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  1. Flavonoids-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha/2alpha is mediated through chelation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Soo; Bae, Insoo; Lee, Yong J

    2008-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 that is the key regulator of cellular response to low oxygen tension. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is continuously degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and induces the transcription of HIF-1 target genes. Quercetin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and kinase modulating properties, has been found to induce HIF-1alpha accumulation and VEGF secretion in normoxia. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of quercetin-mediated HIF-1alpha accumulation were investigated. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to being induced by hypoxia, HIF-1alpha can be induced through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p53 signaling pathways. But our study revealed, through p53 mutant-type as well as p53 null cell lines, that neither the PI3K/Akt nor the p53 signaling pathway is required for quercetin-induced HIF-1alpha accumulation. And we observed that HIF-1alpha accumulated by quercetin is not ubiquitinated and the interaction of HIF-1alpha with pVHL is reduced, compared with HIF-1alpha accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The use of quercetin's analogues showed that only quercetin and galangin induce HIF-1/2alpha accumulation and this effect is completely reversed by additional iron ions. This is because quercetin and galangin are able to chelate cellular iron ions that are cofactors of HIF-1/2alpha proline hydroxylase (PHD). These data suggest that quercetin inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF-1/2alpha in normoxia by hindering PHD through chelating iron ions.

  2. Quercetin suppresses hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) through inhibiting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yong J

    2008-10-01

    Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and induce the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in normoxia. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O(2)), we examined the effect of quercetin on the intracellular level of HIF-1alpha and extracellular level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that quercetin suppressed the HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia in human prostate cancer LNCaP, colon cancer CX-1, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Quercetin treatment also significantly reduced hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin in hypoxia was not prevented by treatment with 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, hypoxia (1% O(2)) in the presence of 100 microM quercetin inhibited protein synthesis by 94% during incubation for 8 h. Significant quercetin concentration-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation were observed under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with 100 microM cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, replicated the effect of quercetin by inhibiting HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia. These results suggest that suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin under hypoxic conditions is due to inhibition of protein synthesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. 6-Mercaptopurine, an activator of Nur77, enhances transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha resulting in new vessel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Y-G; Na, T-Y; Yang, W-K; Kim, H-J; Lee, I-K; Kong, G; Chung, J-H; Lee, M-O

    2007-05-31

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays a central role in oxygen homeostasis. Previously, we reported that the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 functions in stabilizing HIF-1alpha. Here, we demonstrate that 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), an activator of the NR4A family members, enhances transcriptional activity of HIF-1. 6-MP enhanced the protein-level of HIF-1alpha as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction of HIF-1alpha was abolished by the transfection of either a dominant-negative Nur77 mutant or si-Nur77, indicating a critical role of Nur77 in the 6-MP action. The HIF-1alpha protein level remained up to 60 min in the presence of 6-MP when de novo protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, suggesting that 6-MP induces stabilization of the HIF-1alpha protein. The fact that 6-MP decreased the association of HIF-1alpha with von Hippel-Lindau protein and the acetylation of HIF-1alpha, may explain how 6-MP induced stability of HIF-1alpha. Further, 6-MP induced the transactivation function of HIF-1alpha by recruiting co-activator cyclic-AMP-response-element-binding protein. Finally, 6-MP enhanced the expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF, and the formation of capillary tubes in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Together, our results provide a new insight for 6-MP action in the stabilization of HIF-1alpha and imply a potential application of 6-MP in hypoxia-associated human vascular diseases.

  4. HIF-1{alpha} is necessary to support gluconeogenesis during liver regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Toshihide [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Goda, Nobuhito, E-mail: goda@waseda.jp [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Fujiki, Natsuko; Hishiki, Takako; Nishiyama, Yasumasa [Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Senoo-Matsuda, Nanami [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Shimazu, Motohide [Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, 1163 Tatemachi, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-0998 (Japan); Soga, Tomoyoshi [The Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka City, Yamagata 997-0052 (Japan); Yoshimura, Yasunori [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Johnson, Randall S. [Molecular Biology Section, Division of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Suematsu, Makoto [Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    Coordinated recovery of hepatic glucose metabolism is prerequisite for normal liver regeneration. To examine roles of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) for hepatic glucose homeostasis during the reparative process, we inactivated the gene in hepatocytes in vivo. Following partial hepatectomy (PH), recovery of residual liver weight was initially retarded in the mutant mice by down-regulation of hepatocyte proliferation, but occurred comparably between the mutant and control mice at 72 h after PH. At this time point, the mutant mice showed lowered blood glucose levels with enhanced accumulation of glycogen in the liver. The mutant mice exhibited impairment of hepatic gluconeogenesis as assessed by alanine tolerance test. This appeared to result from reduced expression of PGK-1 and PEPCK since 3-PG, PEP and malate were accumulated to greater extents in the regenerated liver. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for roles of HIF-1{alpha} in the regulation of gluconeogenesis under liver regeneration.

  5. D-Glucosamine down-regulates HIF-1{alpha} through inhibition of protein translation in DU145 prostate cancer cells

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    Park, Jee-Young; Park, Jong-Wook; Suh, Seong-Il [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won-Ki, E-mail: wonki@dsmc.or.kr [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-24

    D-Glucosamine has been reported to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. In this study we report a novel response to D-glucosamine involving the translation regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1{alpha} expression. D-Glucosamine caused a decreased expression of HIF-1{alpha} under normoxic and hypoxic conditions without affecting HIF-1{alpha} mRNA expression in DU145 prostate cancer cells. D-Glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} accumulation induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132 and prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor DMOG suggesting D-glucosamine reduces HIF-1{alpha} protein expression through proteasome-independent pathway. Metabolic labeling assays indicated that D-glucosamine inhibits translation of HIF-1{alpha} protein. In addition, D-glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} expression induced by serum stimulation in parallel with inhibition of p70S6K suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits growth factor-induced HIF-1{alpha} expression, at least in part, through p70S6K inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that D-glucosamine inhibits HIF-1{alpha} expression through inhibiting protein translation and provide new insight into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of D-glucosamine.

  6. Small interfering RNA targeting HIF-1{alpha} reduces hypoxia-dependent transcription and radiosensitizes hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro

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    Staab, Adrian [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Fleischer, Markus [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Loeffler, Juergen; Einsele, Herrmann [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Said, Harun M.; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Plathow, Christian [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vordermark, Dirk [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-04-15

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 has been identified as a potential target to overcome hypoxia-induced radioresistance The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective HIF-1 inhibition via small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) affects hypoxia-induced radioresistance in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Material and Methods: HIF-1{alpha} expression in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro was silenced using HIF-1{alpha} siRNA sequence primers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of HIF-1{alpha}. HIF-1{alpha} protein levels were studied by Western blotting at 20% (air) or after 12 hours at 0.1% O{sub 2} (hypoxia). Cells were assayed for clonogenic survival after irradiation with 2, 5, or 10 Gy, under normoxic or hypoxic conditions in the presence of HIF-1{alpha}-targeted or control siRNA sequences. A modified oxygen enhancement ratio (OER') was calculated as the ratio of the doses to achieve the same survival at 0.1% O{sub 2} as at ambient oxygen tensions. OER' was obtained at cell survival levels of 50%, 37%, and 10%. Results: HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA enhanced radiation treatment efficacy under severely hypoxic conditions compared to tumor cells treated with scrambled control siRNA. OER was reduced on all survival levels after treatment with HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA, suggesting that inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA increases radiosensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells in vitro. Conclusion: Inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA clearly acts synergistically with radiotherapy and increase radiosensitivity of hypoxic cells in vitro. (orig.)

  7. High frequency of HIF-1 alpha overexpression in BRCA1 related breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, Petra; Bouter, Alwin; Menko, Fred H.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia is a hallmark of cancer. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is the key regulator of the hypoxia response. HIF-1 alpha is overexpressed during sporadic breast carcinogenesis and correlated with poor prognosis. Little is known on the role of HIF-1 alpha in hereditary breast

  8. Prognostic impact of HIF-1{alpha} expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer

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    Dellas, K.; Bache, M.; Kappler, M.; Haensgen, G. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Pigorsch, S.U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Taubert, H.; Holzhausen, H.J. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Pathology; Holzapfel, D.; Zorn, E. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Pathology

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the hypoxia-inducible factor-(HIF-)1{alpha} expression in tumor tissue, tumor oxygenation and hemoglobin levels in patients with advanced cervical cancers prior to radiotherapy and the effect on clinical outcome. Patients and Methods: The investigation included 44 patients who underwent definitive radiotherapy for advanced cervical cancers between May 1995 and March 1999. Tumor biopsies were taken prior to treatment, and HIF-1{alpha} expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. In the same tumor area, tumor tissue oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) was measured using the Eppendorf device. Results: The 5-year cancer-specific survival of all patients was 60%. Twelve of 44 tumor specimens were HIF-1{alpha}-negative with a significantly better 5-year survival (92 {+-} 8%) versus 32 patients who were HIF-1{alpha}-positive (45 {+-} 10%; p < 0.02). There was no correlation between HIF-1{alpha} expression and tumor oxygenation (p = 0.57 both for pO{sub 2} median and hypoxic fraction < 5 mmHg vs. HIF-1{alpha} expression). However, patients with hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dl showed elevated HIF-1{alpha} expression compared to patients with hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dl (p = 0.04). Furthermore, HIF-1{alpha} correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor expression (p = 0.002). In a multivariate Cox regression model, HIF-1{alpha} expression (relative risk [RR] = 7.5; p = 0.05) revealed an increased risk of tumor-related death. Conclusion: The study indicates, that endogenous tumor markers such as HIF-1{alpha} may serve as prognostic markers of clinical outcome concerning cervical cancer after primary radiotherapy. (orig.)

  9. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes......Regular exercise induces a variety of adaptive responses that enhance the oxidative and metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle. Although the physiological adjustments of regular exercise have been known for decades, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The hypoxia inducible factors 1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  10. Expression of HIF-1{alpha} in irradiated tissue is altered by topical negative-pressure therapy

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    Grimm, A.; Stange, S.; Labanaris, A.; Horch, R.E. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Dimmler, A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Sauer, R.; Grabenbauer, G. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2007-03-15

    Background and Purpose: Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of modern radiotherapy, common side effects such as radiation-induced wound healing disorders remain a well-known clinical phenomenon. Topical negative pressure therapy (TNP) is a novel tool to alleviate intraoperative, percutaneous irradiation or brachytherapy. Since TNP has been shown to positively influence the perfusion of chronic, poorly vascularized wounds, the authors applied this therapeutic method to irradiated wounds and investigated the effect on tissue oxygenation in irradiated tissue in five patients. Material and Methods: With informed patients' consent, samples prior to and 4 and 8 days after continuous TNP with -125 mmHg were obtained during routine wound debridements. Granulation tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and additionally with CD31, HIF-1{alpha} (hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}), and D2-40 to detect blood vessels, measure indirect signs of hypoxia, and lymph vessel distribution within the pre- and post-TNP samples. Results: In this first series of experiments, a positive influence of TNP onto tissue oxygenation in radiation-induced wounds could be demonstrated. TNP led to a significant decrease of 53% HIF-1{alpha}-positive cell nuclei. At the same time, a slight reduction of CD31-stained capillaries was seen in comparison to samples before TNP. Immunostaining with D2-40 revealed an increased number of lymphatic vessels with distended lumina and an alteration of the parallel orientation within the post-TNP samples. Conclusion: This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report on a novel previously not described histological marker to demonstrate the effects of TNP on HIF-1{alpha} expression as an indirect marker of tissue oxygenation in irradiated wounds, as demonstrated by a reduction of HIF-1{alpha} concentration after TNP. Since this observation may be of significant value to develop possible new strategies to treat radiation-induced tissue

  11. Inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} activity by BP-1 ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis in rats

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    Shankar, J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States); Thippegowda, P.B., E-mail: btprabha@uic.edu [Department of Pharmacology, (M/C 868), College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Kanum, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraj' s College, University of Mysore, Mysore (India)

    2009-09-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Inflamed synovitis is a hallmark of RA which is hypoxic in nature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the key regulators of angiogenesis, is overexpressed in the pathogenesis of RA. VEGF expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), a master regulator of homeostasis which plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. In this study we show that synthetic benzophenone analogue, 2-benzoyl-phenoxy acetamide (BP-1) can act as a novel anti-arthritic agent in an experimental adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model by targeting VEGF and HIF-1{alpha}. BP-1 administered hypoxic endothelial cells and arthritic animals clearly showed down regulation of VEGF expression. Further, BP-1 inhibits nuclear translocation of HIF-1{alpha}, which in turn suppresses transcription of the VEGF gene. These results suggest a further possible clinical application of the BP-1 derivative as an anti-arthritic agent in association with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. [Rat cardiomyocyte remodeling after neonatal cryptosporidiosis. II. Elongation, excessive polyploidization and HIF-1alpha overexpression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatskaia, O V; Sidorenko, N V; Matveev, I V; Kropotov, A V; Vinogradov, A E

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective epidemyological studies evidence that infant diseases leave survivors with an increased susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases in later life. At the same time, the mechanisms of this link remain poorly understood. Based on medical statistics reporting that infectious gastroenteritis is the most common cause of maladies in babies, infants and children, we analysed the effects of moderate cryptosporidial gastroenteritis on the heart and ventricular cardiomyocyte remodelling in rats of the first month of life. The disease was challenged by a worldwide human protozoic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum (Apicomplexa, Sporozoa). The main symptoms manifested in the growth retardation moderate diarrhea. Using real-time PCR, cytophotometry, confocal microscopy and image analysis, we indicated that cryptosporidiosis was associated, with the atrophy heart and the elongation, narrowing, protein content decrease and hyperpolyploidization of cardiomyocytes and the moderate overexpression of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA. Cardiomyocyte shape remodeling and heart atrophy presented in all age groups. The severity of these changes, hovewer, declined gradually from younger to older groups. In contrast, hyperpolyploidization and HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression were registered mainly among animals aged between 6 and 13 days, and were barely detected and non-significant in older age groups. In the rat the time period covering 6-13 days after birth is known to coincide with the intensive cardiomyocyte polyploidization and the switch from proliferation to hypertrophy. Thus, our data indicate that neonatal cryptosporidiosis may be potential cardiovascular diseases risk factor and that one of the critical time windows for the growing heart covers the time period when cardiomyocyte undergo polyploidization.

  13. SU-C-303-02: Correlating Metabolic Response to Radiation Therapy with HIF-1alpha Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, D; Peeters, W; Nickel, K; Eliceiri, K; Kimple, R; Van Der Kogel, A; Kissick, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To understand radiation induced alterations in cellular metabolism which could be used to assess treatment or normal tissue response to aid in patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. This work aims to compare the metabolic response of two head and neck cell lines, one malignant (UM-SCC-22B) and one benign (Normal Oral Keratinocyte), to ionizing radiation. Responses are compared to alterations in HIF-1alpha expression. These dynamics can potentially serve as biomarkers in assessing treatment response allowing for patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Measurements of metabolism and HIF-1alpha expression were taken before and X minutes after a 10 Gy dose of radiation delivered via an orthovoltage x-ray source. In vitro changes in metabolic activity were measured via fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to assess the mean lifetime of NADH autofluorescence following a dose of 10 Gy. HIF-1alpha expression was measured via immunohistochemical staining of in vitro treated cells and expression was quantified using the FIJI software package. Results: FLIM demonstrated a decrease in the mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH by 100 ps following 10 Gy indicating a shift towards glycolytic pathways for malignant cells; whereas this benign cell line showed little change in metabolic signature. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant changes in HIF-1alpha expression in response to 10 Gy of radiation that correlate to metabolic profiles. Conclusion: Radiation induces significant changes in metabolic activity and HIF-1alpha expression. These alterations occur on time scales approximating the duration of common radiation treatments (approximately tens of minutes). Further understanding these dynamics has important implications with regard to improvement of therapy and biomarkers of treatment response

  14. SU-C-303-02: Correlating Metabolic Response to Radiation Therapy with HIF-1alpha Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, D [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Peeters, W [Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, GA (United States); Nickel, K [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Eliceiri, K; Kimple, R; Van Der Kogel, A; Kissick, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To understand radiation induced alterations in cellular metabolism which could be used to assess treatment or normal tissue response to aid in patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. This work aims to compare the metabolic response of two head and neck cell lines, one malignant (UM-SCC-22B) and one benign (Normal Oral Keratinocyte), to ionizing radiation. Responses are compared to alterations in HIF-1alpha expression. These dynamics can potentially serve as biomarkers in assessing treatment response allowing for patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Measurements of metabolism and HIF-1alpha expression were taken before and X minutes after a 10 Gy dose of radiation delivered via an orthovoltage x-ray source. In vitro changes in metabolic activity were measured via fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to assess the mean lifetime of NADH autofluorescence following a dose of 10 Gy. HIF-1alpha expression was measured via immunohistochemical staining of in vitro treated cells and expression was quantified using the FIJI software package. Results: FLIM demonstrated a decrease in the mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH by 100 ps following 10 Gy indicating a shift towards glycolytic pathways for malignant cells; whereas this benign cell line showed little change in metabolic signature. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant changes in HIF-1alpha expression in response to 10 Gy of radiation that correlate to metabolic profiles. Conclusion: Radiation induces significant changes in metabolic activity and HIF-1alpha expression. These alterations occur on time scales approximating the duration of common radiation treatments (approximately tens of minutes). Further understanding these dynamics has important implications with regard to improvement of therapy and biomarkers of treatment response.

  15. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are differentially activated in distinct cell populations in retinal ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya M Mowat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in retinal ischaemia, and to determine their correlation with the pattern of retinal hypoxia and the expression profiles of induced molecular mediators.We investigated the tissue distribution of retinal hypoxia during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR in mice using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole. We measured the levels of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha proteins by Western blotting and determined their cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry during the development of OIR. We measured the temporal expression profiles of two downstream mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and erythropoietin (Epo by ELISA. Pimonidazole labelling was evident specifically in the inner retina. Labelling peaked at 2 hours after the onset of hypoxia and gradually declined thereafter. Marked binding to Müller glia was evident during the early hypoxic stages of OIR. Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein levels were significantly increased during retinal hypoxia but were evident in distinct cellular distributions; HIF-1alpha stabilisation was evident in neuronal cells throughout the inner retinal layers whereas HIF-2alpha was restricted to Müller glia and astrocytes. Hypoxia and HIF-alpha stabilisation in the retina were closely followed by upregulated expression of the downstream mediators VEGF and EPO.Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are activated in close correlation with retinal hypoxia but have contrasting cell specificities, consistent with differential roles in retinal ischaemia. Our findings suggest that HIF-2alpha activation plays a key role in regulating the response of Müller glia to hypoxia.

  16. Reoxygenation of human coronary smooth muscle cells suppresses HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and augments radiation-induced growth delay and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumann, T.; Arab, A.; Bode, C.; Hehrlein, C. [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany); Guttenberger, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Catheter-based coronary brachytherapy with {beta}- and {gamma}-radiation is an evidence-based method to prevent restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stent implantation, but the outcome may be PTCA are hypoxic. A lack of oxygen decreases the effect of low LET (linear energy transfer) irradiation. The authors assumed that reoxygenation of hypoxic human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCSMCs) improves the results of coronary brachytherapy. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) gene, and the rates of growth and apoptosis of hypoxic and reoxygenated HCSMCs after {gamma}-iradiation were therefore analyzed. Material and Methods: An in vitro model of megacolonies of HCSMCs was developed. After exposure to chronic hypoxia the HCSMCs were irradiated with graded doses of 2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy using a {sup 60}Co source either under hypoxia (pO{sub 2}<3 mmHg) or after reoxygenation (pO{sub 2}{approx}150 mmHg). RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis was used to quantify HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and the growth of HCSMC megacolonies was measured serially. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was calculate from the specific growth delay. Apoptosis of HCSMCs was quantified by counting cells with specific DNA strand breaks using the TUNEL assy. Results: HIF-1{alpha} gene expression was markedly suppressed in reoxygenated cells versus hypoxic cells 30 min after {gamma}-irradiation at all radiation doses (158{+-}46% vs. 1,675{+-}1,211%; p<0.01). Apoptosis was markedly increased in reoxygenated HCSMCs. The OER was 1.8(95% CI[confidence interval]1.3-2.4). Therefore, reoxygenated HCSMCs require 44% less radiation dose to achieve the equivalent biological radiation effect compared to hypoxic HCSMCs. Conclusion: Reoxygenation of coronary smooth muscle cells should be considered an option to increase efficacy of coronary brachytherapy. This could be used to reduce radiation dose

  17. The contribution of VHL substrate binding and HIF1-alpha to the phenotype of VHL loss in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranchie, Jodi K; Vasselli, James R; Riss, Joseph; Bonifacino, Juan S; Linehan, W Marston; Klausner, Richard D

    2002-04-01

    Clear-cell renal carcinoma is associated with inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. VHL is the substrate recognition subunit of an E3 ligase, known to target the alpha subunits of the HIF heterodimeric transcription factor for ubiquitin-mediated degradation under normoxic conditions. We demonstrate that competitive inhibition of the VHL substrate recognition site with a peptide derived from the oxygen degradation domain of HIF1alpha recapitulates the tumorigenic phenotype of VHL-deficient tumor cells. These studies prove that VHL substrate recognition is essential to the tumor suppressor function of VHL. We further demonstrate that normoxic stabilization of HIF1alpha alone, while capable of mimicking some aspects of VHL loss, is not sufficient to reproduce tumorigenesis, indicating that it is not the critical oncogenic substrate of VHL.

  18. Partial Oxygen Pressure Affects the Expression of Prognostic Biomarkers HIF-1 Alpha, Ki67, and CK20 in the Microenvironment of Colorectal Cancer Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lirong; Hu, Yu; Xi, Ning; Song, Jie; Huang, Wenjing; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Yiting; Liu, Xianying; Xie, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is prognostically important in colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. Partial oxygen pressure (pO 2 ) is an important parameter of hypoxia. The correlation between pO 2 levels and expression levels of prognostic biomarkers was measured in CRC tissues. Human CRC tissues were collected and pO 2 levels were measured by OxyLite. Three methods for tissue fixation were compared, including formalin, Finefix, and Finefix-plus-microwave. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was conducted by using the avidin-biotin complex technique for detecting the antibodies to hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) alpha, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), and cell proliferation factor Ki67. The levels of pO 2 were negatively associated with the size of CRC tissues. Finefix-plus-microwave fixation has the potential to replace formalin. Additionally, microwave treatment improved Finefix performance in tissue fixation and protein preservation. The percentage of positive cells and gray values of HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 were associated with CRC development ( P < 0.05). The levels of pO 2 were positively related with the gray values of Ki67 and negatively related with the values of HIF-1 alpha and CK20 ( P < 0.05). Thus, the levels of microenvironmental pO 2 affect the expression of predictive biomarkers HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 in the development of CRC tissues.

  19. Expression and regulation of HIF-1 alpha in macrophages under inflammatory conditions; significant reduction of VEGF by CaMKII inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Johanna; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van Roosmalen, Ingrid A. M.; Doornbos-van der Meer, Berber; van Leeuwen, Miek A.; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Macrophages expressing the pro-angiogenic transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha have been demonstrated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the synovial tissue. Aim of the present study was to investigate intracellular signal transduction regulation of pro-inflammatory

  20. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Naoki; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe; Kuroda, Masayuki; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Bujo, Hideaki; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2015-01-01

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings

  1. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  2. Partial Oxygen Pressure Affects the Expression of Prognostic Biomarkers HIF-1 Alpha, Ki67, and CK20 in the Microenvironment of Colorectal Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is prognostically important in colorectal cancer (CRC therapy. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2 is an important parameter of hypoxia. The correlation between pO2 levels and expression levels of prognostic biomarkers was measured in CRC tissues. Human CRC tissues were collected and pO2 levels were measured by OxyLite. Three methods for tissue fixation were compared, including formalin, Finefix, and Finefix-plus-microwave. Immunohistochemistry (IHC staining was conducted by using the avidin-biotin complex technique for detecting the antibodies to hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 alpha, cytokeratin 20 (CK20, and cell proliferation factor Ki67. The levels of pO2 were negatively associated with the size of CRC tissues. Finefix-plus-microwave fixation has the potential to replace formalin. Additionally, microwave treatment improved Finefix performance in tissue fixation and protein preservation. The percentage of positive cells and gray values of HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 were associated with CRC development (P<0.05. The levels of pO2 were positively related with the gray values of Ki67 and negatively related with the values of HIF-1 alpha and CK20 (P<0.05. Thus, the levels of microenvironmental pO2 affect the expression of predictive biomarkers HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 in the development of CRC tissues.

  3. Downregulation of a tumor suppressor RECK by hypoxia through recruitment of HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha to reverse HRE site in the promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Ju; Lee, Kwang Youl; Lee, You Mie

    2010-05-01

    Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a tumor suppressor and the suppression of RECK is induced by Ras or Her-2/neu oncogenes. However, regulation of RECK under hypoxic microenvironment is largely unknown. Here, we identified that hypoxia significantly downregulates RECK mRNA and protein expression using semiquantitative RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. This repression was reversed by the HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) and HIF-1 inhibitor, YC-1. Hypoxia-induced downregulation of RECK was abolished by knockdown of HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha with respective small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), whereas overexpression of HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha suppressed RECK expression similar to the level under hypoxic conditions. Transfection of a deletion mutant of the second reverse HRE (rHRE2, -2345 to -2333) site of RECK promoter completely removed RECK suppression under hypoxia, indicating that the rHRE2 site is responsible for the inhibition of RECK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA affinity precipitation assays demonstrated that HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha were recruited to the rHRE2 region of RECK promoter under hypoxic conditions, but the treatment of TSA or YC-1 inhibited their binding to the rHRE2 site. Moreover, TSA and YC-1 inhibited hypoxia-induced cancer cell migration, invasion and MMPs secretion. Taken together, we can conclude that hypoxia induces RECK downregulation through the recruitment of HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha to the rHRE2 site in the promoter and the inhibition of hypoxic RECK silencing would be a therapeutic and preventive target for early tumorigenesis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Specific inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha activation and of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Yuki; Egawa, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Yoko; Kunimoto, Setsuko; Hirai, Yasuaki; Ida, Yoshiteru; Nose, Kiyoshi

    2003-10-01

    Screening using a reporter under the control of the hypoxia-response element (HRE) identified several flavonoids and homoisoflavonoids that inhibit the activation of HRE under hypoxic conditions. Among various compounds, isorhamnetin, luteolin, quercetin, and methyl ophiopogonanone B (MOB) were effective at 3 to 9 microg/ml in inhibiting the reporter activity. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA during hypoxia was also inhibited by MOB in HepG2 cells, but the effective doses were 10 to 20 microg/ml. MOB caused destabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, as revealed by Western blotting, that was dependent on proteasome activity and the tumor suppressor, p53. The tubular formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was also inhibited by MOB. MOB is expected to act as an inhibitor of angiogenesis.

  5. Schedule-dependent inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein accumulation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by topotecan in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Annamaria; Zalek, Jessica; Hollingshead, Melinda; Braunschweig, Till; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Bonomi, Carrie A; Borgel, Suzanne D; Carter, John P; Hewitt, Stephen M; Shoemaker, Robert H; Melillo, Giovanni

    2004-10-01

    We have previously shown that topotecan, a topoisomerase I poison, inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha protein accumulation by a DNA damage-independent mechanism. Here, we report that daily administration of topotecan inhibits HIF-1alpha protein expression in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts. Concomitant with HIF-1alpha inhibition, topotecan caused a significant tumor growth inhibition associated with a marked decrease of angiogenesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in tumor tissue. These results provide a compelling rationale for testing topotecan in clinical trials to target HIF-1 in cancer patients.

  6. Increased expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A and its receptors, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the venous stenosis of arteriovenous fistula in a mouse model with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sanjay; Shergill, Uday; Yang, Binxia; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Misra, Khamal D

    2010-08-01

    A mouse model of renal insufficiency with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and venous stenosis was created. The authors tested the hypothesis that there is increased gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha); vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and its receptors (VEGFR-1, -2); matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), -9 (MMP-9); tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, -2 (TIMP-1, -2); and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin-1 (ADAMTS-1) at the venous stenosis. Nineteen male C57BL/6 mice underwent a left nephrectomy and a surgical occlusion of the right upper pole to induce renal function characterized in eight animals. Twenty eight days later, an AVF (n = 11) was created from the right carotid artery to ipsilateral jugular vein, and the mice were killed at day 7 (n = 4) and day 14 (n = 4). The outflow and control veins were removed for gene expression. Three mice were killed at day 28 for histologic analysis. The mean serum blood urea nitrogen level remained significantly elevated for 8 weeks when compared with baseline (P < .05). By day seven, there was a significant increase in the expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein, with HIF-1alpha and TIMP-1 levels significantly elevated at day 14 (P < .05). By day 28, the venous stenosis was characterized by a thickened vein wall and neointima. A mouse model of renal insufficiency with AVF was developed that had increased expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein with venous stenosis by day 28. Copyright (c) 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Histogram analysis of ADC in rectal cancer: associations with different histopathological findings including expression of EGFR, Hif1-alpha, VEGF, p53, PD1, and KI 67. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hans Jonas; Höhn, Annekathrin; Surov, Alexey

    2018-04-06

    Functional imaging modalities like Diffusion-weighted imaging are increasingly used to predict tumor behavior like cellularity and vascularity in different tumors. Histogram analysis is an emergent imaging analysis, in which every voxel is used to obtain a histogram and therefore statistically information about tumors can be provided. The purpose of this study was to elucidate possible associations between ADC histogram parameters and several immunhistochemical features in rectal cancer. Overall, 11 patients with histologically proven rectal cancer were included into the study. There were 2 (18.18%) females and 9 males with a mean age of 67.1 years. KI 67-index, expression of p53, EGFR, VEGF, and Hif1-alpha were semiautomatically estimated. The tumors were divided into PD1-positive and PD1-negative lesions. ADC histogram analysis was performed as a whole lesion measurement using an in-house matlab application. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a strong correlation between EGFR expression and ADCmax (p=0.72, P=0.02). None of the vascular parameters (VEGF, Hif1-alpha) correlated with ADC parameters. Kurtosis and skewness correlated inversely with p53 expression (p=-0.64, P=0.03 and p=-0.81, P=0.002, respectively). ADCmedian and ADCmode correlated with Ki67 (p=-0.62, P=0.04 and p=-0.65, P=0.03, respectively). PD1-positive tumors showed statistically significant lower ADCmax values in comparison to PD1-negative tumors, 1.93 ± 0.36 vs 2.32 ± 0.47×10 -3 mm 2 /s, p=0.04. Several associations were identified between histogram parameter derived from ADC maps and EGFR, KI 67 and p53 expression in rectal cancer. Furthermore, ADCmax was different between PD1 positive and PD1 negative tumors indicating an important role of ADC parameters for possible future treatment prediction.

  8. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  9. Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Oscar N.; Alvarez, Derry; Torres, Cesar; Roman, Laura; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) ...

  10. Intermittent cold exposure enhances fat accumulation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Sun Yoo

    Full Text Available Due to its high energy consuming characteristics, brown adipose tissue (BAT has been suggested as a key player in energy metabolism. Cold exposure is a physiological activator of BAT. Intermittent cold exposure (ICE, unlike persistent exposure, is clinically feasible. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether ICE reduces adiposity in C57BL/6 mice. Surprisingly, we found that ICE actually increased adiposity despite enhancing Ucp1 expression in BAT and inducing beige adipocytes in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. ICE did not alter basal systemic insulin sensitivity, but it increased liver triglyceride content and secretion rate as well as blood triglyceride levels. Gene profiling further demonstrated that ICE, despite suppressing lipogenic gene expression in white adipose tissue and liver during cold exposure, enhanced lipogenesis between the exposure periods. Together, our results indicate that despite enhancing BAT recruitment, ICE in mice increases fat accumulation by stimulating de novo lipogenesis.

  11. Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Alvarez, Derry; Torres, Cesar; Roman, Laura; Daniell, Henry

    2011-06-01

    Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) and accumulate mercury in high concentrations within plant cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that up to 1284 copies of the mt1 gene were found per cell when compared with 1326 copies of the 16S rrn gene, thereby attaining homoplasmy. Past studies in chloroplast transformation used qualitative Southern blots to evaluate indirectly transgene copy number, whereas we used real-time PCR for the first time to establish homoplasmy and estimate transgene copy number and transcript levels. The mt1 transcript levels were very high with 183,000 copies per ng of RNA or 41% the abundance of the 16S rrn transcripts. The transplastomic lines were resistant up to 20 μm mercury and maintained high chlorophyll content and biomass. Although the transgenic plants accumulated high concentrations of mercury in all tissues, leaves accumulated up to 106 ng, indicating active phytoremediation and translocation of mercury. Such accumulation of mercury in plant tissues facilitates proper disposal or recycling. This study reports, for the first time, the use of metallothioneins in plants for mercury phytoremediation. Chloroplast genetic engineering approach is useful to express metal-scavenging proteins for phytoremediation. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Mathematical Model of HIF-1 alpha Pathway, Oxygen Transport and Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    succinate inhibition and PHD negative feedback. Yucel & Kumaz 2007 Sensitivity of the angiogenic behaviour of a cancer cell to PHD and FIH. Dayan et al...With CF computed, CB can be calculated, and finally the CA leaving the gas exchange region. 3.2 HIF-1α Mathematical Model for Brain A...is dictated by the partial pressure of that gas in blood versus luminal contents. For methane and hydrogen, diffusion is always out of the lumen

  13. Melatonin promotes cardiomyogenesis of embryonic stem cells via inhibition of HIF-1 alpha stabilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudová, Jana; Vašíček, Ondřej; Číž, Milan; Kubala, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2016), s. 493-503 ISSN 0742-3098 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : prostate -cancer cells * increased vascular-permeability * reperfusion injury Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 10.391, year: 2016

  14. Neural Differentiation Is Inhibited through HIF1 alpha/ beta-Catenin Signaling in Embryoid Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veceřa, J.; Kudová, Jana; Kučera, J.; Kubala, Lukáš; Pachernik, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 8715798. ISSN 1687-966X Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : stem- cell fate * hypoxia * oxygen Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 3.540, year: 2016

  15. Development of a Combination Therapy for Prostate Cancer by Targeting Stat3 and HIF-1alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    inflammation-induced cancer, making it an attractive target (25-27). A3. Innovation 1. TEL03 is a novel anti-cancer agent from Chinese herbal medicine ...agents from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) that targets HIF-1α /2α for prostate cancer therapy. Hypoxia orchestrated by HIF-1αis crucial for tumor...Stat3 for treatment of prostate and other cancers. TEL03, which is a novel anti-cancer agent derived from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM: Hypocrella

  16. Partial deficiency of HIF-1 alpha stimulates pathological cardiac changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, Romana; Kolář, František; Sedmera, David; Škvorová, Lada; Papoušek, František; Neckář, Jan; Pavlínková, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, Feb 6 (2014) ISSN 1472-6823 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/0117; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Echocardiographic parameters * Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha * Diabetic cardiomyopathy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2014

  17. Host - HIF- 1alpha Pathway And Hypoxia: In Vitro Studies And Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    E., Del Sal, G., Gustincich, S . (2010). Parkinson disease-associated DJ-1 required for the expression of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic...other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER NA 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR( S ) Robinson, Peter J.1, Molly E. Chapleau1

  18. HIF-1alpha Deficiency Attenuates the Cardiomyogenesis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudová, Jana; Procházková, J.; Vašíček, Ondřej; Perečko, Tomáš; Sedláčková, M.; Pešl, M.; Pachernik, J.; Kubala, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2016) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29358S Grant - others:Grantová agentura ČR - GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-13443Y Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1- ALPHA * GENE-EXPRESSION * CARDIAC DIFFERENTIATION Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  19. Hypoxia-induced cytotoxic drug resistance in osteosarcoma is independent of HIF-1Alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Adamski

    Full Text Available Survival rates from childhood cancer have improved dramatically in the last 40 years, such that over 80% of children are now cured. However in certain subgroups, including metastatic osteosarcoma, survival has remained stubbornly poor, despite dose intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Hypoxia is common in adult solid tumours and is associated with treatment resistance and poorer outcome. Hypoxia induces chemotherapy resistance in paediatric tumours including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma, in vitro, and this drug resistance is dependent on the oxygen-regulated transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1. In this study the effects of hypoxia on the response of the osteosarcoma cell lines 791T, HOS and U2OS to the clinically relevant cytotoxics cisplatin, doxorubicin and etoposide were evaluated. Significant hypoxia-induced resistance to all three agents was seen in all three cell lines and hypoxia significantly reduced drug-induced apoptosis. Hypoxia also attenuated drug-induced activation of p53 in the p53 wild-type U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Drug resistance was not induced by HIF-1α stabilisation in normoxia by cobalt chloride nor reversed by the suppression of HIF-1α in hypoxia by shRNAi, siRNA, dominant negative HIF or inhibition with the small molecule NSC-134754, strongly suggesting that hypoxia-induced drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells is independent of HIF-1α. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway using the inhibitor PI-103 did not reverse hypoxia-induced drug resistance, suggesting the hypoxic activation of Akt in osteosarcoma cells does not play a significant role in hypoxia-induced drug resistance. Targeting hypoxia is an exciting prospect to improve current anti-cancer therapy and combat drug resistance. Significant hypoxia-induced drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells highlights the potential importance of hypoxia as a target to reverse drug resistance in paediatric osteosarcoma. The novel finding of HIF-1α independent drug resistance suggests however other hypoxia related targets may be more relevant in paediatric osteosarcoma.

  20. Effect of a HIF-1 Alpha Polymorphism on the Incidence and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    factor levels and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(6):1557-1561. 34. Percy MJ, Mooney SM, McMullin MF, Flores A...vascular endothelial growth factor in pathological angiogenesis. Breast Cancer Research & Treatment 1995;36(2):127-137. 37. Jackson MW, Bentel JM, Tilley

  1. Glutathione Transferase from Trichoderma virens Enhances Cadmium Tolerance without Enhancing Its Accumulation in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Ramachandran, V.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. Results Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and

  2. Glutathione transferase from Trichoderma virens enhances cadmium tolerance without enhancing its accumulation in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachy Dixit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. RESULTS: Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for

  3. Overexpression of snapdragon Delila (Del) gene in tobacco enhances anthocyanin accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Naing, Aung Htay; Park, Kyeung Il; Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Chung, Mi Young; Han, Jeung Sul; Kang, Young-Wha; Lim, Ki Byung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2017-01-01

    Background Rosea1 (Ros1) and Delila (Del) co-expression controls anthocyanin accumulation in snapdragon flowers, while their overexpression in tomato strongly induces anthocyanin accumulation. However, little data exist on how Del expression alone influences anthocyanin accumulation. Results In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum ?Xanthi?), Del expression enhanced leaf and flower anthocyanin production through regulating NtCHS, NtCHI, NtF3H, NtDFR, and NtANS transcript levels. Transgenic lines display...

  4. Hydraulic accumulator-compressor for geopressured enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    A hydraulic accumulator-compressor vessel using geothermal brine under pressure as a piston to compress waste (CO.sub.2 rich) gas is used in a system having a plurality of gas separators in tandem to recover pipeline quality gas from geothermal brine. A first high pressure separator feeds gas to a membrance separator which separates low pressure waste gas from high pressure quality gas. A second separator produces low pressure waste gas. Waste gas from both separators is combined and fed into the vessel through a port at the top as the vessel is drained for another compression cycle. High pressure brine is then admitted into the vessel through a port at the bottom of the vessel. Check valves control the flow of low pressure waste gas into the vessel and high pressure waste gas out of the vessel.

  5. Enhanced triacylglycerol accumulation in vegetative tissues of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changcheng; Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Shanklin, John

    2017-03-14

    In the tgd1-1 mutant that displays substantially enhanced TAG synthesis and turnover, disruption of SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 (SDP1) TAG lipase or PEROXISOMAL TRANSPORTER1 (PXA1) severely decreases FA turnover, leading to an increase in leaf TAG content up to 9% of dry weight and total leaf lipid by three-fold. The membrane lipid content and composition of tgd1-1 sdp1-4 and tgd1-1 pxa1-2 double mutants are altered and they are compromised in growth and development and fertility.

