WorldWideScience

Sample records for enhanced ultrasound imaging

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for molecular imaging of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, J R; Forsberg, F

    2010-08-01

    Molecular imaging of angiogenesis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound allows for functional, real-time, inexpensive imaging of angiogenesis. The addition of stabilized microbubbles as contrast agents greatly improves ultrasound signal to noise ratio/signal strength/image quality (up to 25 dB) and allows for imaging of angiogenic vasculature. In this article recent advances in the usage of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for molecular imaging of angiogenesis are reviewed. The usage of commercially available agents and correlations between their imaging parameters and molecular markers of angiogenesis are reviewed. Recent developments in ultrasound contrast agents targeted to angiogenic markers for both diagnosis and monitoring are discussed. Finally, a brief overview of the emerging field of chemotherapeutic-loaded agents, which can be used with ultrasound-triggered drug delivery, is provided.

  2. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background....... Automated graylevel mapping is used in combination with a contrast-weighted form of frequency-diversity speckle reduction. In clinical studies, the techniques have yielded mean CNR improvements of 3.2 dB above ordinary frequency-diversity imaging and 5.6 dB over sharper conventional images, with no post...

  3. The Application of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound in Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Chung, Jin Haeung; Hwang, Sung Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Microbubble contrast agent for ultrasound imaging has come of age, adding entirely new capabilities to real time ultrasound imaging. These new ultrasound imaging techniques exploit the nonlinear echoes that result from the unique interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles, which are readily distinguishable from the echoes of tissues. Contrast enhanced ultrasound can be used to quantify both flow rate and relative vascular volume of the microvasculature in solid lesions or organs, which makes it possible for it to be one of the modalities in molecular imaging. Angiogenesis is one of the important processes contributing to new blood vessel growth that occurs in a variety of physiologic and pathophysiologic states. It is essential for spread and growth of malignant tumors. The advantages of contrast enhanced ultrasound are that it is a noninvasive method for observing tumor angiogenesis. Sonoporation utilizes the interaction of ultrasound with ultrasound contrast agents to temporarily permeabilized the cell membrane allowing for the uptake of DNA, drugs, and other therapeutic compounds from the extracellular environment. Thus, sonoporation is a promising drug delivery and gene therapy technique, limited only by lack of understanding regarding the biophysical mechanism that results in the cell membrane permeability change. In conclusion, ultrasound contrast agent could have a role not only in the molecular imaging field with the advantage of noninvasive quantification of angiogenesis, but also in the field of drug treatment of cells using sonoporation

  4. Effect of Enhancement Technique on Nonuniform and Uniform Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Lehana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of adequate scientific resources in the area of medical sciences sometimes leads to improper diagnosis of diseases and hence the treatments of such diseases are affected badly. However, with the advancement of technology, the complicacy of various malfunctions inside the human body reduces. Ultrasound imaging is one of the biomedical scanning techniques that let the pathologist make comment reasonably and accurately on the disease or irregularity seen in the scan while low imaging quality lets the diagnosis go wrong. Even a little distortion can route the pathologist away from the main cause of the disease. In this research work, the enhancement of dark ultrasound images has been done. An algorithm is developed using enhancement technique for nonuniform and uniform dark images. Finally, we compared the quality of the processed and unprocessed images. Both ETNUD and mean and median filtering techniques were used for image analysis.

  5. Vascular applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kunal S; Lee, Jake J; Taha, Ashraf A; Avgerinos, Efthymios; Chaer, Rabih A

