrane from CH(R)B30 cells and P-glycoprotein-enriched proteoliposomes, supporting that P-glycoprotein is their molecular target. Photoaffinity labeling in plasma membrane and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments with purified protein suggested that sesquiterpenes interact with transmembrane domains of P-glycoprotein. Finally, sesquiterpenes modulated P-glycoprotein ATPase-activity in a biphasic, concentration-dependent manner: they stimulated at very low concentrations but inhibited ATPase activity as noncompetitive inhibitors at higher concentrations. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae are promising P-glycoprotein modulators with potential

  8. Anaerobic treatment of antibiotic production wastewater pretreated with enhanced hydrolysis: Simultaneous reduction of COD and ARGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qizhen; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2017-03-01

    The presence of high concentration antibiotics in wastewater can disturb the stability of biological wastewater treatment systems and promote generation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the treatment. To solve this problem, a pilot system consisting of enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in succession was constructed for treating oxytetracycline production wastewater, and the performance was evaluated in a pharmaceutical factory in comparison with a full-scale anaerobic system operated in parallel. After enhanced hydrolysis under conditions of pH 7 and 85 °C for 6 h, oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 11,086 ± 602 mg L -1 was directly introduced into the pilot UASB reactor. With the effective removal of oxytetracycline and its antibacterial potency (from 874 mg L -1 to less than 0.61 mg L -1 and from 900 mg L -1 to less than 0.84 mg L -1 , respectively) by the enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment, an average COD removal rate of 83.2%, 78.5% and 68.9% was achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.3, 4.8 and 5.9 kg COD m -3  d -1 , respectively. At the same time, the relative abundances of the total tetracycline (tet) genes and a mobile element (Class 1 integron (intI1)) in anaerobic sludge on day 96 were one order of magnitude lower than those in inoculated sludge on day 0 (P anaerobic system treating oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent COD of 3720 ± 128 mg L -1 after dilution exhibited a COD removal of 51 ± 4% at an organic loading rate (OLR) 1.2 ± 0.2 kg m -3  d -1 , and a total tet gene abundance in sludge was five times higher than the pilot-scale system (P anaerobic treatment of oxytetracycline production wastewater containing high concentrations of oxytetracycline with significantly lower generation of ARGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Suzuki, Mieko; Kato, Shin; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2013-01-01

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N G -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for IAE

  10. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakita, Hiroki [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Aoyama, Mineyoshi, E-mail: ao.mine@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Hussein, Mohamed Hamed [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo 11559 (Egypt); Maternal and Child Health Department, VACSERA, 51 Wizaret El-Zeraa-Agouza, Giza 22311 (Egypt); Suzuki, Mieko [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Kato, Shin [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Saitoh, Shinji [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Asai, Kiyofumi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for

  11. A chalcone isomerase-like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yasumasa; Takagi, Kyoko; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Ishiguro, Kanako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Saito, Norio; Kagami, Takashi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru

    2014-04-01

    Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathway is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways. Here we have identified three mutations within a gene that result in pale-colored flowers in the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). As the mutations lead to a reduction of the colorless flavonoid compound flavonol as well as of anthocyanins in the flower petal, the identified gene was designated enhancer of flavonoid production (EFP). EFP encodes a chalcone isomerase (CHI)-related protein classified as a type IV CHI protein. CHI is the second committed enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, but type IV CHI proteins are thought to lack CHI enzymatic activity, and their functions remain unknown. The spatio-temporal expression of EFP and structural genes encoding enzymes that produce flavonoids is very similar. Expression of both EFP and the structural genes is coordinately promoted by genes encoding R2R3-MYB and WD40 family proteins. The EFP gene is widely distributed in land plants, and RNAi knockdown mutants of the EFP homologs in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and torenia (Torenia hybrida) had pale-colored flowers and low amounts of anthocyanins. The flavonol and flavone contents in the knockdown petunia and torenia flowers, respectively, were also significantly decreased, suggesting that the EFP protein contributes in early step(s) of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to ensure production of flavonoid compounds. From these results, we conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation, and its function is conserved among diverse land plant species. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesh Iyer; Shwetha Ramkumar; Liang-Shih Fan

    2006-09-30

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the Water Gas Shift Reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by concurrent water-gas shift (WGS) and carbonation reactions to enhance H{sub 2} production by incessantly driving the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward and in-situ removing the CO2 product from the gas mixture. The spent sorbent is then regenerated by calcining it to produce a pure stream of CO{sub 2} and CaO which can be reused. However while performing the cyclic carbonation and calcination it was observed that the CO{sub 2} released during the in-situ calcination causes the deactivation of the iron oxide WGS catalyst. Detailed understanding of the iron oxide phase diagram helped in developing a catalyst pretreatment procedure using a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system to convert the deactivated catalyst back to its active magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) form. The water gas shift reaction was studied at different temperatures, different steam to carbon monoxide ratios (S/C) 3:1, 2:1, 1:1 and different total pressures ranging from 0-300 psig. The combined water gas shift and carbonation reaction was investigated at temperatures ranging from 600-700C, S/C ratio of 3:1 to 1:1 and at different pressures of 0-300 psig and the calcium looping process was found to produce high purity hydrogen with in-situ CO{sub 2} capture.