  6. Hierarchical Targeting Strategy for Enhanced Tumor Tissue Accumulation/Retention and Cellular Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Huang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-09-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutic agents is an important way to improve the therapeutic index and reduce side effects. To design nanoparticles for targeted delivery, both enhanced tumor tissue accumulation/retention and enhanced cellular internalization should be considered simultaneously. So far, there have been very few nanoparticles with immutable structures that can achieve this goal efficiently. Hierarchical targeting, a novel targeting strategy based on stimuli responsiveness, shows good potential to enhance both tumor tissue accumulation/retention and cellular internalization. Here, the recent design and development of hierarchical targeting nanoplatforms, based on changeable particle sizes, switchable surface charges and activatable surface ligands, will be introduced. In general, the targeting moieties in these nanoplatforms are not activated during blood circulation for efficient tumor tissue accumulation, but re-activated by certain internal or external stimuli in the tumor microenvironment for enhanced cellular internalization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A Lactobacillus mutant capable of accumulating long-chain polyphosphates that enhance intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Asako; Ishida, Yasuaki; Segawa, Shuichi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Kuroda, Akio

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) was previously identified as a probiotic-derived substance that enhances intestinal barrier function. PolyP-accumulating bacteria are expected to have beneficial effects on the human gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we selected Lactobacillus paracasei JCM 1163 as a strain with the potential to accumulate polyP, because among the probiotic bacteria stored in our laboratory, it had the largest amount of polyP. The chain length of polyP accumulated in L. paracasei JCM 1163 was approximately 700 phosphate (Pi) residues. L. paracasei JCM 1163 accumulated polyP when Pi was added to Pi-starved cells. We further improved the ability of L. paracasei JCM 1163 to accumulate polyP by nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The mutant accumulated polyP at a level of 1500 nmol/mg protein-approximately 190 times that of the wild-type strain. PolyP extracted from the L. paracasei JCM 1163 significantly suppressed the oxidant-induced intestinal permeability in mouse small intestine. In conclusion, we have succeeded in breeding the polyP-accumulating Lactobacillus mutant that is expected to enhance intestinal barrier function.

  8. Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-04-16

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure.

  9. Sonoporation enhances liposome accumulation and penetration in tumors with low EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theek, Benjamin; Baues, Maike; Ojha, Tarun; Möckel, Diana; Veettil, Seena Koyadan; Steitz, Julia; van Bloois, Louis; Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2016-06-10

    The Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect is a highly variable phenomenon. To enhance EPR-mediated passive drug targeting to tumors, several different pharmacological and physical strategies have been evaluated over the years, including e.g. TNFα-treatment, vascular normalization, hyperthermia and radiotherapy. Here, we systematically investigated the impact of sonoporation, i.e. the combination of ultrasound (US) and microbubbles (MB), on the tumor accumulation and penetration of liposomes. Two different MB formulations were employed, and their ability to enhance liposome accumulation and penetration was evaluated in two different tumor models, which are both characterized by relatively low levels of EPR (i.e. highly cellular A431 epidermoid xenografts and highly stromal BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma xenografts). The liposomes were labeled with two different fluorophores, enabling in vivo computed tomography/fluorescence molecular tomography (CT-FMT) and ex vivo two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). In both models, in spite of relatively high inter- and intra-individual variability, a trend towards improved liposome accumulation and penetration was observed. In treated tumors, liposome concentrations were up to twice as high as in untreated tumors, and sonoporation enhanced the ability of liposomes to extravasate out of the blood vessels into the tumor interstitium. These findings indicate that sonoporation may be a useful strategy for improving drug targeting to tumors with low EPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ablative fractional laser enhances MAL-induced PpIX accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Christiansen, K; Erlendsson, Andrés M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional laser enhances accumulation of topical provided photosensitizer, but essential information is lacking on the interaction between laser channel densities and pharmacokinetics. Hence our objectives were to investigate how...... (range 46-133min) induced fluorescence levels similar to curettage and 180min incubation. Furthermore, MAL 80 and 160mg/g induced similar fluorescence intensities in skin exposed to laser densities of 1, 2 and 5% (p>0.0537, 30-180min). CONCLUSION: MAL-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is augmented...... protoporphyrin accumulation was affected by laser densities, incubation time and drug concentration. METHODS: We conducted the study on the back of healthy male volunteers (n=11). Test areas were pretreated with 2940nm ablative fractional Er:YAG laser, 11.2mJ per laser channel using densities of 1, 2, 5, 10...

  11. Tobacco randomly inserted tt8 differenly enhance light signals and flavonoid accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sompornpailin, K.; Kanthang, S.

    2015-01-01

    The individual lines of tobacco over-expressing TT8, a bHLH gene, were constructed and cultured under tissue culture condition radiating with photosynthetically activation radiation (PAR) or PAR+UVA. They were compared to wild type (WT). Leaf of treated plants was extracted and analyzed for flavonoid accumulations using a spectrophotometer. The extract of TT8 plants significantly contained flavone, flavonol and anthocyanin level, higher than the WT extract did. The petal extracts of mature transgenic under PAR had a similar absorbance profile of each substance, but these extracts had higher flavonoid contents than the leaf extracts did. All flavonoid subgroups and p-coumaric acid biosynthesis were significantly enhanced after the additional UVA radiation to plant. This UVA condition slightly stimulated an accumulation of these substances in normal plant. Some transgenic greatly increased flavonoid accumulation in responding to PAR+UVA, but the others were slightly different compared to WT. The distinct insertion site is directly affected TT8 gene expression. Transgenic seeds had a dark brown color more than WT seed, which indicated high content of polymer flavonoids (proanthocyanins). This over-expressing TT8 in transgenic tobacco may directly or indirectly enhance the signal transductions of PAR and UVA and raise up flavonoid accumulation. (author)

  12. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinheng eYu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogues regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

  13. Optimized inorganic carbon regime for enhanced growth and lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Egan J; Gardner, Robert D; Pedersen, Todd; Peyton, Brent M; Cooksey, Keith E; Gerlach, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale algal biofuel production has been limited, among other factors, by the availability of inorganic carbon in the culture medium at concentrations higher than achievable with atmospheric CO2. Life cycle analyses have concluded that costs associated with supplying CO2 to algal cultures are significant contributors to the overall energy consumption. A two-phase optimal growth and lipid accumulation scenario is presented, which (1) enhances the growth rate and (2) the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation rate in the oleaginous Chlorophyte Chlorella vulgaris strain UTEX 395, by growing the organism in the presence of low concentrations of NaHCO3 (5 mM) and controlling the pH of the system with a periodic gas sparge of 5 % CO2 (v/v). Once cultures reached the desired cell densities, which can be "fine-tuned" based on initial nutrient concentrations, cultures were switched to a lipid accumulation metabolism through the addition of 50 mM NaHCO3. This two-phase approach increased the specific growth rate of C. vulgaris by 69 % compared to cultures sparged continuously with 5 % CO2 (v/v); further, biomass productivity (g L(-1) day(-1)) was increased by 27 %. Total biodiesel potential [assessed as total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced] was increased from 53.3 to 61 % (FAME biomass(-1)) under the optimized conditions; biodiesel productivity (g FAME L(-1) day(-1)) was increased by 7.7 %. A bicarbonate salt screen revealed that American Chemical Society (ACS) and industrial grade NaHCO3 induced the highest TAG accumulation (% w/w), whereas Na2CO3 did not induce significant TAG accumulation. NH4HCO3 had a negative effect on cell health presumably due to ammonia toxicity. The raw, unrefined form of trona, NaHCO3∙Na2CO3 (sodium sesquicarbonate) induced TAG accumulation, albeit to a slightly lower extent than the more refined forms of sodium bicarbonate. The strategic addition of sodium bicarbonate was found to enhance growth and lipid accumulation rates in

  14. Enhanced accumulation of atropine in Atropa belladonna transformed by Rac GTPase gene isolated from Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2013-12-01

    Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells.

  15. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillies, Thomas; Werkmeister, Richard; Diest, Paul J van; Brandt, Burkhard; Joos, Ulrich; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p < 0.01) and a significantly increased disease free period (p = 0.01) independent from nodal status and tumour size. In primary node negative T1/T2 SCC of the oral floor, absence of HIF-1α expression specified a subgroup of high-risk patients (p < 0.05). HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy

  16. HIF-1 Alpha and Placental Growth Factor in Pregnancies Complicated With Preeclampsia: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Gayatri; Aggarwal, Ruby; Jawanjal, Poonam; Tripathi, Richa; Batra, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not clearly understood worldwide. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is thought to be the preliminary factor for the hypoxic conditions prevailing in preeclampsia, which causes imbalance in the expression of angiogenic proteins. A proangiogenic protein, placental growth factor (PIGF), is reported to be dysregulated in preeclampsia. Therefore, this study focuses on the investigation of HIF-1α and PIGF in preeclamptic conditions and a possible molecular association between them. Placental tissue (n = 45 + 45) and serum samples (n = 80 + 80) of preeclamptic patients and healthy control were collected and processed for the analysis of HIF-1α and PIGF by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In preeclamptic group, the significant nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of HIF-1α was noticed in syncytiotrophoblast (P = 0.0001) but in control placenta, it was localized to cytoplasm (P = 0.0001). The intensity of PIGF expression was lower in syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm (P = 0.0001) in preeclamptic cases as compared with control. Also, the significant upregulated concentration of HIF-1α and downregulated PIGF was observed in serum samples of preeclamptic woman (P = 0.0001). Thus, there was a significant direct negative correlation between HIF-1α and PIGF both at tissue and serum level (P preeclampsia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Increased susceptibility of HIF-1 alpha heterozygous-null mice to cardiovascular malformations associated with maternal diabetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, Romana; Škvorová, Lada; Sedmera, David; Semenza, G.L.; Pavlínková, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, Jul (2013), s. 129-141 ISSN 0022-2828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/0117; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Diabetic embryopathy * Heart defect * Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery (FGU-C) Impact factor: 5.218, year: 2013

  18. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1alpha dependent re-programming of leukocyte metabolism *

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, A.A.R.; Dickinson, R.S.; Murphy, F.; Thomson, J. P.; Marriott, H.M.; Tavares, A.; Willson, J.; Williams, L.; Lewis, A.; Mirchandani, A.; Dos Santos Coelho, P.; Doherty, C.; Ryan, E.; Watts, E.; Morton, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently co-exist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both S. aureus and S. pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning animals through longer...

  19. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. Methods 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p Conclusion HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy.

  20. Overexpression of snapdragon Delila (Del) gene in tobacco enhances anthocyanin accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Aung Htay; Park, Kyeung Il; Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Chung, Mi Young; Han, Jeung Sul; Kang, Young-Wha; Lim, Ki Byung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2017-03-23

    Rosea1 (Ros1) and Delila (Del) co-expression controls anthocyanin accumulation in snapdragon flowers, while their overexpression in tomato strongly induces anthocyanin accumulation. However, little data exist on how Del expression alone influences anthocyanin accumulation. In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi'), Del expression enhanced leaf and flower anthocyanin production through regulating NtCHS, NtCHI, NtF3H, NtDFR, and NtANS transcript levels. Transgenic lines displayed different anthocyanin colors (e.g., pale red: T 0 -P, red: T 0 -R, and strong red: T 0 -S), resulting from varying levels of biosynthetic gene transcripts. Under salt stress, the T 2 generation had higher total polyphenol content, radical (DPPH, ABTS) scavenging activities, antioxidant-related gene expression, as well as overall greater salt and drought tolerance than wild type (WT). We propose that Del overexpression elevates transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic and antioxidant-related genes, leading to enhanced anthocyanin production and antioxidant activity. The resultant increase of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity improves abiotic stress tolerance.

  1. Enhanced organic contaminants accumulation in crops: Mechanisms, interactions with engineered nanomaterials in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Lizhong

    2018-05-02

    The mechanism of enhanced accumulation of organic contaminants in crops with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) were investigated by co-exposure of crops (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (Swamp morning-glory), Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber), Zea mays L. (corn), Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach) and Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin))to a range of chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)) and ENMs (TiO 2 , Ag, Al 2 O 3 , graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) in soil. Induced by 50 mg kg -1 graphene co-exposure, the increase range of BDE-209, BaP, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PYR, FLU, ANT, and PHEN in the plants were increased in the range of 7.51-36.42, 5.69-32.77, 7.09-59.43, 11.61-66.73, 4.58-57.71, 5.79-109.07, 12.85-109.76, and15.57-127.75 ng g -1 , respectively. The contaminants in ENMs-spiked and control soils were separated into bioavailable, bound and residual fractions using a sequential ultrasonic extraction procedure (SUEP) to investigate the mechanism of the enhanced accumulation. The bioavailable fraction in spiked soils showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) from that in the control, while the bound fraction increased in equal proportion (p > 0.05) to the reduction in the residual fraction. These results implied that ENMs can competitively adsorbed the bound of organic contaminants from soil and co-transferred into crops, followed by a portion of the residual fraction transferred to the bound fraction to maintain the balance of different fractions in soils. The mass balance was all higher than 98.5%, indicating the portion of degraded contaminants was less than 1.5%. These findings could expand our knowledge about the organic contaminants accumulation enhancement in crops with ENMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Asynchronous accumulation of lettuce infectious yellows virus RNAs 1 and 2 and identification of an RNA 1 trans enhancer of RNA 2 accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H H; Tian, T; Rubio, L; Crawford, B; Falk, B W

    2000-07-01

    Time course and mutational analyses were used to examine the accumulation in protoplasts of progeny RNAs of the bipartite Crinivirus, Lettuce infectious yellow virus (LIYV; family Closteroviridae). Hybridization analyses showed that simultaneous inoculation of LIYV RNAs 1 and 2 resulted in asynchronous accumulation of progeny LIYV RNAs. LIYV RNA 1 progeny genomic and subgenomic RNAs could be detected in protoplasts as early as 12 h postinoculation (p.i.) and accumulated to high levels by 24 h p.i. The LIYV RNA 1 open reading frame 2 (ORF 2) subgenomic RNA was the most abundant of all LIYV RNAs detected. In contrast, RNA 2 progeny were not readily detected until ca. 36 h p.i. Mutational analyses showed that in-frame stop codons introduced into five of seven RNA 2 ORFs did not affect accumulation of progeny LIYV RNA 1 or RNA 2, confirming that RNA 2 does not encode proteins necessary for LIYV RNA replication. Mutational analyses also supported that LIYV RNA 1 encodes proteins necessary for replication of LIYV RNAs 1 and 2. A mutation introduced into the LIYV RNA 1 region encoding the overlapping ORF 1B and ORF 2 was lethal. However, mutations introduced into only LIYV RNA 1 ORF 2 resulted in accumulation of progeny RNA 1 near or equal to wild-type RNA 1. In contrast, the RNA 1 ORF 2 mutants did not efficiently support the trans accumulation of LIYV RNA 2. Three distinct RNA 1 ORF 2 mutants were analyzed and all exhibited a similar phenotype for progeny LIYV RNA accumulation. These data suggest that the LIYV RNA 1 ORF 2 encodes a trans enhancer for RNA 2 accumulation.

  3. Organic amendments enhance Pb tolerance and accumulation during micropropagation of Daphne jasminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniewska, Alina; Muszyńska, Ewa; Hanus-Fajerska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Dziurka, Michał; Dziurka, Kinga

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of organic amendments: pineapple pulp (PP) and agar hydrolyzate (AH), on micropropagation and Pb bioaccumulation and tolerance in a woody shrub Daphne jasminea cultured in vitro. The amendments were analyzed for their content of carbohydrates, phenolic acids, and phytohormones and added at a dose of 10 mL L -1 to the medium containing 1.0 mM lead nitrate. Micropropagation coefficient increased by 10.2-16.6 % in PP and AH variants, respectively. Growth tolerance index increased by 22.9-31.8 % for the shoots and by 60.1-82.4 % for the roots. In the absence of Pb, the additives inhibited multiplication and growth of microplantlets. PP and AH facilitated Pb accumulation in plant organs, especially in the roots. PP enhanced bioconcentration factor and AH improved Pb translocation to the shoots. Adaptation to Pb was associated with increased accumulation of phenolics and higher radical scavenging activity. Medium supplementation, particularly with AH, enhanced antiradical activity of Pb-adapted lines but reduced the content of phenolic compounds. The study results indicated that supplementation with organic amendments may be beneficial in in vitro selection against lead toxicity.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Liver Regeneration via Improving Lipid Accumulation and Hippo Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver has the potential to regenerate after injury. It is a challenge to improve liver regeneration (LR after liver resection in clinical practice. Bone morrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown to have a role in various liver diseases. To explore the effects of MSCs on LR, we established a model of 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx. Results revealed that infusion of MSCs could improve LR through enhancing cell proliferation and cell growth during the first 2 days after PHx, and MSCs could also restore liver synthesis function. Infusion of MSCs also improved liver lipid accumulation partly via mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling and enhanced lipid β-oxidation support energy for LR. Rapamycin-induced inhibition of mTOR decreased liver lipid accumulation at 24 h after PHx, leading to impaired LR. And after infusion of MSCs, a proinflammatory environment formed in the liver, evidenced by increased expression of IL-6 and IL-1β, and thus the STAT3 and Hippo-YAP pathways were activated to improve cell proliferation. Our results demonstrated the function of MSCs on LR after PHx and provided new evidence for stem cell therapy of liver diseases.

  5. Enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in genetically engineered pineapple plants using soybean ferritin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Minal; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2011-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr., cv. "Queen") leaf bases were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring the pSF and pEFESF plasmids with soybean ferritin cDNA. Four to eight percent of the co-cultivated leaf bases produced multiple shoots 6 weeks after transfer to Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid 1.8 mg/l, indole-3-butyric acid 2.0 mg/l, kinetin 2.0 mg/l, cefotaxime 400 mg/l, and kanamycin 50 mg/l. Putatively transformed shoots (1-2 cm) were selected and multiplied on medium of the same composition and elongated shoots (5 cm) were rooted on liquid rooting medium supplemented with cefotaxime 400 mg/l and kanamycin 100 mg/l. The rooted plants were analyzed through PCR, genomic Southern analysis, and reverse transcription PCR. The results clearly confirmed the integration and expression of soybean ferritin gene in the transformed plants. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis carried out with six independently transformed lines of pSF and pEFE-SF revealed a maximum of 5.03-fold increase in iron and 2.44-fold increase in zinc accumulation in the leaves of pSF-transformed plants. In pEFE-SF-transformed plants, a 3.65-fold increase in iron and 2.05-fold increase in zinc levels was observed. Few of the transgenic plants were hardened in the greenhouse and are being grown to maturity to determine the enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in the fruits. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the transformation of pineapple with soybean ferritin for enhanced accumulation of iron and zinc content in the transgenic plants.

  6. Enhanced spin accumulation in Fe3O4 based spin injection devices below the Verwey transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shwetha G.; Kumar, P. S. Anil

    2016-12-01

    Spin injection into GaAs and Si (both n and p-type) semiconductors using Fe3O4 is achieved with and without a tunnel barrier (MgO) via three-terminal electrical Hanle measurement. Interestingly, the magnitude of spin accumulation voltage (ΔV) in semiconductor is found to be associated with a drastic increment in ΔV in Fe3O4 based devices for temperature metal-to-insulator transition of Fe3O4 at T V. Observations from our elaborate investigations show that spin polarization of Fe3O4 has an explicit influence on the enhanced spin injection. It is argued that the theoretical prediction of half-metallicity of Fe3O4 above and below T V has to be reinvestigated.

  7. GmCLC1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance through Regulating Chloride Accumulation in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The family of chloride channel proteins that mediate Cl- transportation play vital roles in plant nutrient supply, cellular action potential and turgor pressure adjustment, stomatal movement, hormone signal recognition and transduction, Cl- homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The anionic toxicity, mainly caused by chloride ions (Cl-, on plants under salt stress remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the function of soybean Cl-/H+ antiporter GmCLC1 under salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, soybean, and yeast. We found that GmCLC1 enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic A. thaliana by reducing the Cl- accumulation in shoots and hence released the negative impact of salt stress on plant growth. Overexpression of GmCLC1 in the hairy roots of soybean sequestered more Cl- in their roots and transferred less Cl- to their shoots, leading to lower relative electrolyte leakage values in the roots and leaves. When either the soybean GmCLC1 or the yeast chloride transporter gene, GEF1, was transformed into the yeast gef1 mutant, and then treated with different chloride salts (MnCl2, KCl, NaCl, enhanced survival rate was observed. The result indicates that GmCLC1 and GEF1 exerted similar effects on alleviating the stress of diverse chloride salts on the yeast gef1 mutant. Together, this work suggests a protective function of GmCLC1 under Cl- stress.

  8. Effect of oxygen on cardiac differentiation in mouse iPS cells: role of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya L Medley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disturbances in oxygen levels have been found to impair cardiac organogenesis. It is known that stem cells and differentiating cells may respond variably to hypoxic conditions, whereby hypoxia may enhance stem cell pluripotency, while differentiation of multiple cell types can be restricted or enhanced under hypoxia. Here we examined whether HIF-1alpha modulated Wnt signaling affected differentiation of iPS cells into beating cardiomyocytes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether transient and sustained hypoxia affects differentiation of cardiomyocytes derived from murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, assessed the involvement of HIF-1alpha (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and the canonical Wnt pathway in this process. METHODS: Embryoid bodies (EBs derived from iPS cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes and were exposed either to 24 h normoxia or transient hypoxia followed by a further 13 days of normoxic culture. RESULTS: At 14 days of differentiation, 59 ± 2% of normoxic EBs were beating, whilst transient hypoxia abolished beating at 14 days and EBs appeared immature. Hypoxia induced a significant increase in Brachyury and islet-1 mRNA expression, together with reduced troponin C expression. Collectively, these data suggest that transient and sustained hypoxia inhibits maturation of differentiating cardiomyocytes. Compared to normoxia, hypoxia increased HIF-1alpha, Wnt target and ligand genes in EBs, as well as accumulation of HIF-1alpha and beta-catenin in nuclear protein extracts, suggesting involvement of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia impairs cardiomyocyte differentiation and activates Wnt signaling in undifferentiated iPS cells. Taken together the study suggests that oxygenation levels play a critical role in cardiomyocyte differentiation and suggest that hypoxia may play a role in early cardiogenesis.

  9. Screening of chelating ligands to enhance mercury accumulation from historically mercury-contaminated soils for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxu; Xia, Jicheng; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-01-15

    ligand for phytoextraction due to its great potential to enhance Hg accumulation in plants while decreasing bioavailable Hg concentration in the soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical Simulations for Enhanced Methane Recovery from Gas Hydrate Accumulations by Utilizing CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara, Prathyusha

    In 2013, the International Energy Outlook (EIA, 2013) projected that global energy demand will grow by 56% between 2010 and 2040. Despite strong growth in renewable energy supplies, much of this growth is expected to be met by fossil fuels. Concerns ranging from greenhouse gas emissions and energy security are spawning new interests for other sources of energy including renewable and unconventional fossil fuel such as shale gas and oil as well as gas hydrates. The production methods as well as long-term reservoir behavior of gas hydrate deposits have been under extensive investigation. Reservoir simulators can be used to predict the production potentials of hydrate formations and to determine which technique results in enhanced gas recovery. In this work, a new simulation tool, Mix3HydrateResSim (Mix3HRS), which accounts for complex thermodynamics of multi-component hydrate phase comprised of varying hydrate solid crystal structure, is used to perform the CO2-assisted production technique simulations from CH4 hydrate accumulations. The simulator is one among very few reservoir simulators which can simulate the process of CH4 substitution by CO2 (and N2 ) in the hydrate lattice. Natural gas hydrate deposits around the globe are categorized into three different classes based on the characteristics of the geological sediments present in contact with the hydrate bearing deposits. Amongst these, the Class 2 hydrate accumulations predominantly confirmed in the permafrost and along seashore, are characterized by a mobile aqueous phase underneath a hydrate bearing sediment. The exploitation of such gas hydrate deposits results in release of large amounts of water due to the presence of permeable water-saturated sediments encompassing the hydrate deposits, thus lowering the produced gas rates. In this study, a suite of numerical simulation scenarios with varied complexity are considered which aimed at understanding the underlying changes in physical, thermodynamic and

  11. Sulfate and glutathione enhanced arsenic accumulation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Ma, Lena Q.; Saha, Uttam; Mathews, Shiny; Sundaram, Sabarinath; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Zhou Qixing

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of sulfate (S) and reduced glutathione (GSH) on arsenic uptake by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata after exposing to arsenate (0, 15 or 30 mg As L -1 ) with sulfate (6.4, 12.8 or 25.6 mg S L -1 ) or GSH (0, 0.4 or 0.8 mM) for 2-wk. Total arsenic, S and GSH concentrations in plant biomass and arsenic speciation in the growth media and plant biomass were determined. While both S (18-85%) and GSH (77-89%) significantly increased arsenic uptake in P. vittata, GSH also increased arsenic translocation by 61-85% at 0.4 mM (p < 0.05). Sulfate and GSH did not impact plant biomass or arsenic speciation in the media and biomass. The S-induced arsenic accumulation by P. vittata was partially attributed to increased plant GSH (21-31%), an important non-enzymatic antioxidant countering oxidative stress. This experiment demonstrated that S and GSH can effectively enhance arsenic uptake and translocation by P. vittata. - Sulfate and glutathione increased arsenic uptake and translocation in Pteris vittata.

  12. PPAR alpha-activation results in enhanced carnitine biosynthesis and OCTN2-mediated hepatic carnitine accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlies, Naomi; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Turkenburg, Marjolein; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Vaz, Frédéric M.

    2007-01-01

    In fasted rodents hepatic carnitine concentration increases considerably which is not observed in PPAR alpha-/- mice, indicating that PPAR alpha is involved in carnitine homeostasis. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the PPAR alpha-dependent hepatic carnitine accumulation we measured

  13. Enhanced accumulation of glycogen, lipids and polyhydroxybutyrate under optimal nutrients and light intensities in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshupanee, T; Incharoensakdi, A

    2014-04-01

    Glycogen (GL) and lipids (LP) are efficient biofuel substrates, whereas polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a potent biodegradable plastic. This study aimed to increase accumulation of these three compounds in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Under autophototrophic growth, co-accumulation of the three compounds reached maximum level in a mid-stationary phase at 39·2% of dry weight (22·7% GL, 14·1% LP and 2·4% PHB). Nitrogen deprivation increased this to 61·5% (36·8% GL, 11·2% LP and 13·5% PHB), higher than that achieved by phosphorus, sulfur, iron or calcium deprivation. Combining nitrogen deprivation with 0·4% (w/v) glucose addition for heterophototrophic growth and optimizing the light intensity (200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ) synergistically enhanced combined accumulation to 71·1% of biomass (41·3% GL, 16·7% LP and 13·1% PHB), a higher level than previously reported in Synechocystis. However, the maximum coproductivity of GL, LP and PHB (at 0·72 g l(-1) ) was obtained in the 12-day heterophototrophic culture without nitrogen deprivation. Accumulation of GL, LP and PHB was enhanced under both autophototrophic and heterophototrophic conditions by optimizations of nutrient and light supplies. This study provides a means for increasing co-production of potent bioenergy substrates and useful biomaterials in Synechocystis which may also be applicable to other cyanobacteria. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Expression of an Arabidopsis Ca2+/H+ antiporter CAX1 variant in petunia enhances cadmium tolerance and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyu; Shigaki, Toshiro; Williams, Kimberly A; Han, Jeung-Sul; Kim, Chang Kil; Hirschi, Kendal D; Park, Sunghun

    2011-01-15

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective and minimally invasive technology to cleanse soils contaminated with heavy metals. However, few plant species are suitable for phytoremediation of metals such as cadmium (Cd). Genetic engineering offers a powerful tool to generate plants that can hyperaccumulate Cd. An Arabidopsis CAX1 mutant (CAXcd), which confers enhanced Cd transport in yeast, was ectopically expressed in petunia to evaluate whether the CAXcd expression would enhance Cd tolerance and accumulation in planta. The CAXcd-expressing petunia plants showed significantly greater Cd tolerance and accumulation than the controls. After being treated with either 50 or 100μM CdCl(2) for 6 weeks, the CAXcd-expressing plants showed more vigorous growth compared with controls, and the transgenic plants accumulated significantly more Cd (up to 2.5-fold) than controls. Moreover, the accumulation of Cd did not affect the development and morphology of the CAXcd-expressing petunia plants until the flowering and ultimately the maturing of seeds. Therefore, petunia has the potential to serve as a model species for developing herbaceous, ornamental plants for phytoremediation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells under LDL loading is independent of LDL receptor pathway and enhanced by hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Youichiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Yamamoto, Takashi; Naito, Makoto; Noguchi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Tsujita, Maki; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Mika; Izumi, Akashi; Kohro, Takahide; Tanaka, Toshiya; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Koyama, Hidenori; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Shizuya; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Niki, Etsuo; Hamakubo, Takao; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2002-10-01

    The effect of a variety of hypoxic conditions on lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was studied in an arterial wall coculture and monocultivation model. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was loaded under various levels of oxygen tension. Oil red O staining of rabbit and human SMCs revealed that lipid accumulation was greater under lower oxygen tension. Cholesterol esters were shown to accumulate in an oxygen tension-dependent manner by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Autoradiograms using radiolabeled LDL indicated that LDL uptake was more pronounced under hypoxia. This result holds in the case of LDL receptor-deficient rabbit SMCs. However, cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular cholesterol release were unaffected by oxygen tension. Hypoxia significantly increases LDL uptake and enhances lipid accumulation in arterial SMCs, exclusive of LDL receptor activity. Although the molecular mechanism is not clear, the model is useful for studying lipid accumulation in arterial wall cells and the difficult-to-elucidate events in the initial stage of atherogenesis.

  16. New ways in enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Kislushko, P.; Znebrakova, I.; Matsko, V.

    1994-01-01

    Soil contamination with long-lived isotopes as a result of Chernobyl nuclear accident necessitates substantially of crop raising procedures. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. In particular application of Fisher's mineral mix in concentration of 100, 200, 300, g/m 2 to soil decreased the 137 Cs accumulation in green material of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) 1.1:1.3 and 2.2 times respectively and 1.2:1.1 and 1.1 times, respectively in green material of barley (Hordeum Vulgaris L.). The decrease of 90 Sr accumulation in green material of barley and lupine was similar. On the other hand chloroplasts isolated from showed higher activities of photochemical reactions and the light-dependent ATP enzyme. During the whole growing period of such plants the chlorophyll and protein concentration per wet unit mass were higher than those in control, therefore the high vital activity period in the former case was substantially extended. It has been also found that application of biologically active compounds and trace elements enhances photosynthetic and production activities of plants, reducing level radionuclide accumulation in the harvest. It is found that application of protectants and growth regulators to rye crops also reduces 137 Cs accumulation in green material in booting and earing phases. This finding suggests that this compounds activate the photosynthetic apparatus, reducing level radionuclide accumulation. (author)

  17. The location and nature of accumulated phosphorus in seven sludges from activated sludge plants which exhibited enhanced phosphorus removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchan, L.

    1981-01-01

    Electron microscopy combined with the energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) has been used to examine the nature of the phosphorus accumulated in sludges from seven activated sludge plants exhibiting enhanced phosphorus removal. Large phosphorus accumulations were located in identical structures in the sludges examined. The phosphorus was located in large electron-dense bodies, within large bacterial cells which were characteristically grouped in clusters. The calcium:phosphorus ratio of these electron-dense bodies precluded them from being any form of calcium phosphate precipitate. Quantitative analysis indicated that the electron-dense bodies contained in excess of 30% phosphorus. The results obtained are supportive of a biological mechanism of enhanced phosphorus uptake in activated sludge

  18. Enhanced Toxic Metal Accumulation in Engineered Bacterial Cells Expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Phytochelatin Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Cuiné, Stéphan; Carrier, Patrick; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Luu, Doan-Trung; Peltier, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are metal-binding cysteine-rich peptides, enzymatically synthesized in plants and yeasts from glutathione in response to heavy metal stress by PC synthase (EC 2.3.2.15). In an attempt to increase the ability of bacterial cells to accumulate heavy metals, the Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding PC synthase (AtPCS) was expressed in Escherichia coli. A marked accumulation of PCs was observed in vivo together with a decrease in the glutathione cellular content. When bacterial cells expressing AtPCS were placed in the presence of heavy metals such as cadmium or the metalloid arsenic, cellular metal contents were increased 20- and 50-fold, respectively. We discuss the possibility of using genes of the PC biosynthetic pathway to design bacterial strains or higher plants with increased abilities to accumulate toxic metals, and also arsenic, for use in bioremediation and/or phytoremediation processes. PMID:12514032

  19. Desferrioxamine, an iron chelator, enhances HIF-1α accumulation via cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Kyung Jin; Lee, Tae-Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important inducible enzyme in inflammation and is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis through increase of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in a number of neoplasms, including colorectal carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated some mechanistic aspects of DFX-induced hypoxia-driven COX-2 expression. Desferrioxamine (DFX), an iron chelator, is known to upregulate inflammatory mediators. DFX induced the expression of COX-2 and accumulation of HIF-1α protein in dose-dependent manners, but hypoxia mimetic agent cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein but not increase of COX-2 expression. DFX-induced increase of COX-2 expression and HIF-1α protein level was attenuated by addition of ferric citrate. This result suggested that the iron chelating function of DFX was important to induce the increase of COX-2 and HIF-1α protein. PD98059 significantly inhibited the induction of COX-2 protein and accumulation of HIF-1α, suggesting that DFX-induced increase of HIF-1α and COX-2 protein was mediated, at least in part, through the ERK signaling pathway. In addition, pretreatment with NS-398 to inhibit COX-2 activity also effectively suppressed DFX-induced HIF-1α accumulation in human colon cancer cells, providing the evidence that COX-2 plays as a regulator of HIF-1α accumulation in DFX-treated colon cancer cells. Together, our findings suggest that iron metabolism may regulate stabilization of HIF-1α protein by modulating cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway

  20. Photo-Oxidative Stress-Driven Mutagenesis and Adaptive Evolution on the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum for Enhanced Carotenoid Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Yi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine diatoms have recently gained much attention as they are expected to be a promising resource for sustainable production of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and biofuels as a future clean energy solution. To develop photosynthetic cell factories, it is important to improve diatoms for value-added products. In this study, we utilized UVC radiation to induce mutations in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and screened strains with enhanced accumulation of neutral lipids and carotenoids. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE was also used in parallel to develop altered phenotypic and biological functions in P. tricornutum and it was reported for the first time that ALE was successfully applied on diatoms for the enhancement of growth performance and productivity of value-added carotenoids to date. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was utilized to study the composition of major pigments in the wild type P. tricornutum, UV mutants and ALE strains. UVC radiated strains exhibited higher accumulation of fucoxanthin as well as neutral lipids compared to their wild type counterpart. In addition to UV mutagenesis, P. tricornutum strains developed by ALE also yielded enhanced biomass production and fucoxanthin accumulation under combined red and blue light. In short, both UV mutagenesis and ALE appeared as an effective approach to developing desired phenotypes in the marine diatoms via electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma: the correlation between the enhancement in arterial-phase and lipiodol accumulation after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Lilian; Li Yangbing; Li Shuxin; Jiang Jindai; Li Zhimin; Liang Tongjie; Zhou Shaoping; Han Minjun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between enhancement in arterial-phase, indicating arterial blood supply of the lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma and lipiodol accumulation after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy. Methods: CT images of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in 32 cases during the hepatic arterial-phase were retrospectively compared with the CT images of lipiodol distribution within the tumor after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy. Results: The lipiodol distribution was classified into five types: homogeneous and compact(n=11), inhomogeneous though compact (n=7), scanty(n=5), poorly filled(n=3) and miscellaneous (n=3). The lipiodol has a homogeneous or inhomogeneous but compact distribution when remarkable enhancement of the tumor or dominant neoplastic vascularity was demonstrated during hepatic arterial-phase. The lipiodol distribution was scanty, poorly filled, or miscellaneous distributed in the nidus of the hepatocellular carcinoma with no or poor enhancement, or with hypo-vascularity during hepatic arterial-phase. Where there was abundant vascularity of the tumor, there would be a satisfying accumulation of the lipiodol. Conclusion: The CT assessmant of the arterial-phase vascularity of the hepatocellular provides valuable information of lipiodol accumulation after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy. (authors)

  2. Reactive oxygen species-generating mitochondrial DNA mutation up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha gene transcription via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt/protein kinase C/histone deacetylase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshikawa, Nobuko; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi; Nakagawara, Akira; Takenaga, Keizo

    2009-11-27

    Lewis lung carcinoma-derived high metastatic A11 cells constitutively overexpress hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha mRNA compared with low metastatic P29 cells. Because A11 cells exclusively possess a G13997A mutation in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) gene, we addressed here a causal relationship between the ND6 mutation and the activation of HIF-1alpha transcription, and we investigated the potential mechanism. Using trans-mitochondrial cybrids between A11 and P29 cells, we found that the ND6 mutation was directly involved in HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression. Stimulation of HIF-1alpha transcription by the ND6 mutation was mediated by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways. The up-regulation of HIF-1alpha transcription was abolished by mithramycin A, an Sp1 inhibitor, but luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that Sp1 was necessary but not sufficient for HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression in A11 cells. On the other hand, trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, markedly suppressed HIF-1alpha transcription in A11 cells. In accordance with this, HDAC activity was high in A11 cells but low in P29 cells and in A11 cells treated with the ROS scavenger ebselene, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and the PKC inhibitor Ro31-8220. These results suggest that the ROS-generating ND6 mutation increases HIF-1alpha transcription via the PI3K-Akt/PKC/HDAC pathway, leading to HIF-1alpha protein accumulation in hypoxic tumor cells.

  3. Enhanced lysosomal acidification leads to increased chloroquine accumulation in CHO cells expressing the pfmdr1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, H. H.; Renkema, H.; Aerts, H.; Schurr, E.

    1994-01-01

    Expression of the pfmdr1-encoded Pgh1 protein of Plasmodium falciparum in CHO cells confers a phenotype of increased sensitivity to chloroquine due to an increased Pgh1-mediated accumulation of this antimalarial. Pgh1 carrying amino acid substitutions associated with chloroquine resistance in P.

  4. Engineering cell wall synthesis mechanism for enhanced PHB accumulation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-Chen; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Chen, Xin-Guang; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The rigidity of bacterial cell walls synthesized by a complicated pathway limit the cell shapes as coccus, bar or ellipse or even fibers. A less rigid bacterium could be beneficial for intracellular accumulation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as granular inclusion bodies. To understand how cell rigidity affects PHB accumulation, E. coli cell wall synthesis pathway was reinforced and weakened, respectively. Cell rigidity was achieved by thickening the cell walls via insertion of a constitutive gltA (encoding citrate synthase) promoter in front of a series of cell wall synthesis genes on the chromosome of several E. coli derivatives, resulting in 1.32-1.60 folds increase of Young's modulus in mechanical strength for longer E. coli cells over-expressing fission ring FtsZ protein inhibiting gene sulA. Cell rigidity was weakened by down regulating expressions of ten genes in the cell wall synthesis pathway using CRISPRi, leading to elastic cells with more spaces for PHB accumulation. The regulation on cell wall synthesis changes the cell rigidity: E. coli with thickened cell walls accumulated only 25% PHB while cell wall weakened E. coli produced 93% PHB. Manipulation on cell wall synthesis mechanism adds another possibility to morphology engineering of microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0-50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher amount thereof found in the NM ecotype. Concentrations of PCs remained unchanged with increasing Cd concentrations in the root tissues, but their content in the shoots increased. The addition of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) diminished glutathione (GSH) accumulation and arrested PC production, which increased the sensitivity to Cd of the NM, but not M ecotype. Organic acids (malate and citrate) as well as proline accumulation did not change significantly after Cd exposition and was at the same level in both ecotypes. The enhanced Cd tolerance of the M ecotype of D. carthusianorum cannot be explained in terms of restricted Cd uptake and differential production of PCs, organic acids or proline; some other mechanisms must be involved in its adaptation to the high Cd content in the environment.

  6. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: I. Autotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the microalgae-growth promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense on accumulation of total carbohydrates and starch in two species of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella sorokiniana), when the bacterium and each microalga were jointly immobilized in alginate beads was studied under autotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic medium. The interaction of the bacterium with the microalgae enhanced accumulation of total carbohydrate and starch. Cells of Chlorella accumulated the highest amounts of carbohydrate after incubation for 24h. Yet, this did not coincide with the highest affinity and volumetric productivity measured in these cultures. However, after incubation for 72 h, mainly in jointly immobilized treatments of both microalgae species, the cultures reached their highest total carbohydrate content (mainly as starch) and also the highest affinity and volumetric productivity. These results demonstrate the potential of A. brasilense to affect carbohydrates and starch accumulation in Chlorella spp. when both microorganisms are co-cultured, which can be an important tool for applications of microalgae. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.

