WorldWideScience

Sample records for enhancing commercial outcomes

  1. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin

    2003-07-01

    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  2. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Many experts believe that commercial organ transplants continue unabated despite international efforts to curb them. The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as seen in our institution. Materials and Methods: A ...

  3. Effects of financing mechanisms in enhancing commercialization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and welfare of smallholder resource-poor farmers in the region. Most interventions focused on improving production and producers' incomes. While farmers have intensified production and are marketing their produce, little efforts have focused on development of local markets, which are vital in spurring commercialization.

  4. Enhancing data from commercial space flights (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ariel; Paolini, Aaron; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2017-05-01

    Video tracking of rocket launches inherently must be done from long range. Due to the high temperatures produced, cameras are often placed far from launch sites and their distance to the rocket increases as it is tracked through the flight. Consequently, the imagery collected is generally severely degraded by atmospheric turbulence. In this talk, we present our experience in enhancing commercial space flight videos. We will present the mission objectives, the unique challenges faced, and the solutions to overcome them.

  5. Enhancing Teaching Effectiveness and Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript addresses how post-secondary educators can enhance their teaching effectiveness and student learning outcomes through student assessment. Highlights will include evidence-based practices, teaching style, methodology, and the use of assessment data for university instructors. Primary focus will be data obtained from key stakeholders…

  6. Image processing and enhancement provided by commercial dental software programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehmann, T M; Troeltsch, E; Spitzer, K

    2002-01-01

    To identify and analyse methods/algorithms for image processing provided by various commercial software programs used in direct digital dental imaging and to map them onto a standardized nomenclature...

  7. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) to enhance EDC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals was mandated under 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Food Quality Protection Act. Efficiencies can be gained in the endocrine disruptor screening program by using available biological and toxicological knowledge to facilitate greater use of high throughput screening data and other data sources to inform endocrine disruptor assessments. Likewise, existing knowledge, when properly organized, can help aid interpretation of test results. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework, which organizes information concerning measureable changes that link initial biological interactions with a chemical to adverse effects that are meaningful to risk assessment and management, can aid this process. This presentation outlines the ways in which the AOP framework has already been employed to support EDSP and how it may further enhance endocrine disruptor assessments in the future. Screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals was mandated under 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Food Quality Protection Act. Efficiencies can be gained in the endocrine disruptor screening program by using available biological and toxicological knowledge to facilitate greater use of high throughput screening data and other data sources to inform endocrine disruptor assessments. Likewise, existing knowledge, when properly organized, can help aid interpretation of test results. The adverse outcome pathway

  8. Enhanced capacitive properties of commercial activated carbon by re-activation in molten carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Beihu; Xiao, Zuoan; Zhu, Hua; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Wenlong; Wang, Dihua

    2015-12-01

    Simple, affordable and green methods to improve capacitive properties of commercial activated carbon (AC) are intriguing since ACs possess a predominant role in the commercial supercapacitor market. Herein, we report a green reactivation of commercial ACs by soaking ACs in molten Na2CO3-K2CO3 (equal in mass ratios) at 850 °C combining the merits of both physical and chemical activation strategies. The mechanism of molten carbonate treatment and structure-capacitive activity correlations of the ACs are rationalized. Characterizations show that the molten carbonate treatment increases the electrical conductivity of AC without compromising its porosity and wettability of electrolytes. Electrochemical tests show the treated AC exhibited higher specific capacitance, enhanced high-rate capability and excellent cycle performance, promising its practical application in supercapacitors. The present study confirms that the molten carbonate reactivation is a green and effective method to enhance capacitive properties of ACs.

  9. Job/Task Analysis: Enhancing the Commercial Building Workforce Through the Development of Foundational Materials; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D.; Kemkar, S.

    2012-09-01

    For many commercial building operation job categories, industry consensus has not been reached on the knowledge, skills, and abilities that practitioners should possess. The goal of this guidance is to help streamline the minimum competencies taught or tested by organizations catering to building operations and maintenance personnel while providing a basis for developing and comparing new and existing training programs in the commercial building sector. The developed JTAs will help individuals identify opportunities to enhance their professional skills, enable industry to identify an appropriately skilled workforce, and allow training providers to ensure that they are providing the highest quality product possible.

  10. Prognostic Factors for Outcomes of In-Flight Sudden Cardiac Arrest on Commercial Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Paulo M; DeJohn, Charles A; Ricaurte, Eduard M; Mills, William D

    In-flight cardiac arrest (IFCA) is a relatively rare but challenging event. Outcomes and prognostic factors are not entirely understood for victims of IFCAs in commercial aviation. This was a retrospective cohort study of airline passengers who experienced IFCA. Demographic and operational variables were studied to identify association in a multivariate logistic regression model with the outcome of survival-to-hospital. In-flight medical emergencies were processed by a ground-based medical center. Subsequent comparisons were made between reported shockable-rhythm (RSR) and reported non-shockable-rhythm (RNSR) groups. Logistic regression was also used to identify predictors for shock advised and flight diversions using a case control study design. Significant predictors for survival-to-hospital were RSR and remaining flight time to destination. The percentage of RSR cases was 24.6%. The survival to hospital admission was 22.7% (22/97) for passengers in RSR compared with 2.4% (7/297) in the RNSR group. The adjusted odds ratio for survival-to-hospital for the RSR group compared to the RNSR group was 13.6 (5.5-33.5). The model showed odds for survival to hospital decreased with longer scheduled remaining flight duration with adjusted OR = 0.701 (0.535-0.920) per hour increase. No correlation between diversions and survival for RSR cases was found. Survival-to-hospital from IFCAs is best when an RSR is present. The percentage of RSR cases was lower than in other out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) settings, which suggests delayed discovery. Flight diversions did not significantly affect resuscitation outcome. We emphasize good quality cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation as key factors for IFCA survival. Alves PM, DeJohn CA, Ricaurte EM, Mills WD. Prognostic factors for outcomes of in-flight sudden cardiac arrest on commercial airlines. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(10):862-868.

  11. Commercial kidney transplantation: trends, outcomes and challenges-a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Bappa; Ahmed, Mustafa; Mushtaq, Raees F; Alshaebi, Fuad

    2012-01-01

    Many experts believe that commercial organ transplants continue unabated despite international efforts to curb them. The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as seen in our institution. A retrospective study of LURT patients on follow-up at our institution. The list of all LURT patients was obtained from our renal registry. Inclusion criteria for the study were 1) Presentation to our hospital within the first month post transplant; 2) Completion of one-year follow-up OR patient or allograft losses prior to completing one-year follow-up. SPSS 17.0 was used for data analysis. Forty-five patients satisfied the entry criteria; 33 males and 12 females with age range 13-68 years, and mean ± SD of 40 + 15 years. The majority (28) of the transplants were carried out in Pakistan, the remaining in Egypt, Philippines, and China. There has been a steady decline in the number of new patients with commercial transplants over a four-year period. Complications encountered included infections in 19 (42.2%) patients, biopsy-proven acute rejections in nine patients (20%), surgical complications in 10 patients (22.2%), post-transplant diabetes in seven (15.6%), delayed graft function in one (2.2%), and chronic allograft nephropathy in one (2.2%) patient. Patient survival at one year was 97.8% and allograft survival was 88.9%. Commercial kidney transplant is on the decline as seen in our center, likely as a result of international efforts to curb it, as well as due to a parallel increase in renal transplants in the country. One-year patient and allograft survivals are good but there is a relatively high rate of infections.

  12. Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Commercially raised feeder insects used to feed captive insectivores are a good source of many nutrients but are deficient in several key nutrients. Current methods used to supplement insects include dusting and gut-loading. Here, we report on the nutrient composition of four species of commercially raised feeder insects fed a special diet to enhance their nutrient content. Crickets, mealworms, superworms, and waxworms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, taurine, carotenoids, inositol, and cholesterol. All four species contained enhanced levels of vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids when compared to previously published data for these species. Crickets, superworms, and mealworms contained β-carotene although using standard conversion factors only crickets and superworms would likely contain sufficient vitamin A activity for most species of insectivores. Waxworms did not contain any detectable β-carotene but did contain zeaxanthin which they likely converted from dietary β-carotene. All four species contained significant amounts of both inositol and cholesterol. Like previous reports all insects were a poor source of calcium and only superworms contained vitamin D above the limit of detection. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats or poultry, these species were good sources of most other nutrients although the high fat and low moisture content of both waxworms and superworms means when corrected for energy density these two species were deficient in more nutrients than crickets or mealworms. These data show the value of modifying the diet of commercially available insects as they are growing to enhance their nutrient content. They also suggest that for most insectivores properly supplemented lower fat insects such as crickets, or smaller mealworms should form the bulk of the diet. © 2015 The Authors. Zoo Biology

  13. A 12-week commercial web-based weight-loss program for overweight and obese adults: randomized controlled trial comparing basic versus enhanced features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Penelope; Fletcher, Kate; Martin, Julia; Aguiar, Elroy J; Lucas, Ashlee; Neve, Melinda J; Callister, Robin

    2012-04-25

    The development and use of Web-based programs for weight loss is increasing rapidly, yet they have rarely been evaluated using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Interestingly, most people who attempt weight loss use commercially available programs, yet it is very uncommon for commercial programs to be evaluated independently or rigorously. To compare the efficacy of a standard commercial Web-based weight-loss program (basic) versus an enhanced version of this Web program that provided additional personalized e-feedback and contact from the provider (enhanced) versus a wait-list control group (control) on weight outcomes in overweight and obese adults. This purely Web-based trial using a closed online user group was an assessor-blinded RCT with participants randomly allocated to the basic or enhanced 12-week Web-based program, based on social cognitive theory, or the control, with body mass index (BMI) as the primary outcome. We enrolled 309 adults (129/309, 41.8% male, BMI mean 32.3, SD 4 kg/m(2)) with 84.1% (260/309) retention at 12 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that both intervention groups reduced their BMI compared with the controls (basic: -0.72, SD 1.1 kg/m(2), enhanced: -1.0, SD 1.4, control: 0.15, SD 0.82; P Web-based weight-loss program can be efficacious across a range of weight-related outcomes and lifestyle behaviors and achieve clinically important weight loss. Although the provision of additional personalized feedback did not facilitate greater weight loss after 12 weeks, the impact of superior participant retention on longer-term outcomes requires further study. Further research is required to determine the optimal mix of program features that lead to the biggest treatment impact over time. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): 12610000197033.

  14. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by miceller-polymer flooding. M-1 project: facilities report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, B.L. (ed.)

    1977-04-01

    ERDA and Marathon Oil Company contracted together for a commercial scale demonstration of enhanced oil recovery by the Maraflood (TM) oil recovery process. This M-1 Project is located within Sections 15, 16, 21 and 22, T6N, R13W, Crawford County, Illinois, encompassing approximately 407 acres of Robinson Sand reservoir developed in the first decade of the century. The area covers portions of several waterfloods developed on 10-acre spacing in the 1950's that were approaching their economic limit. This report describes all M-1 Project facilities, how they were prepared or constructed, their purpose and how they operate: (1) wells (drilling and completion); (2) production facility; (3) injection facility; and (4) various service systems required during project development and/or operation. (48 fig, 7 tables) (DLC).

  15. Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: I. Quarter-level outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Godden, S; Rapnicki, P; Gorden, P; Timms, L; Aly, S S; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J

    2013-07-01

    The study objective was to compare the efficacy of 3 commercial dry cow mastitis formulations regarding quarter-level prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) postcalving, cure of preexisting infections over the dry period, prevention of new infections during the dry period, and risk for a clinical mastitis case between calving and 100d in milk (DIM). A total of 1,091 cows (4,364 quarters) from 6 commercial dairy herds in 4 different states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) were enrolled and randomized to 1 of the 3 treatments at dry-off: Quartermaster (QT; 1,000,000 IU of procaine penicillin G and 1 g of dihydrostreptomycin; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY), Spectramast DC (SP; 500 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride; Pfizer Animal Health), or ToMorrow Dry Cow (TM; 300mg of cephapirin benzathine; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO). Quarter milk samples were collected for routine bacteriological culture before dry cow therapy treatment at dry-off, 0 to 6 DIM, and 7 to 13 DIM and an on-farm record-keeping system was used to retrieve data on clinical mastitis cases. Noninferiority analysis was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on the primary outcome, risk for a bacteriological cure during the dry period. Multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to describe the effect of treatment on risk for presence of IMI postcalving and risk of a new IMI during the dry period. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to describe the effect of treatment on the risk and time for quarters to experience an episode of clinical mastitis between calving and 100 DIM. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of infection at dry-off was 19.2%. The most common pathogen isolated from milk samples at dry-off was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, followed by Aerococcus spp. and other Streptococcus spp. Noninferiority analysis showed no effect of treatment on risk for a cure between dry-off and calving [least squares means (LSM): QT=93

  16. Enhanced microbial coalbed methane generation: A review of research, commercial activity, and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Daniel J.; Vinson, David S.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Akob, Denise M.; Fields, Matthew W.; Cunningham, Al B.; Orem, William H.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) makes up a significant portion of the world’s natural gas resources. The discovery that approximately 20% of natural gas is microbial in origin has led to interest in microbially enhanced CBM (MECoM), which involves stimulating microorganisms to produce additional CBM from existing production wells. This paper reviews current laboratory and field research on understanding processes and reservoir conditions which are essential for microbial CBM generation, the progress of efforts to stimulate microbial methane generation in coal beds, and key remaining knowledge gaps. Research has been primarily focused on identifying microbial communities present in areas of CBM generation and attempting to determine their function, in-situ reservoir conditions that are most favorable for microbial CBM generation, and geochemical indicators of metabolic pathways of methanogenesis (i.e., acetoclastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis). Meanwhile, researchers at universities, government agencies, and companies have focused on four primary MECoM strategies: 1) microbial stimulation (i.e., addition of nutrients to stimulate native microbes); 2) microbial augmentation (i.e., addition of microbes not native to or abundant in the reservoir of interest); 3) physically increasing microbial access to coal and distribution of amendments; and 4) chemically increasing the bioavailability of coal organics. Most companies interested in MECoM have pursued microbial stimulation: Luca Technologies, Inc., successfully completed a pilot scale field test of their stimulation strategy, while two others, Ciris Energy and Next Fuel, Inc., have undertaken smaller scale field tests. Several key knowledge gaps remain that need to be addressed before MECoM strategies can be implemented commercially. Little is known about the bacterial community responsible for coal biodegradation and how these microorganisms may be stimulated to enhance microbial methanogenesis. In addition, research

  17. Enhancing a Commercial Game Engine to Support Research on Route Realism for Synthetic Human Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg T. Hanold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating routes for entities in virtual environments, such as simulated vehicles or synthetic human characters, is a long-standing problem, and route planning algorithms have been developed and studied for some time. Existing route planning algorithms, including the widely used A* algorithm, are generally intended to achieve optimality in some metric, such as minimum length or minimum time. Comparatively little attention has been given to route realism, defined as the similarity of the algorithm-generated route to the route followed by real humans in the same terrain with the same constraints and goals. Commercial game engines have seen increasing use as a context for research. To study route realism in a game engine, two developments were needed: a quantitative metric for measuring route realism and a game engine able to capture route data needed to compute the realism metric. Enhancements for recording route data for both synthetic characters and human players were implemented within the Unreal Tournament 2004 game engine. A methodology for assessing the realism of routes and other behaviors using a quantitative metric was developed. The enhanced Unreal Tournament 2004 game engine and the realism assessment methodology were tested by capturing data required to calculate a metric of route realism.

  18. A 12-Week Commercial Web-Based Weight-Loss Program for Overweight and Obese Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Basic Versus Enhanced Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Penelope; Fletcher, Kate; Martin, Julia; Aguiar, Elroy J; Lucas, Ashlee; Neve, Melinda J; Callister, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Background The development and use of Web-based programs for weight loss is increasing rapidly, yet they have rarely been evaluated using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Interestingly, most people who attempt weight loss use commercially available programs, yet it is very uncommon for commercial programs to be evaluated independently or rigorously. Objective To compare the efficacy of a standard commercial Web-based weight-loss program (basic) versus an enhanced version of this Web program that provided additional personalized e-feedback and contact from the provider (enhanced) versus a wait-list control group (control) on weight outcomes in overweight and obese adults. Methods This purely Web-based trial using a closed online user group was an assessor-blinded RCT with participants randomly allocated to the basic or enhanced 12-week Web-based program, based on social cognitive theory, or the control, with body mass index (BMI) as the primary outcome. Results We enrolled 309 adults (129/309, 41.8% male, BMI mean 32.3, SD 4 kg/m2) with 84.1% (260/309) retention at 12 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that both intervention groups reduced their BMI compared with the controls (basic: –0.72, SD 1.1 kg/m2, enhanced: –1.0, SD 1.4, control: 0.15, SD 0.82; P 3.0, SD 4.1, control: 0.4, SD 2.3; P 2.0, SD 3.5 cm, enhanced: –3.2, SD 4.7, control: 0.5, SD 3.0; P Web-based weight-loss program can be efficacious across a range of weight-related outcomes and lifestyle behaviors and achieve clinically important weight loss. Although the provision of additional personalized feedback did not facilitate greater weight loss after 12 weeks, the impact of superior participant retention on longer-term outcomes requires further study. Further research is required to determine the optimal mix of program features that lead to the biggest treatment impact over time. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): 12610000197033; http

  19. Efficacy of standard versus enhanced features in a Web-based commercial weight-loss program for obese adults, part 2: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Callister, Robin

    2013-07-22

    Commercial Web-based weight-loss programs are becoming more popular and increasingly refined through the addition of enhanced features, yet few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have independently and rigorously evaluated the efficacy of these commercial programs or additional features. To determine whether overweight and obese adults randomized to an online weight-loss program with additional support features (enhanced) experienced a greater reduction in body mass index (BMI) and increased usage of program features after 12 and 24 weeks compared to those randomized to a standard online version (basic). An assessor-blinded RCT comparing 301 adults (male: n=125, 41.5%; mean age: 41.9 years, SD 10.2; mean BMI: 32.2 kg/m(2), SD 3.9) who were recruited and enrolled offline, and randomly allocated to basic or enhanced versions of a commercially available Web-based weight-loss program for 24 weeks. Retention at 24 weeks was greater in the enhanced group versus the basic group (basic 68.5%, enhanced 81.0%; P=.01). In the intention-to-treat analysis of covariance with imputation using last observation carried forward, after 24 weeks both intervention groups had reductions in key outcomes with no difference between groups: BMI (basic mean -1.1 kg/m(2), SD 1.5; enhanced mean -1.3 kg/m(2), SD 2.0; P=.29), weight (basic mean -3.3 kg, SD 4.7; enhanced mean -4.0 kg, SD 6.2; P=.27), waist circumference (basic mean -3.1 cm, SD 4.6; enhanced mean -4.0 cm, SD 6.2; P=.15), and waist-to-height ratio (basic mean -0.02, SD 0.03; enhanced mean -0.02, SD 0.04, P=.21). The enhanced group logged in more often at both 12 and 24 weeks, respectively (enhanced 12-week mean 34.1, SD 28.1 and 24-week mean 43.1, SD 34.0 vs basic 12-week mean 24.6, SD 25.5 and 24-week mean 31.8, SD 33.9; P=.002). The addition of personalized e-feedback in the enhanced program provided limited additional benefits compared to a standard commercial Web-based weight-loss program. However, it does support greater

  20. Enhanced Fatigue Strength of Commercially Pure Ti Processed by Rotary Swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan ALkhazraji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fully reversed bending fatigue tests were performed on polished hour-glass specimens of commercially pure titanium grade 1 with three different grain sizes, that were produced by severe plastic deformation (rotary swaging and subheat treatments, in order to examine the effect of grain size on fatigue. An improvement in fatigue strength was observed, as the polycrystal grain size was refined. The endurance limit stress was shown to depend on the inverse square root of the grain size as described empirically by a type of Hall-Petch relation. The effect of refining grain size on fatigue crack growth is to increase the number of microstructural barriers to the advancing crack and to reduce the slip length ahead of the crack tip, and thereby lower the crack growth rate. It was found that postdeformation annealing above recrystallization temperature could additionally enhance the work-hardening capability and the ductility of the swaged material, which led to a marked reduction in the fatigue notch sensitivity. At the same time, this reduction was accompanied with a pronounced loss in strength. The high cycle fatigue performance was discussed in detail based on microstructure and mechanical properties.

  1. Comparison enhances size sensitivity: neural correlates of outcome magnitude processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuling Luo

    Full Text Available Magnitude is a critical feature of outcomes. In the present study, two event-related potential (ERP experiments were implemented to explore the neural substrates of outcome magnitude processing. In Experiment 1, we used an adapted gambling paradigm where physical area symbols were set to represent potential relative outcome magnitudes in order to exclude the possibility that the participants would be ignorant of the magnitudes. The context was manipulated as total monetary amount: ¥4 and ¥40. In these two contexts, the relative outcome magnitudes were ¥1 versus ¥3, and ¥10 versus ¥30, respectively. Experiment 2, which provided two area symbols with similar outcome magnitudes, was conducted to exclude the possible interpretation of physical area symbol for magnitude effect of feedback-related negativity (FRN in Experiment 1. Our results showed that FRN responded to the relative outcome magnitude but not to the context or area symbol, with larger amplitudes for relatively small outcomes. A larger FRN effect (the difference between losses and wins was found for relatively large outcomes than relatively small outcomes. Relatively large outcomes evoked greater positive ERP waves (P300 than relatively small outcomes. Furthermore, relatively large outcomes in a high amount context elicited a larger P300 than those in a low amount context. The current study indicated that FRN is sensitive to variations in magnitude. Moreover, relative magnitude was integrated in both the early and late stages of feedback processing, while the monetary amount context was processed only in the late stage of feedback processing.

  2. Treatment, short-term outcomes, and costs associated with larynx cancer care in commercially insured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrew T; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Quon, Harry; Kang, Hyunseok; Kiess, Ana P; Eisele, David W; Frick, Kevin D; Gourin, Christine G

    2018-01-01

    To examine associations between treatment, complications, and costs in patients with laryngeal cancer. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of MarketScan Commercial Claim and Encounters data. We evaluated 10,969 patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer from 2010 to 2012 using cross-tabulations and multivariate regression. Chemoradiation was significantly associated with supraglottic tumors (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 5.9 [4.4-7.8]), pretreatment gastrostomy (RRR = 4.0 [2.7-6.1]), and alcohol abuse (RRR = 0.5 [0.3-0.9]). Treatment-related complications occurred in 23% of patients, with medical complications in 22% and surgical complications in 7%. Chemoradiation (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7 [2.6-5.2]), major surgical procedures (OR = 4.9 [3.5-6.8]), reconstruction (OR = 7.7 (4.1-14.7)], and advanced comorbidity (OR = 9.7 [5.7-16.5] were associated with acute complications. Recurrent/persistent disease occurred in 23% of patients and was associated with high-volume care (OR = 1.4 [1.1-1.8]). Salvage surgery was performed in 46% of patients with recurrent/persistent disease and was less likely for supraglottic disease (OR = 0.5 [0.4-0.8]) and after chemoradiation (OR = 0.4 [0.2-0.6]). Initial treatment and 1-year overall costs for chemoradiation were higher than all other treatment categories, after controlling for all other variables including complications and salvage. High-volume care was associated with significantly lower costs of care for surgical patients but was not associated with differences in costs of care for nonoperative treatment. In commercially insured patients laryngeal cancer, chemoradiation was associated with increased costs, an increased likelihood of treatment-related medical complications, and a reduced likelihood of surgical salvage. Higher-volume surgical care was associated with lower initial treatment and 1-year costs of care. These data have implications for discussions of value and quality in an era of healthcare reform. 2c. Laryngoscope

  3. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowitz, Claire K; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-08-01

    Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Database searches in CABI, Web of Science, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Education Full Text, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and PsychINFO were conducted through May 2013 for peer-reviewed literature related to school-day garden interventions with measures of dietary and/or academic outcomes. Among 12 identified garden studies with dietary measures, all showed increases/improvements in predictors of fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Seven of these also included self-reported FV intake with 5 showing an increase and 2 showing no change. Four additional interventions that included a garden component measured academic outcomes; of these, 2 showed improvements in science achievement and 1 measured and showed improvements in math scores. This small set of studies offers evidence that garden-based learning does not negatively impact academic performance or FV consumption and may favorably impact both. Additional studies with more robust experimental designs and outcome measures are necessary to understand the effects of experiential garden-based learning on children's academic and dietary outcomes. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  4. The impact of commercial rapid respiratory virus diagnostic tests on patient outcomes and health system utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fiona; Drews, Steven J

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections due to influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Rapid tests for detection of these pathogens include antigen detection point of care tests (POC) and newer easy to use molecular tests. From experience, these assays improve both laboratory workflow and assay interpretation issues. However, the question of the benefits of using rapid test technology compared to routine laboratory testing for respiratory viral pathogens is still often asked. Areas covered: Specifically, this review aims to; 1) identify clinical/patient indicators that can be measured prior to and following the implementation of rapid diagnostic test for influenza and RSV, 2) provide multiple perspectives on the extent of impact of a rapid diagnostic test, including direct and indirect outcomes, and 3) identify the technological advancements in the development of rapid testing, demonstrating a timeline that transitions from antigen-based assays to molecular assays. Expert commentary: Key benefits to the use of either antigen-based or molecular rapid tests for patient care, patient flow within institutions, as well as laboratory utilization are identified. Due to improved test characteristics, the authors feel that rapid molecular tests have greater benefits than antigen-based detection methods.

  5. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…

  6. How pharmacy's adoption of social media can enhance patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maria Bell, Jan Douglas, Christopher CuttsCentre for Pharmacy Postgraduate Education, Manchester Pharmacy School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: Social media is progressively being used for sharing health information and for networking among health professionals and patients; this is particularly evident among the younger age groups. There is great potential for pharmacy to engage in the utilization of such platforms to improve health outcomes, and this paper explores some of the areas where social media is already in use in pharmacy and potential areas where using social media could make a positive impact on the determinants of health. The literature around this subject is limited; nevertheless, the number of published studies has increased in recent years. This paper concentrates on the use and application of social media by pharmacy to improve health outcomes. The subject was explored in five main areas: provision of medicines information, safer use of medicines, medicines use in chronic disease, implementation of evidence-based medicine and guidelines, and finally clinical research. In each of these areas, there is an increase in uptake and use of social media platforms by pharmacists and other health care professionals to improve patient outcomes. A variety of the more popular social media platforms have been used by health care professionals and the relative merits of these are discussed within each of the subject areas and consideration given to their application in pharmacy practice. It is evident that the majority of social media users fall into the younger age bracket, which is understandable. However, the majority of patients living with long-term conditions typically fall into the older age bracket (over 65 years of age and this should be taken into account when utilizing social media platforms to improve health outcomes.Keywords: social media, pharmacy, outcomes, impact, health

  7. OBIS-USA: Enhancing Ocean Science Outcomes through Data Interoperability and Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, P.; Fornwall, M.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial and industrial information systems have long built and relied upon standard data formats and transactions. Business processes, analytics, applications, and social networks emerge on top of these standards to create value. Examples of value delivered include operational productivity, analytics that enable growth and profit, and enhanced human communication and creativity for innovation. In science informatics, some research and operational activities operate with only scattered adoption of standards and few of the emergent benefits of interoperability. In-situ biological data management in the marine domain is an exemplar. From the origination of biological occurrence records in surveys, observer programs, monitoring and experimentation, through distribution techniques, to applications, decisions, and management response, marine biological data can be difficult, limited, and costly to integrate because of non-standard and undocumented conditions in the data. While this presentation identifies deficits in marine biological data practices, the presentation also identifies this as a field of opportunity. Standards for biological data and metadata do exist, with growing global adoption and extensibility features. Scientific, economic, and social-value motivations provide incentives to maximize marine science investments. Diverse science communities of national and international scale begin to see benefits of collaborative technologies. OBIS-USA (http://USGS.gov/obis-usa) is a program of the United States Geological Survey. This presentation shows how OBIS-USA directly addresses the opportunity to enhance ocean science outcomes through data infrastructure, including: (1) achieving rapid, economical, and high-quality data capture and data flow, (2) offering technology for data storage and methods for data discovery and quality/suitability evaluation, (3) making data understandable and consistent for application purposes, (4) distributing and integrating data in

  8. Relationships between transport conditions and welfare outcomes during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to document the relationships between selected welfare outcomes and transport conditions during commercial long haul transport of cattle (≥400 km; 6,152 journeys; 290,866 animals). Surveys were delivered to transport carriers to collect information related to welfare outcomes including the number of dead, non-ambulatory (downer) and lame animals during each journey. Transport conditions surveyed included the length of time animals spent on truck, ambient temperature, animal density, shrinkage, loading time, cattle origin, season, experience of truck drivers, and vehicle characteristics. Overall 0.012% of assessed animals became lame, 0.022% non-ambulatory and 0.011% died onboard. Calves and cull cattle were more likely to die and become non-ambulatory during the journey, feeders intermediate, and fat cattle appeared to be the most able to cope with the stress of transport (P ≤ 0.01). The likelihood of cattle becoming non-ambulatory, lame, or dead increased sharply after animals spent over 30 h on truck (P 0.035). The proportion of total compromised animals decreased with more years of truck driving experience (P long distance transport include the total journey duration, too low or high space allowances, too high or too low ambient temperature, and the experience of the truck drivers.

  9. Icariin: Can an herbal extract enhance dental implant outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The success rate of dental implant is closely related to three aspects including supporting bone before implantation, osseointegration process, and prevention of peri-implantitis after implantation. Icariin is one of the traditional Chinese herbal medicines to treat impotence, improve sexual function, and enhance immune function. Recently, there are abundant evidences showing that icariin can strengthen bones, enhance bone healing, inhibit osteopenia, and inhibit inflammation. The Hypothesis: We hypothesize that Icariin may be applied clinically to strengthen and accelerate osseointegration of dental implants, inhibit the peri-implantitis, and shorten the rehabilitation time. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Limited success has been achieved to help implant surgery in spite of much effort. The application of icariin might be a potential method to improve the success rate of dental implant, contributing greatly to implant dentistry.

  10. Energy supply strategy: getting technology commercialized, shale oil and enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, J.E.; Sullo, P.; Michaelis, M.; Nason, H.K.

    1979-12-01

    Purpose is to identify factors inhibiting the near-term investment of industrial funds for producing oil from shale and through enhanced oil recovery, and to estimate the investment and production which would result if these deterrents were removed and suitable incentives provided. The barriers are discussed under the following categories: economic, environmental, institutional/regulatory, and technical. (DLC)

  11. Comparison of the outcomes of the sling technique using a commercial and hand-made polypropylene sling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Oliveira Brito

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes and costs of stress urinary incontinence (SUI surgery using a hand-made sling (Marlex® versus a commerciallyavailable suburethral polypropylene sling (Advantage®. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine women with SUI due to bladder neck hypermobility and/or sphincter incompetence diagnosed by clinical examination and urodynamic studies were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 19 consisted of patients from an academic center (Department of Urology, University Hospital of Federal University of Maranhao, and group 2 (n = 20 patients from private practice. The hand-made polypropylene suburethral sling was used in group 1 and the commercial sling in group 2. The patients were evaluated 30, 60 and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The mean duration of surgery was 43 min. in group 1 and 51 min. in group 2. No postoperative voiding difficulties were observed in group 1 (100%, as well as, in 94.7% of patients of group 2. A bladder catheter was not required in any of the patients of the two groups at the end of the study. The level of satisfaction was 100% in group 1, whereas, one patient of group 2 considered the surgery to be unsuccessful. Urodynamic studies showed low amplitude uninhibited contraction in 11.1% of patients of group 1 and 10.5% of group 2. No complications were observed in either group. CONCLUSION: The hand-made polypropylene mesh (Marlex® can be used for sling procedures, saving costs and yielding results similar to that obtained with commercial sling systems.

  12. Positive outcomes enhance incidental learning for both younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara eMather

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that memory encoding is enhanced when people are anticipating a potential reward, consistent with the idea that dopaminergic systems that respond to motivationally relevant information also enhance memory for that information. In the current study, we examined how anticipating and receiving rewards versus losses affect incidental learning of information. In addition, we compared the modulatory effects of reward anticipation and outcome on memory for younger and older adults. Forty-two younger (aged 18 - 33 years and 44 older (aged 66 - 92 years adults played a game involving pressing a button as soon as they saw a target. Gain trials began with a cue that they would win $.25 if they pressed the button fast enough, loss trials began with a cue that they would avoid losing $.25 if they pressed the button fast enough, and no-outcome trials began with a cue indicating no monetary outcome. The target was a different photo object on each trial (e.g., balloon, dolphin and performance outcomes were displayed after the photo disappeared. Both younger and older adults recalled and recognized pictures from trials with positive outcomes (either rewarding or loss avoiding better than from trials with negative outcomes. Positive outcomes were associated with not only enhanced memory for the picture just seen in that trial, but also with enhanced memory for the picture shown on the next two trials. Although anticipating a reward also enhanced incidental memory, this effect was seen only in recognition memory of positive pictures and was a smaller effect than the outcome effect. The fact that older adults showed similar incidental memory effects of reward anticipation and outcome as younger adults suggests that reward-memory system interactions remain intact in older age.

  13. Ethnicity Moderates the Outcomes of Self-Enhancement and Self-Improvement Themes in Expressive Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Lau, Anna S.; Niles, Andrea N.; Coello, Jordan; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Ko, Ahra C.; Hur, Christopher; Stanton, Annette L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether writing content related to self-enhancing (viz., downward social comparison and situational attributions) and self-improving (viz., upward social comparison and persistence) motivations were differentially related to expressive writing outcomes among 17 Asian American and 17 European American participants. Content analysis of the essays revealed no significant cultural group differences in the likelihood of engaging in self-enhancing vs. self-improving reflections on negative personal experiences. However, cultural group differences were apparent in the relation between self-motivation processes and changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms at 3-month follow-up. Among European Americans, writing that reflected downward social comparison predicted positive outcomes, whereas persistence writing themes were related to poorer outcomes. For Asian Americans, writing about persistence was related to positive outcomes, whereas downward social comparison and situational attributions predicted poorer outcomes. Findings provide evidence suggesting culturally distinct mechanisms for the effects of expressive disclosure. PMID:25111547

  14. Enhancing learning: A comparison of lecture and gaming outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Mary; Bear, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to what we anticipated, our outcomes indicated that learning and satisfaction with learning were no different between the traditional lecture group and the educational gaming group. Learners in the gaming group scored on the examination just as well as, but no higher than, did those in the lecture group. Similarly, students in the gaming group were just as, but no more, satisfied with their learning than were students in the lecture group. Of note, both teaching/learning strategies were shown to be effective for learning with students earning a B average on the examination. Likewise, students in both groups were very satisfied with their respective teaching/learning strategies. Given that our assessment did not support gaming as a superior teaching/learning strategy over lecture, what remains now is the need for a longitudinal study to determine if there are differences in long-term learning. As we implement creative methods of instruction, it is also important to test their effectiveness to ensure that the teaching-learning process is evidence based.

  15. Front of Pack Labels Enhance Attention to Nutrition Information in Novel & Commercial Brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W; Bello, Nora M; Sundar, Raghav P; Peltier, Chad; Bix, Laura

    2015-10-01

    1) To assess whether Front-of-Pack (FOP) nutrition labels garner attention more readily than more complete, mandated nutrition information (the Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP), required in the US), and 2) To determine whether label design characteristics, specifically, color coding and/or coding with facial icons, increase attention to the FOP label. In two experiments, we tracked the allocation of attention while participants (n=125) viewed novel and commercial packages with varied FOP designs using a change detection methodology. We found empirical evidence that FOP labels are attended more often, and earlier, than the currently mandated NFP, and that this benefit is due both to its placement on the front of the package and to the design characteristics of the FOP. Specifically, the use of color in FOPs increased attention to the label, but there was no evidence that coding information via facial icons impacted attention. Our work supports a growing body of evidence supporting the use of FOP labels to attract attention to nutritional information. Findings may be relevant to inform policy decisions on labeling standards.

  16. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Tariq; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    Very high gravity (VHG) technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented) as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40) air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60vvm) was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v) at 40 Brix° with 0.2vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time. Both water and steam consumption reduced significantly under optimum conditions of Brix° and aeration rate with compromising the ethanol production. Results revealed VHG with continuous air flow is viable technique to reduce the ethanol production cost form molasses at commercial scale. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad

    Full Text Available Abstract Very high gravity (VHG technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40 air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60 vvm was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v at 40 Brix° with 0.2 vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5 g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50 h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time. Both water and steam consumption reduced significantly under optimum conditions of Brix° and aeration rate with compromising the ethanol production. Results revealed VHG with continuous air flow is viable technique to reduce the ethanol production cost form molasses at commercial scale.

  18. DEVELOPING A LEARNING MODULE OF COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROL GSK 983 MACHINES TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martono Martono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at: (1 producing a learning module of Computer Numerically Control (CNC GSK 983 machines to enhance the students’ learning outcomes, (2 investigating the learning process of CNC GSK 983 machines in vocational schools, (3 analyzing the effectiveness of the developed module in vocational schools. This study refers to the research procedure of design and development by Richey and Klein consisting of (1 observations of learning and products development, (2 internal and external validation, and (3 testing the effectiveness of the product in the field. The data was analyzed using T-Test. The results showed that: (1 the CNC learning outcomes in Vocational Schools did not meet the expectation; (2 learning modules of CNC GSK 983 to enhance the students’ learning outcomes was developed, and (3 the developed module was effective to enhance the students’ learning outcomes. The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the learning outcomes with the module and the learning outcomes without the module. It means that the module can improve the students’ learning outcomes.

  19. Chemometrics-enhanced fiber optic Raman detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical agents simulants concealed in commercial bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly J. Galan-Freyle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemometric techniques such as partial least squares combined with discriminant analysis (PLS–DA and artificial neural networks (ANN analysis were used to enhance the detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical warfare agents simulants. Triethyl phosphate (TEP mixed with commercial products in their original containers was analyzed through the container walls using fiber-optic-coupled Raman spectroscopy. Experiments were performed by employing a custom built optical fiber probe operating at 488 nm. Detection was accomplished using mixtures of the contents of the commercial bottles and water. The bottle materials included green plastic, green glass, clear plastic, clear glass, amber glass and white plastic. To account for the low scattering-peak intensities of some bottle materials, integration times were increased. Short integration times provided no information for amber glass and white plastic. The limits of detection were on the order of 1–5%, depending on bottle materials and contents. Good discrimination was achieved with PLS–DA when models were generated from a dataset originating from the same type of bottle material. ANN performed better when large sets of data were used, discriminating TEP from bottle materials and contents, as well as accurately classifying over 90% of the data.

  20. Association between Parenchymal Enhancement of the Contralateral Breast in Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging and Outcome of Patients with Unilateral Invasive Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Bas; Dmitriev, Ivan; Loo, C.E.; Pijnappel, Ruud; Gilhuijs, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively investigate whether parenchymal enhancement in dynamic contrast material–enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer is associated with therapy outcome. Materials and Methods After obtaining

  1. Enhancement after Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Rosman, Mohamad; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2017-06-01

    To report the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of enhancement after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Retrospective cohort study. Five hundred twenty-four eyes of 307 patients who underwent SMILE at Singapore National Eye Center between February 2012 and March 2016. The data collected included patient age at primary SMILE, gender, race, preoperative and postoperative manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), preoperative and postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity and corrected distance visual acuity, the occurrence of suction loss during the procedure, and the need for enhancement. All enhancements were carried out by performing an alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) procedure with application of mitomycin C (MMC). Incidence, prevalence, preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for enhancement, and outcomes after enhancement. The prevalence of enhancement was 2.7%, and 71.4% eyes had enhancement within 1 year of primary SMILE. The incidence of enhancement was 2.1% and 2.9% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Age older than 35 years, preoperative MRSE more than -6.00 diopters (D), preoperative myopia more than 6.00 D, preoperative astigmatism more than 3.00 D, and intraoperative suction loss were significant risk factors for enhancement after SMILE after adjusting for all other covariates (odds ratios, 5.58, 4.80, 1.41, 3.06, and 2.14, respectively; P = 0.004, 0.021, 0.022, 0.002, and 0.020, respectively). In the patients who underwent bilateral SMILE, the first-operated eye had a marginal trend toward significance for enhancement (P = 0.054). There was no gender or racial difference. In the 14 eyes requiring enhancement, the uncorrected distance visual acuity before enhancement ranged from 20/80 to 20/25, and the mean attempted enhancement spherical equivalent was -0.50±0.86 D. The uncorrected distance visual acuity improved in most patients (92.9%) after enhancement. The 2-year incidence of enhancement after

  2. Temperature resolution enhancing of commercially available THz passive cameras due to computer processing of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2014-06-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection of concealed object: minimal size of the object, maximal distance of the detection, image detail. One of probable ways for a quality image enhancing consists in computer processing of image. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts. We demonstrate new possibilities for seeing the clothes details, which raw images, produced by the THz cameras, do not allow to see. We achieve good quality of the image due to applying various spatial filters with the aim to demonstrate independence of processed images on math operations. This result demonstrates a feasibility of objects seeing. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp., and Capital Normal University (Beijing, China).

  3. Enhancing Learning Outcomes in Computer-Based Training via Self-Generated Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Haydee M.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the utility of an instructional strategy known as the "query method" for enhancing learning outcomes in computer-based training. The query method involves an embedded guided, sentence generation task requiring elaboration of key concepts in the training material that encourages learners to "stop and…

  4. Diversity climate enhances work outcomes through trust and openness in workgroup communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, J.; van der Rijt, P.G.A.; Vlug, M.