  13. Enhanced Productivity of a Lutein-Enriched Novel Acidophile Microalga Grown on Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccomyxa acidophila is an extremophile eukaryotic microalga isolated from the Tinto River mining area in Huelva, Spain. Coccomyxa acidophila accumulates relevant amounts of b-carotene and lutein, well-known carotenoids with many biotechnological applications, especially in food and health-related industries. The acidic culture medium (pH < 2.5 that prevents outdoor cultivation from non-desired microorganism growth is one of the main advantages of acidophile microalgae production. Conversely, acidophile microalgae growth rates are usually very low compared to common microalgae growth rates. In this work, we show that mixotrophic cultivation on urea efficiently enhances growth and productivity of an acidophile microalga up to typical values for common microalgae, therefore approaching acidophile algal production towards suitable conditions for feasible outdoor production. Algal productivity and potential for carotenoid accumulation were analyzed as a function of the nitrogen source supplied. Several nitrogen conditions were assayed: nitrogen starvation, nitrate and/or nitrite, ammonia and urea. Among them, urea clearly led to the best cell growth (~4 ´ 108 cells/mL at the end of log phase. Ammonium led to the maximum chlorophyll and carotenoid content per volume unit (220 mg·mL-1 and 35 mg·mL-1, respectively. Interestingly, no significant differences in growth rates were found in cultures grown on urea as C and N source, with respect to those cultures grown on nitrate and CO2 as nitrogen and carbon sources (control cultures. Lutein accumulated up to 3.55 mg·g-1 in the mixotrophic cultures grown on urea. In addition, algal growth in a shaded culture revealed the first evidence for an active xanthophylls cycle operative in acidophile microalgae.

  14. Random mutagenesis of aspergillus niger and process optimization for enhanced production of glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.; Nawaz, A.; Mukhtar, A.N.H.; Mansoor, H.M.Z.; Ameer, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study deals with the improvement of wild strain Aspergillus niger IIB-31 through random mutagenesis using chemical mutagens. The main aim of the work was to enhance the glucose oxidase (GOX) yield of wild strain (24.57+-0.01 U/g of cell mass) through random mutagenesis and process optimization. The wild strain of Aspergillus niger IIB-31 was treated with chemical mutagens such as Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and nitrous acid for this purpose. Mutagen treated 98 variants indicating the positive results were picked and screened for the glucose oxidase production using submerged fermentation. EMS treated E45 mutant strain gave the highest glucose oxidase production (69.47 + 0.01 U/g of cell mass), which was approximately 3-folds greater than the wild strain IIB-31. The preliminary cultural conditions for the production of glucose oxidase using submerged fermentation from strain E45 were also optimized. The highest yield of GOD was obtained using 8% glucose as carbon and 0.3% peptone as nitrogen source at a medium pH of 7.0 after an incubation period of 72 hrs at 30 degree. (author)

  15. Enhanced Formation of Methylglyoxal-Derived Advanced Glycation End Products in Arabidopsis Under Ammonium Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Borysiuk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate (NO3– and ammonium (NH4+ are prevalent nitrogen (N sources for plants. Although NH4+ should be the preferred form of N from the energetic point of view, ammonium nutrition often exhibits adverse effects on plant physiological functions and induces an important growth-limiting stress referred as ammonium syndrome. The effective incorporation of NH4+ into amino acid structures requires high activity of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glycolytic pathway. An unavoidable consequence of glycolytic metabolism is the production of methylglyoxal (MG, which is very toxic and inhibits cell growth in all types of organisms. Here, we aimed to investigate MG metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown on NH4+ as a sole N source. We found that changes in activities of glycolytic enzymes enhanced MG production and that markedly elevated MG levels superseded the detoxification capability of the glyoxalase pathway. Consequently, the excessive accumulation of MG was directly involved in the induction of dicarbonyl stress by introducing MG-derived advanced glycation end products (MAGEs to proteins. The severe damage to proteins was not within the repair capacity of proteolytic enzymes. Collectively, our results suggest the impact of MG (mediated by MAGEs formation in proteins in the contribution to NH4+ toxicity symptoms in Arabidopsis.

  16. Design of a Production Process to Enhance Optical Performance of 3(omega) Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.R.; Bruere, J.R.; Halpin, J.; Lucero, P.; Mills, S.; Bernacil, M.; Hackel, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Using the Phoenix pre-production conditioning facility we have shown that raster scanning of 3ω optics using a XeF excimer laser and mitigation of the resultant damage sites with a CO 2 laser can enhance their optical damage resistance. Several large-scale (43 cm x 43 cm) optics have been processed in this facility. A production facility capable of processing several large optics a week has been designed based on our experience in the pre-production facility. The facility will be equipped with UV conditioning lasers--351-nm XeF excimer lasers operating at 100 Hz and 23 ns. The facility will also include a CO 2 laser for damage mitigation, an optics stage for raster scanning large-scale optics, a damage mapping system (DMS) that images large-scale optics and can detect damage sites or precursors as small as ∼ 15 (micro)m, and two microscopes to image damage sites with ∼ 5 (micro)m resolution. The optics will be handled in a class 100 clean room, within the facility that will be maintained at class 1000