  8. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: II. Heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense jointly immobilized with Chlorella vulgaris or C. sorokiniana in alginate beads on total carbohydrates and starch was studied under dark and heterotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic growth medium supplemented with either d-glucose or Na-acetate as carbon sources. In all treatments, enhanced total carbohydrates and starch content per culture and per cell was obtained after 24h; only jointly immobilized C. vulgaris growing on d-glucose significantly increased total carbohydrates and starch content after 96 h. Enhanced accumulation of carbohydrate and starch under jointly immobilized conditions was variable with time of sampling and substrate used. Similar results occurred when the microalgae was immobilized alone. In both microalgae growing on either carbon sources, the bacterium promoted accumulation of carbohydrates and starch; when the microalgae were immobilized alone, they used the carbon sources for cell multiplication. In jointly immobilized conditions with Chlorella spp., affinity to carbon source and volumetric productivity and yield were higher than when Chlorella spp. were immobilized alone; however, the growth rate was higher in microalgae immobilized alone. This study demonstrates that under heterotrophic conditions, A. brasilense promotes the accumulation of carbohydrates in two strains Chlorella spp. under certain time-substrate combinations, producing mainly starch. As such, this bacterium is a biological factor that can change the composition of compounds in microalgae in dark, heterotrophic conditions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Antirrhinum AmDEL gene enhances flavonoids accumulation and salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feibing; Zhu, Hong; Kong, Weili; Peng, Rihe; Liu, Qingchang; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-07-01

    A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene from Antirrhinum, AmDEL , increases flavonoids accumulation and enhances salt and drought tolerance via up-regulating flavonoid biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. In plants, transcriptional regulation is the most important tools for increasing flavonoid biosynthesis. The AmDEL gene, as a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene from Antirrhinum, has been shown to increase flavonoids accumulation in tomato. However, its role in tolerance to abiotic stresses has not yet been investigated. In this study, the codon-optimized AmDEL gene was chemically synthesized. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that AmDEL protein was localized to the nucleus. Expression analysis in yeast showed that the full length of AmDEL exhibited transcriptional activation. Overexpression of AmDEL significantly increased flavonoids accumulation and enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that overexpression of AmDEL resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging under salt and drought stresses. Meanwhile, Western blot and enzymatic analyses showed that the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol reductase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were also increased. Further components analyses indicated that the significant increase of proline and relative water content and the significant reduction of H2O2 and malonaldehyde content were observed under salt and drought stresses. In addition, the rates of electrolyte leakage and water loss were reduced in transgenic plants. These findings imply functions of AmDEL in accumulation of flavonoids and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. The AmDEL gene has the potential to be used to increase

  10. Natural variants of AtHKT1 enhance Na+ accumulation in two wild populations of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rus

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile and therefore have developed mechanisms to adapt to their environment, including the soil mineral nutrient composition. Ionomics is a developing functional genomic strategy designed to rapidly identify the genes and gene networks involved in regulating how plants acquire and accumulate these mineral nutrients from the soil. Here, we report on the coupling of high-throughput elemental profiling of shoot tissue from various Arabidopsis accessions with DNA microarray-based bulk segregant analysis and reverse genetics, for the rapid identification of genes from wild populations of Arabidopsis that are involved in regulating how plants acquire and accumulate Na(+ from the soil. Elemental profiling of shoot tissue from 12 different Arabidopsis accessions revealed that two coastal populations of Arabidopsis collected from Tossa del Mar, Spain, and Tsu, Japan (Ts-1 and Tsu-1, respectively, accumulate higher shoot levels of Na(+ than do Col-0 and other accessions. We identify AtHKT1, known to encode a Na(+ transporter, as being the causal locus driving elevated shoot Na(+ in both Ts-1 and Tsu-1. Furthermore, we establish that a deletion in a tandem repeat sequence approximately 5 kb upstream of AtHKT1 is responsible for the reduced root expression of AtHKT1 observed in these accessions. Reciprocal grafting experiments establish that this loss of AtHKT1 expression in roots is responsible for elevated shoot Na(+. Interestingly, and in contrast to the hkt1-1 null mutant, under NaCl stress conditions, this novel AtHKT1 allele not only does not confer NaCl sensitivity but also cosegregates with elevated NaCl tolerance. We also present all our elemental profiling data in a new open access ionomics database, the Purdue Ionomics Information Management System (PiiMS; http://www.purdue.edu/dp/ionomics. Using DNA microarray-based genotyping has allowed us to rapidly identify AtHKT1 as the casual locus driving the natural variation in shoot Na

  11. INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

    2007-01-01

    The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation

  12. New ways enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N. V; Zebrakova, I. V.; Matsko, V. P.; Kislushko, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    After Chernobyl nuclear accident it has become very important to seek new ways of enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. A great number of biologically active compounds have been tested, which increased the disease resistance of plants and simultaneously activated the physiological and biochemical processes that control the transport of micro- and macroelements (radionuclide included) and their 'soil-root-stem-leaf' redistribution. (author)

  13. Enhanced lipid accumulation and biodiesel production by oleaginous Chlorella protothecoides under a structured heterotrophic-iron (II) induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqin; Mu, Jinxiu; Chen, Di; Xu, Hua; Han, Fangxin

    2015-05-01

    A structured heterotrophic-iron (II) induction (HII) strategy was proposed to enhance lipid accumulation in oleaginous Chlorella protothecoides. C. protothecoides subjected to heterotrophic-iron (II) induction achieved a favorable lipid accumulation up to 62 % and a maximum lipid productivity of 820.17 mg/day, representing 2.78-fold and 3.64-fold increase respectively over heterotrophic cultivation alone. HII-induced cells produced significantly elevated levels of 16:0, 18:1(Δ9), and 18:2(Δ9,12) fatty acids (over 90 %). The lipid contents and plant lipid-like fatty acid compositions exhibit the potential of HII-induced C. protothecoides as biodiesel feedstock. Furthermore, 31 altered proteins in HII-induced algal cells were successfully identified. These differentially expressed proteins were assigned into nine molecular function categories, including carbohydrate metabolism, lipid biosynthesis, Calvin cycle, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, energy and transport, protein biosynthesis, regulate and defense, and unclassified. Analysis using the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes and gene ontology annotation showed that malic enzyme, acyltransferase, and ACP were key metabolic checkpoints found to modulate lipid accumulation in C. protothecoides. The results provided possible applications of HII cultivation strategy in other microalgal species and new possibilities in developing genetic and metabolic engineering microalgae for desirable lipid productivity.

  14. Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid and tocopherols. In this study, two lettuce cultivars, Shenxuan 1 and Lollo Rossa, were hydroponically cultured in media containing 4.5, 9, or 18 mM glycine or 9 mM nitrate (control for 4 weeks, and the levels of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of the lettuce leaf extracts were evaluated. Glycine significantly reduced fresh weight compared to control lettuce, while 9 mM glycine significantly increased fresh weight compared to 4.5 or 18 mM glycine. Compared to controls, glycine (18 mM for Shenxuan 1; 9 mM for Lollo Rossa significantly increased the levels of most antioxidants (including total polyphenols, α-tocopherol and antioxidant activity, suggesting appropriate glycine supply promotes antioxidant accumulation and activity. Glycine induced most glycosylated quercetin derivatives and luteolin derivatives detected and decreased some phenolic acids compared to nitrate treatment. This study indicates exogenous glycine supplementation could be used strategically to promote the accumulation of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroponically grown lettuce, which could potentially improve human nutrition.

  15. Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Cui, Xiaoxian; Zhao, Li; Guo, Doudou; Feng, Lei; Wei, Shiwei; Zhao, Chao; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-01-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid and tocopherols. In this study, two lettuce cultivars, Shenxuan 1 and Lollo Rossa, were hydroponically cultured in media containing 4.5, 9, or 18 mM glycine or 9 mM nitrate (control) for 4 weeks, and the levels of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of the lettuce leaf extracts were evaluated. Glycine significantly reduced fresh weight compared to control lettuce, while 9 mM glycine significantly increased fresh weight compared to 4.5 or 18 mM glycine. Compared to controls, glycine (18 mM for Shenxuan 1; 9 mM for Lollo Rossa) significantly increased the levels of most antioxidants (including total polyphenols, α-tocopherol) and antioxidant activity, suggesting appropriate glycine supply promotes antioxidant accumulation and activity. Glycine induced most glycosylated quercetin derivatives and luteolin derivatives detected and decreased some phenolic acids compared to nitrate treatment. This study indicates exogenous glycine supplementation could be used strategically to promote the accumulation of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroponically grown lettuce, which could potentially improve human nutrition.

  16. α-Naphthoflavone Increases Lipid Accumulation in Mature Adipocytes and Enhances Adipocyte-Stimulated Endothelial Tube Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Lin Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a ligand-activated factor that regulates biological effects associated with obesity. The AhR agonists, such as environmental contaminants 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD and β-naphthoflavone (BNF, inhibit preadipocyte differentiation and interfere with the functions of adipose tissue, whereas the antagonist may have opposite or protective effects in obesity. This study investigated the effects of α-naphthoflavone (α-NF, an AhR antagonist, on adipogenesis- and angiogenesis-associated factors in mature adipocytes and on cross-talk of mature adipocytes with endothelial cells (ECs. Besides, the roles of the AhR on lipid accumulation and on secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor were also determined by introducing siRNA of AhR. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with α-naphthoflavone (α-NF (1–5 μM for 16 h. Lipid accumulation and the expressions of AhR-associated factors in the cells were determined. The interaction between adipocytes and ECs was investigated by cultivating ECs with conditioned medium (CM from α-NF-treated mature adipocytes, followed by the determination of endothelial tube formation. The results showed that α-NF significantly increased triglyceride (TG accumulation in mature adipocytes, which was associated with increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, estrogen receptor (ER, as well as decreased expression of AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT, cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1, and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (NRF-2 proteins. In addition, CM stimulated formation of tube-like structures in ECs, and α-NF further enhanced such stimulation in association with modulated the secretions of various angiogenic mediators by mature adipocytes. Similarly, increased TG accumulation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion were observed in AhR-knockout cells. In conclusion, α-NF increased TG accumulation in mature adipocytes and

  17. Enhancing phytoextraction: the effect of chemical soil manipulation on mobility, plant accumulation, and leaching of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    For heavy metal-contaminated agricultural land, low-cost, plant-based phytoextraction measures can be a key element for a new land management strategy. When agents are applied into the soil, the solubility of heavy metals and their subsequent accumulation by plants can be increased, and, therefore, phytoextraction enhanced. An overview is given of the state of the art of enhancing heavy metal solubility in soils, increasing the heavy metal accumulation of several high-biomass-yielding and metal-tolerant plants, and the effect of these measures on the risk of heavy metal leaching. Several organic as well as inorganic agents can effectively and specifically increase solubility and, therefore, accumulation of heavy metals by several plant species. Crops like willow (Salix viminalis L.), Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.], corn (Zea mays L.), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) show high tolerance to heavy metals and are, therefore, to a certain extent able to use the surpluses that originate from soil manipulation. More than 100-fold increases of lead concentrations in the biomass of crops were reported, when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied to contaminated soils. Uranium concentrations could be strongly increased when citric acid was applied. Cadmium and zinc concentrations could be enhanced by inorganic agents like elemental sulfur or ammonium sulfate. However, leaching of heavy metals due to increased mobility in soils cannot be excluded. Thus, implementation on the field scale must consider measures to minimize leaching. So, the application of more than 1 g EDTA kg(-1) becomes inefficient as lead concentration in crops is not enhanced and leaching rate increases. Moreover, for large-scale applications, agricultural measures as placement of agents, dosage splitting, the kind and amount of agents applied, and the soil properties are important factors governing plant growth, heavy metal concentrations, and leaching rates. Effective

  18. Enhanced growth and fatty acid accumulation of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by two types of auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Guo-Hua; Wu, Guang-Xue; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Zhuang, Lin-Lan; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae are potential candidates for the production of valuable products, such as renewable biodiesel, health products and pigments. However, low biomass productivity has restricted their large-scale applications. In this study, the effects of two auxins (one natural type of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the other synthetic type of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on the growth and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) production of a freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were investigated. Both auxins showed a "low dosage-promotion and high dosage-inhibition" effect on the growth and FAMEs accumulation. The optimum dosage of IAA and 2,4-D were 1mgL -1 and 0.1mgL -1 , respectively. Moreover, the IAA could increase the monounsaturated fatty acid content. The auxins may promote the growth by enhancing the photosynthetic activity through increasing chlorophyll contents. Therefore, auxin significantly enhanced microalgal growth and FAMEs accumulation, and has a potential for application in developing efficient microalgal cultivation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Ultraviolet Radiation-Elicited Enhancement of Isoflavonoid Accumulation, Biosynthetic Gene Expression, and Antioxidant Activity in Astragalus membranaceus Hairy Root Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Gu, Cheng-Bo; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2015-09-23

    In this work, Astragalus membranaceus hairy root cultures (AMHRCs) were exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) for promoting isoflavonoid accumulation. The optimum enhancement for isoflavonoid production was achieved in 34-day-old AMHRCs elicited by 86.4 kJ/m(2) of UV-B. The resulting isoflavonoid yield was 533.54 ± 13.61 μg/g dry weight (DW), which was 2.29-fold higher relative to control (232.93 ± 3.08 μg/g DW). UV-B up-regulated the transcriptional expressions of all investigated genes involved in isoflavonoid biosynthetic pathway. PAL and C4H were found to be two potential key genes that controlled isoflavonoid biosynthesis. Moreover, a significant increase was noted in antioxidant activity of extracts from UV-B-elicited AMHRCs (IC50 values = 0.85 and 1.08 mg/mL) in comparison with control (1.38 and 1.71 mg/mL). Overall, this study offered a feasible elicitation strategy to enhance isoflavonoid accumulation in AMHRCs and also provided a basis for metabolic engineering of isoflavonoid biosynthesis in the future.

  20. RNA interference of GhPEPC2 enhanced seed oil accumulation and salt tolerance in Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yumei; Cui, Yupeng; Liu, Zhengjie; Hua, Jinping

    2018-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) mainly produces oxaloacetic acid for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we reported that GhPEPC2 silencing with PEPC2-RNAi vector could regulate oil and protein accumulation in cottonseeds. In GhPEPC2 transgenic plants, PEPCase activities in immature embryos were significantly reduced, and the oil content in seed kernel was increased 7.3 percentages, whereas total proteins decreased 5.65 percentages. Compared to wild type, agronomical traits of transgenic plant were obviously unaffected. Furthermore, gene expression profile of GhPEPC2 transgenic seeds were investigated using RNA-seq, most lipid synthesis related genes were up-regulated, but amino acid metabolic related genes were down-regulated. In addition, the GhPEPC2 transgenic cotton seedlings were stressed using sodium salts at seedling stage, and the salt tolerance was significantly enhanced. Our observations of GhPEPC2 in cotton would shade light on understanding the regulation of oil content, protein accumulation and salt tolerance enhancement in other plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cathepsin-Mediated Cleavage of Peptides from Peptide Amphiphiles Leads to Enhanced Intracellular Peptide Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Handan [Institute; Department; Samaeekia, Ravand [Institute; Department; Schnorenberg, Mathew R. [Institute; Department; Medical; Sasmal, Dibyendu K. [Institute; Huang, Jun [Institute; Tirrell, Matthew V. [Institute; Institute; LaBelle, James L. [Department

    2017-08-24

    Peptides synthesized in the likeness of their native interaction domain(s) are natural choices to target protein protein interactions (PPIs) due to their fidelity of orthostatic contact points between binding partners. Despite therapeutic promise, intracellular delivery of biofunctional peptides at concentrations necessary for efficacy remains a formidable challenge. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) provide a facile method of intracellular delivery and stabilization of bioactive peptides. PAs consisting of biofunctional peptide headgroups linked to hydrophobic alkyl lipid-like tails prevent peptide hydrolysis and proteolysis in circulation, and PA monomers are internalized via endocytosis. However, endocytotic sequestration and steric hindrance from the lipid tail are two major mechanisms that limit PA efficacy to target intracellular PPIs. To address these problems, we have constructed a PA platform consisting of cathepsin-B cleavable PAs in which a selective p53-based inhibitory peptide is cleaved from its lipid tail within endosomes, allowing for intracellular peptide accumulation and extracellular recycling of the lipid moiety. We monitor for cleavage and follow individual PA components in real time using a resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tracking system. Using this platform, components in real time using a Forster we provide a better understanding and quantification of cellular internalization, trafficking, and endosomal cleavage of PAs and of the ultimate fates of each component.

  2. Enhancement of lipid accumulation by oleaginous yeast through phosphorus limitation under high content of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangfeng; Luo, Huijuan; Mu, Tianshuai; Shen, Yi; Yuan, Ming; Liu, Jia

    2018-04-18

    Low concentrations of acetic acid were used as carbon source to cultivate Cryptococcus curvatus MUCL 29819 for lipid production under high content of ammonia. Phosphorus limitation combined with initial pH regulation (pH = 6) weakened inhibition of free ammonia and promoted lipid accumulation. In batch cultivation, the produced lipid content and yield was 30.3% and 0.92 g/L, higher than those under unlimited condition (18.3% and 0.64 g/L). The content of monounsaturated fatty acid also increased from 37.3% (unlimited condition) to 45.8% (phosphorus-limited condition). During sequencing batch cultivation (SBC), the lipid content reached up to 51.02% under phosphorus-limited condition while only 31.88% under unlimited condition, which can be explained by the higher conversion efficiency of the carbon source to lipid. The total energy consumption including lipid extraction, transesterification and purification was 7.47 and 8.33 GJ under phosphorus-limited and unlimited condition, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Motior M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54%) and Cu (34-38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  4. Enhanced Emission by Accumulated Charges at Organic/Metal Interfaces Generated during the Reverse Bias of Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Nozoe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A high frequency rectangular alternating voltage was applied to organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO/TPD/Alq3/Al and ITO/CoPc/Alq3/Al, where ITO is indium-tin-oxide, TPD is 4,4′-bis[N-phenyl-N-(m-tolylamino]biphenyl, CoPc is cobalt phthalocyanine, and Alq3 is Tris(8-quinolinolatoaluminum, and the effect on emission of the reverse bias was examined. The results reveal that the emission intensity under an alternating reverse-forward bias is greater than that under an alternating zero-forward bias. The difference in the emission intensity (∆I increased both for decreasing frequency and increasing voltage level of the reverse bias. In particular, the change in emission intensity was proportional to the voltage level of the reverse bias given the same frequency. To understand ΔI, this paper proposes a model in which an OLED works as a capacitor under reverse bias, where positive and negative charges accumulate on the metal/organic interfaces. In this model, the emission enhancement that occurs during the alternating reverse-forward bias is rationalized as a result of the charge accumulation at the organic/metal interfaces during the reverse bias, which possibly modulates the vacuum level shifts at the organic/metal interfaces to reduce both the hole injection barrier at the organic/ITO interface and the electron injection barrier at the organic/Al interface under forward bias.

  5. Enhanced land subsidence in Galveston Bay, Texas: Interaction between sediment accumulation rates and relative sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mukaimi, Mohammad E.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.; Williams, Joshua R.

    2018-07-01

    Galveston Bay is the second largest estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, with a watershed containing one of largest concentrations of petroleum and chemical industries globally, as well as Houston, the fifth largest metropolitan area in the USA. Throughout the last century, extensive groundwater extraction to support these industries and an expanding population has resulted in significantly enhanced land subsidence (0.6-3.0 cm yr-1). The highest subsidence rates observed in the bay are within the lower 15 km of the San Jacinto River/Houston Ship Channel region (SJR/HSC), with distal areas in East and West Galveston Bays having subsidence rates on the order of 0.2 cm yr-1. In order to investigate the impacts of subsidence on sedimentation, a series of 22 vibracores were collected throughout the bay, and 210Pb and 137Cs radioisotope geochronologies and grain size distributions were determined. Sediment accumulation rates are highest (1.9 ± 0.5 cm yr-1) in the SJR/HSC, and decrease (sedimentation rates are significantly (p sedimentation rates are lower (as much as 50%) than estimated RSLR, indicating a sediment accretionary deficit. In areas (e.g., Scott Bay) within the SJR/HSC, the bay has deepened by more than 1.5 m, suggesting that sediment accumulation cannot keep pace with RSLR. Ultimately, this has resulted in a loss of coastal wetlands and a conversion of marine habitats from relatively shallow to deeper water settings.

  6. Inhibition of protein kinase C delta attenuates allergic airway inflammation through suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 alpha/VEGF pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ho Choi

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is supposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic airway disease. VEGF expression is regulated by a variety of stimuli such as nitric oxide, growth factors, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α. Recently, inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been shown to alleviate cardinal asthmatic features, including airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, and increased vascular permeability in asthma models. Based on these observations, we have investigated whether mTOR is associated with HIF-1α-mediated VEGF expression in allergic asthma. In studies with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, we have elucidated the stimulatory role of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF axis in allergic response. Next, the mechanisms by which mTOR is activated to modulate this response have been evaluated. mTOR is known to be regulated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt or protein kinase C-delta (PKC δ in various cell types. Consistent with these, our results have revealed that suppression of PKC δ by rottlerin leads to the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activity and the subsequent blockade of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF module, thereby attenuating typical asthmatic attack in a murine model. Thus, the present data indicate that PKC δ is necessary for the modulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade, resulting in a tight regulation of HIF-1α activity and VEGF expression. In conclusion, PKC δ may represent a valuable target for innovative therapeutic treatment of allergic airway disease.

  7. Hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha is induced during reperfusion after renal ischemia and is critical for proximal tubule cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conde

    Full Text Available Acute tubular necrosis (ATN caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R during renal transplantation delays allograft function. Identification of factors that mediate protection and/or epithelium recovery could help to improve graft outcome. We studied the expression, regulation and role of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 α, using in vitro and in vivo experimental models of I/R as well as human post-transplant renal biopsies. We found that HIF-1 α is stabilized in proximal tubule cells during ischemia and unexpectedly in late reperfusion, when oxygen tension is normal. Both inductions lead to gene expression in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interference of HIF-1 α promoted cell death and in vivo interference exacerbated tissue damage and renal dysfunction. In pos-transplant human biopsies, HIF-1 α was expressed only in proximal tubules which exhibited normal renal structure with a significant negative correlation with ATN grade. In summary, using experimental models and human biopsies, we identified a novel HIF-1 α induction during reperfusion with a potential critical role in renal transplant.

  8. Targeting MTA1/HIF-1alpha Signaling by Pterostilbene in Combination with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Attenuates Prostate Cancer Progression (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    expression and acts synergistically with an androgen receptor antagonist to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation. Mol. Cancer Ther. 6:51–60. 25...2673 Introduction Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cause of cancer - related death in men in the USA because of advanced castrate...signaling by pterostilbene in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitor attenuates prostate cancer progression Nasir A. Butt1,2, Avinash Kumar1,3

  9. Hypoxia in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis: Evaluation of VEGF and MMP Over-expression and Down-Regulation of HIF-1alpha with RNAi in Hypoxic Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti

    Background: As tumor mass grows beyond a few millimeters in diameter, the angiogenic "switch" is turned on leading to recruitment of blood vessels from surrounding artery and veins. However, the tumor mass is poorly perfused and there are pockets of hypoxia or lower oxygen concentrations relative to normal tissue. Hypoxia-inducing factor-1a (HIF-1a), a transcription factor, is activated when the oxygen concentration is low. Upon activation of HIF-1a, a number of other genes also turn on that allows the tumor to become more aggressive and resistant to therapy. Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of hypoxia-induced HIF-1a followed by over-expression of angiogenic and metastatic markers in tumor cells and down-regulation of HIF-1a using nanoparticle-delivered RNA interference therapy. Methods: Human ovarian (SKOV3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) adenocarcinoma cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Following hypoxia treatment of the cells, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 expression was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. For intracellular delivery of HIF-1a gene silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA), type B gelatin nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent displacement method and the surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol. wt. 2kDa). Cellular uptake and distribution of the nanoparticles was observed with Cy3-siRNA loaded, FITC-conjugated gelatin nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle formulations was evaluated in both the cell lines. siRNA was transfected in the gelatin nanoparticles under hypoxic conditions. Total cellular protein and RNA were extracted for analysis of HIF1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SKOV3 cells show increased expression of HIF1a under hypoxic conditions compared to baseline levels at normoxic conditions. ELISA and western blots of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 appear to increase with the increase in the HIF1α levels. Gelatin and PEG-modified gelatin nanoparticles were successfully prepared having a particle size in the range of 200 to 300 nm in diameter. Cell uptake studies showed that both types of nanoparticles could be efficiently internalized in tumor cells with a maximum intracellular concentrations reaching after 6 hours of incubation. Cytotoxicity analysis using MTS (formazan) assay showed that there was no significant change in cell viability upon treatment with any of the nanoparticle formulations relative to untreated control. Comparative analysis of gelatin nanoparticles and lipofectamine transfection of HIF1α-siRNA, shows a higher HIF1α knockdown for gelatin nanoparticles. Conclusion: Use of HIF1α siRNA for the treatment of cancer cells that overly express HIF1α has shown great therapeutic potential as shown by the results. The expression of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreases with the decrease of HIF1α expression. This may indicate the reversal of the aggressive phenotype of the tumors with HIF1α knockdown. HIF1α-siRNA, hence shows great potential for the therapy of aggressive tumors, however in vivo studies need to be carried out to validate these findings.

  10. Microtubular stability affects pVHL-mediated regulation of HIF-1alpha via the p38/MAPK pathway in hypoxic cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous research found that structural changes of the microtubule network influence glycolysis in cardiomyocytes by regulating the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α during the early stages of hypoxia. However, little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanism of the changes of HIF-1α caused by microtubule network alternation. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL, as a ubiquitin ligase, is best understood as a negative regulator of HIF-1α. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In primary rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cardiac cells, microtubule-stabilization was achieved by pretreating with paclitaxel or transfection of microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4 overexpression plasmids and microtubule-depolymerization was achieved by pretreating with colchicine or transfection of MAP4 siRNA before hypoxia treatment. Recombinant adenovirus vectors for overexpressing pVHL or silencing of pVHL expression were constructed and transfected in primary rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells. With different microtubule-stabilizing and -depolymerizing treaments, we demonstrated that the protein levels of HIF-1α were down-regulated through overexpression of pVHL and were up-regulated through knockdown of pVHL in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Importantly, microtubular structure breakdown activated p38/MAPK pathway, accompanied with the upregulation of pVHL. In coincidence, we found that SB203580, a p38/MAPK inhibitor decreased pVHL while MKK6 (Glu overexpression increased pVHL in the microtubule network altered-hypoxic cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that pVHL plays an important role in the regulation of HIF-1α caused by the changes of microtubular structure and the p38/MAPK pathway participates in the process of pVHL change following microtubule network alteration in hypoxic cardiomyocytes.

  11. Enhanced expression of melanoma progression markers in mouse model of sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with higher cancer incidence and mortality. Increased melanoma aggressivity was reported in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH mimicking sleep apnea show enhanced melanoma growth. Markers of melanoma progression have not been investigated in this model. Objective: The present study examined whether IH affects markers of melanoma tumor progression. Methods: Mice were exposed to isocapnic IH to a nadir of 8% oxygen fraction for 14 days. One million B16F10 melanoma cells were injected subcutaneously. Immunohistochemistry staining for Ki-67, PCNA, S100-beta, HMB-45, Melan-A, TGF-beta, Caspase-1, and HIF-1alpha were quantified using Photoshop. Results: Percentage of positive area stained was higher in IH than sham IH group for Caspase-1, Ki-67, PCNA, and Melan-A. The greater expression of several markers of tumor aggressiveness, including markers of ribosomal RNA transcription (Ki-67 and of DNA synthesis (PCNA, in mice exposed to isocapnic IH than in controls provide molecular evidence for a apnea–cancer relationship. Conclusions: These findings have potential repercussions in the understanding of differences in clinical course of tumors in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Further investigation is necessary to confirm mechanisms of these descriptive results. Keywords: Apnea, Melanoma, Biological markers

  12. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Dilshad

    Full Text Available The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW. There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g, artesunate (2.24μg/g, dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g and artemether (12.8μg/g. Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS, cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1, with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1 showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism.

  13. Triiodothyronine enhances accumulation of intracellular lipids in adipocytes through thyroid hormone receptor α via direct and indirect mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambo, Yurina; Matsumura, Miki; Fujimori, Ko

    2016-08-15

    Triiodothyronine (T3) enhanced the expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes with elevation of the intracellular lipids through thyroid hormone receptor (TR) α in mouse 3T3-L1 cells. However, the transcription of the SREBP-1c and HSL genes was decreased by T3. Such T3-mediated alterations were negated by TRα siRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that the binding of TRα to the TR-responsive element (TRE) of the FAS promoter was elevated by T3. In contrast, the ability of TRα to bind to the TRE of the SREBP-1c promoter was decreased by T3. In addition, the binding of SREBP-1c to the SRE of the HSL promoter was lowered by T3. These results indicate that T3 increased the accumulation of intracellular lipids by enhancing the expression of the FAS gene through direct binding of TRα to the FAS promoter and simultaneously lowered the amount of lipolysis via reduced binding of T3-decreased SREBP-1c to the HSL promoter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Ihsan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP and mean values (MP of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.

  15. Coconut oil enhances tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation compared to safflower oil in the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Lauren E; King, Ryan D; Moran, Nancy E; Erdman, John W

    2012-08-29

    Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans-lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001) and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

  16. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando; Monsalve, Gabriela C; Tse, Vincent; Saiki, Ryoichi; Weng, Emily; Lee, Laura; Srinivasan, Chandra; Frand, Alison R; Clarke, Catherine F

    2012-12-20

    Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts) as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor, influencing the ability of bacteria to colonize and

  17. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. Results The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor

  18. A segmentation and point-matching enhanced efficient deformable image registration method for dose accumulation between HDR CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xin; Chen, Haibin; Zhou, Linghong; Yan, Hao; Jiang, Steve; Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Mell, Loren K; Yashar, Catheryn M; Cervino, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) of fractional high-dose-rate (HDR) CT images is challenging due to the presence of applicators in the brachytherapy image. Point-to-point correspondence fails because of the undesired deformation vector fields (DVF) propagated from the applicator region (AR) to the surrounding tissues, which can potentially introduce significant DIR errors in dose mapping. This paper proposes a novel segmentation and point-matching enhanced efficient DIR (named SPEED) scheme to facilitate dose accumulation among HDR treatment fractions. In SPEED, a semi-automatic seed point generation approach is developed to obtain the incremented fore/background point sets to feed the random walks algorithm, which is used to segment and remove the AR, leaving empty AR cavities in the HDR CT images. A feature-based ‘thin-plate-spline robust point matching’ algorithm is then employed for AR cavity surface points matching. With the resulting mapping, a DVF defining on each voxel is estimated by B-spline approximation, which serves as the initial DVF for the subsequent Demons-based DIR between the AR-free HDR CT images. The calculated DVF via Demons combined with the initial one serve as the final DVF to map doses between HDR fractions. The segmentation and registration accuracy are quantitatively assessed by nine clinical HDR cases from three gynecological cancer patients. The quantitative analysis and visual inspection of the DIR results indicate that SPEED can suppress the impact of applicator on DIR, and accurately register HDR CT images as well as deform and add interfractional HDR doses. (paper)

  19. A segmentation and point-matching enhanced efficient deformable image registration method for dose accumulation between HDR CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xin; Chen, Haibin; Yan, Hao; Zhou, Linghong; Mell, Loren K.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Jiang, Steve; Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Cervino, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) of fractional high-dose-rate (HDR) CT images is challenging due to the presence of applicators in the brachytherapy image. Point-to-point correspondence fails because of the undesired deformation vector fields (DVF) propagated from the applicator region (AR) to the surrounding tissues, which can potentially introduce significant DIR errors in dose mapping. This paper proposes a novel segmentation and point-matching enhanced efficient DIR (named SPEED) scheme to facilitate dose accumulation among HDR treatment fractions. In SPEED, a semi-automatic seed point generation approach is developed to obtain the incremented fore/background point sets to feed the random walks algorithm, which is used to segment and remove the AR, leaving empty AR cavities in the HDR CT images. A feature-based ‘thin-plate-spline robust point matching’ algorithm is then employed for AR cavity surface points matching. With the resulting mapping, a DVF defining on each voxel is estimated by B-spline approximation, which serves as the initial DVF for the subsequent Demons-based DIR between the AR-free HDR CT images. The calculated DVF via Demons combined with the initial one serve as the final DVF to map doses between HDR fractions. The segmentation and registration accuracy are quantitatively assessed by nine clinical HDR cases from three gynecological cancer patients. The quantitative analysis and visual inspection of the DIR results indicate that SPEED can suppress the impact of applicator on DIR, and accurately register HDR CT images as well as deform and add interfractional HDR doses.

  20. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Li

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP, is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize.

  1. Enhanced accumulation of phytosterols and phenolic compounds in cyclodextrin-elicited cell suspension culture of Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras-Moreno, Begoña; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, M A; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén

    2016-09-01

    In this work, suspension-cultured cells of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of β-cyclodextrins on the production of isoprenoid and phenolic compounds. The results showed that the phytosterols and phenolic compounds were accumulated in the extracellular medium (15100μgL(-1) and 477.46μgL(-1), respectively) in the presence of cyclodextrins. Unlike the phytosterol and phenolic compound content, β-carotene (1138.03μgL(-1)), lutein (25949.54μgL(-1)) and α-tocopherol (8063.82μgL(-1)) chlorophyll a (1625.13μgL(-1)) and b (9.958 (9958.33μgL(-1)) were mainly accumulated inside the cells. Therefore, cyclodextrins were able to induce the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, increasing the biosynthesis of phytosterols and phenolic compounds, and accumulate them outside the cells. However, in the absence of these cyclic oligosaccharidic elicitors, carrot cells mainly accumulated carotenoids through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Therefore, the use of cyclodextrins would allow the extracellular accumulation of both phytosterols and phenolic compounds by diverting the carbon flux towards the cytosolic mevalonate/phenylpropanoid pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced accumulation of U(VI) by Aspergillus oryzae mutant generated by dielectric barrier discharge air plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wencheng Song; North China Electric Power University, Beijing; Xiangxue Wang; Soochow University, Suzhou; Wen Tao; Hongqing Wang; Tasawar Hayat; Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad; Xiangke Wang; Soochow University, Suzhou; King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae was isolated from radionuclides' contaminated soils, and dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used to mutate A. oryzae to improve bioremediation capability of U(VI) pollution. The maximum accumulation capacities of U(VI) on mutated A.oryzae was 627.4 mg/g at T = 298 K and pH = 5.5, which was approximately twice than that of raw A.oryzae. XPS analysis indicated that U(VI) accumulation on mutated A. oryzae was largely attributable to nitrogen- and oxygen-containing functional groups on fungal mycelia. The mutated A. oryzae can be harnessed as bioremediation agents for radionuclides pollution. (author)

  3. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1 P247S and PRO1 E415K gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S.; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A.; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-06-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation.

  5. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Amphetamine-enhanced accumulation of [3H]-spiperone in mouse corpus striatum in vivo: Modification by other drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorris, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Other investigators have reported that amphetamine administered to rodents results in an increase in the in vivo accumulation of either the tritiated dopamine receptor ligand, spiperone or pimozide in the dopaminergic corpus striatum, (specific binding) while not altering that in the sparsely dopaminergically innervated cerebellum (non-specific binding). Experiments were undertaken to determine if the results could be replicated and if some other drugs would modify the effect. Male mice were injected with [ 3 H]-spiperone (20 μCi/Kg, 0.0003 mg/kg) s.c. and killed 2 hrs later for determination of radioactivity in corpus striatum and cerebellum. Amphetamine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) given 15 min before [ 3 H]-spiperone, increased accumulation in striatum but not cerebellum. The increase was inhibited by α - methyltyrosine (α-MT), haloperidol, reserpine or amantadine. It is suggested that the amphetamine-induced increase in accumulation of [ 3 H]-spiperone in corpus striatum (specific binding) depends on release of large amounts of dopamine, which then must be able to interact with the dopamine receptor. The antagonism of the effect by α-MT or reserpine can be explained by dopamine depletion, that of haloperidol by antagonism for binding at the receptor site. It is suggested that amantadine acts by a dual mechanism: (1) as a low efficacy agonist, it competes for binding to the receptor and (2) it has some ability to block dopamine release

  7. Synthetic cold-inducible promoter enhances recombinant protein accumulation during Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana excelsior at chilling temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasymenko, I M; Sheludko, Y V

    2017-07-01

    To exploit cold-inducible biochemical processes beneficial for foreign mRNA transcription, translation and storage, as well as protein product stability, during Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. The efficiency of three different 5'-regulatory sequences to achieve transient expression of the GFP-based reporter gene under chilling conditions (6-8 °C since the 3rd day post inoculation) was compared. We studied the upstream sequences of a cold-inducible Arabidopsis thaliana cor15a gene, the core element of 35S CaMV promoter fused to the TMV omega 5'-UTR, and the synthetic promoter including the 35S core sequence and two binding sites for cold-inducible CBF transcription factors (P_DRE::35S). Cultivation of plants transiently expressing reporter gene under control of the synthetic P_DRE::35S promoter under chilling conditions since the 3rd dpi led to the reliably higher reporter accumulation as compared to the other tested regulatory sequences under chilling or greenhouse conditions. Reporter protein fluorescence under chilling conditions using P_DRE::35S reached 160% as compared to the transient expression in the greenhouse. Period of transient expression considerably extended if plants were cultivated at chilling temperature since the 3rd dpi: reporter protein fluorescence reached its maximum at the 20th dpi and was detected in leaves up to the 65th dpi. The enhanced protein accumulation at low temperature was accompanied by the prolonged period of corresponding mRNA accumulation. Transient expression under chilling conditions using synthetic cold-inducible promoter enhances target protein accumulation and may decrease greenhouse heating expenses.

  8. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Xin; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  9. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Deng, Xin [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ma, Mi [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyz@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  10. Hybrid liposomes showing enhanced accumulation in tumors as theranostic agents in the orthotopic graft model mouse of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Ichihara, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Yoko

    2018-11-01

    Hybrid liposomes (HLs) can be prepared by simply sonicating a mixture of vesicular and micellar molecules in a buffer solution. This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic effects and ability of HLs to detect (diagnosis) cancer in an orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer with HCT116 cells for the use of HLs as theranostic agents. In the absence of a chemotherapeutic drug, HLs exhibited therapeutic effects by inhibiting the growth of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells in vitro, possibly through an increase in apoptosis. Intravenously administered HLs also caused a remarkable reduction in the relative cecum weight in an orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer. A decrease in tumor size in the cecal sections was confirmed by histological analysis using HE staining. TUNEL staining indicated an induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells in the orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer. For the detection (diagnosis) of colorectal cancer by HLs, the accumulation of HLs encapsulating a fluorescent probe (ICG) was observed in HCT116 cells in the in vivo colorectal cancer model following intravenous administration. These data indicate that HLs can accumulate in tumor cells in the cecum of the orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer for a prolonged period of time, and inhibit the growth of HCT116 cells.

  11. Accumulation of Bile in the Gallbladder: Evaluation by means of Serial Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography with Gadolinium Ethoxybenzyl Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Tamada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of biliary excretion of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA into the biliary tract and to assess the accumulation patterns in the gallbladder using MR cholangiography obtained with Gd-EOB-DTPA which is a liver-specific hepatobiliary contrast agent. Seventy-five patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. Serial multiphasic hepatobiliary phase imaging was qualitatively reviewed to evaluate the process of the biliary excretion of contrast agent into the bile duct and the gallbladder. The accumulation pattern of contrast agent into gallbladder was classified into two groups (group 1 = orthodromic type and group 2 = delayed type. Furthermore, the results in differences of the presence of T1 hyperintense bile or sludge of gallbladder, gall stones, wall thickening of gallbladder, chronic liver disease, and liver cirrhosis between two groups were compared. Forty-eight of 75 patients (64% were included in group 1, and remaining 27 (36% were in group 2. The frequency of the presence of T1 hyperintense bile or sludge of gallbladder was significantly higher in patients with group 2 than that in patients with group 1 (P=0.041. MR cholangiography obtained with Gd-EOB-DTPA showed that there may be an association between the biliary accumulation pattern in the gallbladder and the pathological condition.

