WorldWideScience

Sample records for enhancing regional security

  1. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers

  2. Enhancing water security in a rapidly developing shale gas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Holding

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Initiatives and tools enhancing water security in the region include strategic partnerships and stakeholder collaborations, policy and regulation development, and data collection and distribution efforts. The contributions and limitations of each of these are discussed. A vulnerability mapping framework is presented which addresses data gaps and provides a tool for decision-making surrounding risk to water quality from various hazards. An example vulnerability assessment was conducted for wastewater transport along pipeline and trucking corridors.

  3. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  4. Enhancing implementation security of QKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) can achieve information-theoretic security, which is a provable security against any eavesdropping, given that all the devices the sender and the receiver employ operate exactly as the theory of security requires. Unfortunately, however, it is difficult for practical devices to meet all such requirements, and therefore more works have to be done toward guaranteeing information-theoretic security in practice, i.e., implementation security. In this paper, we review our recent efforts to enhance implementation security. We also have a brief look at a flaw in security proofs and present how to fix it.

  5. Challenges to regional security and disarmament measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, K.P.

    1993-01-01

    The new agenda for peace is providing an extremely useful road map for current international and regional discussions about new ways and means of securing and maintaining peace and security. It underlines the central role of the United nations Security Council in relation to international conflicts and the maintenance of the peace, but it underlines an increasingly important role of the regional organisations as well. In all, there is a recognition that the end of the cold war has generated possibilities for peace-building that have not existed before. To take advantage of these opportunities requires an enhancement of consultation and dialogue at national, regional and global levels so that all nations and all peoples feel and know that they have a stake in the new peace and security architecture that will govern international relations into the twenty first century

  6. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  7. Analyzing Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla

    2003-01-01

    NSA's Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux enhances Linux by providing a specification language for security policies and a Flask-like architecture with a security server for enforcing policies defined in the language...

  8. Security assurances and regional stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses whether and how security assurances affect political stability in geographic regions. Before embarking on what is necessarily a limited analysis of a complex subject, I point out that the subject is by no means new. For centuries, vast areas of the world have been affected by forces used against them by more powerful States, which at one time or another incorporated large parts of them into overseas colonies or contiguous empires. The new factors are the emancipation of those areas into independent regions, made up of States that play their own parts in international affairs, and the possession by a handful of Powers, outside or on the edge of those regions, of a specific form of superior force: nuclear weapons. (author)

  9. Threats to economic security of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Salikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of economic security are in sight of the researchers for more than two decades. Today in the economic literature widely presents the conceptual aspects of economic safety of the state. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of this multifaceted problem lies in the researches of many domestic and foreign scientists, which are the basic levels of economic security. Among the priority levels include, in our view, the regional level (meso-level and actual problems of economic security studied to date lack detail. Economic development regions of the country has its own specifics, which is projected to the achieving of regional and national economic security. The article summarizes the approaches to definition of essence of the category “economic security of the region” and was given its author’s interpretation, considers the reasons of appearance and development of crisis situations causing threats to the economic security of the region. Given that the prevention of threats and reduction of their consequences is the basis of regional economic security, the article identifies the main threats to economic security, as well as the peculiarities of their manifestations (for example, the most significant threats to economic security of the Voronezh region, as well as the proposed activities in support of regional economic security and stated objectives of regional economic policy, the solution of which is aimed at ensuring the economic security of the region. In addition, it is proved that the actual problems of economic security must be constantly in sight of the regional leadership and find its solution in government documents and policy programmes promising socio-economic development of the region.

  10. Development and analysis of security policies in security enhanced Android

    OpenAIRE

    Rimando, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines Security Enhanced Android. Both its policy and its additional security features are explored. The policy is examined in depth, providing a better understanding of the security provided by SE Android. We analyze the default SE Android policy. We identify a potential weakness and change the policy to facilitate control over communication channels. A proof-of-concept set of applications is developed to demonstrate ho...

  11. Regional Security Partners: The Potential for Collective Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Jimmy

    1999-01-01

    ...." The threat of big power and regional conflicts has diminished. However, the security landscape is now characterized by political fragmentation, Third World chaos, failed states, and ethnic conflicts among others...

  12. Security Inequalities in North America: Reassessing Regional Security Complex Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kilroy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article re-evaluates earlier work done by the authors on Regional Security Complex Theory (RSCT in North America, using sectoral analysis initially developed by Buzan and Waever, but also adding the variables of institutions, identity, and interests. These variables are assessed qualitatively in the contemporary context on how they currently impress upon the process of securitization within sectoral relations between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The article reviews the movement from bilateral security relations between these states to the development of a trilateral response to regional security challenges post- 9/11. It further addresses the present period and what appears to be a security process derailed by recent political changes and security inequalities, heightened by the election of Donald Trump in 2016. The article argues that while these three states initially evinced a convergence of regional security interests after 9/11, which did create new institutional responses, under the current conditions, divergence in political interests and security inequalities have reduced the explanatory power of RSCT in North America. Relations between states in North American are becoming less characterized by the role of institutions and interests and more by identity politics in the region.

  13. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  14. Security in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group began by discussing the meaning of security in terms of its comprehensive, cooperative and human dimensions. In doing so, the members of the Group focused on major issues which could endanger regional stability and non-proliferation. In order to identify the major problems and sources of tension, it was agreed that the Group would concentrate on two sub-regions, namely, East Asia and South East Asia and then to compare these briefly with South Asia and Latin America, the aim being to identify common security concerns. The discussion was framed in terms of: (i) evaluating the adequacy of the existing institutional framework for security cooperation; (ii) evaluating linkages between economic development and security; and (iii) seeking ways to reduce tension and to increase security in the region. Discussion was focused on the broad subject of security risks and challenges as well as opportunities for effective cooperative security in the Asia Pacific region. Attention was devoted to ways of changing Cold War mentalities, which still hinder the normalization process and the achievement of comprehensive security cooperation among the countries in the region

  15. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nonproliferation and Arms Control Analysis Dept.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  16. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  17. Enhanced security in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappier, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the security in the nuclear industry. After 9/11, Canada's nuclear regulator - the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) - determined that the entire industry (including its own organization) faced a need for significant enhancements in their approach to security.

  18. Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... at 1901, 1903, October 13, 2006) which require the development of a strategic plan to enhance the security of the international supply chain, including protocols for the expeditious resumption of the flow of trade following...

  19. Enhancing regional collaboration -- taking the next step

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, Jennie M.

    2007-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Enhancing regional collaboration has been identified as one of the eight National Priorities for Homeland Security by the president of the United States. While South Carolina has made significant efforts in expanding regional collaboration, such as the creation of regional Counter Terrorism Coordinating Councils (CTCCs), there is still much work to be done. There are several teams and capabilities in place throughout the state, but they are uncoordinated, lack structure,...

  20. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul

    2015-01-01

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening

  1. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  2. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  3. Minimum deterrence and regional security. Section 2. Other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azikiwe, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Compared to European political and security circumstance, minimum deterrence is less an illusion in other regions where weapon free zones already exist. It will continue to be relevant to the security of other regions. Strategic arms limitation should be pursued vigorously in a constructive and pragmatic manner, bearing in mind the need to readjust to new global challenges. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is the linchpin on which the Non-proliferation Treaty rests

  4. A REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON RADIOLOGICAL SECURITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Fred A.; Murray, A.; Dickerson, S.; Tynan, Douglas M.; Rawl, Richard R.; Hoo, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, Australia, through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) created the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project and partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to form the Southeast Asian Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP). The intent of the RRSP/RSRS partnership is to cooperate with regional neighbors in Southeast Asia to improve the security of their radioactive sources. This Southeast Asian Partnership supports NNSA and IAEA objectives to improve the security of high risk radioactive sources by raising awareness of the need, and developing national programs, to: protect and control such materials; improve the security of such materials and recover and condition the materials no longer in use. To date, agreed upon joint activities have included assistance with the improvement of regulatory infrastructure for the control of radioactive sources, training on the physical protection of radioactive sources, training and assistance with the search, location, identification and securing of orphan radioactive sources and overall assistance with implementing the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. Since the inception of the partnership, ten Southeast Asian nations have participated in a range of activities from receiving general training on the security of radioactive sources to receiving specialized equipment and training to locate orphan or abandoned radioactive sources. By having a shared vision and objectives for radioactive source security in the Southeast Asian region, ANSTO and NNSA have been able to develop a successful partnership which has effectively utilized the technical, financial and political resources of each contributing partner. An example of how this partnership works is the cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency, Indonesia (BAPETEN) to

  5. Civil-military relations : enhancing international security

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis describes how civil-military relations at the international level enhance international security, in particular, the way of development of international society in trying to orient its progress towards international peace, security and sustainable development. It focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The International Committee of Re...

  6. An Enhanced Vigenere Cipher For Data Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aized Amin Soofi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In todays world the amount of data that is exchanged has increased in the last few years so securing the information has become a crucial task. Cryptography is an art of converting plain text message into unreadable message. Encryption algorithms play an important role in information security systems. Encryption is considered as one of the most powerful tool for secure transmission of data over the communication network. Vigenere technique is an example of polyalphabetic stream cipher it has various limitations such as Kasiski and Friedman attack to find the length of encryption key. In this paper an enhanced version of traditional vigenere cipher has been proposed that eliminates the chances of Kaisiski and Friedman attack. Proposed technique also provides better security against cryptanalysis and pattern prediction.

  7. Modeling Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications for Analysis (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla; Leonard, Elizabeth; Pradella, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux is a modification of Linux initially released by NSA in January 2001 that provides a language for specifying Linux security policies and, as in the Flask architecture, a security server...

  8. Enhancement of Email Security in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fauzi Haris; Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Saaidi Ismail; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    Task to protect network and data security is not simple and easy. The more advance ICT technology available in the market, the more dependability to the knowledge, skills and appropriate tools would be in order one to cater these threats. Cyber security threats can be considered almost impossible to be demolished or at least to be avoided totally and what we really need is technical capabilities that may include appropriate knowledge and tools to reduce the cyber threats in the organization. Email is one of the important today's application that is being used by many people all around the globe either they are in corporate organizations, government bodies, students and teachers. The total number of worldwide email accounts is expected to increase from 3.3 billion accounts in 2012 to over 4.3 billion accounts by year-end 2016. This represents an average annual growth rate of 6% over the next four years [1]. Parallel with the increment of the usage, number of abusive and misuse of the email is also reported either in the form of spamming, delivery of malicious file attachments, phishing and others. These show the importance to tighten up the security of the email. This paper will discuss and share actions that have been taken by IT Center to enhance the security of official email application. (author)

  9. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of regional security and arms control in the South-East Asia raises some new and difficult issues. No approach to ensuring regional security could be complete without military dimension including the following categories: regional arms control; global arms control measure; confidence building measures that are designed to enhance the transparency of defense policies; confidence building measures that encourage cooperation among the military forces in the region

  10. Security-Enhanced Push Button Configuration for Home Smart Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junghee; Park, Taejoon

    2017-06-08

    With the emergence of smart and converged home services, the need for the secure and easy interplay of various devices has been increased. Push Button Configuration (PBC) is one of the technologies proposed for easy set-up of a secure session between IT and consumer devices. Although the Wi-Fi Direct specification explicitly states that all devices must support the PBC method, its applicability is very limited. This is because the security vulnerability of PBC can be maliciously exploited so that attackers can make illegitimate sessions with consumer devices. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel Security-enhanced PBC (SePBC) scheme with which we can uncover suspicious or malicious devices. The proposed mechanism has several unique features. First, we develop a secure handshake distance measurement protocol by preventing an adversary sitting outside the region from maliciously manipulating its distance to be fake. Second, it is compatible with the original Wi-Fi PBC without introducing a brand-new methodology. Finally, SePBC uses lightweight operations without CPU-intensive cryptography computation and employs inexpensive H/W. Moreover, it needs to incur little overhead when there is no attack. This paper also designs and implements the proposed SePBC in the real world. Our experimental results and analysis show that the proposed SePBC scheme effectively defeats attacks on PBC while minimizing the modification of the original PBC equipment.

  11. Security Situation in China’s Neighboring Regions: New Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU FENG

    2016-01-01

    Recent Development of Security Structure in East Asia Region:Alliance Politics Has Entered a New Strategic Active Stage Since the end of the Cold War in1991,the East Asia Region has witnessed quite a number of changes in security situation.However,there have been no decisive changes in regional security order,power distribution or the strategic choices of major states in the region.The Obama Adminis-

  12. The Current Status of the Economic Security of Poltava Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarevska Olha M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of economic security of Poltava region in 2012–2016 was analyzed, the analysis was conducted using the developed methodology for assessing economic security of region, which is based on the joint use of indicative and functional methods. In order to assess the status of economic security of region, a system of indicators, divided by economic security components, has been formed using functional approach. The information-analytical provision of assessment has been formed using statistical information on the socio-economic development of the region. The influence of factors of destabilizing and destimulative nature on the status of economic security of the region has been researched. It has been concluded that the economic security of Poltava region is unsatisfactory, despite the existence of some positive tendencies, which at present are not sustainable.

  13. Issues of Human Security and Educational Development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Kpolovie, Peter James; Amaele, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from documents, observation, interview and questionnaire, we highlighted the role of issues of human security and its impact on the educational development of the Niger Delta region as well as means of enhancing human security in Nigeria. This article is a conceptual and methodological breakthrough in Nigeria's academic landscape where…

  14. Enhancing Parliamentary Oversight for Effective Security Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-09

    Jun 9, 2015 ... transition from violent conflict or prolonged authoritarian rule. .... State whose primary interest was to secure his regime and prevent ... June 12, 1993 presidential elections triggered the emergence of violent non-state security.

  15. Enhancing Food Security through Information and Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... national food security, and prior approval of the government's National Food Security and Nutrition Policy 2006-2015. In alignment with these governmental commitments, this project will enable researchers to provide policymakers with practical and sustainable solutions that directly respond to national food security goals ...

  16. Food security in the MENA region: the imperative rehabilitation of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 حزيران (يونيو) 2013 ... Food security in the MENA region: the imperative rehabilitation of agriculture ... Overcoming the food security challenge necessarily requires sustainably ... Local climate change data is securing food and livelihoods in southern Africa ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics ...

  17. Security-Enhanced Autonomous Network Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring reliable communication in next-generation space networks requires a novel network management system to support greater levels of autonomy and greater awareness of the environment and assets. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed a security-enhanced autonomous network management (SEANM) approach for space networks through cross-layer negotiation and network monitoring, analysis, and adaptation. The underlying technology is bundle-based delay/disruption-tolerant networking (DTN). The SEANM scheme allows a system to adaptively reconfigure its network elements based on awareness of network conditions, policies, and mission requirements. Although SEANM is generically applicable to any radio network, for validation purposes it has been prototyped and evaluated on two specific networks: a commercial off-the-shelf hardware test-bed using Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 Wi-Fi devices and a military hardware test-bed using AN/PRC-154 Rifleman Radio platforms. Testing has demonstrated that SEANM provides autonomous network management resulting in reliable communications in delay/disruptive-prone environments.

  18. INTRODUCTION: DESERTIFICATION AND SECURITY - PERSPECTIVES FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003...

  19. Information security of power enterprises of North-Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.

    2018-05-01

    The role of information technologies in providing technological security for energy enterprises is a component of the economic security for the northern Arctic region in general. Applying instruments and methods of information protection modelling of the energy enterprises' business process in the northern Arctic region (such as Arkhenergo and Komienergo), the authors analysed and identified most frequent risks of information security. With the analytic hierarchy process based on weighting factor estimations, information risks of energy enterprises' technological processes were ranked. The economic estimation of the information security within an energy enterprise considers weighting factor-adjusted variables (risks). Investments in information security systems of energy enterprises in the northern Arctic region are related to necessary security elements installation; current operating expenses on business process protection systems become materialized economic damage.

  20. Indonesian Sea Power and Regional Maritime Security Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsetio Marsetio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the regional maritime security challenges facing Indonesia. As it is known that entering to the 21st century has come a new term in regional architecture in the Asia-Pacific region, namely the Indo-Pacific region. This region consists of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. Both of these areas became more interconnected than in the previous period. These two regions became a single, significant system in the global order. Key players in the Indo-Pacific region are China, India and the United States. Of course, their actions have created new challenges in maritime security. These challenges include maritime disputes, pirates, and maritime power competition. The dispute in the South China Sea has spawned a security problem in the Asia Pacific region that Indonesia must face in the future.

  1. Food and nutrition security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Dangol, Narendra

    2018-01-01

    The status of food and nutrition security and its underlying factors in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is investigated. In this region, one third to a half of children (security in the HKH region. To achieve sustainable food and nutrition security in the mountains, this study suggests a multi-sectoral integrated approach with consideration of nutritional aspects in all development processes dealing with economic, social, agricultural and public health issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, conflict in one country tends to affect its neighbours, mainly through the flow of refugees and weapons. Building on work carried out during Phase I ... Extrants. Rapports. Towards Developing a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa: Developing Responses to Human (In) Security-Phase Two ...

  3. The Emerging Architecture of a Regional Security Complex in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-03

    Mar 3, 2015 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 .... of International Security Studies by appropriating Regional Security .... collaborative network is also embedded across Saharan and Sahelian Africa, ... (previously located in the city of Baga in Nigeria's Borno State), fell into the.

  4. Communications and Integration Enhancements to Improve Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sando, Terrance W

    2007-01-01

    .... Homeland Security responses. These technology enhancements and processes combined with the force capabilities that the National Guard has recently created, when integrated with other national capabilities, will greatly improve...

  5. Enhancing Parliamentary Oversight for Effective Security Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of the most essential public good – security in accordance with the will of the people is very germane to the consolidation of democratic governance. Though, the Nigerian state is set to inaugurate her 8th National Assembly on 9th June, 2015, the capacity of the nation's parliamentary body (National Assembly) ...

  6. Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation: the role of the People’s Republic of China, the emerging market in biofuels in Southeast Asia, and diverse feed-in tariffs for renewable energy. The three main ways regional cooperation can strengthen national policies on energy security are (i) sharing information and knowledge to create a sound evidence base for policies, (ii) agreeing on...

  7. The Need for a Regional Security System Multinational Coast Guard Unit in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    the teaching staff of Staff Group 11 A (Mr Matt Bonnott, Dr Thomas Huber, LTC Andrew McIntyre) and Mr William Knight for officiating, my oral...assist me on this journey. Finally, to my wife Vonette, son Isaiah , daughter Makayla, my mother Muriel (this one is for you), and my friends (too...for the implementation of a new security risk management mechanism to enhance the security of the RSS sub-region. According to Thomas Norman in the

  8. Entanglement enhances security in quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Secret sharing is a protocol in which a 'boss' wants to send a classical message secretly to two 'subordinates', such that none of the subordinates is able to know the message alone, while they can find it if they cooperate. Quantum mechanics is known to allow for such a possibility. We analyze tolerable quantum bit error rates in such secret sharing protocols in the physically relevant case when the eavesdropping is local with respect to the two channels of information transfer from the boss to the two subordinates. We find that using entangled encoding states is advantageous to legitimate users of the protocol. We therefore find that entanglement is useful for secure quantum communication. We also find that bound entangled states with positive partial transpose are not useful as a local eavesdropping resource. Moreover, we provide a criterion for security in secret sharing--a parallel of the Csiszar-Koerner criterion in single-receiver classical cryptography.

  9. Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Helmand and Kandahar, were as expected, but the ANDSF were also forced to confront insecurity at a higher level than expected in other parts of the...creating a sense of insecurity that undercuts perceptions of the Afghan government’s ability to provide security. The increase in violence over the...able to defeat the ANDSF on the battlefield in 2016, countering insurgent propaganda will remain a challenge as the insurgents advertise the perceived

  10. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  11. Disarmament and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main issues of the conference were focused on current political trends related to outstanding disputes between the state in Asia-Pacific region. Second cluster od issues which merits careful examination was concerned with the relevance of various arms control and disarmament measures. The tools of arms control and disarmament are proving to be more versatile, flexible instruments for security-building than was the case during the cold-war period. The third item of interest for many states in the Asia-Pacific region is the question of promoting new forums for regional dialogues on security matters

  12. Regional disarmament and security issues. Report of working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenhill, J.

    1994-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in building cooperation in the Asia-pacific region in remarkably short period of time. Problems of regional disarmament are analysed by linking the economic and security issues. International cooperation regimes, whether in the military sphere, such as the Non-proliferation treaty, or in the trade sphere such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, inevitably impose restrictions on the autonomy of member States. The integrity of the regime depends on countries' acceptance of the obligations it imposes. The task ahead is to convince all countries in the region that cooperation in the security sphere will be of even greater long-term benefit

  13. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    North America, Europe, Russia, Japan, South Korea, China, India , Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.24 The Non...Sea.47 Additionally, he sees competition and conflict over water arising in the river basins of the Nile, Jordon, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers . This... interlinks with oil competition, as it is the same geographic region.48 Finally, he views Africa as an additional hot spot as there are many

  14. INTEGRATED ESTIMATION OF FOOD SECURITY IN THE REGION (BY THE EXAMPLE OF SAMARA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana I. Nesterova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of integrated assessment of food security in the region. A comprehensive analysis of food security in the Samara region in the dynamics is given, and its results are compared with the numbers of the Volga Federal District as a whole. Recommendations on further improvement of the agricultural sector are suggested.

  15. Danish Interests in Regional Security Institutions in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    For the past decade, peace and security in East Africa have gained increasing focus internationally. The region has experienced armed conflicts, civil wars, rebellion, drought and famine. Yet, at the same time, there is an emerging ambition among a number of African states to handle security issues...... on the continent independently. Such ambitions have fostered a variety of military capacity building programmes supported by external donors. The present report explores how up until now Denmark has sought to contribute to strengthening political and military security in East Africa. This has mainly been done...... through capacity building projects anchored in different regional security institutions. The report illuminates some of the risks that such capacity building projects might confront. Furthermore the report points out some of the challenges that exist in the cooperation between the Ministry of Foreign...

  16. Laboratory research irradiators with enhanced security features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Over the years BRIT has developed state of art technology for laboratory research irradiators which are suited most for carrying out research and development works in the fields of radiation processing. These equipment which house radioactive sources up to 14 kCi are having a number of features to meet users requirements. They are manufactured as per the national and International standards of safety codes. The paper deals with design, development and application aspects of laboratory research irradiator called Gamma Chamber and also the new security features planned for incorporation in the equipment. Equipment are being regularly manufactured, supplied and installed by BRIT in India and Abroad. There is a number of such equipment in use at different institutions and are found to be very useful. (author)

  17. Laboratory research irradiators with enhanced security features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Piyush

    2014-01-01

    Over the years BRIT has developed state of art technology for laboratory research irradiators which are suited most for carrying out research and development works in the fields of radiation processing. These equipment which house radioactive sources up to 14 kCi are having a number of features to meet users requirements. They are manufactured as per the national and International standards of safety codes. The paper deals with design, development and application aspects of laboratory research irradiator called Gamma Chamber and also the new security features planned for incorporation in the equipment. Equipment are being regularly manufactured, supplied and installed by BRIT in India and Abroad. There are a number of such equipment in use at different institutions and are found to be very useful. (author)

  18. Control Mechanism and Security Region for Intentional Islanding Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    in the grid. The concept of Islanding Security Region (ISR) has been proposed as an organic composition of the developed control mechanism. The purpose of this control mechanism is to maintain the frequency stability and eventually the security of power supply to the customers, by utilizing resources from...... generation and demand sides. The control mechanism can be extended to consider the distributed generations like wind power and other innovative technologies such as the Demand as Frequency controlled Reserve (DFR) technique in the future....

  19. The Arctic Region: A Requirement for New Security Architecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    cooperation and mutually beneficial partnerships . Denmark’s security policy states that existing international law and established forums of cooperation...increase leadership in multinational forum and, develop comprehensive partnerships without the need to create a new security organization. Figure 3...Arctic region. Endnotes 1 Government of Canada, “Canada’s Arctic foreign policy” (Ottawa, Canada, 2007), 2. 2 WWF Global, “Arctic oil and gas”, http

  20. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  1. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments.

  2. Cooperative monitoring and its role in regional security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biringer, K.; Olsen, J.; Lincoln, R.; Wehling, F. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Cooperative monitoring systems can play an important part in promoting the implementation of regional cooperative security agreements. These agreements advance the national security interests of the United States in a post Cold War environment. Regional issues as widely varying as nuclear nonproliferation, trade and environmental pollution can be the source of tensions which may escalate to armed conflict which could have global implications. The Office of National Security Policy Analysis at the US Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in seeking ways to promote regional cooperation that can reduce the threats posed by regional conflict. DOE technologies and technical expertise can contribute to developing solutions to a wide variety of these international problems. Much of this DOE expertise has been developed in support of the US nuclear weapons and arms control missions. It is now being made available to other agencies and foreign governments in their search for regional security and cooperation. This report presents two examples of interest to DOE in which monitoring technologies could be employed to promote cooperation through experimentation. The two scenarios include nuclear transparency in Northeast Asia and environmental restoration in the Black Sea. Both offer the potential for the use of technology to promote regional cooperation. The issues associated with both of these monitoring applications are presented along with examples of appropriate monitoring technologies, potential experiments and potential DOE contributions to the scenarios.

  3. Secure Handshake in Wi-Fi Connection (A Secure and Enhanced Communication Protocol)

    OpenAIRE

    Ranbir Sinha; Nishant Behar; Devendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a concept of enhancing the security in wireless communication. A Computer Network is an interconnected group of autonomous computing nodes, which use a well-defined, mutually agreed set of rules and conventions known as protocols, interact with one-another meaningfully and allow resource sharing preferably in a predictable and controllable manner. Communication has a major impact on today’s business. It is desired to communicate data with high security. These days wireless...

  4. Enhancing QKD security with weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinholt, Jacob M.; Troupe, James E.

    2016-10-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 10/24/2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 11/8/2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. In the late 1980s, Aharonov and colleagues developed the notion of a weak measurement of a quantum observable that does not appreciably disturb the system.1, 2 The measurement results are conditioned on both the pre-selected and post-selected state of the quantum system. While any one measurement reveals very little information, by making the same measurement on a large ensemble of identically prepared pre- and post-selected (PPS) states and averaging the results, one may obtain what is known as the weak value of the observable with respect to that PPS ensemble. Recently, weak measurements have been proposed as a method of assessing the security of QKD in the well-known BB84 protocol.3 This weak value augmented QKD protocol (WV-QKD) works by additionally requiring the receiver, Bob, to make a weak measurement of a particular observable prior to his strong measurement. For the subset of measurement results in which Alice and Bob's measurement bases do not agree, the weak measurement results can be used to detect any attempt by an eavesdropper, Eve, to correlate her measurement results with Bob's. Furthermore, the well-known detector blinding attacks, which are known to perfectly correlate Eve's results with Bob's without being caught by conventional BB84 implementations, actually make the eavesdropper more visible in the new WV-QKD protocol. In this paper, we will introduce the WV-QKD protocol and discuss its generalization to the 6-state single qubit protocol. We will discuss the types of weak measurements that are optimal for this protocol, and compare the predicted performance of the 6- and 4-state WV-QKD protocols.

  5. Challenges and opportunities for more integrated regional food security policy in the Caribbean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Lowitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Community (CARICOM has recognized regional integration as an important development strategy for addressing the unique vulnerabilities of its member small island developing states (SIDS. Food security in the Caribbean is a fundamental social and ecological challenge in which the dynamics of regional integration are increasingly playing out. CARICOM members have subsequently identified a number of shared food security problems and have endorsed regional goals and approaches to address them; however, progress towards solutions has been slow. Recognizing that evidence-based studies on the potential factors limiting sustained progress are lacking, we undertook a comparative policy analysis to understand better the various approaches and framings of food security at national and regional levels with a view to assessing coherence. We identify considerable divergence in how regional and local policy institutions frame and approach food security problems in CARICOM and then identify ways through which the policy integration objectives for enhanced regional food security might be progressed, with a particular focus on social learning.

  6. The management of the state reserving system in the aspect of the regional economic security supporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Yefimovich Zemskov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of the state material reserve system to ensure economic security of the region. A classification of reserves ensuring economic security of the region was elaborated. A scheme of systematic and structural representation of the state material reserve in order to improve the economic security of the region was suggested. Optimization of operational control of the territorial offices, factories, and settlements of custody within the framework of the state material reserve is one of the most effective instruments to enhance the functioning of the whole system. To solve the problem of technological processes optimization of products acquisition and storage in manufacturings, plants and points of consignment storage of the state material reserve, a static economic-mathematical model was developed. The results can be used to develop appropriate computer systems for support of effective management decisions in the system of state of material reserve.

  7. Comprehensive Assessment of Industries Economic Security: Regional Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Viktorovna Akberdina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the interaction of the forms of network integration and the development of complimentary production networks in terms of economic security. Currently, the most developed countries are occurring a transition from the industrial society to the information society. The industry 4.0 as the continuous communication at all levels and characterizes the production processes, in which technologies and devices interact automatically in the value-added chain. Under these new conditions, the former types of organizational structures of economic entities are not sufficiently effective. Therefore, there is a need to create new, modern types of organizational structures. One of these types is network structures. Currently, they are becoming characteristic features of the new economy. Regional economic security depends on internal and external threats, which lead to unstable situations. Regional crisis situations are influenced by both macroeconomic crisis processes and local features of economic and social development, as well as the resource potential, geographical location, national and other peculiarities. The article defines the specific characteristics of the regions of the Ural Federal District, as well as the current situation of the regional economy and threats to the region. The authors have evaluated the economic security of complimentary production networks at the regional level. This evaluation has revealed the interconnection between complimentary production networks and the construction industry in the national economy. We have defined the economic security of complimentary production networks and specified the concept of complimentary production networks. The research findings may be applied by organizations as a new perspective of industry using network forms related to economic security

  8. Redefining Maritime Security Threats in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Arjun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This occasional paper analyzes the general security issues and trends relating to maritime trafficking of radiological and nuclear material using small vessels, minor ports, and unchecked areas of coastline existing in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region today. By the Eastern Indian Ocean Region is meant the area starting from the tip of the Indian peninsula in the west to the Straits of Malacca in the east. It lays focus on the potential sources of nuclear or radiological material that may be trafficked here. It further undertakes a study of the terrorist groups active in the region as well as the multinational or national interdiction organizations that have been created to counter maritime threats. It also seeks to discern the various technologies for detecting materials of concern available in the area. Finally, it ascertains possible methods and technologies to improve the maritime security system in the region.

  9. Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I. Y.; Yeom, H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment…

  10. Enhancing Global Health Security: US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W

    2018-03-07

    US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements. DPP partners collected data for each PN to further capacity building efforts. Thus far, 9 countries have completed military pandemic plans, 10 have developed national pandemic influenza plans, 9 have developed military support to civil authorities plans, and 11 have developed disaster management strategic work plans. There have been 20 national exercises conducted since 2009. DPP was cited as key in implementation of Ebola response plans in PNs, facilitated development of disaster management agencies in DPP PNs, and trained nearly 800 individuals. DPP enhanced PNs' ability to prepare and respond to crises, fostering relationships between international agencies, and improving civil-military coordination through both national and regional capacity building. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 11).

  11. Transportation Security : federal action needed to enhance security efforts : statement of Peter Guerrero, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-09

    Mr. Guerrero's testimony examines (1) challenges in securing the nation's transportation system; (2) actions transportation operators, as well as state and local governments, have taken since September 11 to enhance security; (3) the federal role in ...

  12. Substantiation the strategic priorities of innovation regional development security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Markovna Golova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article are discussed methodological challenges for strategic priorities ensure security innovation regional development. It is shown that in modern conditions innovative safety is an independent and very important area of security of the region. This innovative security should be understood as a qualitative characteristic that gives insight into the regional socio-economic systems requirements and challenges of the innovation economy, including their ability to recombination. It is considered the basic patterns and features of mutual influence and interaction of innovative and traditional socio-economic development of the territories. The necessity of the joint integrated treatment of innovation and socio-economic development in the management of innovative safety of the region is founded. It is given suggestions on fundamental approaches to the solution of the problem of selecting priority areas for strengthening the sources of innovation development successfully tailored to specific territories. The main positions are illustrated in the example the regions of the Ural Federal District.

  13. Regional security in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Amba

    2002-01-01

    Ever since the weapons of mass destruction have become an international currency of power, the efforts for their control and elimination have also developed simultaneously, as an important stream in international politics. Countries all over the globe have strived to evolve various devices to ensure security against these weapons at international, regional as well as national levels. One such regional effort for nuclear arms control is the creation of nuclear-free zone. The nuclear free zones present a potentially effective option to supplement the global nuclear disarmament regime. This is an endeavour towards crisis management, reducing the threat perception, common security and confidence building. In addition, they help in creating a regional security order by developing a code of conduct which binds external actors as well as the regional countries. They are meant to reduce if not eliminate the likelihood of a region getting involved into the war of mass destruction. It is in this context the cases of Southeast Asia and the South Pacific nuclear-free zones have been discussed in this book

  14. Minimum deterrence and regional security. Section 1. Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesotto, N.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of regional security in Europe on the minimum nuclear deterrence is analyzed. There are four factors that enable definition of specific features of European security. Europe is the only theatre in which four of the five nuclear Powers coexist, where three states, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, represent a new type of proliferation. It is therefore the strategic region with the heaviest concentration of nuclear weapons in the world. Finally it is a theatre in which regional wars are again a possibility. In other words, the end of cold war meant return of real wars in Europe on one hand, and on the other, a combination of absolutely massive and essential nuclear capability and over-increasing economic, political and diplomatic instability. In spite of these circumstances nuclear deterrence in Europe is inevitable and desirable

  15. Еcological security of environment in Zhytomyr region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.М. Kovalevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aiming at the study of environmental hazards in Zhytomir region. Its main objective is to identify the set of adverse factors affecting the state of danger and compose a necessary starting material for the prediction of possible negative consequences, their nature and extent. The matter of special importance for the study of the phenomenon of security is the security classification. First of all, the forms (system of security in relation to the forces and processes of natural, social and technical character should be distinguished. They can be defined as systems of geo-bio-physical, social and technical security. The classification of security can be determined in many ways, for example, in relation to the object of security; in relation to the subject of security; according to the problem indication; according to the functional indication. Security is a distinctive characteristic and prerequisite of life, progressive development and viability of real-world objects. The methodology of its evaluation is based on the states of the essence of natural and anthropogenic environmental pollution, the standard requirements for the quality of environmental objects and standards of acceptable contamination. The assessment of ecological security of the environment is the quantitative measure of parameters of environmental pollution dangers, threats and risks of natural character as well as the state of anthropogenic security. This assessment is carried out according to the methods and ways to measure environmental parameters. For this purpose it is important to know the factors of danger and the system of indicators that characterizes all natural and environmental phenomena and processes of geo-ecological dangers, natural environmental conditions, ecological condition. The system of natural and industrial environmental indicators consists of the indicators which characterize all phenomena and processes of geo-ecological dangers of natural

  16. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and of a nearly chronic nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member-states announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015....... The readiness is to be tested at a continental field exercise, Amani Africa 11 to take place in South Africa October 2015. (Defence Web, 2015) The article will start by mapping out the security dynamics and architecture in East Africa, including its membership circles and priorities. The article...

  17. The Arab Uprisings and Euro-Mediterranean Security: The Regional Security Agenda of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schima Viktoria Labitsch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Arab uprisings led to profound changes in the political landscape of the Southern Mediterranean, and came at a time of staggering Euro-Mediterranean relations. With prevailing turmoil and violence in Europe’s closest proximity, the Euromed relationship – heavily dominated by security objectives and concerns in the past – is facing new social, political and economic challenges. This work analyses what challenges have made it onto the security agenda of the European Union in response to the uprisings in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt between December 2010 and 2013. It does so by analysing the discourse of three institutions: the European Commission, the European Council and the Council of Ministers. Accordingly, it argues that security in the Euro-Mediterranean context may be analysed in the framework of the wider constructivist Copenhagen school of security studies, treating threats as politically constructed in the process of securitization. It emphasizes the different degrees of institutional involvement in framing the regional security agenda, and the vast application of security logic to migration and mobility as well as its absence in areas of biological and chemical weapons, extremism and weapons of mass destruction. This work’s final argument is that whilst the overall level of securitization throughout the three years remains low and partially inconsistent with the security priorities before 2010, the EU exhibited a particularly strong regional focus on Libya as well as a thematic one on migration and external borders.

  18. Sustainability and Security: Timber Certification in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Ivanova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of sustainable development initiatives since the 1990’s reflected an emphasis on integrated solutions to economic development, socio-political stability and environmental health in the global community. In the same context the traditional concept of security needed to be open in two directions. First, the notion of security should no longer be applied only to the military realm, but also to the economic, the societal, the environmental, and the political fields. Second, the referent object of the “security” should not be conceptualized solely in terms of the state, but should embrace the individual below the state, and the international system above it. The forests industry timber certification in Asia-Pacific region has been selected as a case study because it is an excellent example to illustrate the links between the sustainable development and the environmental security, including also certain elements of economic security. This article is presenting a critical overview of the forest industry and the status of timber certification globally, with an emphasis on Asia – Pacific countries applying the Systemic Thinking approach. In conclusion, an outlook is presented concerning the future of timber certification and possible impacts on security and sustainable development.

  19. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC SECURITY NOVOSIBIRSK REGION (FOR EXAMPLE, A REGIONAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugacheva L. I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the importance of regional engineering for the Russian economy, it clarifies the factors of economic security of the Novosibirsk region (NSO. Analyzed the characteristics prevailing in the engineering industry, its competitive advantages. The research results of the export orientation of the regional engineering VAT: its direction and priorities; discusses the trends that influence the growth during the recovery has formed a new profile of its foreign economic relations. Threats identified in the development of engineering and to propose measures to overcome them to ensure the economic security of the region. The article deals with the problem-tional institutes provide for the sustainable development of regional engineering, discusses the possibility of using pub-lic-private partnerships. Sharing of risks and responsibilities between the subject of the Russian Federation, municipalities and entrepreneurs - one of the priorities in the creation of the necessary conditions for the economic security of the NSO.

  20. Security Enhancement for Data Migration in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Raphael Ngnie Sighom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, cloud computing has significantly impacted nearly every section of our lives and business structures. Cloud computing is, without any doubt, one of the strategic directions for many companies and the most dominating infrastructure for enterprises as long as end users. Instead of buying IT equipment (hardware and/or software and managing it themselves, many organizations today prefer to buy services from IT service providers. The number of service providers increase dramatically and the cloud is becoming the tools of choice for more cloud storage services. However, as more personal information and data are moved to the cloud, into social media sites, DropBox, Baidu WangPan, etc., data security and privacy issues are questioned. Daily, academia and industry seek to find an efficient way to secure data migration in the cloud. Various solution approaches and encryption techniques have been implemented. In this work, we will discuss some of these approaches and evaluate the popular ones in order to find the elements that affect system performance. Finally, we will propose a model that enhances data security and privacy by combining Advanced Encryption Standard-256, Information Dispersal Algorithms and Secure Hash Algorithm-512. Our protocol achieves provable security assessments and fast execution times for medium thresholds.

  1. A Catalyst for Change: Drought and Food Security in the Near East Region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    In the Near East, drought at the turn of the 21st century was reported to be the worst in 50 years, affecting millions of people across the region. The drought caused a wide range of effects, including widespread crop failures and livestock losses, increased drinking water shortages and disease stress, additional debt, and forced mass migrations to urban areas and other countries, all of which affected food security. As devastating as the drought was for people and the environment, the event created a “policy window” - a time during which the public’s and policy makers’ attention was directed toward a particular issue, creating an advantageous political environment for addressing the problem. In this case, the drought revealed the need for enhanced mitigation and drought relief coordination. It has served as the impetus for several countries and international organizations to work together to foster new policies and training activities to reduce drought risk and enhance food security in the region.

  2. Microsoft Windows Server 2003: Security Enhancements and New Features

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montehermoso, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    .... Windows NT and Windows 2000 were known to have numerous security vulnerabilities; hence Microsoft focused on improving security by making Windows Server 2003 secure by design, secure by default, secure in deployment...

  3. Windows Vista Kernel-Mode: Functions, Security Enhancements and Flaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed D. ABDULMALIK

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft has made substantial enhancements to the kernel of the Microsoft Windows Vista operating system. Kernel improvements are significant because the kernel provides low-level operating system functions, including thread scheduling, interrupt and exception dispatching, multiprocessor synchronization, and a set of routines and basic objects.This paper describes some of the kernel security enhancements for 64-bit edition of Windows Vista. We also point out some weakness areas (flaws that can be attacked by malicious leading to compromising the kernel.

  4. Future regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia: Energy security costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Hayes, Peter; Kang, Jungmin; Katsuta, Tadahiro

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in East Asia has rapidly increased regional energy, and especially, electricity needs. Many of the countries of East Asia have sought or are seeking to diversify their energy sources and bolster their energy supply and/or environmental security by developing nuclear power. Rapid development of nuclear power in East Asia brings with it concerns regarding nuclear weapons proliferation associated with uranium enrichment and spent nuclear fuel management. This article summarizes the development and analysis of four different scenarios of nuclear fuel cycle management in East Asia, including a scenario where each major nuclear power user develops uranium enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuel individually, scenarios featuring cooperation in the full fuel cycle, and a scenario where reprocessing is avoided in favor of dry cask storage of spent fuel. The material inputs and outputs and costs of key fuel cycle elements under each scenario are summarized. - Highlights: → We evaluate four scenarios of regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia and the Pacific. → The scenarios cover fuel supply, enrichment, transport, reprocessing, and waste management. → We evaluate nuclear material flows, energy use, costs, and qualitative energy security impacts. → Regional cooperation on nuclear fuel cycle issues can help to enhance energy security. → A regional scenario in which reprocessing is rapidly phased out shows security and cost advantages.