    2016-01-01

    Diversity climate, defined as an organizational climate characterized by openness towards and appreciation of individual differences, has been shown to enhance outcomes in culturally diverse teams. To date, it remains unclear which processes are responsible for these findings. This paper presents

  5. Group Discussions and Test-Enhanced Learning: Individual Learning Outcomes and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions…

  6. Training with differential outcomes enhances discriminative learning and visuospatial recognition memory in children born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Lourdes; Marí-Beffa, Paloma; Roldán-Tapia, Dolores; Ramos-Lizana, Julio; Fuentes, Luis J; Estévez, Angeles F

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that discriminative learning is facilitated when a particular outcome is associated with each relation to be learned. When this training procedure is applied (the differential outcome procedure; DOP), learning is faster and more accurate than when the more common non-differential outcome procedure is used. This enhancement of accuracy and acquisition has been called the differential outcome effect (DOE). Our primary purpose in the present study was to explore the DOE in children born with great prematurity performing a discriminative learning task (Experiment 1) or a delayed visuospatial recognition task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants showed a faster learning and a better performance when differential outcomes were used. In Experiment 2, a significant DOE was also observed. That is, premature children performed the visuospatial recognition task better when they received differential outcomes following their correct responses. By contrast, the overall performance of full-term children was similar in both differential and non-differential conditions. These results are first to show that the DOP can enhance learning of conditional discriminations and recognition memory in children born prematurely with very low birth-weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnicity moderates the outcomes of self-enhancement and self-improvement themes in expressive writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Lau, Anna S; Niles, Andrea N; Coello, Jordan; Lieberman, Matthew D; Ko, Ahra C; Hur, Christopher; Stanton, Annette L

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined whether writing content related to self-enhancing (viz., downward social comparison and situational attributions) and self-improving (viz., upward social comparison and persistence) motivations were differentially related to expressive writing outcomes among 17 Asian American and 17 European American participants. Content analysis of the essays revealed no significant cultural group differences in the likelihood of engaging in self-enhancing versus self-improving reflections on negative personal experiences. However, cultural group differences were apparent in the relation between self-motivation processes and changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms at 3-month follow-up. Among European Americans, writing that reflected downward social comparison predicted positive outcomes, whereas persistence writing themes were related to poorer outcomes. For Asian Americans, writing about persistence was related to positive outcomes, whereas downward social comparison and situational attributions predicted poorer outcomes. Findings provide evidence suggesting culturally distinct mechanisms for the effects of expressive disclosure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Implementing Outcome Measures Within an Enhanced Palliative Care Day Care Model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kilonzo, Isae

    2015-04-23

    Specialist palliative care day care (SPDC) units provide an array of services to patients and their families and can increase continuity of care between inpatient and homecare settings. A multidisciplinary teamwork approach is emphasized, and different models of day care exist. Depending on the emphasis of care, the models can be social, medical, therapeutic, or mixed. We describe our experience of introducing an enhanced therapeutic specialist day care model and using both patient- and carer-rated tools to monitor patient outcomes.

  9. Incidence of lameness and association of cause and severity of lameness on the outcome for cattle on six commercial beef feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shane P; Reinhardt, Christopher D; Larson, Connie K; Vahl, Christopher I; Thomson, Daniel U

    2017-02-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the incidence of specific causes of lameness and the associations of cause and severity of lameness on the outcome for cattle on commercial feedlots. DESIGN Dynamic population longitudinal study. ANIMALS Cattle on 6 commercial feedlots in Kansas and Nebraska during a 12-month period (mean daily population, 243,602 cattle; range, 223,544 to 252,825 cattle). PROCEDURES Feedlot personnel were trained to use a standardized diagnostic algorithm and locomotion score (LMS) system to identify and classify cattle by cause and severity of lameness. Information regarding lameness cause, severity, and treatments was recorded for individual cattle. Cattle were monitored until they left the feedlot (ie, outcome; shipped with pen mates [shipped], culled prematurely because of lameness [realized], or euthanized or died [died]). Incidence rates for various causes of lameness, LMSs, and outcomes were calculated. The respective associations of cause of lameness and LMS with outcome were evaluated. RESULTS Lameness was identified in 2,532 cattle, resulting in an overall lameness incidence rate of 1.04 cases/100 animal-years. Realized and mortality rates were 0.096 cattle/100 animal-years and 0.397 deaths/100 animal-years, respectively. Injury to the proximal portion of a limb was the most frequently identified cause of lameness followed by undefined lameness, septic joint or deep digital sepsis, and interdigital phlegmon (foot rot). As the LMS (lameness severity) at lameness detection increased, the percentage of cattle that died but not the percentage of cattle that were realized increased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided clinically useful prognostic guidelines for management of lame feedlot cattle.

  10. Association between Parenchymal Enhancement of the Contralateral Breast in Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging and Outcome of Patients with Unilateral Invasive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Bas H M; Dmitriev, Ivan; Loo, Claudette E; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2015-09-01

    To retrospectively investigate whether parenchymal enhancement in dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer is associated with therapy outcome. After obtaining approval of the institutional review board and patients' written informed consent, 531 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging between 2000 and 2008. The contralateral parenchyma was segmented automatically, in which the mean of the top 10% late enhancement was calculated. Cox regression was used to test associations between parenchymal enhancement, patient and tumor characteristics, and overall survival and invasive disease-free survival. Subset analyses were performed and stratified according to immunohistochemical subtypes and type of adjuvant treatment received. Median follow-up was 86 months. Age (P breast cancer (n = 398), age (P images (P = .049), and parenchymal enhancement (P = .011) were significant. In patients who underwent endocrine therapy (n = 174), parenchymal enhancement was the only significant covariate for overall survival and invasive disease-free survival (P enhancement in the contralateral breast of patients with invasive unilateral breast cancer is significantly associated with long-term outcome, particularly in patients with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer. Lower value of the mean top 10% enhancement of the parenchyma shows potential as a predictive biomarker for relatively poor outcome in patients who undergo endocrine therapy. These results should, however, be validated in a larger study.

  11. Outcomes for the Commercial Use of Self-Expanding Prostheses in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Report From the STS/ACC TVT Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorajja, Paul; Kodali, Susheel; Reardon, Michael J; Szeto, Wilson Y; Chetcuti, Stanley J; Hermiller, James; Chenoweth, Sharla; Adams, David H; Popma, Jeffrey J

    2017-10-23

    The authors sought to compare the outcomes of commercial transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the repositionable Evolut R platform to those observed with the CoreValve device in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) Transcatheter Valve Therapy (TVT) Registry. TAVR continues to evolve, with rapid adoption of iterative changes for commercial practice. Insight into the outcomes of this adoption is needed. Patients in the TVT Registry who had TAVR using a 23-, 26-, or 29-mm self-expanding prosthesis were enrolled. Site-reported events for procedural, in-hospital, and 30-day outcomes were examined. Between January 2014 and April 2016, 9,616 patients underwent TAVR with a self-expanding prosthesis with data entered in the TVT Registry. Compared with patients treated with CoreValve TAVR, those who received Evolut R TAVR had a lower STS-PROM score (8.0 ± 5.4% vs. 8.7 ± 5.3%; p < 0.001), more iliofemoral access (91.6% vs. 89.2%; p < 0.001), and more frequently had conscious sedation (27.4% vs. 12.7%; p < 0.001). With Evolut R TAVR, there was less need for a second prosthesis (2.2% vs. 4.5%; p < 0.001), less device migration (0.2% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.01), a lower incidence of moderate/severe paravalvular regurgitation (post-procedure, 4.4% vs. 6.2%; p < 0.001), and shorter median hospital stay (4.0 vs. 5.0 days; p < 0.001). Patients treated with Evolut R TAVR had greater device success (96.3% vs. 94.9%; p = 0.001). At 30 days, Evolut R patients had both lower mortality (3.7% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001) and less need for a pacemaker (18.3% vs. 20.1%; p = 0.03). Commercial adoption of the Evolut R platform is associated with significant improvements in acute outcomes for patients undergoing TAVR for aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiretroviral Treatment Switching and Its Association With Economic Outcomes and Adverse Treatment Effects Among Commercially Insured and Medicaid-Enrolled Patients With HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsnes, Jennifer S; Goodwin, Bridgett B; Murray, Miranda; Candrilli, Sean D

    2016-12-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) of HIV typically involves the use of 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus a third agent (eg, protease inhibitor). It has been shown that over the course of treatment, a proportion of patients switch their ART for various reasons (eg, tolerability, long-term toxicities). We hypothesize that there is a relationship between ART treatment switching and economic and clinical outcomes among HIV patients. To determine whether switching ART regimens is associated with greater health care costs, resource use, and adverse treatment effects. Administrative health care claims were used to identify commercially insured and Medicaid-enrolled patients in the United States who had ≥2 claims containing an HIV/AIDS diagnosis from 2006 to 2011 and received an ART prescription from 2007 to 2010. The final population included patients who were ≥18 years old on their index date (ie, date of first ART prescription) and had continuous health plan enrollment for ≥12 months before and after their index date. Treatment characteristics (eg, switching), adverse treatment effects, and health care resource utilization and costs, were evaluated during a 12-month follow-up period. Multivariable models assessed the relationship between ART switching and economic outcomes (ie, costs, number of health care encounters) and adverse treatment effects. A total of 14 590 commercially insured patients met all inclusion criteria and 12% had an ART switch; further, 5744 Medicaid-enrolled patients met all inclusion criteria, and 14% switched treatment. After adjusting for confounders, ART switching was associated with 64% and 36% (P economic outcomes and certain adverse treatment effects. Efforts to put patients on an optimal ART regimen initially, therefore reducing the need for subsequent switching, may have a positive effect on patients specifically and the health care system in general. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Degs and degu operon from Bacillus-brevis: a combination that enhances the production of commercially valuable enzymes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, M

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for increasing the production of commercially valuable enzymes, such as proteases, beta-glucanases, alpha-amylases and levansucrase. It is dependent on two genes cloned from Bacillus brevis, expressed on a multicopy...

  14. Outcomes for implementation science: an enhanced systematic review of instruments using evidence-based rating criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C; Fischer, Sarah; Weiner, Bryan J; Stanick, Cameo; Kim, Mimi; Martinez, Ruben G

    2015-11-04

    High-quality measurement is critical to advancing knowledge in any field. New fields, such as implementation science, are often beset with measurement gaps and poor quality instruments, a weakness that can be more easily addressed in light of systematic review findings. Although several reviews of quantitative instruments used in implementation science have been published, no studies have focused on instruments that measure implementation outcomes. Proctor and colleagues established a core set of implementation outcomes including: acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, sustainability (Adm Policy Ment Health Ment Health Serv Res 36:24-34, 2009). The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration (SIRC) Instrument Review Project employed an enhanced systematic review methodology (Implement Sci 2: 2015) to identify quantitative instruments of implementation outcomes relevant to mental or behavioral health settings. Full details of the enhanced systematic review methodology are available (Implement Sci 2: 2015). To increase the feasibility of the review, and consistent with the scope of SIRC, only instruments that were applicable to mental or behavioral health were included. The review, synthesis, and evaluation included the following: (1) a search protocol for the literature review of constructs; (2) the literature review of instruments using Web of Science and PsycINFO; and (3) data extraction and instrument quality ratings to inform knowledge synthesis. Our evidence-based assessment rating criteria quantified fundamental psychometric properties as well as a crude measure of usability. Two independent raters applied the evidence-based assessment rating criteria to each instrument to generate a quality profile. We identified 104 instruments across eight constructs, with nearly half (n = 50) assessing acceptability and 19 identified for adoption, with all other implementation outcomes revealing fewer than 10

  15. Interventions for enhancing medication compliance/adherence with benefits in treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: Poor compliance or adherence in drug therapy can cause increased morbidity, mortality and enormous costs in the healthcare system (in Germany annually approximately 10 billion euros. Different methods are used for enhancing the compliance or adherence. Research questions: The evaluation addresses the questions about existence, efficacy, cost-benefit relation as well as ethical-social and juridical implications of strategies for enhancing compliance or adherence in drug therapy with concomitant improvements in treatment outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the medical, also health economic relevant, literature databases in January 2007, beginning from 2002. Systematic reviews on the basis of (randomised controlled trials (RCT concerning interventions to enhance compliance or adherence with regard to treatment outcomes as well as systematic reviews of health economic analyses were included in the evaluation. Additionally, it was also searched for publications which primarily considered ethical-social and juridical aspects of these interventions for the German context. Results: One systematic review with data for 57 RCT was included in the medical evaluation and one systematic review with data for six studies into the health economic evaluation. No publication primary concerning ethical-social or juridical implications could be identified. A significant positive effect on the treatment outcome was reported for 22 evaluated interventions. For many interventions the results can be classified as reliable: counseling with providing an information leaflet and compliance diary chart followed by phone consultation for helicobacter pylori positive patients, repeated counseling for patients with acute asthma symptoms, telephone calls to establish the level of compliance and to make recommendations based on that for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases, calls of an automated telephone system with phone

  16. Differently Shaped Au Nanoparticles: A Case Study on the Enhancement of the Photocatalytic Activity of Commercial TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Pap

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the influence of a gold nanoparticle’s shape was investigated on the commercially available Evonik Aeroxide P25. By the variation of specific synthesis parameters, three differently shaped Au nanoparticles were synthetized and deposited on the surface of the chosen commercial titania. The nanoparticles and their composites’ morphological and structural details were evaluated, applying different techniques such as Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The influence of the Au nanoparticles’ shape was discussed by evaluating their photocatalytic efficiency on phenol and oxalic acid degradation and by investigating the H2 production efficacy of the selected composites. Major differences in their photocatalytic performance depending on the shape of the deposited noble metal were evidenced.

  17. Service evaluation of weight outcomes as a function of initial BMI in 34,271 adults referred to a primary care/commercial weight management partnership scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not clear if behaviour change programmes are more or less effective for weight management in people with high BMIs than for those who are moderately overweight. An earlier service evaluation reported on the rate and extent of weight loss in a primary care/commercial weight management organisation partnership scheme, in 34,271 patients were referred by their health care professionals to a UK commercial weight management organisation, Slimming World for 12 weekly sessions. This project updated that service evaluation by examining weight loss outcomes as a function of initial BMI in the same 34,271 patients. Findings Patients referred to the scheme (n = 34,271) were categorised by BMI groups <30 kg/m2, 30-34.9 kg/m2, 35-39.9 kg/m2 and to ≥ 40 kg/m2. Mean weight losses after 12 weekly sessions were 2.9, 3.6, 4.1, and 4.8 kg for each BMI category respectively. Regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and gender, relative to the <30 kg/m2 group, absolute weight losses were 0.8, 1.4 and 2.4 kg more for the 30-34.9 kg/m2, 35-39.9 kg/m2 and to ≥ 40 kg/m2 groups, respectively (all p<0.001). Percent weight loss was similar in each BMI category: 3.7%, 4.0%, 4.0% and 3.9%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions This service evaluation demonstrates that 12 week referral to a commercial organisation is as effective for people with high BMIs as for those who are moderately overweight. PMID:23618381

  18. Diversity climate enhances work outcomes through trust and openness in workgroup communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Rijt, Pernill G A; Vlug, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Diversity climate, defined as an organizational climate characterized by openness towards and appreciation of individual differences, has been shown to enhance outcomes in culturally diverse teams. To date, it remains unclear which processes are responsible for these findings. This paper presents two quantitative studies (n = 91; 246) that identify trust and openness in workgroup communication as possible mediators. We replicate earlier findings that perceived diversity climate positively relates to job satisfaction, sense of inclusion, work group identification and knowledge sharing in teams. In study 1, trust is shown to mediate the effects of perceived diversity climate on team members' sense of inclusion. In study 2, trust mediates the relationship between perceived diversity climate and workgroup identification and openness mediates its relationship with knowledge sharing.

  19. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: using contrast-enhanced harmonic power doppler sonography to assess treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioni, D; Lencioni, R; Rossi, S; Garbagnati, F; Donati, F; Crocetti, L; Bartolozzi, C

    2001-10-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of contrast-enhanced harmonic power Doppler sonography in assessing the outcome of radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Fifty patients with 65 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules (1-5 cm in diameter; mean diameter, 2.5 cm) were studied using unenhanced and contrast-enhanced harmonic power Doppler sonography before and after IV administration of a microbubble contrast agent. The examinations were repeated after treatment of the tumors with radiofrequency ablation. Findings of the Doppler studies were compared with those of dual-phase helical CT, which were used as points of reference for assessing treatment outcome. Before radiofrequency treatment, intratumoral blood flow was revealed by unenhanced power Doppler sonography in 48 (74%) of 65 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules. After injection of the contrast agent, intratumoral enhancement was observed in 61 (94%) of 65 hepatocellular carcinomas (p enhancement on power Doppler sonograms. In nine of the 10 lesions that showed a residual viable tumor on helical CT scans, persistent intratumoral enhancement-matching the enhancing areas on helical CT images-was revealed by power Doppler sonography. These nine hepatocellular carcinomas were subjected to repeated radiofrequency thermal ablation with the guidance of contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography. Complete necrosis was seen after the second treatment session in six of the nine lesions. Contrast-enhanced harmonic power Doppler sonography is an accurate technique for assessing the outcome of radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma and may be useful in guiding additional treatment in patients with incomplete response to initial efforts.

  20. Outcomes of implementation of enhanced goal directed therapy in high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Advanced monitoring targeting haemodynamic and oxygenation variables can improve outcomes of surgery in high-risk patients. We aimed to assess the impact of goal directed therapy (GDT targeting cardiac index (CI and oxygen extraction ratio (O 2 ER on outcomes of high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods: In a prospective randomised trial, forty patients (American Society of Anaesthesiologists II and III undergoing major abdominal surgeries were randomised into two groups. In-Group A mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mmHg, central venous pressure ≥ 8-10 mmHg, urine output ≥ 0.5 mL/kg/h and central venous oxygen saturation ≥ 70% were targeted intra-operatively and 12 h postoperatively. In-Group-B (enhanced GDT, in addition to the monitoring in-Group-A, CI ≥ 2.5 L/min/m 2 and O 2 ER ≤ 27% were targeted. The end-points were lactate levels and base deficit during and after surgery. The secondary end points were length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital stay and postoperative complications. Wilcoxon Mann Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for statistical assessment. Results: Lactate levels postoperatively at 4 and 8 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. The mean base deficit at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h intra-operatively and postoperatively after 4, 8 and 12 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in ICU stay (2.10 ± 1.52 vs. 2.90 ± 2.51 days or hospital stay (10.85 + 4.39 vs. 13.35 + 6.77 days between Group A and B. Conclusions: Implementation of enhanced GDT targeting CI and OER was associated with improved tissue oxygenation.

  1. Six habits to enhance MET performance under stress: A discussion paper reviewing team mechanisms for improved patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Erich C; Mackie, Benjamin; Chernyak-Hai, Lily; O'Quinn, C Richard V; Ahmed, Ezaz

    2016-05-01

    Effective team decision making has the potential to improve the quality of health care outcomes. Medical Emergency Teams (METs), a specific type of team led by either critical care nurses or physicians, must respond to and improve the outcomes of deteriorating patients. METs routinely make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and suboptimal care outcomes still occur. In response, the development and use of Shared Mental Models (SMMs), which have been shown to promote higher team performance under stress, may enhance patient outcomes. This discussion paper specifically focuses on the development and use of SMMs in the context of METs. Within this process, the psychological mechanisms promoting enhanced team performance are examined and the utility of this model is discussed through the narrative of six habits applied to MET interactions. A two stage, reciprocal model of both nonanalytic decision making within the acute care environment and analytic decision making during reflective action learning was developed. These habits are explored within the context of a MET, illustrating how applying SMMs and action learning processes may enhance team-based problem solving under stress. Based on this model, we make recommendations to enhance MET decision making under stress. It is suggested that the corresponding habits embedded within this model could be imparted to MET members and tested by health care researchers to assess the efficacy of this integrated decision making approach in respect to enhanced team performance and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Enhancing Collegiate Women's Soccer Psychosocial and Performance Outcomes by Promoting Intrinsic Sources of Sport Enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnicle, Scott P; Burton, Damon

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an applied mental skills training (MST) intervention utilizing mental skills to enhance intrinsic sources of enjoyment (ISOEs) as a means of promoting self-confidence, motivational style, and athletic performance, while also decreasing trait anxiety. The intervention project was designed to increase intrinsic SOE using a systematic and individualized mental training protocol, and then examine its relationships to mental skills and soccer performance. A Division 1 collegiate women's soccer team was randomly assigned to treatment (n = 8) and control (n = 11) groups, equally distributed by academic year, position, and pre-season coach-evaluated starters and non-starts. Results revealed that the MST intervention significantly increased intrinsic enjoyment targeted psychological and competitive outcomes, both in practice and competition within the treatment group as compared to the control group. This study's support for the impact mental skills training may have had on ISOEs, as well as other psychosocial outcomes and athletic performance can serve to highlight a mental skill often overlooked by consultants and coaches.

  3. Outcomes of audit-enhanced monitoring of patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grauw, Wim J C; van Gerwen, Willem H E M; van de Lisdonk, Eloy H; van den Hoogen, Henk J M; van den Bosch, Wil J H M; van Weel, Chris

    2002-05-01

    To assess the outcome of diabetes care in a practice-based research network after the introduction of an audit-enhanced monitoring system (AEMS). An AEMS was introduced into family practices participating in the academic research network of Nijmegen University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. One and 7 years later, a cross-sectional analysis was performed on the outcome of care in all type 2 diabetes patients under treatment by their family physicians. Approximately 42,000 patients in 1993 and approximately 46,000 patients in 1999 at 10 family practices participating in the university's academic research network. Targets of care were HbA1c < 8.5% and blood pressure < 150/85 mm Hg. Targets for lipids depended on age, cardiovascular morbidity, and smoking status. In 1993, 540 type 2 diabetes patients were included; in 1999, 851 such patients were included, representing a prevalence of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. Glycemic control improved statistically significantly by the percentage of patients with HbA1c < 8.5% (87% vs 59%, P =.0001) and the mean HbA1c (7.1% vs 8.2%, P =.0001) from the first to the second cohort. Mean blood pressure and the percentage of patients above the target blood pressure did not change. The mean cholesterol (207 mg/dL vs 238 mg/dL [5.4 mmol/L vs 6.2 mmol/L], P =.0001) and the percentage of patients who met their target lipid levels (72% vs 52%, P =.001) also improved between 1993 and 1999. In addition, an increased percentage of patients attended an annual review in the past year (73% vs 84%). Outcomes of diabetes care in a family practice research setting using an AEMS were comparable with those reported under randomized controlled trial conditions.

  4. Influence of exercise mode on pregnancy outcomes: ENHANCED by Mom project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Carmen; Livingston, Jeffrey; Fang, Xiangming; May, Linda E

    2015-06-09

    The extent of the benefits of exercise training during pregnancy on maternal, fetal, and neonatal health outcomes has not been sufficiently addressed. While aerobic exercise training has been determined as safe and efficacious throughout pregnancy, the effects of other training modes on fetal health and development as well as any continued benefits for the neonate, especially with regards to cardiovascular development and function, is largely unknown. In the ENHANCED by Mom study we aim to determine the effects of different modes of exercise training (aerobic, circuit, and resistance) throughout pregnancy on childhood health by controlling individual exercise programs and assessing the effects of each on fetal and neonatal health adaptations. ENHANCED by mom is a cross sectional comparison study utilizing 3 intervention groups in comparison to a control group. Participants will complete three 5 min warmup + 45 min sessions weekly from 16 weeks to 36 weeks gestation of aerobic, resistance, or circuit training, in comparison to non-exercising controls. Maternal physical measurements will occur every 4 weeks throughout the intervention period. Fetal morphometric and heart measurements will occur at 34 weeks gestation. Neonatal measurements will be acquired at birth and at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. A better understanding on the effects of exercise training during pregnancy on fetal and neonatal health could have a profound impact on the prevention and development of chronic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes.

  5. Enhanced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity improves cardiac outcomes in a murine model of cardiac arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Piao

    (50% vs. 19%, P<0.05 in normothermic animals.Enhanced PDH activity in the setting of TH or DCA administration is associated with improved post-CA resuscitation outcomes. PDH is a promising therapeutic target for improving post-CA outcomes.

  6. Microbial β-glucosidases from cow rumen metagenome enhance the saccharification of lignocellulose in combination with commercial cellulase cocktail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pozo Mercedes V

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete saccharification of plant polymers is the critical step in the efficient production of bio-alcohols. Beta-glucosidases acting in the degradation of intermediate gluco-oligosaccharides produced by cellulases limit the yield of the final product. Results In the present work, we have identified and then successfully cloned, expressed, purified and characterised 4 highly active beta-glucosidases from fibre-adherent microbial community from the cow rumen. The enzymes were most active at temperatures 45–55°C and pH 4.0-7.0 and exhibited high affinity and activity towards synthetic substrates such as p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (pNPbetaG and pNP-beta-cellobiose, as well as to natural cello-oligosaccharides ranging from cellobiose to cellopentaose. The apparent capability of the most active beta-glucosidase, herein named LAB25g2, was tested for its ability to improve, at low dosage (31.25 units g-1 dry biomass, using pNPbetaG as substrate, the hydrolysis of pre-treated corn stover (dry matter content of 20%; 350 g glucan kg-1 dry biomass in combination with a beta-glucosidase-deficient commercial Trichoderma reseei cellulase cocktail (5 units g-1 dry biomass in the basis of pNPbetaG. LAB25g2 increased the final hydrolysis yield by a factor of 20% (44.5 ± 1.7% vs. 34.5 ± 1.5% in control conditions after 96–120 h as compared to control reactions in its absence or in the presence of other commercial beta-glucosidase preparations. The high stability (half-life higher than 5 days at 50°C and pH 5.2 and 2–38000 fold higher (as compared with reported beta-glucosidases activity towards cello-oligosaccharides may account for its performance in supplementation assays. Conclusions The results suggest that beta-glucosidases from yet uncultured bacteria from animal digestomes may be of a potential interest for biotechnological processes related to the effective bio-ethanol production in combination with low dosage of

  7. A new adjuvant enhances the protection of the commercial influenza vaccine in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Lars P.

    DDA-TDB is a cationic liposome-based adjuvant known to produce a very substantial CMI and at the same time a strong humoral response, desirable for a high number of disease targets. We tested the effect of this adjuvant when combined to a commercially available inactivated influenza vaccine. When...... on the upper and lower respiratory tract confirmed those findings. This study indicates that DDA/TDB has a strong potential to be used as an adjuvant for inactivated influenza vaccines....... challenged with H1N1 A/New Caledonia/20/99, ferrets immunized with the adjuvanted vaccine displayed a much stronger humoral response and lower viral titers than the ones that received only the regular vaccine. Gamma-interferon production, assessed by both RT-PCR and flow cytometry, and pathology studies...

  8. Liposome-based cationic adjuvant CAF01 enhances the protection conferred by a commercial inactivated influenza vaccine in ferrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Agger, Else Marie; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    Objectives: To assess the effect of CAF01 adjuvant associated to a commercial trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in the ferret model. Methods:  Ferrets were vaccinated with a range of doses of Sanofi-Pasteur's Vaxigrip with or without the CAF01 adjuvant, and challenged with either one of two H......1N1 influenza A virus strains. Antibody levels were monitored by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition assay, viral excretion in nasal washes was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR, and cellular production of IFN-gamma was measured via flow cytometry. Results: We found that animals vaccinated with CAF......01 exhibited higher levels of serum IgG and mucosal IgA than the ones which received the vaccine alone, and that they excreted 90-99% less virus. Animals that received only vaxigrip were producing IFN-gamma after challenge, a sign of infection by low virulence influenza strains, whereas animals...

  9. Heat and Dehydration Additively Enhance Cardiovascular Outcomes following Orthostatically-Stressful Calisthenics Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Ashley P.; Lucas, Samuel J. E.; Katare, Rajesh; Cotter, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Exercise and exogenous heat each stimulate multiple adaptations, but their roles are not well delineated, and that of the related stressor, dehydration, is largely unknown. While severe and prolonged hypohydration potentially “silences” the long-term heat acclimated phenotype, mild and transient dehydration may enhance cardiovascular and fluid-regulatory adaptations. We tested the hypothesis that exogenous heat stress and dehydration additively potentiate acute (24 h) cardiovascular and hematological outcomes following exercise. In a randomized crossover study, 10 physically-active volunteers (mean ± SD: 173 ± 11 cm; 72.1 ± 11.5 kg; 24 ± 3 year; 6 females) completed three trials of 90-min orthostatically-stressful calisthenics, in: (i) temperate conditions (22°C, 50% rh, no airflow; CON); (ii) heat (40°C, 60% rh) whilst euhydrated (HEAT), and (iii) heat with dehydration (no fluid ~16 h before and during exercise; HEAT+DEHY). Using linear mixed effects model analyses, core temperature (TCORE) rose 0.7°C more in HEAT than CON (95% CL: [0.5, 0.9]; p exercise increased in all trials; the 7% increase in HEAT was not reliably more than in CON (5%; p = 0.335), but was an additional 4% larger after HEAT+DEHY ([1, 8]; p = 0.005 vs. HEAT). Pooled-trial correlational analysis showed the rise in TCORE predicted the hypotension (r = −0.4) and plasma volume expansion (r = 0.6) at 24 h, with more hypotension reflecting more plasma expansion (r = −0.5). In conclusion, transient dehydration with heat potentiates short-term (24-h) hematological (hypervolemic) and cardiovascular (hypotensive) outcomes following calisthenics. PMID:29062280

  10. Outcome of Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) with a Program for Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahl, Tilda; Peromaa-Haavisto, Pipsa; Tarkiainen, Pekka; Knutar, Otto; Victorzon, Mikael

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs are well established for patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Relatively little is known about ERAS following bariatric surgery in general or following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in particular. This is a prospective, observational study of 388 consecutive patients that underwent LRYGB with ERAS in a general hospital. The ERAS protocol included standardizations of pre-, intra-, and postoperative modalities in order to reduce the stress response of the patients. Primary outcome measures were length of stay (LOS), postoperative morbidity, readmissions, and reoperations. Mean (SD) baseline body mass index (BMI) and age was 46.4 (6.7) kg/m(2) and 45.1 (11.2) years, respectively. Fifty-four percent of the patients were on medication for hypertension (HT) and 38 % for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Mean (SD) and median (range) surgical time was 73.8 (16.9) and 65 (40-143) min, respectively. Mean LOS was 1.3 days (1.1), median 1 day (1-14). Of all patients, 322 (83 %) were discharged on the first postoperative day (POD). Overall morbidity was 9.8 %. Three patients (0.8 %) had life-threatening complications. The readmission rate was 4.9 %, and 3.4 % of the patients had to be reoperated. With a follow-up rate of 83 % at 1 year, total weight loss (TWL) was 31 % and excess BMI loss (EBMIL) 70 %. Total remission of DM2 and HT was achieved in 70 and 42 % of the patients, respectively. Enhanced recovery following LRYGB with ERAS programs is possible and safe even in a low volume, general hospital. Early discharge does not increase postoperative morbidity or readmissions.

  11. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.C.; Snyder, W.O.

    1981-04-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.4-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5 and 5.0-acre patterns increased from 8.6% and 5.2%, respectively in September 1979, to 11.0% and 5.9% in September 1980. The oil cut performance has consistently exceeded that predicted for the project. This Fourth Annual Report is organized under the following three Work Breakdown Structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  12. Heat and Dehydration Additively Enhance Cardiovascular Outcomes following Orthostatically-Stressful Calisthenics Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Ashley P; Lucas, Samuel J E; Katare, Rajesh; Cotter, James D

    2017-01-01

    Exercise and exogenous heat each stimulate multiple adaptations, but their roles are not well delineated, and that of the related stressor, dehydration, is largely unknown. While severe and prolonged hypohydration potentially "silences" the long-term heat acclimated phenotype, mild and transient dehydration may enhance cardiovascular and fluid-regulatory adaptations. We tested the hypothesis that exogenous heat stress and dehydration additively potentiate acute (24 h) cardiovascular and hematological outcomes following exercise. In a randomized crossover study, 10 physically-active volunteers (mean ± SD: 173 ± 11 cm; 72.1 ± 11.5 kg; 24 ± 3 year; 6 females) completed three trials of 90-min orthostatically-stressful calisthenics, in: (i) temperate conditions (22°C, 50% rh, no airflow; CON); (ii) heat (40°C, 60% rh) whilst euhydrated (HEAT), and (iii) heat with dehydration (no fluid ~16 h before and during exercise; HEAT+DEHY). Using linear mixed effects model analyses, core temperature (TCORE) rose 0.7°C more in HEAT than CON (95% CL: [0.5, 0.9]; p calisthenics.

  13. A review of return to sport concerns following injury rehabilitation: practitioner strategies for enhancing recovery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlog, Leslie; Dimmock, James; Miller, John

    2011-02-01

    Evidence suggests that competitive athletes returning to sport following injury rehabilitation may experience a range of psychosocial concerns. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the psychosocial stresses common among returning athletes and to provide practitioner strategies for enhancing recovery outcomes. Findings are based on a database search of Sport Discus, Psychinfo, and Medline using sport injury, fear of re-injury, return to full activity. Salient apprehensions among athletes' returning to sport following injury were found to include: anxieties associated with re-injury; concerns about an inability to perform to pre-injury standards; feelings of isolation, a lack of athletic identity and insufficient social support; pressures to return to sport; and finally, self-presentational concerns about the prospect of appearing unfit, or lacking in skill in relation to competitors. The results suggest that athletes returning to sport from injury may experience concerns related to their sense of competence, autonomy and relatedness. Given its focus on competence, autonomy and relatedness issues, self-determination theory (SDT) is offered as a framework for understanding athlete concerns in the return to sport from injury. Practical suggestions for sport medicine practitioners, researchers and applied sport psychology specialists seeking to address athlete issues are provided using an SDT perspective. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning Program for Enhancing Visual Literacy for Non-Design Students Using a CMS to Share Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Taeko; Watanabe, Takashi; Otani, Toshio; Masuzawa, Toshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a basic learning program for enhancing visual literacy using an original Web content management system (Web CMS) to share students' outcomes in class as a blog post. It seeks to reinforce students' understanding and awareness of the design of visual content. The learning program described in this research focuses on to address…

  15. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  16. Laser-Modified Surface Enhances Osseointegration and Biomechanical Anchorage of Commercially Pure Titanium Implants for Bone-Anchored Hearing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A; Johansson, Martin L; Omar, Omar; Simonsson, Hanna; Palmquist, Anders; Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegrated implants inserted in the temporal bone are a vital component of bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHS). Despite low implant failure levels, early loading protocols and simplified procedures necessitate the application of implants which promote bone formation, bone bonding and biomechanical stability. Here, screw-shaped, commercially pure titanium implants were selectively laser ablated within the thread valley using an Nd:YAG laser to produce a microtopography with a superimposed nanotexture and a thickened surface oxide layer. State-of-the-art machined implants served as controls. After eight weeks' implantation in rabbit tibiae, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) values increased from insertion to retrieval for both implant types, while removal torque (RTQ) measurements showed 153% higher biomechanical anchorage of the laser-modified implants. Comparably high bone area (BA) and bone-implant contact (BIC) were recorded for both implant types but with distinctly different failure patterns following biomechanical testing. Fracture lines appeared within the bone ~30-50 μm from the laser-modified surface, while separation occurred at the bone-implant interface for the machined surface. Strong correlations were found between RTQ and BIC and between RFA at retrieval and BA. In the endosteal threads, where all the bone had formed de novo, the extracellular matrix composition, the mineralised bone area and osteocyte densities were comparable for the two types of implant. Using resin cast etching, osteocyte canaliculi were observed directly approaching the laser-modified implant surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed canaliculi in close proximity to the laser-modified surface, in addition to a highly ordered arrangement of collagen fibrils aligned parallel to the implant surface contour. It is concluded that the physico-chemical surface properties of laser-modified surfaces (thicker oxide, micro- and nanoscale texture) promote bone bonding which

  17. Commercial scale demonstration: enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.5-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5-acre pattern has decreased from 11.0% in September 1980, to 7.9% in September 1981. The 2.5-acre pattern had been on a plateau since May 1980, and as of May 1981 appears to be on a decline. The oil cut of the 5.0-acre pattern has increased from 5.9% in September 1980, to 10.9% in September 1981. The 5.0-acre pattern experienced a sharp increase in oil cut after 34% of a pore volume of total fluid had been injected and appears to be continuing its incline. This fifth annual report is organized under the following three work breakdown structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  18. Laser-Modified Surface Enhances Osseointegration and Biomechanical Anchorage of Commercially Pure Titanium Implants for Bone-Anchored Hearing Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furqan A Shah

    Full Text Available Osseointegrated implants inserted in the temporal bone are a vital component of bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHS. Despite low implant failure levels, early loading protocols and simplified procedures necessitate the application of implants which promote bone formation, bone bonding and biomechanical stability. Here, screw-shaped, commercially pure titanium implants were selectively laser ablated within the thread valley using an Nd:YAG laser to produce a microtopography with a superimposed nanotexture and a thickened surface oxide layer. State-of-the-art machined implants served as controls. After eight weeks' implantation in rabbit tibiae, resonance frequency analysis (RFA values increased from insertion to retrieval for both implant types, while removal torque (RTQ measurements showed 153% higher biomechanical anchorage of the laser-modified implants. Comparably high bone area (BA and bone-implant contact (BIC were recorded for both implant types but with distinctly different failure patterns following biomechanical testing. Fracture lines appeared within the bone ~30-50 μm from the laser-modified surface, while separation occurred at the bone-implant interface for the machined surface. Strong correlations were found between RTQ and BIC and between RFA at retrieval and BA. In the endosteal threads, where all the bone had formed de novo, the extracellular matrix composition, the mineralised bone area and osteocyte densities were comparable for the two types of implant. Using resin cast etching, osteocyte canaliculi were observed directly approaching the laser-modified implant surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed canaliculi in close proximity to the laser-modified surface, in addition to a highly ordered arrangement of collagen fibrils aligned parallel to the implant surface contour. It is concluded that the physico-chemical surface properties of laser-modified surfaces (thicker oxide, micro- and nanoscale texture promote bone

  19. Heat and Dehydration Additively Enhance Cardiovascular Outcomes following Orthostatically-Stressful Calisthenics Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley P. Akerman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and exogenous heat each stimulate multiple adaptations, but their roles are not well delineated, and that of the related stressor, dehydration, is largely unknown. While severe and prolonged hypohydration potentially “silences” the long-term heat acclimated phenotype, mild and transient dehydration may enhance cardiovascular and fluid-regulatory adaptations. We tested the hypothesis that exogenous heat stress and dehydration additively potentiate acute (24 h cardiovascular and hematological outcomes following exercise. In a randomized crossover study, 10 physically-active volunteers (mean ± SD: 173 ± 11 cm; 72.1 ± 11.5 kg; 24 ± 3 year; 6 females completed three trials of 90-min orthostatically-stressful calisthenics, in: (i temperate conditions (22°C, 50% rh, no airflow; CON; (ii heat (40°C, 60% rh whilst euhydrated (HEAT, and (iii heat with dehydration (no fluid ~16 h before and during exercise; HEAT+DEHY. Using linear mixed effects model analyses, core temperature (TCORE rose 0.7°C more in HEAT than CON (95% CL: [0.5, 0.9]; p < 0.001, and another 0.4°C in HEAT+DEHY ([0.2, 0.5]; p < 0.001, vs. HEAT. Skin temperature also rose 1.2°C more in HEAT than CON ([0.6, 1.8]; p < 0.001, and similarly to HEAT+DEHY (p = 0.922 vs. HEAT. Peak heart rate was 40 b·min−1 higher in HEAT than in CON ([28, 51]; p < 0.001, and another 15 b·min−1 higher in HEAT+DEHY ([3, 27]; p = 0.011, vs. HEAT. Mean arterial pressure at 24-h recovery was not consistently below baseline after CON or HEAT (p ≥ 0.452, but was reduced 4 ± 1 mm Hg after HEAT+DEHY ([0, 8]; p = 0.020 vs. baseline. Plasma volume at 24 h after exercise increased in all trials; the 7% increase in HEAT was not reliably more than in CON (5%; p = 0.335, but was an additional 4% larger after HEAT+DEHY ([1, 8]; p = 0.005 vs. HEAT. Pooled-trial correlational analysis showed the rise in TCORE predicted the hypotension (r = −0.4 and plasma volume expansion (r = 0.6 at 24 h, with

  20. Enhancing the health of medical students: outcomes of an integrated mindfulness and lifestyle program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassed, Craig; de Lisle, Steven; Sullivan, Gavin; Pier, Ciaran

    2009-08-01

    Medical students experience various stresses and many poor health behaviours. Previous studies consistently show that student wellbeing is at its lowest pre-exam. Little core-curriculum is traditionally dedicated to providing self-care skills for medical students. This paper describes the development, implementation and outcomes of the Health Enhancement Program (HEP) at Monash University. It comprises mindfulness and ESSENCE lifestyle programs, is experientially-based, and integrates with biomedical sciences, clinical skills and assessment. This study measured the program's impact on medical student psychological distress and quality of life. A cohort study performed on the 2006 first-year intake measured effects of the HEP on various markers of wellbeing. Instruments used were the depression, anxiety and hostility subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-R incorporating the Global Severity Index (GSI) and the WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaire. Pre-course data (T1) was gathered mid-semester and post-course data (T2) corresponded with pre-exam week. To examine differences between T1 and T2 repeated measures ANOVA was used for the GSI and two separate repeated measures MANOVAs were used to examine changes in the subscales of the SCL-90-R and the WHOQOL-BREF. Follow-up t-tests were conducted to examine differences between individual subscales. A total of 148 of an eligible 270 students returned data at T1 and T2 giving a response rate of 55%. 90.5% of students reported personally applying the mindfulness practices. Improved student wellbeing was noted on all measures and reached statistical significance for the depression (mean T1 = 0.91, T2 = 0.78; p = 0.01) and hostility (0.62, 0.49; 0.03) subscales and the GSI (0.73, 0.64; 0.02) of the SCL-90, but not the anxiety subscale (0.62, 0.54; 0.11). Statistically significant results were also found for the psychological domain (62.42, 65.62; p exam period suggesting that the common decline in wellbeing is avoidable

  1. Enhanced expression of recombinant beta toxin of Clostridium perfringens type B using a commercially available Escherichia coli strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Fatemah; Pilehchian Langroudi, Reza; Eimani, Bahram Golestani

    2016-06-30

    Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is only produced by types B and C and plays an important role in many human and animal diseases, causing fatal conditions that originate in the intestines. We compared the expression of C. perfringens type B vaccine strain recombinant beta toxin gene in the Escherichia coli strains Rosetta(DE3) and BL21(DE3). The beta toxin gene was extracted from pJETβ and ligated with pET22b(+). pET22β was transformed into E. coli strains BL21(DE3) and Rosetta(DE3). Recombinant protein was expressed as a soluble protein after isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction in strain Rosetta(DE3) but not in BL21(DE3). Expression was optimised by growing recombinant cells at 37 °C and at an induction of 0.5 mM, 1 mM, 1.5 mM IPTG. Expression was evaluated using sodium dodecyl sulfate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The recombinant protein was purified via Ni-NTA and was analysed using western blot. We concluded that E. coli strain RosettaTM(DE3) can enhance the expression of C. perfringens recombinant beta toxin.