  12. Expression of TpNRAMP5, a metal transporter from Polish wheat (Triticum polonicum L.), enhances the accumulation of Cd, Co and Mn in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fan; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Jianshu; Zeng, Jian; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong; Wang, Yi

    2018-06-01

    TpRNAMP5 is mainly expressed in the plasma membrane of roots and basal stems. It functions as a metal transporter for Cd, Mn and Co accumulation. Numerous natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMPs) have been functionally identified in various plant species, including Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and tobacco, but no information is available on NRAMP genes in wheat. In this study, we isolated a TpNRAMP5 from dwarf Polish wheat (DPW, Triticum polonicum L.), a species with high tolerance to Cd and Zn. Expression pattern analysis revealed that TpNRAMP5 is mainly expressed in roots and basal stems of DPW. TpNRAMP5 was localized at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis leaf protoplast. Expression of TpNRAMP5 in yeast significantly increased yeast sensitivity to Cd and Co, but not Zn, and enhanced Cd and Co concentrations. Expression of TpNRAMP5 in Arabidopsis significantly increased Cd, Co and Mn concentrations in roots, shoots and whole plants, but had no effect on Fe and Zn concentrations. These results indicate that TpNRAMP5 is a metal transporter enhancing the accumulation of Cd, Co and Mn, but not Zn and Fe. Genetic manipulation of TpNRAMP5 can be applied in the future to limit the transfer of Cd from soil to wheat grains, thereby protecting human health.

  13. Membrane engineering - A novel strategy to enhance the production and accumulation of β-carotene in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Ye, Lijun; Zhao, Dongdong; Li, Siwei; Li, Qingyan; Zhang, Bolin; Bi, Changhao; Zhang, Xueli

    2017-09-01

    Carotenoids are a class of terpenes of commercial interest that exert important biological functions. While various strategies have been applied to engineer β-carotene production in microbial cell factories, no work has been done to study and improve the storage of hydrophobic terpene products inside the heterologous host cells. Although the membrane is thought to be the cell compartment that accumulates hydrophobic terpenes such as β-carotene, direct evidence is still lacking. In this work, we engineered the membrane of Escherichia coli in both its morphological and biosynthetic aspects, as a means to study and improve its storage capacity for β-carotene. Engineering the membrane morphology by overexpressing membrane-bending proteins resulted in a 28% increase of β-carotene specific producton value, while engineering the membrane synthesis pathway led to a 43% increase. Moreover, the combination of these two strategies had a synergistic effect, which caused a 2.9-fold increase of β-carotene specific production value (from 6.7 to 19.6mg/g DCW). Inward membrane stacks were observed in electron microscopy images of the engineered E. coli cells, which indicated that morphological changes were associated with the increased β-carotene storage capacity. Finally, membrane separation and analysis confirmed that the increased β-carotene was mainly accumulated within the cell membrane. This membrane engineering strategy was also applied to the β-carotene hyperproducing strain CAR025, which led to a 39% increase of the already high β-carotene specific production value (from 31.8 to 44.2mg/g DCW in shake flasks), resulting in one of the highest reported specific production values under comparable culture conditions. The membrane engineering strategy developed in this work opens up a new direction for engineering and improving microbial terpene producers. It is quite possible that a wide range of strains used to produce hydrophobic compounds can be further improved

  14. Enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins gene in purple-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Seyeon; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is an important root crop that produces low molecular weight antioxidants such as carotenoids and anthocyanin. The sweetpotato orange (IbOr) protein is involved in the accumulation of carotenoids. To increase the levels of carotenoids in the storage roots of sweetpotato, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in an anthocyanin-rich purple-fleshed cultivar (referred to as IbOr plants). IbOr plants exhibited increased carotenoid levels (up to 7-fold) in their storage roots compared to wild type (WT) plants, as revealed by HPLC analysis. The carotenoid contents of IbOr plants were positively correlated with IbOr transcript levels. The levels of zeaxanthin were ∼ 12 times elevated in IbOr plants, whereas β-carotene increased ∼ 1.75 times higher than those of WT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that most carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes were up-regulated in the IbOr plants, including PDS, ZDS, LCY-β, CHY-β, ZEP and Pftf, whereas LCY-ɛ was down-regulated. Interestingly, CCD1, CCD4 and NCED, which are related to the degradation of carotenoids, were also up-regulated in the IbOr plants. Anthocyanin contents and transcription levels of associated biosynthetic genes seemed to be altered in the IbOr plants. The yields of storage roots and aerial parts of IbOr plants and WT plants were not significantly different under field cultivation. Taken together, these results indicate that overexpression of IbOr-Ins can increase the carotenoid contents of sweetpotato storage roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. VLDL from Metabolic Syndrome Individuals Enhanced Lipid Accumulation in Atria with Association of Susceptibility to Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Lin, Hsin-Ting; Ke, Liang-Yin; Wei, Chi; Hsiao, Yi-Lin; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lai, Wen-Ter; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Chen, Chu-Huang; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Wu, Bin-Nan

    2016-01-20

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic derangements. Dyslipidemia is an important factor in MetS and is related to atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in MetS (MetS-VLDL) may induce atrial dilatation and vulnerability to AF. VLDL was therefore separated from normal (normal-VLDL) and MetS individuals. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice were divided into control, normal-VLDL (nVLDL), and MetS-VLDL (msVLDL) groups. VLDL (15 µg/g) and equivalent volumes of saline were injected via tail vein three times a week for six consecutive weeks. Cardiac chamber size and function were measured by echocardiography. MetS-VLDL significantly caused left atrial dilation (control, n = 10, 1.64 ± 0.23 mm; nVLDL, n = 7, 1.84 ± 0.13 mm; msVLDL, n = 10, 2.18 ± 0.24 mm; p < 0.0001) at week 6, associated with decreased ejection fraction (control, n = 10, 62.5% ± 7.7%, vs. msVLDL, n = 10, 52.9% ± 9.6%; p < 0.05). Isoproterenol-challenge experiment resulted in AF in young msVLDL mice. Unprovoked AF occurred only in elderly msVLDL mice. Immunohistochemistry showed excess lipid accumulation and apoptosis in msVLDL mice atria. These findings suggest a pivotal role of VLDL in AF pathogenesis for MetS individuals.

  16. Reduced abscisic acid content is responsible for enhanced sucrose accumulation by potassium nutrition in vegetable soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bingjie; Liu, Changkai; Tian, Bowen; Zhang, Qiuying; Liu, Xiaobing; Herbert, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the physiological mechanism of potassium (K) application in enhancing sugar content of vegetable soybean seeds, pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with two vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars (c.v. Zhongkemaodou 1 and c.v. 121) under normal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus application. Three potassium (K) fertilization treatments were imposed: No K application (K0), 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seeding (K1), and 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seedling + 1% K 2 SO 4 foliar application at flowering (K2). Contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA), cytokinins (ZR) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seeds were determined from 4 to 8 weeks after flowering. K fertilization increased the contents of IAA, GA, ZR, soluble sugar, sucrose and fresh pod yield, but reduced ABA content consistently. When the contents of soluble sugar and sucrose reached the highest level at 7 weeks after flowering for the 2 cultivars, the contents of IAA、GA、ZR all reached the lowest level in general. The content of ABA in seed was negatively correlated with the sucrose content (P abscisic acid content plays a critical role in enhancing sucrose content, which might be a partial mechanism involved in K nutrition to improve the quality of vegetable soybean.

  17. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haibing [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Wei, Hui [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Ma, Guojie [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Antunes, Mauricio S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Vogt, Stefan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Cox, Joseph [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Zhang, Xiao [Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Liu, Xiping [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Bu, Lintao [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Gleber, S. Charlotte [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Carpita, Nicholas C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Makowski, Lee [Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Himmel, Michael E. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; McCann, Maureen C. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Murphy, Angus S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Peer, Wendy A. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA

    2016-04-07

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  18. Simultaneous enhancement of Chlorella vulgaris growth and lipid accumulation through the synergy effect between light and nitrate in a planar waveguide flat-plate photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiang; Sun, Yahui; Huang, Yun; Xia, Ao; Fu, Qian; Zhu, Xun

    2017-11-01

    Interval between adjacent planar waveguides and light intensity emitted from waveguide surface were the primary two factors affecting light distribution characteristics in the planar waveguide flat-plate photobioreactor (PW-PBR). In this paper, the synergy effect between light and nitrate in the PW-PBR was realized to simultaneously enhance microalgae growth and lipid accumulation. Under an interval of 10mm between adjacent planar waveguides, 100% of microalgae cells in regions between adjacent waveguides could be illuminated. Chlorella vulgaris growth and lipid accumulation were synchronously elevated as light intensities emitted from planar waveguide surface increasing. With an identical initial nitrate concentration of 18mM, the maximum lipid content (41.66% in dry biomass) and lipid yield (2200.25mgL -1 ) were attained under 560μmolm -2 s -1 , which were 86.82% and 133.56% higher relative to those obtained under 160μmolm -2 s -1 , respectively. The PW-PBR provides a promising way for microalgae lipid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ectopic expression of GA 2-oxidase 6 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) causes dwarfism, late flowering and enhanced chlorophyll accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jindong; Liao, Xiaoying; He, Reqing; Zhong, Ming; Feng, Panpan; Li, Xinmei; Tang, Dongying; Liu, Xuanming; Zhao, Xiaoying

    2017-02-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in higher plant growth and development. GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) promotes catabolism and inactivation of bioactive GAs or their precursors. In this study, we identified the GA2-oxidase gene, BnGA2ox6, and found it to be highly expressed in the silique and flower. Overexpression of BnGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in GA-deficiency symptoms, including inhibited elongation of the hypocotyl and stem, delayed seed germination, and late flowering. BnGA2ox6 overexpression reduced silique growth, but had no effect on seed development. Additionally, BnGA2ox6 overexpression enhanced chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll accumulation, and downregulated mRNA expression levels of the CHL1 and RCCR genes, which are involved in the chlorophyll degradation. These findings suggest that BnGA2ox6 regulates plant hight, silique development, flowering and chlorophyll accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

    2014-04-01

    IgASE1, a C₁₈ Δ(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the Δ(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA.

  1. Anaerobic accumulation of short-chain fatty acids from algae enhanced by damaging cell structure and promoting hydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yunzhi; Chen, Xutao; Duan, Xu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Yinguang

    2018-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) produced from harvested algae by anaerobic fermentation with uncontrolled pH was limited due to the solid cell structure of algae. This study, therefore, was undertaken to enhance the generation of SCFAs from algae by controlling the fermentation pH. pH influenced not only the total SCFAs production, but the percentage of individual SCFA. The maximal yield of SCFAs occurred at pH 10.0 and fermentation time of 6 d (3161 mg COD/L), which mainly contained acetic and iso-valeric acids and was nearly eight times that at uncontrolled pH (392 mg COD/L). Mechanism exploration revealed at alkaline pH, especially at pH 10.0, not only the cell structure of algae was damaged effectively, but also activities and relative quantification of hydrolases as well as the abundance of microorganisms responsible for organics hydrolysis and SCFAs production were improved. Also, the released microcystins from algae were removed efficiently during alkaline anaerobic fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation of free polyamines enhances the antioxidant response in fruits of grafted tomato plants under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2016-01-15

    Polyamines, small aliphatic polycations, have been suggested to play key roles in a number of biological processes. In this paper, attempts were made to investigate the possibility of improving antioxidant response of tomato fruits in relation with endogenous free polyamines content. We studied the reactive oxygen species and polyamines content, and antioxidant and polyamine-biosynthesis enzyme activities in fruits of ungrafted and grafted tomato plants under moderate water stress. We used a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensitive cultivar (Josefina) to obtain reciprocal graft, selfgraft and ungraft plants. Fruits contained higher endogenous polyamine content during the course of the experiment relative to the control, coupled with higher arginine decarboxylase and spermine synthase activities in Zarina ungrafted and ZarxJos. In these cultivars, tomato fruits showed a lower reactive oxygen species generation and higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, suggesting that a higher content in polyamines (especially spermine) exerted a positive effect on antioxidant systems. All of these data suggest that spermine leads to more effective reactive oxygen species scavenging (less tissue damage) in tomato fruits, which may function collectively to enhance dehydration tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Nadeem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (FM [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such “excessive” protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  5. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Faisal; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Wang, Ruifeng; Han, Jienan; Shen, Qi; Chang, Feiran; Diao, Xianmin; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Xuexian

    2018-01-01

    Foxtail millet (FM) [ Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN) at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such "excessive" protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  6. Alleviation of reactive oxygen species enhances PUFA accumulation in Schizochytrium sp. through regulating genes involved in lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular heterotrophic thraustochytrids are attractive candidates for commercial polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA production. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in their aerobic fermentation process often limits their PUFA titer. Yet, the specific mechanisms of ROS involvement in the crosstalk between oxidative stress and intracellular lipid synthesis remain poorly described. Metabolic engineering to improve the PUFA yield in thraustochytrids without compromising growth is an important aspect of economic feasibility. To fill this gap, we overexpressed the antioxidative gene superoxide dismutase (SOD1 by integrating it into the genome of thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 using a novel genetic transformation system. This study reports the ROS alleviation, enhanced PUFA production and transcriptome changes resulting from the SOD1 overexpression. SOD1 activity in the recombinant improved by 5.2–71.6% along with 7.8–38.5% decline in ROS during the fermentation process. Interestingly, the total antioxidant capacity in the recombinant remained higher than wild-type and above zero in the entire process. Although lipid profile was similar to that of wild-type, the concentrations of major fatty acids in the recombinant were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher. The PUFA titer increased up to 1232 ± 41 mg/L, which was 32.9% higher (p ≤ 0.001 than the wild type. Transcriptome analysis revealed strong downregulation of genes potentially involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisome and upregulation of genes catalyzing lipid biosynthesis. Our results enrich the knowledge on stress-induced PUFA biosynthesis and the putative role of ROS in the regulation of lipid metabolism in oleaginous thraustochytrids. This study provides a new and alternate strategy for cost-effective industrial fermentation of PUFA. Keywords: Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Schizochytrium sp., Superoxide dismutase, Transgene

  7. Economics- and policy-driven organic carbon input enhancement dominates soil organic carbon accumulation in Chinese croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongcun; Wang, Meiyan; Hu, Shuijin; Zhang, Xudong; Ouyang, Zhu; Zhang, Ganlin; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Shiwei; Wu, Jinshui; Xie, Deti; Zhu, Bo; Yu, Dongsheng; Pan, Xianzhang; Xu, Shengxiang; Shi, Xuezheng

    2018-04-17

    China's croplands have experienced drastic changes in management practices, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue treatments, since the 1980s. There is an ongoing debate about the impact of these changes on soil organic carbon (SOC) and its implications. Here we report results from an extensive study that provided direct evidence of cropland SOC sequestration in China. Based on the soil sampling locations recorded by the Second National Soil Survey of China in 1980, we collected 4,060 soil samples in 2011 from 58 counties that represent the typical cropping systems across China. Our results showed that across the country, the average SOC stock in the topsoil (0-20 cm) increased from 28.6 Mg C ha -1 in 1980 to 32.9 Mg C ha -1 in 2011, representing a net increase of 140 kg C ha -1 year -1 However, the SOC change differed among the major agricultural regions: SOC increased in all major agronomic regions except in Northeast China. The SOC sequestration was largely attributed to increased organic inputs driven by economics and policy: while higher root biomass resulting from enhanced crop productivity by chemical fertilizers predominated before 2000, higher residue inputs following the large-scale implementation of crop straw/stover return policy took over thereafter. The SOC change was negatively related to N inputs in East China, suggesting that the excessive N inputs, plus the shallowness of plow layers, may constrain the future C sequestration in Chinese croplands. Our results indicate that cropland SOC sequestration can be achieved through effectively manipulating economic and policy incentives to farmers.

  8. Jinlida granule inhibits palmitic acid induced-intracellular lipid accumulation and enhances autophagy in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells through AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingkun; Tian, Min; Qi, Yuan; Chen, Guang; Xu, Lijun; Zou, Xin; Wang, Kaifu; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer

    2015-02-23

    TOR and the up-regulation of TSC1 and LC3-II proteins expression. However, when AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by Compound C, JLDG supplementation did not exhibit any effect on the expression of these AMPK downstream molecules in NIT-1 cells. The results suggest that JLDG could reduce intracellular lipid accumulation and enhance the autophagy in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells cultured with PA. The mechanism is possibly mediated by AMPK activation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The redox protein thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha protein expression: Trx-1 overexpression results in increased vascular endothelial growth factor production and enhanced tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Sarah J; Bellamy, William T; Briehl, Margaret M; Powis, Garth

    2002-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a heterodimer of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits, is a transcriptional activator central to the cellular response to low oxygen that includes metabolic adaptation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inhibited apoptosis. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a small redox protein overexpressed in a number of human primary tumors. We have examined the effects of Trx-1 on HIF activity and the activation of downstream genes. Stable transfection of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells with human Trx-1 caused a significant increase in HIF-1alpha protein levels under both normoxic (20% oxygen) and hypoxic (1% oxygen) conditions. Trx-1 increased hypoxia-induced HIF-1 transactivation activity measured using a luciferase reporter under the control of the hypoxia response element. Changes in HIF-1alpha mRNA levels did not account for the changes observed at the protein level, and HIF-1beta protein levels did not change. Trx-1 transfection also caused a significant increase in the protein products of hypoxia-responsive genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide synthase 2 in a number of different cell lines (MCF-7 human breast and HT29 human colon carcinomas and WEHI7.2 mouse lymphoma cells) under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The pattern of expression of the different isoforms of VEGF was not changed by Trx-1. Transfection of a redox-inactive Trx-1 (C32S/C35S) markedly decreased levels of HIF-1alpha protein, HIF-1 transactivating activity, and VEGF protein in MCF-7 cells compared with empty vector controls. In vivo studies using WEHI7.2 cells transfected with Trx-1 showed significantly increased tumor VEGF and angiogenesis. The results suggest that Trx-1 increases HIF-1alpha protein levels in cancer cells and increases VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  10. Enhanced Accumulation of Vitamins, Nutraceuticals and Minerals in Lettuces Associated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF: A Question of Interest for Both Vegetables and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouane Baslam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is extensively grown and is the most widely used food crop for the called “Fourth Range” of vegetables. Lettuce exhibits healthy properties mainly due to the presence of antioxidant compounds (vitamins C and E, carotenoids, polyphenols alongside significant fibre content and useful amounts of certain minerals. Lettuce can establish a mutualistic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The establishment of the symbiosis involves a continuous cellular and molecular dialogue between both symbionts, which includes the activation of antioxidant, phenylpropanoid or carotenoid metabolic pathways. The presence of AMF colonizing roots of greenhouse-grown lettuces can induce an accumulation of secondary metabolites, vitamins and minerals in leaves that overcome the dilution effect due to the increased size of mycorrhizal plants. Therefore, AMF would allow the intake of minerals and compounds with antioxidant properties to be enhanced without increasing the consumption of lettuce in the diet. In addition, increased quantities of secondary metabolites may help lettuce plants to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses. Our review discusses the influence exerted by several environmental factors and agronomic practices on the ability of AMF for enhancing the levels of vitamins, nutraceuticals and minerals in leaves of green and red-leaf types of lettuces.

  11. A bHLH gene from Tamarix hispida improves abiotic stress tolerance by enhancing osmotic potential and decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Bing; Huo, Lin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-02-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) leucine-zipper transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress responses. However, their specific roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not fully known. Here, we functionally characterized a bHLH gene, ThbHLH1, from Tamarix hispida in abiotic stress tolerance. ThbHLH1 specifically binds to G-box motif with the sequence of 'CACGTG'. Transiently transfected T. hispida plantlets with transiently overexpressed ThbHLH1 and RNAi-silenced ThbHLH1 were generated for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing ThbHLH1 were generated to confirm the gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Overexpression of ThbHLH1 significantly elevates glycine betaine and proline levels, increases Ca(2+) concentration and enhances peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Additionally, ThbHLH1 regulates the expression of the genes including P5CS, BADH, CaM, POD and SOD, to activate the above physiological changes, and also induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes LEAs and HSPs. These data suggest that ThbHLH1 induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes to improve abiotic stress tolerance by increasing osmotic potential, improving ROS scavenging capability and enhancing second messenger in stress signaling cascades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  13. A bell pepper cultivar tolerant to chilling enhanced nitrogen allocation and stress-related metabolite accumulation in the roots in response to low root-zone temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Sherman, Tal; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Fait, Aaron; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2017-10-01

    Two bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars, differing in their response to chilling, were exposed to three levels of root-zone temperatures. Gas exchange, shoot and root phenology, and the pattern of change of the central metabolites and secondary metabolites caffeate and benzoate in the leaves and roots were profiled. Low root-zone temperature significantly inhibited gaseous exchange, with a greater effect on the sensitive commercial pepper hybrid (Canon) than on the new hybrid bred to enhance abiotic stress tolerance (S103). The latter was less affected by the treatment with respect to plant height, shoot dry mass, root maximum length, root projected area, number of root tips and root dry mass. More carbon was allocated to the leaves of S103 than nitrogen at 17°C, while in the roots at 17°C, more nitrogen was allocated and the ratio between C/N decreased. Metabolite profiling showed greater increase in the root than in the leaves. Leaf response between the two cultivars differed significantly. The roots accumulated stress-related metabolites including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), proline, galactinol and raffinose and at chilling (7°C) resulted in an increase of sugars in both cultivars. Our results suggest that the enhanced tolerance of S103 to root cold stress, reflected in the relative maintenance of shoot and root growth, is likely linked to a more effective regulation of photosynthesis facilitated by the induction of stress-related metabolism. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent production of profibrotic mediators by hypoxic hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copple, Bryan L; Bustamante, Juan J; Welch, Timothy P; Kim, Nam Deuk; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2009-08-01

    During the development of liver fibrosis, mediators are produced that stimulate cells in the liver to differentiate into myofibroblasts and to produce collagen. Recent studies demonstrated that the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), is critical for upregulation of profibrotic mediators, such as platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A), PDGF-B and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the liver, during the development of fibrosis. What remains unknown is the cell type-specific regulation of these genes by HIF-1alpha in liver cell types. Accordingly, the hypothesis was tested that HIF-1alpha is activated in hypoxic hepatocytes and regulates the production of profibrotic mediators by these cells. In this study, hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of control and HIF-1alpha- or HIF-1beta-deficient mice and exposed to hypoxia. Exposure of primary mouse hepatocytes to 1% oxygen stimulated nuclear accumulation of HIF-1alpha and upregulated PAI-1, vascular endothelial cell growth factor and the vasoactive peptides adrenomedullin-1 (ADM-1) and ADM-2. In contrast, the levels of PDGF-A and PDGF-B mRNAs were unaffected in these cells by hypoxia. Exposure of HIF-1alpha-deficient hepatocytes to 1% oxygen only partially prevented upregulation of these genes, suggesting that other hypoxia-regulated transcription factors, such as HIF-2alpha, may also regulate these genes. In support of this, HIF-2alpha was activated in hypoxic hepatocytes, and exposure of HIF-1beta-deficient hepatocytes to 1% oxygen completely prevented upregulation of PAI-1, vascular endothelial cell growth factor and ADM-1, suggesting that HIF-2alpha may also contribute to upregulation of these genes in hypoxic hepatocytes. Collectively, our results suggest that HIFs may be important regulators of profibrotic and vasoactive mediators by hypoxic hepatocytes.

  15. Targeted deletion of the ara operon of Salmonella typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and drives PBAD-promoted expression of anti-cancer toxins and imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun; Lim, Daejin; Kim, Geun-Joong; Park, Seung-Hwan; Sik Kim, Hyeon; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-specific expression of antitumor drugs can be achieved using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium harboring the PBAD promoter, which is induced by L-arabinose. However, L-arabinose does not accumulate because it is metabolized to D-xylulose-5-P by enzymes encoded by the ara operon in Salmonellae. To address this problem, we developed an engineered strain of S. typhimurium in which the ara operon is deleted. Linear DNA transformation was performed using λ red recombinase to exchange the ara operon with linear DNA carrying an antibiotic-resistance gene with homology to regions adjacent to the ara operon. The ara operon-deleted strain and its parental strain were transformed with a plasmid encoding Renilla luciferase variant 8 (RLuc8) or cytolysin A (clyA) under the control of the PBAD promoter. Luciferase assays demonstrated that RLuc8 expression was 49-fold higher in the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium than in the parental strain after the addition of L-arabinose. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that the tumor tissue targeted by the ara operon-deleted Salmonella had a stronger imaging signal (~30-fold) than that targeted by the parental strain. Mice with murine colon cancer (CT26) that had been injected with the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium expressing clyA showed significant tumor suppression. The present report demonstrates that deletion of the ara operon of S. typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and thereby drives PBAD-promoted expression of cytotoxic agents and imaging agents. This is a promising approach for tumor therapy and imaging.

  16. Enhanced cadmium accumulation and tolerance in transgenic tobacco overexpressing rice metal tolerance protein gene OsMTP1 is promising for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Surajit; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-08-01

    One of the most grievous heavy metal pollutants in the environment is cadmium (Cd), which is not only responsible for the crop yield loss owing to its phytotoxicity, but also for the human health hazards as the toxic elements usually accumulate in the consumable parts of crop plants. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and functionally characterize the OsMTP1 gene from indica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) to study its potential application for efficient phytoremediation of Cd. The 1257 bp coding DNA sequence (CDS) of OsMTP1 encodes a ∼46 kDa protein belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) or metal tolerance/transport protein (MTP) family. The OsMTP1 transcript in rice plant was found to respond during external Cd stress. Heterologous expression of OsMTP1 in tobacco resulted in the reduction of Cd stress-induced phytotoxic effects, including growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Compared to untransformed control, the transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced vacuolar thiol content, indicating vacuolar localization of the sequestered Cd. The transgenic tobacco plants exhibited significantly higher biomass growth (2.2-2.8-folds) and hyperaccumulation of Cd (1.96-2.22-folds) compared to untransformed control under Cd exposure. The transgenic plants also showed moderate tolerance and accumulation of arsenic (As) upon exogenous As stress, signifying broad substrate specificity of OsMTP1. Together, findings of our research suggest that the transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsMTP1 with its hyperaccumulating activity and increased growth rate could be useful for future phytoremediation applications to clean up the Cd-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Genomic and in Situ Analyses Reveal the Micropruina spp. as Abundant Fermentative Glycogen Accumulating Organisms in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. McIlroy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR involves the cycling of biomass through carbon-rich (feast and carbon-deficient (famine conditions, promoting the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs. However, several alternate metabolic strategies, without polyphosphate storage, are possessed by other organisms, which can compete with the PAO for carbon at the potential expense of EBPR efficiency. The most studied are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs, which utilize aerobically stored glycogen to energize anaerobic substrate uptake and storage. In full-scale systems the Micropruina spp. are among the most abundant of the proposed GAO, yet little is known about their ecophysiology. In the current study, genomic and metabolomic studies were performed on Micropruina glycogenica str. Lg2T and compared to the in situ physiology of members of the genus in EBPR plants using state-of-the-art single cell techniques. The Micropruina spp. were observed to take up carbon, including sugars and amino acids, under anaerobic conditions, which were partly fermented to lactic acid, acetate, propionate, and ethanol, and partly stored as glycogen for potential aerobic use. Fermentation was not directly demonstrated for the abundant members of the genus in situ, but was strongly supported by the confirmation of anaerobic uptake of carbon and glycogen storage in the absence of detectable polyhydroxyalkanoates or polyphosphate reserves. This physiology is markedly different from the classical GAO model. The amount of carbon stored by fermentative organisms has potentially important implications for phosphorus removal – as they compete for substrates with the Tetrasphaera PAO and stored carbon is not made available to the “Candidatus Accumulibacter” PAO under anaerobic conditions. This study shows that the current models of the competition between PAO and GAO are too simplistic and may need to be revised to take into account the impact of

  18. High Temperature During Rice Grain Filling Enhances Aspartate Metabolism in Grains and Results in Accumulation of Aspartate-Family Amino Acids and Protein Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-gang LIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming causes the exacerbation of rice growing environment, which seriously affects rice growth and reproduction, and finally results in the decrease of rice yield and quality. We investigated the activities of aspartate metabolism enzymes in grains, and the contents of Aspartate-family amino acids and protein components to further understand the effects of high temperature (HT on rice nutritional quality during rice grain filling. Under HT, the average activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and aspartokinase (AK in grains significantly increased, the amino acid contents of aspartate (Asp, lysine (Lys, threonine (Thr, methionine (Met and isoleucine (Ile and the protein contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin also significantly increased. The results indicated that HT enhanced Asp metabolism during rice grain filling and the enhancement of Asp metabolism might play an important role in the increase of Asp-family amino acids and protein components in grains. In case of the partial appraisal of the change of Asp-family amino acids and protein components under HT, we introduced eight indicators (amino acid or protein content, ratio of amino acid or protein, amino acid or protein content per grain and amino acid or protein content per panicle to estimate the effects of HT. It is suggested that HT during rice grain filling was benefit for the accumulation of Asp-family amino acids and protein components. Combined with the improvement of Asp-family amino acid ratio in grains under HT, it is suggested that HT during grain filling may improve the rice nutritional quality. However, the yields of parts of Asp-family amino acids and protein components were decreased under HT during rice grain filling.

  19. Downregulation of miR-210 expression inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei, E-mail: detachedy@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Sun, Ting [Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cao, Jianping; Liu, Fenju [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Tian, Ye [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhu, Wei [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2012-05-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and an important contributor to tumor radioresistance. miR-210 is the most consistently and robustly induced microRNA under hypoxia in different types of tumor cells and normal cells. In the present study, to explore the feasibility of miR-210 as an effective therapeutic target, lentiviral-mediated anti-sense miR-210 gene transfer technique was employed to downregulate miR-210 expression in hypoxic human hepatoma SMMC-7721, HepG2 and HuH7 cells, and phenotypic changes of which were analyzed. Hypoxia led to an increased hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and miR-210 expression and cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase in all cell lines. miR-210 downregulation significantly suppressed cell viability, induced cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, increased apoptotic rate and enhanced radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Moreover, apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 3 (AIFM3) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. AIFM3 downregulation by siRNA attenuated radiation induced apoptosis in miR-210 downregulated hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-210 might be a potential therapeutic target and specific inhibition of miR-210 expression in combination with radiotherapy might be expected to exert strong anti-tumor effect on hypoxic human hepatoma cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 downregulation radiosensitized hypoxic hepatoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIFM3 was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 might be a therapeutic target to hypoxic hepatoma.

  20. Transgenic soybean plants overexpressing O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase accumulate enhanced levels of cysteine and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Seok; Chronis, Demosthenis; Juergens, Matthew; Schroeder, Amy C; Hyun, Seung Won; Jez, Joseph M; Krishnan, Hari B

    2012-01-01

    Soybeans provide an excellent source of protein in animal feed. Soybean protein quality can be enhanced by increasing the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids. Previous attempts to increase the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids through the expression of heterologous proteins have met with limited success. Here, we report a successful strategy to increase the cysteine content of soybean seed through the overexpression of a key sulfur assimilatory enzyme. We have generated several transgenic soybean plants that overexpress a cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). These transgenic soybean plants exhibit a four- to tenfold increase in OASS activity when compared with non-transformed wild-type. The OASS activity in the transgenic soybeans was significantly higher at all the stages of seed development. Unlike the non-transformed soybean plants, there was no marked decrease in the OASS activity even at later stages of seed development. Overexpression of cytosolic OASS resulted in a 58-74% increase in protein-bound cysteine levels compared with non-transformed wild-type soybean seeds. A 22-32% increase in the free cysteine levels was also observed in transgenic soybeans overexpressing OASS. Furthermore, these transgenic soybean plants showed a marked increase in the accumulation of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor, a cysteine-rich protein. The overall increase in soybean total cysteine content (both free and protein-bound) satisfies the recommended levels required for the optimal growth of monogastric animals.

  1. Enhanced accumulation of Kir4.1 protein, but not mRNA, in a murine model of cuprizone-induced demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mitsunari; Kawamura, Takuya; Tokui, Ryuji; Furuta, Kohei; Sugino, Mami; Nakanishi, Masayuki; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2013-11-06

    Two channel proteins, inwardly rectifying potassium channel 4.1 (Kir4.1) and water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), were recently identified as targets of an autoantibody response in patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, respectively. In the present study, we examined the expression patterns of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in a mouse model of demyelination induced by cuprizone, a copper chelator. Demyelination was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using an anti-proteolipid protein antibody in various brain regions, including the corpus callosum, of cuprizone-fed mice. Activation of microglial and astroglial cells was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry, using an anti-ionized calcium binding adapter molecule and a glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. Western blot analysis revealed the induction of Kir4.1 protein, but not AQP4, in the cortex of cuprizone-fed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the Kir4.1 protein induction in microvessels of the cerebral cortex. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the cortex did not change during cuprizone administration. These findings suggest that enhanced accumulation of Kir4.1 protein in the brain with an inflammatory condition facilitates the autoantibody formation against Kir4.1 in patients with multiple sclerosis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. TaMYB13-1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, regulates the fructan synthetic pathway and contributes to enhanced fructan accumulation in bread wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiker, Maarten; Drenth, Janneke; Glassop, Donna; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Xue, Gang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Fructans are the major component of temporary carbon reserve in the stem of temperate cereals, which is used for grain filling. Three families of fructosyltransferases are directly involved in fructan synthesis in the vacuole of Triticum aestivum. The regulatory network of the fructan synthetic pathway is largely unknown. Recently, a sucrose-upregulated wheat MYB transcription factor (TaMYB13-1) was shown to be capable of activating the promoter activities of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) in transient transactivation assays. This work investigated TaMYB13-1 target genes and their influence on fructan synthesis in transgenic wheat. TaMYB13-1 overexpression resulted in upregulation of all three families of fructosyltransferases including fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT). A γ-vacuolar processing enzyme (γ-VPE1), potentially involved in processing the maturation of fructosyltransferases in the vacuole, was also upregulated by TaMYB13-1 overexpression. Multiple TaMYB13 DNA-binding motifs were identified in the Ta1-FFT1 and Taγ-VPE1 promoters and were bound strongly by TaMYB13-1. The expression profiles of these target genes and TaMYB13-1 were highly correlated in recombinant inbred lines and during stem development as well as the transgenic and non-transgenic wheat dataset, further supporting a direct regulation of these genes by TaMYB13-1. TaMYB13-1 overexpression in wheat led to enhanced fructan accumulation in the leaves and stems and also increased spike weight and grain weight per spike in transgenic plants under water-limited conditions. These data suggest that TaMYB13-1 plays an important role in coordinated upregulation of genes necessary for fructan synthesis and can be used as a molecular tool to improve the high fructan trait. PMID:23873993

  3. Enhanced saturated fatty acids accumulation in cultures of newly-isolated strains of Schizochytrium sp. and Thraustochytriidae sp. for large-scale biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Sen, Biswarup; Liu, Xianhua; He, Yaodong; Xie, Yunxuan; Wang, Guangyi

    2018-08-01

    Heterotrophic marine protists (Thraustochytrids) have received increasingly global attention as a renewable, sustainable and alternative source of biodiesel because of their high ability of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) accumulation. Yet, the influence of extrinsic factors (nutrients and environmental conditions) on thraustochytrid culture and optimal conditions for high SFAs production are poorly described. In the present study, two different thraustochytrid strains, Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 and Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16 were studied for their growth and SFAs production profiles under various conditions (carbon, nitrogen, temperature, pH, KH 2 PO 4 , salinity, and agitation speed). Of the culture conditions, substrates (C and N) source and conc., temperature, and agitation speed significantly influenced the cell growth and SFAs production of both strains. Although both the strains were capable of growth and SFAs production in the broad range of culture conditions, their physiological responses to KH 2 PO 4 , pH, and salinity were dissimilar. Under their optimal batch culture conditions, peak SFAs productions of 3.3g/L and 2.2g/L with 62% and 49% SFAs contents (relative to total fatty acids) were achieved, respectively. The results of 5-L fed-batch fermentation under optimal conditions showed a nearly 4.5-fold increase in SFAs production (i.e., 7.5g/L) by both strains compared to unoptimized conditions. Of the two strains, the quality of biodiesel produced from the fatty acids of PKU#Mn4 met the biodiesel standard defined by ASTM6751. This study, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first comprehensive report of optimal fermentation conditions demonstrating enhanced SFAs production by strains belonging to two different thraustochytrid genera and provides the basis for large-scale biodiesel production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Reduced ABA Accumulation in the Root System is Caused by ABA Exudation in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Gaoshan1) and this Enhanced Drought Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Guo, Miaomiao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xia, Yiji; Cui, Suxia; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    Lowland rice (Nipponbare) and upland rice (Gaoshan 1) that are comparable under normal and moderate drought conditions showed dramatic differences in severe drought conditions, both naturally occurring long-term drought and simulated rapid water deficits. We focused on their root response and found that enhanced tolerance of upland rice to severe drought conditions was mainly due to the lower level of ABA in its roots than in those of the lowland rice. We first excluded the effect of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism on root-accumulated ABA levels in both types of rice by monitoring the expression of four OsNCED genes and two OsABA8ox genes. Next, we excluded the impact of the aerial parts on roots by suppressing leaf-biosynthesized ABA with fluridone and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), and measuring the ABA level in detached roots. Instead, we proved that upland rice had the ability to export considerably more root-sourced ABA than lowland rice under severe drought, which improved ABA-dependent drought adaptation. The investigation of apoplastic pH in root cells and root anatomy showed that ABA leakage in the root system of upland rice was related to high apoplastic pH and the absence of Casparian bands in the sclerenchyma layer. Finally, taking some genes as examples, we predicted that different ABA levels in rice roots stimulated distinct ABA perception and signaling cascades, which influenced its response to water stress. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  6. Enhanced accumulation and visible light-assisted degradation of azo dyes in poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-modified mesoporous silica spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Xia; Liu Bing; Hou Qian; Xu Hui; Chen Jianfeng

    2009-01-01

    A new route for the economic and efficient treatment of azo dye pollutants is reported, in which surface-modified organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica (MS) spheres were chosen as microreactors for the accumulation and subsequent photodegradation of pollutants in defined regions. The surface-modified silica materials were prepared by anchoring the polycationic species such as poly(allylamine hydrochloride) on MS spheres via a simple wet impregnation method. The as-synthesized spheres with well-defined porous structures exhibited 15 times of accumulating capacity for orange II and Congo red compared to that of the pure MS spheres. Diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the accumulated orange II and CR in defined MS spheres were rapidly degraded in the presence of Fenton reagent under visible radiation. Kinetics analysis in recycling degradation showed that the as-synthesized materials might be utilized as environment-friendly preconcentrators/microreactors for the remediation of dye wastewater

  7. Selective enhancement of boron accumulation with boron-entrapped water-in-oil-water emulsion in VX-2 rabbit hepatic cancer model for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Shushi; Ikushima, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B and thermal neutrons. It is necessary for effective BNCT therapy to accumulate 10 B atoms in the tumor cells without affecting adjacent healthy cells. Water-in-oil-water (WOW) emulsion was used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on arterial injections in clinical cancer treatment. In this study, we prepared 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion for selective arterial infusion for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. WOW emulsion was administrated by arterial injections via proper hepatic artery. The anti-tumor activity of the emulsion was compared with 10 BSH-Lipiodol mix emulsion or 10 BSH solutions on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumor models. The 10 B concentrations in VX-2 tumor on delivery with WOW emulsion was superior to those by conventional lipiodol mix emulsion. Electro-microscopic figures of WOW emulsion delineated the accumulation of fat droplets of WOW emulsion in the tumor site, but there was no accumulation of fat droplets in lipiodol emulsion. These results indicate that 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion is most useful carrier for arterial delivery of boron agents on BNCT to cancer. (author)

  8. Anergic CD4+ T cells form mature immunological synapses with enhanced accumulation of c-Cbl and Cbl-b1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Melissa; Osborne, Douglas G.; Browning, Diana L.; Parker, David C.; Wetzel, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    CD4+ T cell recognition of MHC:peptide complexes in the context of a costimulatory signal results in the large-scale redistribution of molecules at the T-APC interface to form the immunological synapse. The immunological synapse is the location of sustained TCR signaling and delivery of a subset of effector functions. T cells activated in the absence of costimulation are rendered anergic and are hyporesponsive when presented with antigen in the presence of optimal costimulation. Several previous studies have looked at aspects of immunological synapses formed by anergic T cells, but it remains unclear whether there are differences in the formation or composition of anergic immunological synapses. In this study we anergized primary murine CD4+ T cells by incubation of costimulation-deficient, transfected fibroblast APC. Using a combination of TCR, MHC:peptide, and ICAM-1 staining, we found that anergic T cells make mature immunological synapses with characteristic cSMAC and pSMAC domains that were indistinguishable from control synapses. There were small increases in total phosphotyrosine at the anergic synapse along with significant decreases in phosphorylated ERK 1/2 accumulation. Most striking, there was specific accumulation of c-Cbl and Cbl-b to the anergic synapses. Cbl-b, previously shown to be essential in anergy induction, was found in both the pSMAC and the cSMAC of the anergic synapse. This Cbl-b (and c-Cbl) accumulation at the anergic synapse may play an important role in anergy maintenance and/or induction. PMID:20207996

  9. Enhanced insight into the autoimmune component of glaucoma: IgG autoantibody accumulation and pro-inflammatory conditions in human glaucomatous retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Oliver W; Beck, Sabine; von Thun Und Hohenstein-Blaul, Nadine; Boehm, Nils; Ziegler, Anika; Vetter, Jan M; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autoimmune components, such as autoantibodies and autoantibody depositions, play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimeŕs disease or Multiple Sclerosis. Due to alterations of autoantibody patterns in sera and aqueous humor, an autoimmune component is also assumed in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, a common reason for irreversible blindness worldwide. So far there has been no convincing evidence that autoantibodies are accumulated in the retina of glaucoma patients and that the local immune homeostasis might be affected. Six human glaucomatous donor eyes and nine samples from donors with no recorded ocular disease were included. Antibody microarrays were used to examine the patterns of pro-inflammatory proteins and complement proteins. Analysis of TNF-α and interleukin levels revealed a slight up-regulation exclusively in the glaucomatous group, while complement protein levels were not altered. IgG autoantibody accumulations and/or cellular components were determined by immunohistology (n = 4 per group). A significantly reduced number of retinal ganglion cells was found in the glaucomatous group (healthy: 104±7 nuclei/mm, glaucoma: 67±9 nuclei/mm; p = 0.0007). Cell loss was accompanied by strong retinal IgG autoantibody accumulations, which were at least twice as high as in healthy subjects (healthy: 5.0±0.5 IgG deposits/100 cells, glaucoma: 9.4±1.9 IgG deposits/100 cells; p = 0.004). CD27(+) cells and CD27(+)/IgG(+) plasma cells were observed in all glaucomatous subjects, but not in controls. This work provides serious evidence for the occurrence of IgG antibody deposition and plasma cells in human glaucomatous retina. Moreover, the results suggest that these IgG deposits occurred in a pro-inflammatory environment which seems to be maintained locally by immune-competent cells like microglia. Thereby, glaucoma features an immunological involvement comparable to other

  10. Enhanced insight into the autoimmune component of glaucoma: IgG autoantibody accumulation and pro-inflammatory conditions in human glaucomatous retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W Gramlich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that autoimmune components, such as autoantibodies and autoantibody depositions, play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimeŕs disease or Multiple Sclerosis. Due to alterations of autoantibody patterns in sera and aqueous humor, an autoimmune component is also assumed in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, a common reason for irreversible blindness worldwide. So far there has been no convincing evidence that autoantibodies are accumulated in the retina of glaucoma patients and that the local immune homeostasis might be affected. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six human glaucomatous donor eyes and nine samples from donors with no recorded ocular disease were included. Antibody microarrays were used to examine the patterns of pro-inflammatory proteins and complement proteins. Analysis of TNF-α and interleukin levels revealed a slight up-regulation exclusively in the glaucomatous group, while complement protein levels were not altered. IgG autoantibody accumulations and/or cellular components were determined by immunohistology (n = 4 per group. A significantly reduced number of retinal ganglion cells was found in the glaucomatous group (healthy: 104±7 nuclei/mm, glaucoma: 67±9 nuclei/mm; p = 0.0007. Cell loss was accompanied by strong retinal IgG autoantibody accumulations, which were at least twice as high as in healthy subjects (healthy: 5.0±0.5 IgG deposits/100 cells, glaucoma: 9.4±1.9 IgG deposits/100 cells; p = 0.004. CD27(+ cells and CD27(+/IgG(+ plasma cells were observed in all glaucomatous subjects, but not in controls. CONCLUSION: This work provides serious evidence for the occurrence of IgG antibody deposition and plasma cells in human glaucomatous retina. Moreover, the results suggest that these IgG deposits occurred in a pro-inflammatory environment which seems to be maintained locally by immune-competent cells like microglia. Thereby, glaucoma features an

  11. Topical glycerol monooleate/propylene glycol formulations enhance 5-aminolevulinic acid in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protophorphyrin IX accumulation in hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steluti, Regilene; De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Collett, John; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a potential therapy for cancer treatment, utilizes exogenously applied or endogenously formed photosensitizers, further activated by light in an appropriate wavelength and dose to induce cell death through free radical formation. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a pro-drug which can be converted to the effective photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). However, the use of 5-ALA in PDT is limited by the low penetration capacity of this highly hydrophilic molecule into appropriate skin layers. In the present study, we propose to increase 5-ALA penetration by using formulations containing glycerol monooleate (GMO), an interesting and useful component of pharmaceutical formulations. Propylene glycol solutions containing different concentrations of GMO significantly increased the in vitro skin permeation/retention of 5-ALA in comparison to control solutions. In vivo studies also showed increased PpIX accumulation in mouse hairless skin, after the use of topical 5-ALA formulations containing GMO in a concentration-dependent manner. The results show that skin 5-ALA penetration and PpIX accumulation, important factors for the success of topical 5-ALA-PDT in skin cancer, are optimized by GMO/propylene glycol formulations.