  5. Application of the Concept of Intrusion Tolerant System for Evaluating Cyber Security Enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chanyoung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    One of the major problems is that nuclear industry is in very early stage in dealing with cyber security issues. It is because that cyber security has received less attention compared to other safety problems. In addition, late adoption of digital I and C systems has resulted in lower level of cyber security advancements in nuclear industry than ones in other industries. For the cyber security of NPP I and C systems, many regulatory documents, guides and standards were already published. These documents include cyber security plans, methods for cyber security assessments and comprehensive set of security controls. However, methods which can help assess how much security is improved if a specific security control is applied are not included in these documents. Hence, NPP I and C system designers may encounter difficulties when trying to apply security controls with limited structure and cost. In order to provide useful information about cyber security issues including cyber security enhancements, this paper suggests a framework to evaluate how much cyber security is improved when a specific cyber security enhancement is applied in NPPs. In order to provide useful information about cyber security issues including cyber security enhancements, this paper suggests a framework to evaluate how much cyber security is improved when a specific cyber security enhancement is applied in NPPs. The extent of cyber security improvement caused by security enhancement was defined as reduction ratio of the failure probability to secure the system from cyber-attack as Eq.1. The concept of 'intrusion tolerant system' was applied to not only prevent cyber-attacks but also limit the extent of damage in this study. For applying the concept of intrusion tolerant system to NPP, the event tree was constructed with some assumptions. Cyber security improvement caused by cyber security enhancement can be estimated as Eq.3. By comparing current system to the enhanced system, it is possible to

  6. Application of the Concept of Intrusion Tolerant System for Evaluating Cyber Security Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chanyoung; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    One of the major problems is that nuclear industry is in very early stage in dealing with cyber security issues. It is because that cyber security has received less attention compared to other safety problems. In addition, late adoption of digital I and C systems has resulted in lower level of cyber security advancements in nuclear industry than ones in other industries. For the cyber security of NPP I and C systems, many regulatory documents, guides and standards were already published. These documents include cyber security plans, methods for cyber security assessments and comprehensive set of security controls. However, methods which can help assess how much security is improved if a specific security control is applied are not included in these documents. Hence, NPP I and C system designers may encounter difficulties when trying to apply security controls with limited structure and cost. In order to provide useful information about cyber security issues including cyber security enhancements, this paper suggests a framework to evaluate how much cyber security is improved when a specific cyber security enhancement is applied in NPPs. In order to provide useful information about cyber security issues including cyber security enhancements, this paper suggests a framework to evaluate how much cyber security is improved when a specific cyber security enhancement is applied in NPPs. The extent of cyber security improvement caused by security enhancement was defined as reduction ratio of the failure probability to secure the system from cyber-attack as Eq.1. The concept of 'intrusion tolerant system' was applied to not only prevent cyber-attacks but also limit the extent of damage in this study. For applying the concept of intrusion tolerant system to NPP, the event tree was constructed with some assumptions. Cyber security improvement caused by cyber security enhancement can be estimated as Eq.3. By comparing current system to the enhanced system, it is

  7. USign--a security enhanced electronic consent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Xie, Mengjun; Bian, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Electronic consent becomes increasingly popular in the healthcare sector given the many benefits it provides. However, security concerns, e.g., how to verify the identity of a person who is remotely accessing the electronic consent system in a secure and user-friendly manner, also arise along with the popularity of electronic consent. Unfortunately, existing electronic consent systems do not pay sufficient attention to those issues. They mainly rely on conventional password based authentication to verify the identity of an electronic consent user, which is far from being sufficient given that identity theft threat is real and significant in reality. In this paper, we present a security enhanced electronic consent model called USign. USign enhances the identity protection and authentication for electronic consent systems by leveraging handwritten signatures everyone is familiar with and mobile computing technologies that are becoming ubiquitous. We developed a prototype of USign and conducted preliminary evaluation on accuracy and usability of signature verification. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed model.

  8. On the Perception of National Security Issues at Regional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponedelkov Aleksandr Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the issue on the perception of the concept “national security” areas, models and methods of its maintenance by the population. The author uses materials of the sociological survey conducted by the Laboratory of problems of increasing the efficiency of state and municipal management of the South-Russian Institute of Management – branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. The survey was carried out with the participation of leading experts in various aspects of national security, representing 27 Russian higher educational institutions and research centers in Moscow, Astrakhan, Barnaul, Belgorod, Dushanbe, Krasnodar, Nizhny Novgorod, Omsk, Pyatigorsk, Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Syktyvkar, Sochi, Ufa. It is noted that as a priority political governance model that implements the basic concept of national security, respondents identified a democratic model. Most respondents believe that a unified security model in the Russian regions is ineffective, and such model should be developed taking into account the specificity of each subject. The study showed that the public’s attention to the issue of national security is not sustainable, as determined by situational factors. It is proved that the motives of anxiety formed in the Russian public mind are not sustainable, and situational. Respondents see the economic cooperation more effective incentive to maintain national interests than by force. Estimation of the population of the priority issues of security shows that most respondents appreciate the organization of work to ensure the safety and anti-terrorism security in the sphere of national relations. The findings give grounds to assert that the focus of public attention to the problem of national security does not yet occupy the leading positions. To a greater extent, respondents focused on the issues of public safety, reducing threats and risks in their daily lives

  9. A regional proposal for reinforcing nuclear and radiological security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives information about the phenomenon of globalization and the regional process of integration that have generated new and challenging characteristics in criminal actions, that has generated a trans national dimension. In this frame, the illicit trafficking of radioactive material is a matter of concern. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, it is a new reality that for certain terrorist groups, exposition to radiation ionizing with the purpose of committing a terrorist act is not more an obstacle. The use of a 'dirty bomb'. by terrorists is considered probable. The orphan sources represent a serious threat to security and must be: identified, located, recovered, and assured. Many radioactive materials with hundreds of applications in medicine, research and industry are lost or robbed. There are countries that have not a registry of such orphan sources. The IAEA Illicit Trafficking Data Base (ITDB) was established in 1993.There were 103 confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and radioactive materials in 2005. Nevertheless INTERPOL registers a much greater number of cases. The IAEA tries to increase the capacity of Member States to protect their facilities and nuclear fuels, storage and transport against acts of nuclear terrorism. In this paper I propose the creation of an Inter-American Committee Specialized in the Prevention and Control of the Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive and Nuclear Material at Pan-American level and within the framework of O.A.S., according to the Chart of the Organization of American States , and considering the respect to the sovereignty of the States and the principle of not intervention, with the purpose of developing the cooperation in order to prevent and to prevent and to control the illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear material. Its principal objective would be to develop a cooperation and a common approach of nuclear and radiological

  10. FORWARD: DESERTIFICATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION: A SECURITY ISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Workshop focused on two basic concepts: security and desertification and their linkages. Since the end of the Cold War, traditional security concepts based on national sovereignty and territorial security have increasingly been brought under review. Currently, a broader defin...

  11. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahid, E J M; Peng, L Y; Siang, C Ch

    2013-01-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  12. Security Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Signal Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegeun Moon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP, the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users.

  13. Security Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Signal Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jaegeun; Jung, Im Y; Yoo, Jaesoo

    2017-04-02

    Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN) have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP), the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users.

  14. Implementing Physical Protection Education for an Enhanced Nuclear Security Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Hyun Chul; Shin, Ick Hyun; Lee, Hyung Kyung; Choe, Kwan Kyoo [KINAC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, we are going to outline our efforts and experiences at implementing physical protection education. KINAC (as the only designated educational institute) places great effort in delivering an effective and a high-quality education program for physical protection. We have also provided a way for nuclear operators to share the lessons they have gained through their own experiences. We made physical protection education an important communication channel, not only among nuclear operators but also between operators and a regulatory body. There is growing attention given to education and training on the subject of physical protection in order to enhance the nuclear security culture. The IAEA recommends that all personnel in organizations directly involved with the nuclear industry receive regularly education in physical protection according to the recently revised INFCIRC/225/Rev.5. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), which are mainly responsible for the national nuclear security regime, have already recognized the importance of education and training in physical protection. The NSSC enacted its decree on physical protection education and training in 2010. KINAC was designated as the first educational institute in 2011 and implemented physical protection education as mandatory from 2012.

  15. Implementing Physical Protection Education for an Enhanced Nuclear Security Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Hyun Chul; Shin, Ick Hyun; Lee, Hyung Kyung; Choe, Kwan Kyoo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we are going to outline our efforts and experiences at implementing physical protection education. KINAC (as the only designated educational institute) places great effort in delivering an effective and a high-quality education program for physical protection. We have also provided a way for nuclear operators to share the lessons they have gained through their own experiences. We made physical protection education an important communication channel, not only among nuclear operators but also between operators and a regulatory body. There is growing attention given to education and training on the subject of physical protection in order to enhance the nuclear security culture. The IAEA recommends that all personnel in organizations directly involved with the nuclear industry receive regularly education in physical protection according to the recently revised INFCIRC/225/Rev.5. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), which are mainly responsible for the national nuclear security regime, have already recognized the importance of education and training in physical protection. The NSSC enacted its decree on physical protection education and training in 2010. KINAC was designated as the first educational institute in 2011 and implemented physical protection education as mandatory from 2012

  16. The enhancement of security in healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Hui; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Wang, Sheng-De

    2012-06-01

    With the progress and the development of information technology, the internal data in medical organizations have become computerized and are further established the medical information system. Moreover, the use of the Internet enhances the information communication as well as affects the development of the medical information system that a lot of medical information is transmitted with the Internet. Since there is a network within another network, when all networks are connected together, they will form the "Internet". For this reason, the Internet is considered as a high-risk and public environment which is easily destroyed and invaded so that a relevant protection is acquired. Besides, the data in the medical network system are confidential that it is necessary to protect the personal privacy, such as electronic patient records, medical confidential information, and authorization-controlled data in the hospital. As a consequence, a medical network system is considered as a network requiring high security that excellent protections and managerial strategies are inevitable to prevent illegal events and external attacks from happening. This study proposes secure medical managerial strategies being applied to the network environment of the medical organization information system so as to avoid the external or internal information security events, allow the medical system to work smoothly and safely that not only benefits the patients, but also allows the doctors to use it more conveniently, and further promote the overall medical quality. The objectives could be achieved by preventing from illegal invasion or medical information being stolen, protecting the completeness and security of medical information, avoiding the managerial mistakes of the internal information system in medical organizations, and providing the highly-reliable medical information system.

  17. Remote monitoring in safeguards: Security of information and enhanced cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdoz, Erwin; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Fernández Moreno, Sonia; Llacer, Carlos; Díaz, Gustavo; Vigile, Sebastián; Brunhuber, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Unattended systems with remote transmission capabilities (RM) have the potential to improve safeguards efficiency. Moreover, the evolution of technology and the steady growing of nuclear materials subject to control, lead modern safeguards increasingly utilizing unattended equipment with the capability to store relevant data for long periods of time coupled with the option of being remotely accessed and checked. Remote inspection is still a concept under development, but it may end to be a powerful more efficient verification modality in medium term future. An important part of drawing meaningful safeguards conclusions rests on authenticity and reliability of the information on nuclear material and facilities acquired through the various verification activities and measures applied by IAEA and regional safeguards organizations, like ABACC. The increasing utilization of such technology to further optimize safeguards responds to a multifaceted environment where security of information for all relevant parties is of utmost importance. From the point of view of the IAEA and ABACC, the use of any technology for safeguards application, and specially the use of RM, requires to ensure the security of data collected to guarantee the validity and veracity of such information throughout the whole process (e.g., from collecting to reviewing). This is also valid to the SSAC involved in the process. Information security is also relevant for States and Operators. Assurance should be given that the information could not be withdrawn by non-authorized entities and that facility data is also fully secured. Another important aspect related to RM that may also fall in the security aspect of safeguards relevant information that merits further consideration, is the sharing of information between organizations like ABACC and the IAEA as well as the possibility to make this data available for States authorities purposes. This paper discusses three main themes related to RM: (i) the extent

  18. A case for avoiding security-enhanced HTTP tools to improve security for Web-based applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes some of the general weaknesses of the current popular Hypertext Transmission Protocol (HTTP) security standards and products in an effort to show that these standards are not appealing for many applications. The author will then show how one can treat HTTP browsers and servers as untrusted elements in the network so that one can rely on other mechanisms to achieve better overall security than can be attained through today`s security-enhanced HTTP tools.

  19. Evaluating energy security in the Asia-Pacific region: A novel methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes an 'energy security assessment instrument' based on a new and expanded conceptualisation of energy security. The instrument is a systematic interrogative tool for evaluating energy security of individual states or regions. It consists of eleven broad energy security dimensions associated with the current global energy system. These energy security dimensions take into account numerous quantitative and qualitative attributes of each country's energy security and policy, and include both traditional energy security concerns and many new factors, such as environmental, socio-cultural and technological. Another dimension, largely absent from previous analyses, is the existence of, and the issues addressed in, energy security policy in each country. This instrument serves as an assessment system with which to evaluate energy security in the Asia-Pacific region. The existing studies on energy security in the Asia-Pacific region suffer from serious limitations. No study to date examines regional energy security policies by adopting a more comprehensive energy security definition as a starting point. Most studies also focus on a single country or issue. Even if they examine energy security in major regional economies, they lack critical comparative analysis. The instrument is valuable as it may be utilised to draw a comprehensive map of regional energy security situation, which can also include comparative analysis of energy security characteristics across the Asia-Pacific region. Ultimately, it may be utilised to set up a framework for improved regional energy cooperation with the aim of providing regional leaders with a blueprint for improving regional energy security and policy.

  20. Competitiveness and food security at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vasil'evich Fyodorov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with food safety as one of the areas of food security and food sovereignty. A review of concepts, models, acts on the power of international and national levels is made. The authors formulate a conclusion about the need for a measure of «food quality» with the release of the functional components of fitness (the ability to perform specified functions with the purpose and safety (restrictions on the content of harmful substances in the products. The analysis of the competitiveness of local products is made on the quality characteristics based on the proportion of output indicator of inadequate quality or dangerous to health in the total volume of products placed on the market. The paper identifies key areas of federal and regional levels to comply with the quality of food.

  1. G8 Regional Security Governance through Sanctions and Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kirton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Why do the Group of Eight (G8 members approve its members’ use of material sanctions in some regional conflicts but military force in others?2 As an informal security institution composed of major democratic powers from North America, Europe and Asia, the G8 has often chosen sanctions, notably on Iran in 1980, Afghanistan in 1980, Sudan in 2004, North Korea in 2006, and Syria in 2011. It has increasingly chosen military force, notably in Iraq in 1990, Kosovo in 1999, the USSR over Afghanistan in 2001, Libya in 2011, and Mali in 2013. Yet the G8’s choice, initiation, commitment, compliance, implementation and effectiveness of both sanctions and force has varied. Force was chosen and used effectively only in the post cold war period, primarily where the target was close to southern Europe. A high relative-capability predominance of G8 members over the target country strongly produces the G8’s choice of force, but a high, direct, deadly threat from the target state to G8 countries does not. Geographic proximity and the connectivity coming from the former colonial relationship between G8 members and the target country only weakly cause the G8 to choose force. Support from the most relevant regional organization – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – and support from the United Nations in the form of an authorizing UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution have a strong, positive effect on the G8’s choice of force. Accompanying accountability mechanisms from the G8 itself have a variable impact, as leaders’ iteration of the issue at subsequent summits does not increase compliance with G8 commitments on force-related cases, but their foreign ministers’ follow up does to a substantial degree.

  2. Secure and privacy enhanced gait authentication on smart phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thang; Choi, Deokjai

    2014-01-01

    Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits.

  3. Secure and Privacy Enhanced Gait Authentication on Smart Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Hoang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR and false rejection rate (FRR of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits.

  4. Distributed fiber optic sensing enhances pipeline safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frings, Jochen; Walk, Tobias [ILF Consulting Engineers, Munich (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Pipelines are efficient, highly reliable and safe means of transportation. However, despite intensive right of way surveillance by foot, car and out of the air, pipeline leaks and illegal tappings are a reality - sometimes with catastrophic results. These events show a gap in real-time monitoring caused by the highly distributed nature of pipelines. Parts of this gap now can be closed with distributed fiber optic sensing technology. Using various physical effects this technology is apt to detect temperature, strain, vibrations and sound with very good localization over spans up to 50 km with a single sensor cable. Various field tested applications like leakage detection, third party activity monitoring and intrusion detection or ground movement detection as well as integrity monitoring proof that distributed fiber optic sensing can enhance pipeline safety and security. (orig.)

  5. The Role of Vietnam in The ASEAN Regional Security Cooperation: From Mechanism Construction to Dispute Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunxia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the integration of ASEAN, Vietnam recognized that the strategic role of ASEAN is in its diplomacy. At the same time, to further improve the status in the region and in the international community, Vietnam has actively been participating in ASEAN affairs. Vietnam not only promoted the integration process of ASEAN, but also promoted the political security cooperation of ASEAN, in which Vietnam has advantages and wants to play a leading role. On the one hand, Vietnam promotes the construction of political security cooperation mechanisms, such as ARF, ADMM+, and so on; on the other hand, Vietnam took the South China Sea as a common concern, actively appeals for a common ASEAN position, to maximize its own benefit. Vietnam will further enhance and consolidate its status and role in ASEAN in the future.

  6. Exploring the Future of Security in the Caribbean: a Regional Security Partnership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    by these organizations and their members. 25 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Psychologist Abraham Maslow posited that safety [read security] is one...addressing the security needs of the Caribbean Basin and the United States? Of necessity , there are several secondary questions which must be...development of models/ theories of security. These theories of security abound, and have evolved as the international arena has changed. Realists, idealists and

  7. Considerations to Enhance the Florida Domestic Security Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    security strategies. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION ...Thank you all. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. PROBLEM STATEMENT After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001...State Homeland Security Strategy (Nebraska Emergency Mangement Agency, 2009) • Vermont Homeland Security Strategy (Vermont Department of Public

  8. An empirical application of regional security complex theory on eastern partnership region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila STUPARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Partnership (EaP is a very dynamic region. If a year ago the EaP was seen as an authentic and vibrant „laboratory” of democracy building, overcoming the remains of the totalitarian state and putting the basis of a free and pluralist society, nowadays the Eastern Partnership is seen as an „out-dated” approach of the EU. However, Eastern Partnership is visible on European political arena and the big powers (USA, Russia and the EU pay attention more and more to the evolution of EaP countries. Moreover, it seems to be a confrontation between Russia and Western powers regarding the political and geopolitical orientation of EaP countries. Kremlin tries actively to stop the efforts of the EaP to close to the EU and on the other side, the EU as well as the USA encourage EaP countries to implement reforms in order to build their democracy. This paper aims to analyse the Eastern Partnership in terms of security complex, trying to argue that Eastern Partnership countries at this phase don’t form a Regional Security Complex and the EU and USA should rethink its approach towards this region.

  9. 77 FR 25188 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Enhanced Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... general aviation (GA) aircraft operators who wish to fly into and/or out of Ronald Reagan Washington.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Enhanced Security Procedures at Ronald Reagan Washington National...] Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Enhanced Security Procedures at Ronald...

  10. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford,C.; de Boer,G.; De Castro, K; Landers, Ph.D., J; Rogers, E

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." This paper will describe some of the key elements of a comprehensive, sustainable nuclear security culture enhancement program and how implementation can mitigate the insider threat.

  11. Novel Approaches to Enhance Mobile WiMAX Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeshik Shon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards released IEEE 802.16-2004 which is a standardized technology for supporting broadband and wireless communication with fixed and nomadic access. After the IEEE 802.16-2004 standard, a new advanced and revised standard was released as the IEEE 802.16e-2005 amendment which is foundation of Mobile WiMAX network supporting handover and roaming capabilities. In the area of security aspects, compared to IEEE 802.16-2004, IEEE 802.16e, called Mobile WiMAX, adopts improved security architecture—PKMv2 which includes EAP authentication, AES-based authenticated encryption, and CMAC or HMAC message protection. However, there is no guarantee that PKMv2-based Mobile WiMAX network will not have security flaws. In this paper, we investigate the current Mobile WiMAX security architecture focusing mainly on pointing out new security vulnerabilities such as a disclosure of security context in network entry, a lack of secure communication in network domain, and a necessity of efficient handover supporting mutual authentication. Based on the investigation results, we propose a novel Mobile WiMAX security architecture, called RObust and Secure MobilE WiMAX (ROSMEX, to prevent the new security vulnerabilities.

  12. Autonomous Voltage Security Regions to Prevent Cascading Trip Faults in Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Tao; Guo, Qinglai; Sun, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Cascading trip faults in large-scale wind power centralized integration areas bring new challenges to the secure operation of power systems. In order to deal with the complexity of voltage security regions and the computation difficulty, this paper proposes an autonomous voltage security region...... wind farm, an AVSR is determined to guarantee the normal operation of each wind turbine generator (WTG), while in the control center, each region is designed in order to guarantee secure operation both under normal conditions and after an N-1 contingency. A real system in Northern China was used...

  13. The Impact of Regional Higher Education Spaces on the Security of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The security of international students in regional higher education spaces in Australia has been overlooked. Contingency theory provides the framework for this case study to explore the organisational structure and support services relevant to a regional higher education space and how this impacts the security of international students. In-depth…

  14. Household Perceptions about the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security in the Mountainous Region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Poudel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to understand the mountainous households’ perception of climate change and its impacts on food security in the Lamjung district of Nepal. The study attempted to find out changes in households food security and daily activities in the face of climate change for the last twenty years. The study started with the 150 household surveys along with participatory rural appraisal to understand the climate change perception of local people and its impact on dimensions of food security. Households expressed different levels of perception in terms of climate change on food security. The result shows that most of the mountainous households experienced increased temperature, less rainfall in winter, an increasing number of natural disasters and the emergence of insects for the last twenty years. They perceived the role of climate change in decreased crop production, decreased dairy products and increased household work. The situation of food security is likely to be more vulnerable to climate change in the future. It was also observed that households have been using different autonomous adaptation measures, such as high yielding crop varieties, enhanced irrigation systems and fertilizers, to cope with the changing climate. Finally, the study recommended policy instruments to enhance food security in the mountainous region amidst changing climate.

  15. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers,E.; deBoer,G.; Crawford, C.; De Castro, K.; Landers, J.

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." Gen. Eugene Habiger, a former "Assistant Secretary for Safeguards and Security" at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear-weapons complex and a former commander of U.S. strategic nuclear forces, has observed that "good security is 20% equipment and 80% people." Although eliminating the "human factor" is not possible, accounting for and mitigating the risk of the insider threat is an essential element in establishing an effective nuclear security culture. This paper will consider the organizational role in mitigating the risk associated with the malicious insider through monitoring and enhancing human reliability and motivation as well as enhancing the nuclear security culture.

  16. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, E.; deBoer, G.; Crawford, C.; De Castro, K.; Landers, J.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A). Though MPC and A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the 'human factor.' Gen. Eugene Habiger, a former 'Assistant Secretary for Safeguards and Security' at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear-weapons complex and a former commander of U.S. strategic nuclear forces, has observed that 'good security is 20% equipment and 80% people.' Although eliminating the 'human factor' is not possible, accounting for and mitigating the risk of the insider threat is an essential element in establishing an effective nuclear security culture. This paper will consider the organizational role in mitigating the risk associated with the malicious insider through monitoring and enhancing human reliability and motivation as well as enhancing the nuclear security culture.

  17. Enhancing the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, J.

    2004-01-01

    The NRC initiatives to improve safety and security of sources began before 091101 and include both international and domestic activities. They supported the development and implementation of the IAEA Code of Conduct, which provides categorization of sources of concern, based on risk, improvement of regulatory programs of all member countries and improvement of safety and security of sources. International activities include the IAEA International Conference on Security of Sources (Vienna, Austria, March, 2003), the trilateral cooperation with Canada and Mexico, the assistance to individual countries to improve security and the proposed rule on export and import of radioactive material. The domestic initiatives are to issue the security orders and advisories to licensees, issue the panoramic irradiator orders (June 2003), issue the manufacturer orders (January 2004), complete the interim national source inventory, develop the national source tracking system, maintain the orphan source registration and retrieval program and upgrade the emergency preparedness

  18. Approaches to regional security and arms control in North-East Asia: Tasks ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Seo-Hang

    1992-01-01

    In order to pave the way towards regional security and arms control in North-East Asia, one of the outstanding issues left over from the cold war, that is, the question of a divided Korea-must be solved first. In settling the Korean problem, the importance of the bilateral negotiation between the parties in direct conflict can never be overemphasized. Over the past few years, fortunately, there has been an accumulation of developments that would have a positive effect on the improvement of inter-Korean relations and peaceful unification of the peninsula. In this sense, the first challenge for the two Koreas is to fulfil the pledges that they committed in the agreements. Concluding agreements is only a first step. They must be implemented fully both in letter and in spirit. Only upon the sincere and complete translation of the agreements into action can the two Koreas establish a solid peace system and move towards unification. This fulfilment will eventually contribute to security and stability in North-East Asia. To emphasize the importance of bilateral negotiation between the two Koreas is not necessarily to exclude the role of external Powers. The four major Powers in North-East Asia-China, Japan, Russia and the United States - could support the South-North dialogue, help ease tensions, facilitate discussion of common security concerns and possibly guarantee the outcomes negotiated between the two Koreas. By fostering bilateral negotiation between the parties to the conflict, they could contribute to enhancing security, confidence and disarmament in the region. At this moment, the most urgent task in the Korean peninsula relates to the problem of Pyongyang's nuclear weapons programme. To solve the nuclear problem, a significant progress on mutual reciprocal inspections must be made immediately in accordance with the wordings of the Declaration. Mutual inspection will test whether Pyongyang intends to go towards nuclear weapons, or away from them and towards

  19. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  20. Security Force Assistance: Building Foreign Security Forces and Joint Doctrine for the Future of U.S. Regional Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    .... From training the Nicaraguan National Guard to the most recent efforts in Iraq, the U.S. Military has repeatedly shown a need for a coherent and comprehensive plan to develop foreign security forces. U.S...

  1. Security enhancement of double random phase encoding using rear-mounted phase masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jinchang; Zhang, Li-bo

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a security enhancement for double random phase encoding (DRPE) by introducing a rear-mounted phase masking procedure is presented. Based on exhaustively studying the cryptanalysis achievements of DRPE and its variants, invalidation of the second lens, which plays a critical role in cryptanalyzing processes, is concluded. The improved system can exploit the security potential of the second lens and consequently strengthen the security of DRPE. Experimental results and security analyses are presented in detail to demonstrate the security potential of the proposed cryptosystem.

  2. Biometric Enhancement of Home and Office Security to Reduce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    Biometrics security technology uses the physiological and ... verification and authentication methodology to verify how facial screening explores the different ... mouth, nose etc and stores the bio-information extracted from the face of every ...

  3. A Cyber Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Achieving Enhanced National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    machine is being bridged by wearables, augmented reality (AR), and artificial intelligence (AI). In this near-future the uncanny valley no longer...and security represent key pol- icy, security, and business tradeoffs, connectivity and national cybersecurity are similarly dialectical choices. On...Consumer Electronics Show (CES), is at once the digital sycophant’s dream and the cybersecurity hermit’s nightmare, as each connected gewgaw and

  4. Enhancing Financial Security in Agricultural Business: Financial and Property Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliya Bezdushna

    2014-01-01

    The article provides the analysis of information support for the developing agrarian businesses financial security activities. The impact of financial statements on financial security has been proved through generalization procedure of such calculating indicators as operating margin, return on assets, total liquidity ratio and financial autonomy ratio. A causal effect between mass underestimation of operating fixed assets in accounting and inflated profitability rates in agribusinesses operat...

  5. Evaluation the Role of Securities Market in Increasing the Regional Budget Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Yemelyanovich Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the relevant problem of increasing the regional budget revenues is investigated. The subject matter of the research is the securities market as a mechanism for the redistribution of financial resources. The purpose of the research is justification of the effective scheme feasible in the current environment of the interaction of the securities market and the regional budget. In the study of the above-mentioned subject, the hypothesis of a close relationship between state and non-state finance system was taken as a basis. The theoretical principle of the research supports the theory of the stock market; to achieve the purpose, the institutionally-functional approach to the study of state finances is applied. As the result of the research, possible common grounds of the securities market and the regional financial system are identified; the reserve of improving efficiency of the securities market in the Western Siberia regions are revealed; the model reflecting the dependence of tax revenues from the pace of regional economic development is constructed; promising areas for development of the securities market for the benefit of the regional economy and regional financial system are formulated; the possible effect from the development of regional securities market on regional budget revenues is estimated. The results mentioned above are recommended to be apllied when developing regional financial policies and programmes of region socio-economic development. A long-term stimulation of the growth in incomes of regional budgets is a very complex process, but with the proper elaboration of organizational issues, the implementation of the proposed scheme for interaction of the securities market and the regional financial system is capable to provide a steady increase in tax revenue in the short term and alleviate the problem of financing costs of the regional budget.

  6. Enhancing China’s energy security: Determining influential factors and effective strategic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The most influential factors affecting China’s energy security are identified. • Fuzzy AHP is used to quantify the importance of influential factors. • Strategic measures for enhancing China’s energy security are prioritized. • Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures. - Abstract: This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies and improving energy efficiency is the most salient, positive, and necessary strategic measure

  7. Viability of Hydrogen Pathways that Enhance Energy Security: A Comparison of China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Andreasen, Kristian Peter; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    When designed and built properly, hydrogen energy systems can enhance energy security through technological diversification and minimizing dependence on foreign imports of energy fuels. However, hydrogen can be produced from different feedstocks according to separate pathways, and these different...... pathways create particular consequences on a nation's overall energy security. The objective of this study is to investigate the superiorities and inferiorities of hydrogen pathways from the perspective of China and Denmark, and to determine which pathways best contribute to national energy security...

  8. Real Time MODBUS Transmissions and Cryptography Security Designs and Enhancements of Protocol Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT security has become a major concern due to the growing demand for information and massive development of client/server applications for various types of applications running on modern IT infrastructure. How has security been taken into account and which paradigms are necessary to minimize security issues while increasing efficiency, reducing the influence on transmissions, ensuring protocol independency and achieving substantial performance? We have found cryptography to be an absolute security mechanism for client/server architectures, and in this study, a new security design was developed with the MODBUS protocol, which is considered to offer phenomenal performance for future development and enhancement of real IT infrastructure. This study is also considered to be a complete development because security is tested in almost all ways of MODBUS communication. The computed measurements are evaluated to validate the overall development, and the results indicate a substantial improvement in security that is differentiated from conventional methods.

  9. Secure and Fair Cluster Head Selection Protocol for Enhancing Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Paramasivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  10. Secure and fair cluster head selection protocol for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  11. Enhancing MISP with Fast Mobile IPv6 Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsun You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mobile Broadband Association has developed the MIS and MISAUTH protocols as link-layer fast authentication protocols. A combination of MIS and MISAUTH protocols, called as MISP, provides secure and fast connection for a wireless access network, but it has been reported that MISP creates a weak session key and suffers from a denial-of-service attack. In addition, a transaction with an authentication server that is required for every authentication is considered as a delay factor during handovers. In this paper, we present an improvement of MISP that utilizes the fast handover approach of Fast Mobile IPv6 and minimizes an involvement of the authentication server while eliminating identified security drawbacks of MISP. The formal security analysis is performed to verify the correctness of the proposed scheme. Moreover, the handover performance of the proposed scheme is compared with an existing scheme.

  12. Exploring stories of occupational engagement in a regional secure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Karen; Cox, Diane L; Ward, Kath

    2016-09-02

    This paper focuses on the occupational experiences of five men living within a forensic mental health unit over a year. This study used a descriptive qualitative case study methodology to explore the meaning and value placed on daily life (activities, occupations and routines), and how this changed over time. The men's stories showed a complex picture of their experiences of daily life. This study demonstrated the impact of the environment on the men and the ongoing challenge of the need to balance treatment/therapy with security demands and opportunities. Three interrelated themes were identified: (1) Power and Occupation; (2) Therapy or Punishment; (3) Occupational Opportunities within Restrictions. These findings serve as a reminder to clinical teams to reassess the value of occupations attributed by their patients and the impact of the secure environment, whilst also acknowledging the potential for occupations to have a negative impact on well-being.

  13. 75 FR 27432 - Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... can better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking process. Small businesses... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0221] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY...

  14. Enhancing Security and Privacy in Video Surveillance through Role-Oriented Access Control Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim

    sensitive regions, e.g. faces, from the videos. However, very few research efforts have focused on addressing the security aspects of video surveillance data and on authorizing access to this data. Interestingly, while PETs help protect the privacy of individuals, they may also hinder the usefulness....... Pervasive usage of such systems gives substantial powers to those monitoring the videos and poses a threat to the privacy of anyone observed by the system. Aside from protecting privacy from the outside attackers, it is equally important to protect the privacy of individuals from the inside personnel...... involved in monitoring surveillance data to minimize the chances of misuse of the system, e.g. voyeurism. In this context, several techniques to protect the privacy of individuals, called privacy enhancing techniques (PET) have therefore been proposed in the literature which detect and mask the privacy...

  15. Enhancing security of DICOM images during storage and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brain tumour Image is in DICOM standard (Rosslyn 1996) in which the patient informa- tion including name, birth date, gender, history are included in object classes. This information is sensitive to the patient and important for radiologist diagnosis. Data security becomes an important issue when brain tumour images are ...

  16. Managing climatic risks for enhanced food security: Key information capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaghi, R.; Badjeck, M.C.; Bakari, D.; Pauw, de E.D.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Defourny, P.; Donato, S.; Gommes, R.; Jlibene, M.; Ravelo, A.C.; Sivakumar, M.V.K.; Telahigue, N.; Tychon, B.

    2010-01-01

    Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational

  17. Enhanced ATM Security using Biometric Authentication and Wavelet Based AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedharan Ajish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional ATM terminal customer recognition systems rely only on bank cards, passwords and such identity verification methods are not perfect and functions are too single. Biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there has been a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. This paper presents a highly secured ATM banking system using biometric authentication and wavelet based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. Two levels of security are provided in this proposed design. Firstly we consider the security level at the client side by providing biometric authentication scheme along with a password of 4-digit long. Biometric authentication is achieved by considering the fingerprint image of the client. Secondly we ensure a secured communication link between the client machine to the bank server using an optimized energy efficient and wavelet based AES processor. The fingerprint image is the data for encryption process and 4-digit long password is the symmetric key for the encryption process. The performance of ATM machine depends on ultra-high-speed encryption, very low power consumption, and algorithmic integrity. To get a low power consuming and ultra-high speed encryption at the ATM machine, an optimized and wavelet based AES algorithm is proposed. In this system biometric and cryptography techniques are used together for personal identity authentication to improve the security level. The design of the wavelet based AES processor is simulated and the design of the energy efficient AES processor is simulated in Quartus-II software. Simulation results ensure its proper functionality. A comparison among other research works proves its superiority.

  18. Nuclear power in Northern Russia: A case study on future energy security in the Murmansk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, Miia; Korppoo, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The economy of the Murmansk region in Russia is based on energy intensive industry, mainly metallurgies, and consequently, the region is highly dependant on the ageing Kola nuclear power plant. This interdependence together with other weaknesses in the regional energy system creates threats to the energy supply security of the region. This paper analyses the internal and external threats influencing the region and presents potential solutions. Scenarios further illustrate possible future paths these potential solutions could deliver by the year 2025

  19. Enhancing China’s Energy Security: Determining Influential Factors and Effective Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used...... to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies...

  20. Security in the Asia-Pacific region. Report on working group 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Security in the Asia-Pacific region is highly dependent on nuclear weapons-proliferation which can be achieved in two steps: non-introduction of nuclear weapons by nuclear powers, and creation of nuclear-weapon-free zone. The causes and steps towards arms build-up in the region are discussed. On of the indispensable factors in improving the relations between the countries in the zone is creation of confidence building measures and a security forum

  1. Guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.

    1994-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security provide both a conceptual framework within which to pursue arms control in South Asia and a variety of concrete mechanisms or tools to carry out the task. However, they cannot operate independently of a broader process of political accommodation, which might be named as 'cooperative security building'. That process, however embryonic, is under way across Asia Pacific region

  2. Security: The Fourth Pillar of the Caribbean Community. Does the Region Need a Security Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    in national emergencies, search and rescue, immigration control, fisheries protection, customs and excise control maritime policing duties, natural...Committees as follows: (1) Commissioners of Police; (2) Chiefs of the Military; (3) Chiefs of Immigration ; (4) Comptrollers of Customs; and (5) Heads...Territorial Issue” (Master’s thesis, University of Chile , 1995). 52 CARICOM IMPACS, “CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy of 2013,” February 2013, accessed

  3. Trust Model to Enhance Security and Interoperability of Cloud Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Ping, Lingdi

    Trust is one of the most important means to improve security and enable interoperability of current heterogeneous independent cloud platforms. This paper first analyzed several trust models used in large and distributed environment and then introduced a novel cloud trust model to solve security issues in cross-clouds environment in which cloud customer can choose different providers' services and resources in heterogeneous domains can cooperate. The model is domain-based. It divides one cloud provider's resource nodes into the same domain and sets trust agent. It distinguishes two different roles cloud customer and cloud server and designs different strategies for them. In our model, trust recommendation is treated as one type of cloud services just like computation or storage. The model achieves both identity authentication and behavior authentication. The results of emulation experiments show that the proposed model can efficiently and safely construct trust relationship in cross-clouds environment.

  4. An Enhanced Erasure Code-Based Security Mechanism for Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing offers a wide range of luxuries, such as high performance, rapid elasticity, on-demand self-service, and low cost. However, data security continues to be a significant impediment in the promotion and popularization of cloud computing. To address the problem of data leakage caused by unreliable service providers and external cyber attacks, an enhanced erasure code-based security mechanism is proposed and elaborated in terms of four aspects: data encoding, data transmission, data placement, and data reconstruction, which ensure data security throughout the whole traversing into cloud storage. Based on the mechanism, we implement a secure cloud storage system (SCSS. The key design issues, including data division, construction of generator matrix, data encoding, fragment naming, and data decoding, are also described in detail. Finally, we conduct an analysis of data availability and security and performance evaluation. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that SCSS achieves high availability, strong security, and excellent performance.

  5. Intelligent data analysis for e-learning enhancing security and trustworthiness in online learning systems

    CERN Document Server

    Miguel, Jorge; Xhafa, Fatos

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Data Analysis for e-Learning: Enhancing Security and Trustworthiness in Online Learning Systems addresses information security within e-Learning based on trustworthiness assessment and prediction. Over the past decade, many learning management systems have appeared in the education market. Security in these systems is essential for protecting against unfair and dishonest conduct-most notably cheating-however, e-Learning services are often designed and implemented without considering security requirements. This book provides functional approaches of trustworthiness analysis, modeling, assessment, and prediction for stronger security and support in online learning, highlighting the security deficiencies found in most online collaborative learning systems. The book explores trustworthiness methodologies based on collective intelligence than can overcome these deficiencies. It examines trustworthiness analysis that utilizes the large amounts of data-learning activities generate. In addition, as proc...

  6. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  7. The ASEAN Political-Security Community: Enhancing Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Yoong Lee, ASEAN Matters: Reflecting on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Singapore; Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific., 2011), i, http...from becoming overpopulated —by moving Javanese to low-density islands: Kalimantan, Sumatera, Papua, and Sulawesi. 58 Collins, Security and Southeast...In the mid-2000s, the increasing number of piracy and armed robbery activities in the Malacca Straits attracted world attention and attributed to the

  8. Basic Practices Aiding High-Performance Homeland Security Regional Partnerships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caudle, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    ....1 A national priority under the Goal is the use of geographic regions across the nation to share risk, engage in joint planning, and share resources to develop and sustain risk-based capability levels...

  9. China in West Africa's Regional Development and Security Plans1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This article argues that we are presently in another global economic transition. ... business opportunities in areas such as the construction of infrastructure .... towards the West and regional economies are poorly integrated. Today,.

  10. Homeland Security: Protecting Airspace in the National Capital Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart

    2005-01-01

    .... While the administration is currently seeking to make the airspace restrictions in the National Capital Region permanent, Congress has pushed for an easing of restrictions on GA aircraft at Ronald...

  11. Enhanced greenhouse warming: Regional response and believability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.

    1991-01-01

    Climate models predict significant changes in the world's climate over the next 50-100 y due to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. To what extent these predictions can be believed has been the subject of considerable scientific debate. The ability of climate models to reproduce the current climate depends on how well the available data sets specify the earth's climate and how well the models reproduce that specification. A study of historical and paleo climates provides information on how the climate system operates and on past fluctuations in climate, and may also provide useful analogues of future climates. The best tools for understanding and predicting future climate changes are likely numerical models. Sophisticated climate models suffer from uncertainties about the feedback loops present in the real climate system. The ability of global circulation models to replicate current climate globally is fairly good, but significant disagreements have been found among different models at regional scales. For a region such as the Mackenzie Valley, understanding of historical and current climate is essential in terms of developing reasonable scenarios of future climate change. Uncertainty will probably remain an issue with respect to greenhouse warming for the foreseeable future, and as a result the detailed climate prediction on a regional scale needed for some kinds of impact studies may not be attainable. 73 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  12. Prospects of Collective Security in the Eastern Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Union EAC East African Community EAR Eastern Africa Region EASBRIG East African Standby Brigade EASF Eastern Africa Standby Force ECOMOG ECOWAS...address inherent social, economic and political problems while at the same time facing the world economy as one block (AU 2000). The Union is a...the East African Community ( EAC ) will go on smoothly and its success will continue to attract other regional states to join thereby expanding the

  13. Enhancing Earth Observation Capacity in the Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Earth observations bear special significance in the Himalayan Region owing to the fact that routine data collections are often hampered by highly inaccessible terrain and harsh climatic conditions. The ongoing rapid environmental changes have further emphasized its relevance and use for informed decision-making. The International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), with a regional mandate is promoting the use of earth observations in line with the GEOSS societal benefit areas. ICIMOD has a proven track record to utilize earth observations notably in the areas of understanding glaciers and snow dynamics, disaster risk preparedness and emergency response, carbon estimation for community forestry user groups, land cover change assessment, agriculture monitoring and food security analysis among others. This paper presents the challenges and lessons learned as a part of capacity building of ICIMOD to utilize earth observations with the primary objectives to empower its member countries and foster regional cooperation. As a part of capacity building, ICIMOD continues to make its efforts to augment as a regional resource center on earth observation and geospatial applications for sustainable mountain development. Capacity building possesses multitude of challenges in the region: the complex geo-political reality with differentiated capacities of member states, poorer institutional and technical infrastructure; addressing the needs for multiple user and target groups; integration with different thematic disciplines; and high resources intensity and sustainability. A capacity building framework was developed based on detailed needs assessment with a regional approach and strategy to enhance capability of ICIMOD and its network of national partners. A specialized one-week training course and curriculum have been designed for different thematic areas to impart knowledge and skills that include development practitioners, professionals, researchers and

  14. REGIONAL SECURITY IN THE HORN OF AFRICA: CONFLICTS, AGENDAS AND THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fernandes Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing security dynamics in the Horn of Africa in the post-independence period, identifying the actors, agendas and threats. For this purpose, it is subdivided into three parts. The first one analyzes the security dynamics taking place in the Horn of Africa during the Cold War period, focusing on the regional rivalries and on the penetration of extraregional actors. In the second part, there is a discussion regarding the transformations which occurred in region in the immediate post-Cold War period, focusing both on the unities’ (states internal security dynamics and on the regional ones. The third and last section aims at identifying “new” threats and regional and international responses, as well as the emerging strategic importance of the region to traditional superpowers in the post-9/11 period, marked by the process of securitization.