  17. Enhancement of sperm motility and viability by turmeric by-product dietary supplementation in roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjing; Kanno, Chihiro; Oshima, Eiki; Kuzuma, Yukiko; Kim, Sung Woo; Bai, Hanako; Takahashi, Masashi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Nagano, Masashi; Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Kawahara, Manabu

    2017-10-01

    Improving sperm motility and viability are major goals to improve efficiency in the poultry industry. In this study, the effects of supplemental dietary turmeric by-product (TBP) from commercial turmeric production on sperm motility, viability, and antioxidative status were examined in domestic fowl. Mature Rhode Island Red roosters were divided into two groups - controls (groupC) without TBP administration and test subjects (groupT) fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.8g of TBP/day in a temperature-controlled rearing facility (Experiment 1) and 1.6g/day under heat stress (Experiment 2) for 4 weeks. In Experiment 1, TBP dietary supplementation increased the sperm motility variables straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, and linearity based on a computer-assisted semen analysis, 2 weeks following TBP supplementation. In Experiment 2, using flow cytometry, sperm viability at 3 and 4 weeks following TBP supplementation was greater in Group T than C, and this increase was consistent with a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at 2 and 4 weeks. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrate that dietary supplementation with TBP enhanced sperm motility in the controlled-temperature conditions as well as sperm viability, and reduced ROS generation when heat stress prevailed. Considering its potential application in a range of environments, TBP may serve as an economical and potent antioxidant to improve rooster fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical variables in the performance of a productivity-enhanced solar still

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2013-12-01

    A new and sustainable modification has been introduced into the conventional solar still, considerably increasing its productivity. This enhancement in the solar still productivity is achieved without forsaking the basic features of the still such as low cost, ease of handling, sustainability, water quality, material availability, low maintenance and space conservation. The introduced modification is in the form of a slowly rotating hollow drum within the still cavity that allows the formation of thin water films, which evaporate rapidly. Several environmental and operational parameters attribute to the optimization of the new still design. Environmental factors refer primarily to weather conditions such as solar intensity, relative humidity, ambient temperature and wind speed and direction. Operational variables include drum speed, brine depth in the basin, cover cooling and other related parameters such as the materials used and the still configuration. The influence of these parameters is discussed and their impact on productivity is investigated in detailed order to identify existing correlations and optimize design and operation of the new system. An error analysis was conducted for all experimental data obtained from this study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Microwave Enhanced Direct Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feedstock for Energy Efficient Production of Ethylene and Propylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulman, Holly; Fall, Morgana; Wagner, Eric; Bowlin, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This project demonstrated microwave cracking of ethane with good product conversion and ethylene selectivity, with a short residence time (∼0.001 sec). The laboratory scale equipment was designed and built, along with concept designs for larger scale implementation. The system was operated below atmospheric pressures, in the range of 15-55 torr, with argon as a carrier gas. The measured products included hydrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethylene. The results followed similar trends to those predicted by the modeling software SPYRO(reg s ign), with the exception that the microwave appeared to produce slightly lower amounts of ethylene and methane, although enhanced analytical analysis should reduce the difference. Continued testing will be required to verify these results and quantify the energy consumption of microwave vs. conventional. The microwave cracking process is an attractive option due to the possibility of selectively heating the reaction volume rather than the reactor walls, which may allow novel reactor designs that result in more efficient production of ethylene. Supplemental studies are needed to continue the laboratory testing and refine processing parameters.

  20. Alanine Enhances Aminoglycosides-Induced ROS Production as Revealed by Proteomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-zhou Ye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite-enabled killing of antibiotic-resistant pathogens by antibiotics is an attractive strategy to manage antibiotic resistance. Our previous study demonstrated that alanine or/and glucose increased the killing efficacy of kanamycin on antibiotic-resistant bacteria, whose action is through up-regulating TCA cycle, increasing proton motive force and enhancing antibiotic uptake. Despite the fact that alanine altered several metabolic pathways, other mechanisms could be potentially involved in alanine-mediated kanamycin killing of bacteria which remains to be explored. In the present study, we adopted proteomic approach to analyze the proteome changes induced by exogenous alanine. Our results revealed that the expression of three outer membrane proteins was altered and the deletion of nagE and fadL decreased the intracellular kanamycin concentration, implying their possible roles in mediating kanamycin transport. More importantly, the integrated analysis of proteomic and metabolomic data pointed out that alanine metabolism could connect to riboflavin metabolism that provides the source for reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Functional studies confirmed that alanine treatment together with kanamycin could promote ROS production that in turn potentiates the killing of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Further investigation showed that alanine repressed the transcription of antioxidant-encoding genes, and alanine metabolism to riboflavin metabolism connected with riboflavin metabolism through TCA cycle, glucogenesis pathway and pentose phosphate pathway. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which alanine facilitates kanamycin killing of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via promoting ROS production.