  12. Light enhanced the accumulation of total fatty acids (TFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium sp. SUN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongzhe; Zhang, Zhao; Mao, Xuemei; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, light illumination was found to be efficient in elevating the total fatty acid content in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN. Under light illumination, the highest total fatty acid and DHA contents were achieved at 96h as 24.9% of dry weight and 82.8mgg -1 dry weight, respectively, which were equivalent to 1.46-fold and 1.68-fold of those under the dark conditions. The elevation of total fatty acid content was mainly contributed by an increase of neutral lipids at the expense of starches. Moreover, light was found to alter the cell metabolism and led to a higher specific growth rate, higher glucose consumption rate and lower non-motile cell percentage. This is the first report that light can promote the total fatty acids accumulation in Crypthecodinium without growth inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MO-C-17A-11: A Segmentation and Point Matching Enhanced Deformable Image Registration Method for Dose Accumulation Between HDR CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, X; Chen, H; Zhou, L; Yan, H; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Gu, X; Mell, L; Yashar, C; Cervino, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and validate a novel and accurate deformable image registration (DIR) scheme to facilitate dose accumulation among treatment fractions of high-dose-rate (HDR) gynecological brachytherapy. Method: We have developed a method to adapt DIR algorithms to gynecologic anatomies with HDR applicators by incorporating a segmentation step and a point-matching step into an existing DIR framework. In the segmentation step, random walks algorithm is used to accurately segment and remove the applicator region (AR) in the HDR CT image. A semi-automatic seed point generation approach is developed to obtain the incremented foreground and background point sets to feed the random walks algorithm. In the subsequent point-matching step, a feature-based thin-plate spline-robust point matching (TPS-RPM) algorithm is employed for AR surface point matching. With the resulting mapping, a DVF characteristic of the deformation between the two AR surfaces is generated by B-spline approximation, which serves as the initial DVF for the following Demons DIR between the two AR-free HDR CT images. Finally, the calculated DVF via Demons combined with the initial one serve as the final DVF to map doses between HDR fractions. Results: The segmentation and registration accuracy are quantitatively assessed by nine clinical HDR cases from three gynecological cancer patients. The quantitative results as well as the visual inspection of the DIR indicate that our proposed method can suppress the interference of the applicator with the DIR algorithm, and accurately register HDR CT images as well as deform and add interfractional HDR doses. Conclusions: We have developed a novel and robust DIR scheme that can perform registration between HDR gynecological CT images and yield accurate registration results. This new DIR scheme has potential for accurate interfractional HDR dose accumulation. This work is supported in part by the National Natural ScienceFoundation of China (no 30970866 and no

  14. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  15. Resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in maize inbred lines involves an earlier and enhanced expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschietto, Valentina; Marocco, Adriano; Malachova, Alexandra; Lanubile, Alessandra

    2015-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot in maize and contaminates the kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. It is known that plant lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived oxylipins regulate defence against pathogens and that the host-pathogen lipid cross-talk influences the pathogenesis. The expression profiles of fifteen genes of the LOX pathway were studied in kernels of resistant and susceptible maize lines, grown in field condition, at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) with F. verticillioides. Plant defence responses were correlated with the pathogen growth, the expression profiles of fungal FUM genes for fumonisin biosynthesis and fumonisin content in the kernels. The resistant genotype limited fungal growth and fumonisin accumulation between 7 and 14 dpi. Pathogen growth became exponential in the susceptible line after 7 dpi, in correspondence with massive transcription of FUM genes and fumonisins augmented exponentially at 14 dpi. LOX pathway genes resulted strongly induced after pathogen inoculation in the resistant line at 3 and 7 dpi, whilst in the susceptible line the induction was reduced or delayed at 14 dpi. In addition, all genes resulted overexpressed before infection in kernels of the resistant genotype already at 3 dpi. The results suggest that resistance in maize may depend on an earlier activation of LOX genes and genes for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  17. Abscisic Acid-Induced H2O2 Accumulation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity in Pumpkin-Grafted Cucumber Leaves under Ca(NO3)2 Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Gao, Pan; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) in pumpkin-grafted cucumber leaves gradually increased over time and peaked at 12 h of Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings, the H2O2 generation, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of SOD, POD and cAPX were strongly blocked by an inhibitor of ABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress, but this effect was eliminated by the addition of exogenous ABA. Moreover, the activities and gene expressions of these antioxidant enzymes in pumpkin-grafted leaves were almost inhibited under Ca(NO3)2 stress by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. These results suggest that the pumpkin grafting-induced ABA accumulation mediated H2O2 generation, resulting in the induction of antioxidant defense systems in leaves exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress in the ABA/H2O2 signaling pathway. PMID:27746808

  18. Biomass saccharification is largely enhanced by altering wall polymer features and reducing silicon accumulation in rice cultivars harvested from nitrogen fertilizer supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor; Sun, Dan; Li, Ying; Wang, Jing; Tu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yanting; Hu, Zhen; Zhou, Shiguang; Wang, Lingqiang; Xie, Guosheng; Huang, Jianliang; Alam, Aftab; Peng, Liangcai

    2017-11-01

    In this study, two rice cultivars were collected from experimental fields with seven nitrogen fertilizer treatments. All biomass samples contained significantly increased cellulose contents and reduced silica levels, with variable amounts of hemicellulose and lignin from different nitrogen treatments. Under chemical (NaOH, CaO, H 2 SO 4 ) and physical (hot water) pretreatments, biomass samples exhibited much enhanced hexoses yields from enzymatic hydrolysis, with high bioethanol production from yeast fermentation. Notably, both degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose and xylose/arabinose (Xyl/Ara) ratio of hemicellulose were reduced in biomass residues, whereas other wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity and monolignol proportion) were variable. Integrative analysis indicated that cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica are the major factors that significantly affect cellulose crystallinity and biomass saccharification. Hence, this study has demonstrated that nitrogen fertilizer supply could largely enhance biomass saccharification in rice cultivars, mainly by reducing cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica in cell walls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 is differentially expressed in chickpea and enhances seed vigor and longevity by reducing abnormal isoaspartyl accumulation predominantly in seed nuclear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pooja; Kaur, Harmeet; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Saxena, Saurabh C; Majee, Manoj

    2013-03-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a widely distributed protein-repairing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal aspartyl residues. This enzyme is encoded by two divergent genes (PIMT1 and PIMT2) in plants, unlike many other organisms. While the biological role of PIMT1 has been elucidated, the role and significance of the PIMT2 gene in plants is not well defined. Here, we isolated the PIMT2 gene (CaPIMT2) from chickpea (Cicer arietinum), which exhibits a significant increase in isoaspartyl residues in seed proteins coupled with reduced germination vigor under artificial aging conditions. The CaPIMT2 gene is found to be highly divergent and encodes two possible isoforms (CaPIMT2 and CaPIMT2') differing by two amino acids in the region I catalytic domain through alternative splicing. Unlike CaPIMT1, both isoforms possess a unique 56-amino acid amino terminus and exhibit similar yet distinct enzymatic properties. Expression analysis revealed that CaPIMT2 is differentially regulated by stresses and abscisic acid. Confocal visualization of stably expressed green fluorescent protein-fused PIMT proteins and cell fractionation-immunoblot analysis revealed that apart from the plasma membrane, both CaPIMT2 isoforms localize predominantly in the nucleus, while CaPIMT1 localizes in the cytosol. Remarkably, CaPIMT2 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing abnormal isoaspartyl residues predominantly in nuclear proteins upon seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while CaPIMT1 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing such abnormal proteins mainly in the cytosolic fraction. Together, our data suggest that CaPIMT2 has most likely evolved through gene duplication, followed by subfunctionalization to specialize in repairing the nuclear proteome.

  20. A miR-21 inhibitor enhances apoptosis and reduces G2-M accumulation induced by ionizing radiation in human glioblastoma U251 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Asai, Akio; Kawamoto, Keiji; Zhao Shiguang; Zhen Yunbo; Teng Lei

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that take part in diverse biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Elevated expression of miR-21 has been reported in many types of human cancers. Radiotherapy is a standard adjuvant treatment for patients with glioblastoma. However, the resistance of glioblastoma cells to radiation limits the success of this treatment. In this study, we found that miR-21 expression was upregulated in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in U251 cells, which suggested that miR-21 could be involved in the response of U251 cells to radiation. We showed that a miR-21 inhibitor enhanced IR-induced glioblastoma cell growth arrest and increased the level of apoptosis, which was probably caused by abrogation of the G 2 -M arrest induced by IR. Further research demonstrated that the miR-21 inhibitor induced the upregulation of Cdc25A. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-21 inhibitor can increase IR-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in U251 glioblastoma cells, at least in part by abrogating G 2 -M arrest, and that Cdc25A is a potential target of miR-21. (author)

  1. Inflammation-Dependent IL18 Signaling Restricts Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth by Enhancing the Accumulation and Activity of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Geoffrey J; Yang, Pengyuan; Fu, Jing; Michelotti, Gregory A; Chen, Rui; Sui, Jianhua; Yang, Bin; Qin, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Diehl, Anna Mae; Li, Qi-Jing; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2016-04-15

    Chronic inflammation in liver tissue is an underlying cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. High levels of inflammatory cytokine IL18 in the circulation of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma correlates with poor prognosis. However, conflicting results have been reported for IL18 in hepatocellular carcinoma development and progression. In this study, we used tissue specimens from hepatocellular carcinoma patients and clinically relevant mouse models of hepatocellular carcinoma to evaluate IL18 expression and function. In a mouse model of liver fibrosis that recapitulates a tumor-promoting microenvironment, global deletion of the IL18 receptor IL18R1 enhanced tumor growth and burden. Similarly, in a carcinogen-induced model of liver tumorigenesis, IL18R1 deletion increased tumor burden. Mechanistically, we found that IL18 exerted inflammation-dependent tumor-suppressive effects largely by promoting the differentiation, activity, and survival of tumor-infiltrating T cells. Finally, differences in the expression of IL18 in tumor tissue versus nontumor tissue were more predictive of patient outcome than overall tissue expression. Taken together, our findings resolve a long-standing contradiction regarding a tumor-suppressive role for IL18 in established hepatocellular carcinoma and provide a mechanistic explanation for the complex relationship between its expression pattern and hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2394-405. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Aggregation of Individual Sensing Units for Signal Accumulation: Conversion of Liquid-Phase Colorimetric Assay into Enhanced Surface-Tethered Electrochemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianxiang; Dong, Tingting; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bao, Jianchun; Tu, Wenwen; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-07-22

    A novel concept is proposed for converting liquid-phase colorimetric assay into enhanced surface-tethered electrochemical analysis, which is based on the analyte-induced formation of a network architecture of metal nanoparticles (MNs). In a proof-of-concept trial, thymine-functionalized silver nanoparticle (Ag-T) is designed as the sensing unit for Hg(2+) determination. Through a specific T-Hg(2+)-T coordination, the validation system based on functionalized sensing units not only can perform well in a colorimetric Hg(2+) assay, but also can be developed into a more sensitive and stable electrochemical Hg(2+) sensor. In electrochemical analysis, the simple principle of analyte-induced aggregation of MNs can be used as a dual signal amplification strategy for significantly improving the detection sensitivity. More importantly, those numerous and diverse colorimetric assays that rely on the target-induced aggregation of MNs can be augmented to satisfy the ambitious demands of sensitive analysis by converting them into electrochemical assays via this approach.

  3. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2016-01-01

    selenate to the anticarcinogenic compound Se-methyl-selenocysteine. Selenate treatment enhanced levels of other nutraceuticals in radish roots, including glucoraphanin. Therefore, Se biofortification can produce plants with superior health benefits. PMID:27683583

  4. Selenium biofortification in radish enhances nutritional quality via accumulation of methyl-selenocysteine and promotion of transcripts and metabolites related to glucosinolates, phenolics and amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Schiavon

    2016-09-01

    metabolized selenate to the anticarcinogenic compound Se-methyl-selenocysteine. Selenate treatment enhanced levels of other nutraceuticals in radish roots, including glucoraphanin. Therefore, Se biofortification can produce plants with superior health benefits.

  5. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  6. Increased renal adrenomedullin expression in rats with ureteral obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Rikke; Bødker, Tina; Jensen, Boye L

    2009-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction is characterized by decreased renal blood flow that is associated with hypoxia within the kidney. Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone with tissue-protective capacity that is stimulated through hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that ureteral obstruction stimulates...... increases in response to ureteral obstruction in agreement with expected oxygen gradients. Hypoxia acting through HIF-1alpha accumulation may be an important pathway for the renal response to ureteral obstruction....

  7. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  8. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  9. [Effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropoietin levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-yan; Zhang, Ji-xin; Lü, Xiao-tao; Li, Bao-yu

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure and normoxic convalescence on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Rat models of intermittent hypoxic exposure were established, combined with the clinical research on volunteers experiencing the intermittent plateau work. Blood samples for red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) were collected, serum HIF-1alpha and EPO levels were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RBC counts, Hb concentration and HCT were significantly higher than the normoxic group (P hypoxic exposure can enhance serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropointin levels and the generation of red blood cells, which leads to an increase in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. The results have changed with the hypoxic exposure period prolonged. Normoxic convalescence after intermittent hypoxic exposure can make the related indexes reduced, and contribute to the organism recovery.

  10. Hypoxic stress up-regulates the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages via hypoxia-inducible factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Choi, Yong Jun; Joung, Sun Myung; Lee, Byung Ho; Jung, Yi-Sook; Lee, Joo Young

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded innate immune receptors that recognize invading micro-organisms and induce immune and inflammatory responses. Deregulation of TLRs is known to be closely linked to various immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cells at sites of inflammation are exposed to hypoxic stress, which further aggravates inflammatory processes. We have examined if hypoxic stress modulates the TLR activity of macrophages. Hypoxia and CoCl(2) (a hypoxia mimetic) enhanced the expression of TLR4 messenger RNA and protein in macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), whereas the messenger RNA of other TLRs was not increased. To determine the underlying mechanism, we investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the regulation of TLR4 expression. Knockdown of HIF-1alpha expression by small interfering RNA inhibited hypoxia-induced and CoCl(2)-induced TLR4 expression in macrophages, while over-expression of HIF-1alpha potentiated TLR4 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HIF-1alpha binds to the TLR4 promoter region under hypoxic conditions. In addition, deletion or mutation of a putative HIF-1-binding motif in the TLR4 promoter greatly attenuated HIF-1alpha-induced TLR4 promoter reporter expression. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress enhanced the response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide, resulting in increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, and interferon-inducible protein-10. These results demonstrate that TLR4 expression in macrophages is up-regulated via HIF-1 in response to hypoxic stress, suggesting that hypoxic stress at sites of inflammation enhances susceptibility to subsequent infection and inflammatory signals by up-regulating TLR4.

  11. Regulation of HIF prolyl hydroxylases by hypoxia-inducible factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprelikova, Olga; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Wood, Matthew; Vasselli, James R; Riss, Joseph; Maranchie, Jodi K; Linehan, W Marston; Barrett, J Carl

    2004-06-01

    Hypoxia and induction of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha) is a hallmark of many tumors. Under normal oxygen tension HIF-alpha subunits are rapidly degraded through prolyl hydroxylase dependent interaction with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, a component of E3 ubuiquitin ligase complex. Using microarray analysis of VHL mutated and re-introduced cells, we found that one of the prolyl hydroxylases (PHD3) is coordinately expressed with known HIF target genes, while the other two family members (PHD1 and 2) did not respond to VHL. We further tested the regulation of these genes by HIF-1 and HIF-2 and found that siRNA targeted degradation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha results in decreased hypoxia-induced PHD3 expression. Ectopic overexpression of HIF-2alpha in two different cell lines provided a much better induction of PHD3 gene than HIF-1alpha. In contrast, we demonstrate that PHD2 is not affected by overexpression or downregulation of HIF-2alpha. However, induction of PHD2 by hypoxia has HIF-1-independent and -dependent components. Short-term hypoxia (4 h) results in induction of PHD2 independent of HIF-1, while PHD2 accumulation by prolonged hypoxia (16 h) was decreased by siRNA-mediated degradation of HIF-1alpha subunit. These data further advance our understanding of the differential role of HIF factors and putative feedback loop in HIF regulation. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  13. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  14. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  15. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  16. PI3K/Akt contributes to increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages exposed to hypoxic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Young; Jeong, Eunshil; Joung, Sun Myung [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Young, E-mail: joolee@catholic.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxic stress-induced TLR4 expression is mediated by PI3K/Akt in macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI3K/Akt regulated HIF-1 activation leading to TLR4 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was not involved in TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia-mediated TLR4 expression by inhibiting PI3K/Akt. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in triggering immune and inflammatory responses by detecting invading microbial pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Increased expression of TLR4 is implicated in aggravated inflammatory symptoms in ischemic tissue injury and chronic diseases. Results from our previous study showed that TLR4 expression was upregulated by hypoxic stress mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) at a transcriptional level in macrophages. In this study, we further investigated the upstream signaling pathway that contributed to the increase of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Either treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K and Akt or knockdown of Akt expression by siRNA blocked the increase of TLR4 mRNA and protein levels in macrophages exposed to hypoxia and CoCl{sub 2}. Phosphorylation of Akt by hypoxic stress preceded nuclear accumulation of HIF-1{alpha}. A PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated CoCl{sub 2}-induced nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. In addition, HIF-1{alpha}-mediated upregulation of TLR4 expression was blocked by LY294002. Furthermore, sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia- and CoCl{sub 2}-induced upregulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein by inhibiting PI3K/Akt activation and the subsequent nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. However, p38 was not involved in HIF-1{alpha} activation and TLR4 expression induced by hypoxic stress in macrophages. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PI3K

  17. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  18. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  19. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  20. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  1. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  2. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  3. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  4. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  5. Drug accumulation in the presence of the multidrug resistance pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh, S; Litman, Thomas; Stein, W D

    1997-01-01

    We studied the interaction between the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, and two compounds that interact with it: vinblastine, a classical substrate of the pump, and verapamil, a classical reverser. Steady-state levels of accumulation of these two drugs were determined in a multidrug resistant...... P388 leukemia cell line, P388/ADR. The time course of accumulation of these drugs, and the effect of energy starvation and the presence of chloroquine on the level of their steady-state accumulation were quite disparate. Vinblastine inhibited the accumulation of verapamil whereas it enhanced...

  6. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  7. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  8. Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul R; Schröder, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Trace elements (heavy metals and metalloids) are important environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. Pollution of the biosphere with trace elements has accelerated dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Primary sources are the burning of fossil fuels, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, municipal wastes, agrochemicals, and sewage. In addition, natural mineral deposits containing particularly large quantities of heavy metals are found in many regions. These areas often support characteristic plant species thriving in metal-enriched environments. Whereas many species avoid the uptake of heavy metals from these soils, some of them can accumulate significantly high concentrations of toxic metals, to levels which by far exceed the soil levels. The natural phenomenon of heavy metal tolerance has enhanced the interest of plant ecologists, plant physiologists, and plant biologists to investigate the physiology and genetics of metal tolerance in specialized hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in plants with special reference to transcriptomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes implied in tolerance and detoxification. Plants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity and respond to avoid detrimental effects in a variety of different ways. The toxic dose depends on the type of ion, ion concentration, plant species, and stage of plant growth. Tolerance to metals is based on multiple mechanisms such as cell wall binding, active transport of ions into the vacuole, and formation of complexes with organic acids or peptides. One of the most important mechanisms for metal detoxification in plants appears to be chelation of metals by low-molecular-weight proteins such as metallothioneins and peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. For

  9. Dose of 3-methylcholanthrene enhances vitamin C accumulation and mRNA expression of its transporter in the liver of ODS rats and in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Yasuko; Ueta, Etsuko; Sannomaru, Yasuko; Miyake, Noriko; Sone, Hirohito; Otsuka, Yuzuru; Kondo, Kazuo; Kurata, Tadao; Suzuki, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds including 3-methylcholanthrene induce harmful reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species. This study reports the effect of 3-methylcholanthrene on the accumulation of vitamin C and the expression of vitamin C transporters. ODS rats were given l-ascorbic acid daily and intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg 3-methylcholanthrene in total. On day 10, vitamin C concentrations and the expression of vitamin C transporter in the tissues were measured. As a result, the levels of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCTs) 1 and the l-ascorbic acid concentration in 3-methylcholanthrene-treated livers and hepatocytes have increased significantly. However, the content of vitamin C in the urine and TBARS in the liver have not changed. These results suggest that the administration of 3-methylcholanthrene elevates the requirement for vitamin C via (SVCTs) 1 due to xenobitics-metabolizing, such as the induction of cytochrome P450 family. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  11. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  12. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  13. [Lorenz was right, or does aggressive energy accumulate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtseva, N N

    2004-06-01

    Evidence supporting the fact that inherited mechanisms of regulation of aggressive behavior as a result of a repeated experience of aggression ending in victories are transformed into pathological mechanisms based on accumulation of neurochemical shifts in the brain, enhancing aggressiveness, and forming aggressive motivation in aggressive winners. This confirms the concept by Lorenz on the existence of a mechanism (but not instinct) of a spontaneous accumulation of aggressive energy that needs a discharge and formation of permanent attraction to manifestation of aggression.

  14. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Takemi; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Fijihara, Mitsuteru; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of 10 B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), 10 BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The 10 B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion could be

  15. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu, E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, Syushi [Dept of Surgery, Ebihara Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)] [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Ikushima, Ichiro [Dept of Radiology, Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Morishita, Yasuyuki [Dept of Human and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Atsuko [Dept of Humanities, Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Fijihara, Mitsuteru [SPG Techno Ltd. Co., Miyazaki (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirotaka [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kajiyama, Tetsuya [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishimura, Ryohei [Dept of Veternary Surgery, University of Tokyo Veternary Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru [Dept of Cardiothracic Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, Masazumi [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Shin-Yamanote Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between {sup 10}B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of {sup 10}B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared {sup 10}BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), {sup 10}BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The {sup 10}B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that {sup 10}B

  16. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  17. Phytoextraction: a review on enhanced metal availability and plant accumulation Fitoextração: uma revisão sobre disponibilidade induzida e acumulação de metais em plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction has emerged as a novel approach to clean up metal-polluted soils in which plants are used to transfer toxic metals from soils to shoots. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on phytoextraction of metals from soils and their accumulation in plants. The objective is to integrate soil-related (root exudates and chemical amendments and biological advances to suggest research needs and future directions. As far as can be deduced from the literature, it will be some time before phytoextraction may be established as a commercial technology. For chemically-assisted phytoextraction, research has not shown easily biodegradable compounds to overcome the risks associated with the use of EDTA for poorly available metals in soils. On the other hand, significant progress has been made on the physiological and molecular aspects regarding tolerance and phytoaccumulation of metals in plants. A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to make phytoextraction a feasible commercial technology to remediate metal-polluted soils.A fitoextração é uma tecnologia emergente para despoluição de solos contaminados por metais pesados que usa plantas para transferir metais do solo para a parte aérea, a qual pode ser removida da área poluída. Esta revisão apresenta uma síntese do atual conhecimento sobre fitoextração de metais pesados do solo e sua acumulação em plantas. O objetivo é integrar em uma mesma discussão os avanços relacionados à química do solo (exsudação radicular e adição de agentes quelantes para aumentar a absorção e à biologia (tolerância a metais e melhoramento genético visando sugerir futuras pesquisas na área. Embora promissor, o atual estado de desenvolvimento da fitoextração ainda não permite estabelecê-la como uma tecnologia comercial. A pesquisa ainda não encontrou agentes quelantes facilmente biodegradáveis que possam substituir o EDTA na solubilização de metais pouco disponíveis em

  18. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Takemi; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Fijihara, Mitsuteru; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of (10)B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared (10)BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), (10)BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. The (10)B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that (10)B entrapped WOW emulsion could be applied to novel intra-arterial boron delivery carrier

  19. Tumor-targeted delivery of IL-2 by NKG2D leads to accumulation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumor loci and enhanced anti-tumor effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Heung Kang

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL-2 has been shown to promote tumor-specific T-cell proliferation and differentiation but systemic administration of IL-2 results in significant toxicity. Therefore, a strategy that can specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location may alleviate concerns of toxicity. Because NKG2D ligands have been shown to be highly expressed in many cancer cells but not in healthy cells, we reason that a chimeric protein consisting of NKG2D linked to IL-2 will lead to the specific targeting of IL-2 to the tumor location. Therefore, we created chimeric proteins consisting of NKG2D linked to Gaussia luciferase (GLuc; a marker protein or IL-2 to form NKG2D-Fc-GLuc and NKG2D-Fc-IL2, respectively. We demonstrated that NKG2D linked to GLuc was able to deliver GLuc to the tumor location in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that TC-1 tumor-bearing mice intramuscularly injected with DNA encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2, followed by electroporation, exhibited an increased number of luciferase-expressing E7-specific CD8+ T cells at the tumor location. More importantly, treatment with the DNA construct encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2 significantly enhanced the therapeutic anti-tumor effects generated by intradermal vaccination with therapeutic HPV DNA in tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, by linking NKG2D to IL2, we are able to specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location, enhancing antigen-specific T-cell immune response and controlling tumor growth. Our approach represents a platform technology to specifically deliver proteins of interest to tumor loci.

  20. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  1. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  2. Induced Plant Accumulation of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kavanagh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium’s (Li value has grown exponentially since the development of Li-ion batteries. It is usually accessed in one of two ways: hard rock mineral mining or extraction from mineral-rich brines. Both methods are expensive and require a rich source of Li. This paper examines the potential of agro-mining as an environmentally friendly, economically viable process for extracting Li from low grade ore. Agro-mining exploits an ability found in few plant species, to accumulate substantial amounts of metals in the above ground parts of the plant. Phyto-mined metals are then retrieved from the incinerated plants. Although the actual amount of metal collected from a crop may be low, the process has been shown to be profitable. We have investigated the suitability of several plant species including: Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus, as Li-accumulators under controlled conditions. Large plant trials were carried out with/without chelating agents to encourage Li accumulation. The question we sought to answer was, can any of the plant species investigated accumulate Li at levels high enough to justify using them to agro-mine Li. Results show maximum accumulated levels of >4000 mg/kg Li in some species. Our data suggests that agro-mining of Li is a potentially viable process.

  3. Accumulation of different visual feature descriptors in a coherent framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, J.B.; Pilz, F.; Kraft, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We present a temporal accumulation scheme which disambiguates different kinds of visual 3D descriptors within one coherent framework. The accumulation consists of a twofold process: First, by means of a Bayesian filtering outliers become eliminated and second, the precision of the extracted infor...... information becomes enhanced by means of an unscented Kalman filtering process. It is a particular property of our algorithm to be able to deal with different kinds of visual descriptors by the very same mechanism. We show quantitative and qualitative results.......We present a temporal accumulation scheme which disambiguates different kinds of visual 3D descriptors within one coherent framework. The accumulation consists of a twofold process: First, by means of a Bayesian filtering outliers become eliminated and second, the precision of the extracted...

  4. The potential role of Brachyury in inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HIF-1α expression in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Chao [Department of Mammary Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan, 528403 (China); Zhang, Jingjing, E-mail: jingjingzhangzs@163.com [Department of Cancer Radiotherapy, Zhongshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan, 528403 (China); Fu, Jianhua [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Center, Zhongshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan, 528403 (China); Ling, Feihai, E-mail: feihailingfhl@163.com [Department of Mammary Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan, 528403 (China)

    2015-11-27

    One of transcription factors of the T-box family, Brachyury has been implicated in tumorigenesis of many types of cancers, regulating cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of Brachyury in breast cancer cells has been scarcely reported. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and role of Brachyury in breast cancer. Brachyury expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The correlations between Brachyury expression and clinicopathological factors of breast cancer were determined. Involvement of EMT stimulation and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression induction by Brachyury was also evaluated. Moreover, the effect of Brachyury on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo was examined in a breast tumor xenograft model. Brachyury expression was enhanced in primary breast cancer tissues and Brachyury expression was correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Hypoxia enhanced Brachyury expression, the silencing of which blocked the modulation effect of hypoxia on E-cadherin and vimentin expression. Brachyury significantly augmented HIF-1alpha expression via PTEN/Akt signaling as well as accelerated cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Additionally, Brachyury accelerated breast tumor xenograft growth and increased lung metastasis in nude mice. In summary, our data confirmed that Brachyury might contribute to hypoxia-induced EMT of breast cancer and trigger HIF-1alpha expression via PTEN/Akt signaling. - Highlights: • Brachyury expression was correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. • Hypoxia enhanced Brachyury expression, which contributes to hypoxia-induced EMT. • Brachyury significantly augmented HIF-1alpha expression via PTEN/Akt signaling. • Brachyury accelerated tumor xenograft growth and increased lung metastasis.

  5. Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Groening, L.; Blasche, K.; Franczak, B.; Franzke, B.; Winkler, T.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    An electron cooling system has started operation in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS which is used to increase the intensity for highly charged ions. Fast transverse cooling of the hot ion beam after horizontal multiturn injection allows beam accumulation at the injection energy. After optimization of the accumulation process an intensity increase in a synchrotron pulse by more than one order of magnitude has been achieved. For highly charged ions the maximum number of particles has been increased from 1x10 8 to 1x10 9 . For lighter ions intensity limitations have been encountered which are caused by the high phase space density of the cooled ion beam. Momentum spreads in the 10 -4 range and emittances well below 10 π mm mrad have been demonstrated. Recombination losses both in the residual gas and with the free cooler electrons determine the maximum intensity for highly charged ions. Systematic measurements of the recombination rates have been performed providing data for an optimum choice of the charge state. Strong enhancement of the recombination rate with free electrons compared to theoretical calculations of radiative electron capture have been observed

  6. Deleterious mutation accumulation in organelle genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; Blanchard, J L

    1998-01-01

    It is well established on theoretical grounds that the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations in nonrecombining genomes is a major extinction risk in obligately asexual populations. Sexual populations can also incur mutational deterioration in genomic regions that experience little or no recombination, i.e., autosomal regions near centromeres, Y chromosomes, and organelle genomes. Our results suggest, for a wide array of genes (transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and proteins) in a diverse collection of species (animals, plants, and fungi), an almost universal increase in the fixation probabilities of mildly deleterious mutations arising in mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes relative to those arising in the recombining nuclear genome. This enhanced width of the selective sieve in organelle genomes does not appear to be a consequence of relaxed selection, but can be explained by the decline in the efficiency of selection that results from the reduction of effective population size induced by uniparental inheritance. Because of the very low mutation rates of organelle genomes (on the order of 10(-4) per genome per year), the reduction in fitness resulting from mutation accumulation in such genomes is a very long-term process, not likely to imperil many species on time scales of less than a million years, but perhaps playing some role in phylogenetic lineage sorting on time scales of 10 to 100 million years.

  7. 10Be accumulation in a soil chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavich, M.J.; Brown, L.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the concentration of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be in soil samples from various horizons at six sites, including three independently dated Rappahannock River terraces and a previously undated Piedmont soil to which we have assigned an age. All of the incident 10Be can be accounted for in one of these soils and a second is within a factor of two. In three soils, whose concentrations vary widely with depth, a significant fraction of the incident 10Be cannot be accounted for. Incomplete sampling, and enhanced Be mobility caused by organic components, are the probable reasons for the low inventory of Be from these three soils. Overall, the data from these six sites indicate that 10Be accumulation could be used to assign ages to soils if Be is not mobilized and lost from the soil profile. ?? 1984.

  8. Corporate taxation and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bond; Jing Xing

    2010-01-01

    We present new empirical evidence that aggregate capital accumulation is strongly influenced by the user cost of capital and, in particular, by corporate tax incentives summarised in the tax-adjusted user cost. We use sectoral panel data for the USA, Japan, Australia and ten EU countries over the period 1982-2007. Our panel combines data on capital stocks, value-added and relative prices from the EU KLEMS database with measures of effective corporate tax rates from the Oxford University Centr...

  9. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific d...... on wealth accumulation. Our simulations show that the long-run elasticity of wealth with respect to the net-of-tax return is sizeable at the top of distribution. Our paper provides the type of evidence needed to assess optimal capital taxation.......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...... design of the wealth tax, these changes provide a compelling quasi-experiment for understanding behavioral responses among the wealthiest segments of the population. We find clear reduced-form effects of wealth taxes in the short and medium run, with larger effects on the very wealthy than...

  10. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  11. Selenium accumulation in plants--phytotechnological applications and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Barillas, José Rodolfo; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for many organisms including humans, yet toxic at higher levels. Both Se deficiency and toxicity are problems worldwide. Since plants readily accumulate and volatilize Se, they may be used both as a source of dietary Se and for removing excess Se from the environment. Plant species differ in their capacity to metabolize and accumulate Se, from non-Se accumulators ( 1,000 mg Se/kg DW). Here we review plant mechanisms of Se metabolism in these various plant types. We also summarize results from genetic engineering that have led to enhanced plant Se accumulation, volatilization, and/or tolerance, including field studies. Before using Se-accumulating plants at a large scale we need to evaluate the ecological implications. Research so far indicates that plant Se accumulation significantly affects the plant's ecological interactions below and above ground. Selenium canprotect plants from fungal pathogens and from a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores, due to both deterrence and toxicity. However, specialist (Se-tolerant herbivores), detritivores and endophytes appear to utilize Se hyperaccumulator plants as a resource. These findings are relevant for managing phytoremediation of Se and similar elements.

  12. Up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-target genes in cortical neurons by the novel multifunctional iron chelator anti-Alzheimer drug, M30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramovich-Tirosh, Y; Bar-Am, O; Amit, T; Youdim, M B H; Weinreb, O

    2010-06-01

    Based on a multimodal drug design paradigm, we have synthesized a multifunctional non-toxic, brain permeable iron chelator, M30, possessing the neuroprotective propargylamine moiety of the anti-Parkinsonian drug, rasagiline (Azilect) and antioxidant-iron chelator moiety of an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative of our iron chelator, VK28. M30 was recently found to confer potential neuroprotective effects in vitro and in various preclinical neurodegenerative models and regulate the levels and processing of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein and its toxic amyloidogenic derivative, Abeta. Here, we show that M30 activates the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha signaling pathway, thus promoting HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression levels, as well as increasing transcription of HIF-1alpha-dependent genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin, enolase-1, p21 and tyrosine hydroxylase in rat primary cortical cells. In addition, M30 also increased the expression levels of the transcripts of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Regarding aspects of relevance to Alzheimer's disease (AD), western blotting analysis of glycogen synthase kinase- 3beta (GSK-3beta) signaling pathway revealed that M30 enhanced the levels of phospho-AKT (Ser473) and phospho- GSK-3beta (Ser9) and attenuated Tau phosphorylation. M30 was also shown to protect cultured cortical neurons against Abeta(25-35) toxicity. All these multimodal pharmacological activities of M30 might be beneficial for its potent efficacy in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson's disease and AD in which oxidative stress and iron-mediated toxicity are involved.

  13. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 20 0 C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  14. Liposome accumulation in irradiated tumors display important tumor and dose dependent differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; Fliedner, Frederikke Petrine; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager

    2018-01-01

    Radiation therapy may affect several important parameters in the tumor microenvironment and thereby influence the accumulation of liposomes by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)-effect. Here we investigate the effect of single dose radiation therapy on liposome tumor accumulation by PET...

  15. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa; C. B. Olsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes...