  2. Enhanced expression of recombinant beta toxin of Clostridium perfringens type B using a commercially available Escherichia coli strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Fatemah; Pilehchian Langroudi, Reza; Imani, Bahram Golestani

    2016-06-30

    Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is only produced by types B and C and plays an important role in many human and animal diseases, causing fatal conditions that originate in the intestines. We compared the expression of C. perfringens type B vaccine strain recombinant beta toxin gene in the Escherichia coli strains RosettaTM(DE3) and BL21(DE3). The beta toxin gene was extracted from pJETβ and ligated with pET22b(+). pET22β was transformed into E. coli strains BL21(DE3) and RosettaTM(DE3). Recombinant protein was expressed as a soluble protein after isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction in strain RosettaTM(DE3) but not in BL21(DE3). Expression was optimised by growing recombinant cells at 37 °C and at an induction of 0.5 mM, 1 mM, 1.5 mM IPTG. Expression was evaluated using sodium dodecyl sulfate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The recombinant protein was purified via Ni-NTA and was analysed using western blot. We concluded that E. coli strain RosettaTM(DE3) can enhance the expression of C. perfringens recombinant beta toxin.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Directed Ultrasound Imaging of Non-Mass Enhancement in the Breast: Outcomes and Frequency of Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, Adrienne R; Chhor, Chloe M; Young Lin, Leng Leng; Heller, Samantha L; Gillman, Jennifer; Toth, Hildegard K; Moy, Linda

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the frequency, predictors, and outcomes of ultrasound (US) correlates for non-mass enhancement. From January 2005 to December 2011, a retrospective review of 5837 consecutive breast magnetic resonance imaging examinations at our institution identified 918 non-mass enhancing lesions for which follow-up or biopsy was recommended. Retrospective review of the images identified 879 of 918 lesions (96%) meeting criteria for non-mass enhancement. Patient demographics, pathologic results, and the presence of an adjacent landmark were recorded. Targeted US examinations were recommended for 331 of 879 cases (38%), and 284 of 331 women (86%) underwent US evaluations. The US correlate rate for non-mass enhancement was 23% (64 of 284). An adjacent landmark was significantly associated with a US correlate (P imaging-guided biopsy, 14 of 117 (12%) were malignancies. For all biopsied non-mass enhancements, the malignancy rate was 18% (55 of 308) and was significantly more prevalent in the setting of a known index cancer (P enhancement with an adjacent landmark is more likely to have a US correlate compared to non-mass enhancement without an adjacent landmark. Non-mass enhancement in the setting of a known index cancer, older age, a landmark, and larger lesion size is more likely to be malignant. However, no statistical difference was detected in the rate of malignancy between non-mass enhancement with (18%) or without (12%) a correlate. Absence of a correlate does not obviate the need to biopsy suspicious non-mass enhancement. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David

    2015-04-01

    lamb/ha), because individual animal performance was greater for continuous grazing than higher intensity grazing systems (4-Paddock and 20-Paddock). Differences in SOC, CO2 flux and erosion were determined by landscape position rather than grazing treatment. To remove the confounding influences of stocking rate and grazing management, the Ausfarm biophysical model, calibrated to the experimental treatments, examined the interaction between grazing management and stocking rates. Ground cover and profitability were similar between grazing systems at lower stocking rates (3 ewes per ha), but continuous grazing had higher profitability and lower ground cover above the optimum stocking rate of 4 ewes per ha. The findings of these two studies suggest that optimising stocking rate is more important than grazing management for a sustainable and profitable grazing system. Grazing management can further enhance environmental outcomes for an optimal stocking rate, but the findings from the Chinese study particularly highlight the need to look at multiple ecosystem services, when optimising systems. The Australian study also suggests the optimum stocking rate is dependent on the intensity of grazing management. Further work is required to understand the influence of landscape on grassland production and how stocking rates and grazing management can be sustainably optimised for different landscape areas to utilise this variation more effectively.

  5. Universal Course Shell Template Design and Implementation to Enhance Student Outcomes in Online Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgemenke, Arthur J.; Holt, William C.; Fish, Wade W.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors are continually looking for means to improve outcomes for students in online courses. This article examines the instructional design of courses to determine if consistent components implemented in a recently established online master's degree program can produce significant student outcomes. The authors detail the construction and…

  6. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion.

  7. Intermediate and Long-term Outcomes of Mitomycin C-enhanced Trabeculectomy as a First Glaucoma Procedure in Uveitic Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, Faisal A; Alharbi, Ali H; Morales, Jose; Aljadaan, Ibrahim

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the intermediate and long-term outcomes of mitomycin C-enhanced trabeculectomy as a first glaucoma procedure in uveitic glaucoma. Retrospective cohort study included 70 eyes of 50 patients with uveitic glaucoma who underwent mitomycin C-enhanced trabeculectomy as a first glaucoma procedure at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 1996 and 2014. The main outcome measures were: the intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma medications, the presence of visually threatening complications, and the need for further surgeries to control the IOP. Surgical outcome of each eye was classified as an absolute success, qualified success, or failure, based on the main outcome measures. The mean follow-up period was 77.0 months (±40.9). The IOP and number of antiglaucoma medications decreased significantly from a mean of 39.5 mm Hg (±8.9) and 3.7 (±0.8) to 14.4 mm Hg (±6.9) and 1 (±1.3) at the last follow-up, respectively (Pglaucoma, a significant number of patients needed further procedures to control the pressure. Thus, continuous monitoring of the pressure and inflammation are crucial.

  8. Commercializing Patents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ted Sichelman

    2010-01-01

    .... Although more recent "prospect" theories properly recognize the importance of patent protection for commercializing inventions, they incorrectly conclude that strong, real property-like rights...

  9. Enhancing legacy in palliative care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of Dignity Therapy focused on positive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montross-Thomas, Lori P; Irwin, Scott A; Meier, Emily A; Gallegos, Jarred V; Golshan, Shahrokh; Roeland, Eric; McNeal, Helen; Munson, Diane; Rodseth, Laura

    2015-09-21

    Dignity Therapy is a brief psychotherapy that can enhance a sense of legacy while addressing the emotional and existential needs of patients receiving hospice or palliative care. In Dignity Therapy, patients create a formalized "legacy" document that records their most cherished memories, their lessons learned in life, as well as their hopes and dreams for loved ones in the future. To date, this treatment has been studied for its impact on mitigating distress within hospice and palliative care populations and has provided mixed results. This study will instead focus on whether Dignity Therapy enhances positive outcomes in this population. In this study, 90 patients with cancer receiving hospice or palliative care will complete a mixed-methods randomized controlled trial of Dignity Therapy (n = 45) versus Supportive Attention (n = 45). The patients will be enrolled in the study for 3 weeks, receiving a total of six study visits. The primary outcomes examine whether the treatment will quantitatively increase levels of positive affect and a sense of life closure. Secondary outcomes focus on gratitude, hope, life satisfaction, meaning in life, resilience, and self-efficacy. Using a fixed, embedded dataset design, this study will additionally use qualitative interviews to explore patients' perceptions regarding the use of positive outcome measures and whether these outcomes are appropriately matched to their experiences in therapy. Dignity Therapy has shown mixed results when evaluating its impact on distress, although no other study to date has solely focused on the potential positive aspects of this treatment. This study is novel in its use of mixed methods assessments to focus on positive outcomes, and will provide valuable information about patients' direct experiences in this area. ISRCTN91389194.

  10. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and functional outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Jun; Shimada, Toshio; Murakami, Yo; Ochiai, Koichi; Inoue, Shin-ichi; Ishibashi, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Sano, Kazuya; Murakami, Rinji [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance images (MRI) reflect the severity of ischemic injury during the acute and chronic phases of myocardial infarction (MI). Twenty-nine patients with their first acute MI underwent Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the first week (4.2{+-}0.3 days) and at 1 month after onset. Pairs of left ventriculograms were compared with Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance images, classified into 3 pattern groups: hyper-enhancement, with and without a central hypo-enhanced region (P1 and P2, respectively), and non-enhancement (P3). In the acute phase of MI, P1 was found in 10, P2 in 11, and P3 in 8 patients. One month later, the image pattern had changed from P1 to P2 in a single patient, from P2 to P3 in 4 patients, and had remained identical in the others. Patients with P3 showed improvement of anterior wall motion in the 1-month follow-up study, and had higher TIMI flow grades and lower peak creatine kinase values than those without recovery. Thus, Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance images, closely reflecting the severity of myocardial injury, are useful in predicting myocardial functional recovery after MI. (author)

  11. Weight outcomes audit in 1.3 million adults during their first 3 months' attendance in a commercial weight management programme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stubbs, R James; Morris, Liam; Pallister, Carolyn; Horgan, Graham; Lavin, Jacquie H

    2015-01-01

    .... Evidence suggests commercial weight management programmes help people manage their weight but there is little research examining those that pay to attend such programmes rather than being referred by primary care...

  12. A novel approach to background subtraction in contrast-enhanced dual-energy digital mammography with commercially available mammography devices: Polychromaticity correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contillo, Adriano, E-mail: contillo@fe.infn.it; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Cardarelli, Paolo; Gambaccini, Mauro; Taibi, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, Ferrara I-44122 (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Contrast-enhanced digital mammography is an image subtraction technique that is able to improve the detectability of lesions in dense breasts. One of the main sources of error, when the technique is performed by means of commercial mammography devices, is represented by the intrinsic polychromaticity of the x-ray beams. The aim of the work is to propose an iterative procedure, which only assumes the knowledge of a small set of universal quantities, to take into account the polychromaticity and correct the subtraction results accordingly. Methods: In order to verify the procedure, it has been applied to an analytical simulation of a target containing a contrast medium and to actual radiographs of a breast phantom containing cavities filled with a solution of the same medium. Results: The reconstructed densities of contrast medium were compared, showing very good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results already after the first iteration. Furthermore, the convergence of the iterative procedure was studied, showing that only a small number of iterations is necessary to reach limiting values. Conclusions: The proposed procedure represents an efficient solution to the polychromaticity issue, qualifying therefore as a viable alternative to inverse-map functions.

  13. Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming of Woodgas Containing TAR over a Commercial Ni Catalyst and Calcined Dolomite as CO2 Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of the catalytic steam reforming of a gaseous fuel obtained by steam biomass gasification to convert topping atmosphere residue (TAR and CH4 and to produce pure H2 by means of a CO2 sorbent. This experimental work deals with the demonstration of the practical feasibility of such concepts, using a real woodgas obtained from fluidized bed steam gasification of hazelnut shells. This study evaluates the use of a commercial Ni catalyst and calcined dolomite (CaO/MgO. The bed material simultaneously acts as reforming catalyst and CO2 sorbent. The experimental investigations have been carried out in a fixed bed micro-reactor rig using a slipstream from the gasifier to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. The reforming/sorption tests were carried out at 650 °C while regeneration of the sorbent was carried out at 850 °C in a nitrogen environment. Both combinations of catalyst and sorbent are very effective in TAR and CH4 removal, with conversions near 100%, while the simultaneous CO2 sorption effectively enhances the water gas shift reaction producing a gas with a hydrogen volume fraction of over 90%. Multicycle tests of reforming/CO2 capture and regeneration were performed to verify the stability of the catalysts and sorbents to remove TAR and capture CO2 during the duty cycle.

  14. Reliability of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging findings and their correlation with clinical outcome in patients with sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J; Van der Kallen, Bas F; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-11-01

    Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) is often performed in the evaluation of patients with persistent sciatica after lumbar disc surgery. However, correlation between enhancement and clinical findings is debated, and limited data are available regarding the reliability of enhancement findings. To evaluate the reliability of Gd-MRI findings and their correlation with clinical findings in patients with sciatica. Prospective observational evaluation of patients who were enrolled in a randomized trial with 1-year follow-up. Patients with 6- to 12-week sciatica, who participated in a multicentre randomized clinical trial comparing an early surgery strategy with prolonged conservative care with surgery if needed. In total 204 patients underwent Gd-MRI at baseline and after 1 year. Patients were assessed by means of the Roland Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) for sciatica, visual analog scale (VAS) for leg pain, and patient-reported perceived recovery at 1 year. Kappa coefficients were used to assess interobserver reliability. In total, 204 patients underwent Gd-MRI at baseline and after 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were correlated to the outcome measures using the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous data and Fisher exact tests for categorical data. Poor-to-moderate agreement was observed regarding Gd enhancement of the herniated disc and compressed nerve root (kappa0.95). Of the 59 patients with an enhancing herniated disc at 1 year, 86% reported recovery compared with 100% of the 12 patients with nonenhancing herniated discs (p=.34). Of the 12 patients with enhancement of the most affected nerve root at 1 year, 83% reported recovery compared with 85% of the 192 patients with no enhancement (p=.69). Patients with and without enhancing herniated discs or nerve roots at 1 year reported comparable outcomes on RDQ and VAS-leg pain. Reliability of Gd-MRI findings was poor-to-moderate and no correlation was observed between enhancement and

  15. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can assess vascularity within fracture non-unions and predicts good outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoierer, Oliver; Bender, Daniel; Schmidmaier, Gerhard [University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Bloess, Konstantin; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Burkholder, Iris [University of Applied Sciences of the Saarland, Department of Nursing and Health, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can assess vascularity within non-unions and predicts clinical outcome in combination with the clinical Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS). Fifty-eight patients with non-unions of extremities on CT underwent 3-T DCE MRI. Signal intensity curves obtained from a region-of-interest analysis were subdivided into those with more intense contrast agent uptake within the non-union than in adjacent muscle (vascularised non-union) and those with similar or less contrast uptake. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the Tofts model K{sub trans}, K{sub ep}, iAUC and V{sub e} were correlated with union at CT 1 year later (n = 49). Despite inserted osteosynthetic material, DCE parameters could be evaluated in 57 fractures. The sensitivity/specificity of vascularised non-unions as an indicator of good outcome was 83.9 %/50.0 % compared to 96.8 %/33.3 % using NUSS (n = 49). Logistic regression revealed a significant impact of NUSS on outcome (P = 0.04, odds ratio = 0.93). At first examination, median iAUC (initial area under the enhancement curve) for the ratio non-union/muscle was 10.28 in patients with good outcome compared with 3.77 in non-responders (P = 0.023). K{sub trans}, K{sub ep} and V{sub e} within the non-union were not significantly different initially (n = 57) or 1 year later (n = 19). DCE MRI can assess vascularity in fracture non-unions. A vascularised non-union correlates with good outcome. (orig.)

  16. Quantitative T1-mapping detects cloudy-enhancing tumor compartments predicting outcome of patients with glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Jurcoane, Alina; Kebir, Sied; Ditter, Philip; Schrader, Felix; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Tzaridis, Theophilos; Mädler, Burkhard; Schild, Hans H; Glas, Martin; Hattingen, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Contrast enhancement of glioblastomas (GBM) is caused by the decrease in relaxation time, T1. Here, we demonstrate that the quantitative measurement of T1 (qT1) discovers a subtle enhancement in GBM patients that is invisible in standard MRI. We assessed the volume change of this "cloudy" enhancement during radio-chemotherapy and its impact on patients' progression-free survival (PFS). We enrolled 18 GBM patients in this observational, prospective cohort study and measured 3T-MRI pre- and post contrast agent with standard T1-weighted (T1w) and with sequences to quantify T1 before radiation, and at 6-week intervals during radio-chemotherapy. We measured contrast enhancement by subtracting pre from post contrast contrast images, yielding relative signal increase ∆T1w and relative T1 shortening ∆qT1. On ∆qT1, we identified a solid and a cloudy-enhancing compartment and evaluated the impact of their therapy-related volume change upon PFS. In ∆qT1 maps cloudy-enhancing compartments were found in all but two patients at baseline and in all patients during therapy. The qT1 decrease in the cloudy-enhancing compartment post contrast was 21.64% versus 1.96% in the contralateral control tissue (P mapping and may represent tumor infiltration. Its early volume decrease predicts a longer PFS in GBM patients during standard radio-chemotherapy. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Positive Youth Development and Nutrition: Interdisciplinary Strategies to Enhance Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Cheeley, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies require the use of data and progress monitoring frameworks to guide instruction and intervention in schools. As a result, different problem-solving models such as multitiered systems of supports (MTSS) have emerged that use these frameworks to improve student outcomes. However, problem-focused models emphasize negative…

  18. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…

  19. Considering passive mechanical properties and patient user motor performance in lower limb prosthesis design optimization to enhance rehabilitation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Fey, Nicholas P

    2017-07-17

    Selection of prosthesis mechanical characteristics to restore function of persons with lower-limb loss can be framed as an optimization problem to satisfy a given performance objective. However, the choice of a particular objective is critical, and considering only device and generalizable outcomes across users without accounting for inherent motor performance likely restricts a given patient from fully realizing the benefits of a prosthetic intervention. This review presents methods for optimizing passive below-knee prosthesis designs to maximize rehabilitation outcomes and how considerations on patient motor performance may enhance these outcomes. Available literature supports that considering patient-specific variables pertaining to motor performance permits a multidimensional landscape relating device characteristics and user function, which may yield more accurate predictions of rehabilitation outcomes for individual patients. Moreover, the addition of targeted physical therapeutic interventions that encourage user self-organization may further improve these outcomes. We note the potential of existing paradigms to address these additional dimensions, and we encourage investigators to consider the many different performance objectives available for prosthesis optimization. By considering user motor performance in combination with prosthesis mechanical characteristics, a staged optimization approach can be formulated which acknowledges that device modifications may only improve outcomes to a certain extent and user self-organization is a critical component to complete rehabilitation. An iterative process that can be integrated within existing rehabilitative practices accounts for changes in patient status through combined targeted prosthetic solutions and physical therapeutic techniques, and embodies the concept of personalized intervention for patients with lower limb-loss.

  20. Word processing as an assistive technology tool for enhancing academic outcomes of students with writing disabilities in the general classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, Orit E; Shrieber, Betty

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a word processor for enhancing the academic outcomes of three students with writing disabilities in a junior high school. A single-subject ABAB design was used to compare academic output produced during class time with and without a computer equipped with a word processor. The number of spelling errors, the number of reading errors, and the number of words used per text were counted, and the overall structure and organization of text were examined across all in-class materials. The data demonstrated a clear difference between handwritten and computer phases. In traditional paper-and-pencil phases, students produced outcomes that had more spelling mistakes, more reading errors, and lower overall quality of organization and structure in comparison with the phases in which a computer equipped with a word processor was used. The results did not indicate any noticeable difference in the number of words per text. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  1. Satisfaction of Outcome Achievement with Web-Enhanced Teaching Strategies in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornock, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    The future of distance and Web-enhanced education and the use of technology are becoming more advantageous to a growing population. Nursing education has been encouraged to incorporate these teaching-learning methods. Changes in nursing education and the teaching-learning environment have the potential to challenge the preservation of nursing…

  2. Glucocorticoid Cell Priming Enhances Transfection Outcomes in Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Abby M; Plautz, Sarah A; Zempleni, Janos; Pannier, Angela K

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are one of the most widely researched stem cell types with broad applications from basic research to therapeutics, the majority of which require introduction of exogenous DNA. However, safety and scalability issues hinder viral delivery, while poor efficiency hinders nonviral gene delivery, particularly to hMSCs. Here, we present the use of a pharmacologic agent (glucocorticoid) to overcome barriers to hMSC DNA transfer to enhance transfection using three common nonviral vectors. Glucocorticoid priming significantly enhances transfection in hMSCs, demonstrated by a 3-fold increase in efficiency, 4–15-fold increase in transgene expression, and prolonged transgene expression when compared to transfection without glucocorticoids. These effects are dependent on glucocorticoid receptor binding and caused in part by maintenance of normal metabolic function and increased cellular (5-fold) and nuclear (6–10-fold) DNA uptake over hMSCs transfected without glucocorticoids. Results were consistent across five human donors and in cells up to passage five. Glucocorticoid cell priming is a simple and effective technique to significantly enhance nonviral transfection of hMSCs that should enhance their clinical use, accelerate new research, and decrease reliance on early passage cells. PMID:26478250

  3. Reproducibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI in the study of brain gliomas: a comparison of data obtained using different commercial software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Gian Marco; Castellano, Antonella; Altabella, Luisa; Iadanza, Antonella; Cadioli, Marcello; Falini, Andrea; Anzalone, Nicoletta

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE) are useful tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of brain gliomas; nevertheless, both techniques leave the open issue of data reproducibility. We evaluated the reproducibility of data obtained using two different commercial software for perfusion maps calculation and analysis, as one of the potential sources of variability can be the software itself. DSC and DCE analyses from 20 patients with gliomas were tested for both the intrasoftware (as intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility) and the intersoftware reproducibility, as well as the impact of different postprocessing choices [vascular input function (VIF) selection and deconvolution algorithms] on the quantification of perfusion biomarkers plasma volume (Vp), volume transfer constant (K trans ) and rCBV. Data reproducibility was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. For all the biomarkers, the intra- and interobserver reproducibility resulted in almost perfect agreement in each software, whereas for the intersoftware reproducibility the value ranged from 0.311 to 0.577, suggesting fair to moderate agreement; Bland-Altman analysis showed high dispersion of data, thus confirming these findings. Comparisons of different VIF estimation methods for DCE biomarkers resulted in ICC of 0.636 for K trans and 0.662 for Vp; comparison of two deconvolution algorithms in DSC resulted in an ICC of 0.999. The use of single software ensures very good intraobserver and interobservers reproducibility. Caution should be taken when comparing data obtained using different software or different postprocessing within the same software, as reproducibility is not guaranteed anymore.

  4. Enhancement of abdominal wall defect repair using allogenic platelet-rich plasma with commercial polyester/cotton fabric (Damour) in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelnasr, Khaled; Hamed, Mohamed; Lashen, Samah; El-Adl, Mohamed; Eltaysh, Rasha; Tagawa, Michihito

    2017-07-28

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has an important role in musculoskeletal surgery; however, it has been underutilized for accelerating the healing of abdominal wall defects in veterinary practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial polyester/cotton fabric (Damour) as a new composite mesh for the repair of experimentally induced abdominal wall defects in canine models, and to investigate the possible role of PRP for improving such repair and reducing allied complications. For this purpose, abdominal wall defects were created in 24 healthy mongrel dogs and then repaired with mesh alone (control group) or mesh and allogenic PRP (PRP group). Dogs were euthanized after 2 or 4 months for gross examination of implantation site, detection of adhesion score and hernia recurrence. Moreover, tissue samples were collected for histological and gene expression analyses for neovascularization, collagen formation and tissue incorporation. Hernia recurrence was not recorded in PRP-treated dogs that also displayed significantly more neovascularization and less severe adhesion to the underlings (1.08 ± 0.51) in comparison to control group (2.08 ± 0.99). Histological and molecular evaluation confirmed the gross findings that collagen deposition, new vessel formation, and overexpression of angiogenic and myofibroplastic genes (COL1α1, COL3α1, VEGF and TGFβ1) were observed more frequently in the PRP group, at both time points. In conclusion, we found that addition of allogenic PRP to Damour mesh enhanced neovessel formation, and increased tissue deposition and incorporation, with subsequent reduction of peritoneal adhesion and recurrence rate.

  5. Attendance and weight outcomes in 4754 adults referred over 6 months to a primary care/commercial weight management partnership scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R J; Brogelli, D J; Pallister, C J; Whybrow, S; Avery, A J; Lavin, J H

    2012-02-01

    •  There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of commercial weight management programmes in the community. A recent randomized controlled trial has shown commercial providers to be more effective than NHS providers for weight management solutions in primary care. Some commercial weight management providers have established national slimming on referral schemes for weight management, which result on average in weight losses of 4-5% over a 12-week referral period. A recent randomized controlled trial of a similar scheme over 12 months yielded similar weight loses. Another RCT comparing commercial providers over 6 months showed average weight losses of ∼6.6% across providers. •  The present study shows that when local primary care practitioners target resources to where they, as health professionals, felt they would have the most beneficial effect in their local communities, greater weight losses can be achieved. •  Different NHS Trusts extended 12-week referrals by an additional 12 weeks in a total of 4754 patients. •  Mean weight losses of 8.6% were achieved suggesting that local targeting of primary care resources can maximize returns for NHS investments in commissioning the services of commercial weight management organizations. This project audited attendance and weight loss in a primary care/commercial weight management partnership scheme in patients who participated over 6 months. 4754 adult patients (575 men, 4179 women) were referred to Slimming World for 24 weekly sessions. Data were analysed using individual weekly weight records. Mean (standard deviation, SD) body mass index (BMI) change was -3.3 kg m(-2) (2.2), weight change -8.9 kg (6.0), percent weight change -8.6% (5.3) and number of sessions attended 21.3 (3.2) of 24. For patients attending at least 20 of 24 sessions (n = 3626 or 76.3%), mean (SD) BMI change was -3.6 kg m(-2) (2.2), weight change -9.6 kg (6.1), percent weight change -9.3% (5.3). Weight

  6. Enhancing Lay Counselor Capacity to Improve Patient Outcomes with Multimedia Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Mellins, Claude A.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Rowe, Jessica; Warne, Patricia; Abrams, Elaine J.; Witte, Susan; Stein, Dan J.; Remien, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia technologies offer powerful tools to increase capacity of health workers to deliver standardized, effective, and engaging antiretroviral medication adherence counseling. Masivukeni is an innovative multimedia-based, computer-driven, lay counselor-delivered intervention designed to help people living with HIV in resource-limited settings achieve optimal adherence. This pilot study examined medication adherence and key psychosocial outcomes among 55 non-adherent South African HIV+ patients, on ART for at least 6 months, who were randomized to receive either Masivukeni or standard of care (SOC) counseling for ART non-adherence. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the SOC and Masivukeni groups on any outcome variables. At post-intervention (approximately 5–6 weeks after baseline), clinic-based pill count adherence data available for 20 participants (10 per intervention arm) showed a 10% improvement for Masivukeni participants and a decrease of 8% for SOC participants. Masivukeni participants reported significantly more positive attitudes towards disclosure and medication social support, less social rejection, and better clinic-patient relationships than did SOC participants. Masivukeni shows promise to promote optimal adherence and provides preliminary evidence that multimedia, computer-based technology can help lay counselors offer better adherence counseling than standard approaches. PMID:25566763

  7. Enhancing Lay Counselor Capacity to Improve Patient Outcomes with Multimedia Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N; Mellins, Claude A; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Rowe, Jessica; Warne, Patricia; Abrams, Elaine J; Witte, Susan; Stein, Dan J; Remien, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Multimedia technologies offer powerful tools to increase capacity of health workers to deliver standardized, effective, and engaging antiretroviral medication adherence counseling. Masivukeni-is an innovative multimedia-based, computer-driven, lay counselor-delivered intervention designed to help people living with HIV in resource-limited settings achieve optimal adherence. This pilot study examined medication adherence and key psychosocial outcomes among 55 non-adherent South African HIV+ patients, on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 6 months, who were randomized to receive either Masivukeni or standard of care (SOC) counseling for ART non-adherence. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the SOC and Masivukeni groups on any outcome variables. At post-intervention (approximately 5-6 weeks after baseline), -clinic-based pill count adherence data available for 20 participants (10 per intervention arm) showed a 10 % improvement for-participants and a decrease of 8 % for SOC participants. Masivukeni participants reported significantly more positive attitudes towards disclosure and medication social support, less social rejection, and better clinic-patient relationships than did SOC participants. Masivukeni shows promise to promote optimal adherence and provides preliminary evidence that multimedia, computer-based technology can help lay counselors offer better adherence counseling than standard approaches.

  8. Stress enhances model-free reinforcement learning only after negative outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heyeon; Lee, Daeyeol; Chey, Jeanyung

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies found that stress shifts behavioral control by promoting habits while decreasing goal-directed behaviors during reward-based decision-making. It is, however, unclear how stress disrupts the relative contribution of the two systems controlling reward-seeking behavior, i.e. model-free (or habit) and model-based (or goal-directed). Here, we investigated whether stress biases the contribution of model-free and model-based reinforcement learning processes differently depending on the valence of outcome, and whether stress alters the learning rate, i.e., how quickly information from the new environment is incorporated into choices. Participants were randomly assigned to either a stress or a control condition, and performed a two-stage Markov decision-making task in which the reward probabilities underwent periodic reversals without notice. We found that stress increased the contribution of model-free reinforcement learning only after negative outcome. Furthermore, stress decreased the learning rate. The results suggest that stress diminishes one's ability to make adaptive choices in multiple aspects of reinforcement learning. This finding has implications for understanding how stress facilitates maladaptive habits, such as addictive behavior, and other dysfunctional behaviors associated with stress in clinical and educational contexts.

  9. Attention shaping: a reward-based learning method to enhance skills training outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Spaulding, William D; Menditto, Anthony A; Savitz, Adam; Liberman, Robert P; Berten, Sarah; Starobin, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Disturbances in sustained attention commonly interfere with the ability of persons with schizophrenia to benefit from evidence-based psychosocial treatments. Cognitive remediation interventions have thus far demonstrated minimal effects on attention, as have medications. There is thus a gap between the existence of effective psychosocial treatments and patients' ability to effectively engage in and benefit from them. We report on the results of a multisite study of attention shaping (AS), a behavioral intervention for improving attentiveness and learning of social skills among highly distractible schizophrenia patients. Patients with chronic schizophrenia who were refractory to skills training were assigned to receive either the UCLA Basic Conversation Skills Module (BCSM) augmented with AS (n = 47) or in the standard format (n = 35). AS, a reward-based learning procedure, was employed to facilitate patients' meeting clearly defined and individualized attentiveness and participation goals during each session of a social skills training group. Primary outcome measures were observational ratings of attentiveness in each session and pre- and post-BCSM ratings of social skill and symptoms. Patients receiving social skills training augmented with AS demonstrated significantly more attentiveness in group sessions and higher levels of skill acquisition; moreover, significant relationships were found between changes in attentiveness and amount of skills acquired. Changes in attentiveness were unrelated to level or change in antipsychotic medication dose. AS is an effective example of supported cognition, in that cognitive abilities are improved within the environmental context where the patient is experiencing difficulty, leading to gains in both attention and functional outcome.

  10. Cardiovascular disease in China: an urgent need to enhance the nursing role to improve health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingjuan; Davidson, Patricia M; DiGiacomo, Michelle

    2009-03-01

    This paper reviews the role of cardiac nursing in China and the potential of this professional group to take an important role in secondary and tertiary prevention initiatives. China is undergoing unprecedented economic growth, yet globalisation of Chinese society has caused an increase in the prevalence of chronic conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease. Studies recognise that health providers and members of the public are not fully aware of the risks associated with cardiovascular disease and consequently are not equipped to deal with this looming epidemic. Position paper. This position paper summarises and discusses the burden of cardiovascular disease in China within the context of evidence for nurse-coordinated interventions. Barriers and facilitators to developing the nursing role in contemporary China are discussed. A key strategy for promoting the role of nurse-led programmes in China is increasing research skills among Chinese nurses to promote independent, collaborative interdisciplinary research. Promoting doctoral education in China, increasing the status of nursing in interdisciplinary teams, collaborating with cardiovascular nurses internationally and increasing the public's awareness of cardiovascular disease are critical steps in promoting nurse-led programmes to improve the health and well-being of the community. Given the positive relationship between knowledge and skill levels of nurses and clinical outcomes, China's investment in the education and training of its nursing workforce is critical in improving practice and outcomes in cardiovascular disease.

  11. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in subfertile patients who conceived following low technology interventions for fertility enhancement: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Stefano; Santagni, Susanna; Daolio, Jessica; Gibbins, Karen; Battaglia, Francesco Antonino; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Silver, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Low technology interventions for fertility enhancement (LTIFE) are strategies that avoid retrieval, handling, and manipulation of female gametes. The definition of LTIFE is yet to be widely accepted and clarified, but they are commonly used in milder cases of infertility and subfertility. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present study was comprehensively to review and investigate the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in subfertile patients who underwent LTIFE. A literature search up to May 2017 was performed in IBSS, SocINDEX, Institute for Scientific Information, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. An evidence-based hierarchy was used according to The Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine to determine which articles to include and analyze, and to provide a level of evidence of each association between intervention and outcome. This analysis identified preliminary and low-grade evidence on the influence of LTIFE on obstetric and perinatal outcomes in subfertile women. LTIFE women should deserve major consideration from Clinicians/Researchers of Reproductive Medicine, because these treatments could be potentially responsible for mothers' and babies' complications. So far, the lack of well-designed and unbiased studies makes further conclusions difficult to be drawn.

  12. The Enhanced liver fibrosis score is associated with clinical outcomes and disease progression in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katharine M; Wockner, Leesa F; Shanker, Mihir; Fagan, Kevin J; Horsfall, Leigh U; Fletcher, Linda M; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Pretorius, Carel J; Miller, Gregory C; Clouston, Andrew D; Lampe, Guy; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2016-03-01

    Current tools for risk stratification of chronic liver disease subjects are limited. We aimed to determine whether the serum-based ELF (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis) test predicted liver-related clinical outcomes, or progression to advanced liver disease, and to compare the performance of ELF to liver biopsy and non-invasive algorithms. Three hundred patients with ELF scores assayed at the time of liver biopsy were followed up (median 6.1 years) for liver-related clinical outcomes (n = 16) and clear evidence of progression to advanced fibrosis (n = 18), by review of medical records and clinical data. Fourteen of 73 (19.2%) patients with ELF score indicative of advanced fibrosis (≥9.8, the manufacturer's cut-off) had a liver-related clinical outcome, compared to only two of 227 (liver-related event (adjusted for age and stage of fibrosis). In patients without advanced fibrosis on biopsy at recruitment, 55% (10/18) with an ELF score ≥9.8 showed clear evidence of progression to advanced fibrosis (after an average 6 years), whereas only 3.5% of those with an ELF score liver disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Targeting the oncogenic protein beta-catenin to enhance chemotherapy outcome against solid human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rempinski Donald R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-catenin is a multifunctional oncogenic protein that contributes fundamentally to cell development and biology. Elevation in expression and activity of β-catenin has been implicated in many cancers and associated with poor prognosis. Beta-catenin is degraded in the cytoplasm by glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β through phosphorylation. Cell growth and proliferation is associated with β-catenin translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. This laboratory was the first to demonstrate that selenium-containing compounds can enhance the efficacy and cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in several preclinical xenograft models. These data provided the basis to identify mechanism of selenium action focusing on β-catenin as a target. This study was designed to: (1 determine whether pharmacological doses of methylseleninic acid (MSeA have inhibitory effects on the level and the oncogenic activity of β-catenin, (2 investigate the kinetics and the mechanism of β-catenin inhibition, and (3 confirm that inhibition of β-catenin would lead to enhanced cytotoxicity of standard chemotherapeutic drugs. Results In six human cancer cell lines, the inhibition of total and nuclear expression of β-catenin by MSeA was dose and time dependent. The involvement of GSK-3β in the degradation of β-catenin was cell type dependent (GSK-3β-dependent in HT-29, whereas GSK-3β-independent in HCT-8. However, the pronounced inhibition of β-catenin by MSeA was independent of various drug treatments and was not reversed after combination therapy. Knockout of β-catenin by ShRNA and its inhibition by MSeA yielded similar enhancement of cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. Collectively, the generated data demonstrate that β-catenin is a target of MSeA and its inhibition resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Conclusions This study demonstrates that β-catenin, a molecule associated with drug resistance, is a target of

  14. Making the business case for enhanced depression care: the National Institute of Mental Health-harvard Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Philip S; Simon, Gregory E; Kessler, Ronald C

    2008-04-01

    Explore the business case for enhanced depression care and establish a return on investment rationale for increased organizational involvement by employer-purchasers. Literature review, focused on the National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness Study. This randomized controlled trial compared telephone outreach, care management, and optional psychotherapy to usual care among depressed workers in large national corporations. By 12 months, the intervention significantly improved depression outcomes, work retention, and hours worked among the employed. Results of the Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness Study trial and other studies suggest that enhanced depression care programs represent a human capital investment opportunity for employers.

  15. Growth performance and feed utilization of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed a commercial diet and reared in the biofloc system enhanced with probiotic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Putra Iskandar; Rusliadi Rusliadi; Fauzi Muhammad; Tang Usman M; Muchlisin Zainal A

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed utilization of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed a commercial diet and reared in the biofloc system...

  16. Grand challenges in technology enhanced learning outcomes of the 3rd Alpine Rendez-Vous

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Frank; Sutherland, Rosamund; Zirn, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a key piece of the vision and strategy developed in STELLAR. It sets out a new mid-term agenda by defining Grand Challenges for research and development in technology-enhanced learning. Other than mere technology prizes, STELLAR Grand Challenges deal with problems at the interface of social and technical sciences. They pose problems that can be solved only in interdisciplinary collaboration. The descriptions of the Grand Challenge Problems were sent out to a number of stakeholders from industry, academia, and policy-making who responded with insightful, creative and critical comments bringing in their specific perspectives. This book will inspire everyone interested in TEL and its neighboring disciplines in their future projects. All of the listed problems, first hints with respect to the approach, measurable success indicators and funding sources are outlined. The challenges focus on what noted experts regard as important upcoming, pending, and innovative fields of research, the solution o...

  17. Using telework to enhance return to work outcomes for individuals with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricout, John C

    2004-01-01

    Return-to-work is an area of critical concern for individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI), because of the psychological, psychosocial and economic benefits of employment. Although the majority of individuals with SCI are employed pre-injury, they are impeded from maintaining those jobs due to personal, organizational and systems level barriers. Telework, which permits home-based work through the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), alleviates many of return-to-work barriers for individuals with SCI, including job demands, mobility limitations, transportation needs and fatigue imposed by medical complications. For telework to fulfill its potential as a return-to-work strategy, rehabilitation professionals and employers must assess and enhance the readiness of the individual, workgroup and organization within the context of a disability management program. Strategies for successfully implementing telework as a return-to-work strategy for individuals with SCI are discussed, along with implications for future research.