  15. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  16. Problems and Tools for the Detection of Threats to Personnel Security in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Victorovna Kuznetsova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of threats negatively affecting the state and the development of human resources as well as the varieties of security threats is of particular importance in the theory and practice of personnel security measures. The purpose of the article is to identify and classify the ideas of the main threats to personnel security of the region (the research is carried out on the example of the Irkutsk region. On the basis of the content analysis of Russian regulatory legal acts and scientific publications, external and internal threats to personnel security of the region are highlighted. As a result, the list of threats to personnel security of the region consisting of 37 stands is composed. The political, economic, demographic, social, technical and technological, ecological, legal, ethnocultural forms of threats are demonstrated. The authors came to the conclusion that the internal threats to personnel security of the region (first of all socio-economic are dominant. An assessment of the urgency and relevance of the threats to the personnel security of the region is given. With the use of the technology of the hierarchical factorial analysis, the types of threats (factors of the lowest level were identified and their influence on the general level of the urgency of personnel security threats (a factor of the highest level is estimated. It is revealed that legal threats, as well as threats caused by the low labour potential of the region, have the most significant impact on the estimation of the urgency of threats. The study applies the following analysis methods — a content analysis, the analysis of linear and cross-distribution, hierarchical factor and correlation analysis. The analysis is based on the data of the expert survey conducted in the Irkutsk region (2015. To determine the relationship (coherence of the expert evaluations, the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance is calculated. The received results can be used for studying

  17. State regulation as a tool for improving the economic security of the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Sokolinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing economic security for the development of regions, increasing their competitiveness, risk-free and sustainable activities are the main tasks of the regional program of social and economic development, which occupies a special place in the system of instruments for public management of these processes. The program of social and economic development is a unique strategy of the region aimed at security and optimization of the spatial structure and relations between the center and the regions in order to ensure economic security and growth by maximizing the effective use of existing internal and external factors. The institutional influence of the state in order to improve the economic security of regions and enterprises occurs palliatively when the business of the region is supported in direct – subsidies, and more often indirectly – compliance with the laws and regulations of the Russian Federation and the region, on the principles of institutional and market synergies. Adaptation of enterprises in the region to the market is difficult, when specific socio-organizational, economic, technical and technological, scientific, information activities in their interrelations function in the field of Russian laws. The search for ways to improve the economic security of the Russian Federation, regions and enterprises takes place in the context of global integration through the improvement of the mechanism of state regulation. An important task of the current stage of economic security of the country and regions is the construction of a system of its institutional organization that would be able to balance the levers of government with the opportunities of private enterprises, provide a quality level of providing the business with protection from terrorism, predation, financial risks, legal competition etc.

  18. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) / Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Review and Applicability for Chemical Security Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iveson, Steven W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Chemical Security Threat Reduction

    2014-11-01

    Global chemical security has been enhanced through the determined use and integration of both voluntary and legislated standards. Many popular standards contain components that specifically detail requirements for the security of materials, facilities and other vital assets. In this document we examine the roll of quality management standards and how they affect the security culture within the institutions that adopt these standards in order to conduct business within the international market place. Good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices are two of a number of quality management systems that have been adopted as law in many nations. These standards are designed to protect the quality of drugs, medicines, foods and analytical test results in order to provide the world-wide consumer with safe and affective products for consumption. These standards provide no established security protocols and yet manage to increase the security of chemicals, materials, facilities and the supply chain via the effective and complete control over the manufacturing, the global supply chains and testing processes. We discuss the means through which these systems enhance security and how nations can further improve these systems with additional regulations that deal specifically with security in the realm of these management systems. We conclude with a discussion of new technologies that may cause disruption within the industries covered by these standards and how these issues might be addressed in order to maintain or increase the level of security within the industries and nations that have adopted these standards.

  19. Enhanced way of securing automated teller machine to track the misusers using secure monitor tracking analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhasivam, Jayakumar; Alamelu, M.; Radhika, R.; Ramya, S.; Dharani, K.; Jayavel, Senthil

    2017-11-01

    Now a days the people's attraction towards Automated Teller Machine(ATM) has been increasing even in rural areas. As of now the security provided by all the bank is ATM pin number. Hackers know the way to easily identify the pin number and withdraw money if they haven stolen the ATM card. Also, the Automated Teller Machine is broken and the money is stolen. To overcome these disadvantages, we propose an approach “Automated Secure Tracking System” to secure and tracking the changes in ATM. In this approach, while creating the bank account, the bank should scan the iris known (a part or movement of our eye) and fingerprint of the customer. The scanning can be done with the position of the eye movements and fingerprints identified with the shortest measurements. When the card is swiped then ATM should request the pin, scan the iris and recognize the fingerprint and then allow the customer to withdraw money. If somebody tries to break the ATM an alert message is given to the nearby police station and the ATM shutter is automatically closed. This helps in avoiding the hackers who withdraw money by stealing the ATM card and also helps the government in identifying the criminals easily.

  20. Options for Enhancing Nordic–Baltic Defence and Security Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.; Kristensen, Kristian Søby; Schaub Jr, Gary John

    The Nordic–Baltic region is located as a geopolitical buffer zone between the great power interests of the East and the West. As external pressures are rising with an assertive Russia to the east and uncertainties about US NATO guarantees to the west, compounded by an uncertain EU, the region...

  1. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  2. Privacy-Enhancing Security Protocol in LTE Initial Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uijin Jang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Evolution (LTE is a fourth-generation mobile communication technology implemented throughout the world. It is the communication means of smartphones that send and receive all of the private date of individuals. M2M, IOT, etc., are the base technologies of mobile communication that will be used in the future cyber world. However, identification parameters, such as International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI, Radio Network Temporary Identities (RNTI, etc., in the initial attach section for accessing the LTE network are presented with the vulnerability of being exposed as clear text. Such vulnerability does not end in a mere identification parameter, but can lead to a secondary attack using the identification parameter, such as replication of the smartphone, illegal use of the mobile communication network, etc. This paper proposes a security protocol to safely transmit identification parameters in different cases of the initial attach. The proposed security protocol solves the exposed vulnerability by encrypting the parameters in transmission. Using an OPNET simulator, it is shown that the average rate of delay and processing ratio are efficient in comparison to the existing process.

  3. Comparative analysis of military security policy of Norway and Denmark in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Doroshenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest of Western countries in the Arctic region is growing with each new statement about the sharp climate change and the melting of the Arctic Ocean’s glaciers. In addition to the threats related to the environmental situation in the Arctic zone, the desire to participate in shelf research and development, the potential of using the sea routes of the region by both the Arctic and non-Arctic states creates threats to the security of the Nordic countries.The coastal states, which in case of the escalation of tensions will be in the midst of a regional conflict in the Arctic, are Norway and Denmark. Therefore, the analysis of a level of Norwegian and Danish military security against a backdrop of increasing confrontation between Russia and West and changing climate situation in the region is urgent ., Nevertheless, to ensure a necessary level of defence capability as well as security of borders and zones of exceptional economic interests in the conditions of low temperatures is not so easy. This article examines the Norwegian and Danish approaches to the new military security challenges in the Arctic region. The paper contains examination of the doctrinal basis of military security along with the main documents that form the security concepts of the two countries in the Arctic region, and the reports of the defense ministries and scientific institutions surveys of military activities in the Arctic.Three directions of coastal countries’ policy making in the issues of military security were chosen for comparison. Firstly, the relationships with the USA, the leader of the North Atlantic alliance, which allow us to determine the significance of Norway and Denmark in building NATO security in the north. Secondly, the relationships with the EU and separately with the Nordic countries are considered. This case shows the level of involvement of the European community in the issue of ensuring the Arctic security . Thirdly, the relationships with

  4. Rise of China in the Caribbean: Impacts for Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Prima facie , more demonstrative of a policy is to retain primacy in the region while engaging the interests and cooperation of Caribbean states. In...and diplomatic cooperation with Caribbean nations. The prima facie implications are therefore, without evidence to the contrary, that these

  5. American Policy in the Persian Gulf Region: Peace, Security, and the Spread of Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Darin J

    2008-01-01

    To achieve lasting security in the Arabian Gulf region, U.S. policy, though currently focused on Iraq, must engage Saudi Arabia and Iran with all of its instruments of national power to encourage the spread of democracy within the region...

  6. The influence of ecological and economic security on region's investment appeal

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Kuklin; Irina Belik

    2009-01-01

    In the article authors reveal regional aspect of the problem of influence the ecological factor on investment appeal. This allows considering from the point of ecological and economic security. The choice of the type of investment policy in different scenarios of social-economic development of the region.

  7. The emerging architecture of a regional security complex in the Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the emerging regional security architecture to fight terrorism and insurgency in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB). It diagnoses the evolution of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) as a sub-regional organization that unites Chad, Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria. In particular, the article critically investigates ...

  8. VIRTUAL COGNITIVE CENTERS AS INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SUPPORT OF REGIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Masloboev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with engineering problems and application perspectives of virtual cognitive centers as intelligent systems for information support of interagency activities in the field of complex security management of regional development. A research prototype of virtual cognitive center for regional security management in crisis situations, implemented as hybrid cloud service based on IaaS architectural framework with the usage of multi-agent and web-service technologies has been developed. Virtual cognitive center is a training simulator software system and is intended for solving on the basis of distributed simulation such problems as: strategic planning and forecasting of risk-sustainable development of regional socioeconomic systems, agents of management interaction specification synthesis for regional components security in different crisis situations within the planning stage of joint anti-crisis actions.

  9. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  10. Security trends in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiadong

    1992-01-01

    The drastic world changes are less conspicuous in Asia-Pacific region than in it was the case in Europe, although they must be considered as stabilizing factors as well as sustained economic dynamism. Due to these changes some progress was achieved in world disarmament and arms control. But this is considered only a first step, there remains a long way to go. In the case of Asia-Pacific, possessors of largest nuclear arsenals and most sophisticated conventional arms need to further reduce their forces, support the proposals of setting up nuclear-weapon-free zones and commit themselves to no-first-use of nuclear weapons and non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear states. Their fulfilment of these demands would undoubtedly contribute towards the prevention of a new round of the arms race and to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in Asia-Pacific region

  11. Ethnic Separatism in Pakistan as a Threat to Regional Security

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Isaevich Khahkhanov

    2015-01-01

    At present ethnic separatism is shown in various regions practically on all continents and it is the same serious call of the international stability and safety, as religious extremism and drugs. Ethnic separatism is shown and in the Southern Asia, particularly, in India, Pakistan, Sri - Lanka, leading to terrorism acts and a numerous death. The author analyzes sources and the reasons of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. Author marks that the basis for statehood of Pakistan while independence de...

  12. Ground temperature enhancements in seismic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, M.; Pokhotelov, O.; Surkov, V.; Hayakawa, M.

    In the past decade, numerous observations of surface and near surface temperature anomalies before earthquakes have been published. Monitoring of the seismo -active regions from space have been made in visible and infrared ranges by various satellites: NOOA satellites, UARS, TERRA and etc. This paper presents some examples of these observations. A review of different mechanisms to explain the phenomenon is given and a more detailed explanation of the mechanism proposed by the authors is presented. It is shown that long term temperature anomalies can arise due to the rock warming resulting from the underground water upward filtrating. However, the short term temperature anomalies observed several days before an earthquake, are due to the change in the specific heat capacity and in the heat conductivity of the soil induced by the variations of the moisture. This research is partially supported by the Commission of the EU (Grant No. INTAS-2001-0456), by ISTC through Research Grant No. 1121 and by Russian Fund for Basic Research through Grant No. 02-05-64612.

  13. Security Enhanced EMV-Based Mobile Payment Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hour Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Near field communication has enabled customers to put their credit cards into a smartphone and use the phone for credit card transaction. But EMV contactless payment allows unauthorized readers to access credit cards. Besides, in offline transaction, a merchant’s reader cannot verify whether a card has been revoked. Therefore, we propose an EMV-compatible payment protocol to mitigate the transaction risk. And our modifications to the EMV standard are transparent to merchants and users. We also encrypt the communications between a card and a reader to prevent eavesdropping on sensitive data. The protocol is able to resist impersonation attacks and to avoid the security threats in EMV. In offline transactions, our scheme requires a user to apply for a temporary offline certificate in advance. With the certificate, banks no longer need to lower customer’s credits for risk control, and users can have online-equivalent credits in offline transactions.

  14. An Enhancing Security Research of Tor Anonymous Communication to Against DDos Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tor (The Second Onion Router is modified by the first generation onion router and known as the most prevalent anonymous communication system. According to the advantage of low latency, high confidentiality of transmission content, high security of communication channels and et al., Tor is widely used in anonymous Web browsing, instant message and so on. However, the vulnerability and blemish of Tor affect system security. An identity and Signcryption-based concurrent signature scheme was used to prevent the behaviors of attackers from inserting controlled nodes and conspiring to make DDos attacks. The integrated security of Tor system was enhanced in our scheme. In addition we have proved the scheme.

  15. Ethnic Separatism in Pakistan as a Threat to Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Isaevich Khahkhanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At present ethnic separatism is shown in various regions practically on all continents and it is the same serious call of the international stability and safety, as religious extremism and drugs. Ethnic separatism is shown and in the Southern Asia, particularly, in India, Pakistan, Sri - Lanka, leading to terrorism acts and a numerous death. The author analyzes sources and the reasons of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. Author marks that the basis for statehood of Pakistan while independence declaration was not ethnic, but cultural and religious factors, which already contained potential separatism. Article tells us about modern manifestation of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. In particular, the author describes sources, the reasons and manifestations of separatism of Pushtuns and Beludzhy. According to the author, separatism of Beludzhy and Pushtuns is the specific danger not only to integrity of Pakistan. This can lead in the long term to disintegration of the state that is fraught with serious consequences for stability and safety not only for the Southern Asia, but also for other regions nearby Russia.

  16. Mechanisms for training security inspectors to enhance human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, H.E.; Sessions, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established qualification standards for protective force personnel employed at nuclear facilities [10 CFR Part 1046 (Federal Register)]. Training mechanisms used at Los Alamos to enhance human performance in meeting DOE standards include, but are not limited to, the following: for cardio-respiratory training, they utilize distance running, interval training, sprint training, pacing, indoor aerobics and circuit training; for muscular strength, free weights, weight machines, light hand weights, grip strength conditioners, and calistenics are employed; for muscular endurance, participants do high repetitions (15 - 40) using dumbbells, flex weights, resistive rubber bands, benches, and calisthenics; for flexibility, each training session devotes specific times to stretch the muscles involved for a particular activity. These training mechanisms with specific protocols can enhance human performance

  17. A Taxonomy for Enhancing Usability, Flexibility, and Security of User Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Gottschlich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two technology trends – a move toward software defined capabilities and toward networked devices – support both unprecedented innovations and requirements for security. A fundamental aspect of security is user authentication, which allows devices and software applications to establish their user’s identity and identity is in turn used to establish which of its capabilities the user is authorized to access. While multiple authentication steps, known as multifactor authentication, are being used more widely throughout the military, government, businesses, and consumer sectors, the selection and implementation of which authentication factors to require is typically defined by security policy. Security policy is in turn typically established by a security organization that may have no formal metrics or means to guide its selection of authentication factors. This paper will present a taxonomy for describing authentication factors including important attributes that characterize authentication robustness to aid in the selection of factors that are consistent with the user’s mission. One particular authentication factor that I have developed will be discussed in the context of this taxonomy to motivate the need to broaden current definitions and security policies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to inspire the development of standards for authentication technologies to both support mission aware authentication innovation and to inform decision making about security policies concerning user authentication and authorization. Further, this paper aims to demonstrate that such an approach will fundamentally enhance both security and usability of increasingly networked, software-defined devices, equipment and software applications.

  18. COORDINATION IN MULTILEVEL NETWORK-CENTRIC CONTROL SYSTEMS OF REGIONAL SECURITY: APPROACH AND FORMAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Masloboev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with development of methods and tools for mathematical and computer modeling of the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security. This research is carried out under development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safeguarding for the period before 2020 in the Murmansk region territory. Creation of unified interdepartmental multilevel computer-aided system is proposed intended for decision-making information support and socio-economic security monitoring of the Arctic regions of Russia. The distinctive features of the investigated system class are openness, self-organization, decentralization of management functions and decision-making, weak hierarchy in the decision-making circuit and goal generation capability inside itself. Research techniques include functional-target approach, mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory and principles of network-centric control of distributed systems with pro-active components and variable structure. The work considers network-centric management local decisions coordination problem-solving within the multilevel distributed systems intended for information support of regional security. The coordination problem-solving approach and problem formalization in the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security have been proposed based on developed multilevel recurrent hierarchical model of regional socio-economic system complex security. The model provides coordination of regional security indexes, optimized by the different elements of multilevel control systems, subject to decentralized decision-making. The model specificity consists in application of functional-target technology and mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory for coordination procedures implementation of the network-centric management local decisions. The work-out and research results can find further

  19. Comparison of the Efficiency of Budget Financing and the Social Security of a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kuklin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical and economic aspects of the category “security” are considered, the distinction between philosophical and socio-economic approaches to the understanding of social security is drawn. From the point of view of the system approach, the place of social security for national security protection is determined. The theoretical content of the category “social security” is shown; in the authors’ treatment, the specifying concepts such as “social risks”, “danger”, “threat” are given. For the purpose of risks identification (deviations and the revealing of the factors of inefficient financing, the methodological tools for the assessment of the social security of a region are proposed. These tools are based on the integrated assessment of the regional socio-economic indexes and the indexes assessing the budgetary financing of the territory. The methodical approach offered by the authors is based on the detection of dependencies between the social and financial security of a region. As estimates, the indicators reflecting the level of social security in the territory of residence are chosen: income, expenses of the consolidated budget of a region, growth rate of gross regional product, rate of natural population growth, level of unemployment, population share with the income below living level. This approach is approved on the example of Perm Krai and Sverdlovsk region; the regularities, the favourable and adverse periods for social security of the region are revealed. The received estimates are ranged depending on a temporary log of growth (fall, elasticity and sensitivity to the budget financing. The results of the assessment have shown that, from the point of view of social security protection, Perm Krai has entered a stage of deep recession, which started in 2012. Similar tendencies are observed in the Sverdlovsk region. Nevertheless, considering both a visible variety and the dominating influence of

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY IN THE REGION IN THE SERVICE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL SPATIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental prerequisite for the existence, growth and development of each social community is environmental safety. In modern conditions of environmental degradation as a global process, it is bound to increase social stratification, ethnic and even religious conflict, conflict and intolerance that threatens the safety of society. It is a notorious fact that the world of Simply is no longer in a position to deal with new shocks. The financial crisis has reduced global economic resilience, while geopolitical tensions and increased social concerns point to the fact that the state and society less able than ever to cope with global challenges, among which is the primary problem of environmental security. In modern countries, political, security and other interests of the citizens' day-to-day modeling, transform, get the content, in accordance with the general civilization changes. In this connection, sustainable local spatial development is crucial conditioned ecological without security region and aims to achieve a balance between current consumption of natural resources and the ability of the system to maintain the level at which future generations will be able to use them. The work represents a contribution to the achievement of environmental security as a new, modern forms of security, and originated from the need to once again draw attention to the evident environmental degradation as an integral part of human security. Ecological security of the region protects the basic components of the environment and determinants of the local spatial development. In fact, safety in the field of protection and preservation of the environment is one of the most important factors Security Council shall contemporary world. In doing so, it is important to emphasize, however, that environmental security has no borders and is a global problem, a task and an obligation.

  1. Evidence-Based Model of Integration of Regions for Ensuring Economic Security and Sustainable Development of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O. Smirnova

    2017-01-01

    results of a clustering by definition of uniform groups of regions on the basis of identification of similarity of the quantitative values characterizing stability of development of regions and a condition of indicators of their economic security; at the third stage – diagnostics of proximity of objects in a cluster on the basis of the principle of territorial contiguity and formation of the list and structure of regions concerning which the procedure of integration can be recommended; at the fourth stage – development of recommendations of integration of regions for stability of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation and ensuring economic security of the Russian Federation. Results: the new approach to administrative-territorial division of the Russian Federation on the basis of stability of subjects assuming that in case of making decision on combining of regions the requirement of increase in level of stability of development of the territories and their economic security shall act as the purpose and the expected result of process is developed. The conceptual model of making decision on enlargement of regions concretizing logic and content of process which application in practice of public administration by regional development will allow to provide framing of adequate approaches to administrative-territorial division of the Russian Federation is created. The recommendations concerning making decisions on combining of regions allowing to consider adequately specifics of social and economic development and level of an economic security of the territories are provided. Conclusions and Relevance: the researches conducted in article represent development of scientific ideas of the modern approaches to administrative-territorial division of the Russian Federation. Practical application of the received results will allow to enhance procedures of acceptance of administrative decisions concerning enlargement of regions taking into account the current trends in

  2. Algorithm and Indicators of Evaluation of Agrarian Policy Efficiency in the Sphere of Food Security of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Antamoshkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the author’s method of analysis of the regional food security and its approbation on the example of the Southern Federal District. The author’s goal was to develop a comprehensive universal method of analysis of the regional food security. To achieve this goal the following steps were required: to develop a system of indicators to measure food security at the regional level; to define criteria for assessing regional food security; to synthesize model analysis and evaluation of food security in the region. The paper presents an algorithm for the phased application of methodology for assessing regional food security. The recommended indicators and criteria for assessing regional food security are consistent with the parameters defined by the Doctrine of food security in Russia, and take into account the requirements of the WTO. The proposed method was tested on data from the largest regions of the Southern Federal District, which allowed a comparison of the level of food security in the regions of the spatial and temporal perspective. Comparison was made on the basis of an integrated assessment of the level of food security in the regions. The theoretical significance consists in the meaningful complement to research models and tools for analysis of food security at the regional level of the economy in terms of justification of indicators and criteria for assessing food security in the region in terms of Russia’s participation in the WTO. The practical significance is in developing and testing the proposed method based on an assessment of indicators of food security in SFD.

  3. An Enhanced Secure Identity-Based Certificateless Public Key Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Haiping; Li, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular sensor networks have been widely applied in intelligent traffic systems in recent years. Because of the specificity of vehicular sensor networks, they require an enhanced, secure and efficient authentication scheme. Existing authentication protocols are vulnerable to some problems, such as a high computational overhead with certificate distribution and revocation, strong reliance on tamper-proof devices, limited scalability when building many secure channels, and an inability to detect hardware tampering attacks. In this paper, an improved authentication scheme using certificateless public key cryptography is proposed to address these problems. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol provides an enhanced secure anonymous authentication, which is resilient against major security threats. Furthermore, the proposed scheme reduces the incidence of node compromise and replication attacks. The scheme also provides a malicious-node detection and warning mechanism, which can quickly identify compromised static nodes and immediately alert the administrative department. With performance evaluations, the scheme can obtain better trade-offs between security and efficiency than the well-known available schemes. PMID:29324719

  4. An Enhanced Secure Identity-Based Certificateless Public Key Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Haiping; Li, Dongfeng

    2018-01-11

    Vehicular sensor networks have been widely applied in intelligent traffic systems in recent years. Because of the specificity of vehicular sensor networks, they require an enhanced, secure and efficient authentication scheme. Existing authentication protocols are vulnerable to some problems, such as a high computational overhead with certificate distribution and revocation, strong reliance on tamper-proof devices, limited scalability when building many secure channels, and an inability to detect hardware tampering attacks. In this paper, an improved authentication scheme using certificateless public key cryptography is proposed to address these problems. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol provides an enhanced secure anonymous authentication, which is resilient against major security threats. Furthermore, the proposed scheme reduces the incidence of node compromise and replication attacks. The scheme also provides a malicious-node detection and warning mechanism, which can quickly identify compromised static nodes and immediately alert the administrative department. With performance evaluations, the scheme can obtain better trade-offs between security and efficiency than the well-known available schemes.

  5. Efficient and Security Enhanced Anonymous Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-03-21

    At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al's method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration.

  6. A novel water poverty index model for evaluation of Chinese regional water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L.; Jin, C. L.; Li, Y. X.; Zhou, Z. L.

    2017-08-01

    This study proposed an improved Water Poverty Index (WPI) model employed in evaluating Chinese regional water security. Firstly, the Chinese WPI index system was constructed, in which the indicators were obtained according to China River reality. A new mathematical model was then established for WPI values calculation on the basis of Center for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) model. Furthermore, this new model was applied in Shiyanghe River (located in western China). It turned out that the Chinese index system could clearly reflect the indicators threatening security of river water and the Chinese WPI model is feasible. This work has also developed a Water Security Degree (WSD) standard which is able to be regarded as a scientific basis for further water resources utilization and water security warning mechanism formulation.

  7. Studies on Enhancing Nuclear Transparency in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Y.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transparency is defined as ''a cooperative process of providing information to all interested parties so that they can independently assess the safety, security, and legitimate management of nuclear materials'' by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Since the Asia- Pacific region has a broad spectrum of nuclear development underway and planned in the future, nuclear transparency is recognized as essential to provide additional assurance and enhance confidence building in this area. It is expected that elevated nuclear transparency should also supplement International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. With this recognition, JAEA has committed various studies and activities for enhancing regional nuclear transparency mainly with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories. The efforts include concept study, development of secure data transmission technologies at the Experimental Fast Reactor ''Joyo'' for the use of regional nuclear transparency, and support for Council for Security and Cooperation in Asia Pacific (CSCAP) to develop internet-based transparency tools. JAEA also organized several workshops to discuss with stakeholder organizations to build acceptance for transparency tools and activities. Based on the past studies, JAEA, jointly with SNL, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), initiated a new phase of study in 2011 to design and establish an Information Sharing Framework (ISF) which was defined as ''a communication platform on which nuclear nonproliferation experts can provide and/or receive relevant information in a practical and sustainable manner''. During the period of two-year study, partner organizations identified essential elements to establish ISF and developed the requirements. Currently, JAEA and KINAC are planning to implement demonstration of ISF under Asia Pacific

  8. Using digital watermarking to enhance security in wireless medical image transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, Aggeliki; Perakis, Konstantinos; Banitsas, Konstantinos; Giokas, Konstantinos; Tachakra, Sapal; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2010-04-01

    During the last few years, wireless networks have been increasingly used both inside hospitals and in patients' homes to transmit medical information. In general, wireless networks suffer from decreased security. However, digital watermarking can be used to secure medical information. In this study, we focused on combining wireless transmission and digital watermarking technologies to better secure the transmission of medical images within and outside the hospital. We utilized an integrated system comprising the wireless network and the digital watermarking module to conduct a series of tests. The test results were evaluated by medical consultants. They concluded that the images suffered no visible quality degradation and maintained their diagnostic integrity. The proposed integrated system presented reasonable stability, and its performance was comparable to that of a fixed network. This system can enhance security during the transmission of medical images through a wireless channel.

  9. Enhancing security of fingerprints through contextual biometric watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noore, Afzel; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Houck, Max M

    2007-07-04

    This paper presents a novel digital watermarking technique using face and demographic text data as multiple watermarks for verifying the chain of custody and protecting the integrity of a fingerprint image. The watermarks are embedded in selected texture regions of a fingerprint image using discrete wavelet transform. Experimental results show that modifications in these locations are visually imperceptible and maintain the minutiae details. The integrity of the fingerprint image is verified through the high matching scores obtained from an automatic fingerprint identification system. There is also a high degree of visual correlation between the embedded images, and the extracted images from the watermarked fingerprint. The degree of similarity is computed using pixel-based metrics and human visual system metrics. The results also show that the proposed watermarked fingerprint and the extracted images are resilient to common attacks such as compression, filtering, and noise.

  10. SECTOR-SPECIFIC STRUCTURE OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMY AS A FACTOR OF ELEVATION OF RISKS TO ITS ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav BILYK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes a sector-specific specialization of the regional economy in Ukraine. It also reveals possibility and conditions of transformation of a sector-specific specialization of the region and risks to its economic security. The article suggests an assessment of influence of a sector-specific specialization on occurrence of threats to the economic security of the region.

  11. Application of Evolutionary Mechanisms of Enhancers for Development Effective Artificial Intelligence Systems for Providing Data Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Garanina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the base approaches of the methods of evolutionary mechanisms (special type of genes — enhancers for parameterizations of AI systems genotype. This method can help in increasing adaptability of AI systems for providing data security.

  12. The Migration Crisis from the East-Central European Perspective: Challenges for Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Podgórzańska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the common denominator of involvement of the EastCentral Europe in the international arena, and above all, the premise determining community of interest expressed in the European Union is the migration crisis. Despite the different circumstances of activity in the context of the migration crisis, states in the region express similar opinions on the consequences of immigration for security in the region. Above all, they emphasise the implications of immigration for the internal security of states. Given the complex nature of migration, this article focuses on the phenomenon of immigration in the EU, determining the causes of the escalation of the influx of immigrants and, above all, identifying the consequences for the security of states of East-Central Europe.

  13. Primary care in an unstable security, humanitarian, economic and political context: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukor, Ali R.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Kringos, Dionne S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and

  14. Impact of Inter‐Basin Water Transfer Projects on Regional Ecological Security from a Telecoupling Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Quan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inter‐basin water transfer projects (IBWTPs offer one of the most important means to solve the mismatch between supply and demand of regional water resources. IBWTPs have impacts on the complex ecosystems of the areas from which water is diverted and to which water is received. These impacts increase damage or risk to regional ecological security and human wellbeing. However, current methods make it difficult to achieve comprehensive analysis of the impacts of whole ecosystems, because of the long distance between ecosystems and the inconsistency of impact events. In this study, a model was proposed for the analysis of the impacts of IBWTPs on regional ecological security. It is based on the telecoupling framework, and the Driver‐Pressure‐State‐ Impact‐Response (DPSIR model was used to improve the analysis procedure within the telecoupling framework. The Middle Line of the South‐to‐North Water Diversion Project was selected as a case study to illustrate the specific analysis procedure. We realized that information sharing is a key issue in the management of regional security, and that the ecological water requirement, in the form of a single index, could be used to quantitatively assess the impacts on ecological security from IBWTPs.

  15. Globalisation, States, and Regionalisation: Analysing post-Cold War Security in the Mediterranean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Grin, J.; Brauch, H.G.; Liotta, P.H.; Marquina, A.; Rogers, P.; Selim, M.E.-S.

    2003-01-01

    Is it possible to promote security in the Mediterranean through a process of increasing regional cooperation that builds upon the commonality in problems and opportunities more than on the mutual divides? In a comprehensive and enlightening analysis, Brauch (2001) has argued that this option is

  16. Military-political Processes in the Caucasus Region and the Security of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Vilovatykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unipolar world breaking and the tightening of geopolitical struggle led to destructive military-political processes in different regions of the world. In conditions of instability along the perimeter of Russia's borders the significance of the Caucasus region increases, especially in geo-strategic and geoeconomic perspectives. The efforts of world politics actors for the transformation of the region environment increase substantially. As a result the dynamics and the scope of the proceeding military-political processes in the Caucasus are complicated. The failures in the assessment and the prediction of the processes development influence on the safety of Russia. Wrong gradation of existing threats and challenges can lead to disastrous and irreversible consequences for state security. Designated circumstances caused the need for the expert survey on assessing the impact of the current military-political processes in the Caucasus region on the security of the Russian state and necessity for the concretization of military dangers and threats, due to political and military developments in the Caucasus. An expert survey was conducted in June 2014. During it authors interviewed 40 Russian and foreign experts representing Federal and regional authorities, academic community, research centers, analytical structures. Implementation of the survey allowed to identify the experts positions and the degree of their coherence on the military-political processes in the Caucasus region and their impact on the modern Russia security. As a result the degree of destructiveness of the regional military-political processes was fixed. We conclude that anti-Russian processes in the countries of the Caucasus continue to determine the overall geopolitical situation, including in the military-political sphere. The reason is mainly seen in interests clashing of Russia and countries of the "Atlantic world." Analysis of the military-political processes in the Caucasus

  17. East Asia’s energy needs: The impact on security and guidelines for regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pareja Alcaraz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a spectacular (and not easily sustainable increase in the global demand for energy. This trend has a particular significance in East Asia owing to its heavy industrialisation, which is promoting intense regional growth, on top of the already delicate balance of security in the region and the traditional refusal by the region’s states to delegate power and management to supranational bodies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of East Asia’s energy needs on security and on the instruments of order and governance that have been developed in the region up until the present time. Thus, the article is divided into two parts; the first analyses East Asia’s energy programme and its most significant features: 1 a high dependence on oil imports from other regions, especially the Middle East; 2 a persistence of high dependency on pollutant fossil fuels; and 3 a high degree of energy insecurity. Meanwhile, the second part assesses the impact of energy on regional relations in different areas of security and guidelines for regional government: 1 the securitisation of energy and of the environment; 2 the reactivation of certain maritime conflicts; 3 the transformation of certain threats, and conventional and non-conventional challenges to regional security; 4 the rise of non-state actors (mainly environmental businesses and NGOs in East Asia’s international relations; 5 the maintaining of bilateralism and the promotion of multilateral initiatives; and 6 the emergence of new extra-regional geopolitical links and balances.

  18. The United States Department of Homeland Security Concept of Regionalization - Will It Survive the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    used to explain in general an individual state’s focus including restrictions on the application of regionalization and the impact of home rule...terrorist attack. Didn’t New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg exhibit big city egoism over a reduction in homeland security funding? Some...been missed in the turmoil at DHS. Several states have eased legislative restrictions that interfere with regionalization. Indiana for example, has an

  19. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig (Pacific Disaster Center, Kihei, HI)

    2005-06-01

    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  20. Enhancement of security using structured phase masked in optical image encryption on Fresnel transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam Lata; Singh, Hukum

    2018-05-01

    To enhance the security in optical image encryption system and to protect it from the attackers, this paper proposes new digital spiral phase mask based on Fresnel Transform. In this cryptosystem the Spiral Phase Mask (SPM) used is a hybrid of Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) and Radial Hilbert Mask (RHM) which makes the key strong and enhances the security. The different keys used for encryption and decryption purposed make the system much more secure. Proposed scheme uses various structured phase mask which increases the key space also it increases the number of parameters which makes it difficult for the attackers to exactly find the key to recover the original image. We have also used different keys for encryption and decryption purpose to make the system much more secure. The strength of the proposed cryptosystem has been analyzed by simulating on MATLAB 7.9.0(R2008a). Mean Square Errors (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are calculated for the proposed algorithm. The experimental results are provided to highlight the effectiveness and sustainability of proposed cryptosystem and to prove that the cryptosystem is secure for usage.

  1. Security Enhancement for Multicast over Internet of Things by Dynamically Constructed Fountain Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is expected to accommodate every object which exists in this world or likely to exist in the near future. The enormous scale of the objects is challenged by big security concerns, especially for common information dissemination via multicast services, where the reliability assurance for multiple multicast users at the cost of increasing redundancy and/or retransmissions also benefits eavesdroppers in successfully decoding the overheard signals. The objective of this work is to address the security challenge present in IoT multicast applications. Specifically, with the presence of the eavesdropper, an adaptive fountain code design is proposed in this paper to enhance the security for multicast in IoT. The main novel features of the proposed scheme include two folds: (i dynamical encoding scheme which can effectively decrease intercept probability at the eavesdropper; (ii increasing the transmission efficiency compared with the conventional nondynamical design. The analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively enhance information security while achieving higher transmission efficiency with a little accredited complexity, thus facilitating the secured wireless multicast transmissions over IoT.

  2. Enhancing maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security with video feedback: an exploratory study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Castoro, Germana; Costantino, Elisabetta; Sette, Giovanna; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore whether a short-term and attachment-based video-feedback intervention, the Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting With Discussions on the Representational Level (VIPP-R; F. Juffer, M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, & M.H. van IJzendoorn, 2008), might be effective in enhancing maternal sensitivity and in promoting infants' attachment security in an Italian sample of dyads with primiparous mothers. Moreover, we explore whether the effectiveness of VIPP-R might be different for parents with insecure attachment representations who might be most in need of preventive intervention, as compared to parents who already have a more balanced and secure state of mind. Thirty-two infants (40% female) and their mothers participated in the study. The sample was divided into an intervention group (n = 16) and a comparison group (n = 16). At 6 and 13 months of age, the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; M. Main, N. Kaplan, & J. Cassidy, 1985) was administered. Moreover, a 30-min mother-infant play situation was videotaped and coded for maternal sensitivity with the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 2000). At 13 months of age, the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.D. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) was used to assess the security of mother-infant attachment. Results revealed a significant interaction effect between intervention and AAI security for infant attachment security; moreover, main effects of AAI security and intervention for maternal sensitivity were found. The VIPP-R appears effective in enhancing maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security, although only mothers with an insecure attachment representation may benefit from the intervention. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts. Summary of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna on 1-5 July 2013. The conference was organized in cooperation with the following organizations and initiatives: the European Union; the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT); the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL); the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM); the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI); the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); the Partnership for Global Security; the Police Community of the Americas (AMERIPOL); the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI); the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS); the World Nuclear Association (WNA); and the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI). A total of 34 ministers participated in the ministerial session of the conference. Altogether, the conference attracted more than 1300 registered participants from 125 IAEA Member States and 21 organizations. The aim of the conference was to review the international community's experience and achievements to date in strengthening nuclear security, to enhance the understanding of current approaches to nuclear security worldwide and identify trends, and to provide a global forum for ministers, policymakers and senior officials to formulate views on future directions and priorities for nuclear security. This book contains the President's Summary of the conference and a summary of the ministerial session, the full text of the ministerial declaration adopted by the conference and summaries of the main conference sessions. The attached CD-ROM contains the full conference programme, the list of conference participants, the national statements from the ministerial session and a selection of papers

  4. SecMAS: Security Enhanced Monitoring and Analysis Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring, control, and security guarantee for the communication in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs are currently treated as three independent issues and addressed separately through specialized tools. However, most cases of WSNs applications requires the network administrator change the network configuration in a very short time to response to the change of observed phenomenon with security guarantee. To meet this requirement, we propose a security enhanced monitoring and control platform named SecMAS for WSNs, which provides the real-time visualization about network states and online reconfiguration of the network properties and behaviours in a resource-efficient way. Besides, basic cryptographic primitives and part of the anomaly detection functionalities are implemented in SecMAS to enabling the secure communication in WSNs. Furthermore, we conduct experiments to evaluate the performance of SecMAS in terms of the latency, throughput, communication overhead, and the security capacity. The experimental results demonstrate that the SecMAS system achieves stable, efficient and secure data collection with lightweight quick-response network control.

  5. A framework to enhance security of physically unclonable functions using chaotic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lanxiang

    2018-05-01

    As a new technique for authentication and key generation, physically unclonable function (PUF) has attracted considerable attentions, with extensive research results achieved already. To resist the popular machine learning modeling attacks, a framework to enhance the security of PUFs is proposed. The basic idea is to combine PUFs with a chaotic system of which the response is highly sensitive to initial conditions. For this framework, a specific construction which combines the common arbiter PUF circuit, a converter, and the Chua's circuit is given to implement a more secure PUF. Simulation experiments are presented to further validate the framework. Finally, some practical suggestions for the framework and specific construction are also discussed.

  6. A Fast Enhanced Secure Image Chaotic Cryptosystem Based on Hybrid Chaotic Magic Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Koppu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced secure image chaotic cryptosystem has been proposed based on hybrid CMT-Lanczos algorithm. We have achieved fast encryption and decryption along with privacy of images. The pseudorandom generator has been used along with Lanczos algorithm to generate root characteristics and eigenvectors. Using hybrid CMT image, pixels are shuffled to accomplish excellent randomness. Compared with existing methods, the proposed method had more robustness to various attacks: brute-force attack, known cipher plaintext, chosen-plaintext, security key space, key sensitivity, correlation analysis and information entropy, and differential attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed methods give better result in protecting images with low-time complexity.

  7. Trustworthy reconfigurable systems enhancing the security capabilities of reconfigurable hardware architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Feller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ?Thomas Feller sheds some light on trust anchor architectures fortrustworthy reconfigurable systems. He is presenting novel concepts enhancing the security capabilities of reconfigurable hardware.Almost invisible to the user, many computer systems are embedded into everyday artifacts, such as cars, ATMs, and pacemakers. The significant growth of this market segment within the recent years enforced a rethinking with respect to the security properties and the trustworthiness of these systems. The trustworthiness of a system in general equates to the integrity of its system components. Hardware-b

  8. Dynamic exercise enhances regional cerebral artery mean flow velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linkis, P; Jørgensen, L G; Olesen, H L

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic exercise enhances regional cerebral artery mean flow velocity. J. Appl. Physiol. 78(1): 12-16, 1995.--Anterior (ACA) and middle (MCA) cerebral artery mean flow velocities (Vmean) and pulsatility indexes were determined using transcranial Doppler in 14 subjects during dynamic exercise afte...

  9. Regional cooperation to reduce the safety and security risks of Orphan radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Geoffrey; Hacker, Celia; Murray, Allan; Romallosa, Kristine; Caseria, Estrella; Africa del Castillo, Lorena

    2008-01-01

    ANSTO's Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project, in cooperation with the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), has initiated a program to reduce the safety and security risks of orphan radioactive sources in the Philippines. Collaborative work commenced in February 2006 during the Regional Orphan Source Search and Methods Workshop, co-hosted by ANSTO and the US National Nuclear Security Administration. Further professional development activities have occurred following requests by PNRI to ANSTO to support improvements in PNRI's capability and training programs to use a range of radiation survey equipment and on the planning and methods for conducting orphan source searches. The activities, methods and outcomes of the PNRI-ANSTO cooperative program are described, including: i.) Delivering a training workshop which incorporates use of source search and nuclide identification equipment and search methodology; and train-the-trainer techniques for effective development and delivery of custom designed training in the Philippines; ii.) Support and peer review of course work on Orphan Source Search Equipment and Methodology developed by PNRI Fellows; iii.) Supporting the delivery of the inaugural National Training Workshop on Orphan Source Search hosted by PNRI in the Philippines; iv.) Partnering in searching for orphan sources in Luzon, Philippines, in May 2007. The methods employed during these international cooperation activities are establishing a new model of regional engagement that emphasises sustainability of outcomes for safety and security of radioactive sources. (author)

  10. Security challenges to Central European bordering territories: view from the Transcarpatian region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Lendel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The factor of integral Central European space determines the formation of common challenges to the region's security. One part of them is not visualized or not perceived in the capital cities. These threats may be most vividly traced in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine, taking into consideration the fact that it borders with the abovementioned countries. These are ethnopolitical threats, caused by the multiethnic population of the region, energy dependence, threats of social economic peripherization of Central European bordering territories, informational influence on the population, different attitudes to Ukraine-Russia conflict.

  11. Enhancing Security by System-Level Virtualization in Cloud Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Chang, Guiran; Tan, Chunguang; Wang, Xingwei

    Many trends are opening up the era of cloud computing, which will reshape the IT industry. Virtualization techniques have become an indispensable ingredient for almost all cloud computing system. By the virtual environments, cloud provider is able to run varieties of operating systems as needed by each cloud user. Virtualization can improve reliability, security, and availability of applications by using consolidation, isolation, and fault tolerance. In addition, it is possible to balance the workloads by using live migration techniques. In this paper, the definition of cloud computing is given; and then the service and deployment models are introduced. An analysis of security issues and challenges in implementation of cloud computing is identified. Moreover, a system-level virtualization case is established to enhance the security of cloud computing environments.

  12. On Issue of Algorithm Forming for Assessing Investment Attractiveness of Region Through Its Technospheric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, L. A.; Skvortsova, N. K.