  16. [Role of restricted nitric oxide overproduction in the cardioprotective effect of adaptation to intermittent hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    goriacheva, A V; Belkina, L M; Terekhina, O L; Dawney, H F; Mallet, R T; Smirin, B V; Smirnova, E A; Mashina, S Iu; Manukhina, E B

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to intermittent normobaric hypoxia is cardioprotective and can stimulate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. However the role of nitric oxide (NO) in prevention of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of myocardium is controversial. This study was focused on evaluating the effect of adaptation to hypoxia and IR on NO production and development of nitrative stress in the myocardium. Adaptation to hypoxia tended to increase NO production, which was determined by the total level of plasma nitrite and nitrate, and prevented IR-induced NO overproduction. The IR-induced NO overproduction was associated with significant 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) accumulation in the left ventricle but not in septum or aorta. In hypoxia-adapted rats, 3-NT after IR was similar to that of control rats without IR. IHC induced marked accumulation of HIF-1alpha in the left ventricle. We suggest that HIF-1alpha contributes to NO-synthase expression during adaptation to hypoxia and thereby facilitates the increase in NO production. NO, in turn, may subsequently prevent NO overproduction during IR by a negative feedback mechanism.

  17. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yun Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPKα blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPKα in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPKα. Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPKα and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPKα in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPKα and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  18. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  19. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries such that the mat......At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries...

  20. Radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiptsova, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    Using the model object influence of mineral nutritions level on radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species has been studied. It was shown the wheat roots accumulation the minimal value on radiocaesium on normal potassium level, the rye roots accumulation maximal level radiocaesium. (authors)

  1. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation expense—telecommunications...

  2. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Energy Accumulation by Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic power plants as a renewable energy source have been receiving rapidly growing attention in the Czech Republic and in the other EU countries. This rapid development of photovoltaic sources is having a negative effect on the electricity power system control, because they depend on the weather conditions and provide a variable and unreliable supply of electric power. One way to reduce this effect is by accumulating electricity in hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to introduce hydrogen as a tool for regulating photovoltaic energy in island mode. A configuration has been designed for connecting households with the photovoltaic hybrid system, and a simulation model has been made in order to check the validity of this system. The simulation results provide energy flows and have been used for optimal sizing of real devices. An appropriate system can deliver energy in a stand-alone installation.

  4. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  5. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  6. Relationship between transpiration and amino acid accumulation in Brassica leaf discs treated with cytokinins and fusicoccin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraishi, Susumu; Ishikawa, Fumio

    1977-01-01

    Both cytokinins and fusicoccin (FC) stimulated the transpiration and the amino acid accumulation in leaf discs of Brassica campestris var. komatsuna. Enhancement effects were of the same magnitude. Both the accumulation and the transpiration were similarly inhibited when vaseline was smeared on the leaf surface. Abscisic acid (ABA) also inhibited those cytokinin-induced effects. The accumulation of amino acid- 14 C was at the cytokinin- or FC-treated site unless the leaf surface was smeared with vaseline. These facts suggest that cytokinin- or FC-induced amino acid accumulation in leaf is caused by the stimulation of transpiration. (auth.)

  7. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  8. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  9. Peat accretion and phosphorus accumulation along a eutrophication gradient in the northern Everglades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, C.B.; Richardson, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent rates of peat accretion (as determined by Cs-137) and N, P, organic C, Ca and Na accumulation were measured along a 10 km eutrophication gradient in the northern Everglades area of Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA 2A) that has received agricultural drainage from the Hillsboro canal for the past 25-30 yrs. Rates of peat accretion were highest at sampling locations closest to the Hillsboro canal. Phosphorus and Na accumulation were a function of both peat accretion and soil P and Na concentrations. Although sodium enrichment of the peat was limited to 1.6 km downstream of the Hillsboro canal, increased rates of Na accumulation penetrated 5.2 km downstream of the Hillsboro canal, the extent of the area of enhanced peat accretion. In contrast to P and Na, there was no difference in the concentration of soil organic C, N and Ca along the eutrophication gradient. However, there was a gradient of organic C, N and Ca accumulation corresponding to the area of enhanced peat accretion. The areal extent of enhanced peat accretion and organic C, N, Ca and Na accumulation encompasses approximately 7700 ha of the northern part of WCA 2A. The area of enhanced P accumulation is larger, covering 11,500 ha or 26% of the total area of WCA 2A. The findings suggest that P accumulation is dependent on the P concentration in the water column and that decreasing P loadings per unit area result in less P storage per unit area

  10. VHL type 2B mutations retain VBC complex form and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Hacker

    Full Text Available von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by a spectrum of hypervascular tumors, including renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma, and pheochromocytoma, which occur with VHL genotype-specific differences in penetrance. VHL loss causes a failure to regulate the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha, resulting in accumulation of both factors to high levels. Although HIF dysregulation is critical to VHL disease-associated renal tumorigenesis, increasing evidence points toward gradations of HIF dysregulation contributing to the degree of predisposition to renal cell carcinoma and other manifestations of the disease.This investigation examined the ability of disease-specific VHL missense mutations to support the assembly of the VBC complex and to promote the ubiquitylation of HIF. Our interaction analysis supported previous observations that VHL Type 2B mutations disrupt the interaction between pVHL and Elongin C but maintain partial regulation of HIF. We additionally demonstrated that Type 2B mutant pVHL forms a remnant VBC complex containing the active members ROC1 and Cullin-2 which retains the ability to ubiquitylate HIF-1alpha.Our results suggest that subtypes of VHL mutations support an intermediate level of HIF regulation via a remnant VBC complex. These findings provide a mechanism for the graded HIF dysregulation and genetic predisposition for cancer development in VHL disease.

  11. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  12. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  13. From the clouds to the ground - snow precipitation patterns vs. snow accumulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Franziska; Besic, Nikola; Mott, Rebecca; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Berne, Alexis; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about snow distribution and snow accumulation patterns is important and valuable for different applications such as the prediction of seasonal water resources or avalanche forecasting. Furthermore, accumulated snow on the ground is an important ground truth for validating meteorological and climatological model predictions of precipitation in high mountains and polar regions. Snow accumulation patterns are determined by many different processes from ice crystal nucleation in clouds to snow redistribution by wind and avalanches. In between, snow precipitation undergoes different dynamical and microphysical processes, such as ice crystal growth, aggregation and riming, which determine the growth of individual particles and thereby influence the intensity and structure of the snowfall event. In alpine terrain the interaction of different processes and the topography (e.g. lifting condensation and low level cloud formation, which may result in a seeder-feeder effect) may lead to orographic enhancement of precipitation. Furthermore, the redistribution of snow particles in the air by wind results in preferential deposition of precipitation. Even though orographic enhancement is addressed in numerous studies, the relative importance of micro-physical and dynamically induced mechanisms on local snowfall amounts and especially snow accumulation patterns is hardly known. To better understand the relative importance of different processes on snow precipitation and accumulation we analyze snowfall and snow accumulation between January and March 2016 in Davos (Switzerland). We compare MeteoSwiss operational weather radar measurements on Weissfluhgipfel to a spatially continuous snow accumulation map derived from airborne digital sensing (ADS) snow height for the area of Dischma valley in the vicinity of the weather radar. Additionally, we include snow height measurements from automatic snow stations close to the weather radar. Large-scale radar snow accumulation

  14. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  15. Metal accumulation in marine bivalves under various tributyltin burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-Ho; Lin, Chan-Shing; Wang, Wei-Hsien

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, a field survey was conducted to measure the accumulation of butyltin, Cu, Zn, and Cd in green mussels (Perna viridis) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) at the regions along a tributyltin pollution gradient. A negative correlation was found between the tributyltin/total butyltin ratio (0.87-0.31) and tributyltin content (114-5,817 ng/g as tin dry wt) in oysters, while the Cu content (44.2-381 mg/kg dry wt) was positively correlated with the logarithm of tributyltin content during the summer and winter. This suggests that as the tributyltin burden increases, the rates of tributyltin metabolism may be elevated, leading to enhanced Cu accumulation. A similar accumulation pattern for Zn was also found in oysters. In mussels, however, the tributyltin/total butyltin ratio and the Cu and Zn contents remained relatively constant (~ 0.7, 12, and 100 mg/kg dry wt, respectively) regardless of the tributyltin burden. Clearly, the butyltin and Cu/Zn accumulation processes in oysters differ from those in mussels under tributyltin pollution. These observations provide valuable information for those who evaluate or compare tributyltin and/or Cu/Zn pollution using oysters and mussels as bioindicators.

  16. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: amarques@mail.esb.ucp.pt; Oliveira, Rui S. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: rsoliveira@mail.esb.ucp.pt; Samardjieva, Kalina A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: kas@ibmc.up.pt; Pissarra, Jose [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Botanica, Rua do Campo Alegre, 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jpissarr@fc.up.pt; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: arangel@esb.ucp.pt; Castro, Paula M.L. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: plcastro@esb.ucp.pt

    2007-02-15

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg{sup -1}. The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils. - Zn accumulation by S. nigrum is enhanced by AMF and the metal storage in the tissues at the root level occurs mainly in the cell walls and in the intercellular spaces.

  17. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Oliveira, Rui S.; Samardjieva, Kalina A.; Pissarra, Jose; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg -1 . The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils. - Zn accumulation by S. nigrum is enhanced by AMF and the metal storage in the tissues at the root level occurs mainly in the cell walls and in the intercellular spaces

  18. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. Three-dimensional cell organization leads to almost immediate HRE activity as demonstrated by molecular imaging of MG-63 spheroids using two-photon excitation microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indovina, Paola; Collini, Maddalena; Chirico, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Teresa

    2007-02-20

    Hypoxia through HRE (hypoxia-responsive element) activity in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells grown in monolayer and as very small, three-dimensional tumor spheroids was investigated using molecular imaging techniques. MG-63 cells were stably transfected with a vector constructed with multiple copies of the HRE sequence of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence. During hypoxia when HIF-1alpha (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha) is stabilized, the binding of HIF-1 to the HRE sequences of the vector allows the transcription of EGFP and the appearance of fluorescence. Transfected monolayer cells were characterized by flow cytometric analysis in response to various hypoxic conditions and HIF-1alpha expression in these cells was assessed by Western blotting. Two-photon excitation (TPE) microscopy was then used to examine both MG-63-transfected monolayer cells and spheroids at 2 and 5 days of growth in normoxic conditions. Monolayer cells reveal almost no fluorescence, whereas even very small spheroids (HRE activation. This activation of the HRE sequences, which control a wide variety of genes, suggests that monolayer cells and spheroids of the MG-63 cell line have different genes activated and thus diverse functional activities.

  20. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1.3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1/3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-04-01

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

  3. Gama-aminobutyric acid accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens in response to copper toxicity*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Tian, Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 μmol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu) in the leaves. The leaf Asp level negatively correlated with leaf Cu level, while leaf GABA level positively correlated with le...

  4. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  5. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral...... blood flow; n = 5) and the ammonia concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 8) at rest and immediately following prolonged exercise either with or without glucose supplementation. There was a net balance of ammonia across the brain at rest and at 30 min of exercise, whereas 3 h of exercise...... exercise with glucose, and further to 16.1 ± 3.3 µM after the placebo trial (P

  6. Differential effects of citric acid on cadmium uptake and accumulation between tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuTing; Dong, Qin; Wang, ZhaoLong

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids play an important role in cadmium availability, uptake, translocation, and detoxification. A sand culture experiment was designed to investigate the effects of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass. The results showed that two grass species presented different Cd chemical forms, organic acid components and amount in roots. The dormant Cd accumulated in roots of tall fescue was the pectate- and protein- integrated form, which contributed by 84.85%. However, in Kentucky bluegrass, the pectate- and protein- integrated Cd was only contributed by 35.78%, and the higher proportion of Cd form was the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes. In tall fescue, citric acid dramatically enhanced 2.8 fold of Cd uptake, 3 fold of root Cd accumulation, and 2.3 fold of shoot Cd accumulation. In Kentucky bluegrass, citric acid promoted Cd accumulation in roots, but significantly decreased Cd accumulation in shoots. These results suggested that the enhancements of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue was associated with its promotion of organic acids and the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes in roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhainsa, K.C.; D'Souza, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  8. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrabi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  9. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  10. Manganese accumulation in the brain: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Nomiyama, K.; Takase, Y.; Nakazono, T.; Nojiri, J.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, T. [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain is detected as symmetrical high signal intensity in the globus pallidi on T1-weighted MR images without an abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. In this review, we present several cases of Mn accumulation in the brain due to acquired or congenital diseases of the abdomen including hepatic cirrhosis with a portosystemic shunt, congenital biliary atresia, primary biliary cirrhosis, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt without liver dysfunction, Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome with a diffuse intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and patent ductus venosus. Other causes of Mn accumulation in the brain are Mn overload from total parenteral nutrition and welding-related Mn intoxication. (orig.)

  11. Heat and cold accumulators in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauranen, P.; Wikstroem, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, Tampere (Finland)); Heikkinen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Services and Indoor Environment, Espoo (Finland)); Laurikko, J.; Elonen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Emission Control, Espoo (Finland)); Seppaelae, A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, Espoo (Finland)). Email: ari.seppala@tkk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Material (PCM) based heat and cold accumulators have been tailored for transport applications including a mail delivery van as well as the cold chains of foodstuff and blood products. The PCMs can store relative large amount of thermal energy in a narrow temperature interval as latent heat of fusion of their melting and crystallization processes. Compact heat and cold accumulators can be designed using PCMs. The aim of the project has been to reduce the exhaust gas and noise emissions and improve the fuel economy of the transport systems and to improve the reliability of the cold chains studied by storing thermal energy in PCM accumulators. (orig.)

  12. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows lower intramyocellular lipid accumulation in middle-aged subjects predisposed to familial longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, C. A.; van Opstal, A. M.; Kan, H. E.; Maier, A. B.; Westendorp, R. G.J.; Slagboom, P. E.; Webb, A. G.; Mooijaart, S. P.; van Heemst, D.

    Families predisposed to longevity show enhanced glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity compared with controls, independent of body composition and physical activity. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Here, we

  13. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  14. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  15. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  16. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rasika M Potdukhe

    2018-02-06

    Feb 6, 2018 ... an option for development of a sustainable phytoremediation process for As mitigation. Accumulation of ... People living in areas contaminated with. As suffer .... RNA was used to enrich mRNA and cDNA library construc- tion.

  17. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  18. Endothelial biocompatibility and accumulation of SPION under flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszak, Jasmin; Zaloga, Jan; Friedrich, Ralf P.; Lyer, Stefan; Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph; Cicha, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic targeting is considered a promising method to accumulate the nanoparticles at the sites of atherosclerotic lesions, but little is known about the biological effects of magnetic nanoparticles on the vascular wall. Here, we investigated endothelial cell growth and vitality upon treatment with SPION (0–60 µg/mL) using two complementing methods: real-time cell analysis and live-cell microscopy. Moreover, the uptake of circulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was assessed in an in vitro model of arterial bifurcations. At the tested concentrations, SPIONs were well tolerated and had no major influence on endothelial cell growth. Our results further showed a uniform distribution of endothelial SPION uptake independent of channel geometry or hemodynamic conditions: In the absence of magnetic force, no increase in accumulation of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region at the outer walls of bifurcation was observed. Application of external magnet allowed enhanced accumulation of SPIONs at the regions of non-uniform shear stress. Increased uptake of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region was well tolerated by endothelial cells (ECs) and did not affect endothelial cell viability or attachment. These findings indicate that magnetic targeting can constitute a promising and safe technique for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles to atherosclerotic lesions

  19. Endothelial biocompatibility and accumulation of SPION under flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuszak, Jasmin; Zaloga, Jan; Friedrich, Ralf P.; Lyer, Stefan [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan [Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Cicha, Iwona, E-mail: Iwona_Cicha@yahoo.com [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic targeting is considered a promising method to accumulate the nanoparticles at the sites of atherosclerotic lesions, but little is known about the biological effects of magnetic nanoparticles on the vascular wall. Here, we investigated endothelial cell growth and vitality upon treatment with SPION (0–60 µg/mL) using two complementing methods: real-time cell analysis and live-cell microscopy. Moreover, the uptake of circulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was assessed in an in vitro model of arterial bifurcations. At the tested concentrations, SPIONs were well tolerated and had no major influence on endothelial cell growth. Our results further showed a uniform distribution of endothelial SPION uptake independent of channel geometry or hemodynamic conditions: In the absence of magnetic force, no increase in accumulation of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region at the outer walls of bifurcation was observed. Application of external magnet allowed enhanced accumulation of SPIONs at the regions of non-uniform shear stress. Increased uptake of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region was well tolerated by endothelial cells (ECs) and did not affect endothelial cell viability or attachment. These findings indicate that magnetic targeting can constitute a promising and safe technique for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles to atherosclerotic lesions.

  20. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of a algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a liqid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 35 figs.

  1. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  2. Credit Constraints, Political Instability, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Herrala; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between credit constraints, political instability, and capital accumulation using a novel approach based on Kiyotaki and Moore’s (1997) theoretical framework. Drawing on a unique firm-level data set from Middle-East and North Africa (MENA), empirical findings point to a large and significant effect of credit conditions on capital accumulation and suggest that continued political unrest worsens credit constraints. The results support the view that financ...

  3. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alterna...

  4. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  5. Passive accumulation of Au nanoparticles in tumours in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempson, I.M.; Wang, C.H.; Lai, S.F.; Cai, X.; Hwu, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Margaritondo, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Enhance biocompatibility and passive accumulation of gold nanoparticles into tumours in vivo. Improved biocompatible nanoparticles synthesized by radical synthesis in solution by X-ray irradiation (5,000 Gy/sec). As an alternative to the use of chemical reducing agents, irradiation solutions can cause the reduction of dissolved ions to form nuclei form in sub-second times and growth is easily controlled by physically the X-ray intensity. The intensity can be used to manipulate growth rates for different applications and in the information of spherical and rod-structures. Size is easily controlled by exposure time and capping agents and provides high reproducibility with small size distributions. Resulting body burden in subcutaneous tumour mouse models was determined in various organs with ICP-MS. Cellular distributions were analysed with transmission x-ray Microscopy and conventional histology. The resulting nanoparticle sols were highly concentrated. naturally sterile, have high temperature stability and synthesised with fewer chemical reactants; providing greater chemical and biological adaptability. The results demonstrated that a passivated biocompatible surface, minimizing physiological clearance from the animal allows non-specific accumulation of large concentrations of nanoparticles into tumour tissues and significant penetration and circumnavigation of the binding site barrier effect. Concentrations of gold reached ∼ 25 times greater than surrounding muscle tissue and were retained for many hours. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles impart significant influence on their ability to penetrate and accumulate in tumour tissues. Effective synthesis enables high concentrations of gold nanoparticles to accumulate in tumour tissues which could be applied to development in radiation oncology applications.

  6. Cadmium accumulation in sunflower plants influenced by arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Sara Adrián López; da Silveira, Adriana Parada Dias; Jorge, Renato Atílio; de Abreu, Mônica Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the cadmium (Cd) accumulation patterns and possible alleviation of Cd stress by mycorrhization, sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in the presence or absence of Cd (20 micromol L(-1)) and inoculated or not inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices. No visual symptoms of Cd phytotoxicity were observed; nevertheless, in non-mycorrhizal plants the presence of Cd decreased plant growth. The addition of Cd had no significant effect on either mycorrhizal colonization or the amount of extra-radical mycelia that was produced by the AMF. Cd accumulated mainly in roots; only 22% of the total Cd absorbed was translocated to the shoots, where it accumulated to an average of 228 mg Cd kg(-1). Although the shoot-to-root ratio of Cd was similar in both the AMF inoculated and non-inoculated plants, the total absorbed Cd was 23% higher in mycorrhizal plants. Cd concentration in AMF extra-radical mycelium was 728 microg g(-1) dry weight. Despite the greater absorption of Cd, mycorrhizal plants showed higher photosynthetic pigment concentrations and shoot P contents. Cd also influenced mineral nutrition, leading to decreased Ca and Cu shoot concentrations; N, Fe and Cu shoot contents; and increased S and K shoot concentrations. Cd induced guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, but this increase was much more accentuated in non-mycorrhizal roots. In conclusion, sunflower plants associated with G. intraradices were less sensitive to Cd stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal sunflowers showed enhanced Cd accumulation and some tolerance to excessive Cd concentrations in plant tissues.

  7. Nickel accumulation and storage in bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.J.; Pihl, T.D.; Stults, L.; Sray, W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenase-depressed (chemolithotrophic growth conditions) and heterotrophically grown cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum accumulated nickel about equally over a 3-h period. Both types of cultures accumulated nickel primarily in a form that was not exchangeable with NiCl 2 , and they accumulated much more Ni than would be needed for the Ni-containing hydrogenase. The nickel accumulated by heterotrophically incubated cultures could later be mobilized to allow active hydrogenase synthesis during derepression in the absence of nickel, while cells both grown with Ni and the derepressed without nickel had low hydrogenase activities. The level of activity in cells grown with Ni and then derepressed without nickel was about the same as that in cultures derepressed in the presence of nickel. The Ni accumulated by heterotrophically grown cultures was associated principally with soluble proteins rather than particulate material, and this Ni was not lost upon dialyzing an extract containing the soluble proteins against either Ni-containing or EDTA-containing buffer. However, this Ni was lost upon pronase or low pH treatments. The soluble Ni-binding proteins were partially purified by gel filtration and DEAE chromatography. They were not antigenically related to hydrogenase peptides. Much of the 63 Ni eluted as a single peak of 48 kilodaltons. Experiments involving immunuprecipitation of 63 Ni-containing hydrogenase suggested that the stored source of Ni in heterotrophic cultures that could later be mobilized into hydrogenase resided in the nonexchangeable Ni-containing fraction rather than in loosely bound or ionic forms

  8. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

    2011-08-21

    Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Selenium accumulation in the cockle Anadara trapezia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Dianne F.; Maher, William A.; Kyd, Jennelle

    2004-01-01

    An extensive study on Se accumulation in a population of Anadara trapezia from a marine lake is reported. The effects of organism mass, gender, reproductive cycle, and season on Se accumulation and tissue distribution were investigated. Analyses showed that gender and reproductive cycle had no significant effect on Se accumulation. A. trapezia showed a strong positive correlation between Se burden and tissue mass. Constant Se concentrations were observed within individual populations but varied spatially with sediment Se concentrations. Se concentrations in tissues decreased from gills > gonad/intestine > mantle > muscle > foot, which remained constant over 12 months, however, significantly lower concentrations were observed in the summer compared to winter. A. trapezia is a good biomonitor for Se, as gender and size do not effect concentration, however, season of collection must be reported if changes in Se bioavailability are to be identified in short term studies, or during intersite comparisons. - Capsule: The marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is a good bioindicator for marine selenium contamination

  10. Accumulation of fluoride by plants and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njenga, L.W.; Kariuki, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride in plant and vegetable samples has been determined using ion selective electrode. The analysis was carried out after ashing the sample on an open flame, adding perchloric acid and allowing the hydrogen fluoride to diffuse into sodium hydroxide layer.The results obtained show that kale and pumpkins can accumulate more than ten times their normal values of fluoride while plants were found to accumulate upto 100μg/g fluoride when exposed to highlevels of fluoride in water or soil. (author)

  11. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  12. Thermal energy accumulators. A bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlety, Paul

    1971-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenge, notably for spacecraft, submarines and non-polluting automotive vehicles. After a comparison of mass energies of different principles of energy accumulation (magnetic, electrostatic, solid elasticity, kinetic energy, gaseous elasticity, electro-chemistry, sensitive heat, freezing heat, fuels, radioactivity, nuclear fission or fusion, mass energy), the author discusses the choice of thermal storage, presents the main bodies used for thermal energy accumulation (molten salts such as lithium hydride or lithium salt eutectics, or other compounds such as alumina, paraffins), and gives an overview of the main theoretical problems [fr

  13. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Ma, Lena Q.

    2004-01-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg -1 ) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg -1 ), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg -1 in carrot and 32 mg kg -1 in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils

  14. Financial Literacy, Schooling, and Wealth Accumulation. NBER Working Paper No. 16452

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy; Bravo, David

    2010-01-01

    Financial literacy and schooling attainment have been linked to household wealth accumulation. Yet prior findings may be biased due to noisy measures of financial literacy and schooling, as well as unobserved factors such as ability, intelligence, and motivation that could enhance financial literacy and schooling but also directly affect wealth…

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel processed by accumulative roll bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Mishin, Oleg; Kamikawa, N.

    2013-01-01

    rolling to an identical nominal strain, the microstructure after ARB is more refined and contains a greater fraction of high angle boundaries. This enhanced refinement is attributed to the geometric accumulation of shear-strain influenced volumes as a result of the ARB process and large-draught rolling...

  16. Accumulative pollution, "clean technology," and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toman, M.A.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal long-term management of an accumulative but assimilable pollutant through economic incentive policies that restrict more damaging production processes and induce more benign alternatives. Using a simple general equilibrium approach, we consider the possibility that

  17. Uptake, accumulation and some biochemical responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the conditions of these increasing zinc concentrations, the highest zinc accumulation was obtained in the roots of the plants treated with 10 mM applications. The zinc concentration in the vegetative parts, was highest in the root and was lowest in the cotyledons. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) value was ...

  18. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  19. Capital accumulation and embodied technological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.

    This paper combines technology adoption with capital accumulation taking into account technological progress. We model this as a multi-stage optimal control problem and solve it using the corresponding maximum principle. The model with linear revenue can be solved analytically, while the model with

  20. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Có zar, André s; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Martí , Elisa; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bá rbara; Gá lvez, José Á .; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  1. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  2. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  3. Curriculum Development through YTS Modular Credit Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document reports the evaluation of the collaborately developed Modular Training Framework (MainFrame), a British curriculum development project, built around a commitment to a competency-based, modular credit accumulation program. The collaborators were three local education authorities (LEAs), those of Bedfordshire, Haringey, and Sheffield,…

  4. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  5. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  6. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  7. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-01-01

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed

  8. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test wound...

  9. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  10. Capital accumulation in private information economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-22 ISSN 1534-5998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : moral hazard * capital accumulation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1172&context=bejm

  11. Accumulating Project Management Knowledge Using Process Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; March, Salvatore T.; Mueller, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Process theory has become an important mechanism for the accumulation of knowledge in a number of disciplines. In contrast with variance theory, which focuses on co-variation of dependent and independent variables, process theory focuses on sequences of activities, their duration and the intervals

  12. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  13. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel ...

  14. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  15. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent ovar...... but the results might as well open a new field of targeted ovarian therapies....

  16. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).

  17. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  18. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  19. Electric charger for an accumulator or battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robers, E.W.J.; Molenaar, B.A.M.; Smit, W.; Bech, L.P.; Bouman, C.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to an electric charger for an accumulator or a battery or the like, which is adapted for rapid charging during an on-period and comprises for this purpose control means for starting and ending the on-period. The charger is provided with a circuit for converting a supply voltage

  20. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised mitocho...

  1. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  2. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  3. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K; Turunen, J; Alm, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  4. Changes in tumor vascularity precede microbubble contrast accumulation deficit in the process of dedifferentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masanori; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate the changes in tumor vascularity and microbubble accumulation on contrast-enhanced sonograms, in relation to the dedifferentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: This prospective study enrolled 10 patients with histologically proven HCC (14.4-39.0 mm, 26.1 ± 7.4) showing nodule-in-nodule appearance upon contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed by harmonic imaging under a low mechanical index (0.22-0.25) during the vascular phase (agent injection to 1 min) and late phase (15 min) following the injection of Sonazoid TM (0.0075 ml/kg). Contrast enhancement in the inner and outer nodules was assessed in comparison with that in adjacent liver parenchyma as hyper-, iso-, or hypo-enhanced. Results: Vascular-phase enhancement of all 10 inner nodules was hyper-enhanced, and that of outer nodules was hyper-enhanced in 3, iso-enhanced in 2, and hypo-enhanced in 5. Late-phase enhancement of inner nodules was hypo-enhanced in 8 and iso-enhanced in 2. Furthermore, late-phase enhancement of outer nodules was iso-enhanced in the 7 lesions that showed iso- or hypo-enhancement in the vascular phase, and hypo-enhanced in the 3 with hyper-enhancement in the vascular phase. Late-phase hypo-enhancement was significantly more frequent in the nodules showing early-phase hyper-enhancement (11/13) than in the nodules showing early-phase iso- or hypo-enhancement (0/7) in both the inner and outer nodules. Conclusion: Dedifferentiation of HCC may be accompanied by changes in tumor vascularity prior to a reduction in microbubble accumulation. Observation of the vascular phase may be more useful than late-phase imaging for the early recognition of HCC dedifferentiation when using contrast-enhanced ultrasound with Sonazoid.

  5. Rapid detection of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-active tumours: pretargeted imaging with a protein degrading in a mechanism similar to hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Masashi [Kyoto University, Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kudo, Takashi; Konishi, Hiroaki; Miyano, Azusa; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Mukai, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Department of Biomolecular Recognition Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto University, Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an important role in malignant tumour progression. For the imaging of HIF-1-active tumours, we previously developed a protein, POS, which is effectively delivered to and selectively stabilized in HIF-1-active cells, and a radioiodinated biotin derivative, (3-{sup 123}I-iodobenzoyl)norbiotinamide ({sup 123}I-IBB), which can bind to the streptavidin moiety of POS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of the pretargeting method using POS and {sup 123}I-IBB for rapid imaging of HIF-1-active tumours. Tumour-implanted mice were pretargeted with POS. After 24 h, {sup 125}I-IBB was administered and subsequently, the biodistribution of radioactivity was investigated at several time points. In vivo planar imaging, comparison between {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation and HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and autoradiography were performed at 6 h after the administration of {sup 125}I-IBB. The same sections that were used in autoradiographic analysis were subjected to HIF-1{alpha} immunohistochemistry. {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation was observed in tumours of mice pretargeted with POS (1.6%ID/g at 6 h). This result is comparable to the data derived from {sup 125}I-IBB-conjugated POS-treated mice (1.4%ID/g at 24 h). In vivo planar imaging provided clear tumour images. The tumoral accumulation of {sup 125}I-IBB significantly correlated with HIF-1-dependent luciferase bioluminescence (R=0.84, p<0.01). The intratumoral distribution of {sup 125}I-IBB was heterogeneous and was significantly correlated with HIF-1{alpha}-positive regions (R=0.58, p<0.0001). POS pretargeting with {sup 123}I-IBB is a useful technique in the rapid imaging and detection of HIF-1-active regions in tumours. (orig.)

  6. Unknown and abnormal accumulation in the chest in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiaki; Takeuchi, Masashi; Tokunaga, Koji; Maeda, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiko.

    1979-01-01

    In scintigraphies of forty patients with hemiplegia following appoplexia, focal abnormal accumulations in the chest region were seen in bone scintigraphies of four patients. These hot accumulations could be neither rib fracture, rib metastases, nor abnormal calcium accumulation. A mechanism of these accumulation remains to undicided. We believe that this phenomena is related to abnormal bone metabolism in hemiplegial condition. (author)

  7. Interaction between sulfur and lead in toxicity, iron plaque formation and lead accumulation in rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junxing; Liu, Zhiyan; Wan, Xiaoming; Zheng, Guodi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Lin; Wang, Xuedong; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Guo, Qingjun; Xu, Ruixiang; Zhou, Guangdong; Peters, Marc; Zhu, Guangxu; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun

    2016-06-01

    Human activities have resulted in lead and sulfur accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on iron plaque formation and Pb accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under two Pb levels (0 and 600 mg kg(-1)), combined with four S concentrations (0, 30, 60, and 120 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that S supply significantly decreased Pb accumulation in straw and grains of rice. This result may be attributed to the enhancement of Fe plaque formation, decrease of Pb availability in soil, and increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) in rice leaves. Moderate S supply (30 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased Fe plaque formation on the root surface and in the rhizosphere, whereas excessive S supply (60 and 120 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased the amounts of iron plaque on the root surface. Sulfur supply significantly enhanced the GSH contents in leaves of rice plants under Pb treatment. With excessive S application, the rice root acted as a more effective barrier to Pb accumulation compared with iron plaque. Excessive S supply may result in a higher monosulfide toxicity and decreased iron plaque formation on the root surface during flooded conditions. However, excessive S supply could effectively decrease Pb availability in soils and reduce Pb accumulation in rice plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Accumulation of Cd in Indian mustard and sunflower for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Satoshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Fukui, Masami

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a new method that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil without affecting soil fertility. It can therefore be used for contaminated agricultural land. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are used in phytoremediation to remove Cadmium (Cd), which they can accumulate in large quantities. It is important to know when plants have accumulated significant Cd, so that we can decide when the plants should be harvested and synthetic chelates applied. Brassica juncea seeds and Helianthus annuus L. seeds were planted in a field in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus L. were collected at time intervals ranging from 1 to 6 months and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively, after seedling emergence and the concentration of Cd in the plants was analyzed. These results indicated that Brassica juncea should be harvested before beginning flowering and Helianthus annuus L. should be harvested after it becomes old enough. The solubility of Cd in soil is enhanced when the soil is heated or dried, and black vinyl mulch was therefore used to absorb the heat from sunlight. The difference in the Cd uptake of Brassica juncea between mulching cultivation and non-mulching cultivation was investigated in a field, and this indicated that there is no probability that mulching enhances Cd uptake in plants. The solubility of Cd in soil decreases over time. Repeated pot experiments were done. We planted Brassica juncea in pots, and investigated the uptake of Cd and the solid phase fractions in which Cd was present in each pot experiment. These did not change considerably over time, indicating that age has a negligible effect on Cd uptake in plants. (author)

  9. The future of the antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1983-01-01

    When the Antiproton Accumulator was designed in 1977, it was considered as an element of the high energy proton-antiproton collision experiments in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Since that time, antiproton physics has become more and more popular: a second experimental area was built in the SPS, the Intersecting Storage Rings started a special antiproton programme and a considerable interest has bloomed in the energy range of nuclear physics with the LEAR machine. Moreover, any projection on hadron physics in the coming years shows an insatiable appetite of experimentalists for more antiprotons. Therefore, basic studies have been pursued since the beginning of last year to transform the accumulator into an abundant source of antiprotons

  10. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Ferro Vázquez, Cruz; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Costa Casais, Manuela; Taboada Rodríguez, Teresa; Rodríguez Lado, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  11. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  12. The Antiproton Accumulator becomes Antiproton Decelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The photos show the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) transformed into Antiproton Decelerator. The AA was used at CERN between 1981 and 1999 before being replaced by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The AA was used to collect and stochastically cool antiprotons used in proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS collider. This lead to the discovery of the W and Z bosons in 1983 and the Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984.

  13. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  14. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  16. Child Benefit Payments and Household Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Stephens Jr.; Takashi Unayama

    2014-01-01

    Using the life-cycle/permanent income hypothesis, we theoretically and empirically assess the impact of child benefit payments on household wealth accumulation. Consistent with the predictions of the model, we find that higher cumulative benefits received increase current assets, higher future benefit payments lower asset holding, and that these effects systematically vary over the life-cycle. We find different wealth responses to child benefit payments for liquidity constrained and unconstra...

  17. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  18. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W Tyler; Moore, Joseph A; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  19. Credit Market Development and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wai-Hong

    2008-01-01

    In a two period overlapping generations economy with asymmetric information, we investigate the interaction between credit market development and human capital accumulation. As is typical, young borrowers supply their endowed unit of labor time to earn wage income which is used as internal funds. In contrast to conventional setups, young lenders distribute theirs between acquiring education and working for earnings. Through identifying the risk types of borrowers by a costly screening tech...

  20. The accumulation of metals in lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances.

  1. Plume residence and toxic material accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Holpuch, R.

    1975-01-01

    Increased growth rates and 137 Cs concentrations in plume resident trout are thought to be the result of increased metabolism, food consumption, and activity caused by exposure to increased water temperature and flow in thermal discharges. These exposure conditions could contribute to increased accumulation of biologically active, toxic substances by primary forage and predator fish species in the Great Lakes. Uptake and retention of various toxic substances by predators depend on concentrations in forage species (trophic transfer), ambient water, and point source effluents (direct uptake). Contaminants of immediate concern in Great Lakes systems (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons) accumulate in adipose tissue, and body concentrations have been correlated with total lipid content in fish. In addition to direct toxic effects on fish, many lipophilic contaminants are known to cause severe human health problems when ingested at concentrations commonly found in Lake Michigan salmonids. Although power plants may or may not be the direct source of a toxic substance, the thermal discharge environment may contribute to the accumulation of toxic substances in fish and the transfer of these materials to man

  2. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  3. Evaluation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the larynx of unilateral vocal fold paralysis cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimura, Yoshitsugu; Hayashi, Ibuki; Higashikawa, Masahiko; Okamura, Terue; Nakai, Ken; Ichihara, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is employed to decide the treatment strategy for malignant tumors clinically. Meanwhile, glucose metabolism is enhanced in the exercise of muscles. Because vocal folds always conduct glucose metabolism by phonation and swallowing, physiological accumulation of FDG may be found in the normal larynx. In this study we examined FDG accumulation in the larynx of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis established by endoscope. FDG-PET/CT was taken one hour after the FDG administration (early image) and again two hours later (delayed image). All patients had no chance to utter after the FDG administration. In 25 of the 28 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, standardized uptake value (SUV) max was higher, by visual inspection, in the normal side of the larynx than in the paralyzed side. None of the 3 patients in whom no accumulation was seen on the non-paralyzed side had malignant disease. In both images, SUV max of the normal side was significantly higher than paralyzed side (p<0.01). In the delayed images, accumulation of FDG was significantly higher than that in the early images (p<0.01). We believe that strong FDG accumulation in the normal side of the larynx of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may owe to high glucose metabolism of the vocal muscles from muscle hyperkinesis. We conclude that unilateral accumulation in the larynx suggests not only cancer of that same side of the larynx but also paralysis of the other side. (author)

  4. Desiccation induces accumulations of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin in intertidal macro-alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available For plants and algae, exposure to high light levels is deleterious to their photosynthetic machineries. It also can accelerate water evaporation and thus potentially lead to drought stress. Most photosynthetic organisms protect themselves against high light caused photodamages by xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy dissipation. It is generally accepted that high light activates xanthophyll cycle. However, the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and drought stress remains ambiguous. Herein, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta, a representative perennial intertidal macro-algae species with high drought-tolerant capabilities and simple structures, was used to investigate the operation of xanthophyll cycle during desiccation in air. The results indicate that desiccation under dim light induced accumulation of antheraxanthin (Ax and zeaxanthin (Zx at the expense of violaxanthin (Vx. This accumulation could be arrested by dithiothreitol completely and by uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone partially, implying the participation of Vx de-epoxidase in conversion of Vx to Ax and Zx. Treatment with inhibitors of electron transport along thylakoid membrane, e.g. DCMU, PG and DBMIB, did not significantly arrest desiccation-induced accumulation of Ax and Zx. We propose that for U. pertusa, besides excess light, desiccation itself could also induce accumulation of Ax and Zx. This accumulation could proceed without electron transport along thylakoid membrane, and is possibly resulting from the reduction of thylakoid lumen volume during desiccation. Considering the pleiotropic effects of Ax and Zx, accumulated Ax and Zx may function in protecting thylakoid membrane and enhancing thermal quenching during emersion in air.

  5. Design study of an Antiproton Collector for the Antiproton Accumulator (ACOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The Report gives a full description of an Antiproton Collector Ring which, placed around the existing Antiproton Accumulator at CERN, would enhance the antiproton flux available to both the SPS and LEAR by a factor of ten. The new ring and the focusing devices which precede it are designed to accept a much larger fraction of the antiproton production cone from the target. Each pulse of particles will be pre-cooled before being fed to the Antiproton Accumulator, where improved stochastic cooling systems will build up the stack. A full list of parameters is included. (orig.)

  6. Mechanisms of enhanced lung injury during sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czermak, B J; Breckwoldt, M; Ravage, Z B

    1999-01-01

    . Enhanced lung injury was associated with increased accumulation of neutrophils in lung, enhanced production of CXC chemokines (but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and increased expression of lung vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Complement depletion...