  18. Evaluating the impact of an enhanced primary care diabetes service on diabetes outcomes: A before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidu, S; Bodicoat, D H; Davies, M J; Daly, H; Stribling, B; Farooqi, A; Brady, E M; Khunti, K

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes is an ambulatory care-sensitive condition and a high quality primary care or risk factor control can lead to a decrease in the risk of non-elective hospitalisations while ensuring continuity of care with usual primary care teams. In this before and after study, eight primary care practices providing a newer enhanced diabetes model of care in Leicester UK, were compared with matched neighbouring practices with comparable demographic features providing a more expensive integrated specialist-community care diabetes service. The primary outcome at twelve months was to demonstrate equivalence in non-elective bed days. The enhanced practices had primary care physicians and nurses with an interest in diabetes who attended monthly diabetes education meetings and provided care plans and audits. The control practices provided an integrated primary-specialist care service. The difference between the mean change in the non-elective bed days from baseline and at follow up in core and enhanced practices was not statistically significant (mean=2.20 per 100 patients, 95% CI=-0.92 to 5.31 per 100 patients, p=0.14). The analogous change for first outpatients' attendance were 0.23 per 100 patients (95% CI=-0.47 to 0.52 per 100 patients p=0.92) and for diabetes related complications admissions was 0.30 per 100 patients (95% CI=-0.85 to 1.45 per 100 patients p=0.55). A model of enhanced primary care based diabetes care appears unlikely to increase hospitalisations, outpatients' attendance or admissions for diabetes related complications. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heightened serotonin influences contest outcome and enhances expression of high-intensity aggressive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubak, Andrew N; Renner, Kenneth J; Swallow, John G

    2014-02-01

    The outcome of behavioral interactions between organisms can have significant fitness implications. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical importance to understand the mechanisms that modify different agonistic behaviors. Changes in central monoamines, such as serotonin (5-HT), contribute to modifying the expression of aggressive encounters in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In several invertebrate groups, neural 5-HT has been linked to heightened aggression and conflict escalation. The male stalk-eyed fly (Teleopsis dalmanni) competes with conspecifics daily over access to resources such as food and mates. Because encounters escalate in a stereotypical manner, stalk-eyed flies provide an excellent model system to study behavioral syndromes. We hypothesized that noninvasive, pharmacological augmentation of brain 5-HT by administration of the precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), would increase stereotypic behavioral escalation and the probability of winning a conflict over food. Size-matched male 5-HTP-treated and untreated flies were placed in a forced-fight paradigm and their aggressive behaviors scored. Individuals with higher brain 5-HT levels had a markedly higher probability of winning the contests, displayed greater levels of high-intensity aggressive behaviors and fewer retreats. Pretreatment with 5-HTP did not significantly alter octopamine or tyramine, suggesting that central 5-HT may modulate aggression in these organisms and play a role in determining reproductive success and resource attainment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing diversity and enhancing team outcomes: the promise of transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Eric; Gebert, Diether

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 62 research and development (R&D) teams, the authors examined transformational leadership as a moderator of the relationship of age, nationality, and educational background diversity with team outcomes. When levels of transformational leadership were high, nationality and educational diversity were positively related to team leaders' longitudinal ratings of team performance. These relationships were nonsignificant when transformational leadership was low. Age diversity was not related to team performance when transformational leadership was high, and it was negatively related to team performance when transformational leadership was low. Two mediated moderation effects help explain these findings. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship of the 3 examined diversity dimensions with the elaboration of task-relevant information, which in turn was positively associated with team performance. Moreover, transformational leadership moderated the relationship of the 3 diversity types with collective team identification, which in turn was positively related to the elaboration of task-relevant information. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these results. Overall, this study suggests that transformational leadership can foster the utilization of the potential, but frequently untapped, benefits entailed by both demographic and informational/cognitive team diversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Enhancing RPE Cell-Based Therapy Outcomes for AMD: The Role of Bruch's Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Janosch P; Martin, Keith R

    2014-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in older people in the developed world. The disease involves damage to the part of the retina responsible for central vision. Degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, photoreceptors, and choriocapillaris may contribute to visual loss. Over the past decades, scientists and clinicians have tried to replace lost RPE cells in patients with AMD using cells from different sources. In recent years, advances in generating RPE cells from stem cells have been made and clinical trials are currently evaluating the safety and efficiency of replacing the degenerated RPE cell layer with stem cell-derived RPE cells. However, the therapeutic success of transplantation of stem cell-derived RPE cells may be limited unless the transplanted cells can adhere and survive in the long term in the diseased eye. One hallmark of AMD is the altered extracellular environment of Bruch's membrane to which the grafted cells have to adhere. Here, we discuss recent approaches to overcome the inhibitory environment of the diseased eye and to enhance the survival rate of transplanted RPE cells. Our aim is to highlight novel approaches that may have the potential to improve the efficacy of RPE transplantation for AMD in the future.

  2. Biomarker Enhanced Risk Prediction for Adverse Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients Receiving RRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Francis; Murugan, Raghavan; Keener, Christopher; Palevsky, Paul M; Vijayan, Anitha; Unruh, Mark; Finkel, Kevin; Wen, Xiaoyan; Kellum, John A

    2015-08-07

    Higher plasma concentrations of inflammatory and apoptosis markers in critically ill patients receiving RRT are associated with RRT dependence and death. This study objective was to examine whether plasma inflammatory (IL-6, -8, -10, and -18; macrophage migration inhibitory factor) and apoptosis (death receptor-5, tumor necrosis factor receptor I and II) biomarkers augment risk prediction of renal recovery and mortality compared with clinical models. The Biologic Markers of Recovery for the Kidney study (n=817) was a prospective, nested, observational cohort study conducted as an ancillary to the Veterans Affairs/National Institutes of Health Acute renal failure Trial Network study, a randomized trial of intensive versus less intensive RRT in critically ill patients with AKI conducted between November 2003 and July 2007 at 27 Veterans Affairs- and university-affiliated centers. Primary outcomes of interest were renal recovery and mortality at day 60. A parsimonious clinical model consisting of only four variables (age, mean arterial pressure, mechanical ventilation, and bilirubin) predicted renal recovery (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.73; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.68 to 0.78) and mortality (AUROC, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.78). By contrast, individual biomarkers were only modestly predictive of renal recovery (AUROC range, 0.55-0.63) and mortality (AUROC range, 0.54-0.68). Adding plasma IL-8 to a parsimonious model augmented prediction of recovery (AUROC, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.81; P=0.04) and mortality (AUROC, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.82; P<0.01) compared with the clinical model alone. This study suggests that a simple four-variable clinical model with plasma IL-8 had predictive value for renal recovery and mortality. These findings require external validation but could easily be used by clinicians. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Enhancing Resourcefulness to Improve Outcomes in Family Caregivers and Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth W. Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot randomized trial tested an intervention aimed at enhancing resourcefulness in family caregivers of persons with dementia, postulating that caregivers’ emotional outcomes (anxiety and depression and role outcomes (reward, strain, mutuality, and preparedness would be improved, and problem behaviors in the care recipients (persons with dementia would be reduced as a result of the intervention. Subjects were stratified by race (white or African American and by baseline resourcefulness (high or low. Family caregivers were randomly assigned to an intervention group in which subjects attended six resourcefulness training sessions, meeting for 2 hours weekly over 6 weeks, or to a control group that received no treatment. Small to medium effects were shown for the intervention program on resourcefulness, anxiety, and preparedness of the caregivers and on frequency of behavior problems in the care recipients. Caregivers in the intervention group reported significantly more resourcefulness skills, with a medium effect at week 6 and a small effect 12 weeks later, compared with the control group. Persons with dementia had fewer behavior problems in the intervention group compared with control, although the difference was not significant. Caregivers’ anxiety was reduced in the intervention group at 12 weeks.

  4. Enhancing Collegiate Women’s Soccer Psychosocial and Performance Outcomes by Promoting Intrinsic Sources of Sport Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnicle, Scott P.; Burton, Damon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an applied mental skills training (MST) intervention utilizing mental skills to enhance intrinsic sources of enjoyment (ISOEs) as a means of promoting self-confidence, motivational style, and athletic performance, while also decreasing trait anxiety. The intervention project was designed to increase intrinsic SOE using a systematic and individualized mental training protocol, and then examine its relationships to mental skills and soccer performance. A Division 1 collegiate women’s soccer team was randomly assigned to treatment (n = 8) and control (n = 11) groups, equally distributed by academic year, position, and pre-season coach-evaluated starters and non-starts. Results revealed that the MST intervention significantly increased intrinsic enjoyment targeted psychological and competitive outcomes, both in practice and competition within the treatment group as compared to the control group. This study’s support for the impact mental skills training may have had on ISOEs, as well as other psychosocial outcomes and athletic performance can serve to highlight a mental skill often overlooked by consultants and coaches. Key points Sport enjoyment is a pivotal part of athletic performance, and should be more accepted and utilized in sport psychology interventions Applied sport psychology can positively impact athletes’ enjoyment, as well as athletic performance Applied sport psychology interventions can be effective in collegiate sports, and should be more utilized and appreciated. Intrinsic sport enjoyment is a vital component of an athlete’s success, both on and off the field. PMID:27928214

  5. Enhancing Collegiate Women’s Soccer Psychosocial and Performance Outcomes by Promoting Intrinsic Sources of Sport Enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Barnicle, Damon Burton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of an applied mental skills training (MST intervention utilizing mental skills to enhance intrinsic sources of enjoyment (ISOEs as a means of promoting self-confidence, motivational style, and athletic performance, while also decreasing trait anxiety. The intervention project was designed to increase intrinsic SOE using a systematic and individualized mental training protocol, and then examine its relationships to mental skills and soccer performance. A Division 1 collegiate women’s soccer team was randomly assigned to treatment (n = 8 and control (n = 11 groups, equally distributed by academic year, position, and pre-season coach-evaluated starters and non-starts. Results revealed that the MST intervention significantly increased intrinsic enjoyment targeted psychological and competitive outcomes, both in practice and competition within the treatment group as compared to the control group. This study’s support for the impact mental skills training may have had on ISOEs, as well as other psychosocial outcomes and athletic performance can serve to highlight a mental skill often overlooked by consultants and coaches.

  6. Cognitive enhancement or cognitive cost: trait-specific outcomes of brain stimulation in the case of mathematics anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amar; Dowker, Ann; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2014-12-10

    The surge in noninvasive brain stimulation studies investigating cognitive enhancement has neglected the effect of interindividual differences, such as traits, on stimulation outcomes. Using the case of mathematics anxiety in a sample of healthy human participants in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experiment, we show that identical transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) exerts opposite behavioral and physiological effects depending on individual trait levels. Mathematics anxiety is the negative emotional response elicited by numerical tasks, impairing mathematical achievement. tDCS was applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a frequent target for modulating emotional regulation. It improved reaction times on simple arithmetic decisions and decreased cortisol concentrations (a biomarker of stress) in high mathematics anxiety individuals. In contrast, tDCS impaired reaction times for low mathematics anxiety individuals and prevented a decrease in cortisol concentration compared with sham stimulation. Both groups showed a tDCS-induced side effect-impaired executive control in a flanker task-a cognitive function subserved by the stimulated region. These behavioral and physiological double dissociations have implications for brain stimulation research by highlighting the role of individual traits in experimental findings. Brain stimulation clearly does not produce uniform benefits, even applied in the same configuration during the same tasks, but may interact with traits to produce markedly opposed outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Sarkar et al.

  7. The benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for predicting vascular access surgery outcome: a computer model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Maarten A G; Huberts, Wouter; Bosboom, E Mariëlle H; Bode, Aron S; Bescós, Javier Oliván; Tordoir, Jan H M; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Vosse, Frans N

    2013-01-01

    Vascular access (VA) surgery, a prerequisite for hemodialysis treatment of end-stage renal-disease (ESRD) patients, is hampered by complication rates, which are frequently related to flow enhancement. To assist in VA surgery planning, a patient-specific computer model for postoperative flow enhancement was developed. The purpose of this study is to assess the benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) data as patient-specific geometrical input for the model-based prediction of surgery outcome. 25 ESRD patients were included in this study. All patients received a NCE-MRA examination of the upper extremity blood vessels in addition to routine ultrasound (US). Local arterial radii were assessed from NCE-MRA and converted to model input using a linear fit per artery. Venous radii were determined with US. The effect of radius measurement uncertainty on model predictions was accounted for by performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting flow prediction interval of the computer model was compared with the postoperative flow obtained from US. Patients with no overlap between model-based prediction and postoperative measurement were further analyzed to determine whether an increase in geometrical detail improved computer model prediction. Overlap between postoperative flows and model-based predictions was obtained for 71% of patients. Detailed inspection of non-overlapping cases revealed that the geometrical details that could be assessed from NCE-MRA explained most of the differences, and moreover, upon addition of these details in the computer model the flow predictions improved. The results demonstrate clearly that NCE-MRA does provide valuable geometrical information for VA surgery planning. Therefore, it is recommended to use this modality, at least for patients at risk for local or global narrowing of the blood vessels as well as for patients for whom an US-based model prediction would not overlap with surgical choice, as the

  8. Enhancement of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in cabbage (Brassica oleraceae following application of commercial seaweed extracts of the brown seaweed, (Ascophyllum nodosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Lola-Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica crops are rich is phytochemical compounds and frequent consumption of these vegetables has been associated with a lower risk in cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. The effect of three commercial extracts of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, on phytochemical content and yield in cabbage plants was tested under field conditions in two consecutive crops. Total phenolic content was higher in all seaweed treated plants, with the highest increase recorded with AlgaeGreenTM (3.5 l ha-1 with a 2 fold increase relative to the control. The other commercial seaweed extract, XT achieved a lower increases of 1.3 fold (3.5 l ha-1. Similar increases were recorded in total flavonoid content. No statistically significant increases in yield were recorded with any of the seaweed extracts tested. The results suggest that seaweed extracts stimulated an increased accumulation of phytochemicals in cabbage but had no significant effect in yield under these experimental conditions.

  9. From genetic improvement to commercial-scale mass culture of a Chilean strain of the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis with enhanced productivity of the red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Patricia I.; Inostroza, Ingrid; Pizarro, Mario; Pérez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a red ketocarotenoid, widely used as a natural red colourant in marine fish aquaculture and poultry and, recently, as an antioxidant supplement for humans and animals. The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the richest natural sources of this pigment. However, its slow growth rate and complex life cycle make mass culture difficult for commercial purposes. The aims of this research were (i) to standardize and apply a genetic improvement programme to a Chilean strain of H. pluvialis in order to improve its carotenogenic capacity and (ii) to evaluate the performance of a selected mutant strain in commercial-sized (125 000 L) open ponds in the north of Chile. Haematococcus pluvialis strain 114 was mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate. The level of mutagen dose (exposure time and concentration) was one that induced at least 90 % mortality. Surviving colonies were screened for resistance to the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor diphenylamine (25 µM). Resistant mutants were grown in a 30-mL volume for 30 days, after which the total carotenoid content was determined by spectrophotometry. Tens of mutants with improved carotenogenic capacity compared with the wild-type strain were isolated by the application of these standardized protocols. Some mutants exhibited curious morphological features such as spontaneous release of astaxanthin and loss of flagella. One of the mutants was grown outdoors in commercial-sized open ponds of 125 000 L in the north of Chile. Grown under similar conditions, the mutant strain accumulated 30 % more astaxanthin than the wild-type strain on a per dry weight basis and 72 % more on a per culture volume basis. We show that random mutagenesis/selection is an effective strategy for genetically improving strains of H. pluvialis and that improved carotenogenic capacity is maintained when the volume of the cultures is scaled up to a commercial size. PMID:23789055

  10. A comparison of consistency and taste of five commercial thickeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, C A

    1997-01-01

    This study presents the results of a blinded test of the performance of five commercial thickners. Experimental variables considered are brand of commercial thickener, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time. Success of outcome is defined by a numerical rating scale comparing the consistency and taste to actual liquid samples. The findings suggest that no one commercial thickener consistently produces a desired consistency or was consistently superior regarding taste. Success in producing certain liquid consistencies and "good taste" varied according to brand, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time used. It is suggested that specific recipes be developed for each brand and liquid to be thickened. Flavorings should be tested to enhance taste.

  11. Commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  12. Enhancement of specificity of aldosterone measurement in human serum and plasma using 2D-LC-MS/MS and comparison with commercial immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Julie A; Kushnir, Mark M; Palmer, John; Sadjadi, Seyed; Rockwood, Alan L; Meikle, A Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Accurate measurement of aldosterone is important for the standardized testing of primary hyperaldosteronism. Commercial immunoassays show substantial between-method variations resulting in significant clinical consequences. We developed a specific two dimensional (2D)-LC-MS/MS method for measuring aldosterone in human serum and plasma and compared it with three commercial immunoassays and an LC-MS/MS method. 250 μL samples, controls and calibrators spiked with d4-aldosterone were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction. The samples were analyzed using negative mode electrospray and 2D-LC followed by MS detection using an ABSciex 5500 mass spectrometer and compared with immunoassays of Siemens (Coat-A-Count), DiaSorin (CLIA-LIAISON), and IBL (ELISA). Data was acquired using multiple reaction-monitoring mode. LOQ and LOD of the method were 0.04 and 0.02 nmol/L respectively. The assay was linear up to 166 nmol/L. Inter and intra-assay imprecision at 0.13, 1.38 and 8.30 nmol/L were measurement of aldosterone in human serum and plasma using 2D-LC-MS/MS which is suitable for clinical purposes. The method is faster than previously published LC-MS/MS methods, uses less sample, has adequate sensitivity while being able to preserve high specificity in a cost effective manner. Linearity of the assay makes it promising for urine and adrenal venous samples. Comparison with three commercial immunoassays demonstrates the advantages of the developed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  14. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-15

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project.

  15. Idiosyncratic deals and employee outcomes: the mediating roles of social exchange and self-enhancement and the moderating role of individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lee, Cynthia; Hui, Chun; Kwan, Ho Kwong; Wu, Long-Zeng

    2013-09-01

    The majority of studies on idiosyncratic employment arrangements ("i-deals") are based on social exchange theory. The authors suggest that self-enhancement theory, in addition to social exchange, can be used to explain the effects of i-deals. Using a multisource sample including 230 employees and 102 supervisors from 2 Chinese companies, the authors adopt a 3-wave lagged design to examine the mediating roles of social exchange and self-enhancement and the moderating role of individualism in the relationships between i-deals and employee outcomes, as indicated by proactive behaviors and affective commitment. The results of bootstrapping analyses confirm the mediating effects of social exchange and self-enhancement. In addition, employees with high levels of individualism are more receptive to self-enhancement effects; in contrast, employees with low levels of individualism are more receptive to social exchange effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Motivational enhancement therapy in addition to physical therapy improves motivational factors and treatment outcomes in people with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sinfia K; Cheing, Gladys L; Chan, Fong; So, Eric M; Chan, Chetwyn C

    2011-02-01

    To examine whether the addition of motivational enhancement treatment (MET) to conventional physical therapy (PT) produces better outcomes than PT alone in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). A double-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. PT outpatient department. Participants (N=76) with chronic LBP were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either MET plus PT or PT alone. MET included motivational interviewing strategies and motivation-enhancing factors. The PT program consisted of interferential therapy and back exercises. Motivational-enhancing factors, pain intensity, physical functions, and exercise compliance. The MET-plus-PT group produced significantly greater improvements than the PT group in 3 motivation-enhancing factors; proxy efficacy (Pmotivation and exercise compliance and show better improvement in physical function in patients with chronic LBP compared with PT alone. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. "Ethnicity moderates the outcomes of self-enhancement and self-improvement themes in expressive writing": Correction to Tsai et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Reports an error in "Ethnicity moderates the outcomes of self-enhancement and self-improvement themes in expressive writing" by William Tsai, Anna S. Lau, Andrea N. Niles, Jordan Coello, Matthew D. Lieberman, Ahra C. Ko, Christopher Hur and Annette L. Stanton (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 21[4], 584-592). In this article, there were three errors in the Results section. Each are described in the erratum alongside the correct results. The interpretations of the findings remain the same. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-32908-001.) The current study examined whether writing content related to self-enhancing (viz., downward social comparison and situational attributions) and self-improving (viz., upward social comparison and persistence) motivations were differentially related to expressive writing outcomes among 17 Asian American and 17 European American participants. Content analysis of the essays revealed no significant cultural group differences in the likelihood of engaging in self-enhancing versus self-improving reflections on negative personal experiences. However, cultural group differences were apparent in the relation between self-motivation processes and changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms at 3-month follow-up. Among European Americans, writing that reflected downward social comparison predicted positive outcomes, whereas persistence writing themes were related to poorer outcomes. For Asian Americans, writing about persistence was related to positive outcomes, whereas downward social comparison and situational attributions predicted poorer outcomes. Findings provide evidence suggesting culturally distinct mechanisms for the effects of expressive disclosure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Correlates of domestic waste management and related health outcomes in Sunyani, Ghana: a protocol towards enhancing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Henry O; Dun-Dery, Elvis J; Afoakwa, Eugenia; Elizabeth, Addai; Ellen, Amposah; Rebecca, Mwinfaug

    2017-07-03

    Domestic waste generation has contributed significantly to hampering national waste management efforts. It poses serious threat to national development and requires proper treatment and management within and outside households. The problem of improper waste management has always been a challenge in Ghana, compelling several national surveys to report on the practice of waste management. However, little is known about how much waste is generated and managed within households and there is a serious dearth of information for national policy and planning. This paper seeks to document the handling and practice of waste management, including collection, storage, transportation and disposal along with the types and amount of waste generated by Households and their related health outcome. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi-stage sampling technique to sample 700 households. The study was planned and implemented from January to May 2015. It involved the use of structured questionnaires in the data collection over the period. Factors such as demographic characteristics, amount of waste generated, types of waste bins used within households, waste recycling, cost of disposing waste, and distance to dumpsite were all assessed. The paper shows that each surveyed household generated 0.002 t of waste per day, of which 29% are both organic and inorganic. Though more than half of the respondents (53.6%) had positive attitude towards waste management, only 29.1% practiced waste management. The study reveals that there is no proper management of domestic waste except in few households that segregate waste. The study identified several elements as determinants of waste management practice. Female respondents were less likely to practice waste management (AOR 0.45; 95% Cl 0.29, 0.79), household size also determined respondents practice (AOR 0.26; Cl 0.09, 0.77). Practice of recycling (AOR 0.03; Cl 0.02, 0.08), distance to dumpsite (AOR 0.45; Cl 0.20, 0

  19. Enhancing Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Product Commercialization: The Role of Science in Regulatory Decision-Making for the TE/RM Product Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Timothy A; Johnson, Peter C; Tawil, Bill J; Van Dyke, Mark; Hellman, Kiki B

    2015-10-01

    TERMIS-AM Industry Committee (TERMIS-AM/IC), in collaboration with the TERMIS-Europe (EU)/IC, conducted a symposium involving the European Medicines Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toward building an understanding of the rational basis for regulatory decision-making and providing a framework for decisions made during the evaluation of safety and efficacy of TE/RM technologies. This symposium was held in August 2012 during the TERMIS-WC in Vienna, Austria. Emerging from this international initiative by the European Union and the United States, representatives from the respective agencies demonstrated that there are ongoing interagency efforts for developing common national practices toward harmonization of regulatory requirements for the TE/RM products. To extend a broad-based understanding of the role of science in regulatory decision-making, TERMIS-AM/IC, in cooperation with the FDA, organized a symposium at the 2014 TERMIS-AM Annual Meeting, which was held in Washington, DC. This event provided insights from leaders in the FDA and TERMIS on the current status of regulatory approaches for the approved TE/RM products, the use of science in making regulatory decisions, and TE/RM technologies that are in the development pipeline to address unmet medical needs. A far-ranging discussion with FDA representatives, industrialists, physicians, regenerative medicine biologists, and tissue engineers considered the gaps in today's scientific and regulatory understanding of TE/RM technologies. The identified gaps represent significant opportunities to advance TE/RM technologies toward commercialization.

  20. Facile conversion of commercial coarse-type LiCoO2 to nanocomposite-separated nanolayer architectures as a way for electrode performance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinan; Sha, Yujing; Lin, Qian; Zhong, Yijun; Tade, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-01-28

    Coarse-type LiCoO2 is the state-of-the-art cathode material in small-scale lithium-ion batteries (LIBs); however, poor rate performance and cycling stability limit its large-scale applications. Here we report the modification of coarse-type LiCoO2 (LCO) with nanosized lithium lanthanum titanate (Li3xLa2/3-xTiO3, LLTO) through a facile sol-gel process, the electrochemical performance of commercial LiCoO2 is improved effectively, in particular at high rates. The crystalline structure of pristine LiCoO2 is not affected by the introduction of the LLTO phase, while nanosized LLTO particles are likely incorporated into the space of the LiCoO2 layers to form a LCO-LLTO nanocomposite, which separate the LCO layers with the increase of layer spacing to ∼100 nm. The LLTO incorporation through the facile post-treatment effectively reduces the charge-transfer resistance and increases the electrode reactions; consequently, the LLTO-incorporated LCO electrode shows higher capacity than LiCoO2 at a higher rate and prolonging cycling stability in both potential ranges of 2.7-4.2 V and 2.7-4.5 V, making it also suitable for high-rate operation. This novel concept is general, which may also be applicable to other electrode materials. It thus introduces a new way for the development of high rate-performance electrodes for LIBs for large scale applications such as electric vehicles and electrochemical energy storage for smart grids.

  1. Intensity of MRI Gadolinium Enhancement in Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy: A Biomarker for Inflammation and Predictor of Outcome following Transplantation in Higher Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W P; Mantovani, L F; Muzic, J; Rykken, J B; Gawande, R S; Lund, T C; Shanley, R M; Raymond, G V; Orchard, P J; Nascene, D R

    2016-02-01

    Outcomes following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for higher risk childhood-onset cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy are variable. We explored whether a brain MR imaging gadolinium intensity scoring system improves prediction of neurologic outcome. We developed a 4-point scale of gadolinium intensity relative to the choroid plexus: 0 = no enhancement; 1 = hypointense; 2 = isointense; 3 = hyperintense. The interobserver concordance of the scale was assessed on 30 randomly chosen studies. Scores were generated for 64 evaluable patients and compared with CSF chitotriosidase levels, a known inflammatory marker correlating with outcomes following transplantation. For 25 evaluable higher risk patients (Loes ≥10), the gadolinium intensity score was compared with longer term posttransplantation clinical change. The gadolinium intensity scoring system showed good interobserver reproducibility (κ = 0.72). Of 64 evaluable boys, the score positively correlated with average concomitant CSF chitotriosidase activity in nanograms/milliliter/hour: 0: 2717, n = 5; 1: 3218, n = 13; 2: 6497, n = 23; and 3: 12,030, n = 23 (P adrenoleukodystrophy neurologic function scale following transplantation: 0/1: adrenoleukodystrophy neurologic function scale score difference = 4.3, n = 7; 2/3: adrenoleukodystrophy neurologic function scale score difference = 10.4, n = 18 (P = .05). Gadolinium enhancement intensity on brain MR imaging can be scored simply and reproducibly for cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. The enhancement score significantly correlates with chitotriosidase. In boys with higher risk cerebral disease (Loes ≥10), the enhancement score itself predicts neurologic outcome following treatment. Such data may help guide treatment decisions for clinicians and families. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Intensity of MRI gadolinium enhancement in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy: a biomarker for inflammation and predictor of outcome following transplant in higher-risk patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Weston P.; Mantovani, Luiz F.; Muzic, John; Rykken, Jeffrey B.; Gawande, Rakhee S.; Lund, Troy C.; Shanley, Ryan M.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Orchard, Paul J.; Nascene, David R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Outcomes following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for higher-risk childhood-onset cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy are variable. We explored whether a brain MRI gadolinium intensity scoring system improves prediction of neurologic outcome. METHODS A four-point scale of gadolinium intensity relative to the choroid plexus was developed: 0 = no enhancement; 1 = hypo-intense; 2 = iso-intense; 3 = hyper-intense. The scale’s inter-observer concordance was assessed on 30 randomly chosen studies. Scores were generated for 64 evaluable patients and compared with cerebrospinal fluid chitotriosidase levels, a known inflammatory marker correlating with outcomes following transplant. For 25 evaluable higher-risk patients (Loes ≥ 10), the gadolinium intensity score was compared with longer-term post-transplant clinical change. RESULTS The gadolinium intensity scoring system showed good inter-observer reproducibility (kappa = 0.72). Of 64 evaluable boys, the score positively correlated with average concomitant cerebrospinal fluid chitotriosidase activity in ng/mL/hr: (0), 2,717, n=5; (1), 3,218, n=13; (2), 6,497, n=23; and (3), 12,030, n=23 (p adrenoleukodystrophy neurologic function scale following transplant: (0/1), ΔNFS = 4.3, n = 7; (2/3), ΔNFS = 10.4, n = 18 (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION Gadolinium enhancement intensity on brain MRI can be scored simply and reproducibly for cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Enhancement score significantly correlates with chitotriosidase. In boys with higher-risk cerebral disease (Loes ≥ 10), enhancement score itself predicts neurologic outcome following treatment. Such data may help to guide treatment decisions for clinicians and families. PMID:26427835

  3. Enhancing quality of vocational training outcome to satisfy the labor market demands in Kuwait by using Quality Function Deployment method (QFD)

    OpenAIRE

    Riyadh Mohammed Ali Hamza

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a system to enhance the quality of vocational training programs in Kuwait state by using the concept of Quality Function Deployment (QFD).Approach: The approach starts by investigating the private sector of the labor market. The interviewing of a sample group of the private sector companies was done to know their expectation of the performance of vocational training outcomes. Then, QFD was applied to find the technical requirements, which will ...

  4. Innovating to enhance clinical data management using non-commercial and open source solutions across a multi-center network supporting inpatient pediatric care and research in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuti, Timothy; Bitok, Michael; Paton, Chris; Makone, Boniface; Malla, Lucas; Muinga, Naomi; Gathara, David; English, Mike

    2016-01-01

    To share approaches and innovations adopted to deliver a relatively inexpensive clinical data management (CDM) framework within a low-income setting that aims to deliver quality pediatric data useful for supporting research, strengthening the information culture and informing improvement efforts in local clinical practice. The authors implemented a CDM framework to support a Clinical Information Network (CIN) using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap), a noncommercial software solution designed for rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture tools. It was used for collection of standardized data from case records of multiple hospitals' pediatric wards. R, an open-source statistical language, was used for data quality enhancement, analysis, and report generation for the hospitals. In the first year of CIN, the authors have developed innovative solutions to support the implementation of a secure, rapid pediatric data collection system spanning 14 hospital sites with stringent data quality checks. Data have been collated on over 37 000 admission episodes, with considerable improvement in clinical documentation of admissions observed. Using meta-programming techniques in R, coupled with branching logic, randomization, data lookup, and Application Programming Interface (API) features offered by REDCap, CDM tasks were configured and automated to ensure quality data was delivered for clinical improvement and research use. A low-cost clinically focused but geographically dispersed quality CDM (Clinical Data Management) in a long-term, multi-site, and real world context can be achieved and sustained and challenges can be overcome through thoughtful design and implementation of open-source tools for handling data and supporting research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  5. Accuracy of enhanced and unenhanced MRI in diagnosing scaphoid proximal pole avascular necrosis and predicting surgical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Wang, D.T. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Chhabra, A.B. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Orthopedics, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Determine the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of unenhanced and enhanced MRI in diagnosing scaphoid proximal pole (PP) avascular necrosis (AVN) and correlate whether MRI can help guide the selection of a vascularized or nonvascularized bone graft. The study was approved by the IRB. Two MSK radiologists independently performed a retrospective review of unenhanced and enhanced MRIs from 18 patients (16 males, 2 females; median age, 17.5 years) with scaphoid nonunions and surgery performed within 65 days of the MRI. AVN was diagnosed on the unenhanced MRI when a diffusely decreased T1-W signal was present in the PP and on the enhanced MRI when PP enhancement was less than distal pole enhancement. Surgical absence of PP bleeding was diagnostic of PP AVN. Postoperative osseous union (OU) was assessed with computed tomography and/or radiographs. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for PP AVN were 71, 82 and 78 % for unenhanced and 43, 82 and 67 % for enhanced MRI. Patients with PP AVN on unenhanced MRI had 86 % (6/7) OU; 100 % (5/5) OU with vascularized bone grafts and 50 % (1/2) OU with nonvascularized grafts. Patients with PP AVN on enhanced MRI had 80 % (4/5) OU; 100 % (3/3) OU with vascularized bone grafts and 50 % (1/2) OU with nonvascularized grafts. Patients with viable PP on unenhanced and enhanced MRI had 91 % (10/11) and 92 % (12/13) OU, respectively, all but one with nonvascularized graft. When PP AVN is evident on MRI, OU is best achieved with vascularized grafts. If PP AVN is absent, OU is successful with nonvascularized grafts. (orig.)

  6. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  7. Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

    2006-08-01

    The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

  8. Pooling health-related quality of life outcomes in meta-analysis-a tutorial and review of methods for enhancing interpretability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlund, Kristian; Walter, Stephen D; Johnston, Bradley C; Furukawa, Toshi A; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2011-09-01

    - Meta-analyses of health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes present difficulties in interpretation when studies use different instruments to measure the same construct. Presentation of results in standard deviation units (standardized mean difference) is widely used but is limited by vulnerability to differential variability in populations enrolled and interpretational challenges. - The objective of this study is to identify and describe the available approaches for enhancing interpretability of meta-analyses involving HRQL outcomes. - We identified 12 approaches in three categories: Summary estimates derived from the pooled standardized mean difference: conversion to units of the most familiar instrument or to risk difference or odds ratio. These approaches remain vulnerable to differential variability in populations. Summary estimates derived from the individual trial summary statistics: conversion to units of the most familiar instrument or to ratio of means. Both are appropriate complementary approaches to measures derived from converted probabilities. Summary estimates derived from the individual trial summary statistics and established minimally important differences for all instruments: presentation in minimally important difference units or conversion to risk difference or odds ratio. Risk differences are ideal for balancing desirable and undesirable consequences of alternative interventions. - The use of these approaches may enhance the interpretability and the usefulness of systematic reviews involving HRQL outcomes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Knowledge Transfer in B-O-R-N Model to Enhance Computer Learners' Learning Outcomes in Knowledge and Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangchant, Shatchaya; Kiattikomol, Paiboon; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The process of knowledge transfer under the B-O-R-N Model is based on the concepts of knowledge transfer and change of knowledge patterns to create new knowledge. It stimulates learners to learn under the process of knowledge transfer during the learning with an aim to allow learners to achieve the learning outcomes.…

  10. Peri-operative interventions producing better functional outcomes and enhanced recovery following total hip and knee arthroplasty: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mazin S; Khan, Muhammad A; Nizam, Ikram; Haddad, Fares S

    2013-02-13

    The increasing numbers of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA), combined with the rapidly growing repertoire of surgical techniques and interventions available have put considerable pressure on surgeons and other healthcare professionals to produce excellent results with early functional recovery and short hospital stays. The current economic climate and the restricted healthcare budgets further necessitate brief hospitalization while minimizing costs.Clinical pathways and protocols introduced to achieve these goals include a variety of peri-operative interventions to fulfill patient expectations and achieve the desired outcomes.In this review, we present an evidence-based summary of common interventions available to achieve enhanced recovery, reduce hospital stay, and improve functional outcomes following THA and TKA. It covers pre-operative patient education and nutrition, pre-emptive analgesia, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, pulsed electromagnetic fields, peri-operative rehabilitation, modern wound dressings, standard surgical techniques, minimally invasive surgery, and fast-track arthroplasty units.

  11. Games for Enhancing Sustainability of Year 7 Maths Classes in Indonesia: Theory-Driven Development, Testing and Analyses of Lessons, and of Students’ Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Griep

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of international comparative studies have shown thatrelationships exist between metacognition and cognitive activation andlearning success. Since 2007 we have been carrying out projects inIndonesia to improve cognitive and metacognitive activities of pupils ofyear 7 and their teachers. These activities are to contribute to theconstruction and sensible use of sustainable mental models formathematical concepts and methods by learners.This paper shows how games are used for the enhancement of metacognitive and discursive activities in class. Their effectiveness isdocumented exemplary by means of students’ outcomes and transcriptsof lessons from project classes.

  12. Improving Outcomes for Children with Developmental Disabilities through Enhanced Communication and Collaboration between School Psychologists and Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzema, Anne M.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Ghosh, Shuvo; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Manay-Quian, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    A renewed call for enhanced communication and collaboration between school psychology and medicine is envisioned, in light of a transdisciplinary model, where school psychologists, family physicians, and other health professionals transcend disciplinary boundaries. Recommendations for optimal communication and collaboration are described, as well…

  13. An e-Chart Review of Chaplains' Interventions and Outcomes: A Quality Improvement and Documentation Practice Enhancement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Vivian B

    2017-09-01

    In Canada, the spiritual care landscape in health care settings is becoming more regulated and standardized documentation is part of this rigorous environment. Staff chaplains at The Ottawa Hospital participated in a Quality Improvement project that aimed to advance patient-centered care through better charting practices. A sample of 104 spiritual-care assessments that had been posted on the patient electronic health record was examined. This chart review focused on chaplains' activities that were reported as interventions as well as chaplain-reported outcomes for the patient. These interventions and outcomes were coded into discreet categories in order to get a better sense of the activities and the impact of their work. The chaplains' electronic charting content and practices were evaluated. Chaplains found that the Quality Improvement process was beneficial as they updated their electronic templates in order to meet the new reporting requirements of the College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario.

  14. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  15. Prem Baby Triple P: a randomised controlled trial of enhanced parenting capacity to improve developmental outcomes in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Paul; Sanders, Matthew R; Boyd, Roslyn; Pritchard, Margo; Gray, Peter; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Slaughter, Virginia; Whittingham, Koa; O'Rourke, Peter; Winter, Leanne; Evans, Tracey; Herd, Michael; Ahern, Jessica; Jardine, Luke

    2015-03-04

    Very preterm birth (parenting have the greatest potential to create sustained effects on child development and parental psychopathology. Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) has shown positive effects on child behaviour and adjustment, parenting practices and family functioning. Baby Triple P for Preterm infants, has been developed to target parents of very preterm infants. This study tests the effectiveness of Baby Triple P for Preterm infants in improving child and parent/couple outcomes at 24 months corrected age (CA). Families will be randomised to receive either Baby Triple P for Preterm infants or Care as Usual (CAU). Baby Triple P for Preterm infants involves 4 × 2 hr group sessions at the hospital plus 4 × 30 min telephone consultations soon after transfer (42 weeks C.A.). After discharge participants will be linked to community based Triple P and intervention maintenance up to 24 months C.A. Assessments will be: baseline, post-intervention (6 weeks C.A.), at 12 and 24 months C.A. The primary outcome measure is the Infant Toddler Social & Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) at 24 months C.A. Child behavioural and emotional problems will be coded using the mother-toddler version of the Family Observation Schedule at 24 months C.A. Secondary outcome will be the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III) cognitive development, language and motor abilities. Proximal targets of parenting style, parental self-efficacy, parental mental health, parental adjustment, parent-infant attachment, couple relationship satisfaction and couple communication will also be assessed. Our sample size based on the ITSEA, has 80% power, predicted effect size of 0.33 and an 85% retention rate, requires 165 families are required in each group (total sample of 330 families). This protocol presents the study design, methods and intervention to be analysed in a randomised trial of Baby Triple P for Preterm infants compared to Care as Usual (CAU) for families of very preterm

  16. Credit Enhancement Overview Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Financing Solutions Working Group

    2014-01-01

    Provides considerations for state and local policymakers and energy efficiency program administrators designing and implementing successful credit enhancement strategies for residential and commercial buildings.

  17. PLGA, PLGA-TMC and TMC-TPP nanoparticles differentially modulate the outcome of nasal vaccination by inducing tolerance or enhancing humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Chantal; Slütter, Bram; van der Zee, Ruurd; Jiskoot, Wim; van Eden, Willem; Broere, Femke

    2011-01-01

    Development of vaccines in autoimmune diseases has received wide attention over the last decade. However, many vaccines showed limited clinical efficacy. To enhance vaccine efficacy in infectious diseases, biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles have gained interest as antigen delivery systems. We investigated in mice whether antigen-encapsulated PLGA (poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA-TMC (N-trimethyl chitosan) or TMC-TPP (tri-polyphosphate) nanoparticles can also be used to modulate the immunological outcome after nasal vaccination. These three nanoparticles enhanced the antigen presentation by dendritic cells, as shown by increased in vitro and in vivo CD4(+) T-cell proliferation. However, only nasal PLGA nanoparticles were found to induce an immunoregulatory response as shown by enhanced Foxp3 expression in the nasopharynx associated lymphoid tissue and cervical lymph nodes. Nasal administration of OVA-containing PLGA particle resulted in functional suppression of an OVA-specific Th-1 mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, while TMC-TPP nanoparticles induced humoral immunity, which coincided with the enhanced generation of OVA-specific B-cells in the cervical lymph nodes. Intranasal treatment with Hsp70-mB29a peptide-loaded PLGA nanoparticles suppressed proteoglycan-induced arthritis, leading to a significant reduction of disease. We have uncovered a role for PLGA nanoparticles to enhance CD4(+) T-cell mediated immunomodulation after nasal application. The exploitation of this differential regulation of nanoparticles to modulate nasal immune responses can lead to innovative vaccine development for prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination in infectious or autoimmune diseases.

  18. Computer-based malnutrition risk calculation may enhance the ability to identify pediatric patients at malnutrition-related risk for unfavorable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Daskalou, Efstratia; Lampoudis, Dimitrios; Apostolou, Aggeliki; Agakidis, Charalampos

    2015-05-01

    The study aimed to test the hypothesis that computer-based calculation of malnutrition risk may enhance the ability to identify pediatric patients at malnutrition-related risk for an unfavorable outcome. The Pediatric Digital Scaled MAlnutrition Risk screening Tool (PeDiSMART), incorporating the World Health Organization (WHO) growth reference data and malnutrition-related parameters, was used. This was a prospective cohort study of 500 pediatric patients aged 1 month to 17 years. Upon admission, the PeDiSMART score was calculated and anthropometry was performed. Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids), and Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP) malnutrition screening tools were also applied. PeDiSMART's association with the clinical outcome measures (weight loss/nutrition support and hospitalization duration) was assessed and compared with the other screening tools. The PeDiSMART score was inversely correlated with anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance phase angle (BIA PhA). The score's grading scale was based on BIA Pha quartiles. Weight loss/nutrition support during hospitalization was significantly independently associated with the malnutrition risk group allocation on admission, after controlling for anthropometric parameters and age. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 75% and a significant area under the curve, which differed significantly from that of STRONGkids and STAMP. In the subgroups of patients with PeDiSMART-based risk allocation different from that based on the other tools, PeDiSMART allocation was more closely related to outcome measures. PeDiSMART, applicable to the full age range of patients hospitalized in pediatric departments, graded according to BIA PhA, and embeddable in medical electronic records, enhances efficacy and reproducibility in identifying pediatric patients at

  19. On commercial media bias

    OpenAIRE

    Germano, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Within the spokes model of Chen and Riordan (2007) that allows for non-localized competition among arbitrary numbers of media outlets, we quantify the effect of concentration of ownership on quality and bias of media content. A main result shows that too few commercial outlets, or better, too few separate owners of commercial outlets can lead to substantial bias in equilibrium. Increasing the number of outlets (commercial and non-commercial) tends to bring down this bias; but the strongest ef...