    2017-11-01

    The article examines the problematic aspects of assessing the investment attractiveness of a region associated with the consideration of methodological issues that require refinement from the point of view of its technospheric security. Such issues include the formation of a sound system of indicators for the assessment of man-made risk which has a particular impact on the level of investment attractiveness of the region. In the context of the instability of the economic situation in Russia, the problem of man-made risks assessing in the context of the regional investment attractiveness based on an integrated approach and taking into account such principles as flexibility, adaptability, innovative orientation has not only lost its relevance but was also transformed into one of the most important conditions for ensuring the effective management of all spheres of the regional activities. The article poses the classical problem of making decisions on the results of the assessment of the investment attractiveness of the region in a matrix format evaluating the utility function. The authors of the article recommended a universal risk assessment model with its subsequent synthesis into technospheric security for the comprehensive assessment of regional investment attractiveness. The principal distinguishing feature of the study results are the schemes for manipulation in the evaluation activity associated with the selection of the optimality criteria groups and models for their study. These iterations make it possible to substantiate the choice of the solution for preserving the technospheric security of the region, a field of compromises or an “ideal” solution to the problem of the regional investment attractiveness loss.

  13. Household food security and adequacy of child diet in the food insecure region north in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Agbadi

    Full Text Available Adequate diet is of crucial importance for healthy child development. In food insecure areas of the world, the provision of adequate child diet is threatened in the many households that sometimes experience having no food at all to eat (household food insecurity. In the context of food insecure northern Ghana, this study investigated the relationship between level of household food security and achievement of recommended child diet as measured by WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding Indicators.Using data from households and 6-23 month old children in the 2012 Feed the Future baseline survey (n = 871, descriptive analyses assessed the prevalence of minimum meal frequency; minimum dietary diversity, and minimum acceptable diet. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of minimum acceptable diet with household food security, while accounting for the effects of child sex and age, maternal -age, -dietary diversity, -literacy and -education, household size, region, and urban-rural setting. Household food security was assessed with the Household Hunger Scale developed by USAID's Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project.Forty-nine percent of children received minimum recommended meal frequency, 31% received minimum dietary diversity, and 17% of the children received minimum acceptable diet. Sixty-four percent of the children lived in food secure households, and they were significantly more likely than children in food insecure households to receive recommended minimum acceptable diet [O.R = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82]. However, in 80% of food secure households, children did not receive a minimal acceptable diet by WHO standards.Children living in food secure households were more likely than others to receive a minimum acceptable diet. Yet living in a food secure household was no guarantee of child dietary adequacy, since eight of 10 children in food secure households received less than a minimum acceptable diet. The results

  14. Unequal Probability Marking Approach to Enhance Security of Traceback Scheme in Tree-Based WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changqin; Ma, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Zuo, Zhengbang

    2017-06-17

    Fog (from core to edge) computing is a newly emerging computing platform, which utilizes a large number of network devices at the edge of a network to provide ubiquitous computing, thus having great development potential. However, the issue of security poses an important challenge for fog computing. In particular, the Internet of Things (IoT) that constitutes the fog computing platform is crucial for preserving the security of a huge number of wireless sensors, which are vulnerable to attack. In this paper, a new unequal probability marking approach is proposed to enhance the security performance of logging and migration traceback (LM) schemes in tree-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main contribution of this paper is to overcome the deficiency of the LM scheme that has a higher network lifetime and large storage space. In the unequal probability marking logging and migration (UPLM) scheme of this paper, different marking probabilities are adopted for different nodes according to their distances to the sink. A large marking probability is assigned to nodes in remote areas (areas at a long distance from the sink), while a small marking probability is applied to nodes in nearby area (areas at a short distance from the sink). This reduces the consumption of storage and energy in addition to enhancing the security performance, lifetime, and storage capacity. Marking information will be migrated to nodes at a longer distance from the sink for increasing the amount of stored marking information, thus enhancing the security performance in the process of migration. The experimental simulation shows that for general tree-based WSNs, the UPLM scheme proposed in this paper can store 1.12-1.28 times the amount of stored marking information that the equal probability marking approach achieves, and has 1.15-1.26 times the storage utilization efficiency compared with other schemes.

  15. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability.

  16. Security Enhanced User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.’s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.’s protocol. However, Shi et al.’s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.’s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  17. Security enhanced user authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho

    2014-06-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  18. Prioritizing low-carbon energy sources to enhance China’s energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four dimensions and ten metrics are used for energy security assessment. • Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered for energy security. • AHP has been used to quantify qualitative metrics. • TOPSIS method has been used for prioritize the low-carbon energy sources. • Sensitivity analysis and integrated ranking have been carried out. - Abstract: This paper explores how low-carbon systems compare to each other in terms of their net effect on Chinese energy security, and how they ought to be ranked and strategized into an optimal and integrated resource plan. The paper utilizes Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to first determine the relative performances of hydroelectricity, wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, and nuclear power with respect to the energy security dimensions of availability, affordability, accessibility, and acceptability. Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered. It relies on AHP to calculate the relative weights of the qualitative metrics attached to these dimensions of energy security for each of our five low carbon energy sources. Then, energy security performance is determined by aggregating multiple, weighted metrics into a generic index based on the method of TOPSIS and then tweaked with a sensitivity analysis. Finally, an integrated method has been developed to rank the low-carbon energy systems from most to least important, with major implications for Chinese decision-makers and stakeholders. We conclude that hydroelectricity and wind power are the two low-carbon energy sources with the most potential to enhance China’s energy security. By contrast, nuclear and solar power have the least potential

  19. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  20. Physical Layer Built-In Security Analysis and Enhancement Algorithms for CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tongtong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically developed for secure communication and military use, CDMA has been identified as a major modulation and multiple-access technique for 3G systems and beyond. In addition to the wide bandwidth and low power-spectrum density which make CDMA signals robust to narrowband jamming and easy to be concealed within the noise floor, the physical layer built-in information privacy of CDMA system is provided by pseudorandom scrambling. In this paper, first, security weakness of the operational and proposed CDMA airlink interfaces is analyzed. Second, based on the advanced encryption standard (AES, we propose to enhance the physical layer built-in security of CDMA systems through secure scrambling. Performance analysis demonstrates that while providing significantly improved information privacy, CDMA systems with secure scrambling have comparable computational complexity and overall system performance with that of conventionally scrambled systems. Moreover, it is shown that by scrambling the training sequence and the message sequence separately with two independent scrambling sequences, both information privacy and system performance can be further improved. The proposed scheme can readily be applied to 3G systems and beyond.

  1. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An’s scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user’s ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An’s scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge’s scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge’s scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost. PMID:28459867

  2. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  3. Enhancing Experiment Central Service Reliability: from delivery to security and virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Donno, Flavia; Buzykaev, Alexey; Saiz Santos, Maria Dolores

    2011-01-01

    The four LHC experiments rely on experiment specific services running on machines mainly located at CERN. Some of these services have been rated by the experiments as very critical: any loss or degradation of performance has a major impact on the experiment's production and analysis activities. It is therefore important to provide a reliable and robust operational environment. In this work we describe the strategy based on service deployment, security and virtualization adopted to enhance the reliability of ATLAS and CMS central services.

  4. Impacts of Climate Change on Colombia’s National and Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Peru, and Chile have relatively diverse, industrialized economies and greater domestic resources and state capaci- ties for adaptation. Bolivia...Change on Colombia’s National and Regional Security References 1 Colombia, Sistema de Informacion sobre el Uso del Agua en la Agricultura y el Medio...Jul 2009. "El cambio climatico en Colombia." Unpublished report shared with authors. IDEAM. 26 "El agua para 40 millones de personas esta en riesgo

  5. INDIA’S GROWING INFLUENCE IN STABILIZING REGIONAL SECURITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    East Policy’ focusing on engagement with Southeast Asia .2 Following the reforms, Indian economy grew rapidly with an...civilizational neighbors in Southeast Asia and East Asia .”19 Thus, LEP and recognition of India’s economic, political, security and cultural potential by ASEAN...point. 21 During the 10th East Asia Summit, Prime Minister Modi emphasized the importance of South East Asian region and informed that his

  6. Form Characteristics of Regional Security Organizations - The Missing Link in the Explanation of the Democratic Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Dembinski, Matthias; Freistein, Katja; Weiffen, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    This paper contributes both to the debate on the effects of regional security organizations and to the debate on democratic peace. It argues that even if international organizations as such may not be able to influence the conflict behavior of their member states, the subgroup of interdemocratic institutions is well suited to do so. The form of interdemocratic institutions differs in two significant respects from the form of traditional institutions: they are more densely connected via transn...

  7. Improving Regional Security in Central America: Military Engagement Options for Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    of Disasters) Guatemala, Guatemala. Secretaria de Integracion Economica Centroamericana. 68 Smith, Peter H. 2000. Talons of the Eagle: Dynamics of...for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection...an essential role in the stability and security of the Central American sub region. The de -stabilizing influence of Sandinista policies in the 1980s

  8. Geographic/conceptual delimitation of the «Southern Mediterranean». A Regional Security Complex?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Priego Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse how the Mediterranean Area has evolved after the changes occurred with the so-called Arab Springs. The main idea is to focus on the Southern Mediterranean as a dynamic space that expands itself as a result of its internal transformations and subsequent external changes caused by the Arab Spring. We will use the IR theory of the Regional Security Complex as it is considered as the most adaptable to this changing reality.

  9. Central Asia as a Regional Security Complex from the Perspectives of Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Putri Pratama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan menganalisis kawasan Asia Tengah, dilihat dari perspektif Realisme, Liberalisme dan Konstruktivisme, melalui teori Regional Security Complex oleh Barry Buzan dan Ole Waever. Teori ini hendak menunjukkan keamanan regional berdasarkan interdependensi antar unit dalam kawasan dilihat dari struktur power dan proses sekuritisasi di dalamnya, demikian pola hubungan keamanan dalam kawasan Asia Tengah berusaha dijelaskan dengan elemen-elemen dari ketiga paradigma yang terdapat dalam teori tersebut. Hasil analisis tulisan ini menunjukkan bahwa Asia Tengah dipandang sebagai bentuk insecurity interdependence by external forces dari perspektif Realis, security interdependence by interest dari perspektif Liberalis dan securitization interdependence by understanding of threat/security dari perspektif Konstruktivis. Kompleks keamanan Asia Tengah termasuk dalam tipe kompleks keamanan Great Power, terlihat dari peran besar kekuatan-kekuatan eksternal terutama Rusia dan Cina dalam kawasan tersebut; baik dalam pembentukan pola pertemanan dengan kerjasama, pola permusuhan dengan persaingan dan ketakutan, juga proses sekuritisasi isu separatisme, ekstremisme dan terorisme sebagai ancaman terhadap keamanan regional.Tulisan ini diambil dari tugas karya akhir penulis yang diajukan untuk medapatkan gelar Sarjana Sosial dari Departemen Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Universitas Indonesia.

  10. The Importance of the Study of Cognitive Performance Enhancement for U.S. National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malish, Richard G

    2017-08-01

    The American military is embarking on the 'Third Offset'-a strategy designed to produce seismic shifts in the future of warfare. Central to the approach is the conjoining of humans, technology, and machines to deliver a decisive advantage on the battlefield. Because technology will spread rapidly and globally, tactical overmatch will occur when American operators possess a competitive edge in cognition. Investigation of cognitive enhancing therapeutics is not widely articulated as an adjunct to the Third Offset, yet failure to study promising agents could represent a strategic vulnerability. Because of its legacy of research into therapeutic agents to enhance human-machine interplay, the aerospace medical community represents a front-running candidate to perform this work. Notably, there are strong signals emanating from gambling, academic, and video-gaming enterprises that already-developed stimulants and other agents provide cognitive benefits. These agents should be studied not only for reasons of national security, but also because cognitive enhancement may be a necessary step in the evolution of humankind. To illustrate these points, this article will assert that: 1) the need to preserve and enhance physical and cognitive health will become more and more important over the next century; 2) aeromedical specialists are in a position to take the lead in the endeavor to enhance cognition; 3) signals of enhancement of the type useful to both military and medical efforts exist aplenty in today's society; and 4) the aeromedical community should approach human enhancement research deliberately but carefully.Malish RG. The importance of the study of cognitive performance enhancement for U.S. national security. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):773-778.

  11. Accounting and Control in Ensuring Economic Security of the Organizations of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Valetyevich Epishin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the urgent problem concerning the regional development as well as the specific organization, or to the development of an integrated system of economic security of the organization. The article discusses the importance of such an element of economic security (including the financial security as the accounting and control as well as their possible violations. The authors substantiate their position on the relationship of the violations of accounting and control and also the internal theft, other economic crimes and their negative consequences. The analysis of the existing national and foreign sources related to the subject of the study is carried out. The conclusion is made about the lack of modern research devoted to the study of the protective properties of accounting, control and their violations, which condition economic crimes. The methodological tools of the research include dialectic method, systemic analysis, complex sociological methods: the analysis of the legal sources, of statistical information and judicial practice. On the basis of the analysis of criminal cases, financial statements, publications media, the authors made the conclusion about the conditionality of the theft in the organizations as there are the violations of accounting and control, low efficiency of control and auditing, of preventive measures for neutralization of the violations of accounting and control from the services of economic security, accounting offices, auditing and law enforcement services. The recommendations for the optimization of this work are introduced. They can be used by accounting departments, auditing bodies, fiscal authorities at the municipal and regional level and by law enforcement officials. The economic security is necessary for any organizations regardless of their forms of ownership, ranging from government organizations to small kiosks. The difference will only consist in the means and methods.

  12. Prospects and challenges for new security arrangements in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered in this presentation are as follows: prospects and challenges for arms limitations; cooperation for new regional security arrangements; role of the United nations in conflict prevention, peace-keeping and disarmament. Developments in former Soviet Union which create concern are: the possible dispersion of Russian nuclear expertise and personnel to would be nuclear powers; the continuing friction between Russia and Ukraine over disposal of ex-Soviet ICBMs and tactical nuclear weapons, and the transfer to Russia of 3000 nuclear warheads in Ukraine; the Black Sea fleet, and the Crimea question. These dramatic events have global as well as regional impact as Russia is an Asia-Pacific Country

  13. Import dependence of industrial enterprises in the region as an economic security hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Makarov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Import is traditionally considered as a source for saturation of a home market with scarce commodities or goods non-manufactured in an importing country. However, the larger is the share of import in the total volume of deliveries, the greater is the hazard for economic security of the region and for the state upon the whole. The analysis has revealed the fact that in the regional industry there is a real situation of absolute import dependence. It means that enterprises have been functioning only based on import deliveries to manufacture some single components for products of production-technical purposes.

  14. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  15. Status and determinants of small farming households' food security and role of market access in enhancing food security in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ijaz Ahmed

    Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a household survey of 576 households conducted through face-to-face interviews using structured interviews in Punjab, Pakistan. Food security status is calculated using dietary intake method. The study findings show that one-fourth of the households are food insecure. The study findings reveal that farm households perceive increase in food prices, crop diseases, lack of irrigation water and increase in health expenses as major livelihood risks. Further, the results of logistic regression show that family size, monthly income, food prices, health expenses and debt are main factors influencing the food security status of rural households. Furthermore, the market accessibility factors (road distance and transportation cost do significantly affect the small farming household food security. The results suggest that local food security can be enhanced by creating off-farm employment opportunities, improved transportation facilities and road infrastructure.

  16. Political and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region: Assessment of trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.F. II

    1992-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the fundamental shift has taken place in international relations, away from a world dominated by the bipolar super-Power confrontation. There is a today to be more concerned about regional instabilities, which are made more threatening by the potential proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Just as every nation was affected by the cold war, regional instabilities and proliferation concern each member of the world community. In the Asia-Pacific region, the goal is clear: safer, more stable military postures; transparency and confidence-building; and stronger non-proliferation norms. In working together towards that goal, there is a need to foster greater security through bilateral and multilateral dialogue. In that way, one could promote the change within and among societies; that is the best hope for defusing regional tensions, preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and building a lasting peace

  17. ESS-FH: Enhanced Security Scheme for Fast Handover in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilsun; Lee, Jong-Hyouk; Sakurai, Kouichi; Hori, Yoshiaki

    Fast Handover for Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (F-HMIPv6) that combines advantages of Fast Handover for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) achieves the superior performance in terms of handover latency and signaling overhead compared with previously developed mobility protocols. However, without being secured, F-HMIPv6 is vulnerable to various security threats. In 2007, Kang and Park proposed a security scheme, which is seamlessly integrated into F-HMIPv6. In this paper, we reveal that Kang-Park's scheme cannot defend against the Denial of Service (DoS) and redirect attacks while largely relying on the group key. Then, we propose an Enhanced Security Scheme for F-HMIPv6 (ESS-FH) that achieves the strong key exchange and the key independence as well as addresses the weaknesses of Kang-Park's scheme. More importantly, it enables fast handover between different MAP domains. The proposed scheme is formally verified based on BAN-logic, and its handover latency is analyzed and compared with that of Kang-Park's scheme.

  18. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  19. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user’s biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen’s scheme.

  20. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Ecological Security in Arid Region Based on GIS: A Case Study in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Song, W.; Yang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Ecological security is close related to the people's survival and development. In the context of the global warming, with the increasingly frequent human activities, ecological and environmental problems have become increasingly prominent. Ecological security has aroused widespread concern, especially in the arid region. It has an important role in national security as well as political security, military security, economic security, social security. Taken Xinjiang as the research area, which is a typical arid region in China, this study establishes an ecological safety assessment indicator system from perspective of the generic process and the formation mechanism of the ecosystem. The framework is based on natural resources dimensions, natural environment dimensions and human disturbance dimensions. Water is the restrictive factor for the development of arid region, so the water resources carrying capacity is the main natural resource of the study area. The natural environment includes SPI(standardized precipitation index), dryness index, landscape vulnerability, NDVI. Human disturbance includes urbanization rate, population density, afforestation area, per capita GDP, water-saving irrigation area, fertilizer and pesticide application, agriculture Mechanical power, energy consumption. The expert scoring method and the coefficient of variation method are used to determine the weight of each indicator, and finally a comprehensive index is constructed to evaluate the ecological security of Xinjiang, that is, the ecological security index. The results indicate that the ecological security of Xinjiang is 0.43, which is in the critical area. The ecological security of Hami, Turpan and Karamay is the lowest, and the ecological security of the Arabian and Yili is the highest. The ecological security of the south in the Xinjiang is higher than that in the north. In short, ecological environment of Xinjiang is in a sensitive period. Effective ecological protection policy

  1. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  2. Regional Radiological Security Partnership in Southeast Asia - Increasing the Sustainability of Security Systems at the Site-Level by Using a Model Facility Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Travis L.; Dickerson, Sarah; Ravenhill, Scott D.; Murray, Allan; Morris, Frederic A.; Herdes, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, Australia, through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), created the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project and partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to form the Southeast Asian Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP). The intent of the RRSP is to cooperate with countries in Southeast Asia to improve the security of their radioactive sources. This Southeast Asian Partnership supports objectives to improve the security of high risk radioactive sources by raising awareness of the need and developing national programs to protect and control such materials, improve the security of such materials, and recover and condition the materials no longer in use. The RRSP has utilized many tools to meet those objectives including: provision of physical protection upgrades, awareness training, physical protection training, regulatory development, locating and recovering orphan sources, and most recently - development of model security procedures at a model facility. This paper discusses the benefits of establishing a model facility, the methods employed by the RRSP, and three of the expected outcomes of the Model Facility approach. The first expected outcome is to increase compliance with source security guidance materials and national regulations by adding context to those materials, and illustrating their impact on a facility. Second, the effectiveness of each of the tools above is increased by making them part of an integrated system. Third, the methods used to develop the model procedures establishes a sustainable process that can ultimately be transferred to all facilities beyond the model. Overall, the RRSP has utilized the Model Facility approach as an important tool to increase the security of radioactive sources, and to position facilities and countries for the long term secure management of those sources.

  3. An enhanced performance through agent-based secure approach for mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Dhananjay; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an agent-based secure enhanced performance approach (AB-SEP) for mobile ad hoc network. In this approach, agent nodes are selected through optimal node reliability as a factor. This factor is calculated on the basis of node performance features such as degree difference, normalised distance value, energy level, mobility and optimal hello interval of node. After selection of agent nodes, a procedure of malicious behaviour detection is performed using fuzzy-based secure architecture (FBSA). To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, comparative analysis is done with conventional schemes using performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, throughput, total packet forwarding, network overhead, end-to-end delay and percentage of malicious detection.

  4. Security-enhanced chaos communication with time-delay signature suppression and phase encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chenpeng; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Yunxin; Wang, Chao; Li, Guilan; Lin, Shuqing; Qiu, Kun

    2016-08-15

    A security-enhanced chaos communication scheme with time delay signature (TDS) suppression and phase-encrypted feedback light is proposed, in virtue of dual-loop feedback with independent high-speed phase modulation. We numerically investigate the property of TDS suppression in the intensity and phase space and quantitatively discuss security of the proposed system by calculating the bit error rate of eavesdroppers who try to crack the system by directly filtering the detected signal or by using a similar semiconductor laser to synchronize the link signal and extract the data. The results show that TDS embedded in the chaotic carrier can be well suppressed by properly setting the modulation frequency, which can keep the time delay a secret from the eavesdropper. Moreover, because the feedback light is encrypted, without the accurate time delay and key, the eavesdropper cannot reconstruct the symmetric operation conditions and decode the correct data.

  5. Enhancing the Safety, Security and Resilience of ICT and Scada Systems Using Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Stig; Skramstad, Torbjorn; Hagen, Janne

    This paper discusses the results of a questionnaire-based survey used to assess the safety, security and resilience of information and communications technology (ICT) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems used in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The survey identifies several challenges, including the involvement of professionals with different backgrounds and expertise, lack of common risk perceptions, inadequate testing and integration of ICT and SCADA systems, poor information sharing related to undesirable incidents and lack of resilience in the design of technical systems. Action research is proposed as a process for addressing these challenges in a systematic manner and helping enhance the safety, security and resilience of ICT and SCADA systems used in oil and gas operations.

  6. Security analysis and enhanced user authentication in proxy mobile IPv6 networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Kang

    Full Text Available The Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6 is a network-based mobility management protocol that allows a Mobile Node(MN connected to the PMIPv6 domain to move from one network to another without changing the assigned IPv6 address. The user authentication procedure in this protocol is not standardized, but many smartcard based authentication schemes have been proposed. Recently, Alizadeh et al. proposed an authentication scheme for the PMIPv6. However, it could allow an attacker to derive an encryption key that must be securely shared between MN and the Mobile Access Gate(MAG. As a result, outsider adversary can derive MN's identity, password and session key. In this paper, we analyze Alizadeh et al.'s scheme regarding security and propose an enhanced authentication scheme that uses a dynamic identity to satisfy anonymity. Furthermore, we use BAN logic to show that our scheme can successfully generate and communicate with the inter-entity session key.

  7. Security analysis and enhanced user authentication in proxy mobile IPv6 networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwoo; Jung, Jaewook; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Hyoungshick; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    The Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is a network-based mobility management protocol that allows a Mobile Node(MN) connected to the PMIPv6 domain to move from one network to another without changing the assigned IPv6 address. The user authentication procedure in this protocol is not standardized, but many smartcard based authentication schemes have been proposed. Recently, Alizadeh et al. proposed an authentication scheme for the PMIPv6. However, it could allow an attacker to derive an encryption key that must be securely shared between MN and the Mobile Access Gate(MAG). As a result, outsider adversary can derive MN's identity, password and session key. In this paper, we analyze Alizadeh et al.'s scheme regarding security and propose an enhanced authentication scheme that uses a dynamic identity to satisfy anonymity. Furthermore, we use BAN logic to show that our scheme can successfully generate and communicate with the inter-entity session key.

  8. Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA Protocol to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.

  9. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  10. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  11. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  12. Freshwater Ecosystem Service Flow Model To Evaluate Regional Water Security: A Case Study In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, S.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater service, as the most important support ecosystem service, is essential to human survival and development. Many studies have evidenced the spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services and raised the concept of ecosystem service flow. However, rather few studies quantitatively characterize the freshwater service flow. This paper aims to quantify the effect of freshwater ecosystem service flow on downstream areas in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China over 2000, 2005 and 2010. We computed the freshwater ecosystem service provision with InVEST model. We calculated freshwater ecosystem service consumption with water quota method. We simulated the freshwater ecosystem service flow using our simplified flow model and assessed the regional water security with the improved freshwater security index. The freshwater provision service mainly depends on climatic factors that cannot be influenced by management, while the freshwater consumption service is constrained by human activities. Furthermore, the decrease of water quota for agricultural, domestic and industrial water counteracts the impact of increasing freshwater demand. The analysis of freshwater ecosystem service flow reveals that the majority area of the BTH (69.2%) is affected by upstream freshwater. If freshwater ecosystem service flow is considered, the water safety areas of the whole BTH account for 66.9%, 66.1%, 71.3%, which increase 6.4%, 6.8% and 5.7% in 2000, 2005 and 2010, respectively. These results highlight the need to understand the teleconnections between distant freshwater ecosystem service provision and local freshwater ecosystem service use. This approach therefore helps managers choose specific management and investment strategies for critical upstream freshwater provisions across different regions.

  13. Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah Leff

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.

  14. Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Massolino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the same time, enhance soil and genetic erosion. A development project has been implemented to increase food security over the long term in the geographical area of Carrefour rural area, this comprises a research aimed to increase national food production introducing complex agro-forestry systems. The project has investigated problems and solutions, actions have been started to increase food production, including agronomic training of local farmers, organization of small farmers including legal protection on land tenure, introduction of low input modern agroforestry systems that can diversify food production through the year and reduce soil and genetic erosion. After these results, an intervention project has been approved and funded by EU, then delayed due to the recent civil war, finally it is giving positive results now. The same approach used for this project can be spread in the rest of the Republic of Haiti and, hopefully, to other world regions that have similar problems.

  15. Development of a strategic plan for food security and safety in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Myriam; Laird, Brian; Douglas, Vasiliki; Van Pelt, Linda; Archie, Diane; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-01-01

    Current social and environmental changes in the Arctic challenge the health and well-being of its residents. Developing evidence-informed adaptive measures in response to these changes is a priority for communities, governments and researchers. To develop strategic planning to promote food security and food safety in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. A qualitative study using group discussions during a workshop. A regional workshop gathered Inuit organizations and community representatives, university-based researchers from the Inuit Health Survey (IHS) and NWT governmental organizations. Discussions were structured around the findings from the IHS. For each key area, programs and activities were identified and prioritized by group discussion and voting. The working group developed a vision for future research and intervention, which is to empower communities to promote health, well-being and environmental sustainability in the ISR. The group elaborated missions for the region that address the following issues: (a) capacity building within communities; (b) promotion of the use of traditional foods to address food security; (c) research to better understand the linkages between diseases and contaminants in traditional foods, market foods and lifestyle choices; (d) and promotion of affordable housing. Five programs to address each key area were developed as follows: harvest support and traditional food sharing; education and promotion; governance and policy; research; and housing. Concrete activities were identified to guide future research and intervention projects. The results of the planning workshop provide a blueprint for future research and intervention projects.

  16. Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Volovoj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of security in the Baltic region, namely, that of Poland and the Baltics. The authors rely on the works of Karl Deutsch, Emanuel Adler, on Michael Barnett’s theory of security communities and Barry Buzan’s re­gional security complex theory, address Steven Mann’s controlled chaos theory and the concept of Intermarium. Their starting assumption is that the situation in the Baltic depends largely on the politics of external powers — Russia and the United States, — being a projection of their global geopolitical confrontation. The US strategy thus becomes a major part of the equation. The authors believe that since the end of the second Iraq war the American elite has been divided along ideological lines into adherents of the chaos theory and traditionalists thinking in terms of sharing control with the other centres of global power. The US strategy in the Baltic region does not seek an open military conflict with Russia. On the contrary, the US strives to preserve the current level of confrontation between Russia and the EU, convincing the latter of the reality of the Russian threat. Countries that traditionally support confrontation with Russia, Poland and the Bal­tics, serve as a conduit for Washington strategy in Europe and a cordon sanitaire. This function is implemented through the Intermarium project meant to separate Russia from the EU. The four countries are rather active in this area, striving to attain the status of the US principal partners in the region and Europe in general. To retaliate, Moscow does everything within its power to ‘separate’ Brussels from Washington, yet the US influence is still very strong in Europe.

  17. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  18. Quantum-Enhanced Cyber Security: Experimental Computation on Quantum-Encrypted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0020 Quantum-Enhanced Cyber Security: Experimental Computation on Quantum- Encrypted Data Philip Walther UNIVERSITT WIEN Final...on Quantum- Encrypted Data 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-16-1-0004 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Philip Walther 5d...1010 AT 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) EOARD Unit 4515 APO AE 09421-4515 10

  19. Secure Degrees of Freedom Regions of Multiple Access and Interference Channels: The Polytope Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jianwei; Ulukus, Sennur

    2014-01-01

    The sum secure degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) of two fundamental multi-user network structures, the K-user Gaussian multiple access (MAC) wiretap channel and the K-user interference channel (IC) with secrecy constraints, have been determined recently as K(K-1)/(K(K-1)+1) [1,2] and K(K-1)/(2K-1) [3,4], respectively. In this paper, we determine the entire s.d.o.f. regions of these two channel models. The converse for the MAC follows from a middle step in the converse of [1,2]. The converse for t...

  20. NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Zeleneva

    2013-01-01

    NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT By 2050, we can expect dramatic changes in the global energy balance. At the beginning of 21st century, the configuration of the global energy market has begun to change due to a wide variety of both political and economic reasons. The formation of a European common gas market in the world of fierce competition among world exporters for short-term and long-term contracts, the growth of energy consumption in China, J...

  1. Security analysis and enhancements of an effective biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Younghwa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das's authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das's authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das's authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

  2. Security Analysis and Enhancements of an Effective Biometric-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwa An

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das’s authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das’s authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das’s authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

  3. Drive Current Enhancement in TFET by Dual Source Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET with dual source regions. It explores the physics of drive current enhancement. The novel approach of dual source provides an effective technique for enhancing the drive current. It is found that this structure can offer four tunneling junctions by increasing a source region. Meanwhile, the dual source structure does not influence the excellent features of threshold slope (SS of TFET. The number of the electrons and holes would be doubled by going through the tunneling junctions on the original basis. The overlap length of gate-source is also studied. The dependence of gate-drain capacitance Cgd and gate-source capacitance Cgs on gate-to-source voltage Vgs and drain-to-source voltage Vds was further investigated. There are simulation setups and methodology used for the dual source TFET (DS-TFET assessment, including delay time, total energy per operation, and energy-delay product. It is confirmed that the proposed TFET has strong potentials for VLSI.

  4. Security enhancement mechanism based on contextual authentication and role analysis for 2G-RFID systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wan; Chen, Min; Ni, Jin; Yang, Ximin

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID) system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system.

  5. Security Enhancement Mechanism Based on Contextual Authentication and Role Analysis for 2G-RFID Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximin Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system.

  6. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafy, Joseph E; Shideler, Geoffrey S; Araújo, Rafael J; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  7. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  8. Power system security enhancement through direct non-disruptive load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Badri Narayanan

    The transition to a competitive market structure raises significant concerns regarding reliability of the power grid. A need to build tools for security assessment that produce operating limit boundaries for both static and dynamic contingencies is recognized. Besides, an increase in overall uncertainty in operating conditions makes corrective actions at times ineffective leaving the system vulnerable to instability. The tools that are in place for stability enhancement are mostly corrective and suffer from lack of robustness to operating condition changes. They often pose serious coordination challenges. With deregulation, there have also been ownership and responsibility issues associated with stability controls. However, the changing utility business model and the developments in enabling technologies such as two-way communication, metering, and control open up several new possibilities for power system security enhancement. This research proposes preventive modulation of selected loads through direct control for power system security enhancement. Two main contributions of this research are the following: development of an analysis framework and two conceptually different analysis approaches for load modulation to enhance oscillatory stability, and the development and study of algorithms for real-time modulation of thermostatic loads. The underlying analysis framework is based on the Structured Singular Value (SSV or mu) theory. Based on the above framework, two fundamentally different approaches towards analysis of the amount of load modulation for desired stability performance have been developed. Both the approaches have been tested on two different test systems: CIGRE Nordic test system and an equivalent of the Western Electric Coordinating Council test system. This research also develops algorithms for real-time modulation of thermostatic loads that use the results of the analysis. In line with some recent load management programs executed by utilities, two

  9. Neoindustrialization as a factor in improving economic security of old-industrial regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proves that the paradigm of the world of the XXIcentury is neoindustrialization on the basis of alternativestrategic goals of the global economy associated with the formation of post-industrial society and financialization neoindustrialization. A systematic proposal for the driving forces and mechanisms for its implementation is suggested. It is shown that target-oriented approach can be successfully used at the regional level as a mechanism for economic neoindustrialization of an old-industrial region. Conceptual approach to developing comprehensive program of industrial development in the industrial region that implements the ideas of neoindustrialization in relation to industry of Sverdlovsk region is presented. It was found that the regional technology platform can be an effective tool for combining the interests of territorial and sectoral development. It is proved that the idea of neoindustrialization can be realized only as a result of wise industrial policy and road map formation for the movement to an entirely new high-tech based industrial development. In the process of forming, the problem of neoindustrialization of a «pure» market as a factor in increasing the economic security is actualized.

  10. FOOD INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE FOOD SECURITY OF REGIONS OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Mykolaichuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to substantiate the food security needs in the regions of Ukraine, as well as the definition of tasks in filling the market with own production products. The obtained results will determine the directions of structural changes in agricultural complexes of the regions and the necessary measures by the public regulatory bodies. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of results of normative and search forecasts. In developing normative forecasts, the projected population and needs in different types of products according to the norms of rational consumption are taken into account. Search forecasts provide for the definition of a future state of satisfaction with the preservation of existing development trends. The gap between the necessary and projected results determines the task of accelerating growth. In terms of national security, food production should be provided with its own raw material base. Therefore, an analysis of the conditions for the development of livestock and crop production is necessary, which enables to substantiate the directions of systemic changes in agricultural complexes of the regions. In order to ensure positive changes in the structure of agricultural production, strengthening the effectiveness of public regulation on the basis of financial and economic leverage is needed. Results. Regions of Ukraine by territory and population exceed certain countries of the European Union. Significant differences in socio-economic conditions of the regions contribute to the growth of tension in society and migration. The events of recent years indicate the possibility of external interference in the functioning of the regions of Ukraine and the danger of the collapse of cooperative ties. Therefore, it is important to ensure the satisfaction of the immediate needs of the population of each region at the expense of its own production. Among the necessities, food occupies a special place. Complete

  11. Regional Integrated Tenets to Reinforce the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (ClearZone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, P.

    2003-01-01

    The EURATOM Research and Training Programme on Nuclear Energy includes 2 main fields - fusion energy research and management of radioactive waste, radiation protection and other activities of nuclear technology and safety.Seven instruments (mechanisms) for projects management are used - 'Network of Excellence' (NOE); 'Integrated Project' (IP); 'Specific Targeted Research Project' or 'Specific Targeted Training Project' (STREP); 'Co-ordination Action' (CA); Actions to Promote and Develop Human Resources and Mobility Specific Support Actions; Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives. Two consecutive sub-projects are proposed: 'small' - countries of the Visegrad four + Austrian participant -within the 6th FP 'Specific Supported Actions' and 'large' - participation of more countries in the region - more oriented to practical implementation of the 'small' project findings - intention to use the 6th Framework Programme resources to co-financing the implementation activities. The main objectives are: to create effective lines of defense (prevention -detection - categorization - transport - storage) against malicious use of radioactive sources; to achieve and maintain a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources; to arise the radioactive sources management safety and security culture at the Central European region. Consortium of 11 organisations from Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Austria, Hungary and Poland is established for the Project implementation. The Project task are grouped in the following areas: legislation, infrastructure, practices; metallurgical industry, cross border control; instrumentation and metrology; information system

  12. Energy security and pattern of regional conflicts in Eurasia: From a constructive framework of analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin Mohapatra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The term energy security is undergoing a sea change from a state-centric economic conception to a sociological one. The definitional aspect is undergoing a transformation because of the changing pattern of relations between “energy producing and consuming states” along with “transit states”. Eurasia is one such region where the broader definition of energy security can be applicable. The existence of historically rooted social conflicts like Chechnya, South Ossetia, Crimea, “simmering discontent” in Siberia and Far East, and primordial apprehensions between ethnic groups (Armenian and Azeri in Nagorno Karabakh are providing a structural basis for the accentuation of regional conflicts. Most of these conflicts are taking place in Eurasia due to existence of natural resources like energy. Often competition over controlling transportation corridor is also generating societal tension. Some of these trajectories are putting this geopolitical space into a “cauldron.” Against this backdrop, Constructivism is emerging as a major theoretical approach to study the securitization processes in Eurasia.

  13. Energy and water tradeoffs in enhancing food security: A selective international assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Maroulis, Jerry; Hafeez, Mohsin

    2009-01-01

    Rice is the major staple food in most Asian countries. However, with rapidly growing populations, sustained high productivity and yields through improving water productivity is critically important. Increasingly complex energy-agriculture relationships require an in-depth understanding of water and energy tradeoffs. This study contributes to energy and food policies by analysing the complex energy, water and economics dynamics across a selection of major rice growing countries. The results show that tradeoffs exist between yield and energy inputs with high yield attributed to higher levels of energy input. The selected developed countries show higher energy productivity, relative to all other energy inputs, compared to the selected developing counties, owing to enhanced mechanisation, on-farm technology and improved farm management. Among all countries, China has the highest water productivity due to water-saving irrigation practices. These practices offer opportunities for developed and developing countries to increase water productivity at the same time taking advantage of economic and energy benefits of reduced pumping. Sustained production from agriculture is vital to food security. Improved irrigation practices can offset environmental footprints in the short run but their large-scale implementation remains an issue. In the long run, investments are needed to buffer the negative impacts of food production on the environment. Investments to boost water productivity and improved energy use efficiency in crop production are two pathways to reduce energy dependency, enhanced natural resource sustainability and ensuring future food security.

  14. Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amineh, Parvizi Mehdi

    2003-07-01

    The demise of the Soviet Union and its subsequent break-up into 15 independent states gave rise to totally new political and strategic circumstances, which also extended into Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. The eight newly independent states of this region have become one of the most important geopolitical areas in the post-Cold War era, due to a combination of its geographical position and significant oil and gas reserves. The region's resources are vital for advanced industrialised countries and figure prominently in Western geostrategic and economic interests in the twenty-first century. Intense competition, as well as co-operation, among various state and non-state actors for the control of these resources is emerging, also known as the New Great Game. The main actors involved in Central Eurasia and the Caspian region are identified as follows: inner circle actors (Russia, Iran, and Turkey), outer circle actors (China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), external actors (the United States, the European Union and its particular member states), and non-state actors (ethno-religious groups, Transnational Corporations, crime groups, etc.). The author analyses the New Great Game by using a neo-geopolitical perspective. An important element towards control of the region's energy resources is the construction of transport routes. The question of where to construct pipelines engenders considerable conflicts between the interested players that could create obstacles to building the most economically viable and secure pipelines. Transportation of energy resources to the global market is also subject to conflicts between different forces within the Central Eurasian region, including ethno-religious conflicts. Problems such as lack of infrastructure and technology, and finding a solution for the Caspian legal regime dispute could pose further obstacles to prospective pipeline construction. The book analyses these and other important local and geopolitical

  15. Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amineh, Parvizi Mehdi

    2003-01-01

    The demise of the Soviet Union and its subsequent break-up into 15 independent states gave rise to totally new political and strategic circumstances, which also extended into Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. The eight newly independent states of this region have become one of the most important geopolitical areas in the post-Cold War era, due to a combination of its geographical position and significant oil and gas reserves. The region's resources are vital for advanced industrialised countries and figure prominently in Western geostrategic and economic interests in the twenty-first century. Intense competition, as well as co-operation, among various state and non-state actors for the control of these resources is emerging, also known as the New Great Game. The main actors involved in Central Eurasia and the Caspian region are identified as follows: inner circle actors (Russia, Iran, and Turkey), outer circle actors (China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), external actors (the United States, the European Union and its particular member states), and non-state actors (ethno-religious groups, Transnational Corporations, crime groups, etc.). The author analyses the New Great Game by using a neo-geopolitical perspective. An important element towards control of the region's energy resources is the construction of transport routes. The question of where to construct pipelines engenders considerable conflicts between the interested players that could create obstacles to building the most economically viable and secure pipelines. Transportation of energy resources to the global market is also subject to conflicts between different forces within the Central Eurasian region, including ethno-religious conflicts. Problems such as lack of infrastructure and technology, and finding a solution for the Caspian legal regime dispute could pose further obstacles to prospective pipeline construction. The book analyses these and other important local and geopolitical aspects to

  16. Development of a strategic plan for food security and safety in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Fillion

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current social and environmental changes in the Arctic challenge the health and well-being of its residents. Developing evidence-informed adaptive measures in response to these changes is a priority for communities, governments and researchers. Objectives: To develop strategic planning to promote food security and food safety in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR, Northwest Territories (NWT, Canada. Design: A qualitative study using group discussions during a workshop. Methods: A regional workshop gathered Inuit organizations and community representatives, university-based researchers from the Inuit Health Survey (IHS and NWT governmental organizations. Discussions were structured around the findings from the IHS. For each key area, programs and activities were identified and prioritized by group discussion and voting. Results: The working group developed a vision for future research and intervention, which is to empower communities to promote health, well-being and environmental sustainability in the ISR. The group elaborated missions for the region that address the following issues: (a capacity building within communities; (b promotion of the use of traditional foods to address food security; (c research to better understand the linkages between diseases and contaminants in traditional foods, market foods and lifestyle choices; (d and promotion of affordable housing. Five programs to address each key area were developed as follows: harvest support and traditional food sharing; education and promotion; governance and policy; research; and housing. Concrete activities were identified to guide future research and intervention projects. Conclusions: The results of the planning workshop provide a blueprint for future research and intervention projects.

  17. An enhanced security solution for electronic medical records based on AES hybrid technique with SOAP/XML and SHA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiah, M L Mat; Nabi, Mohamed S; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to provide security solutions for implementing electronic medical records (EMRs). E-Health organizations could utilize the proposed method and implement recommended solutions in medical/health systems. Majority of the required security features of EMRs were noted. The methods used were tested against each of these security features. In implementing the system, the combination that satisfied all of the security features of EMRs was selected. Secure implementation and management of EMRs facilitate the safeguarding of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of e-health organization systems. Health practitioners, patients, and visitors can use the information system facilities safely and with confidence anytime and anywhere. After critically reviewing security and data transmission methods, a new hybrid method was proposed to be implemented on EMR systems. This method will enhance the robustness, security, and integration of EMR systems. The hybrid of simple object access protocol/extensible markup language (XML) with advanced encryption standard and secure hash algorithm version 1 has achieved the security requirements of an EMR system with the capability of integrating with other systems through the design of XML messages.