  7. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Interaction of surfactant-modified zeolites and phosphate accumulating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrenovic, J.; Rozic, M.; Sekovanic, L.; Anic-Vucinic, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interaction of surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZ) and orthophosphate (P)-accumulating bacteria in the process of P removal from wastewater. The SMZ were prepared from the natural zeolite (NZ) of size fractions <0.122 mm and 0.25-0.5 mm. The hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) bromide was used to modify the NZ surface from partial monolayer to the bilayer coverage. The surface modification of NZ resulted in the change of zeta potential of particles from negative to positive and great enhancement of the P-adsorption capacity. Only in reactors containing <0.122 mm fraction of partial monolayer coverage of the SMZ, the P was efficiently removed from wastewater by combined adsorption onto the SMZ and bacterial uptake in the biomass. The SMZ with bilayer or patchy bilayer coverage showed the bactericidal effect. To enhance the P removal from wastewater in the aerated biological system, the SMZ can be used, but the special attention should be given to the configuration of sorbed HDTMA molecules and its potential desorption

  10. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-08-05

    There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1-4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49-92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35-79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic regulation of glucoraphanin accumulation in Beneforté broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H; Saha, Shikha; Huseby, Stine; Kopriva, Stanislav; Walley, Peter G; Barker, Guy C; Moore, Jonathan; Mero, Gene; van den Bosch, Frans; Constant, Howard; Kelly, Leo; Schepers, Hans; Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mithen, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    · Diets rich in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) have been associated with maintenance of cardiovascular health and reduction in risk of cancer. These health benefits have been attributed to glucoraphanin that specifically accumulates in broccoli. The development of broccoli with enhanced concentrations of glucoraphanin may deliver greater health benefits. · Three high-glucoraphanin F1 broccoli hybrids were developed in independent programmes through genome introgression from the wild species Brassica villosa. Glucoraphanin and other metabolites were quantified in experimental field trials. Global SNP analyses quantified the differential extent of B. villosa introgression · The high-glucoraphanin broccoli hybrids contained 2.5-3 times the glucoraphanin content of standard hybrids due to enhanced sulphate assimilation and modifications in sulphur partitioning between sulphur-containing metabolites. All of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids possessed an introgressed B. villosa segment which contained a B. villosa Myb28 allele. Myb28 expression was increased in all of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids. Two high-glucoraphanin hybrids have been commercialised as Beneforté broccoli. · The study illustrates the translation of research on glucosinolate genetics from Arabidopsis to broccoli, the use of wild Brassica species to develop cultivars with potential consumer benefits, and the development of cultivars with contrasting concentrations of glucoraphanin for use in blinded human intervention studies. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F; Castillo, S; Laberty- Robert, C; Pellizon-Birelli, M [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  13. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  14. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  15. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  16. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  17. Accumulator ring design for the NSNS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Alessi, J.; Beebe-Wang, J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the proposed National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 μs with average beam power of 1 MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60 Hz with 1 x 10 14 protons per pulse at 1 GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1 msec long H - beam bunches of 28 mA from a 1 GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented, other possible technological choices and design options considered, but not adopted, are also briefly reviewed

  18. Evaluation of two models for predicting elemental accumulation by arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, J.R.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Two different models have been proposed for predicting elemental accumulation by arthropods. Parameters of both models can be quantified from radioisotope elimination experiments. Our analysis of the 2 models shows that both predict identical elemental accumulation for a whole organism, though differing in the accumulation in body and gut. We quantified both models with experimental data from 134 Cs and 85 Sr elimination by crickets. Computer simulations of radioisotope accumulation were then compared with actual accumulation experiments. Neither model showed exact fit to the experimental data, though both showed the general pattern of elemental accumulation

  19. Carbon accumulation and storage capacity in mangrove sediments three decades after deforestation within a eutrophic bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A; Machado, W; Gutiérrez, D; Borges, A C; Patchineelam, S R; Sanders, C J

    2018-01-01

    A dated sediment core from an eutrophic mangrove area presented non-significant differences in carbon accumulation rates before (55.7±10.2gm -2 yr -1 ) and after three decades of deforestation (59.7±7.2gm -2 yr -1 ). Although eutrophication effects appear to compensate the loss of mangrove organic matter input, the results in this work show a threefold lower carbon accumulation than the global averages estimated for mangrove sediments. The effects of increasing eutrophication and enhanced sediment dry bulk density observed after deforestation (~30% higher) did not result in higher carbon stocks. Moreover, the lower TOC:OP (mangrove deforestation losses on carbon accumulation in mangrove ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxyradical accumulation and rapid deterioration of soybean seeds due to field weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sanjeev; Bhatia, V S; Guruprasad, K N

    2006-02-01

    The effect of field weathering on oxyradical accumulation and subsequent changes were studied in the seeds of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cv. JS 71-05. Electron spin resonance (ESR) quantification of oxyradical revealed that field weathering plays an important role in acceleration of their accumulation. One week of weathering increased the accumulation of oxyradicals to almost 2-fold and triggered the deteriorative cascade, by enhancing the lipid peroxidation and membrane perturbation, leading to cell death in seed tissues and poor germinability and vigour of soybean seeds. Thus, the weather conditions at the time of physiological maturity to harvesting of crop are very crucial and the field weathering plays a critical role for the maintenance of seed quality.

  1. Accumulation of Citrulline by Microbial Arginine Metabolism during Alcoholic Fermentation of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Jiran; Zhou, Jingwen; Zhou, Zhaohui; Li, Tieqiao; Lu, Liling; Zeng, Weizhu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2018-03-07

    Citrulline, the major precursor of ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, is an intermediate catabolite of arginine produced by bacteria present in soy sauce moromi mash. Pediococcus acidilactici is responsible for the formation of citrulline during the lactic acid fermentation process of soy sauce. However, citrulline accumulation during the alcoholic fermentation process and the corresponding bacteria involved have not been identified. Salt-tolerant, arginine-utilizing bacteria were isolated from moromi mash during the alcoholic fermentation process. Under normal cultivation conditions, arginine utilization by these strains did not contribute to citrulline accumulation. However, the conversion of arginine to citrulline by these bacteria increased when cultivated during the alcoholic fermentation process. Additionally, the ethanol-enhanced solubility of free fatty acids in moromi mash stimulated the accumulation of citrulline. Staphylococcus exhibited the highest capability in the conversion of arginine to citrulline.

  2. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1981-01-01

    After the injection of RI into the mantle cavity of Iidako (Octopus ocellatus), changes of whole body radioactivity were examined. Both the inorganic and organic forms of cobalt were most heavily distributed in the branchial heart. Cyanocobalamin was distributed in an extremely small amount in the liver, but was more distributed in the arms, or gonad. Mn and Zn were almost equally distributed in most portions, but were scarcely accumulated in the branchial heart. Like Co, Fe was ubiquitous in the branchial heart. In relation to the gel filtration pattern of the branchial heart extract, Co-chloride mostly flowed out into the small molecular zone, and cyano-cobalamin into the heavy molecular zone. Mn, Zn and Fe flowed out into similar portions, and the outflux of protein in absorption spectrum was also similar. Only Co and Fe were concentrated in the branchial heart, suggesting not only that their forms of accumulation were similar, but also that Mn and Zn were present in similar forms. (Chiba, N.)

  3. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  5. Injection and accumulation method in the TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.; Katayama, T.

    1979-03-01

    The test accumulation ring for NUMATRON (TARN) is being constructed at INS, University of Tokyo. The main purpose of the TARN is to establish some techniques related to beam injection and RF stacking, ultrahigh vacuum, and beam monitoring and handling. In this paper, the injection and accumulation methods in the TARN are described. The combination of multiturn injection and RF stacking is applied to the TARN. Heavy ions from the INS sector focusing (SF) cyclotron are injection through a magnetic and an electrostatic inflectors. Two pulse magnets and a bump field excited by square wave current are used for the multiturn injection method. The procedure of the RF stacking is as follows. The beam from the cyclotron is transported to the ring, and is injected by a multiturn method. Then, the RF accelerating voltage is put on, and the beam is captured in the stable region of the RF acceleration. The RF voltage and the frequency are adiabatically changed, and the beam is moved to the stacking orbit. The RF voltage is put off, and the beam remains on the stacking orbit. In the present system, a repetitive stacking scheme is applied for the RF stacking. The momentum spread after the RF stacking is approximately proportional to the stacking number in synchrotron phase space. The stacking number is chosen so that the total aperture required for the combined method may not exceed the available aperture in the ring doughnut. (Kato, T.)

  6. Technetium accumulation, fate, and behavior in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium, a product of the nuclear fuel cycle, is highly soluble in water and mobile in soils as the pertechnetate ion (TcO - 4 ). Soluble ions in soil have the potential for competing with nutrient ions for membrane carrier sites involved in ion uptake by plants. A study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the availability, toxicity, and mechanism of pertechnetate uptake by soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams). Technetium was effectively accumulated by plants at soil concentrations of 0.01 to 0.1 μg/g and in nutrient culture at levels as low as 0.02 pg/ml. Plants grown on soils containing technetium at levels below 0.1 μg/g effectively removed up to 90% of the technetium from soil. Minimal mobilization of technetium from vegetative tissues to the seed occurred during senescence. Chemical analyses indicated that the xylem-mobile form of technetium was TcO 4 - . The uptake rate of technetium by intact plants was multiphasic over the concentration range of 0.01 to 10μM; this suggests active uptake and a specificity for technetium in the root absorption process. Because of the efficiency of technetium accumulation and the probability of its chemical toxicity, competition kinetic studies were undertaken to identify possible nutrient analogs. Nutrients effective in reducing technetium uptake included the Mn 2+ , SO 4 2- , H 2 PO 4 - , and MoO 4 2- ions

  7. Experimental analysis, modeling and simulation of a solar energy accumulator with paraffin wax as PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, A.; Henríquez-Vargas, L.; Aravena, R.; Sepúlveda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhancement of paraffin wax thermal conductivity using soft drink can stripes. • Thermal analysis and simulations results agree well with experimental data. • Increase in accumulator thermal efficiencies through addition of external aluminum stripes. • Proposed accumulator allows up to 13,000 kJ of energy storage. - Abstract: Soft drink cans filled with paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes, obtained from disposable cans, doubled the thermal conductivity of cans filled only with paraffin wax. Promising results obtained in a prototype heat exchanger encouraged the construction of this unit 6 times bigger. We experimentally evaluated and model a heat exchanger for solar energy accumulation, composed by 300 disposable soft drink cans filled with a total of 59.25 kg of paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes. The effect of adding 2.75 kg of aluminum fins for enhancing heat transfer from the outer surface of the cans to the circulant air was experimentally analyzed. In sunny days, the wax melted completely in about 4 h. The accumulated energy in form of latent heat (about 13,000 kJ) allowed to increase the temperature of 0.040 kg/s of circulant air in at least 20 °C during a period of 2.5 h. For an air mass rate of 0.018 kg/s the period was extended practically to 5 h. The accumulator thermal analysis was presented and a subsequent numerical simulation with Matlab was performed to compare with the experimental results obtaining good agreement specially for higher air mass flow rates. The low cost accumulator presented is of simple construction and will allow extended use of solar energy for applications such as drying processes or household calefaction system.

  8. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie [School of Environment, Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China (China); Zhong, Huan, E-mail: zhonghuan@nju.edu.cn [School of Environment, Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China (China); Environmental and Life Sciences Program (EnLS), Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Biochar amendment could evidently reduce methylmercury (MeHg) levels in rice grain. • Biochar could enhance microbial production of MeHg, probably by providing sulfate. • Biochar could immobilize MeHg in soil, and reduce MeHg availability to rice plants. • Biochar amendment increased grain biomass, leading to biodilution of MeHg in grain. - Abstract: There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1–4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49–92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35–79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment.

  9. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar amendment could evidently reduce methylmercury (MeHg) levels in rice grain. • Biochar could enhance microbial production of MeHg, probably by providing sulfate. • Biochar could immobilize MeHg in soil, and reduce MeHg availability to rice plants. • Biochar amendment increased grain biomass, leading to biodilution of MeHg in grain. - Abstract: There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1–4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49–92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35–79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment.

  10. Performance Comparisons of Improved Regular Repeat Accumulate (RA and Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA Turbo Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.

  11. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  12. Changing Patterns of Publication Productivity: Accumulative Advantage or Institutional Isomorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates two competing perspectives, accumulated advantage and institutional isomorphism, on the relationship between publication productivity and institutional hierarchy. Accumulated advantage refers to the continuing attraction of students, faculty, and research dollars to prestige universities. Institutional isomorphism denotes the tendency…

  13. Adipocyte and leptin accumulation in tumor-induced thymic involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Alejandro; Lopez, Elena; Carrio, Roberto; Lopez, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is an important defense mechanism against pathogens and developing tumor cells. The thymus is the main lymphoid organ involved in the formation of the cell-mediated immune response by the maturation and differentiation of lymphocytes that travel from the bone marrow, through the lymphatic ducts, to become T lymphocytes. Thymic involution has been associated with aging; however, other factors such as obesity, viral infection and tumor development have been shown to increase the rate of shrinkage of this organ. The heavy infiltration of adipocyte fat cells has been reported in the involuted thymuses of aged mice. In the present study, the possible accumulation of such cells in the thymus during tumorigenesis was examined by immunohistochemistry. A significant number of adipocytes around and infiltrating the thymuses of tumor-bearing mice was observed. Leptin is a pro-inflammatory adipocytokine that enhances thymopoiesis and modulates T cell immune responses. The levels of leptin and adiponectin, another adipocytokine that has anti-inflammatory properties, were examined by western blot analysis. While no changes were observed in the amounts of adiponectin present in the thymuses of the normal and tumor-bearing mice, significantly higher levels of leptin were detected in the thymocytes of the tumor-bearing mice. This correlated with an increase in the expression of certain cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The co-culture of thymocytes isolated from normal mice with ex vivo isolated adipocytes from tumor-bearing mice yielded similar results. Our findings suggest that the infiltration and accumulation of adipocytes in the thymuses of tumor-bearing mice play an important role in their altered morphology and functions.

  14. Impaired lipid accumulation in the liver of Tsc2-heterozygous mice during liver regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obayashi, Yoko, E-mail: youko_oobayashi@ajinomoto.com [Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Campbell, Jean S.; Fausto, Nelson [Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Yeung, Raymond S. [Department of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Tuberin phosphorylation correlated with mTOR activation in early liver regeneration. •Liver regeneration in the Tsc2+/− mice was not enhanced. •The Tsc2+/− livers failed to accumulate lipid bodies during liver regeneration. •Mortality rate increased in Tsc2+/− mice after partial hepatectomy. •Tuberin plays a critical role in hepatic lipid accumulation to support regeneration. -- Abstract: Tuberin is a negative regulator of mTOR pathway. To investigate the function of tuberin during liver regeneration, we performed 70% hepatectomy on wild-type and Tsc2+/− mice. We found the tuberin phosphorylation correlated with mTOR activation during early liver regeneration in wild-type mice. However, liver regeneration in the Tsc2+/− mice was not enhanced. Instead, the Tsc2+/− livers failed to accumulate lipid bodies, and this was accompanied by increased mortality. These findings suggest that tuberin plays a critical role in liver energy balance by regulating hepatocellular lipid accumulation during early liver regeneration. These effects may influence the role of mTORC1 on cell growth and proliferation.

  15. Outstanding accumulation of Sphagnum palustre in central-southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Laura; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Lake Fibreno is a site where some outstanding anomalies for the flora and vegetation of the wetlands of peninsular Italy are concentrated. Here one the southernmost European population of Sphagnum palustre occurs, and is restricted on the surface of a free-floating island, i.e., a round-shaped portion of fen (with a core of Sphagnum), erratically floating on the surface of a submerged sinkhole. Geological evidences point out the existence in the area of a large lacustrine basin since Late Pleistocene. The progressive filling of the lake, caused by changing in climatic conditions and neotectonic events, resulted in the formation of peat deposits in the area, following different depositional cycles in a swampy environment. So that, the studied free-floating island, probably originated around lake margins in the waterlogged area, was somehow isolated from the bank and started to float. Once the separation occurred, sedge peat stopped to accumulate, thus enhancing the role of S. palustre as the main peat-forming plant. The vegetation occurring at the moment of the isolation of the island was a coverage of Salix cinerea/Populus tremula stands below which cushions of moss and, in a lower extent, Thelypteris palustris/Equisetum palustre accumulated resulting in the formation of 2-3 meters of peat dominated by reeds and sedges. This vegetation has been partially degraded by grazing until 1970s, while in 1980s the lake became a nature reserve. Since then, the succession could resume in a spontaneous and natural way and it was possible for the vegetation to recover to natural dynamics and growing rate. The Sphagnum tussocks were measured in an empirical way at a distance of about 60 years after the last signaling and the result was a measurement of an accretion open to about 70 cm thick. Moreover, in a recent study, a 4-m deep peat core was collected from the centre of the island and results were surprising. In fact, 14C age dating, confirmed using 210Pb and 137Cs, showed

  16. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented.......In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  17. Phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation are distinct events contributing to the activation of p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, Heather M.; Ljungman, Mats

    2004-01-01

    It has been recently shown that ionizing radiation (IR) and the mRNA synthesis inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) act in synergy to induce p53-mediated transactivation of reporter plasmids in human cells [Oncogene 19 (2000) 3829]. We have extended these studies and show that ionizing radiation and DRB also act in synergy to induce ATM-mediated phosphorylation of the ser15 site of p53 and enhance the expression of endogenous p21 protein. Examination of the localization of p53 revealed that while DRB did not induce phosphorylation of the ser15 site of p53 but efficiently accumulated p53 in the nucleus, ionizing radiation induced phosphorylation of the ser15 site of p53 without prolonged nuclear accumulation. Importantly, the combination of DRB and IR resulted in a strong accumulation of phosphorylated p53 in the nucleus that was more persistent then p53 accumulation after IR alone. Furthermore, the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B showed a similar synergy with IR as did DRB regarding ser15 phosphorylation of p53 and p21 induction. These results suggest that the synergistic activation of the p53 response by the combination treatment is due to the activation of two distinct pathways where DRB causes the prolonged nuclear accumulation of p53 while ionizing radiation activates p53 by ATM-mediated phosphorylation

  18. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated adjustments account (AAA). 1.1368-2... adjustments account (AAA). (a) Accumulated adjustments account—(1) In general. The accumulated adjustments account is an account of the S corporation and is not apportioned among shareholders. The AAA is relevant...

  19. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300....3300 Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization and depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account 2006, Nonoperating Plant. (b...

  20. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  1. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...

  2. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    in terms of this reaction kinetics taking into account cluster production, dissociation, migration and annihilation at extended sinks. Microstructural features which are characteristic of cascade damage and cannot be explained in terms of the conventional single defect reaction kinetics are emphasized......There is now ample evidence from both experimental and computer simulation studies that in displacement cascades not only intense recombination takes place but also efficient clustering of both self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies. The size distributions of the two types of defects produced...... reactions kinetics associated with the specific features of cascade damage is described, with emphasis on asymmetries between SIA and vacancy type defects concerning their production, stability, mobility and interactions with other defects. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions is discussed...

  3. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution (50 km) climate change simulations for an area covering the entire Arctic have been conducted with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM. The experiments were forced at the lateral boundary by large-scale atmospheric conditions from transient climate change scenario simulations...... with HIRHAM for periods representing present-day (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100) in the two scenarios. We find that due to a much better representation of the surface topography in the RCM, the geographical distribution of present-day accumulation rates simulated by the RCM represents a substantial...... improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found...

  4. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, P.; Mulvad, G.; Pedersen, H. S.

    2007-01-01

    a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i......In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  5. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.

  6. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, H.; Sedgwick, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  7. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taiji; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Shimizu, Chiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl 2 and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B 12 ) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic 57 Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 10 4 . The constituent had the activity of vitamin B 12 , while inorganic 60 Co(CoCl 2 ) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 10 6 , 7 x 10 3 and less than or equal to 1.5 x 10 3 which did not show the activities of vitamin B 12 . The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms. (author)

  8. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  9. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  10. Tipping news in information accumulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J. K.

    2010-05-01

    As a continuous opinion dynamics model, the information accumulation system (IAS) includes three basic mechanisms of the news, the inheritance and the diffusion as contributing to the information accumulation process of a system. A system is composed of agents who diffuse information through internal interaction, while each of them has incomplete memory or inheritance rate. The news comes from external sources of information, such as mass media. Previously the model IAS was studied only for the small news problems. In this study, a tipping news problem is considered. A key question of the problem is: what is the minimum strength of advertisement that can tip the minority opinion to a majority one? Dynamics of the IAS is briefly revisited with a special interest on nonlinear behavior of the model. In particular, it is shown that a discrete map of the IAS for a single color problem can be transformed into a logistic map, from which the dynamics of the IAS can be better understood. To show the applicability of the IAS model, the result is applied to explain the concept of the critical population size, which claims that there is a minimum population size for a social knowledge system to be continuously inherited without being lost. And critical size of the tipping news is found analytically in terms of IAS parameters. Some of the key results from the present study are compared in detail with the results from the Brownian particle model, which is believed to be the most similar model to the IAS. The concept of tipping news is used to show that a traditional society can tip at an exceptionally low inter-community exposure. Finally, the result was applied to the language competition problem.

  11. Optimal registration conditions for tooth EPR dosimetry at low accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galtsev, V.E.; Galtseva, E.V.; Lebedev, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    The spectrum registration under rapid passage conditions (the second harmonic phase quadrature of the absorption signal) allows one to enhance substantially the sensitivity of tooth enamel and bone EPR dosimetry at a low accumulated dose. In the present work the dependencies of the radiation and background signals on EPR spectrometer parameters are described and the optimal conditions in RPM for EPR dosimetry are obtained. (Author)

  12. Acclimatization to 4100 m does not change capillary density or mRNA expression of potential angiogenesis regulatory factors in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; Andersen, Jesper L.

    2004-01-01

    growth factor (VEGF), a known target gene for hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). We hypothesised that prolonged exposure to high altitude increases muscle capillary density and that this can be explained by an enhanced HIF-1alpha expression inducing an increase in VEGF expression. We measured mRNA...... or VEGF mRNA was not changed with prolonged hypoxic exposure in SLR, and both genes were similarly expressed in SLR and HAN. In SLR, whole body mass, mean muscle fibre area and capillary to muscle fibre ratio remained unchanged during acclimatization. The capillary to fibre ratio was lower in HAN than...... in SLR (2.4+/-0.1 vs 3.6+/-0.2; PRNA expression and capillary density are not significantly increased by 8 weeks of exposure to high altitude and are not increased in Aymara high-altitude natives compared with sea level residents....

  13. Mechanisms of macrophage accumulation in the lungs of asbestos-exposed subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurzem, J.R.; Saltini, C.; Rom, W.; Winchester, R.J.; Crystal, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic asbestos exposure is associated with the accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes in the lower respiratory tract. This process can be both protective and injurious, since macrophages can aid in asbestos clearance yet also modulate structural derangements of the alveolar walls. To understand why macrophages accumulate in the lungs of asbestos-exposed persons, 2 possible mechanisms were evaluated using alveolar macrophages from subjects with histories of chronic high exposure to airborne asbestos: enhanced recruitment of blood monocytes to the lung, and an increased rate of replication of macrophages in situ. Monoclonal antibody analysis with antibodies that detect surface antigens on the majority of circulating blood monocytes but only on a minority of mature alveolar macrophages demonstrated that an increased proportion of alveolar macrophages of asbestos workers expressed monocyte lineage antigens, suggesting the presence of young newly recruited macrophages and thus enhanced recruitment. Culture of the alveolar macrophages from these subjects with [ 3 H]thymidine followed by autoradiography demonstrated an increased proportion of alveolar macrophages synthesizing DNA, suggesting the macrophages are replicating at an increased rate in situ. These observations are consistent with the concept that both enhanced recruitment of blood monocytes and increased local proliferation of alveolar macrophages contribute to the accumulation mononuclear phagocytes in the lung of persons with chronic asbestos exposure

  14. Sucrose-induced anthocyanin accumulation in vegetative tissue of Petunia plants requires anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Naing, Aung Htay; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2016-11-01

    The effects of three different sucrose concentrations on plant growth and anthocyanin accumulation were examined in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T 2 ) specimens of the Petunia hybrida cultivar 'Mirage rose' that carried the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1. Anthocyanin accumulation was not observed in NT plants in any treatments, whereas a range of anthocyanin accumulation was observed in transgenic plants. The anthocyanin content detected in transgenic plants expressing the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors (B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1) was higher than that in NT plants. In addition, increasing sucrose concentration strongly enhanced anthocyanin content as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, wherein increased concentrations of sucrose enhanced transcript levels of the transcription factors that are responsible for the induction of biosynthetic genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis; this pattern was not observed in NT plants. In addition, sucrose affected plant growth, although the effects were different between NT and transgenic plants. Taken together, the application of sucrose could enhance anthocyanin production in vegetative tissue of transgenic Petunia carrying anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors, and this study provides insights about interactive effects of sucrose and transcription factors in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the transgenic plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xinde [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: xcao@stevens.edu; Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg{sup -1}), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg{sup -1} in carrot and 32 mg kg{sup -1} in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA

  16. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  17. Retinal neuroprotection by hypoxic preconditioning is independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression in photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiersch, Markus; Lange, Christina; Joly, Sandrine; Heynen, Severin; Le, Yun Zheng; Samardzija, Marijana; Grimm, Christian

    2009-06-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 alpha in the retina and protects photoreceptors against light-induced cell death. HIF-1 alpha is one of the major transcription factors responding to low oxygen tension and can differentially regulate a large number of target genes. To analyse whether photoreceptor-specific expression of HIF-1 alpha is essential to protect photoreceptors by hypoxic preconditioning, we knocked down expression of HIF-1 alpha specifically in photoreceptor cells, using the cyclization recombinase (Cre)-lox system. The Cre-mediated knockdown caused a 20-fold reduced expression of Hif-1 alpha in the photoreceptor cell layer. In the total retina, RNA expression was reduced by 65%, and hypoxic preconditioning led to only a small increase in HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Accordingly, HIF-1 target gene expression after hypoxia was significantly diminished. Retinas of Hif-1 alpha knockdown animals did not show any pathological alterations, and tolerated hypoxic exposure in a comparable way to wild-type retinas. Importantly, the strong neuroprotective effect of hypoxic preconditioning against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration persisted in knockdown mice, suggesting that hypoxia-mediated survival of light exposure does not depend on an autocrine action of HIF-1 alpha in photoreceptor cells. Hypoxia-mediated stabilization of HIF-2 alpha and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) were not affected in the retinas of Hif-1 alpha knockdown mice. Thus, these factors are candidates for regulating the resistance of photoreceptors to light damage after hypoxic preconditioning, along with several potentially neuroprotective genes that were similarly induced in hypoxic knockdown and control mice.

  18. Mechanisms of c-myc degradation by nickel compounds and hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni compounds have been found to cause cancer in humans and animal models and to transform cells in culture. At least part of this effect is mediated by stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1a and activating its downstream signaling. Recent studies reported that hypoxia signaling might either antagonize or enhance c-myc activity depending on cell context. We investigated the effect of nickel on c-myc levels, and demonstrated that nickel, hypoxia, and other hypoxia mimetics degraded c-myc protein in a number of cancer cells (A549, MCF-7, MDA-453, and BT-474. The degradation of the c-Myc protein was mediated by the 26S proteosome. Interestingly, knockdown of both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha attenuated c-Myc degradation induced by Nickel and hypoxia, suggesting the functional HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha was required for c-myc degradation. Further studies revealed two potential pathways mediated nickel and hypoxia induced c-myc degradation. Phosphorylation of c-myc at T58 was significantly increased in cells exposed to nickel or hypoxia, leading to increased ubiquitination through Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. In addition, nickel and hypoxia exposure decreased USP28, a c-myc de-ubiquitinating enzyme, contributing to a higher steady state level of c-myc ubiquitination and promoting c-myc degradation. Furthermore, the reduction of USP28 protein by hypoxia signaling is due to both protein degradation and transcriptional repression. Nickel and hypoxia exposure significantly increased the levels of dimethylated H3 lysine 9 at the USP28 promoter and repressed its expression. Our study demonstrated that Nickel and hypoxia exposure increased c-myc T58 phosphorylation and decreased USP28 protein levels in cancer cells, which both lead to enhanced c-myc ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation.

  19. The contribution of international trade to economic growth through human capital accumulation: Evidence from nine Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to test the hypothesis “international trade contributes to economic growth through its effects on human capital accumulation.” To assess the hypothesis empirically, we employed the extended Neo-Classical growth model that reflects some features of the endogenous growth models. We thus ended up with a model in which the change in human capital is sensitive to change in trade policies. Unlike conventional approaches, the model serves to assess and determine the impact of international trade on the accumulation of human capital. The empirical analysis estimates dynamic panel growth equations by using a data-set of nine Asian countries, over the period 1972–2012. The overall evidence substantiates the fact that in countries under consideration, international trade enhances the accumulation of human capital and contributes to economic growth positively through human capital accumulation.

  20. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein promotes lipid accumulation in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H B; Yu, K; Luo, J; Li, J; Tian, H B; Zhu, J J; Sun, Y T; Yao, D W; Xu, H F; Shi, H P; Loor, J J

    2015-10-01

    Milk fat originates from the secretion of cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) synthesized within mammary epithelial cells. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP; gene symbol PLIN2) is a CLD-binding protein that is crucial for synthesis of mature CLD. Our hypothesis was that ADRP regulates CLD production and metabolism in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) and thus plays a role in determining milk fat content. To understand the role of ADRP in ruminant milk fat metabolism, ADRP (PLIN2) was overexpressed or knocked down in GMEC using an adenovirus system. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that ADRP localized to the surface of CLD. Supplementation with oleic acid (OA) enhanced its colocalization with CLD surface and enhanced lipid accumulation. Overexpression of ADRP increased lipid accumulation and the concentration of triacylglycerol in GMEC. In contrast, morphological examination revealed that knockdown of ADRP decreased lipid accumulation even when OA was supplemented. This response was confirmed by the reduction in mass of cellular TG when ADRP was knocked down. The fact that knockdown of ADRP did not completely eliminate lipid accumulation at a morphological level in GMEC without OA suggests that some other compensatory factors may also aid in the process of CLD formation. The ADRP reversed the decrease of CLD accumulation induced by adipose triglyceride lipase. This is highly suggestive of ADRP promoting triacylglycerol stability within CLD by preventing access to adipose triglyceride lipase. Collectively, these data provide direct in vitro evidence that ADRP plays a key role in CLD formation and stability in GMEC. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal : Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison

  3. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  4. ISABELLE, accumulators, bunched beams and cosmictrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    An elaboration of the ISABELLE concept as the model for a high energy, high luminosity proton-proton facility is given. Its place in the total high energy physics program is discussed. Certain features of the ISABELLE design which have not been consolidated, in particular injection and modes of beam operation, are considered. A new scheme is reviewed, one which could provide quick beam turn-on after construction, one in which there is a high probability of reaching and perhaps even exceeding the design objectives, one which should provide comparatively more flexible and reliable operation for physics, and finally one whose presence opens up a window to a much higher energy region. The new system involves the use of a physically separate current accumulator, allowing, therefore, the optimal utilization of the superconducting structures. The fact that an obvious addition to the complex will permit pp collisions in the 4 TeV center-of-mass energy region, which corresponds to an equivalent lab energy of approximately 10 16 eV, i.e., cosmic ray energies, prompts the added structure to be referred to as the COSMICTRON. The facility operated in the ''new'' manner proposed is considered to be ''the best ISABELLE that can be built.''

  5. Radionuclide accumulation in fruit bodies of macromycetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.N.; Eliashevich, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    By materials of the observation net within the limits of the Byelorussian sector of the ChNPP 30-rm zone (contamination up to 16.65 MBq/m 2 ) the radioactivity was considered at the territories with the background contamination (up to 37 kBq/m 2 ), at the South-Bobrujsk (up to 185 kBq/m 2 ) and Volozhinsk (up to 555 kBq/m 2 ) fallout spots. The accumulation and proportionality coefficients of 137 Cs in 36 species and 90 Sr in 19 species of macromycetes of various tropic groups under the drought y year conditions, their changeability by forest formations and in the time within the range of 1992-1998 are determined. The average two-fold increase in the species contamination a year with increased atmospheric humidity (1998) is indicated. The closer contamination correlation of the Boletus edulis with photosynthetically active part of the Betula pendula and Pinus sylvestris, as compared to the soil pollution, shows the possibility of indicating the pollution of short-living fruit bodies of fungi by the pollution of the plants-symbiotrophs [ru

  6. Novel method of charging an accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    For high power fusion applications, a circular accelerator for heavy ions is not likely to be competitive with a linear accelerator. This is principally because one requires rather high accelerator efficiencies, and quite large average power. Efficiencies greater than or equal to 10 percent, and perhaps 30 and 50 MW of average beam power are needed. On the other hand, the linear accelerator can be built to satisfy these constraints, and in addition, it is ideally suited for multi-turn injection. A difficulty with multi-turn injection is that in typical application it is rather lossy. With care, and sufficient phase space dilution, one might hope to obtain greater than or equal to 90 percent injection efficiency, but even at these levels the large amount of beam power lost in the accumulator might have serious consequences for the machine operation. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to use ''box car'' stacking, which is essentially 100 percent without particle loss. A method of operating the linear accelerator so that the output beam is of suitable instantaneous current to permit box-car stacking with the linac output is proposed

  7. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, David E.; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J.; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W.; Baum, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  8. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  9. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cobalt accumulation and circulation by blackgum trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.) trees accumulate far greater concentrations of cobalt in mature foliage than do other species on the same site (363 ppM in ash of blackgum, compared with about 3 ppM by mockernut hickory and about 1 ppM by red maple, tulip tree, and white oak). Cobalt concentrations in dormant woody tissues of blackgum also significantly exceed those in the other four species. Inoculation of six blackgums with 60 Co revealed that cobalt remains mobile in the trees for at least 3 years. Foliar concentrations of stable cobalt increase uniformly until senescence. In late August, foliage accounts for only 9 percent of total tree weight but 57 percent of total tree cobalt. Losses of cobalt from trees occur almost entirely by leaf abscission, and the loss rates of weight and cobalt from decomposing litter are similar. Retention of cobalt in the biologically active soil layers perpetuates zones of cobalt concentration created by this species in woodlands

  11. Accumulation Characteristics of Pb by Zea Mays of Different Genotyoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Rong-lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of lead(Pb accumulation by different maize genotypes, two low accumulation genotypes(Quchen 11, Quchen 3 and two high accumulation maize genotypes(Jingfeng 8, Xuyu 1446 were used in a field experiment under Pb stress(2 000 mg·kg-1. The following parameters were measured including the change of plant biomass , Pb contents in different plant parts, total Pb uptake,Pb accumulation and translocation of different maize varieties,soil pH value and available Pb contents in soils. The results showed that: (1Compared with the control, the Pb stress caused a decrease at differnet levels on the biomass of roots, stems, leaves and grains of the four maize genotypes. The plant biomass decreased by 9.65%~20.46%. And the decrease level on the plant biomass of the low accumulation maize genotypes was less than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (2The Pb contents were found highest in the roots(95.39~121.02 mg·kg-1, followed by the leaves(25.56~43.21 mg·kg-1 and stems(14.06~25.41 mg·kg-1, and lest in the grains(2.52~5.38 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the Pb contents in roots were higher of low accumulation maize genotypes than high accumulation maize genotypes. In contrast, the Pb contents in the stems, leaves and grains were less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. The total Pb accumulation of maize was 4.46~7.94 mg per plant, and which was significant less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (3For the four maize genotypes, both the accumulation factor and translocation factor of Pb were less than 1, and were smaller of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (4The pH values in soils were 6.60~6.82, which were significant higher of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes, the available Pb contents in soils were 969.86~1 116.15 mg·kg-1。

  12. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary: High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report...... were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs...... in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  13. Cadmium toxicity in Maize (Zea mays L.): consequences on antioxidative systems, reactive oxygen species and cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Bao, Mingchen; Wang, Longchang; Khan, Imran; Ullah, Ehsan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Samad, Rana Abdul; Shahzad, Babar

    2015-11-01

    Increased cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils has led to tremendous environmental problems, with pronounced effects on agricultural productivity. Present study investigated the effects of Cd stress imposed at various concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 μM) on antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Cd accumulation, and productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Run Nong 35 and Wan Dan 13. Considerable variations in Cd accumulation and in behavior of antioxidants and ROS were observed under Cd stress in both maize cultivars, and such variations governed by Cd were concentration dependent. Exposure of plant to Cd stress considerably increased Cd concentration in all plant parts particularly in roots. Wan Dan 13 accumulated relatively higher Cd in root, stem, and leaves than Run Nong 35; however, in seeds, Run Nong 35 recorded higher Cd accumulation. All the Cd toxicity levels starting from 75 μM enhanced H2O2 and MDA concentrations and triggered electrolyte leakage in leaves of both cultivars, and such an increment was more in Run Nong 35. The ROS were scavenged by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase in response to Cd stress, and these antioxidant activities were higher in Wan Dan 13 compared with Run Nong 35 at all Cd toxicity levels. The grain yield of maize was considerably reduced particularly for Run Nong 35 under different Cd toxicity levels as compared with control. The Wan Dan 13 was better able to alleviate Cd-induced oxidative damage which was attributed to more Cd accumulation in roots and higher antioxidant activities in this cultivar, suggesting that manipulation of these antioxidants and enhancing Cd accumulation in roots may lead to improvement in Cd stress tolerance.

  14. ACCUMULATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOIC ACIDS BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM MAL-201 FROM ORGANIC WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Pal Saha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 (MTCC 3853, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium accumulated intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid [P(3HB] accounting 69% of cell dry weight (CDW when grown in nitrogrn-free Stockdale medium containing 2% (w/v glucose. It also produced copolymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] using glucose as primary carbon source and valerate cas cosubstrate. To make the polymer production cost effective four types of waste material of different origin were tested for growth and polymer production. Stockdale medium supplemented with 1% (w/v waste materials failed to yield good growth and polymer accumulation. Two–step cultivation was adopted for better growth and enhanced polymer accumulation. The candy factory waste was most suitable for synthesis of P(3HB accounting 17.8 and 40.58% using single and two-step cultivation conditions respectively. Wastes of domestic and poultry origin produced P(3HB-co-3HV with 3HV content 28.8 and 21.5 mol% respectively in two-step cultivation. Increase concentration of these wastes resulted in further upliftment of 3HV content of polymer with reduced growth and polymer accumulation. However, at optimum incubation the strain MAL-201 cells accumulated P(3HB 48.5% of CDW (at 40h from candy factory waste and P(3HB-co-3HV 24.75 % of CDW with 3HV 34.65 mol % from domestic waste. Intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and thermal degradation of the polymers accumulated in the cells grown in glucose, glucose with valerate and glucose with waste were compared.

  15. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Eva; Sebold, Miriam; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Nebe, Stephan; Veer, Ilya M; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Rapp, Michael; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities. Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects. Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life stress exposure

  16. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of biofilm accumulation on transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop: Effects of crossflow velocity, feed spacer and biodegradable nutrient

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Flemming, H. C.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kruithof, J. C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    . As biodegradable nutrient, acetate was dosed to the feed water (1.0 and 0.25mgL-1 carbon) to enhance biofilm accumulation in the monitors. The studies showed that biofilm formation caused an increased transmembrane resistance and feed channel pressure drop

  18. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  19. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  20. Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120 degrees conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180 degrees apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter's thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop

  1. Evidence accumulation in the magnitude system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lambrechts

    Full Text Available Perceptual interferences in the estimation of quantities (time, space and numbers have been interpreted as evidence for a common magnitude system. However, if duration estimation has appears sensitive to spatial and numerical interferences, space and number estimation tend to be resilient to temporal manipulations. These observations question the relative contribution of each quantity in the elaboration of a representation in a common mental metric. Here, we elaborated a task in which perceptual evidence accumulated over time for all tested quantities (space, time and number in order to match the natural requirement for building a duration percept. For this, we used a bisection task. Experimental trials consisted of dynamic dots of different sizes appearing progressively on the screen. Participants were asked to judge the duration, the cumulative surface or the number of dots in the display while the two non-target dimensions varied independently. In a prospective experiment, participants were informed before the trial which dimension was the target; in a retrospective experiment, participants had to attend to all dimensions and were informed only after a given trial which dimension was the target. Surprisingly, we found that duration was resilient to spatial and numerical interferences whereas space and number estimation were affected by time. Specifically, and counter-intuitively, results revealed that longer durations lead to smaller number and space estimates whether participants knew before (prospectively or after (retrospectively a given trial which quantity they had to estimate. Altogether, our results support a magnitude system in which perceptual evidence for time, space and numbers integrate following Bayesian cue-combination rules.

  2. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  3. Diatom. A potential bio-accumulator of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pal, R.; Ramaswami, A.; Nayak, D.; Lahiri, S.