  20. Improving therapeutic outcomes in autism spectrum disorders: Enhancing social communication and sensory processing through the use of interactive robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorato, Felippe; Przybylowski, Leon; Sarko, Diana K

    2017-07-01

    For children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), social robots are increasingly utilized as therapeutic tools in order to enhance social skills and communication. Robots have been shown to generate a number of social and behavioral benefits in children with ASD including heightened engagement, increased attention, and decreased social anxiety. Although social robots appear to be effective social reinforcement tools in assistive therapies, the perceptual mechanism underlying these benefits remains unknown. To date, social robot studies have primarily relied on expertise in fields such as engineering and clinical psychology, with measures of social robot efficacy principally limited to qualitative observational assessments of children's interactions with robots. In this review, we examine a range of socially interactive robots that currently have the most widespread use as well as the utility of these robots and their therapeutic effects. In addition, given that social interactions rely on audiovisual communication, we discuss how enhanced sensory processing and integration of robotic social cues may underlie the perceptual and behavioral benefits that social robots confer. Although overall multisensory processing (including audiovisual integration) is impaired in individuals with ASD, social robot interactions may provide therapeutic benefits by allowing audiovisual social cues to be experienced through a simplified version of a human interaction. By applying systems neuroscience tools to identify, analyze, and extend the multisensory perceptual substrates that may underlie the therapeutic benefits of social robots, future studies have the potential to strengthen the clinical utility of social robots for individuals with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The modified Ulaanbaatar procedure: Reduced complications and enhanced cosmetic outcome for the most severe cases of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, V R; Ching, C B; DaJusta, D G; McLeod, D J; Alpert, S A

    2017-08-01

    Proximal hypospadias is one of the most challenging conditions that pediatric urologists have to deal with. Many procedures have been devised over the years, but nothing has been proven to be the best option. Although there have been some attempts at correcting severe hypospadias in one procedure, most have advocated a staged approach. The classic approach - laying penile skin or a graft within a split glans followed by glanuloplasty at the second stage - by definition requires two operations on the glans. In the Ulaanbaatar procedure the distal glanular urethra is constructed at the first stage, allowing for a single glans procedure and thus potentially better cosmetic outcomes. The present study discusses experience with the Ulaanbaatar procedure for severe hypospadias. The study retrospectively reviewed every child who underwent both stages of this procedure at the present institution. It reviewed age, associated diagnoses, surgical technique and outcomes. The first stage was analogous to a classic first-stage procedure with regard to division of the urethral plate and correction of penile curvature. However, an island flap of preputial skin was mobilized and tubularized to create the glanular urethra. No attempt was made to bridge the native meatus and this reconstructed urethra, and the remaining penile skin was placed between the two. The second stage was performed 6 months later by tubularizing the penile skin between the two meatuses. The series consisted of 34 boys. Mean age at surgery was 18.3 months (range 6-118). Nineteen underwent evaluation for genital ambiguity at birth (56%). Thirty (88%) received pre-operative testosterone or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). After urethral plate transection, persistent curvature was addressed during the first stage, with dorsal plication in 12 (35%), urethral plate transection alone in six (18%) or ventral grafting with small intestinal submucosa in 16 (47%). Twenty-three boys (67%) had the neourethra tunneled

  2. Enhanced recovery pathways optimize health outcomes and resource utilization: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamina, Michel; Kehlet, Henrik; Tomlinson, George A

    2011-01-01

    in costs that threatens the stability of health care systems. Enhanced recovery pathways (ERP) have been proposed as a means to reduce morbidity and improve effectiveness of care. We have reviewed the evidence supporting the implementation of ERP in clinical practice. Methods Medline, Embase...... in the development and implementation of ERP. Results A random-effect Bayesian meta-analysis was performed, including 6 randomized, controlled trials totalizing 452 patients. For patients adhering to ERP, length of stay decreased by 2.5 days (95% credible interval [CrI] -3.92 to -1.11), whereas 30-day morbidity...... of health care processes. Thus, while accelerating recovery and safely reducing hospital stay, ERPs optimize utilization of health care resources. ERPs can and should be routinely used in care after colorectal and other major gastrointestinal procedures....

  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia enhances depression outcome in patients with comorbid major depressive disorder and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manber, Rachel; Edinger, Jack D; Gress, Jenna L; San Pedro-Salcedo, Melanie G; Kuo, Tracy F; Kalista, Tasha

    2008-04-01

    Insomnia impacts the course of major depressive disorder (MDD), hinders response to treatment, and increases risk for depressive relapse. This study is an initial evaluation of adding cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) to the antidepressant medication escitalopram (EsCIT) in individuals with both disorders. A randomized, controlled, pilot study in a single academic medical center. 30 individuals (61% female, mean age 35 +/- 18) with MDD and insomnia. EsCIT and 7 individual therapy sessions of CBTI or CTRL (quasi-desensitization). Depression was assessed with the HRSD17 and the depression portion of the SCID, administered by raters masked to treatment assignment, at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome was remission of MDD at study exit, which required both an HRSD17 score depression (61.5%) than EsCIT + CTRL (33.3%). EsCIT + CBTI was also associated with a greater remission from insomnia (50.0%) than EsCIT + CTRL (7.7%) and larger improvement in all diary and actigraphy measures of sleep, except for total sleep time. This pilot study provides evidence that augmenting an antidepressant medication with a brief, symptom focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia is promising for individuals with MDD and comorbid insomnia in terms of alleviating both depression and insomnia.

  4. Enhancing surgical outcomes: The effects of speech therapy on a school-aged girl with Moebius Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairgray, Elizabeth; Miles, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Moebius Syndrome is a rare congenital neurological condition often characterized by multiple cranial nerve involvement. This case study presents an eight-year old girl with Moebius Syndrome (MC) who received 30 sessions of speech therapy. This occurred after presenting to clinic 11 months after left facial reanimation with gracilis thigh muscle transfer surgery. On examination, only flickers of left facial movement were observed. There was no movement on the right side of the face. As a consequence of the minimal movement, MC presented with drooling and unintelligible speech. The purpose of speech therapy was three fold: minimise the pooling of saliva, improve the placement of the articulators so that articulation of speech sounds would be more accurate, and gain advances in overall intelligibility. Therapy focussed on speech, facial movement and saliva management using a combination of speech drills, evidence-based articulation therapies, facial exercises with surface electromyography biofeedback, self-awareness training and compensatory saliva management strategies. After a course of 30 one-hour speech therapy sessions, substantial improvements were seen in speech sound accuracy, overall intelligibility, facial movement and saliva control. The combination of surgery and speech therapy led to functional gains that surgery alone did not achieve. The impact of speech therapy on surgical outcomes in individuals with Moebius syndrome deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formal plan for self-disclosure enhances supported employment outcomes among young people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGahey, Ellie; Waghorn, Geoffrey; Lloyd, Chris; Morrissey, Shirley; Williams, Philip Lee

    2016-04-01

    Young people with mental illness experience high levels of unemployment, which can be related to stigma and discrimination. This may result from poor choices in disclosing personal information, such as their mental illness diagnosis, in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of a formal plan to manage personal information (PMPI) during the early stages of supported employment. The focal question was: does the use of a brief structured PMPI lead to more employment outcomes for young people with a mental illness? A sample of 40 young unemployed mental health service users (mean age 23.9 years), who were also attending employment services on the Gold Coast, was asked about their disclosure preferences. If they preferred not to disclose at all, they did not complete a plan for managing personal information. If they preferred to disclose some personal information, they were provided with assistance to complete a PMPI. Baseline information was gathered from two equal groups of 20 individuals. Employment status was ascertained at a 6-week follow-up interview. Those who completed a plan to manage their personal information had 4.9 times greater odds of employment at 6 weeks than those who preferred not to disclose any personal information. A formal PMPI has promising predictive validity with respect to job seekers not opposed to pragmatic forms of self-disclosure. Further research is needed to examine other properties of this decision-making tool. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Cardiac Rehabilitation for Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Practical Guide to Enhance Patient Outcomes Through Continuity of Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Giuliano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide. Referral to cardiac rehabilitation (CR is a class I recommendation for all patients with CAD based on findings that participation can reduce cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, as well as improve functional capacity and quality of life. However, programme uptake remains low, systematic progression through the traditional CR phases is often lacking, and communication between health care providers is frequently suboptimal, resulting in fragmented care. Only 30% to 50% of eligible patients are typically referred to outpatient CR and fewer still complete the programme. In contemporary models of CR, patients are no longer treated by a single practitioner, but rather by an array of health professionals, across multiples specialities and health care settings. The risk of fragmented care in CR may be great, and a concerted approach is required to achieve continuity and optimise patient outcomes. ‘Continuity of care’ has been described as the delivery of services in a coherent, logical, and timely fashion and which entails 3 specific domains: informational, management, and relational continuity. This is examined in the context of CR.

  7. Enhancing quality of vocational training outcome to satisfy the labor market demands in Kuwait by using Quality Function Deployment method (QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Mohammed Ali Hamza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a system to enhance the quality of vocational training programs in Kuwait state by using the concept of Quality Function Deployment (QFD.Approach: The approach starts by investigating the private sector of the labor market. The interviewing of a sample group of the private sector companies was done to know their expectation of the performance of vocational training outcomes. Then, QFD was applied to find the technical requirements, which will help in satisfying the market’s expectations to design a new program that leads to enhancement of the quality of the outcome of the Vocational Training. The house of quality technique allows prioritizing the technical descriptors based on the technical difficulty, target value, absolute weight, and relative weight.Findings: The first priority that found from applying the QFD  is the parameter “Practice to Be Willing in Learning- Applying New Technologies” because of its highest relative weight 195 points followed by the parameter “Understanding The Need to Learn New Skills” which has a relative weight of 165 points. The second priority is the parameter “Simulation Activities” because it has a relative weight of 152 points followed by the parameter “Managing Tasks and Meeting Deadlines” which has a relative weight of 146 points. The third priority is the parameter “Using IT Skills to Complete Activities” because of it has a relative weight is 132 points followed by the parameter “Time Management Activities” which has a relative weight is 112 points.Research limitation: The research limitation is in the changing of the current curriculum program. Practical implications: The practical implication is to modify the students’ vocational training curriculum, by adapting new technologies and application sequences of activities and solution strategies within the time limit.Value: The value of this paper is to explain how a studying

  8. Making infection prevention education interactive can enhance knowledge and improve outcomes: Results from the Targeted Infection Prevention (TIP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Evonne; McNamara, Sara; Lansing, Bonnie; Olmsted, Russell N; Rye, Ruth Anne; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Mody, Lona

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess effectiveness of an interactive educational program in increasing knowledge of key infection prevention and control (IPC) principles with emphasis on indwelling device care, hand hygiene, and multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) among nursing home (NH) health care personnel (HCP). We conducted a multimodal randomized controlled study involving HCP at 12 NHs. Ten comprehensive and interactive modules covered common IPC topics. We compared intervention and control scores to assess differences in pretest scores as a result of field interventions, pre- and post-test scores to assess knowledge gain, and magnitude of knowledge gain based on job categories. We conducted over 200 in-services across 10 topics at six intervention sites over 36 months. There were 4,962 tests returned over the course of the study, ranging from 389-633 per module. Participants were mostly female certified nursing assistants (CNAs). Score improvement was highest for modules emphasizing hand hygiene, urinary catheter care, and MDROs (15.6%, 15.9%, and 22.0%, respectively). After adjusting for cluster study design, knowledge scores were significantly higher after each educational module, suggesting the education delivery method was effective. When compared with CNAs, nursing and rehabilitation personnel scored significantly higher in their knowledge tests. Our intervention significantly improved IPC knowledge in HCP, especially for those involved in direct patient care. This increase in knowledge along with preemptive barrier precautions and active surveillance has enhanced resident safety by reducing MDROs and infections in high-risk NH residents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Protocol for enhanced recovery after surgery improves short-term outcomes for patients with gastric cancer: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Lee, Sang-Woong; Kawai, Masaru; Tashiro, Keitaro; Kawashima, Satoshi; Kagota, Syuji; Honda, Kotaro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-09-01

    The feasibility of the use of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol in patients with gastric cancer remains unclear. This study was a single-center, prospective randomized trial involving patients with gastric cancer undergoing curative gastrectomy. The primary end point was the length of postoperative hospital stay. Secondary end points were the postoperative complication rate, admission costs, weight loss, and amount of physical activity. From July 2013 to June 2015, we randomized 148 patients into an ERAS protocol group (n = 73) and a conventional protocol group (n = 69); six patients withdrew from the study. The hospital stay was significantly shorter in the ERAS protocol group than in the conventional protocol group (9 days vs 10 days; P = 0.037). The ERAS protocol group had a significantly lower rate of postoperative complications of grade III or higher (4.1% vs 15.4%; P = 0.042) and reduced costs of hospitalization (JPY 1,462,766 vs JPY 1,493,930; P = 0.045). The ratio of body weight to preoperative weight at 1 week and 1 month after the operation was higher in the ERAS protocol group (0.962 vs 0.957, P = 0.020, and 0.951 vs 0.937, P = 0.021, respectively). The ERAS protocol group recorded more physical activity in the first week after surgery. The ERAS protocol is safe and efficient, and seems to improve the postoperative course of patients with gastric cancer.

  10. Enhancing the vocational outcomes of people with chronic disabilities caused by a musculoskeletal condition: development and evaluation of content of self-management training modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, V; Strong, J; Gargett, S; Jull, G; Ellis, N

    2014-01-01

    No self-management interventions have been developed to empower those chronically disabled by a musculoskeletal condition to find and/or remain at work. Developand evaluate the content of two self-management training modules to improve vocational outcomes for those with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Stanford University's Chronic Disease Self-Management Program provided the framework for the new modules. Focus groups with the eightpersons with workdisabilities and concept-mapping sessions with the 12 experienced vocational rehabilitation professionals were conducted to identify factors and themes contributing to workers remaining/returning to work post-injury. Five experienced self-management trainers reviewed the modules for consistency with self-management principles. Two new self-management modules: 'Navigating the System' and 'Managing a Return to Work' were developed.The persons with work disabilitiesgenerated four themes: accepting and coping with injury; skills to manage pain and life; positive working relationships and, re-inventing self, whereas the rehabilitation professionals identified three themes:communication and support of others; the injured worker's abilities and resources, and knowledge and education. Anintervention developed to enhance self-management skills and facilitate positive vocational outcomes of those seeking to return to work post-injury was confirmed as relevant by persons with work disabilities, rehabilitation professionals and self-management trainers.

  11. Enhancing Health Communication Outcomes Among Ethnic Minority Patients: The Effects of the Match Between Participation Preferences and Perceptions and Doctor-Patient Concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Sanne; Schouten, Barbara C; Street, Richard L; van den Putte, Bas; van Weert, Julia C M

    2016-12-01

    Ethnic minority patients are less participative in medical consultations compared to ethnic majority patients. It is thus important to find effective strategies to enhance ethnic minority patients' participation and improve subsequent health outcomes. This study therefore aimed to investigate the relation between the match between patients' preferred and perceived participation and doctor-patient concordance in preferred doctor-patient relationship on patient satisfaction, fulfillment of information needs, and understanding of information among Turkish-Dutch and Dutch patients. Pre- and postconsultation questionnaires were filled out by 136 Dutch and 100 Turkish-Dutch patients in the waiting rooms of 32 general practitioners (GPs). GPs completed a questionnaire too. Results showed that a match between patients' preferred and perceived participation was related to higher patient satisfaction, more fulfillment of information needs, and more understanding of information than a mismatch for both patient groups. For doctor-patient concordance a conditional main effect on all outcome measures emerged only among Turkish-Dutch patients. That is, for patients who were discordant with their GP, higher perceived participation was related to lower satisfaction, worse fulfillment of information needs, and worse understanding of the information. In order to improve medical communication GPs should thus primarily be trained to tailor their communication styles to match patients' preferences for participation.

  12. Enhanced recovery care after colorectal surgery in elderly patients. Compliance and outcomes of a multicenter study from the Spanish working group on ERAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ayora, Santiago; Pastor, Carlos; Guadalajara, Hector; Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Royo, Pablo; Redondo, Elizabeth; Arroyo, Antonio; Moya, Pedro; Garcia-Olmo, Damian

    2016-09-01

    ERAS (enhanced recovery after surgery) programs have proven to reduce morbidity and hospital stay in colorectal surgery. However, the feasibility of these programs in elderly patients has been questioned. The aim of this study is to assess the implementation and outcomes of an ERAS program for colorectal cancer in elderly patients. This is a multicenter observational study of a cohort of elderly patients undergoing colorectal surgery within an ERAS program. A total of 188 consecutive patients over 70 years who underwent elective colorectal surgery within an ERAS program at three institutions during a 2-year period were included. The compliance with the ERAS protocol interventions was measure. Complications were evaluated according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Data on length of stay and readmission rates were analyzed. Early intake and early mobilization were the most successfully carried out interventions. There was a global compliance rate of 56 % of patients for whom compliance was achieved with all measured interventions. The median hospital length of stay was 6 days. Almost 60 % of patients had no complications, 24 % had minor complications while 13 % had major complications; of them, 8 % patients were reoperated. The readmission rate was 6.4 %. ERAS after colorectal surgery in elderly patients presents as safe and feasible based on good reported outcomes of compliance rates, complications, readmissions, and needs for reoperation.

  13. Effects of performance feedback and coaching on the problem-solving process: Improving the integrity of implementation and enhancing student outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Allison A.

    Schools implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) procedures frequently engage in team problem-solving processes to address the needs of students who require intensive and individualized services. Because the effectiveness of the problem-solving process will impact the overall success of RtI systems, the present study was designed to learn more about how to strengthen the integrity of the problem-solving process. Research suggests that school districts must ensure high quality training and ongoing support to enhance the effectiveness, acceptability, and sustainability of the problem-solving process within an RtI model; however, there is a dearth of research examining the effectiveness of methods to provide this training and support. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of performance feedback and coaching strategies on the integrity with which teams of educators conducted the problem-solving process in schools. In addition, the relationships between problem-solving integrity, teacher acceptability, and student outcomes were examined. Results suggested that the performance feedback increased problem-solving procedural integrity across two of the three participating schools. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the (a) coaching intervention and (b) interventions implemented in the third school were inconclusive. Regression analyses indicated that the integrity with which the teams conducted the problem-solving process was a significant predictor of student outcomes. However, the relationship between problem-solving procedural integrity and teacher acceptability was not statistically significant.

  14. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 expression is associated with metastasis and adverse clinical outcome in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a comparative study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Abourbih, Samuel; Sircar, Kanishka; Kassouf, Wassim; Mansure, Jose Joao; Aprikian, Armen; Tanguay, Simon; Brimo, Fadi

    2013-10-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase mediating chromatin condensation and epigenetic modulation, is overexpressed in various human carcinomas and is associated with adverse clinicopathologic characteristics and biologic behavior. The expression of EZH2 in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) has not been fully characterized yet. To evaluate the prognostic role of EZH2 in RCC by analyzing the immunohistochemical staining pattern of the marker in relation to pathologic features and clinical outcome. We correlated the immunolabeling of EZH2 with multiple clinicopathologic features, including Fuhrman nuclear grade, pathologic stage, metastatic status, and clinical outcome in 223 clear cell RCCs (CRCCs) and 21 papillary RCCs, by using tissue microarrays of primary and metastatic cases. Most CRCCs (75%) showed positive EZH2 staining, with most primary tumors showing focal staining in comparison to nonfocal staining in metastatic cases. In primary tumors, EZH2 expression was associated with higher nuclear grade and lower pathologic stage. Metastatic tumors showed a higher number of positive cases (81% versus 67%) and a more diffuse and more intense pattern of staining than primary CRCCs. For the 22 locally advanced primary tumors (T3/4) and 43 metastatic RCCs, patients who experienced RCC-related deaths significantly overexpressed the marker in comparison to patients who did not experience RCC-related mortality. By showing that EZH2 expression is associated with increased metastatic potential and a worse clinical outcome, this study suggests that EZH2 can serve as a prognostic biomarker for RCC, thus confirming it as a key molecule driving oncogenesis and metastasis.

  15. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... the processes at the interface between product development and customer application is noteworthy as it hinders the theoretical development of the field. In this paper, we explore how research has advanced our understanding of commercialization in product innovation over a 30 year period by mapping different...... definitions and interpretations of commercialization. We offer a process-oriented definition of commercialization that is theoretically founded in the capability-based view of the firm. We also outline an agenda for future theoretical development and empirical research on commercialization aimed at advancing...

  16. Correlation of pretreatment polarographically measured oxygen pressures with quantified contrast-enhanced power doppler ultrasonography in spontaneous canine tumors and their impact on outcome after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer Bley, Carla; Laluhova, Dagmar [Section of Radiooncology, Vetsuisse Faculty, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Roos, Malgorzata [Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Kaser-Hotz, Barbara [Section of Radiooncology, Vetsuisse Faculty, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Section Imaging Diagnostics, Vetsuisse Faculty, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Ohlerth, Stefanie [Section Imaging Diagnostics, Vetsuisse Faculty, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the use of noninvasive quantified contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography as a surrogate in the estimation of tumor hypoxia measured by invasive pO{sub 2} histography in canine tumors. Material and methods: data of pretreatment tumor oxygenation status, tumor vascularity and blood volume, and tumor response after radiation therapy was collected in 48 spontaneous malignant oral tumors (Table 1). Tumor oxygenation status was correlated to vascularity and blood volume, and influences on outcome after treatment were analyzed. Results: although vascularity and blood volume correlated moderately with median pO{sub 2} (r = 0.51 and 0.61; p = 0.001 and < 0.0001) and percentage of pO{sub 2} readings {<=} 2.5, 5, and 10 mmHg (r = -0.37 to -0.42; p < 0.01-0.03) for all tumors, they did not correlate within the different histology groups (p = 0.06-0.9). For all tumors, pretreatment oxygenation status, vascularity and blood volume were not found to be of prognostic value. Conclusion: these analyses show that quantified contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography does not represent a non-invasive indirect method to assess tumor hypoxia measured by invasive pO{sub 2} histography. Both technologies were nonprognostic indicators in spontaneous malignant canine oral tumors. (orig.)

  17. A comparison of the effects of computer-enhanced with traditional instruction on the learning outcomes of high-school students in anatomy classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Norma B.

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of computer-enhanced instruction (CEI), using A.D.A.M.sp°ler The Inside Story (1997a) anatomy software, compared with traditional instruction (TI) on student learning outcomes in high school anatomy classes. Learning outcomes are comprised of student achievement. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether there were relationships between learning style theories and student learning outcomes. The study was conducted in two human anatomy classes at a suburban high school near Pittsburgh. One class was chosen randomly to receive CEI. The other class received identical instruction but with no software enhancement. The same instructor taught both classes. Before the study began, the Thurstone and Jeffrey Closure Flexibility Test was administered to measure students' visual perception levels and classify them as either visually perceptive or nonvisually perceptive. The Dunn Dunn and Price Learning Style Inventory was administered to the students to identify their learning styles. CEI students worked in groups at computers using A.D.A.M.sp°ler software. Students in the TI class worked in groups on word processors for written assignments. Students in both classes received the same lectures, assignments, and study guides. After the three-week instruction period, a posttest was administered to each student in both classes to compare their achievement in the endocrine unit. Two way ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference between the mean posttest scores of students who received CEI and TI. However, a significant difference in mean posttest scores was found between visually perceptive students and nonvisually perceptive students (p < .01). There was no interaction between the instruction methods and students' visual perception levels. Regardless of the type of instruction received, visually perceptive students scored higher than nonvisually perceptive students on the posttest

  18. NASA's telemedicine testbeds: Commercial benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Whitten, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and applying telemedicine to support space flight since the Agency's beginning. Telemetry of physiological parameters from spacecraft to ground controllers is critical to assess the health status of humans in extreme and remote environments. Requisite systems to support medical care and maintain readiness will evolve as mission duration and complexity increase. Developing appropriate protocols and procedures to support multinational, multicultural missions is a key objective of this activity. NASA has created an Agency-wide strategic plan that focuses on the development and integration of technology into the health care delivery systems for space flight to meet these challenges. In order to evaluate technology and systems that can enhance inflight medical care and medical education, NASA has established and conducted several testbeds. Additionally, in June of 1997, NASA established a Commercial Space Center (CSC) for Medical Informatics and Technology Applications at Yale University School of Medicine. These testbeds and the CSC foster the leveraging of technology and resources between government, academia and industry to enhance health care. This commercial endeavor will influence both the delivery of health care in space and on the ground. To date, NASA's activities in telemedicine have provided new ideas in the application of telecommunications and information systems to health care. NASA's Spacebridge to Russia, an Internet-based telemedicine testbed, is one example of how telemedicine and medical education can be conducted using the Internet and its associated tools. Other NASA activities, including the development of a portable telemedicine workstation, which has been demonstrated on the Crow Indian Reservation and in the Texas Prison System, show promise in serving as significant adjuncts to the delivery of health care. As NASA continues to meet the challenges of space flight, the

  19. Commercial applications of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, K.; Moskowitz, R.

    1990-04-01

    Ferrofluids have been in the commercial arena for over two decades. In this paper, the most advanced, successful commercial applications of ferrofluids are discussed. These applications center around the tribological characteristics of ferrofluids, e.g., sealing, damping and hydrodynamic bearings. Also, an account of some lesser known applications is presented.

  20. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how suc...

  1. Longitudinal Outcomes of an Institutionally Developed Nurse Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Debbie; La Frentz, Kelly; Fellman, Bryan; Summers, Barbara; Brassil, Kelly

    Nurse residency programs are widely implemented to enhance integration of new graduate nurses entering the workforce. This article presents a retrospective analysis of 10 years of residency data from an internally developed residency program that used the Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Survey. Outcomes of this program were similar to those from studies using commercially available products, suggesting that an internally developed residency curricula may be equally beneficial to the development of new graduate nurses.

  2. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Compared With Enhanced Usual Care for Adolescents With Repeated Suicidal and Self-Harming Behavior: Outcomes Over a One-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Lars; Ramberg, Maria; Tørmoen, Anita J; Haga, Egil; Diep, Lien M; Stanley, Barbara H; Miller, Alec L; Sund, Anne M; Grøholt, Berit

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a 1-year prospective follow-up study of posttreatment clinical outcomes in adolescents with recent and repetitive self-harm who had been randomly allocated to receive 19 weeks of either dialectical behavior therapy adapted for adolescents (DBT-A) or enhanced usual care (EUC) at community child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics. Assessments of self-harm, suicidal ideation, depression, hopelessness, borderline symptoms, and global level of functioning were made at the end of the 19-week treatment period and at follow-up 1 year later. Altogether 75 of the 77 (97%) adolescents participated at both time points. Frequencies of hospitalizations, emergency department visits and other use of mental health care during the 1-year follow-up period were recorded. Change analyses were performed using mixed effects linear spline regression and mixed effect Poisson regression with robust variance. Over the 52-week follow-up period, DBT-A remained superior to EUC in reducing the frequency of self-harm. For other outcomes such as suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depressive or borderline symptoms and for the global level of functioning, inter-group differences apparent at the 19-week assessment were no longer observed, mainly due to participants in the EUC group having significantly improved on these dimensions over the follow-up year, whereas DBT-A participants remained unchanged. A stronger long-term reduction in self-harm and a more rapid recovery in suicidal ideation, depression, and borderline symptoms suggest that DBT-A may be a favorable treatment alternative for adolescents with repetitive self-harming behavior. Treatment for Adolescents With Deliberate Self Harm; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00675129. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The development of a health information exchange to enhance care and improve patient outcomes among HIV+ individuals in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Lynne C; Parnell, Heather; Huffaker, Renee; Wooldredge, Rich; Wilkin, Aimee

    2012-10-01

    The Regional Health Information Integration Project (RHIIP) has developed the Carolina HIV Information Cooperative regional health information organization (CHIC RHIO). The CHIC RHIO was implemented to improve patient care and health outcomes by enhancing communication among geographically disconnected networks of HIV care providers in rural North Carolina. CHIC RHIO comprises one medical clinic and five AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) serving clients in eight rural counties. Communication among the CHIC RHIO members is facilitated by CAREWare software. The RHIIP team assessed organizational readiness to change, facilitated relationship-building for CHIC RHIO, created the CHIC RHIO and used both qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the process-related effects of implementing a data-sharing intervention. We found the CHIC RHIO member organizations were ready to engage in the IT intervention prior to its implementation, which most likely contributed to its successful adoption. The qualitative findings indicate that CHIC RHIO members personally benefited - and perceived their clients benefited - from participation in the information exchange. The quantitative results echoed the qualitative findings; following the CHIC RHIO intervention, quality improvements were noted in the ASO and medical clinic relationships, information exchange, and perceived level of patient care. Furthermore, hopes for what data sharing would accomplish were overly high at the beginning of the project, thus requiring a recalibration of expectations as the project came to a close. Innovative strategies for health information exchange can be implemented in rural communities to increase communication among providers. With this increased communication comes the potential for improved health outcomes and, in turn, healthier communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of three different doses of arginine enhanced enteral nutrition on nutritional status and outcomes in well nourished postsurgical cancer patients: a randomized single blinded prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, D A; Izaola, O; Terroba, M C; Cuellar, L; Ventosa, M; Martin, T

    2015-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing surgery have a high occurrence of postoperative complications. The aim of our study was to investigate whether postoperative nutrition of head and neck cancer patients, using an enhanced enteral formula with three different doses of arginine could improve nutritional variables as well as clinical outcome, depending of arginine dose. A population of 84 patients with oral and laryngeal cancer was enrolled. At surgery patients were randomly assigned to three different treatment groups, each one containing at less 28 patients. Group I (28 patients) received an enteral diet supplements with a low physiological dose of arginine (5.7 g per day), group II (28 patients) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula with a medium dose of arginine (12.3 g per day) and group III (28 patients) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula with a high dose of arginine (18.9 g per day). The length of postoperative stay had a trend to be better with high dose of arginine received (31.9 ± 17.2 days in group I vs 27.8 ± 15.2 days in group II vs 24.8 ± 18.3 days in group III: p = 0.034). No differences were detected in postoperative infections complications and diarrhea. Fistula was less frequent in groups II and III than I (10.7% group I vs 3.6% group II vs 3.6% group III: p = 0.033), The length of postoperative stay had a trend to be better with high dose of arginine received (31.9 ± 17.2 days in group I vs 27.8 ± 15.2 days in group II vs 24.8 ± 18.3 days in group III: p = 0.034). Our results suggest that these patients could benefit from a high dose of arginine enhanced enteral formula to decrease length of hospital stay and fistula wound complications.

  5. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    building owners and health and performance benefits to occupants. At the same time this program can strengthen the growing energy efficiency industry in California by providing new jobs and growth opportunities for companies providing the technology, systems, software, design, and building services to the commercial sector. The broad objectives across all five program elements were: (1) To develop and deploy an integrated set of tools and techniques to support the design and operation of energy-efficient commercial buildings; (2) To develop open software specifications for a building data model that will support the interoperability of these tools throughout the building life-cycle; (3) To create new technology options (hardware and controls) for substantially reducing controllable lighting, envelope, and cooling loads in buildings; (4) To create and implement a new generation of diagnostic techniques so that commissioning and efficient building operations can be accomplished reliably and cost effectively and provide sustained energy savings; (5) To enhance the health, comfort and performance of building occupants. (6) To provide the information technology infrastructure for owners to minimize their energy costs and manage their energy information in a manner that creates added value for their buildings as the commercial sector transitions to an era of deregulated utility markets, distributed generation, and changing business practices. Our ultimate goal is for our R&D effort to have measurable market impact. This requires that the research tasks be carried out with a variety of connections to key market actors or trends so that they are recognized as relevant and useful and can be adopted by expected users. While some of this activity is directly integrated into our research tasks, the handoff from ''market-connected R&D'' to ''field deployment'' is still an art as well as a science and in many areas requires resources and a

  6. Enhance Teamwork Outcomes through Guanxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    According to a recent article in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" (April 2011), team assignments are increasingly prevalent in business schools. Not only are they ubiquitous, they are critically important, as our university's strategic plan states, "collaboration and teamwork are the keys to creating successful leaders."…

  7. Commercial Landing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  8. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  9. Regional hydrothermal commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-14

    This plan for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Region articulates the complete range of initiatives (federal, state, local, and industrial) required for the early commercialization of the regions geothermal resources. (MHR)

  10. Subcentimeter hypervascular nodules with typical imaging findings of hepatocellular carcinoma on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI: Outcomes of early treatment and watchful waiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jung Han; Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Seong Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, 81 Irwon-Ro, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    To compare treatment outcomes of subcentimeter hypervascular nodules at high risk for developing into hepatocellular carcinomas (SHNHR) between early treatment and watchful waiting until progression to overt hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) groups. SHNHRs were defined as subcentimeter hypervascular nodules with the usual imaging features of HCC on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among 63 patients with 74 SHNHRs, 27 (37 SHNHRs) received early treatment (treatment of < 1 cm nodules), and 36 (37 SHNHRs) underwent watchful waiting until progression to overt HCC. Risk factor analysis was performed for recurrence-free and local recurrence-free survival. Among the 36 patients who adopted watchful waiting, 33 eventually underwent treatment because their SHNHRs progressed to overt HCC. For recurrence-free survival, significant risk factors included number of previous treatments (HR, 1.181; p < 0.001), tumour number (HR, 1.943; p = 0.009), and α-feto protein level (HR, 1.005; p = 0.037) in the multivariate analyses. Treatment strategy was not a significant risk factor for recurrence-free survival. For local recurrence-free survival from the date of treatment, only treatment modality (transarterial chemoembolization) (HR, 6.879; p = 0.002) was a significant risk factor. Recurrence-free survival was not significantly different between early treatment and watchful waiting for SHNHRs. (orig.)

  11. Contrast-enhanced T1 mapping-based extracellular volume fraction independently predicts clinical outcome in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: a prospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Jong-Chan [Hallym University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Han, Kyunghwa; Suh, Young Joo; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Kang, Seok-Min [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)-based extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and compare it with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) parameters. This was a single-center, prospective, cohort study of 117 NIDCM patients (71 men, 51.9 ± 16.7 years) who underwent clinical 3.0-T CMR. Myocardial ECV and LGE were quantified on the left ventricular myocardium. The presence of midwall LGE was also detected. Nineteen healthy subjects served as controls. The primary end points were cardiovascular (CV) events defined by CV death, rehospitalization due to heart failure, and heart transplantation. During the follow-up period (median duration, 11.2 months; 25{sup th}-75{sup th} percentile, 7.8-21.9 months), the primary end points occurred in 19 patients (16.2%). The ECV (per 3% and 1% increase) was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.80 and 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-2.20 and 1.14-1.30, respectively; p < 0.001) for the CV events. Multivariable analysis also indicated that ECV was an independent prognostic factor and had a higher prognostic value (Harrell's c statistic, 0.88) than LGE quantification values (0.77) or midwall LGE (0.80). CMR-based ECV independently predicts the clinical outcome in NIDCM patients. (orig.)

  12. Disrupting the downward spiral of chronic pain and opioid addiction with mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement: a review of clinical outcomes and neurocognitive targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L

    2014-06-01

    Prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients are problems of growing medical and social significance. Chronic pain patients often require intervention to improve their well-being and functioning, and yet, the most commonly available form of pharmacotherapy for chronic pain is centered on opioid analgesics--drugs that have high abuse liability. Consequently, health care and legal systems are often stymied in their attempts to intervene with individuals who suffer from both pain and addiction. As such, novel, nonpharmacologic interventions are needed to complement pharmacotherapy and interrupt the cycle of behavioral escalation. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the downward spiral of chronic pain and prescription opioid misuse may be targeted by one such intervention, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a new behavioral treatment that integrates elements from mindfulness training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. The clinical outcomes and neurocognitive mechanisms of this intervention are reviewed with respect to their effects on the risk chain linking chronic pain and prescription opioid misuse. Future directions for clinical and pharmacologic research are discussed.

  13. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  14. EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL CONTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Florea; Constantin Giurca

    2014-01-01

    The contract is a legal instrument used to organize economic and social life. International trade agreement has certain features in order to ensure the international exchange of goods and services between the Contracting Parties. In terms of commercial contract, there is a foreign origin element, that gives the parties the right to determine the law to govern the contract. A fundamental aspect of commercial contract, in addition to that of determining the law applicable to judicial report est...

  15. Commodification and commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Richard J

    1992-01-01

    ... In this article I shall argue tentatively for the claim that commercial surrogacy should be legally permissible. I am more strongly convinced that a commitment to feminism should not predispose anyone against surrogacy. At least, no arguments offered so far should persuade anyone who is committed to equal rights for women and men and the dismantling of gender-based hierarchies to favor either legal prohibition or moral condemnation of commercial surrogacy.

  16. ERC commercialization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  17. SMES: Redefining the path to commercial demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, W.G. [Bechtel, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lighthipe, R.W. [San Diego Gas & Electric, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world`s first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States.

  18. Laser Technology in Commercial Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, R.

    2006-05-01

    Commercial atomic frequency standards (AFS) are deployed in diverse civilian, military, and aerospace applications, ranging from high-precision measurement and calibration to navigation, communications and, of course, timekeeping. Currently, commercially available AFS include magnetically-selected cesium beam frequency standards and hydrogen masers and lamp-pumped rubidium oscillators. Despite the revolution in atomic physics and laboratory-scale AFS brought about by the advent of the tunable laser in the early 1970s, commercial AFS invariably rely on more conventional atomic physics technology developed in the 1950s. The reason for this lack of advancement of commercial AFS technology is the relatively poor reliability and environmental sensitivity of narrow-linewidth single-mode laser sources at atomic resonance wavelengths. Over the past 8 years, Symmetricom, in collaboration with laser manufacturers, has developed specialized laser sources for commercial AFS applications. These laser devices, optimized for high spectral purity and long-term reliability, will enable a new generation of commercial AFS. This talk will briefly describe two laser-based atomic frequency standard development programs at Symmetricom. The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock, two orders of magnitude smaller and lower power than any commercial AFS, will enable atomic timing accuracy in portable battery-powered applications. The Optically-Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard, under development for deployment onboard the GPS-III satellite constellation, will provide enhanced short-term stability and longer lifetime compared to magnetically-selected cesium beam AFS.

  19. The Commercial Energy Consumer: About Whom Are We Speaking?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher

    2006-05-12

    Who are commercial sector customers, and how do they make decisions about energy consumption and energy efficiency investment? The energy policy field has not done a thorough job of describing energy consumption in the commercial sector. First, the discussion of the commercial sector itself is dominated by discussion of large businesses/buildings. Second, discussion of this portion of the commercial sectors consumption behavior is driven primarily by theory, with very little field data collected on the way commercial sector decision-makers describe their own options, choices, and reasons for taking action. These limitations artificially constrain energy policy options. This paper reviews the extant literature on commercial sector energy consumption behavior and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, it argues that the primary energy policy model of commercial sector energy consumption is a top-down model that uses macro-level investment data to make conclusions about commercial behavior. Missing from the discussion is a model of consumption behavior that builds up to a theoretical framework informed by the micro-level data provided by commercial decision-makers themselves. Such a bottom-up model could enhance the effectiveness of commercial sector energy policy. In particular, translation of some behavioral models from the residential sector to the commercial sector may offer new opportunities for policies to change commercial energy consumption behavior. Utility bill consumption feedback is considered as one example of a policy option that may be applicable to both the residential and small commercial sector.