    2017-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging is a powerful noninvasive modality offering numerous potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications in vascular medicine. CEUS imaging uses microbubble contrast agents composed of an encapsulating shell surrounding a gaseous core. These microbubbles act as nearly perfect intravascular reflectors of ultrasound energy and may be used to enhance the overall contrast and quality of ultrasound images. The purpose of this narrative review is to survey the current literature regarding CEUS imaging and discuss its diagnostic and therapeutic roles in current vascular and selected nonvascular applications. The PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase databases were searched until July 2016 using the PubMed and Ovid Web-based search engines. The search terms used included contrast-enhanced, microbubble, ultrasound, carotid, aneurysm, and arterial. The diagnostic and therapeutic utility of CEUS imaging has grown exponentially, particularly in the realms of extracranial carotid arterial disease, aortic disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Studies have demonstrated that CEUS imaging is diagnostically superior to conventional ultrasound imaging in identifying vessel irregularities and measuring neovascularization to assess plaque vulnerability and end-muscle perfusion. Groups have begun to use microbubbles as agents in therapeutic applications for targeted drug and gene therapy delivery as well as for the enhancement of sonothrombolysis. The emerging technology of microbubbles and CEUS imaging holds considerable promise for cardiovascular medicine and cancer therapy given its diagnostic and therapeutic utility. Overall, with proper training and credentialing of technicians, the clinical implications are innumerable as microbubble technology is rapidly bursting onto the scene of cardiovascular medicine. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rayleigh-maximum-likelihood bilateral filter for ultrasound image enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Wu, Jun; Miao, Aimin; Yu, Pengfei; Chen, Jianhua; Zhang, Yufeng

    2017-04-17

    Ultrasound imaging plays an important role in computer diagnosis since it is non-invasive and cost-effective. However, ultrasound images are inevitably contaminated by noise and speckle during acquisition. Noise and speckle directly impact the physician to interpret the images and decrease the accuracy in clinical diagnosis. Denoising method is an important component to enhance the quality of ultrasound images; however, several limitations discourage the results because current denoising methods can remove noise while ignoring the statistical characteristics of speckle and thus undermining the effectiveness of despeckling, or vice versa. In addition, most existing algorithms do not identify noise, speckle or edge before removing noise or speckle, and thus they reduce noise and speckle while blurring edge details. Therefore, it is a challenging issue for the traditional methods to effectively remove noise and speckle in ultrasound images while preserving edge details. To overcome the above-mentioned limitations, a novel method, called Rayleigh-maximum-likelihood switching bilateral filter (RSBF) is proposed to enhance ultrasound images by two steps: noise, speckle and edge detection followed by filtering. Firstly, a sorted quadrant median vector scheme is utilized to calculate the reference median in a filtering window in comparison with the central pixel to classify the target pixel as noise, speckle or noise-free. Subsequently, the noise is removed by a bilateral filter and the speckle is suppressed by a Rayleigh-maximum-likelihood filter while the noise-free pixels are kept unchanged. To quantitatively evaluate the performance of the proposed method, synthetic ultrasound images contaminated by speckle are simulated by using the speckle model that is subjected to Rayleigh distribution. Thereafter, the corrupted synthetic images are generated by the original image multiplied with the Rayleigh distributed speckle of various signal to noise ratio (SNR) levels and

  7. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi, Libertario, E-mail: l.demi@tue.nl; Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Wijkstra, Hessel [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Urology Dept., University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  8. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization.

  9. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging Based on Bubble Region Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of ultrasound contrast agent imaging (USCAI based on plane waves has recently attracted increasing attention. A series of USCAI techniques have been developed to improve the imaging quality. Most of the existing methods enhance the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR using the time-frequency spectrum differences between the tissue and ultrasound contrast agent (UCA region. In this paper, a new USCAI method based on bubble region detection was proposed, in which the frequency difference as well as the dissimilarity of tissue and UCA in the spatial domain was taken into account. A bubble wavelet based on the Doinikov model was firstly constructed. Bubble wavelet transformation (BWT was then applied to strengthen the UCA region and weaken the tissue region. The bubble region was thereafter detected by using the combination of eigenvalue and eigenspace-based coherence factor (ESBCF. The phantom and rabbit in vivo experiment results suggested that our method was capable of suppressing the background interference and strengthening the information of UCA. For the phantom experiment, the imaging CTR was improved by 10.1 dB compared with plane wave imaging based on delay-and-sum (DAS and by 4.2 dB over imaging based on BWT on average. Furthermore, for the rabbit kidney experiment, the corresponding improvements were 18.0 dB and 3.4 dB, respectively.