  18. Nuclear-weapon-free zones: Pursuing security, region by region. Conference of States Parties and Signatories of treaties that establish nuclear-weapon-free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of nuclear-weapon-free zones, over the past four decades, is a testament to what nations can do, region by region, to achieve common security objectives. In fact, when considering the history of nuclear non-proliferation efforts, it might be said that here in Mexico City is w here it all began . The 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco was the first multilateral treaty to establish a region free of nuclear weapons and a requirement for comprehensive IAEA safeguards for its parties - and clearly gave impetus to the conclusion of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Nuclear-weapon-free zones provide tangible security benefits. They help to reassure the larger international community of the peaceful nuclear intentions of countries in these regions. They provide their members with security assurances against the use, or threat of use, of nuclear weapons by a nuclear-weapon State. They include control mechanisms for dealing with non-compliance in a regional setting. And in all cases, they prohibit the development, stationing or testing of nuclear weapons in their respective regions. An important benefit of these zones is that they open a forum for expanded regional dialogue on issues of security. Because the causes of insecurity vary from region to region, security solutions do not come in a 'one-size-fits-all' package. It is for this reason that regional dialogues, as we see in the nuclear-weapon-free zones, are so beneficial. It is clear that such treaties, and such security dialogues, would be invaluable in other areas of the world, such as the Middle East and the Korean Peninsula. Since the end of the Cold War, the international security landscape has undergone dramatic changes. For example, the rise in terrorism, the discovery of clandestine nuclear programmes, and the emergence of covert nuclear procurement networks have heightened our awareness of vulnerabilities in the nuclear non-proliferation regime. This statement focuses on two issues

  19. An assessment of the effectiveness of fuel cycle technologies for the national energy security enhancement in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jun; Jun, Eunju; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Won Joon

    2009-01-01

    Energy security, in the 21st century, draws significant attention in most countries worldwide, because the national security and sustainable development depend largely on energy security. The anticipated fossil energy depletion and the instability of their supply drive many countries to consider nuclear energy as their alternative energy source for the enhancement of their national energy security. In this study, indicators measuring the level of energy security in the electric power sector are developed and applied for the assessment of the effectiveness of four electric power system schemes which deploy different nuclear fuel cycle technologies, with consideration for the diversification of the energy markets and the vulnerability to economic disruption. Results show that the contribution of the closed fuel cycle scheme is larger than the once-through fuel cycle scheme in the perspective of energy security. In addition, the completely closed fuel cycle with the spent fuel recycling enhances the national energy security to the maximum extent compared to all other fuel cycle schemes. Since a completely closed fuel cycle is hardly affected by the uranium price changes, this scheme is found to be the most favorable scheme, ensuring the stable profit of utilities and stabilizing the electricity tariff. In addition, the completely closed fuel cycle scheme provides the best enhancement of national energy security with respect to energy supply, under reasonable price conditions. The indicators developed in this study can be utilized as a useful instrument for the measurement of the level of the energy security, especially by the countries importing energy resources for the generation of electric power.

  20. Unpacking Terrorism, Revolution and Insurgency in Yemen: Real and Imagined Threats to Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lewis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent months have seen a seeming escalation in the international threat posed by Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP, a terrorist network that has taken Yemen as its regional base of operations. In light of recent attacks, and resulting embassy closures, Yemen is a rising priority in the Western-led War on Terror. However, this has resulted in a side-lining of other security threats in Yemen, which may cause serious challenges to the authority of the Yemeni Government. In reality, the role of AQAP has been heavily manipulated throughout Yemen’s contemporary history: this was most evident during the 2011 Arab Spring, when both sides in the conflict claimed that Al Qaeda operatives were working with members of the other. Two years later, the true nature of the AQAP threat in Yemen is rarely questioned by external observers, yet remains largely shrouded in mystery. There is a need for more critical approaches to the AQAP challenges, which take the broader context of Yemeni security into account.

  1. The Importance of the Brain Neuro-Programming Technologies in National and Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl H. Fatkhutdinov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ understanding of neuro-programming is the result of the impact on the human brain of information and communication technology (including educational one, through which in the human brain the programs of manifestation in the ontogenesis of internal creative potentials are written. This article summarizes the history of the formation of key neuro-programming technologies of the human brain as well as proves that the changes in the society’s worldview are caused by the possibilities and quality of neuro-programming technologies that society uses. Having influence over worldview stereotypes and behaviour set by the society, neuro-programming technologies essentially ensure the national security of any state and the peaceful coexistence of states in the regions and on the planet as a whole. Using historical and philosophical methods, methods of conceptualization, systematization, modeling, etc., the authors have come to the conclusion that the modern world lies in a confrontation of security strategies, in which neuro-programming technologies play a key role.

  2. What are the determinants of food security among regional and remote Western Australian children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-22

    To explore how determinants of food security affect children in regional and remote Western Australia (WA), across food availability, access and utilisation dimensions. The Determinants of Food Security framework guided the thematic analysis (using NVivo 10) of semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants. Food availability factors included availability, price, promotion, quality, location of outlets and variety. Food access factors included social support, financial resources, transport to food outlets, distance to food outlets and mobility. Food utilisation factors included nutrition knowledge and skills, children's food preferences, storage facilities, preparation and cooking facilities and time to purchase food. Key food availability recommendations include increasing local food supply options. Food access recommendations include ensuring equitable formal social support and empowering informal support options. Food utilisation recommendations include prioritising food literacy programs focusing on quick, healthy food preparation and budgeting skills. Implications for public health: Policymakers should invest in local food supply options, equitable social support services and experiential food literacy programs. Practitioners should focus child/parent programs on improving attitude, knowledge and skills. © 2017 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Security region-based small signal stability analysis of power systems with FSIG based wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Yang; Cui, Xiaodan; Xu, Xialing; Li, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Security Region approach, the impact of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems is analyzed. Firstly, the key factors of wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems are analyzed and the parameter space for small signal stability region is formed. Secondly, the small signal stability region of power systems with wind power is established. Thirdly, the corresponding relation between the boundary of SSSR and the dominant oscillation mode is further studied. Results show that the integration of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm will cause the low frequency oscillation stability of the power system deteriorate. When the output of wind power is high, the oscillation stability of the power system is mainly concerned with the inter-area oscillation mode caused by the integration of the wind farm. Both the active power output and the capacity of reactive power compensation of the wind farm have a significant influence on the SSSR. To improve the oscillation stability of power systems with wind power, it is suggested to reasonably set the reactive power compensation capacity for the wind farm through SSSR.

  4. Security enhancement of a biometric based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems with nonce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Kumari, Saru; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Chaturvedi, Ankita

    2014-05-01

    Telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) present the platform to deliver clinical service door to door. The technological advances in mobile computing are enhancing the quality of healthcare and a user can access these services using its mobile device. However, user and Telecare system communicate via public channels in these online services which increase the security risk. Therefore, it is required to ensure that only authorized user is accessing the system and user is interacting with the correct system. The mutual authentication provides the way to achieve this. Although existing schemes are either vulnerable to attacks or they have higher computational cost while an scalable authentication scheme for mobile devices should be secure and efficient. Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava presented a biometric based authentication scheme for TMIS with nonce. Their scheme only requires the computation of the hash and XOR functions.pagebreak Thus, this scheme fits for TMIS. However, we observe that Awasthi and Srivastava's scheme does not achieve efficient password change phase. Moreover, their scheme does not resist off-line password guessing attack. Further, we propose an improvement of Awasthi and Srivastava's scheme with the aim to remove the drawbacks of their scheme.

  5. Image Encryption Using Stream Cipher Based on Nonlinear Combination Generator with Enhanced Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmeguenaï Aîssa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The images are very largely used in our daily life; the security of their transfer became necessary. In this work a novel image encryption scheme using stream cipher algorithm based on nonlinear combination generator is developed. The main contribution of this work is to enhance the security of encrypted image. The proposed scheme is based on the use the several linear feedback shifts registers whose feedback polynomials are primitive and of degrees are all pairwise coprimes combined by resilient function whose resiliency order, algebraic degree and nonlinearity attain Siegenthaler’s and Sarkar, al.’s bounds. This proposed scheme is simple and highly efficient. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. These tests included visual test and histogram analysis, key space analysis, correlation coefficient analysis, image entropy, key sensitivity analysis, noise analysis, Berlekamp-Massey attack, correlation attack and algebraic attack. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed system is highly key sensitive, highly resistance to the noises and shows a good resistance against brute-force, statistical attacks, Berlekamp-Massey attack, correlation attack, algebraic attack and a robust system which makes it a potential candidate for encryption of image.

  6. Genetic engineering of crops: a ray of hope for enhanced food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gill, Ritu; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Crop improvement has been a basic and essential chase since organized cultivation of crops began thousands of years ago. Abiotic stresses as a whole are regarded as the crucial factors restricting the plant species to reach their full genetic potential to deliver desired productivity. The changing global climatic conditions are making them worse and pointing toward food insecurity. Agriculture biotechnology or genetic engineering has allowed us to look into and understand the complex nature of abiotic stresses and measures to improve the crop productivity under adverse conditions. Various candidate genes have been identified and transformed in model plants as well as agriculturally important crop plants to develop abiotic stress-tolerant plants for crop improvement. The views presented here are an attempt toward realizing the potential of genetic engineering for improving crops to better tolerate abiotic stresses in the era of climate change, which is now essential for global food security. There is great urgency in speeding up crop improvement programs that can use modern biotechnological tools in addition to current breeding practices for providing enhanced food security.

  7. A Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation Based on ECC in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes’ privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC. The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes.

  8. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : implications for Northeast Asian regional security co-operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies opportunities for co-operation on regional development and security in the North Pacific region. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was created in 1993 during bilateral negotiations between the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (US-DPRK) over North Korea's alleged nuclear weapons program. The negotiations resulted in an agreement to freeze North Korea's known nuclear weapons program in return for the construction of two proliferation-resistant 100 MWe light water reactors (LWR) in North Korea, and the provision of 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year until the completion of the LWR construction as compensation for lost energy production capacity resulting from the shutting down of North Korea's nuclear reactors. The author described the activities of KEDO and examined its internal dynamics. The unique circumstances that produced the Agreed Framework and KEDO in response to a major international crisis of the nuclear program in the DPRK were also highlighted along with the US-DPRK bilateral agreement and the multilateral institution involving the United States, South Korea, Japan and the European Union. Financial support from Australia and Canada was discussed along with the mechanism for engaging North Korea in regularized interaction and technical cooperation. It was concluded that KEDO's record of successes and failures is mixed. The energy security issue has been identified as an area that could result in conflict among Northeast Asian countries which are increasingly dependent on oil supplies from the Middle East. In response, numerous multilateral financing mechanisms have been developed to promote joint business opportunities that exploit natural gas resources in the Russian Far East to address Japanese, Korean and Chinese energy needs. 35 refs

  9. Collaborative eHealth Meets Security: Privacy-Enhancing Patient Profile Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Guerrero, Rosa; Mendoza, Florina Almenarez; Diaz-Sanchez, Daniel; Cabarcos, Patricia Arias; Lopez, Andres Marin

    2017-11-01

    Collaborative healthcare environments offer potential benefits, including enhancing the healthcare quality delivered to patients and reducing costs. As a direct consequence, sharing of electronic health records (EHRs) among healthcare providers has experienced a noteworthy growth in the last years, since it enables physicians to remotely monitor patients' health and enables individuals to manage their own health data more easily. However, these scenarios face significant challenges regarding security and privacy of the extremely sensitive information contained in EHRs. Thus, a flexible, efficient, and standards-based solution is indispensable to guarantee selective identity information disclosure and preserve patient's privacy. We propose a privacy-aware profile management approach that empowers the patient role, enabling him to bring together various healthcare providers as well as user-generated claims into an unique credential. User profiles are represented through an adaptive Merkle Tree, for which we formalize the underlying mathematical model. Furthermore, performance of the proposed solution is empirically validated through simulation experiments.

  10. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems.

  11. Available transfer capability evaluation and enhancement using various FACTS controllers: Special focus on system security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkateswara Rao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, because of the deregulation of the power industry the continuous increase of the load increases the necessity of calculation of available transfer capability (ATC of a system to analyze the system security. With this calculation, the scheduling of generator can be decided to decrease the system severity. Further, constructing new transmission lines, new substations are very cost effective to meet the increasing load and to increase the transfer capability. Hence, an alternative way to increase the transfer capability is use of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS controllers. In this paper, SSSC, STACOM and UPFC are considered to show the effect of these controllers in enhancing system ATC. For this, a novel current based modeling and optimal location strategy of these controllers are presented. The proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus and IEEE-57 bus test systems with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  12. Novel security enhancement technique against eavesdropper for OCDMA system using 2-D modulation format with code switching scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simranjit; Kaur, Ramandeep; Singh, Amanvir; Kaler, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, security of the spectrally encoded-optical code division multiplexed access (OCDMA) system is enhanced by using 2-D (orthogonal) modulation technique. This is an effective approach for simultaneous improvement of the system capacity and security. Also, the results show that the hybrid modulation technique proved to be a better option to enhance the data confidentiality at higher data rates using minimum utilization of bandwidth in a multiuser environment. Further, the proposed system performance is compared with the current state-of-the-art OCDMA schemes.

  13. Challenges to the South Caucasus regional security aftermath of Russian–Georgian conflict: Hegemonic stability or new partnership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornely K. Kakachia

    2011-01-01

    And the question is now how to handle this delicate situation in a strategically and geopolitically important region. So by controlling Georgia (in case Russia reaches abovementioned aims, Russia actually will be able to cut off Central Asia and Caspian resources. It means Russia would be able to isolate and cut off Azerbaijan and Central Asian countries and it will significantly strengthen its energy monopoly over Europe with all results coming out from that fact. So it’s about major shift in the energy policy and major shift in geopolitics based on this energy policy and Russian energy monopoly. The August war in Georgia demonstrated some risks associated with the functioning of the transit energy corridor in the southern Caucasus. It also demonstrated the need for broader security guarantees for a region that is vital to European and global energy security. Paper deals with economic damage inflicted by the Russo-Georgian war in South Caucasus and its implications for regional security.

  14. 78 FR 9406 - Southwest Louisiana Area Maritime Security Regional Sub-Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ..., review, update, and exercising of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan for their area of responsibility... port stakeholders having a special competence in maritime security; and port stakeholders affected by...

  15. National Security Crisis Decision-Making: The Role of Regional Combatant Commander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Sean C

    2007-01-01

    The successful management of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 set an unfortunate precedent for crisis management and national security crisis decision-making that persists into the contemporary security environment...

  16. Impact of climate change on food security in southwest coastal region of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.; Rahman, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on food security of the population residing in the coastal area of Bangladesh. Based on multistage random sampling technique, a survey was conducted to collect socioeconomic and food datasets of the people affected by extreme climate events in the country. The study found that climate change caused food insecurity in the region; it led to greater dependence on pond and rain water for cooking food and water intake. Catastrophe due to extreme weather events adversely affected the livelihoods and level of income. The severe cyclonic storms, Sidr (November 2007) and Alia (May 2009) severely affected the vulnerable people of this region, especially the extremely poor. The study came out with several coping strategies to address adverse effects of climate change, including rehabilitation with income and employment generating activities and development training; alternative livelihood adaptation practices; access to subsidized inputs and credits; introduction of crop calendar; conservation of arable and fellow land; and innovation of saline-tolerant, heat-resistant, moderate water consuming and short-rotation crops for the coastal people. (author)

  17. Primary care in an unstable security, humanitarian, economic and political context: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Kringos, Dionne S

    2017-08-23

    This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and political crises. The descriptive analysis used a framework operationalizing Starfield's classic primary care model for health services research. A scoping review was performed using relevant sources, and expert consultations were conducted for completing and validating data. The descriptive analysis presents a complex narrative of a primary care system undergoing classical developmental processes of transitioning middle-income countries. The system is simultaneously under tremendous pressure to adapt to the continuously changing, complex and resource-intensive needs of sub-populations exhibiting varying morbidity patterns, within the context of protracted security, humanitarian, economic, and political crises. Despite exhibiting significant resilience in the face of the ongoing crises, the continued influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees, coupled with extremely limited resources and weak governance at policy, organizational and clinical levels threaten the sustainability of KRI's public primary care system. Diverse trajectories to the strengthening and development of primary care are underway by local and international actors, notably the World Bank, RAND Corporation, UN organizations and USAID, focusing on varying imperatives related to the protracted humanitarian and economic crises. The convergence, interaction and outcomes of the diverse initiatives and policy approaches in relation to the development of KRI's primary care system are complex and highly uncertain. A common vision of primary care is required to align resources, initiatives and policies, and to enable synergy between all local and international actors involved in the developmental and humanitarian response. Further

  18. Enhancement of color and clarity in topaz and diamonds by nuclear radiation, safety and security concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshad Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Inducement of color and clarity in gemstone Topaz, otherwise devoid of these attributes, has been achieved by synergistic utilization of neutron irradiation, electron beam irradiation and heat. The transformation of the colorless, cheaply available topaz into desirable deep blue topaz is a significant value addition, not achievable by other contending techniques .Likewise colorless and unclear diamonds, available in trade at throw away price, have been transformed by neutron irradiation into colored diamonds, known as fancy diamonds. The enhanced gems may possess stable or unstable colors depending on the nature of the color centers produced. In the case of blue topaz and fancy diamonds the colors produced were stable and heating at elevated temperatures can only lead to fading of colors. The enhancement of gems by neutron irradiation is commercially viable provided appropriate equipment and tools are used .In the paper are described the processes of the enhancement of topaz and diamonds along with the instrumentation involved. However, in view of the radioactivity generated as a result of the exposure of gems to the neutrons, and the likelihood of undue exposure of the users, operators etc to the radioactive gems, safety aspects command serious attention. In the paper, the strategies to avoid or to mitigate the radioactivity generated have been discussed. Also documented are the methodologies and the controls to ensure that the radioactive gems are not released before ensuring that the radioactivity, if any, in the irradiated materials is not above the permissible levels in conformity with the international standards. Safety, security and safeguard of these materials are thus appropriately addressed. (Authors)

  19. Import substitution and its role in food security and agricultural development in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Pastushkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the security of the food market during the period 2010-2015, with an account of modern conditions of economy of the Russian Federation. The volume of production (manufacturing of major food products in Russia in the period 2010-2015 indicate the increase in domestic production of food products such as meat products, fish and fish products, frozen fruits and vegetables, milk and dairy products. Key categories of micro-economic analysis is supply and demand in selected markets. On the basis of information about the diets of the population per capita in the region and Russia as a whole, revealed that the consumption of meat and meat products, eggs complies with the standards. The problem of formation of demand for food products is relevant due to the fact that consumption and demand for food in large parts of the population formed at an insufficient level due to low incomes. In examining the share of imported products in the food market of the Russian Federation, it was identified that there is a dependency on the following inventory: beef (import share of 57.3%, animal oil (34.4 per cent and cheese (37.3 per cent. In the conditions of modern development of the economy another important factor is the state support of import substitution advocating a kind of incentive for the development and protection of own food production. Assessment of the dynamics of foreign trade turnover of trade in the region helps to identify trends in the development of relations in the region. The analysis of the index of foreign trade of the Urals Federal district in the period 2012-2016 has undergone minor changes, this fact is due to the introduction of foreign sanctions. Import substitution is one of the main factors contributing to implement large-scale and deep modernization of the domestic agricultural sector, causing the use of leading technology.

  20. Exploring Hardware-Based Primitives to Enhance Parallel Security Monitoring in a Novel Computing Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mott, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This research explores how hardware-based primitives can be implemented to perform security-related monitoring in real-time, offer better security, and increase performance compared to software-based approaches...

  1. Enhancing the Security Cooperation Marine Air Ground Task Force to Satisfy the Needs of the Uncertain Global Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    and 2004 National Military Strategy (NMS) continue to germinate . Discussions surrounding the spread of effective democracies and alternate...additional civil-military operation capabilities such as enhanced engineering, additional medical and dental support, and transportation tailored for

  2. Agriculture in Bangladesh : A Note on Food Security by Enhancing Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Awami League's Election Manifesto 2008 appropriately recognizes the importance of ensuring food security for all in Bangladesh. Food Security requires increasing agricultural growth which in turn is a key factor in reducing poverty in the country. Food security also requires increasing agricultural production and protecting consumers. Sustained production increases, in turn, require tec...

  3. Physical and Cross-Layer Security Enhancement and Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…

  4. A Decade of Experience: Which Network Structures Maximize Fire Service Capacity for Homeland Security Incidents in Metropolitan Regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency QHSR Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report RCP Regional Catastrophic Preparedness SAA State...service has evolved from a single-purpose service focused on controlling fires to a multidimensional response element responsible for pre- hospital ... hospital preparedness program Preparedness Training for all personnel; training and network activities during prior year assist in preparedness

  5. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  6. Unraveling the nexus between water and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean: regional and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Soriano, Barbara; De Stefano, Lucia; López Gunn, Elena; Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) is a water and land abundant region, and plays a key role in meeting global food and water security. During the last decade, LAC has experience a rapid socio-economic growth, largely sustained by its competitive advantage in the production and exports of agricultural and mining products and by the high commodity prices in the global market. This study seeks to quantify the contribution of LAC's agriculture to global food and water security, i.e. virtual water trade, and evaluate the environmental and societal implications for regional development. Results show that between 2000 and 2011, LAC has increase its agricultural production 27%, and it now accounts for nearly 18% of the global agricultural market. As a result, the agricultural water footprint (WF) of LAC was augmented 65%; and yet, nearly 19% to 44% of the actual agricultural WF - depending on the countries - is virtual water exported to third countries. In fact, almost 50% of the increase in global virtual water trade during the last decade, corresponds to LAC. Such global contribution has significant implications for regional water and food security. From an environmental perspective, crop expansion (mostly rain-fed) resulted in the deforestation of nearly 1 million km2, turning this region into the second most important deforestation hotspots worldwide. This land clearing is having large impacts of ecosystem services, e.g. carbon sequestration, water quality or biodiversity conservation. From a socio-economic perspective, increasing agricultural production has improved regional food security indicators, although one every seven children is still stunted in LAC and nearly 10% of the population remains undernourished. Dietary shifts and socio-cultural factors also lag behind the growing problem of malnutrition in the region, i.e. overweight and obesity. Improvements of water access and sanitation, have had a positive impact on food security indicators, especially

  7. Seismic security assessment of earth and rockfill dams located in epicentral regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldecop, L.; Zabala, F.; Rodari, R. [San Juan National Univ., San Juan (Argentina). Instituto de Invest. Antisismicas

    2004-07-01

    The seismic safety of dams is of great interest to the midwest region of Argentina, the most seismically active area in the country. This paper examines factors controlling the design of dams subjected to earthquake action, criteria for safety verification and the analysis tools currently available. Data of dams, active faults and epicenters of historic earthquakes in the region were provided. Paleoseismicity research was suggested as an important area of research, potentially enhancing an understanding of a region's seismic activity. It was concluded that analysis tools currently used in engineering include simple models offering advantages in reliability and ease of result interpretation, but have shortcomings in their applicability. Care must be taken in the validation and interpretation of these models, particularly when the behaviour of a dam includes complex phenomena. More sophisticated analysis tools currently available are difficult to apply, largely due to the complexity of algorithms in the models. It was also concluded that in order to overcome difficulties in both simple and complex models, predictions should be contrasted with real behaviour data. Data from measurement of seismic behaviour is still relatively scarce, presenting an obstacle towards the further use of more sophisticated analysis tools, as they are not as yet tested against measurements and observations of real cases. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  8. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework

  9. Security-enhanced phase encryption assisted by nonlinear optical correlation via sparse phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for security-enhanced phase encryption assisted by a nonlinear optical correlation via a sparse phase. Optical configurations are established based on a phase retrieval algorithm for embedding an input image and the secret data into phase-only masks. We found that when one or a few phase-only masks generated during data hiding are sparse, it is possible to integrate these sparse masks into those phase-only masks generated during the encoding of the input image. Synthesized phase-only masks are used for the recovery, and sparse distributions (i.e., binary maps) for generating the incomplete phase-only masks are considered as additional parameters for the recovery of secret data. It is difficult for unauthorized receivers to know that a useful phase has been sparsely distributed in the finally generated phase-only masks for secret-data recovery. Only when the secret data are correctly verified can the input image obtained with valid keys be claimed as targeted information. (paper)

  10. Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling

    2016-02-19

    In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents.

  11. World market or regional integration and food security in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); A. Klaasse Bos (Andries); C. Lutz (Clemens)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe problem of food security in West Africa was put on the international agenda in 1974 at the international food conference in Rome following the Great Sahelian Drought of 1968-1973. In those years preoccupation with food security was limited mainly to the Sahel countries and

  12. Regional Labour Court Baden-Wuerttemberg (Mannheim), decision of November 24, 1986 (co-determination in matters of security control)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In its decision of November 24, 1986, the Regional Court of Baden-Wuerttemberg deals with the direction of security controls in nuclear research plants. The co-determination of the works council in this field is excluded, if the operator is directed by the licensing authority to carry out these controls pursuant to an obligation of the operating licence according to sec. 7 and sec. 17 of the Atomic Energy Act. With regard to the security purpose in sec. 1 no. 2 Atomic Energy Act only the operator is competent to make decisions in these cases. (WG) [de

  13. Using RFID to Enhance Security in Off-Site Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A.; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R.

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system’s benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention. PMID:22163638

  14. Using RFID to enhance security in off-site data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system's benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.

  15. National Security Cutter: Enhanced Oversight Needed to Ensure Problems Discovered during Testing and Operations Are Addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    May Lead to NSCs and Future DHS Assets Deploying without Having Demonstrated Full Capabilities 22 Performance Issues Discovered Outside of IOT &E...Examples of National Security Cutter Critical Operational Issues and Key Performance Parameters 10 Table 3: National Security Cutter Major...Cutter IOT &E Initial Operational Test and Evaluation KPP Key Performance Parameter LRI-II Long-Range Interceptor II NSC National Security Cutter

  16. Enhancing Cyber Security for SME organizations through self-assessments : How self-assessment raises awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hassinen, Tarmo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis primarily studied the importance of self-assessment in increasing business organizations’ cyber security awareness of their ICT environment. The secondary studied item was the relevance of self-assessment in detecting new business potential while understanding ICT environment changes. The self-assessment is based on FINCS, the Finnish basic level cyber security certificate launched in December 2016. FINCSC consists of physical and management security, ICT service and system securi...

  17. Plan and Some Results of "Advanced Study on Precipitation Enhancement in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, M.

    2016-12-01

    There are several technologies to secure water resources, including the desalination of seawater, recycling of industrial water and reuse of wastewater. However precipitation enhancement is the only way we can create a large amount of water for industrial use, for example, water for irrigation, provided we find clouds suitable for cloud seeding and apply appropriate and effective methods to increase precipitation. Therefore, rain enhancement research is critical in the quest for new water security options and innovative solutions in the UAE and other arid and semi-arid regions. The main objective of our project is to better evaluate, and ultimately improve, the effectiveness of rain enhancement in the UAE and other arid and semi-arid regions using hygroscopic and glaciogenic seeding techniques. One of the major questions regarding rain enhancement today is the effectiveness of hygroscopic seeding for warm and supercooled convective clouds. Our research will investigate the microphysical processes in seeded and unseeded clouds using a combination of laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and in-situ aircraft measurements in order to decipher the mechanism responsible for precipitation augmentation due to hygroscopic seeding. In our research, major elements of cloud seeding, e.g., assessment of seedability, development of optimal seeding methods and evaluation of seeding effects, will be investigated in the most efficient and realistic way, within three years, using mainly the numerical models with the sophisticated seeding scheme, which is developed on a basis of laboratory experiments and then validated against in-situ and remote sensing observations. In addition to the research plan, the outcomes of the research projects, which will be made available to the public at the end of the project and benefit the broader society, is discussed.

  18. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Kim, Suntae; Kim, Kangmin; Choi, Jae-Young; Cho, Younghwa; Lee, Keun-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3) design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack. PMID:26751443

  19. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3 design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack.

  20. Regional energy resource development and energy security under CO{sub 2} emission constraint in the greater Mekong sub-region countries (GMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M. [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    The paper evaluates effects of energy resource development within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) on energy supply mix, energy system cost, energy security and environment during 2000-2035. A MARKAL-based integrated energy system model of the five GMS countries was developed to examine benefits of regional energy resource development for meeting the energy demand of these countries. The study found that an unrestricted energy resource development and trade within the region would reduce the total-regional energy systems cost by 18% and would abate the total CO{sub 2} emission by 5% as compared to the base case. All the five countries except Myanmar would benefit from the expansion of regional energy resource integration in terms of lower energy systems costs and better environmental qualities. An imposition of CO{sub 2} emission reduction constraint by 5% on each of the study countries from that of the corresponding emissions under the unrestricted energy resource development in the GMS is found to improve energy security, reduce energy import and fossil fuels dependences and increase volume of power trade within the region. The total energy system cost under the joint CO{sub 2} emission reduction strategy would be less costly than that under the individual emission targets set for each country. (author)

  1. Regional energy resource development and energy security under CO2 emission constraint in the greater Mekong sub-region countries (GMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper evaluates effects of energy resource development within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) on energy supply mix, energy system cost, energy security and environment during 2000-2035. A MARKAL-based integrated energy system model of the five GMS countries was developed to examine benefits of regional energy resource development for meeting the energy demand of these countries. The study found that an unrestricted energy resource development and trade within the region would reduce the total-regional energy systems cost by 18% and would abate the total CO 2 emission by 5% as compared to the base case. All the five countries except Myanmar would benefit from the expansion of regional energy resource integration in terms of lower energy systems costs and better environmental qualities. An imposition of CO 2 emission reduction constraint by 5% on each of the study countries from that of the corresponding emissions under the unrestricted energy resource development in the GMS is found to improve energy security, reduce energy import and fossil fuels dependences and increase volume of power trade within the region. The total energy system cost under the joint CO 2 emission reduction strategy would be less costly than that under the individual emission targets set for each country.

  2. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  3. The system of innovative development of the agroindustrial complex in order to ensure the economic security of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for innovative development of the agroindustrial complex is the goals, principles and methods that determine the economic security of the region. The category of “economic security”is often identified with the sustainability, competitiveness and risk-free economy of agricultural and processing enterprises. Ensuring the economically safe functioning of all industries and spheres of regional agribusiness is impossible without interconnection with science and education. The most important principles necessary for the formation in the regional and national agribusinesses of a developed economically secure market of scientific, technical and innovative products for agroindustrial purposes are the following: providing the scientific and research sphere of the agro-industrial complex with highly qualified personnel; ensuring real freedom and independence in the activities of research institutions; the formation of a common interdependent economic space and interest; organization of specialized market structures in the field of research and innovation development; development and application within the regional agro-industrial complex of a scientifically grounded economic mechanism for regulating the functioning and stimulating the development of the market for scientific and technical innovation products. Purposeful development of the civilized market of scientific, technical and innovative products of agro-industrial design with its corresponding structures and organizational-economic mechanism is an objective necessity of functioning of economic security of the national economy. The interests of the economic and food security of the region and the state as a whole need to increase the financing of the agricultural sector and the processing industry to a level that will overcome the investment and innovation crisis caused by sanctions. To this end, we believe it is necessary to finance the innovative investment agrarian fund at the

  4. ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY STATUS OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN THE FOREST BELT OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K.M. Kuwornu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to examine the Food Security Status of Farming Households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents that were interviewed. In all 134 farming households were interviewed but 120 were selected for analysis after removing the questionnaires which were not properly administered. The households were selected from eight communities in two districts. Food consumption data of 851 individuals in 120 households were used for the analysis. The study reveals that the majority of the farming households (60% were found to be food insecure. Further, the Binary Logit Model results reveal that an increase in household's income, having access to credit as well as increase in the quantity of own farm production improve the food security status of farming households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. However, holding all other factors constant, increases in non-working member of households worsens the food security status of farming households. Most of the food insecurity coping strategies adopted by household's are not severe and can only be used to avert the impact of food insecurity on a temporal basis. These results have policy implications for Food Security Status of Farming Households in developing countries.

  5. Enhancing stakeholder participation in the Niger Delta region: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's indigenous people, found in the Niger Delta area, have for many years experienced developmental challenges associated with oil exploration. The region has been perennially engulfed in various forms of agitation pertaining to self-government and resource control. Over the years, attempts to solve these ...

  6. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-04-07

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.

  7. A GIS-based decision support system for regional eco-security assessment and its application on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaodan, Wang; Xianghao, Zhong; Pan, Gao

    2010-10-01

    Regional eco-security assessment is an intricate, challenging task. In previous studies, the integration of eco-environmental models and geographical information systems (GIS) usually takes two approaches: loose coupling and tight coupling. However, the present study used a full coupling approach to develop a GIS-based regional eco-security assessment decision support system (ESDSS). This was achieved by merging the pressure-state-response (PSR) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) into ArcGIS 9 as a dynamic link library (DLL) using ArcObjects in ArcGIS and Visual Basic for Applications. Such an approach makes it easy to capitalize on the GIS visualization and spatial analysis functions, thereby significantly supporting the dynamic estimation of regional eco-security. A case study is presented for the Tibetan Plateau, known as the world's "third pole" after the Arctic and Antarctic. Results verified the usefulness and feasibility of the developed method. As a useful tool, the ESDSS can also help local managers to make scientifically-based and effective decisions about Tibetan eco-environmental protection and land use. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Elliott, Joshua; Antle, John

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIPs community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPsSSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate changes impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIPs 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  9. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Antle, J. M.; Elliott, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIP's community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPs/SSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate change's impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIP's 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  10. Enhancing food security in Northern Ghana through smallholder small ruminant production and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amankwah, K.

    2013-01-01

    Key words

    Livestock markets, technical and institutional constraints, innovation systems, veterinary services; smallholder farmers; structural adjustment, scaling out, co-learning, supplementary feeding, herd growth, food security, positive deviants, commercialization,

  11. Exploring Hardware-Based Primitives to Enhance Parallel Security Monitoring in a Novel Computing Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mott, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    .... In doing this, we propose a novel computing architecture, derived from a contemporary shared memory architecture, that facilitates efficient security-related monitoring in real-time, while keeping...

  12. Enhanced Security and Pairing-free Handover Authentication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Shu, Guangqiang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    With the widely deployment of mobile wireless networks, we aim to propose a secure and seamless handover authentication scheme that allows users to roam freely in wireless networks without worrying about security and privacy issues. Given the open characteristic of wireless networks, safety and efficiency should be considered seriously. Several previous protocols are designed based on a bilinear pairing mapping, which is time-consuming and inefficient work, as well as unsuitable for practical situations. To address these issues, we designed a new pairing-free handover authentication scheme for mobile wireless networks. This scheme is an effective improvement of the protocol by Xu et al., which is suffer from the mobile node impersonation attack. Security analysis and simulation experiment indicate that the proposed protocol has many excellent security properties when compared with other recent similar handover schemes, such as mutual authentication and resistance to known network threats, as well as requiring lower computation and communication cost.

  13. Enhancing food security through a multi-stakeholder process: the global agenda for sustainable livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, G.E.; Dijkman, J.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding the world is not only a complex technical matter, but also a demanding governance issue. As food security has all the characteristics of a wicked problem (variety of problem definitions, conflicting interests, interconnectedness across scales, inherent uncertainties), conventional governance

  14. An Enhancing Security Research of Tor Anonymous Communication to Against DDos Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Tao; Zhao Ming-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Tor (The Second Onion Router) is modified by the first generation onion router and known as the most prevalent anonymous communication system. According to the advantage of low latency, high confidentiality of transmission content, high security of communication channels and et al., Tor is widely used in anonymous Web browsing, instant message and so on. However, the vulnerability and blemish of Tor affect system security. An identity and Signcryption-based concurrent signature scheme was use...

  15. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Reform to Enhance Security of the Global Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    towards cloud computing technologies and capabilities demand needs for developing new tools that work in ensemble to handle security challenges. A...programs with the schools and/or hire from their pool of students. Therefore, no real STEM standards exist at the tertiary and beyond levels of education ...successful in cyber operations and network security related jobs much early on into the new STEM education model pipeline. Subjects such as computer

  16. UN Security Council Practice and Regional Arrangements: Procedure, Legitimacy and International Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    When the United Nations Security Council first met in January 1946, it was unable to reach agreement on rules of procedure to govern its operation. Instead, “provisional” rules were adopted in anticipation of further negotiation at a later date. The same provisional rules govern the Council’s work...... today, but provide only the skeletal framework of its contemporary practice. From the early 1990s, the Council increasingly implemented informal working methods to expedite its decision-making. This paper will critically examine the tension between the procedural practice of the Security Council...... to act ‘in conformity with the principles of justice and international law’ as stipulated in the very first provision of the United Nations Charter. Scholarship to date has largely ignored the procedural context of Security Council decisions, notwithstanding it provides the very structure within which...

  17. Enhancing LoRaWAN Security through a Lightweight and Authenticated Key Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Iborra, Ramon; Sánchez-Gómez, Jesús; Pérez, Salvador; Fernández, Pedro J; Santa, José; Hernández-Ramos, José L; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2018-06-05

    Luckily, new communication technologies and protocols are nowadays designed considering security issues. A clear example of this can be found in the Internet of Things (IoT) field, a quite recent area where communication technologies such as ZigBee or IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) already include security features to guarantee authentication, confidentiality and integrity. More recent technologies are Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LP-WAN), which also consider security, but present initial approaches that can be further improved. An example of this can be found in Long Range (LoRa) and its layer-two supporter LoRa Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), which include a security scheme based on pre-shared cryptographic material lacking flexibility when a key update is necessary. Because of this, in this work, we evaluate the security vulnerabilities of LoRaWAN in the area of key management and propose different alternative schemes. Concretely, the application of an approach based on the recently specified Ephemeral Diffie⁻Hellman Over COSE (EDHOC) is found as a convenient solution, given its flexibility in the update of session keys, its low computational cost and the limited message exchanges needed. A comparative conceptual analysis considering the overhead of different security schemes for LoRaWAN is carried out in order to evaluate their benefits in the challenging area of LP-WAN.

  18. Enhancing LoRaWAN Security through a Lightweight and Authenticated Key Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Luckily, new communication technologies and protocols are nowadays designed considering security issues. A clear example of this can be found in the Internet of Things (IoT field, a quite recent area where communication technologies such as ZigBee or IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN already include security features to guarantee authentication, confidentiality and integrity. More recent technologies are Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LP-WAN, which also consider security, but present initial approaches that can be further improved. An example of this can be found in Long Range (LoRa and its layer-two supporter LoRa Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN, which include a security scheme based on pre-shared cryptographic material lacking flexibility when a key update is necessary. Because of this, in this work, we evaluate the security vulnerabilities of LoRaWAN in the area of key management and propose different alternative schemes. Concretely, the application of an approach based on the recently specified Ephemeral Diffie–Hellman Over COSE (EDHOC is found as a convenient solution, given its flexibility in the update of session keys, its low computational cost and the limited message exchanges needed. A comparative conceptual analysis considering the overhead of different security schemes for LoRaWAN is carried out in order to evaluate their benefits in the challenging area of LP-WAN.

  19. Using RFID to Enhance Security in Off-Site Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Hoz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system’s benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.

  20. The 21st Century Challenges and the Food-Energy-Water-Security (FEWS) Nexus in the Middle East Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, H.; Hameed, M.

    2017-12-01

    Developing countries have experienced crucial conditions in meeting the needs for food, energy, and water security. This paper presents a country-level quantitative assessment of the current issues associated with the Food-Energy-Water-Security (FEWS) Nexus in the Middle East region. In this study, sixteen countries in the Middle East region are chosen, namely, Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, and Turkey. The most recent datasets are used to study and analyze the factors that have emerged the demand to understand and manage the linkage of FEW systems in the region. Water scarcity, extreme events, population growth, urbanization, economic growth, poverty, and political stability are found to be the key drivers of the current challenges in the Middle East region. Additionally, the results suggest that these factors have created a subsequent stress on FEW resources specifically on water sector in the region. Therefore, more attention is required to sustain the FEW resources and cope with the socio-economic development.

  1. Autologous fat grafting for cosmetic enhancement of the perioral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgold, Mark; Lam, Samuel M; Glasgold, Robert

    2007-11-01

    The role of volume loss in the progression of facial aging is widely accepted as an important cause. The aging appearance of the perioral region and lower face is significantly affected by this volume loss, which contributes to the development of labiomental folds, the loss of definition of the jawline, and worsening of skin texture, among other manifestations. Autologous fat transfer can effectively replace this lost volume and contribute to any facial rejuvenation plan. Fat can replace larger volumes than off-the-shelf fillers and provides a potentially permanent solution.

  2. The eu-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy : The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, Mehdi P.; Crijns-Graus, Wina H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the eu, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply

  3. The EU-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy : The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Crijns-Graus, W.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the EU, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply

  4. Mapping the Factors Affecting Household Food Security of Tuberculosis Patients in Coastal Region of Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningrum, D.; Ulama, B. S. S.; Lathifah, R.

    2018-04-01

    Food security is a condition of a person who has access to adequate, safe, and nutritious food to meet the needs of a healthy life. Affordability of food is determined by the aggregate purchasing power. It is also can be measured by the amount of poverty in Indonesia which reached 28,07 million in 2014. According to data from the health department, the largest TB cases in Indonesia were in East Java Province and Surabaya accounted for the largest number, there are 48379 cases in 2015. This study mapping the factors that affect household food security of TB patients in the coastal areas of Surabaya. This study used secondary data sources from 11 clinics i.e. TB patient's addres and primary data source to survey patients about food security. Variables used in this study are variables related to socioeconomic factors and sanitary factors. Those variables will be analyzed descriptively and mapping using biplot analysis. Biplot generated based on socio-economic factors, sanitary factors, and status of households in 11 districts Surabaya that near the beach geographically. The result shows that 64% of TB patient households are food insecure than the left are food secure. More than 50% of TB patient households have a good house physically. From the result of mapping between sub-districts and factors, formed five groups consisting of: 1) Benowo and Mulyorejo; 2) Asemrowo, Gunung Anyar, Sukolilo and Pabean Cantikan; 3) Semampir, Krembangan and Bulak; 4) Kenjeran; and 5) Rungkut.