  20. Influence of Renal Impairment on Outcome for Thrombolysis-Treated Acute Ischemic Stroke: ENCHANTED (Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study) Post Hoc Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Susan J; Wang, Xia; Olavarria, Veronica V; Lavados, Pablo M; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Kim, Jong S; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Lindley, Richard I; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M; Ricci, Stefano; Sato, Shoichiro; Sharma, Vijay K; Woodward, Mark; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S; Robinson, Thompson G

    2017-09-01

    Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with poor prognosis after stroke. We assessed the effects of RD on outcomes and interaction with low- versus standard-dose alteplase in a post hoc subgroup analysis of the ENCHANTED (Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study). A total of 3220 thrombolysis-eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (mean age, 66.5 years; 37.8% women) were randomly assigned to low-dose (0.6 mg/kg) or standard-dose (0.9 mg/kg) intravenous alteplase within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. Six hundred and fifty-nine (19.8%) patients had moderate-to-severe RD (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 90 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ), those with severe RD (stroke. There was no significant association with modified Rankin Scale scores 2 to 6 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-1.70; P =0.81 for trend), modified Rankin Scale 3 to 6 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-2.01; P =0.44 for trend), or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, or any heterogeneity in comparative treatment effects between low-dose and standard-dose alteplase by RD grades. RD is associated with increased mortality but not disability or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in thrombolysis-eligible and treated acute ischemic stroke patients. Uncertainty persists as to whether low-dose alteplase confers benefits over standard-dose alteplase in acute ischemic stroke patients with RD. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01422616. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Incidence, etiology, and outcome of bacterial meningitis in infants aged <90 days in the United kingdom and Republic of Ireland: prospective, enhanced, national population-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okike, Ifeanyichukwu O; Johnson, Alan P; Henderson, Katherine L; Blackburn, Ruth M; Muller-Pebody, Berit; Ladhani, Shamez N; Anthony, Mark; Ninis, Nelly; Heath, Paul T

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young infants. Understanding the epidemiology and burden of disease is important. Prospective, enhanced, national population-based active surveillance was undertaken to determine the incidence, etiology, and outcome of bacterial meningitis in infants aged bacterial meningitis was 0.21 (n = 167; 95% CI, .18-.25). A total of 302 bacteria were isolated in 298 (82%) of the cases. The pathogens responsible varied by route of admission, gestation at birth, and age at infection. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) (150/302 [50%]; incidence, 0.16/1000 live births; 95% CI, .13-.18) and Escherichia coli (41/302 [14%]; incidence, 0.04/1000; 95% CI, .03-.06) were responsible for approximately two-thirds of identified bacteria. Pneumococcal (28/302 [9%]) and meningococcal (23/302 [8%]) meningitis were rare in the first month, whereas Listeria meningitis was seen only in the first month of life (11/302 [4%]). In hospitalized preterm infants, the etiology of both early- and late-onset meningitis was more varied. Overall case fatality was 8% (25/329) and was higher for pneumococcal meningitis (5/26 [19%]) than GBS meningitis (7/135 [5%]; P = .04) and for preterm (15/90 [17%]) compared with term (10/235 [4%]; P = .0002) infants. The incidence of bacterial meningitis in young infants remains unchanged since the 1980s and is associated with significant case fatality. Prevention strategies and guidelines to improve the early management of cases should be prioritized. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Enhancing Father Engagement and Interparental Teamwork in an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention: A Randomized-Controlled Trial of Outcomes and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tenille J; Keown, Louise J; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the outcomes and process in a positive parenting program adapted to enhance father engagement and teamwork. A randomized control trial of the Group Triple P Program with additional father-relevant content was conducted with 42 families of children with conduct problems aged between 3 to 8years. Families were allocated to either the intervention or waitlist condition. Assessments of child behavior, self- and partner-reported parenting, and the interparental relationship were conducted at T1 (pre), T2 (post), and T3 (6-month follow-up). Observations were used to examine fathers' and mothers' unique and shared contributions to group process during participation in parenting group sessions. Following program completion (T2) intervention group fathers and mothers reported significantly fewer child behavior problems, dysfunctional parenting practices, and interparental conflict about child-rearing than waitlist parents. Intervention group mothers also reported increased parenting confidence and rated their partners as showing significantly fewer dysfunctional parenting practices. Intervention effects were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Observational data showed that fathers and mothers made similar contributions during the group sessions. The most frequent types of contributions were asking questions and sharing information with other parents about implementing parenting strategies. The key differences between parents were fathers' more frequent use of humor and mothers' more frequent sharing of personal stories and reporting co-parenting cooperation. The levels of session attendance and program satisfaction were high for both fathers and mothers. Findings highlight the potential benefits of efforts to engage both fathers and mothers for program adherence, satisfaction, and effectiveness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Late Gadolinium Enhancement on CMR Predicts Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katwal, Arabindra B; Lipinski, Michael J.; Kramer, Christopher M.; Salerno, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background LGE by CMR is a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) patients. However, these findings are limited by single center studies, small sample sizes, and low event rates. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of late-gadolinium enhancement by cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging in NICM patients. Methods and Results PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE were searched for studies looking at the prognostic value of LGE-CMR in NICM patients. The primary end-points included all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization (HFH), and a composite end point of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or aborted SCD. Pooling of odds ratios (OR) was performed using a random-effect model and annualized event rates (AER) were assessed. Data was included from 9 studies with a total of 1,488 patients and a mean follow-up of 30 months. Patients had a mean age of 52 years, 67% were male and the average LVEF was 37% on CMR. LGE was present in 38% of patients. Patients with LGE had increased overall mortality (OR 3.27, p<0.00001), HFH (OR 2.91, p=0.02), and SCD/aborted SCD (OR 5.32, p<0.00001) when compared with those without LGE. The AERs for mortality were 4.7% for LGE+ subjects vs. 1.7% for LGE- subjects (p=0.01), 5.03% vs. 1.8% for HFH (p=0.002), and 6.0% vs. 1.2% for SCD/aborted SCD (p<0.001). Conclusions LGE in NICM patients is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, HFH, and SCD. Detection of LGE by CMR has excellent prognostic characteristics and may help guide risk stratification and management in NICM patients. PMID:24363358

  4. Fostering Under-represented Minority Student Success and Interest in the Geosciences: Outcomes of the UNC-Chapel Hill Increasing Diversity and Enhancing Academia (IDEA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. H.; Gray, K.; Drostin, M.

    2016-12-01

    For under-represented minority (URM) students, opportunities to meaningfully participate in academic communities and develop supportive relationships with faculty and peers influence persistence in STEM majors (Figueroa, Hurtado, & Wilkins, 2015; PCAST, 2012; Tsui, 2007). Creating such opportunities is even more important in the geosciences, where a lower percentage of post-secondary degrees are awarded to URM students than in other STEM fields (NSF, 2015; O'Connell & Holmes, 2011; NSF, 2011). Since 2011, Increasing Diversity and Enhancing Academia (IDEA), a program of the UNC-Chapel Hill Institute for the Environment (UNC-IE), has provided 39 undergraduates (predominantly URM and female students) with career-relevant research experiences and professional development opportunities, including a culminating experience of presenting their research at a campus-wide research symposium. External evaluation data have helped to characterize the effectiveness of the IDEA program. These data included pre- and post-surveys assessing students' interest in geosciences, knowledge of career pathways, and perceptions of their abilities related to a specific set of scientific research skills. Additionally, progress towards degrees and dissemination outcomes were tracked. In this presentation, we will share quantitative and qualitative data that demonstrate that participation in the IDEA program has influenced students' interest and persistence in geosciences research and careers. These data range from self-reported competencies in a variety of scientific skills (such as organizing and interpreting data and reading and interpreting science literature) to documentation of student participation in geoscience study and professions. About 69% of participants continued research begun during their internships beyond the internship; and about 38% pursued graduate degrees and secured jobs in geoscience and other STEM fields. (Nearly half are still in school.) Overall, these evaluation data

  5. DETERMINATION OF COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT WING GEOMETRY DURING THE FLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shevyakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the task of determination of wing shape for sub-sonic commercial aircraft by photogrammetric method. It provides the procedure for measurements taken on ground and in flight. It also provides the outcome of wing twist for commercial aircraft at cruise.

  6. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  7. Sociological and ethical issues in transplant commercialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Miran

    2009-04-01

    'Global transplant commercialism' (practices and policies involving international trade in organs from living vendors, e.g., 'transplant tourism') is currently subjected to unprecedented criticism. In parallel, the debate around 'local transplant commercialism' (practices and policies that confine trade in organs from living vendors to national markets or economic unions) is heating up. In an attempt to assess the potential outcomes of these trends, this article reviews and discusses some sociological and ethical issues, ending with a proposal for a reinvigorated anticommercialist strategy. The current international campaign against global transplant commercialism is conducted by an ad hoc alliance between strange bedfellows, proponents of local transplant commercialism on the one hand and opponents of any transplant commercialism on the other. Disparities in the rigor of the respective ethical discourses, the expanding list of precedents of legitimized commerce in the human body, and the political economy of transplantation, all suggest that the former have the upper hand. Recent achievements in the struggle against international organ trafficking may not herald the abolition of transplant commercialism but rather presage its reconfiguration in deglobalized forms. In light of such a prospect, those who wish to prevent the pervasive commodification of the human body from entering the gates of transplant medicine should consider devising a new, perhaps more radical, strategy.

  8. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  9. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  10. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  11. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  12. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  13. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  14. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  15. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  16. Swiss Commercial Drone Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    This publication is focused on the nascent industry of drones being used by professional users, more commonly known as commercial drones. While piloted aircraft have dominated the airspace as we know it for about a century, the use of unmanned aircraft by professionals is creating a conflict between two dominant stakeholders: the aerospace industry and the professional. This publication attempts to take a closer look at these two stakeholders and their desire to occupy a limited public resour...

  17. Commercializing solar architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.

    1979-03-01

    The seminar discussions on attitudinal, technical, and institutional issues and the suggestions related to information development, acquisition, and dissemination; education and training; demonstrations and design competitions; and other actions are documented. Information on SERI's overall mission and a paper titled, The Architectural Role of SERI, and a matrix of barriers and actions from this assessment, related to the commercialization profile for passive solar heating, are attached as appendices.

  18. Commercialization of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    least a decade away. Currently there are a few cosmetic products incorporating nanoparticles on the market such as suntan Commercialization of...fast gene sequencing devices. A nanopore based technology appears to have the potential to sequence the entire human genetic makeup in less than...sectors is promising. While there are some niche applications where nanotechnology products have just penetrated the market, the major impact will be at

  19. Commercial saliva collections tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowey, Paul D

    2013-02-01

    Saliva has been used as a specimen for diagnostics purposes for many years, but it has only been in the last 10 years that a number of new tools have been developed that promise to greatly increase the use of oral specimens for broad-based diagnosis and potentially screening applications. This article focuses on tools that are commercially viable or can play a role in whole saliva collection and future testing for critical diseases.

  20. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  1. Technology commercialization: From generating ideas to creating economic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Dehghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent changes in competitors' status, technology, and customer interests make it unwise and impossible for companies to rely on their products. Customers always seek to find new products. Consequently, companies should continuously produce and offer superior products to meet customer needs, tastes, and expectations. In fact, every company needs a development plan for its new products. Research has demonstrated that one of the major reasons for rapid development of technology in industrial countries is commercialization of research results. The basis of such commercialization is research-industry collaboration in converting research output into innovation. Today, technology commercialization and its outcomes can provide financial resources required for organizational longevity. The main objective of this article is to propose a model for commercializing research findings from idea generation to initial market entry. We believe that this article can, hopefully, contribute to commercialization literature by acting as a guide to local authorities involved in commercialization cycle.

  2. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  3. Decommissioning of commercial reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Kohei [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the case of nuclear reactors, the diversion is often difficult as they are highly purposive, the disassembling is not easy as they are robust, and attention is required to handle the equipment containing radioactive substances. Decommissioning is defined as all the measures taken from the state that facilities become unused to the state of becoming green field. In Japan, already 40 years have elapsed since the effort for nuclear power was begun, and in this paper, the present state and future subjects of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are summarized at the opportunity that the stop of commercial operation of Tokai Nuclear Power Station was decided recently. In the Tokai Nuclear Power Station, 166 MWe graphite-moderated, carbon dioxide-cooled reactor called improved Calder Hall type is installed, which started the operation in 1966. The circumstances of the decision to stop its operation are explained. The basic policy of the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations has been already published by the Advisory Committee for Energy. The state of the decommissioning in various foreign countries is reported. In Japan, the state of green field was realized in 1996 in the decommissioning of the JPDR in Japan Atomic Energy Research institute, and the decommissioning of the atomic powered ship ``Mutsu`` was completed. (K.I.)

  4. Use of Commercial Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts in NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalex, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew and Cargo Program (CCP) is stimulating efforts within the private sector to develop and demonstrate safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. One initiative involves investigating the use of commercial electronic parts. NASA's CCP asked the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to collect data to help frame the technical, cost, and schedule risk trades associated with electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts selection and specifically expressed desire of some of the CCP partners to employ EEE parts of a lower grade than traditionally used in most NASA safety-critical applications. This document contains the outcome from the NESC's review and analyses.

  5. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  6. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  7. Commercializing Academic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge produced by academic scientists has been identified as a potential key driver of technological progress. Recent policies in Europe aim at increasing commercially orientated activities in academe. Based on a sample of German scientists across all fields of science, we investigate...... the importance of academic patenting. Our findings suggest that academic involvement in patenting results in a citation premium, as academic patents appear to generate more forward citations. We also find that in the European context of changing research objectives and funding sources since the mid-1990s......, the “importance” of academic patents declines over time. We show that academic entrants have patents of lower “quality” than academic incumbents but they did not cause the decline, since the relative importance of patents involving academics with an existing patenting history declined over time as well. Moreover...

  8. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R

    1978-01-01

    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  9. Whither Commercial Nanobiosensors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2011-01-01

    The excitement surrounding the marriage of biosensors and nanotechnology is palpable even from a cursory examination of the scientific literature. Indeed, the word “nano” might be in danger of being overused and reduced to a cliché, although probably essential for publishing papers or securing research funding. The biosensor literature is littered with clever or catchy acronyms, birds being apparently favored (“CANARY”, “SPARROW”), quite apart from “electronic tongue,” “electronic nose,” and so on. Although biosensors have been around since glucose monitors were commercialized in the 1970s, the transition of laboratory research and innumerable research papers on biosensors into the world of commerce has lagged. There are several reasons for this phenomenon including the infamous “valley of death” afflicting entrepreneurs emerging from academic environment into the industrial world, where the rules for success can be radically different. In this context, musings on biosensors and especially nanobiosensors in an open access journal such as Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics is topical and appropriate especially since market surveys of biosensors are prohibitively expensive, sometimes running into thousands of dollars for a single copy. The contents and predictions of market share for biosensors in these reports also keep changing every time a report is published. Not only that, the market share projections for biosensors differs considerably amongst various reports. An editorial provides the opportunity to offer personal opinions and perhaps stimulate debate on a particular topic. In this sense, editorials are a departure from the rigor of a research paper. This editorial is no exception. With this preamble, it is worthwhile to stop and ponder the status of commercial biosensors and nanobiosensors.

  10. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. The commercial Atlas IIAR program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    The space launch industry is experiencing a tremendous transition from a government-dominated customer base to a commercial customer base. According to the Teal Group World Space Briefing, nearly 75 percent of satellites launched from 1997 to 2006 will be commercial satellites (Caceres 1997). Of these, the vast majority are commercial ventures in mobile communications, broadband multimedia services, or direct broadcast television satellites. With the majority of the demand for launch services coming from commercial satellite providers, the needs and demands of the commercial satellite community are taking an ever increasing role in the development and design of launch vehicle systems. The Atlas IIAR, the R indicating re-engined, specifically addresses the call from commercial users for increased performance to orbit with higher reliability and launch availability. Lockheed Martin's Atlas IIAR launch vehicle will play a significant and crucial role in the launch of commercial satellites over the next several years, helping to bring satellite services to millions of people worldwide.

  12. Outcomes of an enhancement study with additional psychoeducational sessions for healthy siblings of a child with cancer during inpatient family-oriented rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemitz, Mandy; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2017-11-27

    Chronic illness of a child puts healthy children of the family at risk of distress. Previous studies have demonstrated that healthy children's psychological symptoms can be reduced when the child knows more about the disease. So far, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions for healthy children. To compare the effectiveness of an inpatient family-oriented rehabilitation program with vs without additional psychoeducational sessions for healthy children of families with children with cancer. We performed a controlled study in 4 German family-oriented rehabilitation clinics. The outcomes of n = 73 healthy children (mean age: M = 9.55; SD = 3.14; range: 4-18), who participated in 5 additional psychoeducational sessions, were compared with the outcomes of n = 111 healthy children (mean age: M = 8.85; SD = 3.28; range: 4-17), who underwent the usual inpatient rehabilitation program. Primary outcomes were the healthy children's cancer-specific knowledge and their emotional symptoms. Secondary outcomes were family satisfaction and quality of life. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that both groups improved significantly from preintervention to postintervention. Improvements comprised knowledge about cancer (F(1,174) = 11.03, p child with cancer. Additional psycho-educational sessions did not show any substantial additional improvement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Integrating Mindfulness into Mixed Martial Arts Training to Enhance Academic, Social, and Emotional Outcomes for At-Risk High School Students: A Qualitative Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, K.; Cosme, R.; Wolfe Miscio, M.; Mintz, L.; Hamilton, L.; Cox, M.; Woon, S.; Gage, M.; Phillips, M.

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, adolescents report experiencing levels of stress that exceed their coping resources. Chronic stress is associated with emotion regulation challenges that increase risk for poor mental health and educational outcomes. This qualitative study examined the impact of Integra Mindfulness Martial Arts™ (Integra MMA™) on the perceived…

  14. Baby Elmo Leads Dads Back to the Nursery: How a Relationship-Based Intervention for Incarcerated Fathers Enhances Father and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeda, Benjamin; Smith, Kelly; Perkins, Emily; Simmons, Sydney; Cowan, Philip; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Although children's contact with involved, committed, nonresidential fathers can improve social, emotional, cognitive, and academic outcomes, fathers have largely been absent from parenting interventions that overlook men's role as a critical parenting partner. This article details research showing that young incarcerated fathers' attitudes…

  15. Commercial opportunities in bioseparations and physiological testing aboard Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Cell Research (CCR) is a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space which has as its main goal encouraging industry-driven biomedical/biotechnology space projects. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide long duration, crew-tended microgravity environments which will enhance the opportunities for commercial biomedical/biotechnology projects in bioseparations and physiological testing. The CCR bioseparations program, known as USCEPS (for United States Commercial Electrophoresis Program in Space), is developing access for American industry to continuous-flow electrophoresis aboard SSF. In space, considerable scale-up of continuous free-flow electrophoresis is possible for cells, sub cellular particles, proteins, growth factors, and other biological products. The lack of sedemination and buoyancy-driven convection flow enhances purity of separations and the amount of material processed/time. Through the CCR's physiological testing program, commercial organizations will have access aboard SSF to physiological systems experiments (PSE's); the Penn State Biomodule; and telemicroscopy. Physiological systems experiments involve the use of live animals for pharmaceutical product testing and discovery research. The Penn State Biomodule is a computer-controlled mini lab useful for projects involving live cells or tissues and macro molecular assembly studies, including protein crystallization. Telemicroscopy will enable staff on Earth to manipulate and monitor microscopic specimens on SSF for product development and discovery research or for medical diagnosis of astronaut health problems. Space-based product processing, testing, development, and discovery research using USCEPS and CCR's physiological testing program offer new routes to improved health on Earth. Direct crew involvement-in biomedical/biotechnology projects aboard SSF will enable better experimental outcomes. The current data base shows that there is reason for considerable optimism

  16. Commercial users panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Joseph S.; Flatau, Carl; Hodge, David C.; Hollis, Ralph; Leach, Eugene F.; Gilbert, Ray; Cleland, John; Leifer, Larry; Naser, Joseph; Schmuter, Samson D.

    1987-01-01

    The discussions of motives and requirements for telerobotics application demonstrated that, in many cases, lack of progress was a result not of limited opportunities but of inadequate mechanisms and resources for promoting opportunities. Support for this conclusion came from Telerobotics, Inc., one of the few companies devoted primarily to telerobot systems. They have produced units for such diverse applications as nuclear fusion research, particle accelerators, cryogenics, firefighting, marine biology/undersea systems and nuclear mobile robotics. Mr. Flatau offered evidence that telerobotics research is only rarely supported by the private sector and that it often presents a difficult market. Questions on the mechanisms contained within the NASA technology transfer process for promoting commercial opportunities were fielded by Ray Gilbert and Tom Walters. A few points deserve emphasis: (1) NASA/industry technology transfer occurs in both directions and NASA recognizes the opportunity to learn a great deal from industry in the fields of automation and robotics; (2) promotion of technology transfer projects takes a demand side approach, with requests to industry for specific problem identification. NASA then proposes possible solutions; and (3) comittment ofmotivated and technically qualified people on each end of a technology transfer is essential.

  17. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs.

  18. ETHICS AND COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern economic science was built around the concept of efficiency. In economy the notion of equality is strongly correlated with the notion of balance, such as the market balance when the demand equals the offer. In a broader view, the economy cannot contribute to a reflection on equity unless it re-became a moral and political science or even a philosophical economy. At present, when there is an effervescence of international transactions, we all adulate the need for morality. Everyday, all around the world, regular people are affected by the costs of ethical issues. The profit and social responsibility do not exclude reciprocally. The social value of a company is given by the well-being and the work-places generated, by the products and services offered to the consumers at a fair price in correlation with the quality. The sentimental value represents the value that a person is giving to a good, based on feelings and emotions and not on monetary values. In many cases the passions and the interests are more powerful than the moral value that animates us. A lot of commercials, if they are to say the truth, would recognize that, for them, not the clients are important but the profits.

  19. THE OBLIGATIONS OF COMMERCIAL PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial professionals have some obligations under the law, aimed both at defending public interests and the interests of third parties who enter into contracts with traders and commercial credit, and at defending the interests of professionals themselves, by creating an appropriate legal framework for the activities they perform. The main obligations of traders are the following: fulfilling Trade Register advertising formalities; exercising trade within the limits of legitimate competition; and the organization and bookkeeping of commercial companies. This paper aims at elaborating on the three listed obligations, mainly referring to commercial professionals, as they carry out professional activities that are centered on obtaining profit.

  20. Commercial Art I and Commercial Art II: An Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    A teacher's guide for two sequential one-year commercial art courses for high school students is presented. Commercial Art I contains three units: visual communication, product design, and environmental design. Students study visual communication by analyzing advertising techniques, practicing fundamental drawing and layout techniques, creating…

  1. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...

  2. Teaching Commercial German Through Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Elfriede A.

    Advertisements can be used in many ways to facilitate the teaching of a commercial language. If reproduced as slides or other visual aids, they serve as a visual warm-up exercise for each class period, either reinforcing previously discussed topics or introducing new ones. Catchy headlines in commercials promote rapid expansion of vocabulary and…

  3. Analysis of Commercial Contract Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, D. Robert; And Others

    The report describes the Phase I findings of a two-phase study to determine the applications of commercial contract training to the Navy Training System. The objective of the study is to determine if commercial sources would be cost and training effective alternatives for current and peak Navy skill training requirements. The study was conducted…

  4. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement versus CBT for co-occurring substance dependence, traumatic stress, and psychiatric disorders: Proximal outcomes from a pragmatic randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Tronnier, Christine D; Graves, Rebecca; Kelley, Karen

    2016-02-01

    In many clinical settings, there is a high comorbidity between substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and traumatic stress. Novel therapies are needed to address these co-occurring issues efficiently. The aim of the present study was to conduct a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) to group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) for previously homeless men residing in a therapeutic community. Men with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, as well as extensive trauma histories, were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of group treatment with MORE (n = 64), CBT (n = 64), or TAU (n = 52). Study findings indicated that from pre-to post-treatment MORE was associated with modest yet significantly greater improvements in substance craving, post-traumatic stress, and negative affect than CBT, and greater improvements in post-traumatic stress and positive affect than TAU. A significant indirect effect of MORE on decreasing craving and post-traumatic stress by increasing dispositional mindfulness was observed, suggesting that MORE may target these issues via enhancing mindful awareness in everyday life. This pragmatic trial represents the first head-to-head comparison of MORE against an empirically-supported treatment for co-occurring disorders. Results suggest that MORE, as an integrative therapy designed to bolster self-regulatory capacity, may hold promise as a treatment for intersecting clinical conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Are parent-reported outcomes for self-directed or telephone-assisted behavioral family intervention enhanced if parents are observed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R

    2007-05-01

    The study examined the effects of conducting observations as part of a broader assessment of families participating in behavior family intervention (BFI). It was designed to investigate whether the observations improve intervention outcomes. Families were randomly assigned to different levels of BFI or a waitlist control condition and subsequently randomly assigned to either observation or no-observation conditions. This study demonstrated significant intervention and observation effects. Mothers in more intensive BFI reported more improvement in their child's behavior and their own parenting. Observed mothers reported lower intensity of child behavior problems and more effective parenting styles. There was also a trend for less anger among mothers who were observed and evidence of an observation-intervention interaction for parental anger, with observed mothers in more intensive intervention reporting less anger compared to those not observed. Implications for clinical and research intervention contexts are discussed.

  6. Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI

  7. A foodservice approach to enhance energy intake of elderly subacute patients: a pilot study to assess impact on patient outcomes and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jorja; Porter, Judi; Truby, Helen; Huggins, Catherine E

    2017-05-01

    effective strategies are required to support the nutritional status of patients. to evaluate a foodservice nutrition intervention on a range of participant outcomes and estimate its cost. parallel controlled pilot study. subacute hospital ward. all consecutively admitted adult patients were eligible for recruitment under waiver of consent. the intervention was a modified hospital menu developed by substituting standard items with higher energy options. The control was the standard menu. All participants received usual multidisciplinary care. Outcomes were change in weight and hand grip strength (HGS) between admission and day 14 and; energy and protein intake and patient satisfaction with the foodservice at day 14. The additional cost of the intervention was also estimated. the median (interquartile range) age of participants (n = 122) was 83 (75-87) years and length of stay was 19 (11-32) days. One-third (38.5%) were malnourished at admission. There was no difference in mean (SD) HGS change (1.7 (5.1) versus 1.4 (5.8) kg, P = 0.798) or weight change (-0.55 (3.43) versus 0.26 (3.33) %, P = 0.338) between the intervention and control groups, respectively. The intervention group had significantly higher mean (SD) intake of energy (132 (38) versus 105 (34) kJ/kg/day, P = 0.003) and protein (1.4 (0.6) versus 1.1 (0.4) g protein/kg/day, P = 0.035). Both groups were satisfied with the foodservice. The additional cost was £4.15/participant/day. in this pilot, the intervention improved intake and may be a useful strategy to address malnutrition. Further consideration of clinical and cost implications is required in a fully powered study.

  8. Commercial integration and partnering at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Babione, R.A.; Shikashio, L.A.; Wacaster, A.J.; Paterson, A.D. [SCIENTECH, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS), particularly the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) with the experience from the first successful Integrated Technology Demonstration, can provide an excellent foundation for meeting DOE-EM`s objectives with the new DOE-EM five focus area approach. With this in mind, SRTC established an activity to pursue full commercialization of environmental technologies. This report is an assessment of the status of commercialization at SRS and provides recommendations for enhancement as well as some tools critical to implementation. A review was made of the current situation at SRS with regards to taking technology development to commercial fruition. This was done from the perspective of comparing it to known commercialization models and processes. It was found that SRTC already works through many of the steps in these processes. With integration and action-oriented efforts of the inclusion of business and market factors, SRTC could become an aggressive, successful developer of commercialized technologies. Commercial success criteria tools were developed with regards to integrating them with SRTC selection criteria to ensure that all critical factors are covered in technology commercialization project evaluations. Private investors are very clear that their interest lies in funding commercial enterprises, not merely technologies. Mobilizing private capital is critical to real job growth and long-term economic development. Also, potential industry partners were identified that are willing to be involved with SRS` technology applications and regional development efforts. As another important component to success, regional support organizations were reviewed and evaluated.

  9. Hardness variability in commercial and hardened technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-03-01

    Over the past 10 years, there have been a number of advances in methods to assess and assure the radiation hardness of microelectronics in military and space applications. At the forefront of these is the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology, in which the hardness of product is ``built-in`` through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to varying radiation scenarios. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in the use of commercial technology -- with its enhanced performance, reduced cost, and higher reliability -- in military and space systems. In this paper, we initially demonstrate the application of QML techniques to assure and control the radiation response of hardened technologies. Through several examples, we demonstrate intra-die, wafer-to-wafer, and lot-to-lot variations in a hardened technology. We observe 10 to 30% variations in key technology parameters that result from variability in geometry, process, and design layout. Radiation-induced degradation is seen to mirror preirradiation characteristics. We then evaluate commercial technologies and report considerably higher variability in radiation hardness, i.e., variations by a factor of two to five. This variability is shown to arise from a lack of control of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, which a commercial manufacturer has no interest in controlling in a normal process flow.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  11. Passive stretching does not enhance outcomes in patients with plantarflexion contracture after cast immobilization for ankle fracture: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Anne M; Herbert, Robert D; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Taylor, Deborah A; Evans, Trish M; Robertson, Gavin J; Gupta, Sandeep K; Penn, Julie

    2005-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of short- and long-duration passive stretches with a control treatment for the management of plantarflexion contracture after cast immobilization for ankle fracture. Assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Hospital physical therapy outpatient departments. Adults with plantarflexion contracture (N=150) after cast immobilization for ankle fracture. All subjects were weight bearing or partial weight bearing. Exercise only, exercise plus short-duration passive stretch, and exercise plus long-duration passive stretch. All subjects had a 4-week course of exercises. In addition, subjects in the short-duration stretch plus exercise group completed 6 minutes of stretching per day, and subjects in the long-duration stretch plus exercise group completed 30 minutes of stretching per day. Lower Extremity Functional Scale and passive dorsiflexion range of motion with the knee bent and straight at baseline, and at 4 weeks and 3 months postintervention. One hundred thirty-nine (93%) subjects completed the 4-week assessment and 134 (89%) subjects completed the 3-month assessment. There were no statistically significant or clinically important between-group differences for the primary outcomes. The addition of passive stretching confers no benefit over exercise alone for the treatment of plantarflexion contracture after cast immobilization for ankle fracture.

  12. Enhancing social participation in young people with communication disabilities living in rural Australia: outcomes of a home-based intervention for using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Grace, Emma; Wood, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a home-based intervention using social media to enhance social networks of young people with disabilities and communication difficulties. Eight young people (M(age) = 15.4 years) with communication disabilities participated from two rural Australian towns. The intervention provided assistive technology and training to learn social media use. A mixed-method design combined pre- and post-assessments measuring changes in performance, satisfaction with performance, attainment on social media goals, and social network extension, and interviews investigated the way in which the intervention influenced social participation. Participants showed an increase in performance, and satisfaction with performance, on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure; paired t-tests showed statistical significance at p communication partners, p communication frequency and nature, and speech intelligibility and literacy as a result of the intervention. The findings suggest that learning to use social media leads to increase in social participation among rural-based young people with communication disabilities. In order to benefit from advantages of learning to use social media in rural areas, parents and service providers need knowledge and skills to integrate assistive technology with the Internet needs of this group.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  16. Allegheny County Commercial Vehicle Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset lists the locations and results of all commercial vehicle inspections performed by the Allegheny County Police Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  18. Enhancement of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 inhibitory action of minocycline by aspirin: an approach to attenuate outcome of acute myocardial infarction in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Lokesh K; Veeranjaneyulu, Addepalli

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for exacerbated outcome after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and doubles the risk of mortality after MI. Increased levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in diabetes cause vascular remodelling, which leads to cardiovascular complications of diabetes. We hypothesized that inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 can reduce worsening of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients. Further, we hypothesized that minocycline induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibition will be potentiated by aspirin and the combination of both drugs will prevent worsening of MI in diabetic patients. In the present study, efficacy of combination of minocycline and aspirin to attenuate exacerbation of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in diabetic rats was evaluated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (55 mg/kg i.p.). Three weeks after diabetes induction, rats were treated with minocycline (50 mg/kg, p.o.), aspirin (50 mg/kg, p.o.), or minocycline (50 mg/kg, p.o.) plus aspirin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 3 weeks. At the end of week 6, I/R injury was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h reperfusion. Percentage infarct volume, arrhythmias, mortality, collagen level and MMP-2 and MMP-9 level were significantly increased in vehicle-treated diabetic group when compared with normoglycemic rats. Treatment with a combination of minocycline and aspirin decreased percentage infarct volume, arrhythmias, mortality and collagen level when compared with vehicle-treated diabetic controls and showed reduced levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Results of the present study suggest that the combination of minocycline and aspirin prevent worsening of AMI in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatal outcome of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection is associated with immunopathology and impaired lung repair, not enhanced viral burden, in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, Glendie; Aldridge, Jerry R; Duan, Susu; Ghoneim, Hazem E; Rehg, Jerold; Marjuki, Henju; Boon, Adrianus C M; McCullers, Jonathan A; Webby, Richard J

    2011-11-01

    Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus (pH1N1) infection in pregnant women can be severe. The mechanisms that affect infection outcome in this population are not well understood. To address this, pregnant and nonpregnant BALB/c mice were inoculated with the wild-type pH1N1 strain A/California/04/09. To determine whether innate immune responses are associated with severe infection, we measured the innate cells trafficking into the lungs of pregnant versus nonpregnant animals. Increased infiltration of pulmonary neutrophils and macrophages strongly correlated with an elevated mortality in pregnant mice. In agreement with this, the product of nitric oxide (nitrite) and several cytokines associated with recruitment and/or function of these cells were increased in the lungs of pregnant animals. Surprisingly, increased mortality in pregnant mice was not associated with higher virus load because equivalent virus titers and immunohistochemical staining were observed in the nasal cavities or lungs of all mice. To determine whether exacerbated inflammatory responses and elevated cellularity resulted in lung injury, epithelial regeneration was measured. The lungs of pregnant mice exhibited reduced epithelial regeneration, suggesting impaired lung repair. Despite these immunologic alterations, pregnant animals demonstrated equivalent percentages of pulmonary influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes, although they displayed elevated levels of T-regulator lymphocytes (Tregs) in the lung. Also, pregnant mice mounted equal antibody titers in response to virus or immunization with a monovalent inactivated pH1N1 A/California/07/09 vaccine. Therefore, immunopathology likely caused by elevated cellular recruitment is an implicated mechanism of severe pH1N1 infection in pregnant mice.

  20. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  1. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  2. Enhanced loading regimen of teicoplanin is necessary to achieve therapeutic pharmacokinetics levels for the improvement of clinical outcomes in patients with renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, T; Takesue, Y; Nakajima, K; Ichiki, K; Doita, A; Wada, Y; Tsuchida, T; Takahashi, Y; Ishihara, M; Ikeuchi, H; Uchino, M; Kimura, T

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of teicoplanin according to the pharmacokinetics (PK) therapeutic level achieved in patients with renal dysfunction. Target trough concentration (Cmin) was ≥15-30 μg/ml which has been recommended in patients with normal renal function. Adult patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) teicoplanin were included in the study. We adopted two types of regimen for the initial 3 days: the conventional regimen, and the enhanced loading regimen (10 mg/kg twice daily on the 1st day, followed by 6.7-10 mg/kg once daily for the 2nd and 3rd days]. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients were evaluated for safety, and 106 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections were evaluated for clinical efficacy. A significantly higher success rate was obtained in patients who achieved the target initial Cmin compared with those that did not (75.0 % vs 50.0 %, p = 0.008). In a multivariate analysis, initial Cmin ≥15 μg/ml was an independent factor for clinical success (adjusted odds ratio: 4.20, 95 % confidence interval: 1.34-13.15). In patients with 15-30 μg/ml of maximal Cmin during therapy, nephrotoxicity occurred in 13.1 %, and hepatotoxicity in 2.6 %, and these incidences were not significantly higher compared with those patients with teicoplanin in patients with renal dysfunction. Further investigation is required regarding the optimal loading regimen to achieve the therapeutic levels in those patients.

  3. Commercial books under Turkish commercial laws concerning accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batuhan Güvemli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La modernización de las leyes comerciales de Turquía tiene una historia de 160 años (1850-2010. Los movimientos de occidentalización (Imperial Edicto de 1839 dentro del Imperio Otomano trajeron consigo la creación de la primera ley comercial, Kanunname-i Ticaret (1850 a 1926. Desde 1926 otras tres leyes comerciales fueron promulgadas. En este estudio, examinamos los libros de comercio dentro de esas cuatro leyes comerciales en el ámbito de la contabilidad. Nuestro objetivo es entender los efectos de los cambios de reglamentación comercial sobre la evolución de la cultura turca de contabilidad. Los resultados indican que debido a la ley islámica (Sharia, la aplicación de la ley comercial de 1850 no se había extendido. Las disposiciones legales que entraron en vigor con el establecimiento de la República en 1923 han hecho posible la promulgación de nuevas leyes comerciales. Así, el estudio también se ocupa del proyecto de ley de Derecho Mercantil de Turquía de 2005.The modernization of the Turkish commercial laws has a history of 160 years (1850-2010. The westernization movements (Imperial Edict of 1839 within the Ottoman Empire effected the establishment of the first commercial law, Kanunname-i Ticaret (1850-1926. Since 1926, three other commercial laws were enacted. In this study, we examine the commercial books within those four commercial laws under the scope of accounting. Our aim is to understand the effects of the commercial regulatory changes on the evolution of the Turkish accounting culture. Findings indicate that due to the Islamic law (Sharia, the application the commercial law of 1850 was not widespread. The legal regulations which were put into force with the establishment of the Republic in 1923 have made the enactment of new commercial laws possible. Thus, the study also addresses to the bill of Turkish Commercial Law dated 2005.

  4. Irregular vascular pattern by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and high serum Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein level predict poor outcome after successful radiofrequency ablation in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hitomi; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Yasui, Yutaka; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Shoko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered the most effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients unsuitable for resection. However, poor outcome after RFA has occasionally been reported worldwide. To predict such an outcome, we investigated imaging findings using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid and serum tumor markers before RFA. This study included 176 early-stage HCC patients who had initially achieved successful RFA. Patients were examined using CEUS; their levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin before RFA were measured. Sonazoid provided parenchyma-specific contrast imaging and facilitated tumor vascular architecture imaging through maximum intensity projection (MIP). Kaplan-Meier analysis examined cumulative rates of local tumor progression, intrasubsegmental recurrence, and survival; factors associated with these were determined with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Local tumor progression (n = 15), intrasubsegmental recurrence (n = 46), and death (n = 18) were observed. Irregular pattern in MIP classification and serum AFP-L3 level (>10%) before RFA were identified as independent risk factors for local tumor progression and intrasubsegmental recurrence. These two factors were independently associated with poor survival after RFA (irregular pattern in MIP: hazard ratio, (HR) = 8.26; 95% confidence interval, (CI) = 2.24-30.3; P = 0.002 and AFP-L3 > 10%: HR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.09-7.94; P = 0.033). Irregular MIP pattern by CEUS and high level of serum AFP-L3 were independent risk factors for poor outcome after successful RFA. The Patients with these findings should be considered as special high-risk group in early-stage HCC. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Financial issues for commercial space ventures: Paying for the dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Various financial issues involved in commercial space enterprise are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the materials processing area: the current state of business plan and financial developments, what is needed for enhanced probability of success of future materials development efforts in attracting financial backing, and finally, the risks involved in this entire business area.

  6. pattern of alcohol use among drivers of commercial vehicles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-01

    Mar 1, 2011 ... PATTERN OF ALCOHOL USE AMONG DRIVERS OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES IN CALABAR, NIGERIA .... To reduce stress. To ease tension. To socialize. To forget problems. People's influence. For self confidence. To enhance work performance ... in a similar study conducted among college students.

  7. Protein Engineering: Case Studies of Commercialized Engineered Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Programs in biochemistry invariably encompass the principles of protein engineering. Students often display increased understanding and enthusiasm when theoretical concepts are underpinned by practical example. Herein are presented five case studies, each focusing upon a commercial protein product engineered to enhance its application-relevant…

  8. A Study on Exploiting Commercial Digital Games into School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoutsopoulos, Hercules; Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2012-01-01

    Digital game-based learning is a research field within the context of technology-enhanced learning that has attracted significant research interest. Commercial off-the-shelf digital games have the potential to provide concrete learning experiences and allow for drawing links between abstract concepts and real-world situations. The aim of this…

  9. Optimising closely held entities to enhance commercial participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The important contribution of the small business sector to economic growth and regional development is widely and generally acknowledged. In 1984, the South African Close Corporations Act introduced a simple, inexpensive and flexible closelyheld entity for the business consisting of a single entrepreneur or small ...

  10. Enhancing Cellulase Commercial Performance for the Lignocellulosic Biomass Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnigan, Alisha [Danisco, US Inc., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2016-06-07

    Cellulase enzyme loading (Bt-G) for the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is on of the key challenges identified in the Biomass Program of DOE/EERE. The goal of Danisco’s project which ran from 2008 to 2012, was to address the technical challenge by creating more efficient enzyme that could be used at lower doses, thus reducing the enzymes’ cost contribution to the conversio process. We took the approach of protein engineering of cellulase enzymes to overcome the enzymati limitations in the system of cellulosic-hydrolyzing enzymes to improve performance in conversion o biomass, thereby creating a more effective enzyme mix.

  11. Leveraging Venture Capital and Commercial Business: Enhancing Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    regional and global influence, ―American officers in control of Havana , Manila, and other cities occupied by the Army engaged in efforts to promote public...River of Gold ‖ was a convincing argument; the Coalition‘s plan was subsequently approved in 2006. Figure 4. Iraq‘s River of Gold 24 Phase III

  12. Hypovascular hypointense nodules on hepatobiliary phase without T2 hyperintensity on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images in patients with chronic liver disease: long-term outcomes and risk factors for hypervascular transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Seek [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju-si, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Han, Young Min [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju-si, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes and imaging features associated with hypervascularization of hypovascular nodules that show T2 iso-/hypointensity and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with chronic liver disease. Sixty patients and 114 nodules, which were hypovascular and iso-/hypointense on T2-weighted images and hypointense on HBP of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, were included. We evaluated the effect of baseline clinical features, baseline MR features and growth rate on subsequent hypervascularization. Twenty-seven nodules in 21 patients transformed to hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using multivariate Cox analysis, T1 hyperintensity (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.69, P = 0.021), previous history of HCC (HR = 2.64, P = 0.021), and initial nodule size (HR = 1.09, P = 0.046) were identified to be associated with hypervascularization. The growth rate of nodules was a more powerful determinant of subsequent hypervascularization than baseline clinical and MR features. At long-term follow-up after >3 years, only one nodule with T1 isointensity showed hypervascularization. Careful follow-up or diagnostic procedures, such as biopsy, should be considered for up to 3 years after detection of hypointense nodules on HBP with T1 hyperintensity or a higher growth rate. (orig.)