    2006-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of gold in trace concentration by Nitzschia obtusa and Navicula minima, two members of bacillariophyceae, has been studied. It has been observed that Nitzschia obtusa showed better accumulation of gold in acidic pH in comparison to neutral and basic pH. Maximum accumulation was observed with 1 mg x kg -1 or less gold concentration. However, the accumulation by the living cells was reduced when the matrix concentration was higher. Navicula minima, on the other hand, found to be a better accumulator of gold in wide ranges of pH and substrate concentration of the media. It was also inferred that the gold accumulation by diatom was mainly due to adsorption by biosilica (siliceous frustules of dead diatom cells). Accumulated gold was recovered with conc. HNO 3 . (author)

  4. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  5. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in plants from different habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Claes; Greger, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This is the postprint version of the article. The published version of the article can be located here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883292711004914 Understanding As accumulation in plants is necessary in order to alleviate problems with As in the environment and to improve sustainable As phytotechnologies. To find suitable candidates for phytoremediation purposes and to investigate specific accumulation patterns due to growth habitat and plant groups, As accumulation...

  6. The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

    2001-01-01

    Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very

  7. Tip enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field.·Near-field Raman scattering·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Nano-photonics·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits·Single molecule detection

  8. Heavy metal accumulation potential and medicinal property of Bacopa monnieri - a paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeesa Salim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of Mercury and Cadmium in Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell, cultivated in Hoagland medium artificially contaminated with micro quantities of HgCl2 and CdCl2 is investigated. Bioaccumulation potential of B. monnieri is more towards Cd than Hg. Absorption and translocation of Hg and Cd are proportional to the availability of the metal in the growth media and period of growth. Effect of acidic pH showed enhanced accumulation while basic pH resulted in significant reduction in the accumulation of Hg and exorbitant reduction of Cd. As a result of combined treatment of HgCl2 and CdCl2, accumulation was very low in both acidic and basic pH. In addition to pH, antagonistic effect of Ca2+ present in lime water which was added to raise the pH of the growth medium also controls the accumulation and absorption of Hg and Cd ions. Bioaccumulation of Hg and Cd in B. monnieri reveals the phytoremediation potential while the bioaccumulation is hazards to health since the plant is highly medicinal and one important ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations.

  9. Environmental and genetic factors associated with solanesol accumulation in potato leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Campbell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solanesol is a high value 45-carbon, unsaturated, all-trans-nonaprenol isoprenoid. Recently solanesol has received particular attention because of its utility, both in its own right and as a precursor in the production of numerous compounds used in the treatment of disease states. Solanesol is found mainly in solanaceous crops such as potato, tomato, tobacco and pepper where it accumulates in the foliage. There is considerable potential to explore the extraction of solanesol from these sources as a valuable co-product. In this study we have characterised the genetic variation in leaf solanesol content in a biparental, segregating diploid potato population. We demonstrate that potato leaf solanesol content is genetically controlled and identify several quantitative trait loci associated with leaf solanesol content. Transient over-expression of genes from the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP and mevalonic acid (MVA pathways, either singly or in combination, resulted in enhanced accumulation of solanesol in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, providing insights for genetically engineering the pathway. We also demonstrate that in potato, leaf solanesol content is enhanced by up to six-fold on exposure to moderately elevated temperature and show corresponding changes in expression patterns of MEP and MVA genes. Our combined approaches offer new insights into solanesol accumulation and strategies for developing a bio-refinery approach to potato production.

  10. Polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation by a Serratia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Harriet; Sammons, Rachel L; Marquis, Peter M; Hewitt, Christopher J; Yong, Ping; Paterson-Beedle, Marion; Redwood, Mark D; Stamboulis, Artemis; Kashani, Mitra; Jenkins, Mike; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2008-03-01

    A strain of Serratia sp. showed intracellular electron-transparent inclusion bodies when incubated in the presence of citrate and glycerol 2-phosphate without nitrogen source following pre-growth under carbon-limitation in continuous culture. About 1.3 mmol citrate were consumed per 450 mg biomass, giving a calculated yield of maximally 55% of stored material per g of biomass dry wt. The inclusion bodies were stained with Sudan Black and Nile Red (NR), suggesting a lipid material, which was confirmed as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by analysis of molecular fragments by GC and by FTIR spectroscopy of isolated bio-PHB in comparison with reference material. Multi-parameter flow cytometry in conjunction with NR fluorescence, and electron microscopy, showed that not all cells contained heavy PHB bodies, suggesting the potential for increasing the overall yield. The economic attractiveness is enhanced by the co-production of nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HA), a possible high-value precursor for bone replacement materials.

  11. Increased extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} lead to adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow stromal cells by different mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Juntendo University Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yuki [Juntendo University Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Takasu 2-5-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0023 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo; Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Center for Environmental Research, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are the common progenitors for both adipocyte and osteoblast. An increase in marrow adipogenesis is associated with age-related osteopenia and anemia. Both extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) are versatile signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation. We have recently reported that upon treatment of BMSCs with insulin and dexamethasone, both high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} enhanced adipocyte accumulation, which suggested that increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} caused by bone resorption may accelerate adipocyte accumulation in aging and diabetic patients. In this study, we used primary mouse BMSCs to investigate the mechanisms by which high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} may enhance adipocyte accumulation. In the process of adipocyte accumulation, two important keys are adipocyte differentiation and the proliferation of BMSCs, which have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Use of MTT assay and real-time RT-PCR revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (ionomycin)-dependent adipocyte accumulation is caused by enhanced proliferation of BMSCs but not enhanced differentiation into adipocytes. Using fura-2 fluorescence-based approaches, we showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} (addition of CaCl{sub 2}) leads to increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Flow cytometric methods revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK independently of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The inhibition of ERK by U0126 and PD0325901 enhanced the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes. These data suggest that increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} provides the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes by the suppression of ERK activity independently of increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, which results in BMSC proliferation. - Highlights:

  12. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a “pulsed beam”; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a “continuous beam.” A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose

  13. Overexpression of PtABCC1 contributes to mercury tolerance and accumulation in Arabidopsis and poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Ma, Yifeng; Wang, Huihong; Huang, Weipeng; Wang, Xiaozhu; Han, Li; Sun, Wanmei; Han, Erqin; Wang, Bangjun

    2018-03-18

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly biotoxic heavy metal that contaminates the environment. Phytoremediation is a green technology for environmental remediation and is used to clean up Hg contaminated soil in recent years. In this study, we isolated an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene PtABCC1 from Populus trichocarpa and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis and poplar. The transgenic plants conferred higher Hg tolerance than wild type (WT) plants, and overexpression of PtABCC1 could lead to 26-72% or 7-160% increase of Hg accumulation in Arabidopsis or poplar plants, respectively. These results demonstrated that PtABCC1 plays a crucial role in enhancing tolerance and accumulation to Hg in plants, which provides a promising way for phytoremediation of Hg contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of different deficit irrigation on sugar accumulation of pineapple during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haiyan; Du, Liqing; Liu, Shenghui; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-08-01

    The potted pineapple cultivar ‘Comte de paris’ was used to study the influence of deficit irrigation on fruit sugar accumulation in greenhouse during the fruit enlargement period. The study included a control (normal irrigation) and two treatment groups, moderate deficit (50% of the control irrigation) and severe deficit (25% of the control irrigation). The results indicated that the deficit irrigation significantly decreased the sucrose accumulation. The sucrose content in the fruits of moderate deficit irrigation was the lowest. During the mature period, the deficit irrigation decreased the sucrose phosophate synthase activity(SPS) an increased the sucrose synthase (SS) and neutral invertase (NI). The moderate deficit irrigation significantly improved the acid invertase activity(AI). However, it was inhibited by the severe deficit irrigation. In general, the moderate treatment reduced the SPS activity and enhanced the NI and AI activities, while the severe treatment decreased the SPS and AI activities.

  15. Leveraging Algal Omics to Reveal Potential Targets for Augmenting TAG Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarnieri, Michael T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arora, Neha [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee; Pruthi, Vikas [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee; Poluri, Krishna Mohan [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    2018-04-18

    Ongoing global efforts to commercialize microalgal biofuels have expedited the use of multi-omics techniques to gain insights into lipid biosynthetic pathways. Functional genomics analyses have recently been employed to complement existing sequence-level omics studies, shedding light on the dynamics of lipid synthesis and its interplay with other cellular metabolic pathways, thus revealing possible targets for metabolic engineering. Here, we review the current status of algal omics studies to reveal potential targets to augment TAG accumulation in various microalgae. This review specifically aims to examine and catalog systems level data related to stress-induced TAG accumulation in oleaginous microalgae and inform future metabolic engineering strategies to develop strains with enhanced bioproductivity, which could pave a path for sustainable green energy.

  16. Biocatalyst Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing availability of enzyme collections has assisted attempts by pharmaceutical producers to adopt green chemistry approaches to manufacturing. A joint effort between an enzyme producer and a pharmaceutical manufacturer has been enhanced over the past three years by ena...

  17. Partial discharges and bulk dielectric field enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Johansson, Torben

    2000-01-01

    A consequence of partial discharge activity within a gaseous void is the production of a field enhancement in the solid dielectric in the proximity of the void. This situation arises due to the charge created by the partial discharges accumulating at the void wall. The influence of the spatial...

  18. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  19. Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, R; Graaff, R; Links, TP; Jager, JJ; Alderson, NL; Thorpe, [No Value; Baynes, JW; Gans, ROB; Smit, AJ

    Aims/hypothesis. The accumulation of AGE is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and renal failure. All current measurements of AGE accumulation require invasive sampling. We exploited the fact that several AGE exhibit autofluorescence to develop a

  20. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane injury and sugar contents in salt-sensitive rice ( Oryza sativa L. spp. indica ) roots under isoosmotic conditions. ... The accumulation of sugars in PT1 roots may be a primary salt-defense mechanism and may function as an osmotic control. Key words: ...

  1. Ammonium and hydroxylamine uptake and accumulation in Nitrosomonas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.; Look, C.; Bock, E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Starved cells of Nitrosomonas europaea and further ammonia oxidizers were able to rapidly accumulate ammonium and hydroxylamine to an internal concentration of about 1 and 0.8 M, respectively. In kinetic studies, the uptake/accumulation rates for ammonium [3.1 mmol (g protein)(-1) min(-1)] and

  2. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of distinct Arctic aerosol accumulation modes and their sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, R.; Dall'Osto, M.; Skov, H.

    2018-01-01

    -August). By association to chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei properties, and meteorological variables, three typical accumulation mode aerosol clusters were identified: Haze (32% of the time), Bimodal (14%) and Aged (6%). In brief: (1) Haze accumulation mode aerosol shows a single mode at 150 nm, peaking...

  4. Accumulation and management in global historical perspective: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2014-01-01

    This essay introduces a special issue dedicated to the theme ‘accumulation and management in global historical perspective’. The concepts and practices of accumulation and management are explored in ways that work to de-center the history of science and empire. Particular attention is paid to four

  5. Chronology of p53 protein accumulation in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    p53 Protein accumulation in early gastric carcinoma was studied in relation to the histological type (Lauren classification) and the type of growth pattern, including the chronology of p53 protein accumulation during carcinogenesis. Forty five, paraffin embedded gastrectomy specimens from early

  6. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of...

  7. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusov, G.D.; Kudryashova, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  8. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  9. Influence of land use on phytomass accumulation in Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of indigenous vegetation for production purposes impacts negatively on biodiversity but does this necessarily equate with a decrease in phytomass accumulation, which may influence carbon sequestration? Phytomass accumulation was studied for common land covers of beef ranching or dairy farming ...

  10. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  11. Grafting: a technique to modify ion accumulation in horticultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azher Nawaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grafting is a centuries-old technique used in plants to obtain economic benefits. Grafting increases nutrient uptake and utilization efficiency in a number of plant species, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Selected rootstocks of the same species or close relatives are utilized in grafting. Rootstocks absorb more water and ions than self-rooted plants and transport these water and ions to the aboveground scion. Ion uptake is regulated by a complex communication mechanism between the scion and rootstock. Sugars, hormones, and miRNAs function as long-distance signaling molecules and regulate ion uptake and ion homeostasis by affecting the activity of ion transporters. This review summarizes available information on the effect of rootstock on nutrient uptake and utilization and the mechanisms involved. Information on specific nutrient-efficient rootstocks for different crops of commercial importance is also provided. Several other important approaches, such as interstocking (during double grafting, inarching, use of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, use of plant growth substances (e.g., auxin and melatonin, and use of genetically engineered rootstocks and scions (transgrafting, are highlighted; these approaches can be combined with grafting to enhance nutrient uptake and utilization in commercially important plant species. Whether the rootstock and scion affect each other’s soil microbiota and their effect on the nutrient absorption of rootstocks remain largely unknown. Similarly, the physiological and molecular bases of grafting, crease formation, and incompatibility are not fully identified and require investigation. Grafting in horticultural crops can help reveal the basic biology of grafting, the reasons for incompatibility, sensing, and signaling of nutrients, ion uptake and transport, and the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation and restriction in rootstocks. Ion transporter and mi

  12. Foliar-applied urea modulates nitric oxide synthesis metabolism and glycinebetaine accumulation in drought-stressed maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Tian, L.; Lai, J.; Zheng, P.; Liang, Z.; Alva, A

    2014-01-01

    Foliar urea has been proved to play a better positive role in enhancing accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) and glycinebetaine (GB) in maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress (DS). However, it is unclear how foliar urea affects biosynthetic metabolism of NO and its relationship with GB accumulation. This study was on investigating the effect of foliar- applied urea on seedlings of maize cultivar Zhengdan 958 grown in a hydroponic medium under DS or No DS. Contents of NO and GB and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity increased and peaked 12 h after the treatment. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) followed the similar pattern 6h after the treatment. Under DS foliar urea application increased NR and NOS activity and, thereby, increased NO formation. Therefore, enhancement in activities of both NRA and NOS resulted in an increase of NO accumulation. Foliar- applied urea could induce an increased NO burst by enhanced NO synthesis metabolism as a nitrogen signal, possibly resulting in GB accumulation under DS. (author)

  13. Mineral accumulation in vegetative and reproductive tissues during seed development in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing nutrient density in legume seeds is one of several strategies being explored to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. In order to develop crop varieties with increased seed mineral concentration, a more detailed understanding of mineral translocation within the plant is required. By studying mineral accumulation in different organs within genetically diverse members of the same species, it may be possible to identify variable traits that modulate seed mineral concentration. We utilized two ecotypes (A17 and DZA315.16 of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, to study dry mass and mineral accumulation in the leaves, pod walls, and seeds during reproductive development. The pod wall dry mass was significantly different between the two ecotypes beginning at 12 days after pollination, whereas there was no significant difference in the average dry mass of individual seeds between the two ecotypes at any time point. There were also no significant differences in leaf dry mass between ecotypes; however, we observed expansion of A17 leaves during the first 21 days of pod development, while DZA315.16 leaves did not display a significant increase in leaf area. Mineral profiling of the leaves, pod walls, and seeds highlighted differences in accumulation patterns among minerals within each tissue as well as genotypic differences with respect to individual minerals. Because there were differences in the average seed number per pod, the total seed mineral content per pod was generally higher in A17 than DZA315.16. In addition, mineral partitioning to the seeds tended to be higher in A17 pods. These data revealed that mineral retention within leaves and/or pod walls might attenuate mineral accumulation within the seeds. As a result, strategies to increase seed mineral content should include approaches that will enhance export from these tissues.

  14. Organic Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Accumulation Rates in the Soils of the Everglades Mangrove Ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J. L.; Sanders, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions with regard to coastal ecotones relates to their role in the transformation, transport and storage of biogeochemically important constituents and how that role may be altered by climate change. Coastal wetlands provide a range of valuable ecosystem services including sequestering organic carbon (OC) and nutrients in their soils at rates greater than terrestrial ecosystems on a per area basis. As such the Everglades mangrove ecotone, the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America, is a biogeochemical "hotspot" at the interface of freshwater marsh and the Gulf of Mexico. Over the last one hundred years this region has been impacted by a reduction in freshwater flow and a sea-level rise (SLR) of 2.3 mm/yr which combined to cause a landward shift in the ecotone. This creates an ideal setting to examine climate induced alterations in the mangrove-ecotone biogeochemical cycle. The ability of the Everglades mangrove forest to keep pace with SLR depends largely on the rate of organic matter accumulation as that accumulation is a key contributor to accretion. However, the basic threat from SLR can be exacerbated in some areas by accelerating organic matter mineralization due to increasing salinity. The increase in salinity supplies sulfate which functions as a terminal electron acceptor that soil microbes can utilize to enhance mineralization in the brackish ecotone regions of coastal wetlands. To investigate these processes, we measured mangrove forest soil accretion, OC, N and P accumulation rates over the most recent 10, 50 and 100 year periods (via 210Pb dating) from the Gulf of Mexico to the upper freshwater reaches of the mangrove forest within Everglades National Park. Lower organic carbon accumulation rates compared to the rest of the system were found in the ecotone region most susceptible to enhanced organic matter mineralization.

  15. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA

  16. Investigation of the gallium-67 citrate hilar accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yuji

    1987-01-01

    To study the 67 Ga hilar accumulation, author quantitatively analyzed 67 Ga scintigrams of patients having no chest disease and normal chest roentgenograms. Relationship between hilar accumulation and smoking was quantitatively and experimentally studied. The conclusions were as follows: 1. There was significant relationship between smoking and 67 Ga hilar accumulation but there was no significant relationship between aging and the hilar accumulation. 2. The 67 Ga uptake of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was higher than that of control group on microautoradiogram. The histological finding of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was sinus histiocytosis. 3. Activated histiocytosis of hilar lymphatic sinus by some factors including smoking seemed to be responsible for 67 Ga hilar accumulation, of which mechanism was unknown. (author)

  17. Flow field induced particle accumulation inside droplets in rectangular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Michael; Moskopp, Michael; Seemann, Ralf

    2015-07-07

    Particle concentration is a basic operation needed to perform washing steps or to improve subsequent analysis in many (bio)-chemical assays. In this article we present field free, hydrodynamic accumulation of particles and cells in droplets flowing within rectangular micro-channels. Depending on droplet velocity, particles either accumulate at the rear of the droplet or are dispersed over the entire droplet cross-section. We show that the observed particle accumulation behavior can be understood by a coupling of particle sedimentation to the internal flow field of the droplet. The changing accumulation patterns are explained by a qualitative change of the internal flow field. The topological change of the internal flow field, however, is explained by the evolution of the droplet shape with increasing droplet velocity altering the friction with the channel walls. In addition, we demonstrate that accumulated particles can be concentrated, removing excess dispersed phase by splitting the droplet at a simple channel junction.

  18. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in wetlands and their importance in radioecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K; Nylen, T; Wallberg, P [Stockholm University, Dept. of Systems Ecology, SE (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Wetlands function as nurseries and feeding areas for both terrestrial and aquatic species and are habitats for many endangered species such as frogs, salamanders and snakes. Wetlands alter the hydrology of streams and rivers, enhance sediment deposition and work as a filter to coastal waters retaining nutrients as well as contaminants. Due to the lack of easily identifiable direct pathways to humans wetland ecosystems have generally been neglected within radioecological research. There is a large diversity of wetlands and some of them can accumulate and function as sinks for radionuclides. In Sweden wetlands are among the ecosystems where the highest activity concentrations have accumulated after the Chernobyl accident. This paper summarizes factors that are important to the accumulation of radionuclides in wetlands. As an example, one wetland ecosystem in Sweden contaminated by {sup 137}Cs due to the Chernobyl accident will be described in more detail. The average activity concentration in this wetland is 1.1 MBq/m{sup 2}, i.e. 10 times higher than in the surrounding areas. Soil and sediment samples were collected and the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were measured. A budget calculation of {sup 137}Cs in the wetland area was conducted, indicating that the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs is still ongoing seventeen years after the accident. High activity concentrations are likely to remain in this ecosystem for a long time, resulting in long-term exposure for organisms living there. The maximum external {sup 137}Cs dose rate to frogs was estimated to 96 mGy/year. Hence, identification and consideration of wetlands that accumulate radionuclides to a high extent are important in radioecological risk assessments for the protection of plants and animals from ionizing radiation. (author)

  19. Cadmium accumulation by muskmelon under salt stress in contaminated organic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrijel, Ondrasek [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: gondrasek@agr.hr; Davor, Romic [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Zed, Rengel [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Marija, Romic; Monika, Zovko [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-03-15

    Human-induced salinization and trace element contamination are widespread and increasing rapidly, but their interactions and environmental consequences are poorly understood. Phytoaccumulation, as the crucial entry pathway for biotoxic Cd into the human foodstuffs, correlates positively with rhizosphere salinity. Hypothesising that organic matter decreases the bioavailable Cd{sup 2+} pool and therefore restricts its phytoextraction, we assessed the effects of four salinity levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl) and three Cd levels (0.3, 5.5 and 10.4 mg kg{sup -1}) in peat soil on mineral accumulation/distribution as well as vegetative growth and fruit yield parameters of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) in a greenhouse. Salt stress reduced shoot biomass and fruit production, accompanied by increased Na and Cl and decreased K concentration in above-ground tissues. A 25- and 50-day exposure to salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves up to 87% and 46%, respectively. Accumulation of Cd in the fruits was up to 43 times lower than in leaves and remained unaltered by salinity. Soil contamination by Cd enhanced its accumulation in muskmelon tissues by an order of magnitude compared with non-contaminated control. In the drainage solution, concentrations of Na and Cl slightly exceeded those in the irrigation solution, whereas Cd concentration in drainage solution was lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the total amount added. Chemical speciation and distribution modelling (NICA-Donnan) using Visual MINTEQ showed predominance of dissolved organic ligands in Cd chemisorption and complexation in all treatments; however, an increase in salt addition caused a decrease in organic Cd complexes from 99 to 71%, with free Cd{sup 2+} increasing up to 6% and Cd-chlorocomplexes up to 23%. This work highlights the importance of soil organic reactive surfaces in reducing trace element bioavailability and phytoaccumulation. Chloride salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves but not in fruit

  20. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus caledonium) on the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize (Zea mays L.) and atrazine dissipation in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: szzhang@mail.rcees.ac.cn; Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Chen Baodong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Bell, J. Nigel B. [Center for Environmental Policy, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus caledonium) on accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize grown in soil contaminated with different concentrations of atrazine were investigated in a series of pot experiments. Roots of mycorrhizal plants accumulated more atrazine than non-mycorrhizal roots. In contrast, atrazine accumulation in shoot decreased in mycorrhizal compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. No atrazine derivatives were detected in the soil, either with or without mycorrhizal colonization. However, atrazine metabolites, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA), were detected in plant roots and the AM colonization enhanced the metabolism. After plant harvest atrazine concentrations decreased markedly in the soils compared to the initial concentrations. The decreases were the most in rhizosphere soil and then near-rhizosphere soil and the least in bulk soil. Mycorrhizal treatment enhanced atrazine dissipation in the near-rhizosphere and bulk soils irrespective of atrazine application rates. - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus increases the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize.

  2. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus caledonium) on the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize (Zea mays L.) and atrazine dissipation in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Honglin; Zhang Shuzhen; Shan Xiaoquan; Chen Baodong; Zhu Yongguan; Bell, J. Nigel B.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus caledonium) on accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize grown in soil contaminated with different concentrations of atrazine were investigated in a series of pot experiments. Roots of mycorrhizal plants accumulated more atrazine than non-mycorrhizal roots. In contrast, atrazine accumulation in shoot decreased in mycorrhizal compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. No atrazine derivatives were detected in the soil, either with or without mycorrhizal colonization. However, atrazine metabolites, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA), were detected in plant roots and the AM colonization enhanced the metabolism. After plant harvest atrazine concentrations decreased markedly in the soils compared to the initial concentrations. The decreases were the most in rhizosphere soil and then near-rhizosphere soil and the least in bulk soil. Mycorrhizal treatment enhanced atrazine dissipation in the near-rhizosphere and bulk soils irrespective of atrazine application rates. - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus increases the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize

  3. Enhanced plastochromanol-8 accumulation during reiterated drought in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleta-Soriano, Eva; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2017-03-01

    Plastochromanol-8 (PC-8) belongs to the group of tocochromanols, and together with tocopherols and carotenoids, might help protect photosystem II from photoinhibition during environmental stresses. Here, we aimed to unravel the time course evolution of PC-8 together with that of vitamin E compounds, in maize (Zea mays L.) plants exposed to reiterated drought. Measurements were performed in plants grown in a greenhouse subjected to two consecutive cycles of drought-recovery. PC-8 contents, which accounted for more than 25% of tocochromanols in maize leaves, increased progressively in response to reiterated drought stress. PC-8 contents paralleled with those of vitamin E, particularly α-tocopherol. Profiling of the stress-related phytohormones (ABA, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) was consistent with a role of ABA in the regulation of PC-8 and vitamin E biosynthesis during drought stress. Results also suggest that PC-8 may help tocopherols prevent damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. A better knowledge of the ABA-dependent regulation of PC-8 may help us manipulate the contents of this important antioxidant in crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Yang; Xiaoxian Cui; Xiaoxian Cui; Li Zhao; Doudou Guo; Lei Feng; Shiwei Wei; Chao Zhao; Chao Zhao; Danfeng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and ...

  5. Accumulation of long-term transcriptionally active integrated retroviral vectors in active promoters and enhancers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šenigl, Filip; Miklík, Dalibor; Auxt, Miroslav; Hejnar, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 22 (2017), s. 12752-12765 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-34873S; GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : human-immunodeficiency-virus * dna methylation * site selection * human genome * avian-sarcoma * morphological reversion * hiv-1 integration * mlv integration * gene-expression * leukosis virus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016

  6. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  7. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C de; Bueno, Paula C P; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al) accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA) on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  8. Effects of Trophic Modes, Carbon Sources, and Salinity on the Cell Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Tropic Ocean Oilgae Strain Desmodesmus sp. WC08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyu; Ma, Shasha; Li, Ang; Liu, Pinghuai; Wang, Meng

    2016-10-01

    The effects of trophic modes, carbon sources, and salinity on the growth and lipid accumulation of a marine oilgae Desmodesmus sp. WC08 in different trophic cultures were assayed by single factor experiment based on the blue-green algae medium (BG-11). The results implied that biomass and lipid accumulation culture process were optimized depending on the tophic modes, sorts, and concentration of carbon sources and salinity in the cultivation. There was no significant difference in growth or lipid accumulation with Na 2 CO 3 amendment or NaHCO 3 amendment. However, Na 2 CO 3 amendment did enhance the biomass and lipid accumulation to some extent. The highest Desmodesmus sp. WC08 biomass and lipid accumulation was achieved in the growth medium with photoautotrophic cultivation, 0.08 g L -1 Na 2 CO 3 amendment and 15 g L -1 sea salt, respectively.

  9. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  10. Apparently normal accumulation in the patellae on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Kiyo; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influences of gender and ages on accumulation in the patellae on scintigram. The subjects were 828 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy during the past one and half years at the Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Hospital. Patients younger than 20 years old and those with abnormality of the patellae were excluded. The degree of accumulation in the patellae was evaluated using the A-P whole body scintigraphy in comparison with accumulation at the diaphysis of the femur and classified to two categories, ''Positive'' (higher accumulation than that of the diaphysis of the femur) and ''Negative'' (equal or lower than that of the diaphysis of the femur). In general, the degree of accumulation was higher in females than in males. In both males and females, the degree of accumulation increased with age. A difference between the two sides in the degree of accumulation in the patellae was observed in 32% of subjects. The results of this study may serve as basic data for the interpretation of bone scintigrams. (author)

  11. Accumulation risk assessment for the flooding hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Rudari, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    distribution as a special or limiting case (e.g., the skew-normal or skew-t distributions). The present contribution constitutes an attempt to provide a better estimation of the joint probability distribution able to describe flood events in a multi-site multi-basin fashion. This goal will be pursued through the multivariate skew-t distribution, which allows to analytically define the joint probability distribution. Performances of the skew-t distribution will be discussed with reference to the Tanaro River in Northwestern Italy. To enhance the characteristics of the correlation structure, both nested and non-nested gauging stations will be selected, with significantly different contributing areas.

  12. Noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena in nuclear power plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Aoki, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Teruaki; Shida, Akira; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Nishikawa, Akira; Inagaki, Tetsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In the case of the boiling water reactor, hydrogen and oxygen slightly exist in the main steam, because these noncondensable gases are generated by the radiolytic decomposition of the reactor water. BWR plants have taken measures to prevent noncondensable gas accumulation. However, in 2001, the detonation of noncondensable gases occurred at Hamaoka-1 and Brunsbuttel, resulting in ruptured piping. The accumulation phenomena of noncondensable gases in BWR closed piping must be investigated and understood in order to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Therefore, an experimental study on noncondensable gas accumulation was carried out. The piping geometries for testing were classified and modeled after the piping of actual BWR plants. The test results showed that 1) noncondensable gases accumulate in vertical piping, 2) it is hard for noncondensable gases to accumulate in horizontal piping, and 3) noncondensable gases accumulate under low-pressure conditions. A simple accumulation analysis method was proposed. To evaluate noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena, the three component gases were treated as a mixture. It was assumed that the condensation amount of the vapor is small, because the piping is certainly wrapped with heat insulation material. Moreover, local thermal equilibrium was assumed. This analysis method was verified using the noncondensable gas accumulation test data on branch piping with a closed top. Moreover, an experimental study on drain trap piping was carried out. The test results showed that the noncondensable gases dissolved in the drain water were discharged from the drain trap, and Henry's law could be applied to evaluate the amount of dissolved noncondensable gases in the drain water. (author)

  13. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha has a key role in hypoxic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taie, Satoshi; Ono, Junichiro; Iwanaga, Yasuyuki; Tomita, Shuhei; Asaga, Takehiko; Chujo, Kosuke; Ueki, Masaaki

    2009-08-01

    Sublethal hypoxia induces tolerance to subsequent hypoxic insults in a process known as hypoxic preconditioning (HP). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is a key transcription protein involved in the mechanism of HP. In this study, we investigated the effects of HP on tissue oxygenation and expression of HIF-1 alpha gene targets in the brain using neural cell-specific HIF-1 alpha-deficient mice. The animals were exposed to 8% oxygen for 3 hours. Twenty-four hours later, the oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) of brain tissue and gene expression were measured during hypoxia. HP improved the pO(2) of brain tissue during subsequent hypoxia with upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase in wild-type mice, whereas HP had no detectable effect in the mutant mice. Our results indicate that the protective effects of HP may be partially mediated by improving tissue oxygenation via HIF-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  14. Damage Accumulation in Cyclically-Loaded Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites Monitored by Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Aggelis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium osumilite (BMAS ceramic matrix composites reinforced with SiC-Tyranno fibers are tested in a cyclic loading protocol. Broadband acoustic emission (AE sensors are used for monitoring the occurrence of different possible damage mechanisms. Improved use of AE indices is proposed by excluding low-severity signals based on waveform parameters, rather than only threshold criteria. The application of such improvements enhances the accuracy of the indices as accumulated damage descriptors. RA-value, duration, and signal energy follow the extension cycles indicating moments of maximum or minimum strain, while the frequency content of the AE signals proves very sensitive to the pull-out mechanism.

  15. Photocharge accumulation and recombination in perovskite solar cells regarding device performance and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yusheng; Li, Yiming; Shi, Jiangjian; Li, Hongshi; Zhang, Huiyin; Wu, Jionghua; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Wu, Huijue; Meng, Qingbo

    2018-01-01

    Photocharge accumulation and recombination in perovskite solar cells have been systematically investigated in this paper by electrochemical spectroscopy and transient photocurrent/photovoltage methods. It is found that the non-equilibrium photocharges stored in the selective charge transport layers follow a backward recombination mechanism. That is, the photocharges are first captured by the interface defects corresponding to the fast photovoltage decay, while the bulk charge recombination instead of the diffusion process dominates the slow photovoltage decay process. Further investigation reveals that the device degradation preferentially takes place at the interface under working conditions, which thus can confirm the importance of interface engineering to enhance the device stability.

  16. Size-Dependent Accumulation of PEGylated Silane-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Murine Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, T.; Wittenborn, T.

    2009-01-01

    following intravenous injection. Biocompatible iron oxide MNPs coated with PEG were prepared by replacing oleic acid with a biocompatible and commercially available silane-PEG to provide an easy and effective method for chemical coating. The colloidal stable PEGylated MNPs were magnetically separated...... into two distinct size subpopulations of 20 and 40 nm mean diameters with increased phagocytic uptake observed for the 40 nm size range in vitro. MRI detection revealed greater iron accumulation in murine tumors for 40 nm nanoparticles after intravenous injection. The enhanced MRI contrast of the larger...

  17. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shi-You [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  18. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  19. Microbial accumulation of uranium from nuclear liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation includes the isolation, identification and the fluctuations of the population densities of microorganisms in the nuclear liquid waste released by some laboratories of Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. The efficiency of uranium accumulation on isolates (22 bacterial strains, 24 fungal strains and 6 yeast strains) was assessed in aqueous solution using fluorometric techniques. Two of the isolated microoganisms namely Bacillus sp. -15B and Mucor sp.16F showed exceptionally high attitude towards uranium accumulation. Optimal conditions required for efficient accumulation and recovery of uranium was then studied using the two selected isolates. 10 figs.; 162 refs.; 16 tabs

  20. Cesium accumulation in native trees from the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.D.; Miranda, M.V.F.E.S.; Santos, T.O.; Cantinha, R.S.; Fernandes, E.A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Even considered not essential for plants, cesium may cycle within forest ecosystems. Taking into account the lack of knowledge on the distribution of this chemical element in Brazilian ecosystems, this work encompasses the unexpected cesium accumulation in native plant leaves from Cerradao, a Brazilian hotspot of world biodiversity. Some trees were Cs accumulators, achieving mass fractions in leaves 700 times higher (up to 12.7 mg kg -1 ) when compared to other Brazilian native tree leaves from the Atlantic Forest. In fact, such trace element accumulation in leaves was not previously noticed for Brazilian ecosystems despite the intra- and inter-species variability observed in Cerrado tree leaves. (author)

  1. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  2. SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY BASIL PLANTS (OCINUM BASILICUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium accumulation level in basil plants is investigated. A direct correlation between selenium concentration and essential oil content is demonstrated for basil and other aroma plants. No correlation is found between selenium and flavonoids.

  3. LIPID ACCUMULATION OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS UNDER DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolina Rokicka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation and utilization of microalgae is now a intensively developing area of research. Some species of microalgae, under appropriate conditions, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cells. This lipids have a suitable profile of fatty acids for biodiesel production. The culture of microalgae for lipids accumulation should be performed in certain physicochemical conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of variable ortophophates concentrations in the culture medium for lipids accumulation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and to determine of parameters of the phosphoric shock in the medium. The study confirmed the possibility of the use of the phosphoric shock in the medium to maximize lipids accumulation by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. In the study, 45.23% of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the culture with phosphoric shock in the medium and 18% less of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the standard culture.

  4. Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and immunology of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ekrem Şanver Çelik, Hasan Kaya, Sevdan Yilmaz, Mehmet Akbulut, Arınç Tulgar ...

  5. 17 CFR 256.190 - Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... proprietary capital ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 4. Deferred Debits § 256.190 Accumulated deferred income taxes. (a...

  6. Seasonal dynamics of Co60 accumulation by Elodea canadensis Rich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.F.; Chebotina, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of Co 60 accumulation by one of the most widely distributed fresh-water plants, elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich), were studied. Accumulation was shown to vary with the season. A very low coefficient of accumulation (500-700 units) was typical for the summer period (June to August). It increased in the fall, reached its highest values (3500-4000) in mid-winter (January), and dropped sharply in the spring. Radioisotope concentrations in the plant varied similarly. The cumulative capacity of plants for Co 60 may vary by a factor of 6 to 7 during the year. It is suggested that the seasonal changes in Co 60 accumulation may be caused by both differences in the physiological state of the plants at different times of the year, and by seasonal variations in the hydrochemical regime of the water reservoir. Experiments were done to clarify which of these mechanisms is the determining factor. (V.A.P.)

  7. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  8. A Transformational Approach to Parametric Accumulated-Cost Static Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haemmerlé, Rémy; López García, Pedro; Liqat, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Traditional static resource analyses estimate the total resource usage of a program, without executing it. In this paper we present a novel resource analysis whose aim is instead the static profiling of accumulated cost, i.e., to discover, for selected parts of the program, an estimate or bound...... of the resource usage accumulated in each of those parts. Traditional resource analyses are parametric in the sense that the results can be functions on input data sizes. Our static profiling is also parametric, i.e., our accumulated cost estimates are also parameterized by input data sizes. Our proposal is based...... on the concept of cost centers and a program transformation that allows the static inference of functions that return bounds on these accumulated costs depending on input data sizes, for each cost center of interest. Such information is much more useful to the software developer than the traditional resource...

  9. Factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Ruud A.; Vehof, Jelle; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    Purpose: To explore factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous. Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained during trans pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. Ocular

  10. Simulation and experiemntal study on damper by accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaobin; Zhou Yong; Chen Wuxing; Hu Junhua

    2010-01-01

    In order to prevent stressing penstocks broken by earthquake or other shock waves, dampers are used widely in nuclear power plant or pipelines transporting radioactive material. A new-style damper by accumulator is introduced. Inside the damper an accumulator is installed, the outward corrugated tubes are added outside the piston rod. So it has advantages of small volume, no oil leakage. The simulation and experimental research show that if the clearance between the piston and cylinder, the spring stiffness of accumulator or the throttle valve size is varied, the dynamic performance of the impact displacement, resistance in low velocity and lock-up velocity of dampe would be influenced. The support of nuclear classified pipelines can be satisfied by using this new-style accumulator damper. (authors)

  11. PIXE study on arsenic accumulation by a fern. Pteris vittata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2010-01-01

    Pteris vittata is a fern reported to be an arsenic hyper-accumulator. To develop the practical application of the fern to a phytoremediation technique, it is necessary to explicate the effective accumulation mechanism. In this study, the arsenic distribution and the elemental correlation in the cellular level were examined in the fronds supplied with arsenate and arsenite separately via xylem vessel using an in-air micro-PIXE system at Tohoku University. The difference in transportation rate between arsenate and arsenite as well as the translocation of elements necessary for plant metabolism was revealed in different tissues of the fronds accumulating arsenic in high concentration. Hence, the in-air micro-PIXE analysis is an effective measure for undertaking phytoremediation research of hyper-accumulator plants. (author)

  12. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Seed germination and growth parameters of seedlings of cauliflower were observed after 5, 10 and 15 ... Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of ..... induced accumulation of free proline in a metal-tolerant.

  13. Dynamical spin accumulation in large-spin magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płomińska, Anna; Weymann, Ireneusz; Misiorny, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    The frequency-dependent transport through a nanodevice containing a large-spin magnetic molecule is studied theoretically in the Kondo regime. Specifically, the effect of magnetic anisotropy on dynamical spin accumulation is of primary interest. Such accumulation arises due to finite components of frequency-dependent conductance that are off diagonal in spin. Here, employing the Kubo formalism and the numerical renormalization group method, we demonstrate that the dynamical transport properties strongly depend on the relative orientation of spin moments in electrodes of the device, as well as on intrinsic parameters of the molecule. In particular, the effect of dynamical spin accumulation is found to be greatly affected by the type of magnetic anisotropy exhibited by the molecule, and it develops for frequencies corresponding to the Kondo temperature. For the parallel magnetic configuration of the device, the presence of dynamical spin accumulation is conditioned by the interplay of ferromagnetic-lead-induced exchange field and the Kondo correlations.

  14. Skeletal muscle apolipoprotein B expression reduces muscular triglyceride accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D; Ploug, Thorkil; Størling, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. In cardiac myocytes, lipoprotein secretion controlled by apolipoproteinB (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) affects lipid homeostasis. Design. In t...... accumulation and attenuates peripheral insulin resistance in obese mice........ In this study, we investigated whether expression of a human apoB transgene affects triglyceride accumulation and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in fat fed obese mice. Results. Expression of apoB and MTP mRNA and the human apoB transgene was seen in skeletal muscle of the transgene mice. Human apo......Abstract Background. Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. In cardiac myocytes, lipoprotein secretion controlled by apolipoproteinB (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) affects lipid homeostasis. Design...

  15. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  16. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan [School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fen-Pi [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chau-Jong [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsuan, Shu-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine and Life Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No.89, Wen Hwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 717, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Kun [E-Chyun Dermatology Clinic, No.70, Sec. 3, Jhonghua E. Rd., East District, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jing-Hsien [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine and Life Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No.89, Wen Hwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 717, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  17. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mine