  5. Global Energy Security and Its Geopolitical Impediments: The Case of the Caspian Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the global geopolitics of energy security in the post-Cold War environment. Energy companies headquartered in western countries have long history of accessing energy resources beyond borders through invasion of the host by their home state, followed by domination and the

  6. From food production to food security: developing interdisciplinary, regional-level research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, J.S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Food security is a condition whereby “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO World Food Summit, 1996). Globally, food production has kept

  7. Model, Characterization, and Analysis of Steady-State Security Region in AC/DC Power System with a Large Amount of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A conventional steady-state power flow security check only implements point-by-point assessment, which cannot provide a security margin for system operation. The concept of a steady-state security region is proposed to effectively tackle this problem. Considering that the commissioning of the increasing number of HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current and the fluctuation of renewable energy have significantly affected the operation and control of a conventional AC system, the definition of the steady-state security region of the AC/DC power system is proposed in this paper based on the AC/DC power flow calculation model including LCC/VSC (Line Commutated Converter/Voltage Sourced Converter-HVDC transmission and various AC/DC constraints, and hence the application of the security region is extended. In order to ensure that the proposed security region can accurately provide global security information of the power system under the fluctuations of renewable energy, this paper presents four methods (i.e., a screening method of effective boundary surfaces, a fitting method of boundary surfaces, a safety judging method, and a calculation method of distances and corrected distance between the steady-state operating point and the effective boundary surfaces based on the relation analysis between the steady-state security region geometry and constraints. Also, the physical meaning and probability analysis of the corrected distance are presented. Finally, a case study is demonstrated to test the feasibility of the proposed methods.

  8. Enhanced rearrangement technique for secure data transmission: case study credit card process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyavahare, Tushar; Tekade, Darshana; Nayak, Saurabh; kumar, N. Suresh; Blessy Trencia Lincy, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    Encryption of data is very important in order to keep the data secure and make secure transactions and transmission of data. Such as online shopping. whenever we give our card details there is possibility of data being hacked or intruded. So to secure that we need to encrypt the data and decryption strategy should be known only to that particular bank. Therefore to achieve this objective RSA algorithm can be used. Where only intended sender and receiver can know about the encryption and decryption of data. To make the RSA technique more secure in this paper we propose the technique we call it Modified RSA. for which a transposition module is designed which uses Row Transposition method to encrypt the data. Before giving the card details to RSA the input will be given to this transposition module which will scrambles the data and rearranges it. Output of transposition will be then provided to the modified RSA which produces the cipher text to send over the network. Use of RSA and the transposition module will provide the dual security to whole system.

  9. An Approach to Building Capacity for Nuclear Security and Safeguards in Thailand and the Southeast Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengvanich, P.; Chanyotha, S.; Nilsuwankosit, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A master’s degree programme in nuclear security and safeguards has been developed and offered at Chulalongkorn University for the first time in 2013 in order to develop necessary human resources in the fields of nuclear security and safeguards who can continue to work, conduct research, or serve as educators in these fields in Thailand and the Southeast Asian region. The first group of 20 students joined the programme in 2013 and recently graduated. The programme was one-of-its-kind, as there have not been many similar specialized programmes in nuclear security and safeguards in the past. In this paper, challenges and lessons learned throughout the programme are reported. Experience from the pilot programme will be used to improve the next round of the programme which is expected to start in 2017. With this program, more nuclear knowledge can be shared and maintained among the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries to ensure the peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the region. (author

  10. A flexible privacy enhanced and secured ICT architecture for a smart grid project with active cosumers in the city of Zwolle-NL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes Portela, C.; Rooden, H.; Kohlmann, J.; Leersum, van D.; Geldtmeijer, D.A.M.; Slootweg, J.G.; van Eekelen, Marko

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the ICT architecture for a Smart Grid project with consumer interaction in the city of Zwolle, the Netherlands. It describes the privacy and security enhancing measures applied to ensure a positive sum of necessary functionality and respect for consumer’s privacy and secure

  11. SECURITY RISKS, MYTHS IN A TRANSITIONING SUB-NATIONAL REGIONAL ECONOMY (CROSS RIVER STATE AND IMAGINATIVE GEOGRAPHIES OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. UKWAYI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of an “international community” through accumulation of perceived risks that contrasts with those risks (of considerably lower levels of seriousness compared to those perceived constitutes one of the interesting (or intriguing subjects of risks and disaster studies surrounding the 9/11 era. The constructions of “imaginative geographies”, have frequently been biased in the practices that underlie the mapping of the foreign places tend to put-down the affected regions in their “paintings” for the global community. The latter are subsequently “demonized” in their ratings of competence for participating in world trade, tourism, travel, among other social/cultural, and economic and political activities. The objective of this article is to highlight how the exaggeration of risks (contrasted to actually existing/lived risks, practices that are frequently associated with such adverse “imaginative geographies” poses sub-national regional development dilemma in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. We trace the roots of adverse “imaginative geographies” of Nigeria to the Abacha dictatorship (1993-1997. Then we highlight the mixed characteristics of the Niger Delta conditions during the “return of positive image recapture” by Nigeria’s federal government (re-democratisation of the Fourth Republic, 1999-present, re-branding campaigns; as well as adverse conditions present. Most significantly, we show that despite these adversities, a combination of favorable geographical size, differentiation, sub-national regional security programme formulation and management taking aims at diversification have created “large oases” of peace and security in Cross River State, a part of the Niger Delta that has been completely unscathed by insurgencies of the nearby sub-national region and further away national origin. Apart from identifying sub-national regions qualifying for delisting from “adverse imaginative geographies” due to

  12. Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs, established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzüberschreitender Flüsse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten außerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Förderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festländischen Südostasien.

  13. Extensions and Enhancements to “the Secure Remote Update Protocol”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew John Poulter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on previous work introducing the Secure Remote Update Protocol (SRUP, a secure communications protocol for Command and Control applications in the Internet of Things, built on top of MQTT. This paper builds on the original protocol and introduces a number of additional message types: adding additional capabilities to the protocol. We also discuss the difficulty of proving that a physical device has an identity corresponding to a logical device on the network and propose a mechanism to overcome this within the protocol.

  14. Can the use of the Leggett-Garg inequality enhance security of the BB84 protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy H., Akshata; Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.; Home, Dipankar

    2017-08-01

    Prima facie, there are good reasons to answer in the negative the question posed in the title: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol is provably secure subject to the assumption of trusted devices, while the Leggett-Garg-type inequality (LGI) does not seem to be readily adaptable to the device independent (DI) or semi-DI scenario. Nevertheless, interestingly, here we identify a specific device attack, which has been shown to render the standard BB84 protocol completely insecure, but against which our formulated LGI-assisted BB84 protocol (based on an appropriate form of LGI) is secure.

  15. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.

  16. Test and Evaluation for Enhanced Security: A Quantitative Method to Incorporate Expert Knowledge into Test Planning Decisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Davinia [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blackburn, Mark [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Complex systems are comprised of technical, social, political and environmental factors as well as the programmatic factors of cost, schedule and risk. Testing these systems for enhanced security requires expert knowledge in many different fields. It is important to test these systems to ensure effectiveness, but testing is limited to due cost, schedule, safety, feasibility and a myriad of other reasons. Without an effective decision framework for Test and Evaluation (T&E) planning that can take into consideration technical as well as programmatic factors and leverage expert knowledge, security in complex systems may not be assessed effectively. Therefore, this paper covers the identification of the current T&E planning problem and an approach to include the full variety of factors and leverage expert knowledge in T&E planning through the use of Bayesian Networks (BN).

  17. International Cooperation for Enhancing Nuclear Safety, Security, Safeguards and Non-proliferation : 60 Years of IAEA and EURATOM

    CERN Document Server

    Abousahl, Said; Plastino, Wolfango

    2018-01-01

    This open access book examines key aspects of international cooperation to enhance nuclear safety, security, safeguards, and non-proliferation, thereby assisting in development and maintenance of the verification regime and fostering progress toward a nuclear weapon-free world. The book opens by addressing important political, institutional, and legal dimensions. Current challenges are discussed and attempts made to identify possible solutions and future improvements. Subsequent sections consider scientific developments that have the potential to increase the effectiveness of implementation of international regimes, particularly in critical areas, technology foresight, and the ongoing evaluation of current capabilities. The closing sections examine scientific and technical challenges and discuss the role of international cooperation and actions of the scientific community in leading the world toward peace and security. The book – which celebrates 60 years of IAEA Atoms for Peace and Development and the EURA...

  18. THE CHINA’S ENERGY SECURITY IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Sergeevich Krasantsov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article was to determine the level of the Chinese energy security that was built up for last several decades. In order to reach the set aim the author figured the current condition of the energy sector within the leading states of the Asia-Pacific Region and compared it with a similar condition ofChina. The condition’s characteristics included the following: Chinese energy balance, oil production, import and consumption, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, electricity amount produced by using the renewable energy sources (hydropower, wind energy, sun energy and nuclear energy. In addition the authorities’ plans for the expansion of the mentioned renewable and nuclear energy production were as well discovered. The probable threats of the energy security and possible obstacles for the extensive means of sustaining the country’s energy security were also brought up.Statistical, comparative and analytical methods were applied in the process of the current research. As a result the PRC was found to be at a threshold to energetic crisis. In order to avoid the scenario two innovative methods were proposed as the means of avoiding the possible future crisis and sustaining energy security.The research results can be applied in determining the domestic and foreign policy of China as well as the foreign policies of the PRC’s energetic partners both within the Asia-Pacific Region and beyond its borders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-39

  19. Evaluating the Impact of the Department of Defense Regional Centers for Security Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Kazakstan, Moldova, Montenegro $542,000 total 11% O&M; 89% other Media: weapon or tool 50 Garmisch, Germany $99,000 O&M nAtO Smart Defense (2...events) 70 total Bosnia, Montenegro $74,000 total Other nESA Yemen national Security Seminar 40 Yemen $450,000 Other pakistani Military Confidence...mandate. It included commentary on all aspects of APCSS’s operations, including physical plant , library usage, stu- dent selection, alumni outreach

  20. Turkey’s New Regional Security Role: Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    organizational reform, economic restructuring, and integrating recent members. Efforts to develop a Eu- ropean Security and Defense Identity (ESDI...the fed- eral state of Iraq. Turkish officials have also developed ties with moderate Kurdish leaders such as Iraqi Pres- ident Jalal Talabani and...most vis- ible presence is its pop culture, especially cinema , and Turkish goods. Turkish clothes, furniture, toys, build- ing materials, and other

  1. The Impact of the Soviet Military Presence in the Arctic Region on Norwegian Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Admiral Roy Breivik , "Assuring the Security of Reinforcements to Norway", NATO’s Sixteen Nations, Special nr 2, (1982): 67. Former Director General of...34Norway Country Portrait", (1984): 53. 17 Holst, (1982): 27. 18 German, (1982): 61. 19 Bjol, (1983): 25. 20 Breivik , (1982): 68. 21 Interview, Major Kurt...1, (January 1981): 5-7. 137 Vinogradov, N., as translated by Suggs, Robert C., "Let’s Go to Hammerfest", Red Star, (February 1985). Wall, Patrick

  2. Fish farming as an innovative strategy for promoting food security in drought risk regions of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Shava

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the implementation of fish farming as an innovative and economic strategy for promoting food security and dietary diversities among vulnerable households in drought risk areas of Zimbabwe. The declining climatic conditions and lack of economic opportunities in Mwenezi district of Zimbabwe attracted the attention of three nongovernmental organisations (NGOs to implement fish farming as an innovative mechanism to stimulate food security and generate employment in the district. The article used a qualitative research approach that includes semi-structured interviews and secondary data. The purposive sampling technique was adopted to interview participants in Mwenezi district who were involved in fish farming to assess and explore the experiences and benefits they derive from such development projects. Results for the article revealed that fish farming was well embraced by local communities as it led to improvements in food security, household income and employment regeneration. The local government including traditional leadership (Chiefs and Headmen’s supported the NGO activities as they benefited local communities. The article concludes that although fish farming was instrumental in regenerating employment, some participants still fail to participate because of laziness and desire to maintain dependency syndrome. The article recommends the NGOs to launch awareness campaigns in rural communities and increase networking with the donor community which is fundamental in attracting sustainable funding. The government can also promote fish farming in vulnerable rural communities by providing funding and capacity building programmes.

  3. Towards an Enhancement of Organizational Information Security through Threat Factor Profiling (TFP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Fatimah; Daud, Maslina; Ahmad, Sabariah; Zainuddin, Naqliyah; Anneisa Abdullah, Syafiqa; Jabar, Marzanah A.; Suriani Affendey, Lilly; Ishak, Iskandar; Sharef, Nurfadhlina Mohd; Zolkepli, Maslina; Nur Majdina Nordin, Fatin; Amat Sejani, Hashimah; Ramadzan Hairani, Saiful

    2017-09-01

    Information security has been identified by organizations as part of internal operations that need to be well implemented and protected. This is because each day the organizations face a high probability of increase of threats to their networks and services that will lead to information security issues. Thus, effective information security management is required in order to protect their information assets. Threat profiling is a method that can be used by an organization to address the security challenges. Threat profiling allows analysts to understand and organize intelligent information related to threat groups. This paper presents a comparative analysis that was conducted to study the existing threat profiling models. It was found that existing threat models were constructed based on specific objectives, thus each model is limited to only certain components or factors such as assets, threat sources, countermeasures, threat agents, threat outcomes and threat actors. It is suggested that threat profiling can be improved by the combination of components found in each existing threat profiling model/framework. The proposed model can be used by an organization in executing a proactive approach to incident management.

  4. Secure open cloud in data transmission using reference pattern and identity with enhanced remote privacy checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay Singh, Ran; Agilandeeswari, L.

    2017-11-01

    To handle the large amount of client’s data in open cloud lots of security issues need to be address. Client’s privacy should not be known to other group members without data owner’s valid permission. Sometime clients are fended to have accessing with open cloud servers due to some restrictions. To overcome the security issues and these restrictions related to storing, data sharing in an inter domain network and privacy checking, we propose a model in this paper which is based on an identity based cryptography in data transmission and intermediate entity which have client’s reference with identity that will take control handling of data transmission in an open cloud environment and an extended remote privacy checking technique which will work at admin side. On behalf of data owner’s authority this proposed model will give best options to have secure cryptography in data transmission and remote privacy checking either as private or public or instructed. The hardness of Computational Diffie-Hellman assumption algorithm for key exchange makes this proposed model more secure than existing models which are being used for public cloud environment.

  5. Enhancing Research in Networking & System Security, and Forensics, in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    Conference 2014 – Seattle, WA – Travel Scholarship awarded by Google. Celedonio was able to meet Mr. Tony Baylis, a recruiter from the Lawrence...Microsoft, Encase, Avaya, McAfee, Cisco , Department of Homeland Security, Department of Defense, ISACA among others. International Conferences in

  6. Power allocation and cooperative jamming for enhancing physical layer security in opportunistic relay networks in the presence of interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of cochannel interference on the secrecy performance of dual-hop decode-and-forward relaying is investigated. In particular, the outage and intercept probabilities are obtained for the opportunistic relay selection (ORS) model in the presence of nonidentical interfering signals under a single/multiple passive eavesdropper(s) attack. Moreover, the proposed work enhances physical layer security performance of ORS model using cooperative jamming (CJ) techniques. Therefore, new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept and outage probabilities of the CJ-ORS model in the presence of interference over Rayleigh fading channels. Moreover, the analyses are generalized to the case of multiple eavesdroppers where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. To reveal more insights on the proposed work secrecy performance, asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept and outage probabilities are obtained. Using these asymptotic expressions, a power allocation optimization problem is formulated and solved for enhancing the system security. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the paper. The results show that, although the cochannel interference increases the system outage probability, it might improve the system secrecy performance. Moreover, the proposed CJ-ORS model is shown to enhance the system secrecy performance compared to ORS model.

  7. Power allocation and cooperative jamming for enhancing physical layer security in opportunistic relay networks in the presence of interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.

    2017-04-18

    In this paper, the impact of cochannel interference on the secrecy performance of dual-hop decode-and-forward relaying is investigated. In particular, the outage and intercept probabilities are obtained for the opportunistic relay selection (ORS) model in the presence of nonidentical interfering signals under a single/multiple passive eavesdropper(s) attack. Moreover, the proposed work enhances physical layer security performance of ORS model using cooperative jamming (CJ) techniques. Therefore, new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept and outage probabilities of the CJ-ORS model in the presence of interference over Rayleigh fading channels. Moreover, the analyses are generalized to the case of multiple eavesdroppers where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. To reveal more insights on the proposed work secrecy performance, asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept and outage probabilities are obtained. Using these asymptotic expressions, a power allocation optimization problem is formulated and solved for enhancing the system security. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the paper. The results show that, although the cochannel interference increases the system outage probability, it might improve the system secrecy performance. Moreover, the proposed CJ-ORS model is shown to enhance the system secrecy performance compared to ORS model.

  8. Management Innovations as a Condition of Competitive, Sustainable and Secure Development of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Prokofyevich Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article within the comparative analysis the author reveals the tendencies of functioning of an economic complex in a number of regions of the South of Russia in recent years; describes the potential of modernization of economy of the Stavropol region; substantiates the influence of organizational and administrative innovations on activity and efficiency of using territorial management of institutes of economic development in practice. The author of the present research proves that realization of administrative capacity of bodies of the regional power of the Stavropol region is mainly connected with the development of production sector of the region, as well as with the monitoring and management of regional economy become the basic elements of creating the diversified, effective and competitive environment focused on creation in the region of the industrial complexes which yield the final products. The article emphasizes that organizational and administrative innovations are mostly directed on the activization of the process of regional innovative system formation, the search of more effective forms of interaction with vertically integrated companies (mega-corporations operating on the territory of the region which investment resources need to be involved in the process of modernization and restructuring of a regional economic complex.

  9. Regions of low density in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland: normal and pathologic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.F.; Turski, P.A.; LaMasters, D.; Newton, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of low-density regions in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland and the possible causes of these regions were investigated by a retrospective review of computed tomographic (CT) scans of the head in 50 patients and autopsy specimens of the pituitary in 100 other patients. It was found that focal areas of low density within the contrast enhanced pituitary gland can be caused by various normal and pathologic conditions such as pituitary microadenomas, pars intermedia cysts, foci of metastasis, infarcts, epidermoid cysts, and abscesses. Although most focal low-density regions probably represent pituitary microadenomas, careful clinical correlation is needed to establish a diagnosis

  10. Hardware Module for the Security Enhancement of Optical Telecom Network Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem; Ali, M.

    2015-01-01

    The telecommunication equipment physical security threats have increased not only in Pakistan but also anywhere in the world and hence, reducing the revenue. This new challenging and alarming situation is created for the telecom network provider. The main focus of this paper is to provide a low cost economical design for reducing the theft of the costly telecommunication equipment like optical network units (ONU). This system is based on instant messaging on the mobile in the event of theft through GSM modem. The proposed security module is dynamic, flexible and can also be integrated in the existing networks and separately having its own independent low power consumption source. The module will continuously work successfully under different scenarios such as completely isolated from other devices by power break down or by fibre cut. (author)

  11. Special Issue on Entropy-Based Applied Cryptography and Enhanced Security for Ubiquitous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James (Jong Hyuk Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is a basic and important concept in information theory. It is also often used as a measure of the unpredictability of a cryptographic key in cryptography research areas. Ubiquitous computing (Ubi-comp has emerged rapidly as an exciting new paradigm. In this special issue, we mainly selected and discussed papers related with ore theories based on the graph theory to solve computational problems on cryptography and security, practical technologies; applications and services for Ubi-comp including secure encryption techniques, identity and authentication; credential cloning attacks and countermeasures; switching generator with resistance against the algebraic and side channel attacks; entropy-based network anomaly detection; applied cryptography using chaos function, information hiding and watermark, secret sharing, message authentication, detection and modeling of cyber attacks with Petri Nets, and quantum flows for secret key distribution, etc.

  12. How the United Kingdom seeks to enhance nuclear security with the help of IPPAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawaz-Huber, May

    2016-01-01

    In October 2011, an IAEA team of international nuclear security experts conducted an International Physical Protection Service mission (IPPAS) to the United Kingdom. They visited the Sellafield civil nuclear site, as well as Barrow Port, which is used for the transport of nuclear material. The IAEA conducted a follow-up mission in February 2016. IPPAS missions provide advice on how to improve the effectiveness of a State’s physical protection regime, either nationally or at facility level. They do so by comparing it with relevant international legal instruments, guidelines and best practices, particularly the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the IAEA Nuclear Security Series guidance publications.

  13. Enhancing Unity of Effort in Homeland Defense, Homeland Security, and Civil Support Through Interdisciplinary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Parameters, Winter 1998, 39–50. Walt Disney Pictures. (2004) Miracle. Burbank, CA. Wormuth, C. E., & Witkowsky, A. (2008). Managing the Next...defense, homeland security, and civil support. In 2004, Disney produced a movie entitled Miracle that portrayed the story of the 1980 hockey team...perspective that the players have finally set aside their differences and internal competitions to form a true team. These quotes from a movie Disney

  14. Social Protection for Enhanced Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Devereux

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies several positive synergies between social protection programmes and food security outcomes. One function of social protection is to manage and reduce vulnerability, and several instruments are reviewed – weather-indexed insurance, public works programmes, emergency food aid and buffer stock management – which all contribute to stabilising income and access to food across good and bad years, or between the harvest and the hungry season. Other social protection instruments...

  15. Enhancing Information Security in Cloud Computing Services using SLA based metrics

    OpenAIRE

    , Nia; Mganga, Ramadianti Putri;; Charles, Medard

    2011-01-01

    Context: Cloud computing is a prospering technology that most organizations are considering for adoption as a cost effective strategy for managing IT. However, organizations also still consider the technology to be associated with many business risks that are not yet resolved. Such issues include security, privacy as well as legal and regulatory risks. As an initiative to address such risks, organizations can develop and implement SLA to establish common expectations and goals between the clo...

  16. Leveraging Service Oriented Architecture to Enhance Information Sharing for Surface Transportation Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Fire and Emergency Management Services, Suffolk County Sheriff’s Department, the U.S. Attorney’s Office, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms...mass transit services. These include express and regular bus service, a downtown Skyway monorail , a trolley service and the Stadium Shuttle for various...safety related incidents rather than security, including transportation disruptions due to derailments, accidents, fires , hazardous materials spills

  17. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-01-01

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided.

  18. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-02-15

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing the Security of Customer Data in Cloud Environments Using a Novel Digital Fingerprinting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Chidambaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rise of the Internet and electronics in people’s life, the data related to it has also undergone a mammoth increase in magnitude. The data which is stored in the cloud can be sensitive and at times needs a proper file storage system with a tough security algorithm. Whereas cloud is an open shareable elastic environment, it needs impenetrable and airtight security. This paper deals with furnishing a secure storage system for the above-mentioned purpose in the cloud. To become eligible to store data a user has to register with the cloud database. This prevents unauthorized access. The files stored in the cloud are encrypted with RSA algorithm and digital fingerprint for the same has been generated through MD5 message digest before storage. The RSA provides unreadability of data to anyone without the private key. MD5 makes it impossible for any changes on data to go unnoticed. After the application of RSA and MD5 before storage, the data becomes resistant to access or modifications by any third party and to intruders of cloud storage system. This application is tested in Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud Web Services.

  20. Political and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region: Assessment of trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donowaki, Mitsuro

    1992-01-01

    Within the attitude of Japan concerning its policy for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region the the need for dialogue and cooperation was underlined specifying the importance of economic cooperation, diplomatic efforts to solve the political problems and the presence of United States in the region. Particular emphasis was put on the relations with China and Russia

  1. Regional disaster risk management strategies for food security: Probing Southern African Development Community channels for influencing national policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy M. Tirivangasi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters and food insecurity are directly interconnected. Climate change related hazards such as floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, droughts and other risks can weaken food security and severely impact agricultural activities. Consequently, this has an impact on market access, trade, food supply, reduced income, increased food prices, decreased farm income and employment. Natural disasters create poverty, which in turn increases the prevalence of food insecurity and malnutrition. It is clear that disasters put food security at risk. The poorest people in the community are affected by food insecurity and disasters; hence, there is a need to be prepared as well as be in a position to manage disasters. Without serious efforts to address them, the risks of disasters will become an increasingly serious obstacle to sustainable development and the achievement of sustainable development goals, particularly goal number 2 ‘end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture’. In recent years, countries in southern Africa have experienced an increase in the frequency, magnitude and impact of climate change–related hazards such as droughts, veld fire, depleting water resources and flood events. This research aims to reveal Southern African Development Community disaster risk management strategies for food security to see how they an influence and shape policy at the national level in southern Africa. Sustainable Livelihood approach was adopted as the main theoretical framework for the study. The qualitative Analysis is based largely on data from databases such as national reports, regional reports and empirical findings on the disaster management–sustainable development nexus.

  2. Ecosystem Management: Tomorrow’s Approach to Enhancing Food Security under a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rivington

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that a sustainable ecosystem management approach is vital to ensure the delivery of essential ‘life support’ ecosystem services and must be mainstreamed into societal conscience, political thinking and economic processes. Feeding the world at a time of climate change, environmental degradation, increasing human population and demand for finite resources requires sustainable ecosystem management and equitable governance. Ecosystem degradation undermines food production and the availability of clean water, hence threatening human health, livelihoods and ultimately societal stability. Degradation also increases the vulnerability of populations to the consequences of natural disasters and climate change impacts. With 10 million people dying from hunger each year, the linkages between ecosystems and food security are important to recognize. Though we all depend on ecosystems for our food and water, about seventy per cent of the estimated 1.1 billion people in poverty around the world live in rural areas and depend directly on the productivity of ecosystems for their livelihoods. Healthy ecosystems provide a diverse range of food sources and support entire agricultural systems, but their value to food security and sustainable livelihoods are often undervalued or ignored. There is an urgent need for increased financial investment for integrating ecosystem management with food security and poverty alleviation priorities. As the world’s leaders worked towards a new international climate change agenda in Cancun, Mexico, 29 November–10 December 2010 (UNFCCC COP16, it was clear that without a deep and decisive post-2012 agreement and major concerted effort to reduce the food crisis, the Millennium Development Goals will not be attained. Political commitment at the highest level will be needed to raise the profile of ecosystems on the global food agenda. It is recommended that full recognition and promotion be given of the linkages

  3. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yajing; Wang, Jianchen; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Weimin; Zhu, Liwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR), rhodamine B (RB), and magnetic powder (MP) were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85) and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY). Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm). And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm). All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  4. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR, rhodamine B (RB, and magnetic powder (MP were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85 and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY. Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm. And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm. All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  5. Extending U.S. Theater Missile Defense to Northeast Asia: Ramifications for Regional Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attenweiler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The absence of a formidable U.S. and allied Theater Missile Defense (TMD) capability in the East Asian region has encouraged a build-up in offensive missile capability on the part of the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  6. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, Ivica [Ministry of Defense, Croatian Navy, Dubrovacka 49, 21000 Split (Croatia); Kollar, Robert [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of 'hot spots', which might interfere with threat material identification.

  7. Host based internet protocol (IP) packet analysis to enhance network security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Ahmad, S.Z.; Yasin, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data communication in a computer network environment is facing serious security threats from numerous sources such as viruses, worms, Zombies etc. These threats can be broadly characterized as internal or external security threats. Internal threats are mainly attributed to sneaker-nets, utility modems and unauthorized users, which can be minimized by skillful network administration, password management and optimum usage policy definition. The external threats need more serious attention as these attacks are mostly coming from public networks such as Internet. Frequency and complexity of such attacks is much higher as compared to internal attacks. This paper presents a host based network layer screening of external and internal IP packets for logging, analyzing and real-time detection of possible IP spoofing and Denial of Service attacks. This work can also be used in tuning security rules definition for gateway firewalls. Software has been developed which intercepts IP traffic and analyses it with respect to integrity and origin of I P packet. The received IP packets are parsed and analyzed for possible signs of intrusion. The results show that by watching and categorizing composition of various transport protocol such as TCP, UDP, ICMP and others along with verifying the origin of received IP packet can help in devising real-time firewall rule and blocking possible external attack. This is highly desirable for fighting against zero day attacks and can result in a better Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) to increase the survivability of computer network. Used in a right context, packet screening and filtering can be a useful tool for provision of reliable and stable network services. (author)

  8. Examining the Religious Strands of Islamic Terrorists to Enhance U.S. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    donkey laden with books” (Suras 3:60-74, 5:56, 62:5, 5:16).5 Second, is the teaching known as “An eye for eye...a tooth for a tooth”, and a well...NBC Nightly News MSNBC.com Video , January 30, 2012, http://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/02/post-4html, (accessed February 5, 2012). 21 Ibid. 22 Robert...2010. You Tube, video file, http://secure.afa.net/afa/activism/takeaction.asp?id=384 (accessed January 11, 2012). 31 Mary Habeck, she is the Associate

  9. Enhanced Survey and Proposal to secure the data in Cloud Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    MR.S.SUBBIAH; DR.S.SELVA MUTHUKUMARAN; DR.T.RAMKUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing have the power to eliminate the cost of setting high end computing infrastructure. It is a promising area or design to give very flexible architecture, accessible through the internet. In the cloud computing environment the data will be reside at any of the data centers. Due to that, some data center may leak the data stored on there, beyond the reach and control of the users. For this kind of misbehaving data centers, the service providers should take care of the security and...

  10. A mobile gateway for medical auscultation : Enhanced Client Certificate Authentication and MTLS Security

    OpenAIRE

    Leijon, Jon

    2016-01-01

      Attempting to re-engineer a telemedicine application, this report sets out to make a cheap yet robust solution that is portable and easy to use. It will be a Inera compliant system using Android that authenticates in a secure way with a .NET server behind F5 full proxy.The report begins with a background to telemedicine, and a technical specification that might fulfill the demands of privacy laws regarding health care records. The focus of the report moves on to inspects the choices for aut...

  11. Achieve a Better Understanding of Cloud and Precipitation Processes for the Promotion of Water Security in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrah, S.; Al Yazidi, O.

    2016-12-01

    The UAE Research Program for Rain Enhancement Science (UAEREP) is an international research initiative designed to advance the science and technology of rain enhancement. It comes from an understanding of the needs of countries suffering from scarcity of fresh water, and its will to support innovation globally. The Program focuses on the following topics: Climate change, Climate modelling, Climatology, Atmospheric physics, Atmospheric dynamics, Weather modification, Cloud physics, Cloud dynamics, Cloud seeding, Weather radars, Dust modelling, Aerosol physics , Aerosol chemistry, Aerosol/cloud interactions, Water resources, Physics, Numerical modelling, Material science, Nanotechnology, Meteorology, Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Rocket technology, Laser technology, Water sustainability, Remote sensing, Environmental sciences... In 2015, three research teams from Japan, Germany and the UAE led by Prof. Masataka Murakami, Volker Wulfmeyer and Linda Zou have been respectively awarded. Together, they are addressing the issue of water security through innovative ideas: algorithms and sensors, land cover modification, and nanotechnologies to accelerate condensation. These three projects are undergoing now with extensive research and progresses. This session will be an opportunity to present their latest results as well as to detail the evolution of research in rain enhancement. In 2016 indeed, the Program saw a remarkable increase in participation, with 91 pre-proposals from 398 scientists, researchers and technologists affiliated to 180 institutes from 45 countries. The projects submitted are now focusing on modelling to predict weather, autonomous vehicles, rocket technology, lasers or new seeding materials… The science of rain enhancement offers considerable potential in terms of research, development and innovation. Though cloud seeding has been pursued since the late 1940s, it has been viewed as a relatively marginal field of interest for scientists. This benign neglect

  12. Transparency and nonproliferation in the Asia-Pacific region. Enhancing transparency, strengthening the nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Kazuko

    2008-01-01

    Driven by the prospect of rapid economic growth and the perceived need for energy security, the Asia-Pacific region is destined to increase its nuclear energy use in the coming decades. This projected increase, however, will bring with it nuclear proliferation concerns, fueling fears about the security of nuclear material and creating suspicions about its use. The increasing use of nuclear energy inevitably necessitates supplementary efforts, designed to ensure nuclear security and a legitimate use of nuclear energy, other than the obligation to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Nuclear transparency measures could be useful tools for building confidence that the increasing nuclear energy use does not contribute to nuclear proliferation. These measures could also foster a cooperative tradition that can address rising concerns over nuclear trafficking and terrorism, which require regional coordination to combat. However, moderate progress in implementing transparency measures suggests a lack of political appreciation of this concept. Thus, this paper describes various forms of potential transparency measures to expand the possibilities of the transparency concept and explore areas in which this concept might be applicable. This paper also clarifies some challenges involving transparency projects, and suggests possible ways to address these challenges. (author)

  13. Supporting reputation based trust management enhancing security layer for cloud service models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga, R.; Vanitha, M.; Sumaiya Thaseen, I.; Mangaiyarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    In the existing system trust between cloud providers and consumers is inadequate to establish the service level agreement though the consumer’s response is good cause to assess the overall reliability of cloud services. Investigators recognized the significance of trust can be managed and security can be provided based on feedback collected from participant. In this work a face recognition system that helps to identify the user effectively. So we use an image comparison algorithm where the user face is captured during registration time and get stored in database. With that original image we compare it with the sample image that is already stored in database. If both the image get matched then the users are identified effectively. When the confidential data are subcontracted to the cloud, data holders will become worried about the confidentiality of their data in the cloud. Encrypting the data before subcontracting has been regarded as the important resources of keeping user data privacy beside the cloud server. So in order to keep the data secure we use an AES algorithm. Symmetric-key algorithms practice a shared key concept, keeping data secret requires keeping this key secret. So only the user with private key can decrypt data.

  14. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahbubani, K.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that the continued ability of South-East Asia to remain as one of the most peaceful regions of the world hinges upon ASEAN's ability to remain an agile and viable organization, one that is sensitively attuned to the new challenges of the day and is able to rise to meet them. So far, ASEAN's track record has been quite remarkable, especially in comparison with other regions around the world. This Conference could usefully suggest that a greater effort be made to understand the mysterious reasons behind ASEAN's success, in the hope that it may hold lessons for other regions. ASEAN, for its part, must continue to remain humble and adaptable

  15. Privacy enhancing techniques - the key to secure communication and management of clinical and genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, G J E; Claerhout, B; De Meyer, F

    2003-01-01

    To introduce some of the privacy protection problems related to genomics based medicine and to highlight the relevance of Trusted Third Parties (TTPs) and of Privacy Enhancing Techniques (PETs) in the restricted context of clinical research and statistics. Practical approaches based on two different pseudonymisation models, both for batch and interactive data collection and exchange, are described and analysed. The growing need of managing both clinical and genetic data raises important legal and ethical challenges. Protecting human rights in the realm of privacy, while optimising research potential and other statistical activities is a challenge that can easily be overcome with the assistance of a trust service provider offering advanced privacy enabling/enhancing solutions. As such, the use of pseudonymisation and other innovative Privacy Enhancing Techniques can unlock valuable data sources.

  16. Regional uptake an variations in orthopaedic enhanced recovery pathways in knee and hip total arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, M J; Baker, P N; Desai, A; Green, R N; Jevons, L

    2016-05-01

    The use of enhanced recovery (ER) pathways for hip and knee arthroplasty has increased over the last decade, and the adoption within orthopaedics is becoming more common. We have demonstrated a regional variation and institutional inconsistency of uptake and delivery of ER pathways in our region. Units that have a unified pathway were more likely to have consistency in treatment and early analgesia for patients. We would advocate that units use an agreed enhanced recovery pathway to optimise patient recovery from hip and knee arthroplasties.

  17. Economic separatism in the European Union member states as a factor of regional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shakhina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the economic separatism problem in the European Union member states. It considers specific of the regional separatist movements as exemplified by the conflicts in Scotland, Catalonia, Bavaria, Flanders. Various points of view on the relevance of the budgetary separatism for the European integration process are given in the article.

  18. Development of Beet Sugar Production in Ryazan Region in the Context of Ensuring Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansurov Ruslan Evgenyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the current state of the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region in the context of the need of improving its efficiency. The study let the author determine that currently the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region does not ensure domestic demand in sand sugar. However, there are reserves of providing more efficient use of soil and climate capacity as well as the productivity potential of the region. When applying the technology of field beet piling, the period of sugar production at sugar factories may be extended up to 200 days. At this, up to 51 thousand tons of sand sugar can be produced. This amount will completely cover the annual demand for sugar in Ryazan region. In order to further study the feasibility of this approach, zoning was carried out and let allocate the zones of beet seeding. As a result, it was determined that a number of areas are far removed from the place of treatment, and in terms of transportation costs minimization the sugar beet cultivation in these areas is not rational. As an alternative, the author proposes to consider the possibility of building a new sugar factory in Ryazhsky district with the processing capacity of 1,000 tons of sugar beet per day. Taking this into account, the recommended acreage of sugar beet by districts and zones of raw material supply were obtained through corresponding calculations.

  19. Extending U.S. Theater Missile Defense to Northeast Asia: Ramifications for Regional Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attenweiler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ...) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). This build-up has destabilized a region of vital importance to the national interest of the United States by encouraging the idea that offensive military action can be utilized to attain national...

  20. NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article explores the roots and current state of religious extremism in Central Asia, as well as investigates its connections with the global salafi movement. It evaluates attempts of the regional players and external stakeholders to address the existing threats, and provides recommendations for their advancement.

  1. It's more than money: policy options to secure medical specialist workforce for regional centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jennifer; Walker, Judi; McGrail, Mathew; Rolley, Fran

    2017-12-01

    Objectives Regional centres and their rural hinterlands support significant populations of non-metropolitan Australians. Despite their importance in the settlement hierarchy and the key medical services provided from these centres, little research has focused on their issues of workforce supply and long-term service requirements. In addition, they are a critical component of the recent growth of 'regional' hub-and-spoke specialist models of service delivery. Methods The present study interviewed 62 resident specialists in four regional centres, seeking to explore recruitment and retention factors important to their location decision making. The findings were used to develop a framework of possible evidence-informed policies. Results This article identifies key professional, social and locational factors, several of which are modifiable and amenable to policy redesign, including work variety, workplace culture, sense of community and spousal employment; these factors that can be targeted through initiatives in selection, training and incentives. Conclusions Commonwealth, state and local governments in collaboration with communities and specialist colleges can work synergistically, with a multiplicity of interdigitating strategies, to ensure a positive approach to the maintenance of a critical mass of long-term rural specialists. What is known about the topic? Rural origin increases likelihood of long-term retention to rural locations, with rural clinical school training associated with increased rural intent. Recruitment and retention policy has been directed at general practitioners in rural communities, with little focus on regional centres or medical specialists. What does this study add? Rural origin is associated with regional centre recruitment. Professional, social and locational factors are all moderately important in both recruitment and retention. Specialist medical training for regional centres ideally requires both generalist and subspecialist skills

  2. Corrigendum to: It's more than money: policy options to secure medical specialist workforce for regional centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jennifer; Walker, Judi; McGrail, Mathew; Rolley, Fran

    2017-12-01

    Objectives Regional centres and their rural hinterlands support significant populations of non-metropolitan Australians. Despite their importance in the settlement hierarchy and the key medical services provided from these centres, little research has focused on their issues of workforce supply and long-term service requirements. In addition, they are a critical component of the recent growth of 'regional' hub-and-spoke specialist models of service delivery. Methods The present study interviewed 62 resident specialists in four regional centres, seeking to explore recruitment and retention factors important to their location decision making. The findings were used to develop a framework of possible evidence-informed policies. Results This article identifies key professional, social and locational factors, several of which are modifiable and amenable to policy redesign, including work variety, workplace culture, sense of community and spousal employment; these factors that can be targeted through initiatives in selection, training and incentives. Conclusions Commonwealth, state and local governments in collaboration with communities and specialist colleges can work synergistically, with a multiplicity of interdigitating strategies, to ensure a positive approach to the maintenance of a critical mass of long-term rural specialists. What is known about the topic? Rural origin increases likelihood of long-term retention to rural locations, with rural clinical school training associated with increased rural intent. Recruitment and retention policy has been directed at general practitioners in rural communities, with little focus on regional centres or medical specialists. What does this study add? Rural origin is associated with regional centre recruitment. Professional, social and locational factors are all moderately important in both recruitment and retention. Specialist medical training for regional centres ideally requires both generalist and subspecialist skills

  3. Meteorological tools in support to the railway security system on the Calabria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Gabriele, Salvatore; Iovine, Giulio; Baldini, Luca; Chiravalloti, Francesco; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Marcello Mario; Milani, Lisa; Procopio, Antonio; Roberto, Nicoletta; Tiesi, Alessandro; Agostino, Mario; Niccoli, Raffaele; Stassi, Sergio; Rago, Valeria

    2017-04-01

    RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot project co-funded by the Italian Railway Company - RFI S.p.A. and conceived for the mitigation of the hydrological risk along the Calabria railways. RAMSES aims at improving the forecast of very short life-cycle convection systems, responsible of intense and localized rainfalls affecting small catchment areas, which are often underestimated by the numerical weather models and even non-adequately detected by the network of sparse raingauges. The RAMSES operational design is based on a synergistic and integrated architecture, providing a series of information able to identify the most active convective cells and monitoring their evolution in terms of vertical structure, rain intensity and geo-hydrological effects at ground (debris flow, landslides, collapses of bridges, erosion of the ballast). The RAMSES meteorological component is designed to identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on dual-polarization weather radar and Meteosat data. In support of this quasi-real time analysis, the numerical model WRF provides the weather forecast at 3-6 hours range by ingesting, through the assimilation system LAPS, the observational data (rain gauges, ground weather stations, radar, satellites) in order to improve the initial condition. Finally, the hydraulic flow modeling is used to assess the ground effects in terms of landslide susceptibility, rainfall-runoff intensity, debris impact on the drainage network and evaluate of risk along the railway track.

  4. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Simulation and Analysis of Regional Ecological Security Based on Lstm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, C.; Qi, L.; Heming, L.; Karimian, H.; Yuqin, M.

    2017-10-01

    Region is a complicated system, where human, nature and society interact and influence. Quantitative modeling and simulation of ecology in the region are the key to realize the strategy of regional sustainable development. Traditional machine learning methods have made some achievements in the modeling of regional ecosystems, but it is difficult to determine the learning characteristics and to realize spatio-temporal simulation. Deep learning does not need prior identification of training characteristics, have excellent feature learning ability, can improve the accuracy of model prediction, so the use of deep learning model has a significant advantage. Therefore, we use net primary productivity (NPP), atmospheric optical depth (AOD), moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), landcover and population data, and use LSTM to do spatio-temporal simulation. We conduct spatial analysis and driving force analysis. The conclusions are as follows: the ecological deficit of northwestern Henan and urban communities such as Zhengzhou is higher. The reason of former lies in the weak land productivity of the Loess Plateau, the irrational crop cultivation mode. The latter lies in the high consumption of resources in the large urban agglomeration; The positive trend of Henan ecological development from 2013 is mainly due to the effective environmental protection policy in the 12th five-year plan; The main driver of the sustained ecological deficit growth of Henan in 2004-2013 is high-speed urbanization, increasing population and goods consumption. This article provides relevant basic scientific support and reference for the regional ecological scientific management and construction.