  13. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  14. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  15. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-1 (Federally Downloadable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  16. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-2 (Federally Viewable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  17. Publicly Available IKONOS-2 Commercial Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  18. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-3 (Federally Downloadable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  19. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-2 (Federally Downloadable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  20. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY QUICKBIRD-1 (Federally Downloadable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  1. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY QUICKBIRD-2 (Federally Viewable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  2. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY IKONOS-2 (Federally Downloadable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  3. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY GEOEYE-1 (Federally Viewable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  4. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY GEOEYE-1 Authorized (Federally Downloadable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  5. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-1 (Federally Viewable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  6. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY IKONOS-2 (Federally Viewable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  7. Commercial sector can improve access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the improved accessibility to family planning (FP) services made possible by expanding services among private physicians and through social marketing in developing countries. Encouraging private sector (PS) FP is a way to ease the caseload of public FP facilities and creating the potential for attracting more lower-income clients. Few developing countries have a "viable commercial market" for contraceptives. Commercial success depends upon a secure supply of FP supplies, well-trained providers, and consumer demand. Consumers want affordable, high-quality, and convenient services. Governments must ensure that regulations do not hamper PS programs. Public and private programs should not compete in ways that are counterproductive. The commercial sector includes private physicians, clinics, pharmacies, or hospitals without public subsidies. Public funding might be used to encourage PS distribution, especially condoms and messages about HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Messages may target specific audiences and promote an appealing logo and packaging. SOMARC in Turkey promotes a network of commercial health care facilities that offer high quality FP at affordable prices. The model includes provider training, quality of care monitoring, marketing, a hotline, posted prices, and prices set by consumer affordability surveys. This model is being tried in both Nepal and the Philippines. Commercial marketing has been successful in Latin America, North Africa, and the Middle East. Commercial expansion and survival is dependent upon the satisfaction of consumer preferences for convenience, greater access, better confidentiality, and quality. Examples from Zimbabwe and Romania are used to show strategies for training private providers. Private providers will become involved, for instance, by offering targeted training programs.

  8. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor.

  9. COMMERCIAL FUND, RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL TRIF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  10. CERN Computing in Commercial Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, C.; Field, L.; Garrido Bear, B.; Giordano, D.; Jones, B.; Keeble, O.; Manzi, A.; Martelli, E.; McCance, G.; Moreno-García, D.; Traylen, S.

    2017-10-01

    By the end of 2016 more than 10 Million core-hours of computing resources have been delivered by several commercial cloud providers to the four LHC experiments to run their production workloads, from simulation to full chain processing. In this paper we describe the experience gained at CERN in procuring and exploiting commercial cloud resources for the computing needs of the LHC experiments. The mechanisms used for provisioning, monitoring, accounting, alarming and benchmarking will be discussed, as well as the involvement of the LHC collaborations in terms of managing the workflows of the experiments within a multicloud environment.

  11. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  12. Entrepreneurship, Social Capital, And Institutions: Social And Commercial Entrepreneurship Across Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Estrin, Saul; Mickiewicz, Tomasz; Stephan, Ute

    2012-01-01

    We model and test the relationship between social and commercial entrepreneurship drawing on social capital theory. We propose that the country prevalence rate of social entrepreneurship is an indicator of constructible nation-level social capital and enhances the likelihood of individual commercial entry. We further posit that both social and commercial entrepreneurial entry is facilitated by certain formal institutions, namely strong property rights and (low) government activism, albeit the...

  13. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  14. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  15. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  16. Commercializing Intellectual Property in Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonneau, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    This presentation analyzes the Commercializing of intellectual Property in Universities. Patents and the quest for science imposes certain constraints based on how research projects are financed and the ownership of the results. Then, Copyright issues are explored, primarly open access, fair dealings as well as the Theses Canada program.

  17. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor...

  18. Hypovascular hypointense nodules on hepatobiliary phase without T2 hyperintensity on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images in patients with chronic liver disease: long-term outcomes and risk factors for hypervascular transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Seek; Song, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Han, Young Min

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes and imaging features associated with hypervascularization of hypovascular nodules that show T2 iso-/hypointensity and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with chronic liver disease. Sixty patients and 114 nodules, which were hypovascular and iso-/hypointense on T2-weighted images and hypointense on HBP of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, were included. We evaluated the effect of baseline clinical features, baseline MR features and growth rate on subsequent hypervascularization. Twenty-seven nodules in 21 patients transformed to hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using multivariate Cox analysis, T1 hyperintensity (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.69, P = 0.021), previous history of HCC (HR = 2.64, P = 0.021), and initial nodule size (HR = 1.09, P = 0.046) were identified to be associated with hypervascularization. The growth rate of nodules was a more powerful determinant of subsequent hypervascularization than baseline clinical and MR features. At long-term follow-up after >3 years, only one nodule with T1 isointensity showed hypervascularization. Careful follow-up or diagnostic procedures, such as biopsy, should be considered for up to 3 years after detection of hypointense nodules on HBP with T1 hyperintensity or a higher growth rate. • T1 hyperintensity is a baseline MR predictive factor for subsequent hypervascularization. • A higher growth rate is a more powerful determinant of subsequent hypervascularization. • Management of patients with these predictive factors requires more attention.

  19. 76 FR 26705 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost and Earnings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...; Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost and Earnings Data Collection Survey in the Northeast Region AGENCY: National... hours and cost) of the proposed collection of information; (c) Ways to enhance the quality, utility, and...

  20. 76 FR 23749 - Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... 111 Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels AGENCY: Postal... currently enhancing its operational capability to allow for the scanning of Intelligent Mail package barcodes (IMpb) and other extra services barcodes via automated processing equipment and Intelligent Mail...

  1. Using Television Commercials as Video Illustrations: Examples from a Money and Banking Economics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Video clips are an excellent way to enhance lecture material. Television commercials are a source of video examples that should not be overlooked and they are readily available on the internet. They are familiar, short, self-contained, constantly being created, and often funny. This paper describes several examples of television commercials that…

  2. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a didactic experiment carried out at an MA programme at The Copenhagen Business School. The experiment aimed at encouraging students to take charge of their learning processes via a course programme design that would motivate students to take an active part in choosing...

  3. Outcomes-Based Authentic Learning, Portfolio Assessment, and a Systems Approach to ‘Complex Problem-Solving’: Related Pillars for Enhancing the Innovative Role of PBL in Future Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Richards

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of better reconciling individual and collective aspects of innovative problem-solving can be productively addressed to enhance the role of PBL as a key focus of the creative process in future higher education. This should involve ‘active learning’ approaches supported by related processes of teaching, assessment and curriculum. As Biggs & Tan (2011 have suggested, an integrated or systemic approach is needed for the most effective practice of outcomes-based education also especially relevant for addressing relatively simple as well as more complex problems. Such a model will be discussed in relation to the practical example of a Masters subject conceived with interdisciplinary implications, applications, and transferability: ‘sustainable policy studies in science, technology and innovation’. Different modes of PBL might be encouraged in terms of the authentic kinds of ‘complex problem-solving’ issues and challenges which increasingly confront an interdependent and changing world. PBL can be further optimized when projects or cases also involve contexts and examples of research and inquiry. However, perhaps the most crucial pillar is a model of portfolio assessment for linking and encouraging as well as distinguishing individual contributions to collaborative projects and activities.

  4. Effect of operator and institutional volume on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions performed in Canada and the United States: a brief report from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Mina; Nikhil, Janarthan; Hellkamp, Anne S; Pieper, Karen S; Labinaz, Marino; Cohen, E A; Buller, Christopher E; Cantor, Warren J; Seidelin, Peter; Ducas, John; Carere, Ronald G; Natarajan, Madhu K; O'Shea, J Conor; Tcheng, James E

    2009-08-01

    The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial compared the use of eptifibatide with placebo in 2064 coronary intervention patients. It was previously reported that Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, myocardial infarction (MI) or target vessel revascularization (TVR) compared with patients in the United States (US). To examine whether operator or institutional volume differences explain the regional variation in clinical outcome. Each site received an operator and institutional volume survey. Fifty-seven sites (62%) returned complete data on 1338 patients. In this smaller cohort, Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, MI or TVR compared with US patients (6.3% versus 10.3% and 14.9% versus 20.1%, respectively; PESPRIT study, institutional volume was associated with a modest reduction in risk of death, MI or TVR over short- and long-term follow-up periods. The Canadian and US investigators and institutions selected in ESPRIT had similar annual procedural volumes. Therefore, volume variables did not explain the differential risk of clinical events observed for patients enrolled in the two countries.

  5. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  6. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  7. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  8. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 4th Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009, and the EU Brussels Regulation (recast), 2012....

  9. Reference commercial fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-09-01

    Currently available conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants are for first generation plants using deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel, and are all functionally similar. This similarity has been used as a basis for defining an envelope of D-T fusion power plant characteristics which encompasses the characteristics of the available designs. A description of this envelope, including general process descriptions, proposed materials uses and a tabulation of numerical ranges of plant parameters is presented in this document.

  10. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  11. Improved techniques to enhance the yield of paddy straw mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved techniques to enhance the yield of paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) for commercial cultivation. Gurudevan Thiribhuvanamala, Subbiah Krishnamoorthy, Karupannan Manoranjitham, Velappa Praksasm, Sakthivel Krishnan ...

  12. Commercialization of New Beam Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1996-05-01

    The commercialization of electron processing applications is driven by demonstrated technical advantages over current practice. Mature and reliable accelerator technology has permitted more consistent product quality and the development of new processes. However, the barriers to commercial adoption are often not amenable to solution within the laboratory alone. Aspects of the base accelerator technology, plant engineering, production, project management, financing, regulatory control, product throughput and plant operational efficiency all contribute to the business risk. Experiences in building three 10 MeV, 50 kW, IMPELA electron accelerators at approximately 8 M each and achieving cumulative operational availability greater than 98% in commercial environments have identified key parameters defining those aspects. The allowed ranges of these parameters to generate the 1.5 M annual revenue that is typically necessary to support outlays of this scale are presented. Such data have been used in proposals to displace expensive chemicals in the viscose industry, sterilize sewage sludge, detoxify chemically contaminated soils and build radiation service centers for a diversity of applications. The proposals face stiff competition from traditional chemical methods. Quantitative technical and business details of these activities are provided and an attempt is made to establish realistic expectations for the exploitation of electron beam technologies in emerging applications.

  13. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  14. Commercial aviation alternative fuels initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    This presentation looks at alternative fuels to enhance environmental stability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality benefits (e.g., SOx and PM), fuel supply stability, and fuel price stability.

  15. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  16. Commercially bioavailable proprietary technologies and their marketed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M

    2013-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the methodologies and platform technologies for enhancing the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. We also highlight the mechanisms of formulation technologies for improving desired physicochemical attributes of active substances. We focus on various commercial technologies, along with marketed products, and identify proprietary technologies protected by patents. We also discuss nonpropriety technologies, such as mesoporous silica, cyclodextrin complexation and solid dispersions. In addition, we highlight the factors affecting drug absorption and/or bioavailability, the methodologies available to prepare bioavailability-enhanced products, stability issues and examples of technology implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...... esters from DODs. The optimum conditions are 10% enzyme load (wt% of DODs), ethanol/DODs of 3.0:1.0 (mol/mol), water content 0.125% (based on the weight of total mixture), and reaction at 30 °C for 5 h. The results demonstrated that >95% sterols can be recovered as free form (>85% sterol esters were...

  18. Comparison of one-year outcomes following coronary artery stenting in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients (from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor With Integrilin Therapy [ESPRIT] Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinaz, Marino; Madan, Mina; O'Shea, J O'Conor; Kilaru, Rakhi; Chin, Wai; Pieper, Karen; McGuire, Darren K; Saucedo, Jorge F; Talley, J David; Lui, Henry; Kitt, Michael M; Califf, Robert M; Tcheng, James T

    2002-09-15

    For patients undergoing nonurgent coronary stent implantation, blockade of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor with eptifibatide reduces the incidence of ischemic complications. We evaluated the interaction of eptifibatide with diabetes in patients who underwent this procedure by analyzing the 1-year outcomes of those enrolled in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial (466 diabetic and 1,595 nondiabetic patients). At 1 year, the composite end point of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascuarlization (TVR) was higher in diabetic patients (24.5% vs 18.4%; p = 0.008). At 1 year, eptifibatide had a similar effect on the composite end point of death, MI, or TVR in diabetic (hazards ratio [HR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49 to 1.04) and nondiabetic patients (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.99). A similar treatment effect was also seen on death or MI in both groups. The 1-year mortality rate for diabetic patients assigned to placebo was 3.5% versus 1.3% for patients receiving eptifibatide (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.41); the latter rate was similar to the mortality rate of 1.4% for nondiabetic patients in the eptifibatide group. However, eptifibatide did not have a significant effect on TVR in diabetic patients (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.41). Our data suggest that treatment with eptifibatide is associated with a similar relative reduction in adverse ischemic complications in diabetic and nondiabetic patients undergoing coronary stent implantation. There is no evidence of a statistical interaction in the treatment effect of eptifibatide between patients with and without diabetes.

  19. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202 Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. ... software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition...

  20. Strategies for commercialization of cryopreserved fish semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence R. Tiersch

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial success in sperm cryopreservation occurred at about the same time for aquatic species and livestock. However, in the 50 plus years since then cryopreserved sperm of livestock has grown into a billion-dollar global industry, while cryopreserved sperm of aquatic species remains a research activity with little commercial application despite work in more than 90 species and more than 200 published reports. Most research work has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmon, trout, carp, and catfish, and mollusks such as commercially important oyster and abalone species. However, only a few studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in small fishes such as zebrafish, or in endangered species. Overall, this work has yielded techniques that are being applied with varied levels of success around the world. Barriers to expanded application include a diverse and widely distributed literature base, technical problems, small sperm volumes, variable results, a general lack of access to the technology, and most importantly, a lack of standardization in practices and reporting. The benefits of cryopreservation include at least five levels of improvements for existing industries and for creation of new industries. First, cryopreservation can be used to improve existing hatchery operations by providing sperm on demand and simplifying the timing of induced spawning. Second, frozen sperm can enhance efficient use of facilities and create new opportunities in the hatchery by eliminating the need to maintain live males, potentially freeing resources for use with females and larvae. Third, valuable genetic lineages such as endangered species, research models or improved farmed strains can be protected by storage of frozen sperm. Fourth, cryopreservation opens the door for rapid genetic improvement. Frozen sperm can be used in breeding programs to create improved lines and shape the genetic resources available for aquaculture. Finally

  1. Guam Commercial Fisheries BioSampling (CFBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Guam Commercial Fisheries Biosampling program, which collects length and weight frequency data for whole commercial catches, and samples 4-8 species for in-depth...

  2. Preventing Commercial Fishing Deaths in Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer M. Lincoln; George A. Conway

    1999-01-01

    ... (200/100 000/year in 1991–2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen. Methods—Comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established by our office during 1991 and 1992 for Alaska...

  3. Training Researchers To Commercialize Research Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sijde, P. C.; Cuyvers, R.

    2003-01-01

    A training course was designed to prepare researchers for research commercialization for researchers. It introduces concepts involved in the publishing of knowledge such as protection of intellectual property, spin-off companies, and working with commercial companies. (JOW)

  4. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising. ...

  5. Commercialization of solar space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  6. An Evaluation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelacic, Allan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Fortuna, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); LaSala, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nathwani, Jay [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nix, Gerald [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Renner, Joel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bruton, Carol [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This 2008 document presents the results of an eight-month study by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its support staff at the national laboratories concerning the technological requirements to commercialize a new geothermal technology, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

  7. Commercialization basics for the photonics industry

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, David A

    2013-01-01

    Most entrepreneurs have expertise in one or more of the critical areas of commercialization, but may lack key elements necessary for success. Commercialization Basics for the Photonics Industry serves as a roadmap for the commercialization process, helping identify and address roadblocks on the path to commercialization. Evaluation techniques will help determine the strength of a business opportunity and guide its development toward the best chance of success.

  8. Selling Violence: Television Commercials Targeted to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff

    Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…

  9. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial use. 272.4 Section 272.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USE OF âWOODSY OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture...

  10. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RECREATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the recreational and commercial skiboat linefishery in the Transkei was conducted from March 1997 to April 1999. Effort by commercial skiboats was substantially higher than by recreational skiboats, and catch rates on commercial boats were much higher than rates on recreational boats. Catch rates in the ...

  11. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  12. Virale commercials: De consument als marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  13. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles of...

  14. What Is Commercial Social Marketing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...... and argue why it is more severe in non-profit social marketing. c) We argue that CSM could create a new and unethical kind of social competition due to its inherent motivation to gain ownership of the social cause it addresses....... of CSM. In relation to the benchmark criteria, the second section focuses on 3 key ethical challenges in CSM. a) We describe the problem of paternalism and suggest that CSM can deal with it by anchoring social campaigns in the target groups’ world-view. b) We address the problem of power imbalances...

  15. CARES/LIFE Software Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has entered into a letter agreement with BIOSYM Technologies Inc. (now merged with Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI)). Under this agreement, NASA will provide a developmental copy of the CARES/LIFE computer program to BIOSYM for evaluation. This computer code predicts the time-dependent reliability of a thermomechanically loaded component. BIOSYM will become familiar with CARES/LIFE, provide results of computations useful in validating the code, evaluate it for potential commercialization, and submit suggestions for improvements or extensions to the code or its documentation. If BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations reaches a favorable evaluation of CARES/LIFE, NASA will enter into negotiations for a cooperative agreement with BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations to further develop the code--adding features such as a user-friendly interface and other improvements. This agreement would give BIOSYM intellectual property rights in the modified codes, which they could protect and then commercialize. NASA would provide BIOSYM with the NASA-developed source codes and would agree to cooperate with BIOSYM in further developing the code. In return, NASA would receive certain use rights in the modified CARES/LIFE program. Presently BIOSYM Technologies Inc. has been involved with integration issues concerning its merger with Molecular Simulations Inc., since both companies used to compete in the computational chemistry market, and to some degree, in the materials market. Consequently, evaluation of the CARES/LIFE software is on hold for a month or two while the merger is finalized. Their interest in CARES continues, however, and they expect to get back to the evaluation by early November 1995.

  16. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  17. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  18. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  19. Open science versus commercialization: a modern research conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Harmon, Shawn He; Joly, Yann

    2012-02-27

    Efforts to improve research outcomes have resulted in genomic researchers being confronted with complex and seemingly contradictory instructions about how to perform their tasks. Over the past decade, there has been increasing pressure on university researchers to commercialize their work. Concurrently, they are encouraged to collaborate, share data and disseminate new knowledge quickly (that is, to adopt an open science model) in order to foster scientific progress, meet humanitarian goals, and to maximize the impact of their research. We present selected guidelines from three countries (Canada, United States, and United Kingdom) situated at the forefront of genomics to illustrate this potential policy conflict. Examining the innovation ecosystem and the messages conveyed by the different policies surveyed, we further investigate the inconsistencies between open science and commercialization policies. Commercialization and open science are not necessarily irreconcilable and could instead be envisioned as complementary elements of a more holistic innovation framework. Given the exploratory nature of our study, we wish to point out the need to gather additional evidence on the coexistence of open science and commercialization policies and on its impact, both positive and negative, on genomics academic research.

  20. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  1. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Atherton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer membranes is investigated, and how the surface of the materials mimics this mechanism of underwater respiration is demonstrated allowing direct extraction of oxygen from oxygenated water. The coverage of the surface with the plastron air layer was measured using confocal microscopy. A zinc/oxygen cell is used to consume oxygen within containers constructed from the different membranes, and the oxygen consumed by the cell is compared to the change in oxygen concentration as measured by an oxygen probe. By comparing the membranes to an air-tight reference sample, it was found that the membranes facilitated oxygen transfer from the water into the container, with the most successful membrane showing a 1.90:1 ratio between the cell oxygen consumption and the change in concentration within the container.

  2. Preventing commercial fishing deaths in Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, J M; Conway, G A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the United States Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 in reducing the high occupational death rate (200/100,000/year in 1991-2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen. METHODS: Comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established by our office during 1991 and 1992 for Alaska. Demographic data and data on risk factors and incidents were compiled and analysed for trend. RESULTS: During 1991-8, there was a s...

  3. Evaluation of Space Food for Commercial Astronauts

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlstrom, Britt Karin

    2016-01-01

    As commercial aerospace companies advance toward manned spaceflight, they must overcome many hurdles – not only technical, but also human. One of the greatest human challenges they face is food. Throughout the history of human spaceflight, astronauts have primarily eaten food developed by government space agencies. Now, with manned commercial flights on the horizon, astronauts will be provided with an entirely new diet – one comprised of commercially available, ready-to-eat food. Yet will thi...

  4. Accounting and Tax Issues Concerning Commercial Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Raluca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial discounts accounting presents a particular importance because, on the one hand, of their widely spread on a large scale in the commercial activity and on the second hand, due to the influence of the accounting and reporting method over the value added tax. The paper theoretically addresses commercial reductions and also their reflection in the accounting according with the latest regulations in force.

  5. Determinants of commercial bank profitability in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarín, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to identify the main determinants of profitability for commercial banks established in Mexico. A data base of 45 banks representing virtually the whole world of commercial banking in the period 2007-2013 was used. Dynamic models using Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond estimators with an error that follows an MA(1) process were employed along with static models having random effects and Hausman-Taylor estimator. Findings suggest that the profitability of commercial ba...

  6. The hasty British ban on commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1987-02-01

    While commercial surrogate parenting arrangements continue to flourish in the U.S., Britain has made it a criminal offense for third parties to benefit from surrogacy. Voluntary surrogacy, however, is still within the law. Banning commercial surrogacy while leaving voluntary surrogacy lawful seems neither logical nor fair. A more equitable solution would be to license stringently and control both commercial and nonprofit agencies to provide these services.

  7. REVIEW OF PCMs AND HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    for power applications. The various methods of heat transfer enhancement in latent heat storage systems were also reviewed systematically. The review showed that three commercially-available PCMs are suitable in the operating temperature range of parabolic trough plants. Many heat transfer enhancement methods ...

  8. Updating the OMERACT filter: implications for patient-reported outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirwan, John R.; Bartlett, Susan J.; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Boers, Maarten; Bosworth, Ailsa; Brooks, Peter M.; Choy, Ernest; de Wit, Maarten; Guillemin, Francis; Hewlett, Sarah; Kvien, Tore K.; Landewé, Robert B.; Leong, Amye L.; Lyddiatt, Anne; March, Lyn; May, James; Montie, Pamela Lesley; Nikaï, Enkeleida; Richards, Pam; Voshaar, Marieke M. J. H.; Smeets, Wilma; Strand, Vibeke; Tugwell, Peter; Gossec, Laure

    2014-01-01

    At a previous Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) meeting, participants reflected on the underlying methods of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument development. The participants requested proposals for more explicit instrument development protocols that would contribute to an enhanced

  9. Sensitivity-enhanced transmission Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    Transmission Raman sensitivity for a representative commercial pharmaceutical tablet was increased by a factor of 40 using optics that returned lost laser and Raman photons to the tablet surface. A new achromatic one-way mirror is introduced that uses the spatial coherence of laser light to nondestructively force laser photons through the reflective tablet coating. Transmission Raman mapping and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) mapping were developed and used to better understand the sensitivity-enhancement technology. Fundamental limitations of the sensitivity-enhancement approach are described and used to guide the design of the optics. The sensitivity-enhancement optics are compatible with commercial transmission Raman instruments.

  10. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  11. Combustion properties of wood impregnated with commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine some combustion properties of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood specimens impregnated with aqueous solutions of commercial fertilizers. Ammonium sulphate (AS) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were used as commercial fertilizers. Diammonium phosphate and ...

  12. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land or...

  13. 36 CFR 331.19 - Commercial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 331.19 Section 331.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.19 Commercial activities. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District...

  14. CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-01-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed. c2002 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Religion and religious symbols in commercial communications

    OpenAIRE

    Karasová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Marketing and commercial communications. Forms of commercial communications. Legal regulations and ethics in an advertising focused on religious elements. Analysis of selected advertising campaigns with religous themes. Qualitative marketing research.Recommendation for the future work with themes of a religion and religious symbols.

  16. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Warning, Alert, and Response Network (WARN) Act, Public Law 109-347, the Federal Communications Commission... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection requirements associated with the Commission's Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMS), Second Report...

  17. SOCIAL ORIENTATION MANAGEMENT OF COMMERCIAL BANKS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Shpankovskaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern theoretical approaches to definition of essence of social activity of enterprises are analyzed. The directions of development of social activity of commercial banks are determined. The expedience of formulation of mission of commercial banks and general requirements it must meet to is grounded.

  18. prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Conclusion: Road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists are a frequent occurrence in this part of the country. There is need for public awareness campaigns on road safety education and health consequences of psychoactive substance use among commercial motorcyclists. It is further recommended that law ...

  19. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ...-AD64 Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space goods or services. Anchor Tenancy means ``an arrangement in which the United States Government agrees to...

  20. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography. The...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are effective as of October 1, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=commer_refrig.pr_crit_commercial_refrigerators

  2. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... encourages cooperation with advertisers. However, the layout, artwork and text of the proposed advertisement... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and other... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13...

  3. Balancing commercial and public interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevick Mary

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A large number of randomized clinical trials with important health outcomes are completed each year. Those with favorable findings are typically reported and published rapidly, while the publication of those with unfavorable results is often delayed or given a positive "spin." This observation applies primarily to industry-sponsored trials. Our objectives are to discuss the responsibility of pharmaceutical firms to the public with respect to timely, complete, and unbiased information from all randomized clinical trials and to propose solutions for improvements. We believe that in addition to financial obligations to their shareholders, pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the public and to health care providers. However, private markets do not reward or compel optimal disclosure of drug safety or inferiority information on a voluntary basis. A problem which has not previously been identified relates to non-comparability of drugs. A case report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT illustrates how public interests may be violated due to failure to inform about drug inferiority. The current system for dissemination of relevant medical information could be improved if all involved parties collaborated fully. However, full disclosure of trial results is unlikely when research results are unfavorable to the firm. We conclude that expanded government regulations will be required for a satisfactory solution to the problem.

  4. Balancing commercial and public interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Curt D; Hall, Mark A; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2004-07-07

    Alarge number of randomized clinical trials with important health outcomes are completed each year. Those with favorable findings are typically reported and published rapidly, while the publication of those with unfavorable results is often delayed or given a positive "spin." This observation applies primarily to industry-sponsored trials. Our objectives are to discuss the responsibility of pharmaceutical firms to the public with respect to timely, complete, and unbiased information from all randomized clinical trials and to propose solutions for improvements. We believe that in addition to financial obligations to their shareholders, pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the public and to health care providers. However, private markets do not reward or compel optimal disclosure of drug safety or inferiority information on a voluntary basis.A problem which has not previously been identified relates to non-comparability of drugs. A case report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) illustrates how public interests may be violated due to failure to inform about drug inferiority. The current system for dissemination of relevant medical information could be improved if all involved parties collaborated fully. However, full disclosure of trial results is unlikely when research results are unfavorable to the firm. We conclude that expanded government regulations will be required for a satisfactory solution to the problem.

  5. Perspectives on the international commercial space infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Rajiv; Harr, Michael

    Commercial space activities are emerging as a potentially important segment of the economy in the Western World. However, the high entry costs and the high technological risks are significant impediments to private sector investment in major commercial space segments, such as transportation, microgravity materials processing, and remote sensing. Governments throughout the Western World have developed or are establishing commercial space policies and the infrastructure to minimize the financial, technical, and institutional risks to private industry in commercial space ventures. At the same time, the private sector is also trying to do its share to support the overall space commercialization efforts. These initiatives for the microgravity segment are described and compared for the United States, Western Europe, and Japan.

  6. Efficacy of a Virtual Reality Commercial Gaming Device in Upper Limb Recovery after Stroke: A Randomized, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Keng-He; Loh, Yong-Joo; Thia, Ernest; Chai, Audrey; Ng, Chwee-Yin; Soh, Yan-Ming; Toh, Shirlene; Tjan, Soon-Yin

    2016-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of a virtual reality commercial gaming device, Nintendo wii (NW) with conventional therapy and customary care in facilitating upper limb recovery after stroke. Randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. Tertiary rehabilitation center. 105 subjects admitted to in inpatient rehabilitation program within 6 weeks of stroke onset. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups of upper limb exercises: (1) NW gaming; (2) conventional therapy; (3) control. NW gaming and conventional therapy were provided fourtimes a week for 3 weeks. The main outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) of upper limb function. Secondary outcome measures included Action Research Arm Test, Functional Independence Measure, and Stroke Impact Scale. These measures were assessed at baseline, completion of intervention (week 3) and at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after completion of intervention. The primary outcome measure was the change in FMA scores at completion of intervention. The mean age was 57.5±9.8 years, and subjects were enrolled at a mean of 13.7±8.9 days after stroke. The mean baseline FMA score was 16.4±14.2. There was no difference in FMA scores between all 3 groups at the end of intervention, and at 4 and 8 weeks after completion of intervention. Similar findings were also noted for the secondary outcome measures. Twelve sessions of augmented upper limb exercises via NW gaming or conventional therapy over a 3-week period was not effective in enhancing upper limb motor recovery compared to control.

  7. The role of inspections in the commercial kangaroo industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keely Boom

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an assessment of the enforcement of the law governing commercial kangaroo killing, focusing particularly upon inspectorial practices. Australia’s kangaroo industry is the largest commercial kill of land-based wildlife in the world. Professional shooters hunt kangaroos in rural and remote locations at night. Due to the remote and decentralised nature of the killing, the industry presents unique challenges to law enforcement agencies that are responsible for the enforcement of animal welfare standards. This article focuses upon the role that inspections have in detecting offences within the commercial kangaroo industry. It provides a comparative analysis across the states, highlighting key differences in terms of inspectorial practices and the resulting outcomes. A common theme across all of the jurisdictions is that none of the agencies responsible for enforcement regularly conduct inspections of shooters, making it impossible to ensure that these parties are complying with the National Code of Practice for the Humane Shooting of Kangaroos and Wallabies. Recommendations for reform are offered, including stronger compliance policy, higher rates of inspection, increased resourcing and the introduction of alternative methods of inspection.

  8. 77 FR 26989 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... right to operate a CMV in a State or who is disqualified to operate a commercial motor vehicle... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 384 and 385 RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  9. 48 CFR 227.7202-3 - Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-3 Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation... computer software or commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202-3 Section 227.7202-3 Federal...

  10. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... conservation standards for commercial and industrial pumps published on February 1, 2013, is extended to May 2...

  11. Consumer Travel Behaviors and Transport Carbon Emissions: A Comparative Study of Commercial Centers in Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current literature highlights the role of commercial centers in cities in generating shopping trips and transport carbon emissions. However, the influence of the characteristics of commercial centers on consumer travel behavior and transport carbon emissions is not well understood. This study addresses this knowledge gap by examining shopping trips to eight commercial centers in Shenyang, China, and the CO2 emissions of these trips. We found that the locations and types of commercial centers strongly influence CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions per trip to commercial centers in the suburbs of Shenyang were on average 6.94% and 26.92% higher than those to commercial centers in the urban core and the inner city, respectively. CO2 emissions induced by wholesale centers were nearly three times higher than the lowest CO2 emissions of commercial centers in the inner city. These empirical results enhance our understanding of shopping-related transport carbon emissions and highlight the importance of optimizing urban space structure, in particular, the layout of commercial centers.

  12. Commercial Humates in Agriculture: Real Substance or Smoke and Mirrors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Lyons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil humic substances (HS are known to be beneficial for soils and plants, and most published studies of HS and humates, usually conducted under controlled conditions, show benefits. However, the value of commercial humate application in the field is less certain. This review attempts to answer the question: How effective are commercial humates in the field? Commercial humates, especially K humate, are used widely in agriculture today as “soil conditioners”. A wide range of benefits is claimed, including growth of beneficial soil microbes; deactivation of toxic metals; improvements in soil structure including water retention capacity, enhanced nutrient and micronutrient uptake and photosynthesis; resistance to abiotic stress, including salinity; and increased growth, yield and product quality. Despite this, there is a surprising lack of solid evidence for their on-farm effectiveness and findings are often inconsistent. The industry relies largely on anecdotal case studies to promote humates, which are often applied at unrealistically low levels. It is recommended that products should be well characterised, physically and chemically, and that careful field studies be conducted on foliar humate application and pelletised humates at realistic rates, targeted to the seedling rhizosphere, for a variety of crops in a range of soils, including low C sandy and saline soils.

  13. Exploring multifunctional potential of commercial ferrofluids by magnetic particle hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakellari, Despoina, E-mail: dsakel@physics.auth.gr; Mathioudaki, Stella; Kalpaxidou, Zoi; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Angelakeris, Makis

    2015-04-15

    In this work we examine a selection of commercially available magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as candidates for magnetic particle hyperthermia applications combining their primary modality with additional heat triggered actions. Contrary to lab-made magnetic nanoparticles, commercial ferrofluids may be rapidly pushed through the medical approval processes since their applicability has already been addressed successfully (i.e., formulation, reproducibility, toxicity and quality assurance) in conjunction with the strong companies′ drive in the fast delivery of the new therapy to the patient. Four samples are under study with variable hydrodynamic diameters from two companies (Micromod and Chemicell) consisting of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles. The tunable magnetic heating characteristics of the ferrofluids were correlated with particle, field and colloidal solution features. Our work revealed a size-dependent magnetic heating efficiency together with fast thermal response, features that are crucial for adequate thermal efficiency combined with minimum treatment duration and show the potential of such materials as multifunctional theranostic agents. - Highlights: • Commercial ferrofluids were examined as magnetic particle hyperthermia candidates. • Results show an enhanced heating efficiency. • Heating efficiency can be tuned by field amplitude and hydrodynamic size of NPs. • Coating material seems to be a key parameter for the optimum thermal response.

  14. 75 FR 18146 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... available in fiscal year (FY) 2010 for the Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP) throughout the United... enhance conservation outcomes on wetlands and adjacent lands. WREP targets and leverages resources to...

  15. Enhancements after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Jorge L; Abdelghany, Ahmed A; Fernández-Buenaga, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To provide a review of the recent literature on the indications and results of refractive and nonrefractive enhancements after cataract surgery. Laser in-situ keratomileusis proves to be the most accurate procedure to correct residual refractive error after cataract surgery. Other lens-based procedures can be used for the enhancement after cataract surgery but with lower predictability. Depending on the cause of the visual problem, these may be toric intraocular lens (IOL) rotation for excess residual cylinder and IOL exchange for unsatisfied patients with multifocal IOL or for IOL dislocation. Modern lens removal techniques and advanced preoperative diagnostic methods allow most cataract patients to be spectacle-independent for distance and sometimes also for near. Refractive considerations are integrated into modern cataract surgery and these days, patients expect an adequately predicted refractive outcome. Despite such advances in cataract surgery, unsatisfactory refractive and visual outcomes occasionally occur and in these cases, the enhancement after cataract surgery is required to achieve the best final visual outcome.

  16. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  17. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  18. Highly commercial farms in family farming in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Karwat-Woźniak, Bożena; Chmieliński, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    Highly commercial farms – overview. The distribution of highly commercial farms. Distribution of highly commercial farms according to social and demographic characteristics of farm managers. The distribution of highly commercial farms in size groups. Highly commercial farms in agricultural structures. Regional differences in the formation of the group of highly commercial Farms. Prospects of speeding up the development of highly commercial farms and strengthening their position in agriculture...

  19. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Steam Cookers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Steam Cookers that are effective as...

  1. OPERATIONAL RISK DISCLOSURE IN ROMANIAN COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERGHILIGIU Roxana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the actual operational risk disclosure in Romanian banks. Therefore we focus on the operational risk information that Romanian banks reveal and if they conform to the requirements of the National Bank of Romania. The study methodology consists in testing the annual financial reports for Romanian commercial banks. The analysis shows that the financial reports of Romanian banks are not in consonance with the requirements of the National Bank of Romania relating to operational risk revealer and also there are many discrepancies between Romanian banks relating to the format of the financial report, which presents the operational risk disclosures. Commercial banks in Romania have different approaches of showing the disclosures of operational risk. Accordingly, they do not disclose the same types of information. Our study advice Romanian commercial banks to increase prevailing operational risk disclosure proceedings. The contribution of this paper is to highlight the Romanian commercial approaches of the operational risk disclosures.

  2. Effects of Radiation on Commercial Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Luis; Becker, Heidi; Chavez, Rosa; Scheick, Leif

    2006-01-01

    The effects of radiation on various commercial power devices are presented. The devices have proved to be very fragile to single event effects, with some of the devices actually succumbing to catastrophic SEE with protons.

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Water Heaters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Water Heaters that are effective as...

  4. Northeast Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Typically, commercial fishing businesses incur three major types of costs: fixed or annual costs; which are incurred annually irrespective of whether any fishing...

  5. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...... in innovation and marketing making R&D and marketing complements in their investment decision. However, there is only week evidence for the hypothesis that commercialization of innovations also creates more value for the firms in the short run....

  6. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...... in innovation and marketing making R&D and marketing complements in their investment decision. However, there is only week evidence for the hypothesis that commercialization of innovations also creates more value for the firms in the short run.  ...

  7. A conservation program for Alaska's commercial fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It is the purpose of this report to show how the present programs of the Alaska Region of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries relate to problems of the various...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ice Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers that are...

  9. Future trends in commercial and military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, F. E.

    Commercial and military satellite communication systems are addressed, with a review of current applications and typical communication characteristics of the space and earth segments. Drivers for the development of future commercial systems include: the pervasion of digital techniques and services, growing orbit and frequency congestion, demand for more entertainment, and the large potential market for commercial 'roof-top' service. For military systems, survivability, improved flexibility, and the need for service to small mobile terminals are the principal factors involved. Technical trends include the use of higher frequency bands, multibeam antennas and a significant increase in the application of onboard processing. Military systems will employ a variety of techniques to counter both physical and electronic threats. The use of redundant transmission paths is a particularly effective approach. Successful implementation requires transmission standards to achieve the required interoperability among the pertinent networks. For both the military and commercial sectors, the trend toward larger numbers of terminals and more complex spacecraft is still persisting.

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  11. Missouri commercial vehicle operations : state business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-15

    This business plan is intended to assist this state in improving its commercial vehicle operation regulation, guide the deployment and installation of intelligent transportation systems and to implement these systems in an efficient and cost effectiv...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  13. Notes on Commercialization of Biotechnology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy Jakobsen, Palle

    This book introduces aspects of commercialization of biomedical & biotech research including pharmaceutical drug and medical device development, innovation concepts, patent protection & commercialisation of research by securing investments in new companies and by licensing of the commersialisatio...

  14. Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmoyer, Allan

    2006-01-01

    U.S. space policy directs pursuit of commercial opportunities for providing transportation and other services low Earth orbit and beyond. COTS Project established to implement policy. COTS strategy: Phase 1) Assist industry with system development/demonstrations (COTS Demos); Phase 2) Procure commercial services for ISS logistics support. COTS Demonstrations competition completed in 10 months. Two industry partners selected for funded Space Act Agreements: 1) SpaceX & Rocketplane-Kistler; and 2) Unfunded Space Act Agreements in work with other competitors. COTS budget of $500 M thru 2010, with pay for performance milestone approach. Cargo flight demonstrations planned for 2008 and 2009: Crew flight demonstration options for 2011-2012. Commercial cargo transportation services potentially available as early as 2009-2010. Successful COTS partners may open new space markets and provide reliable, cost effective cargo and crew transportation services, a new era for commercial space.

  15. Commercial Fisheries Database Biological Sample (CFDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Age and length frequency data for finfish and invertebrate species collected during commercial fishing vessels. Samples are collected by fisheries reporting...

  16. Photonic Band Gap Devices for Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-12

    involved in projects for PBG devices, biosensors , military imaging systems, and commercial holography. At the University of Delaware, Dr. Prather’s...AFOSR Contract # FA9550-04-C-0062 FINAL REPORT Photonic Bandgap Devices for Commercial Applications Optical Signal Bea 2 S litte \\ 111 111 With Power... biosensors 6.1 Company EM Photonics, Inc. is a small, high technology company that specializes in applications of micro and nano photonics technologies

  17. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Daggett, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  18. Aerogel commercialization pilot project. Final program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-13

    Aerogels are extremely light weight, high surface area, very insulative materials that offer many potential improvements to commercial products. Aerogels have been the subject of extensive research at Department of Energy Laboratories and have been considered one of the technology most ready for commercialization. However, commercialization of the technology had been difficult for the National Laboratories since end users were not interested in the high temperature and high pressure chemical processes involved in manufacturing the raw material. Whereas, Aerojet as a supplier of rocket fuels, specialty chemicals and materials had the manufacturing facilities and experience to commercially produce aerogel-type products. Hence the TRP provided a link between the technology source (National Laboratories), the manufacturing (Aerojet) and the potential end users (other TRP partners). The program successfully produced approximately 500 ft{sup 2} of organic aerogel but failed to make significant quantities of silica aerogel. It is significant that this production represents both the largest volume and biggest pieces of organic aerogel ever produced. Aerogels, available from this program, when tested in several prototype commercial products were expected to improve the products performance, but higher than expected projected production costs for large scale manufacture of aerogels has limited continued commercial interest from these partners. Aerogels do, however, offer potential as a specialty material for some high value technology and defense products.

  19. Marketing Message Components in Commercial Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Romanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the marketing potential of commercial names involved in the clientoriented communication and, more precisely, on the mechanisms of semantic derivation proper to the formation of commercial names. The author argues that the semantic shifts in the meaning of the original word result from its use as a part of a commercial message, i.e. for the transmission of specific marketing information. One of the current trends in contemporary Russian commercial naming is related to the actualization of the marketing content components (MCCs ‘big’ and ‘small’ which communicate complementary information about the named object. The marketing content component ‘big’ communicates the idea of respectability, economic might, wide choice of goods. This idea is most commonly transmitted by the foreign language prefixes mega-, super-, hyper-, grand-, maxi-, macro-, big-. In commercial naming their meanings overlap, making them stereotypic means of advertising. The marketing content component ‘small’ often appears in the names of cosy cafés and restaurants, cheap shops and child care institutions. This marketing content component can be communicated by foreign language prefixes, e.g. mini-, micro-, nano-, but it is most often actualized by Russian diminutive suffixes. The analised MCCs are also transmitted by means of direct, metaphoric, metonymic and symbolic names in which it is also possible to distinguish stereotypic patterns of commercial naming.