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Veronica; Borghi, Alberto; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), providing relevant informations not available with non-enhanced ultrasonography, greatly impacted the practice of liver imaging. The characterization of focal liver lesions (FLLs), is obtained in a rapid, accurate and safe way and is considered the main hepatic indication; however CEUS offers other established or emergent relevant applications. Metastases detection and assessment of response to locoregional tumor treatment are accepted applications with specific indications. Needle guidance in case of poorly or non visible target lesions at conventional ultrasound is also accepted. The early assessment of response to systemic treatment, and in particular to antiangiogenic ones, by quantification software is an emergent application. The manageability of CEUS determined also its use in the operating theatre, improving the accuracy of intraoperatory US with a significant impact on final surgical strategy. In cirrhotic patients, the role of CEUS was proven highly accurate and sensitive in the characterization of portal vein thrombosis, by identification of contrast arterial enhancement inside the thrombus, that occurs only in case of neoplastic origin. In recent years microbubbles taken up by Kupffer cells, thus possessing a "postvascular" phase, were registered as ultrasound contrast agent in Japan (Sonazoid). During the post-vascular phase tumoral tissue tend to appear as a contrast defect image due to the lack of Kupffer cells, strongly contributing to tumor staging beside characterization. Newly developed techniques, such as fusion imaging or real-time three dimensional US, in addition to other applications of CEUS, in terms of post-transplantation or cholecystitis-related complications, have been recently proposed and will be discussed.

  11. Ultrasound harmonic enhanced imaging using eigenspace-based coherence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-12-01

    Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) utilizes harmonic signals generating within the tissue as the result of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. With inadequate transmitting acoustic energy, THI is incapable to detect the small objects since poor harmonic signals have been generated. In most cases, high transmission energy cannot be guaranteed because of the imaging safety issue or specific imaging modality such as the plane wave imaging (PWI). Discrimination of small point targets such as calcification, however, is particularly important in the ultrasound diagnosis. Few efforts have been made to pursue the THI with high resolution and good small target visibility at the same time. In this paper, we proposed a new eigenspace-based coherence factor (ESBCF) beamformer to solve this problem. A new kind of coherence factor (CF), named as ESBCF, is firstly proposed to detect the point targets. The detected region-of-interest (ROI) is then enhanced adaptively by using a newly developed beamforming method. The ESBCF combines the information from signal eigenspace and coherence factor by expanding the CF to the covariance matrix of signal. Analogous to the image processing but in the radio frequency (RF) data domain, the proposed method fully utilizes the information from the fundamental and harmonic components. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and phantom experiments. The improvement of the point contrast ratio (PCR) is 7.6dB in the simulated data, and 6.0dB in the phantom experiment. Thanks to the improved small point detection ability of the ESBCF, the proposed beamforming algorithm can enhance the PCR considerably and maintain the high resolution of the THI at the same time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast microcalcification detection in ultrasound images using image enhancement and threshold adjacency statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Baek Hwan; Chang, Chuho; Lee, Jong-Ha; Ko, Eun Young; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Woo, Kyoung-Gu

    2013-02-01

    The existence of microcalcifications (MCs) is an important marker of malignancy in breast cancer. In spite of the benefits in mass detection for dense breasts, ultrasonography is believed that it might not reliably detect MCs. For computer aided diagnosis systems, however, accurate detection of MCs has the possibility of improving the performance in both Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon description for calcifications and malignancy classification. We propose a new efficient and effective method for MC detection using image enhancement and threshold adjacency statistics (TAS). The main idea of TAS is to threshold an image and to count the number of white pixels with a given number of adjacent white pixels. Our contribution is to adopt TAS features and apply image enhancement to facilitate MC detection in ultrasound images. We employed fuzzy logic, tophat filter, and texture filter to enhance images for MCs. Using a total of 591 images, the classification accuracy of the proposed method in MC detection showed 82.75%, which is comparable to that of Haralick texture features (81.38%). When combined, the performance was as high as 85.11%. In addition, our method also showed the ability in mass classification when combined with existing features. In conclusion, the proposed method exploiting image enhancement and TAS features has the potential to deal with MC detection in ultrasound images efficiently and extend to the real-time localization and visualization of MCs.

  13. Dual-Frequency Piezoelectric Transducers for Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Heath Martin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For many years, ultrasound has provided clinicians with an affordable and effective imaging tool for applications ranging from cardiology to obstetrics. Development of microbubble contrast agents over the past several decades has enabled ultrasound to distinguish between blood flow and surrounding tissue. Current clinical practices using microbubble contrast agents rely heavily on user training to evaluate degree of localized perfusion. Advances in separating the signals produced from contrast agents versus surrounding tissue backscatter provide unique opportunities for specialized sensors designed to image microbubbles with higher signal to noise and resolution than previously possible. In this review article, we describe the background principles and recent developments of ultrasound transducer technology for receiving signals produced by contrast agents while rejecting signals arising from soft tissue. This approach relies on transmitting at a low-frequency and receiving microbubble harmonic signals at frequencies many times higher than the transmitted frequency. Design and fabrication of dual-frequency transducers and the extension of recent developments in transducer technology for dual-frequency harmonic imaging are discussed.