  6. SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL ECOLOGICAL SECURITY BASED ON LSTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Region is a complicated system, where human, nature and society interact and influence. Quantitative modeling and simulation of ecology in the region are the key to realize the strategy of regional sustainable development. Traditional machine learning methods have made some achievements in the modeling of regional ecosystems, but it is difficult to determine the learning characteristics and to realize spatio-temporal simulation. Deep learning does not need prior identification of training characteristics, have excellent feature learning ability, can improve the accuracy of model prediction, so the use of deep learning model has a significant advantage. Therefore, we use net primary productivity (NPP, atmospheric optical depth (AOD, moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, landcover and population data, and use LSTM to do spatio-temporal simulation. We conduct spatial analysis and driving force analysis. The conclusions are as follows: the ecological deficit of northwestern Henan and urban communities such as Zhengzhou is higher. The reason of former lies in the weak land productivity of the Loess Plateau, the irrational crop cultivation mode. The latter lies in the high consumption of resources in the large urban agglomeration; The positive trend of Henan ecological development from 2013 is mainly due to the effective environmental protection policy in the 12th five-year plan; The main driver of the sustained ecological deficit growth of Henan in 2004-2013 is high-speed urbanization, increasing population and goods consumption. This article provides relevant basic scientific support and reference for the regional ecological scientific management and construction.

  7. Security enhancement of hand geometry scanners using optical blood flow detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crihalmeanu, Musat C.; Jerabek, Mark A.; Meehan, Kathleen

    2004-08-01

    In today's security conscious society the efficiency of biometric systems has an increasing tendency to replace the classic but less effective keys and passwords. Hand geometry readers are popular biometrics used for acces control and time and attendance applications. One of their weaknesses is vulnerability to spoofing using fake hands (latex, play-doh or dead-hands). The object of this paper is to design a feature to be added to the hand geometry scanner in order to detect vitality in the hand, reducing the possibilities for spoofing. This paper demonstrates how the hand reader was successfully spoofed and shows the implementation of the vitality detection feature through an inexpensive but efficient electronic design. The method used for detection is photo-plethysmography. The Reflectance Sensor built is of original conception. After amplifying, filtering and processing the sensor's signal, a message is shown via an LCD display, concerning the liveness of the hand and the pulse rate.

  8. Synergies between Communicable and Noncommunicable Disease Programs to Enhance Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Husain, Muhammad J; Sugerman, David; Hong, Yuling; Saraiya, Mona; Keltz, Jennifer; Asma, Samira

    2017-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Initiatives that advance the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases support the goals of global health security in several ways. First, in addressing health needs that typically require long-term care, these programs can strengthen health delivery and health monitoring systems, which can serve as necessary platforms for emergency preparedness in low-resource environments. Second, by improving population health, the programs might help to reduce susceptibility to infectious outbreaks. Finally, in aiming to reduce the economic burden associated with premature illness and death from noncommunicable diseases, these initiatives contribute to the objectives of international development, thereby helping to improve overall country capacity for emergency response.

  9. Assessing food security in water scarce regions by Life Cycle Analysis: a case study in the Gaza strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Melià, Paco; Dotelli, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Food security is a major issue in Palestine for both political and physical reasons, with direct effects on the local population living conditions: the nutritional level of people in Gaza is classified by FAO as "insecure". As most of the protein supply comes from irrigated agricultural production and aquaculture, freshwater availability is a limiting factor to food security, and the primary reason for frequent conflicts among food production processes (e.g. aquaculture, land livestock or different types of crops). In this study we use Life Cycle Analysis to assess the environmental impacts associated to all the stages of water-based protein production (from agriculture and aquaculture) in the Gaza strip under different agricultural scenarios and hydroclimatic variability. As reported in several recent studies, LCA seems to be an appropriate methodology to analyze agricultural systems and assess associated food security in different socio-economic contexts. However, we argue that the inherently linear and static nature of LCA might prove inadequate to tackle with the complex interaction between water cycle variability and the food production system in water-scarce regions of underdeveloped countries. Lack of sufficient and reliable data to characterize the water cycle is a further source of uncertainty affecting the robustness of the analysis. We investigate pros and cons of LCA and LCA-based option planning in an average size farm in Gaza strip, where farming and aquaculture are family-based and integrated by reuse of fish breeding water for irrigation. Different technological solutions (drip irrigation system, greenhouses etc.) are evaluated to improve protein supply and reduce the pressure on freshwater, particularly during droughts. But this use of technology represent also a contribution in increasing sustainability in agricultural processes, and therefore in economy, of Gaza Strip (reduction in chemical fertilizers and pesticides etc.).

  10. 78 FR 2214 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    .... Voluntary Consensus Standards XI. Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact XII. Paperwork Reduction... ML110480470 of Nuclear Energy Institute, on the proposed ``Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks and... consensus standards. XI. Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact In the proposed rule published on...

  11. Strengthening Local Safety Nets as a Key to Enhancing the Food Security of Pastoralists in East Africa: A Case Study of the Rendille of Northern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    The increase in climate-change-related natural disasters presents a major threat to the food security of pastoralists in East Africa. This paper explores ways of reducing the dependence on food aid and enhancing the food security of pastoralists through a case study of the Rendille in Northern Kenya. Current Rendille food systems have resulted from adapted livestock herding strategies and loss of nomadic lifestyles, as well as dependence on food aid. Although food aid is included in the livel...

  12. Kyrgyzstan's security problems today

    OpenAIRE

    Abduvalieva, Ryskul

    2009-01-01

    Regional stability and security consist of two levels-the external security of each country at the regional level and the internal security of each of them individually. A state's external and internal security are closely interrelated concepts. It stands to reason that ensuring internal security and stability is the primary and most important task. But the external aspect also requires attention. This article takes a look at the most important problems of ensuring Kyrgyzstan's security.

  13. Regionalizing East Mediterranean Gas: Energy Security, Stability, and the U.S. Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Lebanon to supply LNG to Europe, Latin America , or even Asia appears politically attrac- tive both on a domestic and regional level. LNG mar- kets such...exploration costs and low oil prices, but the reality includes probably poor seismic data and high resultant investment risk , coupled with ex...EL-KATIRI is a Director of MENA In- sight, a political risk consultancy that focuses on the Middle East and North Africa, and a Senior Research

  14. Geo-Regional Security and Transformation After the Balkan's Wars and Kosova Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriqi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the '90-ies the wars in the former territories of what was called Yugoslavia marked the end of a century plenty of wars and local armed conflicts. More than 140 million people died because of wars in the XX century. The war of Kosova was the last one in that century. The beginning of the XXI century stressed the necessity for a new way of thinking nationally, regionally and globally. The Balkans were often considered as a gun powder territory. All the Balkans states, someone more and someone less, have problems with each other. History was and remained very passionate within the Balkan countries. The case of Kosova is possibly the most sensitive in all this framework. After the proclamation of independence on February 17 2008, the concerns were high within the region and a new question was questioned: would the map of the Balkan peninsula change again to form another "Kosovo"? This article would give some details about the geopolitical situation in the Balkans focusing on Kosova and would try to establish e new way of making politics and diplomacy though deterrence and not offence. We will try to overpass history but without neglecting it, but by learning from its mistakes in order to bring a better Peace-Building aspect for the Balkan region.

  15. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea

  16. Efforts to promote regional security dialogue and cooperation in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.

    1994-01-01

    Indifference to the new realities of the post-cold war era does nothing to preserve the traditional priorities laid down in the Final Document of the first special session on disarmament. On the contrary, such attitudes directly contribute to the trend towards marginalization which began when publics no longer feared the threat of a nuclear holocaust. It is believed that the expertise of forty years of multilateral arms control and disarmament efforts is directly relevant to the broader efforts of the international community to restore, maintain and promote international peace and security. Who can deny that confidence-building is central to preventive diplomacy? Or that the arms control component-from disarming to demobilization-is not equally central to peace operations whether they be traditional peace-keeping or post-conflict peace-building? Indeed the success or failure of the disarmament aspect of a peace operation is often critical to its overall success-Somalia surely being one recent sad example. The multilateral disarmament community must apply itself more directly and systematically to these broader problems - just as the United Nations Secretariat has increasingly begun to do - or risk indifference from Governments forced to make tough choices against a range of competing priorities. It is undeniably true that the post-cold war has significantly increased the potential for the international community to negotiate historic new multilateral disarmament treaties. And this window of opportunity must be utilized to the fullest. At the same time, due account must be taken of the hard fact that, for an increasing number of countries, expensive obligations in relation to advanced unconventional weapons which neither they nor their neighbours seek to possess may count for less than practical assistance in finding solutions to more parochial, but no less urgent, problems

  17. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I. [Marine Operations, BNFL International Transport and British Nuclear Group Security (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea.

  18. International cooperation for the development of consistent and stable transportation regulations to promote and enhance safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.

    2004-01-01

    International commerce of radioactive materials crosses national boundaries, linking separate regulatory institutions with a common purpose and making it necessary for these institutions to work together in order to achieve common safety goals in a manner that does not place an undue burden on industry and commerce. Widespread and increasing use of radioactive materials across the world has led to increases in the transport of radioactive materials. The demand for consistency in the oversight of international transport has also increased to prevent unnecessary delays and costs associated with incongruent or redundant regulatory requirements by the various countries through which radioactive material is transported. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the authority for international regulation of transportation of radioactive materials responsible for promulgation of regulations and guidance for the establishment of acceptable methods of transportation for the international community. As such, the IAEA is seen as the focal point for consensus building between its Member States to develop consistency in transportation regulations and reviews and to ensure the safe and secure transport of radioactive material. International cooperation is also needed to ensure stability in our regulatory processes. Changes to transportation regulations should be based on an anticipated safety benefit supported by risk information and insights gained from continuing experience, evaluation, and research studies. If we keep safety as the principle basis for regulatory changes, regulatory stability will be enhanced. Finally, as we endeavour to maintain consistency and stability in our international regulations, we must be mindful of the new security challenges that lay before the international community as a result of a changing terrorist environment. Terrorism is a problem of global concern that also requires international cooperation and support, as we look for ways to

  19. Feasibility of a novel participatory multi-sector continuous improvement approach to enhance food security in remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, J; Bailie, R; van den Boogaard, C; Wood, B; Liberato, S C; Ferguson, M; Coveney, J; Jaenke, R; Ritchie, J

    2017-12-01

    Food insecurity underlies and compounds many of the development issues faced by remote Indigenous communities in Australia. Multi-sector approaches offer promise to improve food security. We assessed the feasibility of a novel multi-sector approach to enhance community food security in remote Indigenous Australia. A longitudinal comparative multi-site case study, the Good Food Systems Good Food for All Project, was conducted (2009-2013) with four Aboriginal communities. Continuous improvement meetings were held in each community. Data from project documents and store sales were used to assess feasibility according to engagement, uptake and sustainability of action, and impact on community diet, as well as identifying conditions facilitating or hindering these. Engagement was established where: the community perceived a need for the approach; where trust was developed between the community and facilitators; where there was community stability; and where flexibility was applied in the timing of meetings. The approach enabled stakeholders in each community to collectively appraise the community food system and plan action. Actions that could be directly implemented within available resources resulted from developing collaborative capacity. Actions requiring advocacy, multi-sectoral involvement, commitment or further resources were less frequently used. Positive shifts in community diet were associated with key areas where actions were implemented. A multi-sector participatory approach seeking continuous improvement engaged committed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders and was shown to have potential to shift community diet. Provision of clear mechanisms to link this approach with higher level policy and decision-making structures, clarity of roles and responsibilities, and processes to prioritise and communicate actions across sectors should further strengthen capacity for food security improvement. Integrating this approach enabling local decision-making into

  20. Investigating the Influence of Regional Stress on Fault and Fracture Permeability at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Donald M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Smith, Kenneth D. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Parashar, Rishi [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Collins, Cheryl [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Heintz, Kevin M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-05-24

    Regional stress may exert considerable control on the permeability and hydraulic function (i.e., barrier to and/or conduit for fluid flow) of faults and fractures at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). In-situ measurements of the stress field are sparse in this area, and short period earthquake focal mechanisms are used to delineate principal horizontal stress orientations. Stress field inversion solutions to earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that Pahute Mesa is located within a transtensional faulting regime, represented by oblique slip on steeply dipping normal fault structures, with maximum horizontal stress ranging from N29°E to N63°E and average of N42°E. Average horizontal stress directions are in general agreement with large diameter borehole breakouts from Pahute Mesa analyzed in this study and with stress measurements from other locations on the NNSS.

  1. The Model of Gas Supply Capacity Simulation In Regional Energy Security Framework: Policy Studies PT. X Cirebon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryadin; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The needs of energy are increasing every year. The unavailability of energy will cause economic losses and weaken energy security. To overcome the availability of gas supply in the future, planning are cruacially needed. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the system, so that the process of gas distribution is running properly. In this research, system dynamic method will be used to measure how much supply capacity planning is needed until 2050, with parameters of demand in industrial, household and commercial sectors. From the model obtained PT.X Cirebon area in 2031 was not able to meet the needs of gas customers in the Cirebon region, as well as with Businnes as usual scenario, the ratio of gas fulfillment only until 2027. The implementation of the national energy policy that is the use of NRE as government intervention in the model is produced up to 2035 PT.X Cirebon area is still able to supply the gas needs of its customers.

  2. Image combination enhancement method for X-ray compton back-scattering security inspection body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiying; Zhang Yujin; Yang Lirui; Li Dong

    2011-01-01

    As for X-ray Compton Back-Scattering (CBS) body scanner, image clearness is very important for the performance of detecting the contraband hidden on the body. A new image combination enhancement method is provided based on characteristics of CBS body images and points of human vision. After processed by this method, the CBS image will be obviously improved with clear levels, distinct outline and uniform background. (authors)

  3. Spectrum of phenotypic anomalies in four families with deletion of the SHOX enhancer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Valentina; Palka, Chiara; Chiavaroli, Valentina; Franchi, Sara; Cannataro, Giovanni; Savastano, Massimo; Cotroneo, Antonio Raffaele; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika; Stuppia, Liborio

    2014-07-23

    SHOX alterations have been reported in 67% of patients affected by Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), with a larger prevalence of gene deletions than point mutations. It has been recently demonstrated that these deletions can involve the SHOX enhancer region, rather that the coding region, with variable phenotype of the affected patients.Here, we report a SHOX gene analysis carried out by MLPA in 14 LWD patients from 4 families with variable phenotype. All patients presented a SHOX enhancer deletion. In particular, a patient with a severe bilateral Madelung deformity without short stature showed a homozygous alteration identical to the recently described 47.5 kb PAR1 deletion. Moreover, we identified, for the first time, in three related patients with a severe bilateral Madelung deformity, a smaller deletion than the 47.5 kb PAR1 deletion encompassing the same enhancer region (ECR1/CNE7). Data reported in this study provide new information about the spectrum of phenotypic alterations showed by LWD patients with different deletions of the SHOX enhancer region.

  4. Development of Education Programs in Mountainous Regions to Enhance the Culture and Knowledge of Minority Nationalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiyuan; Zhou, Guangda

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historical development of educational programs which could enhance the culture and knowledge of minorities in the mountainous regions of China. Identifies current major problems in minority education and lists statistical information for the school population. Provides guidelines for developing a minority education program. (KO)

  5. Electronic Health Records: An Enhanced Security Paradigm to Preserve Patient's Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamanig, Daniel; Stingl, Christian

    In recent years, demographic change and increasing treatment costs demand the adoption of more cost efficient, highly qualitative and integrated health care processes. The rapid growth and availability of the Internet facilitate the development of eHealth services and especially of electronic health records (EHRs) which are promising solutions to meet the aforementioned requirements. Considering actual web-based EHR systems, patient-centric and patient moderated approaches are widely deployed. Besides, there is an emerging market of so called personal health record platforms, e.g. Google Health. Both concepts provide a central and web-based access to highly sensitive medical data. Additionally, the fact that these systems may be hosted by not fully trustworthy providers necessitates to thoroughly consider privacy issues. In this paper we define security and privacy objectives that play an important role in context of web-based EHRs. Furthermore, we discuss deployed solutions as well as concepts proposed in the literature with respect to this objectives and point out several weaknesses. Finally, we introduce a system which overcomes the drawbacks of existing solutions by considering an holistic approach to preserve patient's privacy and discuss the applied methods.

  6. Enhancing Security of Double Random Phase Encoding Based on Random S-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, R.; Singh, Hukum

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel asymmetric cryptosystem for double random phase encoding (DRPE) using random S-Box. While utilising S-Box separately is not reliable and DRPE does not support non-linearity, so, our system unites the effectiveness of S-Box with an asymmetric system of DRPE (through Fourier transform). The uniqueness of proposed cryptosystem lies on employing high sensitivity dynamic S-Box for our DRPE system. The randomness and scalability achieved due to applied technique is an additional feature of the proposed solution. The firmness of random S-Box is investigated in terms of performance parameters such as non-linearity, strict avalanche criterion, bit independence criterion, linear and differential approximation probabilities etc. S-Boxes convey nonlinearity to cryptosystems which is a significant parameter and very essential for DRPE. The strength of proposed cryptosystem has been analysed using various parameters such as MSE, PSNR, correlation coefficient analysis, noise analysis, SVD analysis, etc. Experimental results are conferred in detail to exhibit proposed cryptosystem is highly secure.

  7. Using Differential Evolution to Optimize Learning from Signals and Enhance Network Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmer, Paul K [Air Force Institute of Technology; Temple, Michael A [Air Force Institute of Technology; Buckner, Mark A [ORNL; Farquhar, Ethan [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Computer and communication network attacks are commonly orchestrated through Wireless Access Points (WAPs). This paper summarizes proof-of-concept research activity aimed at developing a physical layer Radio Frequency (RF) air monitoring capability to limit unauthorizedWAP access and mprove network security. This is done using Differential Evolution (DE) to optimize the performance of a Learning from Signals (LFS) classifier implemented with RF Distinct Native Attribute (RF-DNA) fingerprints. Performance of the resultant DE-optimized LFS classifier is demonstrated using 802.11a WiFi devices under the most challenging conditions of intra-manufacturer classification, i.e., using emissions of like-model devices that only differ in serial number. Using identical classifier input features, performance of the DE-optimized LFS classifier is assessed relative to a Multiple Discriminant Analysis / Maximum Likelihood (MDA/ML) classifier that has been used for previous demonstrations. The comparative assessment is made using both Time Domain (TD) and Spectral Domain (SD) fingerprint features. For all combinations of classifier type, feature type, and signal-to-noise ratio considered, results show that the DEoptimized LFS classifier with TD features is uperior and provides up to 20% improvement in classification accuracy with proper selection of DE parameters.

  8. Security Enhancement of Knowledge-based User Authentication through Keystroke Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Soumen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Keystroke Dynamics is a behavioural biometrics characteristic in Biometric science, which solve the issues in user identification or verification. In Knowledge-based user authentication technique, we compromise with PIN or password which is unsafe due to different type of attacks. It is good to choose password with the combination of upper and lower case letter with some digits and symbols, but which is very hard to remember or generally we forget to distinguish those passwords for different access control systems. Our system not only takes the users’ entered texts but their typing style is also account for. In our experiment, we have not taken hard password type texts, we have chosen some daily used words where users are habituated and comfortable at typing and we obtained the consisting typing pattern. Different distance-based and data mining algorithms we have applied on collected typing pattern and obtained impressive results. As per our experiment, if we use keystroke dynamics in existing knowledge based user authentication system with minimum of five daily used common texts then it increases the security level up to 97.6% to 98.2% (if we remove some of the irrelevant feature sets.

  9. Enhancing effectiveness of agriculture group in supporting government program to increase food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnowati, Daru; Subarjo, A. H.

    2018-05-01

    Food Security is closely related to agriculture, including fisheries. Food is a basic necessity and indispensable to humans. Nowadays, there are many agricultural lands and fisheries are turning to settlements and offices. To overcome these obstacles, the government took the policy of forming farmer groups. Farmer groups are channeling the government assistance, whether capital, seeds, training, or technology and knowledge assistance. This research is qualitative. The population in this study were members of the fish farming group in Purwomartani, Kalasan, Sleman. The population in this study were 4 Farmers Group in Purwomartani, Kalasan, Sleman. The sample in this research is 1 farmer group with the largest number of members that is 31 people. For the other three groups of fish farmers the number of members is 20 people. The results show that farmer groups are effective in supporting government programs. The role of farmer groups is needed to support the successful management of agricultural land, improvement of knowledge and skills of fish farmers, renewal of agricultural technology and equipment, and marketing of agricultural products.

  10. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  11. Advanced Materials, Technologies, and Complex Systems Analyses: Emerging Opportunities to Enhance Urban Water Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Li, Qilin; Buono, Regina M; Chen, Wei; Daigger, Glen; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Elimelech, Menachem; Huang, Xia; Jiang, Guibin; Kim, Jae-Hong; Logan, Bruce E; Sedlak, David L; Westerhoff, Paul; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2017-09-19

    Innovation in urban water systems is required to address the increasing demand for clean water due to population growth and aggravated water stress caused by water pollution, aging infrastructure, and climate change. Advances in materials science, modular water treatment technologies, and complex systems analyses, coupled with the drive to minimize the energy and environmental footprints of cities, provide new opportunities to ensure a resilient and safe water supply. We present a vision for enhancing efficiency and resiliency of urban water systems and discuss approaches and research needs for overcoming associated implementation challenges.

  12. Hairpin formation within the enhancer region of the human enkephalin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.T.; Douglass, J.O.; Wilson, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    The 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-inducible enhancer of the human enkephaline gene is located within an imperfect palindrom of 23 base pairs. The authors have found that a 23-base-pair oligonucleotide duplex containing the enhancer undergoes a reversible conformational transition from the duplex to two individual hairpin structures each formed from one strand of the duplex. Each individual hairpin forms with mismatched base pairs, one containing two GT pairs and the other containing two AC pairs. The conformational transition is stabilized by proton transfer to the hairpin containing AC mismatched pairs. The unique physical and thermodynamic properties of the enkephalin enhancer DNA suggest a model in which DNA secondary structure within the enhancer region plays and active role incAMP-inducible activation of the human enkephalin gene via formation of cruciform structures

  13. Hairpin formation within the enhancer region of the human enkephalin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurray, C.T.; Douglass, J.O. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland (United States)); Wilson, W.D. (Georgia State Univ., Atlanta (United States))

    1991-01-15

    The 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-inducible enhancer of the human enkephaline gene is located within an imperfect palindrom of 23 base pairs. The authors have found that a 23-base-pair oligonucleotide duplex containing the enhancer undergoes a reversible conformational transition from the duplex to two individual hairpin structures each formed from one strand of the duplex. Each individual hairpin forms with mismatched base pairs, one containing two GT pairs and the other containing two AC pairs. The conformational transition is stabilized by proton transfer to the hairpin containing AC mismatched pairs. The unique physical and thermodynamic properties of the enkephalin enhancer DNA suggest a model in which DNA secondary structure within the enhancer region plays and active role incAMP-inducible activation of the human enkephalin gene via formation of cruciform structures.

  14. Internet Banking Security Strategy: Securing Customer Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Frimpong Twum; Kwaku Ahenkora

    2012-01-01

    Internet banking strategies should enhance customers¡¯ online experiences which are affected by trust and security issues. This study provides perspectives of users and nonusers on internet banking security with a view to understanding trust and security factors in relation to adoption and continuous usage. Perception of internet banking security influenced usage intentions. Nonusers viewed internet banking to be insecure but users perceived it to be secure with perceived ease of use influenc...

  15. Supply Chain Security: U.S. Customs and Border Protection has Enhanced its Partnership with Import Trade Sectors by Challenges Remain in Verifying Security Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Stephen L; Fossett, Christine A; Conrad, Christopher; Berbsteub, Amy; Berry, Fredrick; Camarillo, Yecenia; Cook, Frances; David, Katherine; Dye, Wendy; Gibson, Nkenge

    2008-01-01

    .... For example, between March 2005 and November 2007, CBP established requirements for C-TPAT members in nine trade sectors to meet minimum security criteria for their specific trade sector, including...

  16. Perspectives on Global and Regional Security and Implications of Nuclear and Space Technologies: U.S.-Brazil Strategic Dialogue, Phase 2 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    enhanced leverage in South- South and BRICs groupings. 6 Under President Lula da Silva’s leadership, Brazil sought to actively enhance and promote its...State,” 25, 35-36; Joe Leahy and James Lamont, “ BRICs to Debate Creation of Common Bank,” Financial Times, March 20, 2012.   4   Challenges in the...conflict. As previously, mentioned, UNASUR is viewed as a proto-security community. The BRICS (Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa) grouping

  17. The Extended Concept of Security and the Czech Security Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Stejskal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the extended concept of security, the nation state is no longer the sole privileged reference object of security. The traditional model of national security is developing from military terms to a broader concept which embraces the international, economic, social, environmental, and human rights dimensions of security. The meaning and relevance of the concept is being extended “upwards”, to international organisations, and “downwards”, to regional and local authorities, non-governmental organisations, communities, and individual citizens. This has immediate bearing on the everyday security reality of the Czech Republic. In international context, the “security frontier” of the Czech Republic is expanding, e.g. through the country’s involvement in UN and NATO security missions in conflict-ridden regions of Europe and the world. The country also helps enhance the internal security of the European Union, whose strength depends on its Member States’ willingness to “harmonise” the pursuit of their respective national security interests. This approach is especially important with regard to the principal security threats Europe faces and will continue to face in the future: terrorism and organised crime. It is vital that the Czech Republic have a well-working security system capable of responding effectively to a broad range of threats. This requirement applies first and foremost to the Police, the Fire and Rescue Service, and intelligence services. Unfortunately, with the present effectiveness of the Czech security system, much remains wishful thinking and, due to the lack of a comprehensive framework, a comparatively low level of protection against emergencies exists. Fight against crime is hampered by inefficient operation of the Police and judiciary. A thorough analysis of the aforementioned problems could provide basis for a broader public debate over the priorities and goals of Czech security policy, which should

  18. Lung cancer in hilar region: the resectability evaluation with dual phase enhanced EBCT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Guosheng; Zhou Xuhui; Li Xiangmin; Fan Miao; Meng Quanfei; Peng Qian; Tan Zhiyu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of duralphase enhanced electronic beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans in resectability evaluation of lung cancer located in hilar region. Methods: Dual phase enhanced EBCT scans were available for 40 cases that were initially diagnosed as 'carcinoma of lung' in hilar region. The relations between masses and trachea, bronchi, hilar and mediastinal great vessels were analyzed and compared with operation. Results: 38 cases in our series confirmed by operation and pathological examination were divided two groups: respectable (28 cases) and non-resectable (10 cases) groups. 25 cases in the former group were consistent with operation, accounting for 89.3%, and 8 cases, in the latter group, accounting for 80%. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of dural-phase enhanced EBCT scan evaluating the relations between masses and hilar and mediastinal structure were as follows: 92.6%, 72.7% and 86.8%. Conclusion: Dural-phase enhanced EBCT scans can provide precise and feasible pre-operative evaluation of lung cancer in hilar region. (authors)

  19. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power system, newly connected large thermal units and delaying of building new transmission lines. The principle of fast-valving and advantages of applying this technique in large steam turbine units was presented in the paper. Effectiveness of fast-valving in enhancing the stability of the Polish Power Grid was analyzed. The feasibility study of fast-valving application in the 560 MW unit in Kozienice Power Station (EW SA was discussed.

  20. How Academies use science to enhance global security and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boright, John

    2017-01-01

    Science academies were originally created to facilitate science communication and later to recognize excellence. But in the last 20 years some 150 academies of science, engineering,and medicine around the world have united to cooperate in contributing to human welfare, by: 1. Providing evidence-based inputs to national, regional, and global policies addressing human needs, and 2. Conducting cooperative programs to increase the capacity of academies to provide such advice, and to better connect academies to publics and to policy makers. Examples: At the global level, 112 academies of science produce brief common statements on major global issues. They have also created an organization to provide in-depth reports on major issues such as a transition to sustainable energy systems, boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, and a guide to responsible conduct in the global research enterprise. Regional networks of those academies, in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe conduct program on topics such as water, energy, engagement of women in science, and science education. They also help and mentor new academies.

  1. Enhancement of bone shadow region using local phase-based ultrasound transmission maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacihaliloglu, Ilker

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly being employed in different orthopedic procedures as an imaging modality for real-time guidance. Nevertheless, low signal-to-noise-ratio and different imaging artifacts continue to hamper the success of ultrasound-based procedures. Bone shadow region is an important feature indicating the presence of bone/tissue interface in the acquired ultrasound data. Enhancement and automatic detection of this region could improve the sensitivity of ultrasound for imaging bone and result in improved guidance for various orthopedic procedures. In this work, a method is introduced for the enhancement of bone shadow regions from B-mode ultrasound data. The method is based on the combination of three different image phase features: local phase tensor, local weighted mean phase angle, and local phase energy. The combined local phase image features are used as an input to an [Formula: see text] norm-based contextual regularization method which emphasizes uncertainty in the shadow regions. The enhanced bone shadow images are automatically segmented and compared against expert segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative validation was performed on 100 in vivo US scans obtained from five subjects by scanning femur and vertebrae bones. Validation against expert segmentation achieved a mean dice similarity coefficient of 0.88. The encouraging results obtained in this initial study suggest that the proposed method is promising enough for further evaluation. The calculated bone shadow maps could be incorporated into different ultrasound bone segmentation and registration approaches as an additional feature.

  2. Water Security, Climate Forcings and Public Health Impacts in Emerging Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S.; Craver, V.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Our world is rapidly urbanizing, with more than 80% of world's population is expected to be living in a city by the end of the century. A majority of these nations are rapidly urbanizing due to massive rural-to-urban migratory trends, with rapid development of unplanned urban settlements, or slums, with lack of adequate water or sanitation facilities and other municipal amenities. With global environmental change, natural disasters will expose millions more to drought, floods, and disease epidemics, and existing vulnerabilities will worsen. At the same time, rapid urbanization and fast changing land-use leads to widespread damage of infrastructure by stormwater, especially in lowlands and economically poor areas. The factor that consistently stands out among different cities from both the developed and the developing worlds is that the slums are typically the most vulnerable to water related natural hazards and climatic threats, such as water scarcity and quality issues in drought conditions, or water and sanitation breakdown and stormwater contamination problems. Onsite or decentralized water, wastewater and stormwater treatment as well as point-of-use water treatment options can be an economic, safe, and reliable alternative to conventional large-scale treatment especially, in urban fringes as well as rural areas. These systems can be designed to fit communities in terms of their economic, cultural, environmental, and demographic resources. As part of this study, we develop a database of urban water quality and quantity indices such as with urban land-use, water usage, climate, and socio-economic characteristics in various emerging regions in the world. We analyze past and current data to identify and quantify long-term trends and the impacts of large-scale climatic and anthropogenic changes on urban hydrology and health impacts. We specifically focus on five major cities from distinct groups of countries and geographies: Providence, RI, USA from the developed

  3. Enhancing the cyber-security of smart grids with applications to synchrophasor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Seemita

    In the power grids, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are used as part of the Energy Management System (EMS) for enabling grid monitoring, control and protection. In recent times, with the ongoing installation of thousands of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), system operators are becoming increasingly reliant on PMU-generated synchrophasor measurements for executing wide-area monitoring and real-time control. The availability of PMU data facilitates dynamic state estimation of the system, thus improving the efficiency and resiliency of the grid. Since the SCADA and PMU data are used to make critical control decisions including actuation of physical systems, the timely availability and integrity of this networked data is of paramount importance. Absence or wrong control actions can potentially lead to disruption of operations, monetary loss, damage to equipments or surroundings or even blackout. This has posed new challenges to information security especially in this age of ever-increasing cyber-attacks. In this thesis, potential cyber-attacks on smart grids are presented and effective and implementable schemes are proposed for detecting them. The focus is mainly on three kinds of cyber-attacks and their detection: (i) gray-hole attacks on synchrophasor systems, (ii) PMU data manipulation attacks and (iii) data integrity attacks on SCADA systems. In the case of gray-hole attacks, also known as packet-drop attacks, the adversary may arbitrarily drop PMU data packets as they traverse the network, resulting in unavailability of time-sensitive data for the various critical power system applications. The fundamental challenge is to distinguish packets dropped by the adversary from those that occur naturally due to network congestion.The proposed gray-hole attack detection technique is based on exploiting the inherent timing information in the GPS time-stamped PMU data packets and using the temporal trends of the latencies to classify the cause of

  4. Triple Helix Model as an Efficient Mechanism of Food Security Provision in Regional Economic Entities and the Economic System as a Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail N. Dudin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The leading countries of the world consider food security the important condition of internal political and social-economic stability of the state and its external independence. The topic of the article is crucial due to the fact that the problem of food security is rather complicated and multilevel and should be considered at different interrelated hierarchical levels. In this context the efficient model of food security is the result of the permanent dialogue between the representatives of the state government, business entities, social organizations and scientific institutions. The article justifies the fact that the model of innovation development, known as ‘the triple helix model’ should be applied at the modern stage of economic development as an efficient tool for the food security provision, which can be implemented in the activity of regional economic entities and the whole economic system of the Russian Federation.

  5. Stakeholder Transportation Scorecard: Reviewing Nevada's Recommendations for Enhancing the Safety and Security of Nuclear Waste Shipments - 13518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred C. [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As a primary stakeholder in the Yucca Mountain program, the state of Nevada has spent three decades examining and considering national policy regarding spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation. During this time, Nevada has identified 10 issues it believes are critical to ensuring the safety and security of any spent nuclear fuel transportation program, and achieving public acceptance. These recommendations are: 1) Ship the oldest fuel first; 2) Ship mostly by rail; 3) Use dual-purpose (transportable storage) casks; 4) Use dedicated trains for rail shipments; 5) Implement a full-scale cask testing program; 6) Utilize a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the selection of a new rail spur to the proposed repository site; 7) Implement the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) 'straw man' process for route selection; 8) Implement Section 180C assistance to affected States, Tribes and localities through rulemaking; 9) Adopt safety and security regulatory enhancements proposed states; and 10) Address stakeholder concerns about terrorism and sabotage. This paper describes Nevada's proposals in detail and examines their current status. The paper describes the various forums and methods by which Nevada has presented its arguments and sought to influence national policy. As of 2012, most of Nevada's recommendations have been adopted in one form or another, although not yet implemented. If implemented in a future nuclear waste program, the State of Nevada believes these recommendations would form the basis for a successful national transportation plan for shipments to a geologic repository and/or centralized interim storage facility. (authors)

  6. Stakeholder Transportation Scorecard: Reviewing Nevada's Recommendations for Enhancing the Safety and Security of Nuclear Waste Shipments - 13518

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilger, Fred C.; Ballard, James D.; Halstead, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    As a primary stakeholder in the Yucca Mountain program, the state of Nevada has spent three decades examining and considering national policy regarding spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation. During this time, Nevada has identified 10 issues it believes are critical to ensuring the safety and security of any spent nuclear fuel transportation program, and achieving public acceptance. These recommendations are: 1) Ship the oldest fuel first; 2) Ship mostly by rail; 3) Use dual-purpose (transportable storage) casks; 4) Use dedicated trains for rail shipments; 5) Implement a full-scale cask testing program; 6) Utilize a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the selection of a new rail spur to the proposed repository site; 7) Implement the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) 'straw man' process for route selection; 8) Implement Section 180C assistance to affected States, Tribes and localities through rulemaking; 9) Adopt safety and security regulatory enhancements proposed states; and 10) Address stakeholder concerns about terrorism and sabotage. This paper describes Nevada's proposals in detail and examines their current status. The paper describes the various forums and methods by which Nevada has presented its arguments and sought to influence national policy. As of 2012, most of Nevada's recommendations have been adopted in one form or another, although not yet implemented. If implemented in a future nuclear waste program, the State of Nevada believes these recommendations would form the basis for a successful national transportation plan for shipments to a geologic repository and/or centralized interim storage facility. (authors)

  7. Efficient Hybrid Watermarking Scheme for Security and Transmission Bit Rate Enhancement of 3D Color-Plus-Depth Video Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafai, W.; El-Rabaie, S.; El-Halawany, M.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2018-03-01

    Three-Dimensional Video-plus-Depth (3DV + D) comprises diverse video streams captured by different cameras around an object. Therefore, there is a great need to fulfill efficient compression to transmit and store the 3DV + D content in compressed form to attain future resource bounds whilst preserving a decisive reception quality. Also, the security of the transmitted 3DV + D is a critical issue for protecting its copyright content. This paper proposes an efficient hybrid watermarking scheme for securing the 3DV + D transmission, which is the homomorphic transform based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. The objective of the proposed watermarking scheme is to increase the immunity of the watermarked 3DV + D to attacks and achieve adequate perceptual quality. Moreover, the proposed watermarking scheme reduces the transmission-bandwidth requirements for transmitting the color-plus-depth 3DV over limited-bandwidth wireless networks through embedding the depth frames into the color frames of the transmitted 3DV + D. Thus, it saves the transmission bit rate and subsequently it enhances the channel bandwidth-efficiency. The performance of the proposed watermarking scheme is compared with those of the state-of-the-art hybrid watermarking schemes. The comparisons depend on both the subjective visual results and the objective results; the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) of the watermarked frames and the Normalized Correlation (NC) of the extracted watermark frames. Extensive simulation results on standard 3DV + D sequences have been conducted in the presence of attacks. The obtained results confirm that the proposed hybrid watermarking scheme is robust in the presence of attacks. It achieves not only very good perceptual quality with appreciated PSNR values and saving in the transmission bit rate, but also high correlation coefficient values in the presence of attacks compared to the existing hybrid watermarking schemes.

  8. Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform, Achieve, Trade mechanisms to enhance the energy security for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Agarwala, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade mechanisms in India are designed to target energy generation and saving, respectively, in line with Clean Development Mechanism implemented by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Renewable Energy Certificate System is a voluntary regulation in India for renewable energy generators and is designed for effective implementation of inter-state transactions by introducing the Renewable Purchase Obligation regulation for consumers and a flexible trading platform for transactions across the country. Another initiative, the Perform Achieve Trade scheme, is an enhanced energy efficiency trading mechanism based on consumption targets that require large energy user sectors to improve efficiency by 1–2% per year. The Perform Achieve Trade programme has introduced mechanisms for the identification of industry sector, designated customer, specific energy consumption and target setting. The Perform Achieve Trade design issues are in test phase in the first cycle of the scheme which will run from 2012 to 2015. This paper discusses key design issues about boundary and target setting for Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade energy saving certificate (ESCert) A data sharing and trading mechanism for Perform Achieve Trade is also proposed for review and coordination among regulator, designated consumers and traders in the market. - Highlights: ► Renewable Energy Certificate’ and ‘Perform Achieve Trade’ are energy certification programmes. ► REC and PAT programme implementation and the institutional network work are presented. ► The trading and communication network propose for possible linkage between REC, PAT and CDM. ► Independent associations in parallel with CERC and BEE are redefined for two tier review of scheme

  9. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty M Booker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing.

  10. Nuclear Security Education in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O.K.

    2015-01-01

    Morocco has made significant progress in the field of nuclear security by supporting the efforts and activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), promoting nuclear security under international initiatives and continues to undertake actions aiming at strengthening capacity building in nuclear security. As well, Morocco has developed a new law on radiological and nuclear safety and security which was promulgated in 2014. Some Moroccan universities in cooperation with the IAEA-International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN) and the US-DoS Partnership for Nuclear Security (PNS) are working to develop their nuclear security educational programmes. In this regard, faculties who have been involved in INSEN Professional Development Courses (PDCs) have acquired a high-quality of knowledge and teaching tools in nuclear security topics that led them to be able to develop and teach their nuclear security curriculum as is the case at the University of Ibn Tofail. Furthermore, University of Ibn Tofail has developed in 2014 with collaboration with CRDFGlobal the first Institute of Nuclear Material Management (INMM) Student Chapter in Africa. This Chapter has organized many events to promote best practices among the young generation. Moreover, University of Ibn Tofail and Brandenburg University in Germany are working to develop a PDC on Nuclear IT/Cyber Security to be held in Kenitra, Morocco. This PDC aims at building capacity among the academic communities from Africa and MENA Region in order to further raise awareness, develop and disseminate best practices, increase professional standards and therefore enhance nuclear security culture. So, this paper will present some nuclear security education activities in Morocco and more specifically at the University of Ibn Tofail. These activities involve women as leaders but also contribute in education and training of young generation of women in nuclear field. (author)

  11. Report on Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation 2001. Energy Security in Asian Region; Taiheiyo energy kyoryoku kaigi 2001 hokokusho. Asia chiiki no energy anzen hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-20

    The Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation (SPEC), which started in 1986 to discuss energy problems and international cooperation on energy in the Pacific region, met for 2001 in Tokyo on February 20 and 21, 2001, to discuss Energy Security in Asian Region. The conference comprised two keynote addresses, four sessions, and a panel discussion. Twenty-four countries and an international organization were represented by a total of 785 participants who actively exchanged views and opinions. With Director Tsutomu Toichi, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, acting as chairman, two keynote addresses were delivered. Minister of Oil Bijan Namdar Zanganeh of Iran reported on The Role of I. R. Iran in Meeting the Growing Oil and Gas Demand in the Asia-Pacific Region and Potential Cooperation with the Region's Consumers. Managing Director Phil Watts of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group reported on Security in Trust - Meeting Asian Energy Needs in the 21st Century. (NEDO)

  12. Development of transport mechanical engineering as the condition of maintenance of social and economic security of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Petrovich Babushkin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the transport role in the decision of problems of innovative and scientifically-technological development of territory is defined. Dependence of quality, completeness and timeliness of granting of transport services on replenishment and updating of park of locomotives, cars, i.e. from a level of development of domestic transport mechanical engineering is shown. The basic problems of development given branches –low competitiveness of made production are revealed. The basic accent in the course of such analysis is made on research of competitive possibilities of the enterprises of railway mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk area. Such enterprises play the increasing role, become points of development of region’s economy and maintenance of its social and economic safety. The cooperation communications, which have developed in an industrial complex of Sverdlovsk area on the basis of development of modern manufacture on building of electric locomotives, have allowed to generate in region cluster railway mechanical engineering. The structure cluster is shown, development prospects, the estimation of its influence on the economy of Sverdlovsk area and maintenance of its social and economic security is given

  13. Enhanced antisunward convection and F region scintillations at mid-latitudes during storm onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Aarons, J.