  20. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships.

  1. Womb Outsourcing: Commercial Surrogacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankford, David M; Bennington, Linda K; Ryan, Jane Greene

    2015-01-01

    Infertility affects more than 7 million American couples. As traditional treatments fail and the costs of hiring a surrogate increase in the United States, transnational commercial surrogacy becomes a feasible alternative for many couples. Infertile couples may opt for this choice after reading enticing Internet advertisements of global medical tourism offering "special deals" on commercial surrogacy. This is particularly true in India where couples from the United States can purchase transnational surrogacy for less than one-half or even one-third of the costs in the United States, including the cost of travel. The majority of surrogate mothers in India come from impoverished, poorly educated rural areas of India. Commercial surrogacy offers the lure of earning the equivalent of 5 years of family income. This multidisciplinary review of the literature suggests that the issue of commercial surrogacy is complex and influenced by a number of factors including expensive infertility costs, ease of global travel, and the financial vulnerability of Indian commercial surrogate mothers and their families. Questions are being raised about decision making by the surrogate mother particularly as influenced by gender inequities, power differentials, and inadequate legal protection for the surrogate mother. More research is needed to understand commercial surrogacy, especially research inclusive of the viewpoints of the Indian mothers and their families involved in these transactions.

  2. Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Industrial Technologies Program

    2011-01-05

    This brochure describes the 31 R&D projects that AMO supports to accelerate the commercial manufacture and use of nanomaterials for enhanced energy efficiency. These cost-shared projects seek to exploit the unique properties of nanomaterials to improve the functionality of industrial processes and products.

  3. The Role of News Teasers in Processing TV News and Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Glen T.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Explores the role of news teasers on memory and attention for commercials in evening newscasts. Finds that they enhance moderately the primacy-recency pattern found in visual and verbal memory scores. Finds that news teasers appear to have an effect on processing strategies employed by viewers. (SR)

  4. Tip enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field.·Near-field Raman scattering·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Nano-photonics·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits·Single molecule detection

  5. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-04-24

    In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P TV commercials.

  6. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-01-17

    During the Energy Commercialization Center’s (ECC) three years in operation, the only thing constant was change. The world of commercialization and cleantech evolved significantly during the time the ECC was formed and operating, including: the availability of cleantech funding lessoned, the growth of incubators and accelerators skyrocketed, the State of Utah created an office dedicated to energy development, the University of Utah was both praised and criticized for its success in commercialization, and the Federal government temporarily shut down. During the three-year grant there were three principle investigators on the grant, as well as three directors for the University’s Commercialization Office. Change can be hard for an organization,but as we instruct the companies we support, “Fail fast and fail often, because it is the fastest path to success.” Although there were some unanticipated challenges along the way, the local ecosystem is stronger because of the ECC’s efforts. Perhaps the greatest lesson learned was the importance of aligned incentives between key stakeholders in the commercialization process and the need for resources at the company and individual entrepreneur levels. The universities have systems and incentives to commercialize technologies, but creating value and companies generally rest with the individuals and entrepreneurs. Unfortunately the ECC was unable to create a viable mechanism to transfer the commercialization process that successfully aligned incentives and achieve a more effective ecosystem within the Rocky Mountain West. However, the ECC was successful in adding value to the individual ecosystems, and connecting national resources to regional and local needs. Regarding the ECC’s effectiveness in developing a cleantech commercialization ecosystem, initial inroads and relationships were established with key stakeholders. However, incentives, perceived or real competition, differences in commercialization processes, and

  7. Freshwater Commercial Bycatch: an Understated Conservation Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raby, Graham D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-04-01

    Commercial fisheries bycatch in marine systems has been regarded as a global conservation concern by environmental groups, scientists, government, and the public for decades. Fortunately, some headway has been made to mitigate the negative impacts of bycatch in marine environments. In a survey of the literature, we found that despite freshwater commercial fisheries yields comprising 11% of the global commercial catch, bycatch research focusing on freshwater commercial fisheries represented only {approx}3% of the total bycatch literature. This paucity of research is particularly alarming given that freshwater animals and habitats are some of the world's most imperiled. The limited inland bycatch literature that does exist includes examples of population declines attributed to commercial bycatch (e.g., freshwater dolphins in the Yangtze River in China) and illustrates that in some systems bycatch can be substantial (e.g., lake trout bycatch in the Laurentian Great Lakes). Encouraging results from the marine realm can serve as models for bycatch research in freshwater, and lead to measurable gains in conservation of freshwater ecosystems. We summarize existing work on inland bycatch in an effort to draw attention to this understated and understudied conservation problem.

  8. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  9. Commercial launch systems: A risky investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John

    1996-03-01

    A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

  10. Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2-4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40-80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find determinates

  11. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  12. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  13. Financial analysis of commercial salmon fisheries: marine & inland fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    ... in commercial and recreational fisheries. To estimate the financial inputs required for the BCIOM analysis, Counterpoint designed and deployed a financial analysis model of the commercial salmon fishery in which the commercial fishery...

  14. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY IRS-P6-AWIFS (Federally Downloadable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  15. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY IRS-P6-AWIFS (Federally Viewable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  16. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a contract-supported organization focused on technology research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C), is entering its second year of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to facilitate the development, demonstration, and commercialization of innovative environmental management (EM) technologies in support of the activities of DOE`s Office of Environmental Science and Technology (EM-50) under DOE`s EM Program. This paper reviews the concept and approach of the program under the METC-EERC EM Cooperative Agreement and profiles the role the program is playing in the commercialization of five EM technologies.

  17. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  18. On the Ambiguity of Commercial Open Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available . Open source and commercial applications used to be two separate worlds. The former was the work of amateurs who had little interest in making a profit, while the latter was only profit oriented and was produced by big companies. Nowadays open source is a threat and an opportunity to serious businesses of all kinds, generating good profits while delivering low costs products to customers. The competition between commercial and open source software has impacted the industry and the society as a whole. But in the last years, the markets for commercial and open source software are converging rapidly and it is interesting to resume and discuss the implications of this new paradigm, taking into account arguments pro and against it.

  19. Challenges of Sustainable and Commercial Aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a number of serious problems of which population rise, climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity and food security are among the most important. Aquaponics, as a closed loop system consisting of hydroponics and aquaculture elements, could contribute to addressing these problems. However, there is a lack of quantitative research to support the development of economically feasible aquaponics systems. Although many studies have addressed some scientific aspects, there has been limited focus on commercial implementation. In this review paper, opportunities that have the potential to fill the gap between research and implementation of commercial aquaponic systems have been identified. The analysis shows that aquaponics is capable of being an important driver for the development of integrated food production systems. Arid regions suffering from water stress will particularly benefit from this technology being operated in a commercial environment.

  20. Commercializing Emerging Renewable Energy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Lehtovaara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A broad scientific consensus exists that the global climate is changing. The Earth’s surface temperature could rise significantly over the next few decades, leading to us witnessing an entirely new and unknown planet. Improved energy efficiency, decreasing use of fossil fuels and wide diffusion of various renewable energy sources are among the focal measures to limit global warming to a sustainable level. The objective of this study is to analyse how renewable energy, such as wind power and bioenergy, could be efficiently commercialized. The evaluation is based on a case study and expert analyses exploiting lateral and parallel thinking methods, and group decision support systems tools. The results reveal that some of the generated ideas are ready for implementation to commercialize renewable energy, whereas others still require technical and commercial development and improvements before maturity.

  1. Setting up a clinical psychology service for commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Clare; Petrak, Jenny

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to provide what we believe to be the first report of the establishment of a clinical psychology service to provide accessible psychological assessment, intervention and crisis support, integrated within an existing East London sexual health clinical and outreach service for commercial sex workers (CSWs). Data are presented on referral patterns, demographics, presenting issues to clinical psychology, interventions and outcomes for the first year of the service. Women presented with a range of psychosocial needs. Psychological interventions included direct therapy, signposting to other services and consultation with staff. We concluded that this flexible model of service provision improves access to mental health services within the context of a specialist sexual health and outreach service for CSWs. The provision of a named, female clinical psychologist who provides both the clinical sessions and attends outreach has been an important factor in developing trust and familiarity, leading to better uptake of the clinical psychology service.

  2. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is pleased to report the results of NASA contract NASW-4367, 'Operation of a Technology Applications Team'. Through a period of significant change within NASA, the RTI Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. RTI's ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed an implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs; (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology; and (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  3. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Zaraswati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health.  It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.  The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop.  The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development.      Keywords:  commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance

  4. Evaluation of Space Food for Commercial Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Britt Karin

    As commercial aerospace companies advance toward manned spaceflight, they must overcome many hurdles - not only technical, but also human. One of the greatest human challenges they face is food. Throughout the history of human spaceflight, astronauts have primarily eaten food developed by government space agencies. Now, with manned commercial flights on the horizon, astronauts will be provided with an entirely new diet - one comprised of commercially available, ready-to-eat food. Yet will this diet keep astronauts nourished, satisfied with their diet, and both psychologically and physically healthy? The purpose of this parallel crossover design study was to evaluate (a) nutrient intake, (b) food satisfaction, (c) psychological health, and (d) physical health in commercial aerospace employees (N = 7) as they ate a diet of commercial, ready-to-eat food for four days, as compared to eating as normal for four days. Findings from this study showed that the ready-to-eat diet did not lead to any significant changes in caloric intake, psychological health, or physical health, aside from weight loss. It is not clear whether this weight loss was due to the loss of body fat, muscle, or water. When eating the ready-to-eat food, participants reported being slightly less satisfied with the variety, reported lower cravings for sweets, and reported the food was slightly less hedonically rewarding. In post-study interviews, participants reported they wanted to see more meats, fruits, vegetables, and desserts added to the ready-to-eat diet, so as to provide more meal-like structure. Overall, these findings show the diet could be used in commercial spaceflight after making simple changes. The diet could also be used by individuals in remote areas on Earth and to provide food assistance to individuals in disaster or emergency situations. Due to the increasing popularity of ready-to-eat food around the world, these findings also provide knowledge about the potential consequences of

  5. Roadmap for the Future of Commercial Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Building energy codes have significantly increased building efficiency over the last 38 years, since the first national energy code was published in 1975. The most commonly used path in energy codes, the prescriptive path, appears to be reaching a point of diminishing returns. The current focus on prescriptive codes has limitations including significant variation in actual energy performance depending on which prescriptive options are chosen, a lack of flexibility for designers and developers, the inability to handle optimization that is specific to building type and use, the inability to account for project-specific energy costs, and the lack of follow-through or accountability after a certificate of occupancy is granted. It is likely that an approach that considers the building as an integrated system will be necessary to achieve the next real gains in building efficiency. This report provides a high-level review of different formats for commercial building energy codes, including prescriptive, prescriptive packages, capacity constrained, outcome based, and predictive performance approaches. This report also explores a next generation commercial energy code approach that places a greater emphasis on performance-based criteria.

  6. Evaluation of an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, E E J G; van Baak, M A

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is an often studied subject. Although reductions in weight and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors are important aims of obesity treatment, improvements in quality of life and eating behaviour are also relevant outcomes. In this practice-based study, we evaluated an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme and report on treatment results for weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, eating behaviour and quality of life. From a local commercial obesity treatment centre, 426 subjects (65% female; 45.4 ± 12.2 years; body mass index 40.0 ± 6.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Measurements of body weight, height, body composition, waist circumference and blood pressure were scheduled at baseline and every 3 months, whereas fasting blood collections were scheduled at baseline and every 6 months. At the same time points, participants were asked to fill in questionnaires on dietary intake, eating behaviour and quality of life. After 18 months of treatment programme, average weight change [mean (95% confidence interval)] was -10.9 kg (-14.8 to -7.0; P treatment period. All collected data in this study provide evidence that a multidisciplinary treatment programme based on lifestyle modification results in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, quality of life and eating behaviour. © 2015 World Obesity.

  7. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial...

  8. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  9. Pilot production & commercialization of LAPPD ™

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minot, Michael J.; Bennis, Daniel C.; Bond, Justin L.; Craven, Christopher A.; O׳Mahony, Aileen; Renaud, Joseph M.; Stochaj, Michael E.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.; Demarteau, Marcellinus W.; Wagner, Robert G.; McPhate, Jason B.; Helmut Siegmund, Oswald; Elagin, Andrey; Frisch, Henry J.; Northrop, Richard; Wetstein, Matthew J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a progress update on plans to establish pilot production and commercialization of Large Area (400 cm2) Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD™). Steps being taken to commercialize this MCP and LAPPD™ technology and begin tile pilot production are presented including (1) the manufacture of 203 mm×203 mm borosilicate glass capillary arrays (GCAs), (2) optimization of MCP performance and creation of an ALD coating facility to manufacture MCPs and (3) design, construction and commissioning of UHV tile integration and sealing facility to produce LAPPDs. Taken together these plans provide a “pathway toward commercialization”.

  10. Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates, Biomedical Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. A number of Liquids Mixing Apparatus (LMA) syringes like this one will be used in the experiments. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  11. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  12. Commercial Expert-System-Building Software Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Report evaluates commercially-available expert-system-building tools in terms of structures, representations of knowledge, inference mechanisms, interfaces with developers and end users, and capabilities of performing such functions as diagnosis and design. Software tools commercialized derivatives of artificial-intelligence systems developed by researchers at universities and research organizations. Reducing time to develop expert system by order of magnitude compared to that required with such traditional artificial development languages as LISP. Table lists 20 such tools, rating attributes as strong, fair, programmable by user, or having no capability in various criteria.

  13. Exploring design principles for technology-enhanced workplace learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esther van der Stappen; Dr. Ilya Zitter

    2016-01-01

    From the article: "Abstract, technology-enhanced learning can be used to replicate existing teaching practices, supplement existing teaching or transform teaching and/or learning process and outcomes. Enhancing workplace learning, which is integrated into higher professional education, with

  14. From competition to symbiosis : commercial context, commercial law, and their Importance for legal education

    OpenAIRE

    Perales Viscasillas, María del Pilar; Ramos Muñoz, David

    2011-01-01

    The present work is written under the Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology (Spain) (DER2008-02244/JURI): Uniform International Commercial Law and its impact on European Contract Law: UNIDROIT Principles 2004 and International Commercial Arbitration under UNCITRAL. Head of the team: Prof. Pilar Perales Viscasillas.

  15. Newly formulated, protein quality-enhanced, extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, corn-, soya-, sugar- and oil-containing fortified-blended foods lead to adequate vitamin A and iron outcomes and improved growth compared with non-extruded CSB+ in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimont, Nicole M; Fiorentino, Nicole M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Joseph, Michael V; Guo, Qingbin; Alavi, Sajid; Lindshield, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+). A second objective was to compare protein efficiency of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soya protein isolate (SPI) containing FBF to determine whether WPC inclusion improved outcomes. Eight groups of growing rats (n 10) consumed two white and one red sorghum-cowpea (WSC1 + WPC, WSC2 + WPC, RSC + WPC), white sorghum-soya (WSS + WPC) and corn-soya (CSB14 + WPC) extruded WPC-containing FBF, an extruded white sorghum-cowpea with SPI (WSC1 + SPI), non-extruded CSB+, and American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G, a weanling rat diet, for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in protein efficiency, Fe or vitamin A outcomes between WPC FBF groups. The CSB+ group consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and length, compared with all other groups. Compared with WSC1 + WPC, the WSC1 + SPI FBF group had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and weight gain. These results suggest that a variety of commodities can be used in the formulation of FBF, and that newly formulated extruded FBF are of better nutritional quality than non-extruded CSB+.

  16. Outcome selection and measurement in pragmatic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsing, Paco M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Collier, Sue; Eckert, Laurent; van Smeden, Maarten; Ciaglia, Antonio; Nachbaur, Gaelle; Trelle, Sven; Taylor, Aliki J; Egger, Matthias; Goetz, Iris

    2017-05-11

    Results from pragmatic trials should reflect the comparative treatment effects encountered in patients in real-life clinical practice to guide treatment decisions. Therefore, pragmatic trials should focus on outcomes that are relevant to patients, clinical practice, and treatment choices. This sixth article in the series (see box) discusses different types of outcomes and their suitability for pragmatic trials, design choices for measuring these outcomes, and their implications and challenges. Measuring outcomes in pragmatic trials should not interfere with real-world clinical practice to ensure generalizability of trial results, and routinely collected outcomes should be prioritized. Typical outcomes include mortality, morbidity, functional status, well-being, and resource use. Surrogate endpoints are typically avoided as primary outcome. It is important to measure outcomes over a relevant time horizon and obtain valid and precise results. As pragmatic trials are often open label, a less subjective outcome can reduce bias. Methods that decrease bias or enhance precision of the results, such as standardization and blinding of outcome assessment, should be considered when a high risk of bias or high variability is expected. The selection of outcomes in pragmatic trials should be relevant for decision making and feasible in terms of executing the trial in the context of interest. Therefore, this should be discussed with all stakeholders as early as feasible to ensure the relevance of study results for decision making in clinical practice and the ability to perform the study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Valuation of Urban Commercial Properties in Nigeria for Secured Lending: Issues and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namnso Bassey Udoekanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation for secured lending is required when an interest in real property is used as security for a loan. The outcome of such valuation will help the lending institution to achieve commercial prudence in lending as well as avoid taking undue risk. This paper examines the issues and developments in the valuation of urban commercial properties in Nigeria for secured lending purposes. It argues that due to the volatile nature of the Nigerian economy, coupled with the linkage between the economy and commercial property markets, the maximum amount of loan to be granted by lenders in the country using interest in commercial property as collateral should be based on the Mortgage Lending Value (MLV and not the Market Value (MV of the property, although the market value should also be reported in the valuation. A case study is used to demonstrate the valuation. It further contends that since the inputs for determining the MLV of a commercial property must be derived from long-term trends in the property and financial markets, it is more stable than MV when used to determine the maximum amount of mortgage loan to be granted by a lender. It concludes that the stability of the MLV makes it more reliable than the MV in achieving commercial prudence in mortgage lending as it fits into the long-term nature of mortgage loan repayment.

  18. A Technology Plan for Enabling Commercial Space Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry M.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Space Transportation Program is a customer driven, focused technology program that supports the NASA Strategic Plan and considers future commercial space business projections. The initial cycle of the Advanced Space Transportation Program implementation planning was conducted from December 1995 through February 1996 and represented increased NASA emphasis on broad base technology development with the goal of dramatic reductions in the cost of space transportation. The second planning cycle, conducted in January and February 1997, updated the program implementation plan based on changes in the external environment, increased maturity of advanced concept studies, and current technology assessments. The program has taken a business-like approach to technology development with a balanced portfolio of near, medium, and long-term strategic targets. Strategic targets are influenced by Earth science, space science, and exploration objectives as well as commercial space markets. Commercial space markets include those that would be enhanced by lower cost transportation as well as potential markets resulting in major increases in space business induced by reductions in transportation cost. The program plan addresses earth-to-orbit space launch, earth orbit operations and deep space systems. It also addresses all critical transportation system elements; including structures, thermal protection systems, propulsion, avionics, and operations. As these technologies are matured, integrated technology flight experiments such as the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator programs support near-term (one to five years) development or operational decisions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program and the flight demonstrator programs combine business planning, ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrations that will permit industry and NASA to commit to revolutionary new space transportation systems

  19. Effects of Economic Liberalization on the Flow of Commercial Banks Credit to Farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison-Oguru, EA.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on assessment of the effect of government's economic liberalization policy on the flow of commercial banks credit to farmers in Rivers State. The empirical analyses are based on information obtained from a sample of 25 out of the over 30 commercial banks operating in the State. Results from the analyses indicate that despite the deregulation of interest rates associated with economic liberalization, commercial banks in the State are unable to meet one-half of the loan requests of farmers. The flow of loanable funds can therefore not be said to have been enhanced by interest rates deregulation. It is argued that simply re-moving restrictions on interest rates is not a sufficient condition for enhanced flow of commercial bank credit to farmers in the State. Such a policy must be complemented with programmes of sharing initial risks and administrative costs between government and the private sector.

  20. Commercialization potential aspects of microalgae for biofuel production: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani S. Gendy

    2013-06-01

    This article discusses the importance of algae-based biofuels together with the different opinions regarding its future. Advantages and disadvantages of these types of biofuels are presented. Algal growth drives around the world with special emphasis to Egypt are outlined. The article includes a brief description of the concept of algal biorefineries. It also declares the five key strategies to help producers to reduce costs and accelerate the commercialization of algal biodiesel. The internal strengths and weaknesses, and external opportunities, and threats are manifested through the SWOT analysis for micro-algae. Strategies for enhancing algae based-fuels are outlined. New process innovations and the role of genetic engineering in meeting these strategies are briefly discussed. To improve the economics of algal biofuels the concept of employing algae for wastewater treatment is presented.

  1. The Development of Lightweight Commercial Vehicle Wheels Using Microalloying Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongzhou; Zhang, Lilong; Wang, Jiegong; Xuan, Zhaozhi; Liu, Xiandong; Guo, Aimin; Wang, Wenjun; Lu, Guimin

    Lightweight wheels can reduce weight about 100kg for commercial vehicles, and it can save energy and reduce emission, what's more, it can enhance the profits for logistics companies. The development of lightweight commercial vehicle wheels is achieved by the development of new steel for rim, the process optimization of flash butt welding, and structure optimization by finite element methods. Niobium micro-alloying technology can improve hole expansion rate, weldability and fatigue performance of wheel steel, and based on Niobium micro-alloying technology, a special wheel steel has been studied whose microstructure are Ferrite and Bainite, with high formability and high fatigue performance, and stable mechanical properties. The content of Nb in this new steel is 0.025% and the hole expansion rate is ≥ 100%. At the same time, welding parameters including electric upsetting time, upset allowance, upsetting pressure and flash allowance are optimized, and by CAE analysis, an optimized structure has been attained. As a results, the weight of 22.5in×8.25in wheel is up to 31.5kg, which is most lightweight comparing the same size wheels. And its functions including bending fatigue performance and radial fatigue performance meet the application requirements of truck makers and logistics companies.

  2. Short Term Culture of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Commercial Osteoconductive Carriers Provides Unique Insights into Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Murphy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For spinal fusions and the treatment of non-union fractures, biological substrates, scaffolds, or carriers often are applied as a graft to support regeneration of bone. The selection of an appropriate material critically influences cellular function and, ultimately, patient outcomes. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are regarded as a critical component of bone healing. However, the interactions of BMSCs and commercial bone matrices are poorly reported. BMSCs were cultured with several commercially available bone substrates (allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM, collagen, and various forms of calcium phosphates for 48 h to understand their response to graft materials during surgical preparation and the first days following implantation (cell retention, gene expression, pH. At 30 and 60 min, bone chips and inorganic substrates supported significantly more cell retention than other materials, while collagen-containing materials became soluble and lost their structure. At 48 h, cells bound to β-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite (βTCP-HA and porous hydroxyapatite (HA granules exhibited osteogenic gene expression statistically similar to bone chips. Through 24 h, the DBM strip and βTCP-collagen became mildly acidic (pH 7.1–7.3, while the DBM poloxamer-putties demonstrated acidity (pH 10. The dissolution of DBM and collagen led to a loss of cells, while excessive pH changes potentially diminish cell viability and metabolism. Extracts from DBM-poloxamers induced osteogenic gene expression at 48 h. This study highlights the role that biochemical and structural properties of biomaterials play in cellular function, potentially enhancing or diminishing the efficacy of the overall therapy.

  3. Characteristics of potential successful emerging commercial cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of potential successful emerging commercial cotton farmers. ... This paper describes a typology of sample households in terms of their farming ... The realistic description of the various socio-economic groupings can facilitate the design of the support system based on the needs and aspiration of such groups.

  4. Biochemical, Physical And Performance Evaluations Of Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 4 commercial rations and a control (CT) were fed to 5 replicated groups of the experimental birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD) experiment. ... However, there were significant (P<0.05) differences between the analyzed and declared values of % CF in GF, TF, VF in broiler starters and TF and VF in ...

  5. THE ROLE OF ETHIOPIAN COURTS IN COMMERCIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    globalisation. International and national rules governing various aspects of commercial arbitration have contributed to the effectiveness of arbitration as an .... contract by interfering in the arbitration process and thus making the latter ..... 1998 Proclamation on Cooperative Societies requires the compulsory submission of ...

  6. Laboratory evaluation of commercial interferon preparations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiviral, antiproliferative and natural killer-cell. (NKC) stimulatory activities of four commercial the- rapeutic interferon preparations were assayed in our laboratory. The antiviral and antiproliferative activities of each preparation were relatively similar, but an unexpectedly high NKC stimulatory activity was foupd in one ...

  7. Evaluation of commercially available exterior digital VMDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, C.E.; Hoover, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses the testing and evaluation of thirteen commercially available exterior digital video motion detection (VMD) systems. The systems were evaluated for use in a specific outdoor application. The report focuses primarily on the testing parameters, each system`s advertised features, and the nuisance alarm and detection test results.

  8. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  9. The keystroking ability of commercial pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    A sample of airline and commercial pilots was tested on a standard computer keyboard (QWERTY). They were found to have a useful level of proficiency in operation of this keyboard. Implications for the design of alphabetic keyboards for airborne use are discussed.

  10. Thermodynamic effects of commercially available ice boots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The limb of the equine athlete is subjected to all types of various stressors during exercise. To ensure the health of the horse and to prevent the possibility of lameness, it has been a common practice to apply cold therapy to the distal limb of the horse pre- and post-exercise. Commercially available boots are widely available ...

  11. The weight of economic and commercial diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); M. Yakop (Mina)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the impact of economic and commercial diplomacy on the geography of international trade. We replicate a recent study by Rose (2007) extending the analysis to include the year 2006 and 63 importing and exporting countries. Using a gravity model we are able to

  12. Preventing commercial fishing deaths in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, J M; Conway, G A

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the United States Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 in reducing the high occupational death rate (200/100,000/year in 1991-2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen. Comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established by our office during 1991 and 1992 for Alaska. Demographic data and data on risk factors and incidents were compiled and analysed for trend. During 1991-8, there was a significant (p deaths in Alaska related to commercial fishing. Although drownings from fishermen falling overboard and events related to crab fishing vessels (often conducted far offshore and in winter) have continued to occur, marked progress (significant downward trend, p fishing industry have been successful. However, these events continue to occur, and place fishermen and rescue personnel at substantial risk. Additional strategies must be identified to reduce the frequency of vessels capsizing and sinking, to enable parallel improvements in the mortality among crab fishermen, and to prevent fishermen falling overboard and drownings associated with them.

  13. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunt, J.J.; Wulms, P.H.; Kerkhoffs, G.M.; Dankelman, J.; Van Dijk, C.N.; Tuijthof, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on

  14. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunt, J. J.; Wulms, P. H.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Dankelman, J.; van Dijk, C. N.; Tuijthof, G. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on these

  15. Instructional Simulation of a Commercial Banking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Donald D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an instructional simulation of a commercial banking system. Identifies the teaching of portfolio theory, market robustness, and the subtleties of institutional constraints and decision making under uncertainty as the project's goals. Discusses the results of applying the simulation in an environment of local and national markets and a…

  16. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... from the Mars Center for Cocoa Science (MCCS) germplasm collection. Evaluation of a pilot scale production of plantlets from nine commercial cacao clones by somatic embryogenesis. Primary somatic embryogenesis procedures. Immature cacao flowers (approximately 900 in total), 6-8 mm in length, from ...

  17. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  18. Exploiting The New Commercial Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    transportation industry to increase industry robustness and cost effectiveness, foster innovation-driven entrepreneurship and international...earlier disagreement. Musk called the certification, “an important step toward bringing competition to National Security Space launch” and, “we...the US Government has not completely embraced true commercial competition. However, now it is important to look forward and determine how the US

  19. Evaluation of commercially available lighting design software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, D.G.

    1990-09-01

    This report addresses the need for commercially available lighting design computer programs and evaluates several of these programs. Sandia National Laboratories uses these programs to provide lighting designs for exterior closed-circuit television camera intrusion detection assessment for high-security perimeters.

  20. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  1. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    based farmers are family size, land size, age, livestock holding and dependency ratio. The study recommends that policy ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of East Shewa and West Arsi .... the variables into its natural logarithm form.The model estimation resultwas ...

  2. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  3. Use of NGS in Commercial Broiler Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development and evolution of next generation sequencing technologies, these powerful tools can be applied to a variety of aspect of commercial broiler production, especially in respect to food safety issues. NGS technologies allow for a deeper understanding of the complex microbiota inhere...

  4. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  5. Capacity Building Counselling Strategies For Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The writers therefore, contend that capacity building strategies will speedily facilitate positive changes in the operations of commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria thereby promoting their behavioural currency and skill advancement. Capacity building intervention can be used to help them to take rational and informed decisions ...

  6. Thermodynamic effects of commercially available ice boots

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    Submitted: 02/08/2017. Accepted: 06/01/2018. Published: 18/01/2018. Thermodynamic effects of commercially available ice boots. Madison N. Quintanar*, Tess Pu'uwaionalani Millar and Matthew A. Burd. Department of Animal Science, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401, USA ...

  7. Directing sustainable investments in commercial real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Braganca, L.; Pinheiro, M.; Jalali, S.; Mateus, R.; Amoeda, R.; Correia Guedes, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the facility costs, energy use and water consumption of commercial real estate. A framework consisting of four components is established in which the performances on these three aspects are analysed. By using the first, second and third part of the framework suggestions for

  8. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial clones of Theobroma cacao L. ... Overall, flower petals performed better than staminodes, and our best performing genotype yielded an average of 7-10 embryos produced in brown callus explants with embryogenic response during primary somatic ...

  9. Commercial and Industrial Wiring. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. Included in the guide are 15 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications…

  10. Perception of Commercialization of Agricultural Extension Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public extension service delivery system has been unable to satisfactorily respond to the challenges of agricultural development, poverty eradication and rural transformation in Nigeria, resulting in continued calls for alternative systems, including commercialization of extension service. Because of their strategically ...

  11. THE ROLE OF ETHIOPIAN COURTS IN COMMERCIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    parties to a dispute resort to a third party (or parties) whose determination over the dispute is as binding as ... comparative analysis of national rules on commercial arbitration would reveal that the level of interaction ..... Ethiopian default rule on the number of arbitrators is two.66 The Ethiopian Civil. 60 See, e.g., Bezzawork, ...

  12. 76 FR 34192 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies program by Energetics Incorporated... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  13. Qualitative Analysis of Commercial Social Network Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Lester; Wolfson, Ouri; Adjouadi, Malek; Rishe, Naphtali

    Social-networking sites have become an integral part of many users' daily internet routine. Commercial enterprises have been quick to recognize this and are subsequently creating profiles for many of their products and services. Commercial enterprises use social network profiles to target and interact with potential customers as well as to provide a gateway for users of the product or service to interact with each other. Many commercial enterprises use the statistics from their product or service's social network profile to tout the popularity and success of the product or service being showcased. They will use statistics such as number of friends, number of daily visits, number of interactions, and other similar measurements to quantify their claims. These statistics are often not a clear indication of the true popularity and success of the product. In this chapter the term product is used to refer to any tangible or intangible product, service, celebrity, personality, film, book, or other entity produced by a commercial enterprise.

  14. Visual impairment among commercial motorcyclists | Edema | Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One point four percent (1.4%) had subnormal visual acuity, while 5.3% had refractive errors. Ocular pathologies were found in 11.5% of the eyes examined. Conclusion: Most commercial motorcyclists may pass the Federal Road Safety Corps. However Colour vision and visual field testing may give a more reliable result.

  15. THE COMMERCIAL BANK AS NETWORK STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Dyl

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problems of the modern enterprise as a network structure that meets the increasing processes of globalization and the rise of postmodern trends. The definition of the term «a network of commercial bank» and the main characteristics of such a definition are given.

  16. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  17. LEVELS OF METALS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ETHIOPIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    E-mail: bhagnan@chem.aau.edu.et. LEVELS OF METALS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ETHIOPIAN BLACK. TEAS AND THEIR INFUSIONS. Daniel Woldegebriel Gebretsadik1 and Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi2*. 1Bahir Dar University, College of Science, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 79, Bahir Dar,. Ethiopia.

  18. 77 FR 65496 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1812 RIN 2700-AD64 Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy AGENCY... limited conditions, to issue Anchor Tenancy contracts. Anchor Tenancy means ``an arrangement in which the... inaccurate prohibition on anchor tenancy contracts. The prohibition is included in the NFS based on The Space...

  19. Le spot publicitaire radiophonique (Radio Commercials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doray, Henri-Paul

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the sound components of radio commercials, proposing some guidelines for the study of their functions. Particularly discusses the relationship between the linguistic and the paralinguistic elements of the message and the evocative function of sound effects and music. Finally, outlines a discourse typology based on their rhetorical…

  20. Commercial Art. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document contains a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for secondary and postsecondary commercial art. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program content (curriculum framework and student performance standards); program implementation (student admission criteria,…

  1. Design of large format commercial display holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John F. W.

    1989-05-01

    Commercial display holography is approaching a critical stage where the ability to compete with other graphic media will dictate its future. Factors involved will be cost, technical quality and, in particular, design. The tenuous commercial success of display holography has relied heavily on its appeal to an audience with little or no previous experience in the medium. Well designed images were scarce, leading many commercial designers to avoid holography. As the public became more accustomed to holograms, the excitement dissipated, leaving a need for strong visual design if the medium is to survive in this marketplace. Drawing on the vast experience of TV, rock music and magazine advertising, competitive techniques such as video walls, mural duratrans, laser light shows and interactive videos attract a professional support structure far greater than does holography. This paper will address design principles developed at Holographics North for large format commercial holography. Examples will be drawn from a number of foreign and domestic corporate trade exhibitions. Recommendations will also be made on how to develop greater awareness of a holographic design.

  2. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila

  3. European Perspectives on International Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg Wilhelmsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of a uniform rule on the law applicable to the existence and validity of an arbitration agreement. This article examines these issues in order to find out whether they are only European or also inherent in the international regulation of international commercial arbitration. The article examines to which...

  4. Characteristics of Commercial Motorcyclists in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-two (56.4%) possessed a riding license and only about half of them (51.3%) wore helmets, 40.9% wore goggles and 7.8% had fire extinguishers. None of the respondents provided helmets for their passengers. This study highlighted certain characteristics of commercial motorcyclists that may promote ...

  5. Commercial real estate analysis and investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geltner, D.; Miller, N.; Clayton, J.; Eichholtz, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The well-known and respected authorship team of Geltner and Miller bring you a new edition of what has become the undisputed and authoritative resource on commercial real estate investment. Streamlined and completely updated with expanded coverage of corporate and international real estate

  6. 40 CFR 799.2155 - Commercial hexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...,” for purposes of this section, is a product obtained from crude oil, natural gas liquids, or petroleum... (culture vessels, CO2 concentrations, temperature, and humidity) shall be used. The cell culture shall be directly dosed by pipetting liquid commercial hexane mixed with liquid DMSO into the culture medium. Cells...

  7. Recognition of Female Stereotypes in TV Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, James T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Although college women were generally found to be more aware and critical of sex stereotyping than were college men, data indicated that viewers were not as sensitive to sex-role stereotypes in television commercials as advocates of feminism might hope. (KS)

  8. Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Some Commercial Samples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the physical properties and dissolution profiles of commercial samples of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets. Methods: Fifteen generic brands of artesunate and five generic brands of amodiaquine tablets were obtained from drug retail outlets in Oyo and Ogun States in southwestern Nigeria. The tablets ...

  9. Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  10. Moving research to patient applications through commercialization: understanding and evaluating the role of intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare.

  11. Moving Research to Patient Applications through Commercialization: Understanding and Evaluating the Role of Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

  12. Indicators and Determinants of Small-Scale Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lindner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an abundant resource in Ethiopia and has a great potential for commercialization, which can drive rural development. In view of these realities, this study analyzed the state and determinants of small-scale bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. Data were collected from three major bamboo-growing districts (Awi, Sidama, and Sheka and four urban centers (Masha, Hawassa, Bahir Dar, and Addis Ababa via semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and questionnaire surveys with key actors along the value chain. Results revealed distinctive differences in proportion of cash income, value chain structure, and management engagement among the districts. Percentages of cash income were 60.15, 42.60, and 9.48 at Awi, Sidam, and Sheka, respectively. Differences were statistically significant between Sheka and both other districts (p = 0.05, but not between Awi and Sidama. The value chain structure showed that compared with Sheka, Awi and Sidama have a relatively large number of actors involved. The major factors explaining commercialization differences among regions were distance to market and presence of alternative forest products. Within Sheka, households with larger family size, higher education attainment, and access to training reportedly engaged more in commercial extraction. Therefore, we conclude that development of infrastructure for linking resource and consumer centers and expansion of extension education among producers may enhance the commercial engagement of producers and improve the accessibility of bamboo resources for commercial production.

  13. Transubstantiating commercial mushroom market with ultrasonically ultrasized mushroom powders showcasing higher bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaomin; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Chun, Sechul; Gopal, Judy; Keum, Young Soo

    2016-11-01

    Mushrooms that have been restricted to fresh markets have now entered commercial and pharmaceutical markets. However, not much research has been targeted on testing the efficiency of these commercialized mushroom powders or capsules. For the first time, efforts were made to study the bioactive properties and antimicrobial properties of four predominant mushroom capsules available for commercial purposes. Then, these commercial mushroom powders were downsized to ultrasized fine powders by sonication and then their properties were compared against the commercialized ones. The results indicated that the bioactive properties and the antioxidant properties of these powders when used as marketed capsules was very less. It was following ultrasonication assisted size reduction that the cumulative bioactivity related properties got accelerated. Micro size reduction of the mushroom powders lead to significant enhancement of antiviral properties compared to antibacterial and antifungal properties. This work demonstrates that commercialization of mushroom as powders could realize higher impact through sonication assisted ultrasizing and even nanosizing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The role of a decision-support smartphone application in enhancing community health volunteers' effectiveness to improve maternal and newborn outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya: quasi-experimental research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Kamande, Eva; Omuya, Milka; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2017-07-20

    employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Preventing deaths in Alaska's commercial fishing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, G A; Lincoln, J M; Jorgensen, S A; Klatt, M L; Manwaring, J C

    1998-01-01

    The arctic and sub-arctic waters of Alaska provide a very hazardous work setting, with special hazards posed by great distances, seasonal darkness, cold waters, high winds, brief fishing seasons, and icing. Our intent is to reduce the remarkably high occupational fatality rate (200/100,000/year in 1991-1992) among Alaska's commercial fishing workers. Over 90% of these deaths have been due to drowning or drowning plus hypothermia, primarily associated with vessel capsizings and sinkings. Comprehensive surveillance for commercial fishing occupational fatalities was established during 1991 in Alaska. During 1990 through 1994, the U.S. Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 required the implementation of comprehensive prevention measures for all fishing vessels in offshore cold waters, including immersion suits and other personal flotation devices, survival craft (life rafts), emergency position-indicating radio beacons, and crew training in emergency response and first aid. Parallel to this, voluntary training efforts by nonprofit organizations have greatly increased. During 1990-1994, drowning was the leading cause of occupational death in Alaska. During this period, 117 fishers died, 101 of them from drowning or drowning/hypothermia. During 1991-1994, there was a substantial decrease in Alaskan commercial fishing-related deaths, from 34 in 1991 to 35 in 1992, 22 in 1993, and 10 in 1994. While man-overboard drownings and some other categories of deaths (falls, fires) have continued to occur, the most marked progress has been in vessel-related events. Specific measures tailored to prevent drowning in vessel capsizings and sinkings in Alaska's commercial fishing industry have been very successful so far. Additional efforts must be made to reduce the frequency of vessel events and to prevent man-overboard events and drownings associated with them.

  16. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ``document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.`` This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2`s commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2`s organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2`s strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed.

  17. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  18. Alternative perspectives on the sustainability of Alaska's commercial fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, Philip A

    2013-02-01

    Many believe commercial fisheries in Alaska (U.S.A.) are sustainability success stories, but ongoing socioeconomic problems across the state raise questions about how this sustainability is being defined and evaluated. Problems such as food insecurity and the disenfranchisement of Alaska Natives from fishing rights are well documented, yet these concerns are obscured by marketing campaigns that convey images of flourishing fishing communities and initiatives to certify Alaska's fisheries as responsibly managed. Fisheries management mandates and approaches built on such metrics and technologies as maximum sustainable yield and systems of tradable quotas actually serve to constrain, circumscribe, and marginalize some Alaskans' opportunities for effecting change in how the benefits of these fisheries are allocated. Beneath the narrative of sustainability, these management technologies perpetuate a cognitive ecological model of sustainability that is oriented to single-species outcomes, that casts people as parasites, and thus assumes the necessity of trade-offs between biological and social goals. Alternative cognitive models are available that draw metaphors from different ecological concepts such as keystone species and mutualisms. Such models, when used to inform management approaches, may improve societal outcomes in Alaska and elsewhere by promoting food security and sustainability through diversified natural resource harvest strategies that are more flexible and responsive to environmental variability and change. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14... CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel commercial activity. Commercial activities performed exclusively by military personnel not subject to deployment in a...

  20. 47 CFR 20.9 - Commercial mobile radio service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service under examination, or for the comparable commercial mobile radio service would prompt customers to... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial mobile radio service. 20.9 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE RADIO SERVICES § 20.9 Commercial mobile radio service. (a) The following mobile services...