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures ... limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  15. Evaluation of breast lesions with contrast-enhanced ultrasound using the microvascular imaging technique: initial observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Liu, Ji-Bin; Zhu, Qing-Li; Sun, Qiang

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound using the microvascular imaging technique in the diagnosis of breast lesions. In 104 patients with 104 breast lesions scheduled for surgery, conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasound using the microvascular imaging technique were performed after administration of SonoVue. The enhancement patterns of breast lesions were classified as no enhancement, peripheral enhancement, homogeneous enhancement, regional enhancement, or heterogeneous enhancement based on the morphologic features of enhancement. The diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound using the microvascular imaging technique was analyzed with the observers blinded to the clinical data and pathology (which served as the gold standard). None of the enhancement patterns was suggestive of benignity, with a sensitivity of 18.3%, specificity of 97.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 91.7%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 46.2%, and accuracy of 51.5%. The peripheral enhancement pattern was suggestive of malignancy, with a sensitivity of 39.5%, specificity of 98.3%, PPV of 94.4%, NPV of 69.4%, and accuracy of 73.8%. Homogeneous, regional, and heterogeneous enhancement patterns did not show meaningful diagnostic information. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound using the microvascular imaging technique provides diagnostic information on breast lesions.

  16. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging for the detection of focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Hsiang; Lin, Wun-Hao; Ting, Chien-Yu; Chai, Wen-Yen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liu, Hao-Li; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be transiently and locally opened by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles (MBs). Various imaging modalities and contrast agents have been used to monitor this process. Unfortunately, direct ultrasound imaging of BBB opening with MBs as contrast agent is not feasible, due to the inability of MBs to penetrate brain parenchyma. However, FUS-induced BBB opening is accompanied by changes in blood flow and perfusion, suggesting the possibility of perfusion-based ultrasound imaging. Here we evaluated the use of MB destruction-replenishment, which was originally developed for analysis of ultrasound perfusion kinetics, for verifying and quantifying FUS-induced BBB opening. MBs were intravenously injected and the BBB was disrupted by 2 MHz FUS with burst-tone exposure at 0.5-0.7 MPa. A perfusion kinetic map was estimated by MB destruction-replenishment time-intensity curve analysis. Our results showed that the scale and distribution of FUS-induced BBB opening could be determined at high resolution by ultrasound perfusion kinetic analysis. The accuracy and sensitivity of this approach was validated by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Our successful demonstration of ultrasound imaging to monitor FUS-induced BBB opening provides a new approach to assess FUS-dependent brain drug delivery, with the benefit of high temporal resolution and convenient integration with the FUS device.

  17. Enhanced ultrasound for advanced diagnostics, ultrasound tomography for volume limb imaging and prosthetic fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging methods hold the potential to deliver low-cost, high-resolution, operator-independent and nonionizing imaging systems - such systems couple appropriate algorithms with imaging devices and techniques. The increasing demands on general practitioners motivate us to develop more usable and productive diagnostic imaging equipment. Ultrasound, specifically freehand ultrasound, is a low cost and safe medical imaging technique. It doesn't expose a patient to ionizing radiation. Its safety and versatility make it very well suited for the increasing demands on general practitioners, or for providing improved medical care in rural regions or the developing world. However it typically suffers from sonographer variability; we will discuss techniques to address user variability. We also discuss our work to combine cylindrical scanning systems with state of the art inversion algorithms to deliver ultrasound systems for imaging and quantifying limbs in 3-D in vivo. Such systems have the potential to track the progression of limb health at a low cost and without radiation exposure, as well as, improve prosthetic socket fitting. Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and quantitative process for prosthetic cup design and fabrication has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography may inform the design process of prosthetic sockets in a more objective manner. This keynote talk presents the results of progress in this area.