    1988-01-01

    Millstone Hill radar observations over a wide span of latitudes detail the onset of 300 m/s antisunward (westward) convection at mid and low latitudes in the morning sector as a region of storm-enhanced sunward convection retreats poleward. Ring current observations reported by Lui et al. (1987) suggest that the magnetospheric shielding layer was coincident with the observed reversal between sunward and antisunward convection. A strong southward component of the F region neutral wind is observed at latitudes equatorward of the convection reversal. These observations are in agreement with the model of Spiro et al. (1988), who find that storm-enhanced neutrral winds at latitudes equatorward of the shielding layer can generate a long-lived perturbation electric field in the inner magnetosphere. The observations show the growth of the subauroral electric field as the shielding boundary moves poleward. They observe 136-MHz scintillations in both the auroral sunwarrd convection region and the region of subauroral antisunward convection when the convection electric fields exceed 5 mV/m

  14. Report of the international forum on nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Makiko; Yamamura, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2013-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held 'International Forum on Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security - Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia-' on 12 and 13 December 2012, co-hosted by the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. In the forum, keynote speakers from Japan, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.S., France and Republic of Korea (ROK), respectively explained their efforts regarding peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation. In two panel discussions, entitled 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security of nuclear fuel cycle back end' and 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for nuclear energy use in the Asian region and a multilateral cooperative framework', active discussions were made among panelists from Japan, IAEA, the U.S., France, ROK, Russia and Kazakhstan. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording and content of this report except presentation materials. (author)

  15. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, James C; Pearson, Andrew D; Stenseth, Nils Chr; LeDuc, James W; Hirschberg, David L; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world's great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to

  16. Developing an analytical model to increase urban security from the Secured perspective by Designing (SBD) Approach using fuzzy AHP method (case study: region 17 of Tehran)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Zabihi; T. Larimian; H. Poorani

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionSafety and security have been significant issues throughout history, from early prehistoric cave-dwelling societies to medieval and modern cities (P. Cozens, 2008). Crime is a part of our way of living. It is tied to the physical distribution of people and objects, to the routine activity patterns of daily life, and to the ways in which people perceive and use information about the environment (Brantingham & Brantingham, 1993). Statistics show that there is a me...

  17. Large plasma density enhancements occurring in the northern polar region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2014-06-01

    We focus on the ionospheric response of northern high-latitude region to the 6 April 2000 superstorm and aim to investigate how the storm-enhanced density (SED) plume plasma became distributed in the regions of auroral zone and polar cap plus to study the resultant ionospheric features and their development. Multi-instrument observational results combined with model-generated, two-cell convection maps permitted identifying the high-density plasma's origin and the underlying plasma transportation processes. Results show the plasma density feature of polar cap enhancement (PCE; 600 × 103 i+/cm3) appearing for 7 h during the main phase and characterized by increases reaching up to 6 times of the quiet time values. Meanwhile, strong westward convections ( 17,500 m/s) created low plasma densities in a wider region of the dusk cell. Oppositely, small ( 750 m/s) but rigorous westward drifts drove the SED plume plasma through the auroral zone, wherein plasma densities doubled. As the SED plume plasma traveled along the convection streamlines and entered the polar cap, a continuous enhancement of the tongue of ionization (TOI) developed under steady convection conditions. However, convection changes caused slow convections and flow stagnations and thus segmented the TOI feature by locally depleting the plasma in the affected regions of the auroral zone and polar cap. From the strong correspondence of polar cap potential drop and subauroral polarization stream (SAPS), we conclude that the SAPS E-field strength remained strong, and under its prolonged influence, the SED plume provided a continuous supply of downward flowing high-density plasma for the development and maintenance of PCEs.

  18. Weaving Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge with Formal Education to Enhance Community Food Security: School Competition as a Pedagogical Space in Rural Anchetty, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shailesh; Barkman, Janna; Patel, Kirit

    2017-01-01

    Like many socially and economically disadvantaged farming communities around the world, the Anchetty region of Tamil Nadu, India, has been experiencing serious food security challenges mainly due to the loss of traditional foods such as small millets and associated crops (SMAC) and associated indigenous agricultural knowledge (IAK). Drawing on…

  19. An Enhanced LoRaWAN Security Protocol for Privacy Preservation in IoT with a Case Study on a Smart Factory-Enabled Parking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilsun; Kwon, Soonhyun; Choudhary, Gaurav; Sharma, Vishal; Seo, Jung Taek

    2018-06-08

    The Internet of Things (IoT) utilizes algorithms to facilitate intelligent applications across cities in the form of smart-urban projects. As the majority of devices in IoT are battery operated, their applications should be facilitated with a low-power communication setup. Such facility is possible through the Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN), but at a constrained bit rate. For long-range communication over LPWAN, several approaches and protocols are adopted. One such protocol is the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), which is a media access layer protocol for long-range communication between the devices and the application servers via LPWAN gateways. However, LoRaWAN comes with fewer security features as a much-secured protocol consumes more battery because of the exorbitant computational overheads. The standard protocol fails to support end-to-end security and perfect forward secrecy while being vulnerable to the replay attack that makes LoRaWAN limited in supporting applications where security (especially end-to-end security) is important. Motivated by this, an enhanced LoRaWAN security protocol is proposed, which not only provides the basic functions of connectivity between the application server and the end device, but additionally averts these listed security issues. The proposed protocol is developed with two options, the Default Option (DO) and the Security-Enhanced Option (SEO). The protocol is validated through Burrows⁻Abadi⁻Needham (BAN) logic and the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The proposed protocol is also analyzed for overheads through system-based and low-power device-based evaluations. Further, a case study on a smart factory-enabled parking system is considered for its practical application. The results, in terms of network latency with reliability fitting and signaling overheads, show paramount improvements and better performance for the proposed protocol compared with the two

  20. An Enhanced LoRaWAN Security Protocol for Privacy Preservation in IoT with a Case Study on a Smart Factory-Enabled Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsun You

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT utilizes algorithms to facilitate intelligent applications across cities in the form of smart-urban projects. As the majority of devices in IoT are battery operated, their applications should be facilitated with a low-power communication setup. Such facility is possible through the Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN, but at a constrained bit rate. For long-range communication over LPWAN, several approaches and protocols are adopted. One such protocol is the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN, which is a media access layer protocol for long-range communication between the devices and the application servers via LPWAN gateways. However, LoRaWAN comes with fewer security features as a much-secured protocol consumes more battery because of the exorbitant computational overheads. The standard protocol fails to support end-to-end security and perfect forward secrecy while being vulnerable to the replay attack that makes LoRaWAN limited in supporting applications where security (especially end-to-end security is important. Motivated by this, an enhanced LoRaWAN security protocol is proposed, which not only provides the basic functions of connectivity between the application server and the end device, but additionally averts these listed security issues. The proposed protocol is developed with two options, the Default Option (DO and the Security-Enhanced Option (SEO. The protocol is validated through Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN logic and the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA tool. The proposed protocol is also analyzed for overheads through system-based and low-power device-based evaluations. Further, a case study on a smart factory-enabled parking system is considered for its practical application. The results, in terms of network latency with reliability fitting and signaling overheads, show paramount improvements and better performance for the proposed protocol compared with

  1. Security Injections 2.0: Increasing Engagement and Faculty Adoption Using Enhanced Secure Coding Modules for Lower-Level Programming Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Raina , Sagar; Taylor , Blair; Kaza , Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Software Security Education; International audience; Learning interventions based on modules are common in computer science education. Traditional learning modules that present a large amount of content in a linear format can lead to students skimming and skipping content resulting in lower student engagement and effectiveness. In this paper, we present theoretical support for increasing engagement and effectiveness of learning modules, describe a system that implements these principl...

  2. Partial Fingerprint Image Enhancement using Region Division Technique and Morphological Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Arshad, I.; Raja, G.

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprints are the most renowned biometric trait for identification and verification. The quality of fingerprint image plays a vital role in feature extraction and matching. Existing algorithms work well for good quality fingerprint images and fail for partial fingerprint images as they are obtained from excessively dry fingers or affected by disease resulting in broken ridges. We propose an algorithm to enhance partial fingerprint images using morphological operatins with region division technique. The proposed method divides low quality image into six regions from top to bottom. Morphological operations choose an appropriate Structuring Element (SE) that joins broken ridges and thus enhance the image for further processing. The proposed method uses SE line with suitable angle theta and radius r in each region based on the orientation of the ridges. The algorithm is applied to 14 low quality fingerprint images from FVC-2002 database. Experimental results show that percentage accuracy has been improved using the proposed algorithm. The manual markup has been reduced and accuracy of 76.16% with Equal Error Rate (EER) of 3.16% is achieved. (author)

  3. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of regional lymph nodes of lung cancer in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Naomichi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    1991-01-01

    Enhanced MR imagings were performed on thirty-one patients with lung cancer by intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). A spin-echo pulse sequence (SE 400/40) with 0.5-T MR system was used. The Gd-DTPA enhancement of lymph nodes was studied for 67 nodes (29 metastatic lymph nodes and 38 non-metastatic lymph nodes) on the hilar and mediastinal region. The mean signal intensity of metastatic lymph nodes was enhanced higher than that of non-metastatic lymph nodes (p<0.001). On the criterion of the signal intensity change (the cutoff point: 800 S.I) at 5 minutes after administration, the diagnostic rates on retrospective study showed a sensitivity of 79 %, a specificity of 84 % and an overall accuracy of 82%. These data show higher rates than those of the size criteria. This study suggests a significant potential for improved detection of lymph node metastasis of lung cancer with Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. (author)

  4. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of regionally ischemic canine hearts: effects of paramagnetic proton signal enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Pykett, I.L.; Buonanno, F.S.; Kistler, J.P.; Newhouse, J.H.; Burt, C.T.; Hinshaw, W.S.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the potential of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging with and without manganese contrast enhancement for detecting acute myocardial infarction, 12 dogs underwent 90-minute occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. Transverse-section NMR images of the excised, nonbeating heart were obtained at 1-cm intervals using the steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) technique. All NMR images revealed detailed structure of the heart. The three hearts without manganese showed no difference in intensity between the normal and the ischemic posterior regions, whereas those with manganese demonstrated a clearly demarcated zone of reduced signal intensity consistent with the ischemic zone. It is concluded that high-resolution tomograms of the excised canine myocardium can be obtained using proton NMR imaging. With the SSFP imaging technique, proton signal enhancement with manganese infusion is necessary to differentiate between ischemic and nonischemic myocardium after 90 minutes of coronary occlusion

  5. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  6. Analytical Methods for Energy Diversity and Security. Portfolio Optimization in the Energy Sector: A Tribute to the work of Dr. Shimon Awerbuch. Chapter 7. The role of wind generation in enhancing Scotland's energy diversity and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Beurskens, L.W.M.

    2008-11-01

    This volume aims at professionals in academia, industry and government interested in the rapidly evolving area at the nexus between energy and climate change policy. The cutting-edge international contributions allow for a wide coverage of the topic. Energy Diversity and Security focuses on the consideration of financial risk in the energy sector. It describes how tools borrowed from financial economic theory, in particular mean-variance portfolio theory, can provide insights on the costs and benefits of diversity, and thus inform investment decision making in conditions of uncertainty. It gives the reader an in-depth understanding of how to manage risk at a time when the world's focus is on this area. The book provides insights from leading authorities in the area of energy security. It gives readers abundant, rigorous analysis and guidance at a critical time in facing the twin challenges of energy security and climate change. The book also highlights the role of clean energy technology in moving towards future diverse and intelligent electricity systems. In this chapter attention is paid to the role of wind generation in enhancing Scotland's energy diversity and security

  7. Analytical Methods for Energy Diversity and Security. Portfolio Optimization in the Energy Sector: A Tribute to the work of Dr. Shimon Awerbuch. Chapter 7. The role of wind generation in enhancing Scotland's energy diversity and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C.; Beurskens, L.W.M.

    2008-11-15

    This volume aims at professionals in academia, industry and government interested in the rapidly evolving area at the nexus between energy and climate change policy. The cutting-edge international contributions allow for a wide coverage of the topic. Energy Diversity and Security focuses on the consideration of financial risk in the energy sector. It describes how tools borrowed from financial economic theory, in particular mean-variance portfolio theory, can provide insights on the costs and benefits of diversity, and thus inform investment decision making in conditions of uncertainty. It gives the reader an in-depth understanding of how to manage risk at a time when the world's focus is on this area. The book provides insights from leading authorities in the area of energy security. It gives readers abundant, rigorous analysis and guidance at a critical time in facing the twin challenges of energy security and climate change. The book also highlights the role of clean energy technology in moving towards future diverse and intelligent electricity systems. In this chapter attention is paid to the role of wind generation in enhancing Scotland's energy diversity and security.

  8. Transition region of TEC enhancement phenomena during geomagnetically disturbed periods at mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale TEC perturbations/enhancements observed during the day sectors of major storm periods, 12-13 February 2000, 23 September 1999, 29 October 2003, and 21 November 2003, were studied using a high resolution GPS network over Japan. TEC enhancements described in the present study have large magnitudes (≥25×1016 electrons/m2 compared to the quiet-time values and long periods (≥120 min. The sequential manner of development and the propagation of these perturbations show that they are initiated at the northern region and propagate towards the southern region of Japan, with velocities >350 m/s. On 12 February 2000, remarkably high values of TEC and background content are observed at the southern region, compared to the north, because of the poleward expansion of the equatorial anomaly crest, which is characterized by strong latitudinal gradients near 35° N (26° N geomagnetically. When the TEC enhancements, initiating at the north, propagate through the region 39-34° N (30-25° N geomagnetically, they undergo transitions characterized by a severe decrease in amplitude of TEC enhancements. This may be due to their interaction with the higher background content of the expanded anomaly crest. However, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC is manifested as an enhanced ionization pattern (EIP. This could be due to the prompt penetration of the eastward electric field, which is evident from high values of the southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field component (IMF Bz and AE index. The TEC perturbations observed on the other storm days also exhibit similar transitions, characterized by a decreasing magnitude of the perturbation component, at the region around 39-34° N. In addition to this, on the other storm days, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC (EIP feature also indicates the repeatability of the above scenario. It is found that, the latitude and

  9. Transition region of TEC enhancement phenomena during geomagnetically disturbed periods at mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale TEC perturbations/enhancements observed during the day sectors of major storm periods, 12-13 February 2000, 23 September 1999, 29 October 2003, and 21 November 2003, were studied using a high resolution GPS network over Japan. TEC enhancements described in the present study have large magnitudes (≥25×1016 electrons/m2 compared to the quiet-time values and long periods (≥120 min. The sequential manner of development and the propagation of these perturbations show that they are initiated at the northern region and propagate towards the southern region of Japan, with velocities >350 m/s. On 12 February 2000, remarkably high values of TEC and background content are observed at the southern region, compared to the north, because of the poleward expansion of the equatorial anomaly crest, which is characterized by strong latitudinal gradients near 35° N (26° N geomagnetically. When the TEC enhancements, initiating at the north, propagate through the region 39-34° N (30-25° N geomagnetically, they undergo transitions characterized by a severe decrease in amplitude of TEC enhancements. This may be due to their interaction with the higher background content of the expanded anomaly crest. However, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC is manifested as an enhanced ionization pattern (EIP. This could be due to the prompt penetration of the eastward electric field, which is evident from high values of the southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field component (IMF Bz and AE index. The TEC perturbations observed on the other storm days also exhibit similar transitions, characterized by a decreasing magnitude of the perturbation component, at the region around 39-34° N. In addition to this, on the other storm days, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC (EIP feature also indicates the repeatability of the above scenario. It is found that, the latitude and time at which the decrease in magnitude

  10. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine

  11. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. (Univ. of Hawaii School of Medicine, Honolulu (USA))

    1991-01-01

    2-(14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine.

  12. Geodiversity action plans for the enhancement of geoheritage in the Piemonte region (north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ferrero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geoethical approach to geodiversity allows better understanding of the value of abiotic nature and enhances its conservation and development. Our basic assumption is that even during an economical crisis, geoheritage sites can serve both public and private interests. A set of nine strategic geothematic areas were chosen to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, north-western Italy, each of which is characterized by great potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreational activities, and economic support to the local communities. Specialized research teams individuated critical aspects to advance our knowledge of the geological history of the Piemonte region, through climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources. The scientific concepts and techniques were coupled with geodiffusion actions and products: not only geosites, but also museum collections, evidence of mining and quarrying activities, science exhibitions, and nature trails. The preliminary results have allowed action plans to be developed with local partners, to assess the geoheritage management requirements. A series of investigations were carried out to improve the visual representation of the geological processes and the evolutionary scenarios. Further outcomes of the project will include didactic tools for educators, schools, and the public in general.

  13. Potential of Russian Regions to Implement CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Cherepovitsyn

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the techno-economic potential of Russia to implement carbon capture and storage technologies that imply the capture of anthropogenic CO2 and its injection into geologic reservoirs for long-term storage. The focus is on CO2 enhanced oil recovery projects that seem to be the most economically promising option of carbon capture and storage. The novelty of the work lies in the formulation of a potential assessment method of CO2 enhanced oil recovery, which allows for establishing a connection between energy production and oil extraction from the viewpoint of CO2 supply and demand. Using linear optimization, the most promising combinations of CO2 sources and sinks are identified and an economic evaluation of these projects is carried out. Based on this information, regions of Russia are ranked according to their prospects in regards to CO2 capture and enhanced oil recovery storage. The results indicate that Russia has a significant potential to utilize its power plants as CO2 sources for enhanced oil recovery projects. It has been estimated that 71 coal-fired power plants, and 185 of the gas-fired power plants of Russia annually produce 297.1 and 309.6 Mt of CO2 that can cover 553.4 Mt of the demand of 322 Russian oil fields. At the same time, the total CO2 storage capacity of the Russian fields is estimated at 7382.6 Mt, however, due to geological and technical factors, only 22.6% can be used for CO2-EOR projects. Of the 183 potential projects identified in the regional analysis phase, 99 were found to be cost-effective, with an average unit cost of € 19.07 per ton of CO2 and a payback period of 8.71 years. The most promising of the estimated regions is characterized by a well-developed energy industry, relatively low transportation costs, numerous large and medium-sized oil fields at the final stages of development, and favorable geological conditions that minimize the cost of injection. Geographically, they are located in the

  14. Enhanced electrochemomechanical activity of polyaniline films towards high pH region: contribution of Donnan effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Wataru; Nakashima, Megumi; Pandey, Shyam S.; Kaneto, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    Enhancement of electrochemomechanical deformation (ECMD) and expansion of ECMD activity towards high pH have been simultaneously achieved in the electrolytes equilibrated with HCl and NaCl solutions for polyaniline (PANI) film. The maximum deformation has been reached to 6.7% in the mixture of 3 M HCl and 3 M NaCl equilibrated at pH 3 at ambient temperature. By comparing the fact that the ECMD magnitude is 3.2% in 1 M HCl equilibrated at pH 0.5, the simple judicious selection of electrolyte condition leads to the enhancement of ECMD magnitude by around two times. The concentration dependence on both electrical conductivity and absorption spectra elucidates the increase of protonation ratio as a function of electrolyte concentration. The results indicate that the high concentration retains both the electrochemical and ECMD activities in PANI film towards high pH region, which is the enhanced functionality of PANI supported by Donnan effect

  15. Future climate change enhances rainfall seasonality in a regional model of western Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suchul; Im, Eun-Soon; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, future changes in rainfall due to global climate change are investigated over the western Maritime Continent based on dynamically downscaled climate projections using the MIT Regional Climate Model (MRCM) with 12 km horizontal resolution. A total of nine 30-year regional climate projections driven by multi-GCMs projections (CCSM4, MPI-ESM-MR and ACCESS1.0) under multi-scenarios of greenhouse gases emissions (Historical: 1976-2005, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5: 2071-2100) from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) are analyzed. Focusing on dynamically downscaled rainfall fields, the associated systematic biases originating from GCM and MRCM are removed based on observations using Parametric Quantile Mapping method in order to enhance the reliability of future projections. The MRCM simulations with bias correction capture the spatial patterns of seasonal rainfall as well as the frequency distribution of daily rainfall. Based on projected rainfall changes under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the ensemble of MRCM simulations project a significant decrease in rainfall over the western Maritime Continent during the inter-monsoon periods while the change in rainfall is not relevant during wet season. The main mechanism behind the simulated decrease in rainfall is rooted in asymmetries of the projected changes in seasonal dynamics of the meridional circulation along different latitudes. The sinking motion, which is marginally positioned in the reference simulation, is enhanced and expanded under global climate change, particularly in RCP8.5 scenario during boreal fall season. The projected enhancement of rainfall seasonality over the western Maritime Continent suggests increased risk of water stress for natural ecosystems as well as man-made water resources reservoirs.

  16. Naturally enhanced ion-line spectra around the equatorial 150-km region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For many years strong radar echoes coming from 140–170 km altitudes at low latitudes have been associated to the existence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs (the so called 150-km echoes. In this work, we present frequency spectra as well as angular distribution of 150-km echoes. When the 150-km region is observed with beams perpendicular to the magnetic field (B the observed radar spectra are very narrow with spectral widths between 3–12 m/s. On the other hand, when few-degrees off-perpendicular beams are used, the radar spectra are wide with spectral widths comparable to those expected from ion-acoustic waves at these altitudes (>1000 m/s. Moreover the off-perpendicular spectral width increases with increasing altitude. The strength of the received echoes is one to two orders of magnitude stronger than the expected level of waves in thermal equilibrium at these altitudes. Such enhancement is not due to an increase in electron density. Except for the enhancement in power, the spectra characteristics of off-perpendicular and perpendicular echoes are in reasonable agreement with expected incoherent scatter spectra at these angles and altitudes. 150-km echoes are usually observed in narrow layers (2 to 5. Bistatic common volume observations as well as observations made few kilometers apart show that, for most of the layers, there is very high correlation on power fluctuations without a noticeable time separation between simultaneous echoes observed with Off-perpendicular and Perpendicular beams. However, in one of the central layers, the echoes are the strongest in the perpendicular beam and absent or very weak in the off-perpendicular beams, suggesting that they are generated by a plasma instability. Our results indicate that most echoes around 150-km region are not as aspect sensitive as originally thought, and they come from waves that have been enhanced above waves in thermal equilibrium.

  17. Naturally enhanced ion-line spectra around the equatorial 150-km region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For many years strong radar echoes coming from 140–170 km altitudes at low latitudes have been associated to the existence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs (the so called 150-km echoes. In this work, we present frequency spectra as well as angular distribution of 150-km echoes. When the 150-km region is observed with beams perpendicular to the magnetic field (B the observed radar spectra are very narrow with spectral widths between 3–12 m/s. On the other hand, when few-degrees off-perpendicular beams are used, the radar spectra are wide with spectral widths comparable to those expected from ion-acoustic waves at these altitudes (>1000 m/s. Moreover the off-perpendicular spectral width increases with increasing altitude. The strength of the received echoes is one to two orders of magnitude stronger than the expected level of waves in thermal equilibrium at these altitudes. Such enhancement is not due to an increase in electron density. Except for the enhancement in power, the spectra characteristics of off-perpendicular and perpendicular echoes are in reasonable agreement with expected incoherent scatter spectra at these angles and altitudes. 150-km echoes are usually observed in narrow layers (2 to 5. Bistatic common volume observations as well as observations made few kilometers apart show that, for most of the layers, there is very high correlation on power fluctuations without a noticeable time separation between simultaneous echoes observed with Off-perpendicular and Perpendicular beams. However, in one of the central layers, the echoes are the strongest in the perpendicular beam and absent or very weak in the off-perpendicular beams, suggesting that they are generated by a plasma instability. Our results indicate that most echoes around 150-km region are not as aspect sensitive as originally thought, and they come from waves that have been enhanced above waves in thermal equilibrium.

  18. Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies: Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Gomes, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Frequently found in southeastern South America during the warm season from October through May, strong and localized precipitation maxima are usually associated with the presence of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) travelling across the region. Flashfloods and landslides can be caused by these extremes in precipitation, with damages to the local communities. Heavily populated, southeastern South America hosts many agricultural activities and hydroelectric production. It encompasses one of the most important river basins in South America, the La Plata River Basin. Therefore, insufficient precipitation is equally prejudicial to the region socio-economic activities. MCCs are originated in the warm season of many regions of the world, however South American MCCs are related to the most severe thunderstorms, and have significantly contributed to the precipitation regime. We used the hourly outputs of Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in the analysis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of MCCs in South America. SRDAS is the 25-km resolution downscaling of a global reanalysis available from January 1998 through December 2010. The Regional Spectral Model is the SRDAS atmospheric component and assimilates satellite-based precipitation estimates from the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique global precipitation analyses. In this study, the SRDAS atmospheric and land-surface variables, global reanalysis products, infrared satellite imagery, and the physical retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), on board of the NASA's Aqua satellite, were used in the evaluation of the MCCs developed in southeastern South America from 2008 and 2010. Low-level circulations and vertical profiles were analyzed together to establish the relevance of the moisture transport in connection with the upper-troposphere dynamics to the development of those MCCs.

  19. IASI-derived NH3 enhancement ratios relative to CO for the tropical biomass burning regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Simon; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-10-01

    Vegetation fires are a major source of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. Their emissions are mainly estimated using bottom-up approaches that rely on uncertain emission factors. In this study, we derive new biome-specific NH3 enhancement ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO), ERNH3 / CO (directly related to the emission factors), from the measurements of the IASI sounder onboard the Metop-A satellite. This is achieved for large tropical regions and for an 8-year period (2008-2015). We find substantial differences in the ERNH3 / CO ratios between the biomes studied, with calculated values ranging from 7 × 10-3 to 23 × 10-3. For evergreen broadleaf forest these are typically 50-75 % higher than for woody savanna and savanna biomes. This variability is attributed to differences in fuel types and size and is in line with previous studies. The analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the ERNH3 / CO ratio also reveals a (sometimes large) within-biome variability. On a regional level, woody savanna shows, for example, a mean ERNH3 / CO ratio for the region of Africa south of the Equator that is 40-75 % lower than in the other five regions studied, probably reflecting regional differences in fuel type and burning conditions. The same variability is also observed on a yearly basis, with a peak in the ERNH3 / CO ratio observed for the year 2010 for all biomes. These results highlight the need for the development of dynamic emission factors that take into better account local variations in fuel type and fire conditions. We also compare the IASI-derived ERNH3 / CO ratio with values reported in the literature, usually calculated from ground-based or airborne measurements. We find general good agreement in the referenced ERNH3 / CO ratio except for cropland, for which the ERNH3 / CO ratio shows an underestimation of about 2-2.5 times.

  20. Cashew cultivation, access to land and food security in Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana:\\ud Preventing the intergenerational transmission of poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Ruth; Mariwah, Simon; Barima Antwi, Kwabena

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the implications of changing agricultural land use from food production towards increased cashew cultivation for food security and poverty alleviation in Jaman North District, Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. Based on qualitative, participatory research with a total of 60 participants, the research found that increased cashew production had led to improvements in living standards for many farmers and their children over recent years. Global demand for cashew is ...

  1. Nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that despite their crucial importance to national security, safeguards at the Department of Energy's (DOE) weapons facilities may be falling short. DOE security inspections have identified many weaknesses, including poor performance by members of DOE's security force, poor accountability for quantities of nuclear materials, and the inability of personnel to locate documents containing classified information. About 13 percent of the 2,100 identified weakness resulted in DOE inspectors giving out unsatisfactory security ratings; another 38 percent led to marginal ratings. In addition, DOE's centralized safeguards and security information tracking system lacks current data on whether DOE field offices have corrected the identified weaknesses. Without reliable information, DOE has no way of knowing whether timely action was taken to correct problems, nor can it determine whether weaknesses are systematic. DOE has tried to minimize the impact of these security weaknesses at its facilities by establishing multiple layers of protection measures and instituting interim and compensatory measures for identified weaknesses. DOE is planning enhancements to the centralized tracking system that should improve its reliability and increase its effectiveness

  2. Secure ICCP Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Mark J.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Dayley, Greg K.; Becker, Larry J.

    2017-06-30

    Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol (ICCP), defined by the IEC 60870-6 TASE.2 standard, was developed to enable data exchange over wide area networks between electric system entities, including utility control centers, Independent System Operators (ISOs), Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs) and Independent Power Producers (IPP) also known as Non-Utility Generators (NUG). ICCP is an unprotected protocol, and as a result is vulnerable to such actions as integrity violation, interception or alteration, spoofing, and eavesdropping. Because of these vulnerabilities with unprotected ICCP communication, security enhancements, referred to as Secure ICCP, have been added and are included in the ICCP products that utilities have received since 2003 when the standard was defined. This has resulted in an ICCP product whose communication can be encrypted and authenticated to address these vulnerabilities.

  3. Dynamic model of minimax control over economic security state of the region in the presence of risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Fedorovich Shorikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and solution of management of economic security state in the region (MESSR requires development of a dynamic economic-mathematical model that takes into account the presence of control actions, uncontrolled parameters (risk modeling errors, etc. and availability of information deficit. At the same time, the existing approaches to solving such problems are based primarily on static models and the use of stochastic modeling of the device, which is required for the application of knowledge of the probability characteristics of the main model parameters and special conditions for the realization of the process. We should note that to use the apparatus of stochastic modeling, very strict conditions are required, which in practice are usually not feasible in advance In this paper, we propose to use a deterministic approach for modeling and solving the original problem in the form of a dynamic programming problem of minimax control (optimization of a guaranteed result MESSR at the determined point of time, taking into account the availability of risks of deterministic and stochastic nature (combined risks model. At thesametime, under therisks in thesocial and economic system we understand thefactors that negatively catastrophically affect the results of the reviewed processes inside it. For an effective use, a technique of prediction and assessment of time rows and stochastic risks in MESSR optimization process is presented, which can serve as a basis for the development of appropriate computer software. To solve the problem of program minimax control MESSR in the presence of risks, we propose a method which is reduced to the realization of a finite number of solutions of linear and convex mathematical programming and discrete optimization problem. The proposed method makes it possible to develop efficient numerical procedures to implement computer simulation of the dynamics of the problem, build program minimax control and gain optimal

  4. A novel large deletion of the ICR1 region including H19 and putative enhancer elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryssira, Helen; Amenta, Stella; Kanber, Deniz; Sofocleous, Christalena; Lykopoulou, Evangelia; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Cerrato, Flavia; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Bens, Susanne; Riccio, Andrea; Buiting, Karin

    2015-05-06

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare pediatric overgrowth disorder with a variable clinical phenotype caused by deregulation affecting imprinted genes in the chromosomal region 11p15. Alterations of the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) at the IGF2/H19 locus resulting in biallelic expression of IGF2 and biallelic silencing of H19 account for approximately 10% of patients with BWS. The majority of these patients have epimutations of the ICR1 without detectable DNA sequence changes. Only a few patients were found to have deletions. Most of these deletions are small affecting different parts of the ICR1 differentially methylated region (ICR1-DMR) removing target sequences for CTCF. Only a very few deletions reported so far include the H19 gene in addition to the CTCF binding sites. None of these deletions include IGF2. A male patient was born with hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and hypoglycemia suggestive of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Using methylation-specific (MS)-MLPA (Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) we have identified a maternally inherited large deletion of the ICR1 region in a patient and his mother. The deletion results in a variable clinical expression with a classical BWS in the mother and a more severe presentation of BWS in her son. By genome-wide SNP array analysis the deletion was found to span ~100 kb genomic DNA including the ICR1DMR, H19, two adjacent non-imprinted genes and two of three predicted enhancer elements downstream to H19. Methylation analysis by deep bisulfite next generation sequencing revealed hypermethylation of the maternal allele at the IGF2 locus in both, mother and child, although IGF2 is not affected by the deletion. We here report on a novel large familial deletion of the ICR1 region in a BWS family. Due to the deletion of the ICR1-DMR CTCF binding cannot take place and the residual enhancer elements have access to the IGF2 promoters. The aberrant methylation (hypermethylation) of the maternal IGF2

  5. Software Assurance in Acquisition: Mitigating Risks to the Enterprise. A Reference Guide for Security-Enhanced Software Acquisition and Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Monitoring ISO /IEC 12207 2008(E) IEEE 1062 1998 PMBOK 3.0 Initiating Closing 3. Monitoring & Controlling 1. Planning 2. Executing Follow-on...software life cycles [ ISO /IEC 15026]. Software assurance is a key element of national security and homeland security. It is critical because dramatic...they are met. This may also include a plan for testing that SwA requirements are met. The [NDIA] and [ ISO /IEC 15026] provide details on structure and

  6. BOF4WSS : a business-oriented framework for enhancing web services security for e-business

    OpenAIRE

    Nurse, Jason R. C.; Sinclair, Jane

    2009-01-01

    When considering Web services' (WS) use for online business-to-business (B2B) collaboration between companies, security is a complicated and very topical issue. This is especially true with regard to reaching a level of security beyond the technological layer, that is supported and trusted by all businesses involved. With appreciation of this fact, our research draws from established development methodologies to develop a new, business-oriented framework (BOF4WSS) to guide e-businesses in def...

  7. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  8. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Matsuura, Maki; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author).

  9. Food for Work Program and its Implications on Food Security: A Critical Review with a Practical Example from the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Gedamu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of food-for-work (FFW programs in Ethiopia is seriously lacking. Most of the few available reports indicate that these programs have reached very few achievements in terms of food security and reduction of poverty at large. As expressed by Holden et al. (2005, FFW programs are commonly aimed to produce or maintain potentially valuable public goods necessary to stimulate productivity and thus income growth. Natural resources management, like rural road construction, erosion control and afforestation of degraded lands can be mentioned as valuable measures which could stimulate productivity and agricultural growth. The poverty reduction and food security impact of food or cash for work activities are larger if they offer not only seasonal job opportunities to the rural community but also long term employment possibilities. This is more likely if the projects are regionally dispersed and combined with basic education. In the Ethiopian context, it was always questionable if the continuous boom in food aid (regardless of cash or food for work purposes was the solution for the long standing food insecurity and poverty crises in the country. The study discusses the efficiency of FFW programs that aimed to reduce rural poverty and ensure food security on the one hand, and the impact of the food aid on resource and time allocation of the participating households for own food production on the other. The study is based on a field research conducted at a FFW program project, in the Amhara region, Ethiopia run by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ with the view of improving food security in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A household theoretical model is used to analyze the sample data, whether FFW program may indeed reduce household food insecurity and/or has some crowding-out effects on labour allocation of participating households for own field production.

  10. The Free Trade Area of the Americas: Can Regional Economic Integration Lead to Greater Cooperation on Security?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandoval, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...) and its impact on cooperative security in the Western Hemisphere. Similar to the l990s, when the U.S. government debated the pros and cons of the NAFTA, the United States now faces a debate over passage and implementation of the FTAA...

  11. Collaborative innovations with rural and regional secondary teachers: enhancing student learning in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

    2011-06-01

    When questioned, secondary mathematics teachers in rural and regional schools in Australia refer to their limited opportunities to engage and share experiences with peers in other schools as an under-utilised and cost-effective mechanism to support their professional learning and enhance their students' learning. The paper reports on the creation and evaluation of a network of learning communities of rural secondary mathematics teachers around a common purpose—enhancement and increased engagement of student learning in mathematics. To achieve this goal, teams of teachers from six rural schools identified an issue hindering improved student learning of mathematics in their school. Working collaboratively with support from university personnel with expertise in curriculum, assessment and quality pedagogy, teachers developed and implemented strategies to address an identified issue in ways that were relevant to their teaching contexts. The research study identifies issues in mathematics of major concern to rural teachers of mathematics, the successes and challenges the teachers faced in working in learning communities on the issue they identified, and the efficacy of the professional learning model.

  12. Untranslated regions of diverse plant viral RNAs vary greatly in translation enhancement efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Qiuling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole plants or plant cell cultures can serve as low cost bioreactors to produce massive amounts of a specific protein for pharmacological or industrial use. To maximize protein expression, translation of mRNA must be optimized. Many plant viral RNAs harbor extremely efficient translation enhancers. However, few of these different translation elements have been compared side-by-side. Thus, it is unclear which are the most efficient translation enhancers. Here, we compare the effects of untranslated regions (UTRs containing translation elements from six plant viruses on translation in wheat germ extract and in monocotyledenous and dicotyledenous plant cells. Results The highest expressing uncapped mRNAs contained viral UTRs harboring Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-like cap-independent translation elements (BTEs. The BYDV BTE conferred the most efficient translation of a luciferase reporter in wheat germ extract and oat protoplasts, while uncapped mRNA containing the BTE from Tobacco necrosis virus-D translated most efficiently in tobacco cells. Capped mRNA containing the Tobacco mosaic virus omega sequence was the most efficient mRNA in tobacco cells. UTRs from Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, Tomato bushy stunt virus, and Crucifer-infecting tobamovirus (crTMV did not stimulate translation efficiently. mRNA with the crTMV 5′ UTR was unstable in tobacco protoplasts. Conclusions BTEs confer the highest levels of translation of uncapped mRNAs in vitro and in vivo, while the capped omega sequence is most efficient in tobacco cells. These results provide a basis for understanding mechanisms of translation enhancement, and for maximizing protein synthesis in cell-free systems, transgenic plants, or in viral expression vectors.

  13. How Do Environmental Issues Contribute to Regional Instability? and Which Regions Will Pose the Greatest Threat to U.S. Security as a Result of Environmental Degredation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schantz, Blair

    1998-01-01

    .... The primary objective of this research is to determine and define how environmental issues contribute to regional political, economic or physical instability and then apply this definition to the regions of the world...

  14. Mali and Nigeria Should be Established as Key Regional Partners of the United States to Further Mutual Interests for Ensuring Long-Term Security and Stability in the Sahel Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    natural resources and markets through the IMF and World Bank’s Structural Adjustment Programs ( SAPs ) during the 1980s. As a result, the security...development- indicators&Type=TABLE&preview=on#. On the macroeconomics spectrum, an economic dependency, poor human resources , and lack of... resources became involved in the region but now find it necessary to protect their interests and homelands from a variety of hybrid threats

  15. Smart security proven practices

    CERN Document Server

    Quilter, J David

    2014-01-01

    Smart Security: Understanding and Contributing to the Business is a video presentation. Length: 68 minutes. In Smart Security: Understanding and Contributing to the Business, presenter J. David Quilter demonstrates the benefits of how a fully integrated security program increases business profits and delivers smart security practices at the same time. The presentation does away with the misconception that security is only an expense. In fact, a well-integrated security program can protect business interests, thereby enhancing productivity and net income. Quilter covers cost analysis and secu

  16. Intraperitoneal delivery of monoclonal antibodies: enhanced regional delivery advantage using intravenous unlabeled anti-mouse antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.L.; Fisher, S.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAb) delivered intraperitoneally expose cells in contact with peritoneal fluid to considerably higher levels of MAb than if the MAb dose were given intravenously. This regional delivery advantage for intact MAb is present mainly due to the relatively slow exit of MAb from the peritoneal fluid to the blood. Eventually, following i.p. injection, blood levels of MAb rise resulting in exposure of the animal to high systemic MAb levels and potential toxicity. In this series of experiments, systemic exposure was minimized by the administration of unlabeled goat polyclonal anti-mouse antibody intravenously from 1 1/2 to 6 h following i.p. MAb injection. This maneuver results in the formation of immune complexes with their subsequent clearance and dehalogenation by the reticuloendothelial system, thus minimizing systemic MAb exposure. This approach, of increasing systemic clearance of MAb, did not alter intraperitoneal MAb levels and thus significantly increased the regional delivery advantage to the peritoneal cavity by 70-100%. This approach provides an immunologic rationale for the further enhancement of MAb delivery to i.p. foci of malignant disease and may have diagnostic and therapeutic utility. (author)

  17. Enhancing nurse satisfaction: an exploration of specialty nurse shortage in a region of NHS England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Keith; Wilde, Rebecca; Shutes, Karl

    2018-03-22

    This article offers nurse managers guidance on analysing, managing and addressing a potentially dissatisfied nursing workforce, focusing on three priority shortage specialties: emergency care, paediatrics and cardiology. The aim of the study was to explore to what extent registered nurses and healthcare assistants, referred to collectively here as 'nursing staff', are satisfied with teamworking opportunities, continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities and workplace autonomy. A survey questionnaire was developed to evaluate three derived determinants of nurse satisfaction: team working, CPD and autonomy. The NHS West Midlands region was the focus given that it is among the poorest performing regions outside London in filling nursing posts. Overall, nursing staff respondents were satisfied with teamworking, CPD and autonomy, which challenges the perception that nurses in NHS England are dissatisfied with these satisfaction determinants. The findings give a complex picture of nurse satisfaction; for example a large minority of respondents were dissatisfied with their ability to carry out duties as they see fit. When developing management systems to investigate, manage and enhance nurse satisfaction, nurse managers must recognise the complexity and subtleties of determining factors. This will increase as nursing becomes more specialised. Subsequently, nurse managers need to work closely with staff at higher education institutions and other professional agencies to commission appropriate professional development. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  18. Metropolization Process for enhancing local and regional planning : an experience of cirebon metropolitan, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi Rustidja, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metropolitan develops in line with resource utilization, investment, and transactions of regional activities. Metropolization of an area gives emerge urban economy that changes the situation, form, and pattern of urban space interactions. On the other hand, metropolism concerns the strategy of changing variation of urban space, so that metropolitan invasion not only form of urban space but also the process of interaction among stakeholders in developing metropolitan area. Based on participatory research, this article explores metropolitan invasion process for enhancing local and regional planning, both indigenous and intrusive cataclysmic. The study find that the primeval, rural, and urban as elemental environment must be considered in developing metropolitan, not merely form the structure and pattern of urban space. The metropolization process also requires the strategic of rural urban linkage, context setting and local assessment, strategic community investment, and interculturalist approach. The other findings of the study show that metropolization in Cirebon Metropolitan, West Java emphasizing on promotion of competitiveness strategy, value chain urban activities, and networking of urban areas. Cirebon Metropolitan must promote the realization of growth centers and connect the interregional activities of metropolitan area for providing sustainable economic growth.

  19. Android application security essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, Pragati

    2013-01-01

    Android Application Security Essentials is packed with examples, screenshots, illustrations, and real world use cases to secure your apps the right way.If you are looking for guidance and detailed instructions on how to secure app data, then this book is for you. Developers, architects, managers, and technologists who wish to enhance their knowledge of Android security will find this book interesting. Some prior knowledge of development on the Android stack is desirable but not required.

  20. A novel engineered interchain disulfide bond in the constant region enhances the thermostability of adalimumab Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hitomi; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Ueda, Tadashi; Ohkuri, Takatoshi

    2018-01-01

    We constructed a system for expressing the Fab of the therapeutic human monoclonal antibody adalimumab at a yield of 20 mg/L in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. To examine the contribution of interchain disulfide bonds to conformational stability, we prepared adalimumab Fab from which the interchain disulfide bond at the C-terminal region at both the CH 1 and CL domains was deleted by substitution of Cys with Ala (Fab ΔSS ). DSC measurements showed that the Tm values of Fab ΔSS were approximately 5 °C lower than those of wild-type Fab, suggesting that the interchain disulfide bond contributes to conformational thermostability. Using computer simulations, we designed a novel interchain disulfide bond outside the C-terminal region to increase the stability of Fab ΔSS . The resulting Fab (mutSS Fab ΔSS ) had the mutations H:V177C and L:Q160C in Fab ΔSS , confirming the formation of the disulfide bond between CH 1 and CL. The thermostability of mutSS Fab ΔSS was approximately 5 °C higher than that of Fab ΔSS . Therefore, the introduction of the designed interchain disulfide bond enhanced the thermostability of Fab ΔSS and mitigated the destabilization caused by partial reduction of the interchain disulfide bond at the C-terminal region, which occurs in site-specific modification such as PEGylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.