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inserted into a man's rectum to view the prostate. Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a ... Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related to General Ultrasound Videos ...

  19. Characterizing EPR-mediated passive drug targeting using contrast-enhanced functional ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theek, B.; Gremse, F.; Kunjachan, S.; Fokong, S.; Pola, R.; Pechar, M.; Deckers, R.; Storm, Gerrit; Ehling, J.; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria

    2014-01-01

    The Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect is extensively used in drug delivery research. Taking into account that EPR is a highly variable phenomenon, we have here set out to evaluate if contrast-enhanced functional ultrasound (ceUS) imaging can be employed to characterize EPR-mediated

  20. Bas-relief map using texture analysis with application to live enhancement of ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarui; Ma, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    For ultrasound imaging, speckle is one of the most important factors in the degradation of contrast resolution because it masks meaningful texture and has the potential to interfere with diagnosis. It is expected that researchers would explore appropriate ways to reduce the speckle noise, to find the edges of structures and enhance weak borders between different organs in ultrasound imaging. Inspired by the principle of differential interference contrast microscopy, a "bas-relief map" is proposed that depicts the texture structure of ultrasound images. Based on a bas-relief map, an adaptive bas-relief filter was developed for ultrafast despeckling. Subsequently, an edge map was introduced to enhance the edges of images in real time. The holistic bas-relief map approach has been used experimentally with synthetic phantoms and digital ultrasound B-scan images of liver, kidney and gallbladder. Based on the visual inspection and the performance metrics of the despeckled images, it was found that the bas-relief map approach is capable of effectively reducing the speckle while significantly enhancing contrast and tissue boundaries for ultrasonic images, and its speckle reduction ability is comparable to that of Kuan, Lee and Frost filters. Meanwhile, the proposed technique could preserve more intra-region details compared with the popular speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion technique and more effectively enhance edges. In addition, the adaptive bas-relief filter was much less time consuming than the Kuan, Lee and Frost filter and speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion techniques. The bas-relief map strategy is effective for speckle reduction and live enhancement of ultrasound images, and can provide a valuable tool for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fusion imaging of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT or MRI before radiofrequency ablation for liver cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiao-Wan; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Wang, Dan; Guo, Le-Hang; Sun, Li-Ping; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Chong-Ke; He, Ya-Ping; Liu, Bo-Ji; Li, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Kun

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the usefulness of fusion imaging of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and CECT/CEMRI before percutaneous ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for liver cancers. 45 consecutive patients with 70 liver lesions were included between March 2013 and October 2015, and all the lesions were identified on CEMRI/CECT prior to inclusion in the study. Planning ultrasound for percutaneous RFA was performed using conventional ultrasound, ultrasound-CECT/CEMRI and CEUS and CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging during the same session. The numbers of the conspicuous lesions on ultrasound and fusion imaging were recorded. RFA was performed according to the results of fusion imaging. Complete response (CR) rate was calculated and the complications were recorded. On conventional ultrasound, 25 (35.7%) of the 70 lesions were conspicuous, whereas 45 (64.3%) were inconspicuous. Ultrasound-CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging detected additional 24 lesions thus increased the number of the conspicuous lesions to 49 (70.0%) (70.0% vs 35.7%; p ultrasound). With the use of CEUS and CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging, the number of the conspicuous lesions further increased to 67 (95.7%, 67/70) (95.7% vs 70.0%, 95.7% vs 35.7%; both p ultrasound and ultrasound-CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging, respectively). With the assistance of CEUS and CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging, the confidence level of the operator for performing RFA improved significantly with regard to visualization of the target lesions (p = 0.001). The CR rate for RFA was 97.0% (64/66) in accordance to the CECT/CEMRI results 1 month later. No procedure-related deaths and major complications occurred during and after RFA. Fusion of CEUS and CECT/CEMRI improves the visualization of those inconspicuous lesions on conventional ultrasound. It also facilitates improvement in the RFA operators' confidence and CR of RFA. Advances in knowledge: CEUS and CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging is better than both conventional ultrasound and ultrasound

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to diagnose ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  6. Imaging microvasculature with contrast-enhanced ultraharmonic ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Maresca (David); I. Skachkov (Ilya); G. Renaud (G.); K. Jansen (Krista); G. van Soest (Gijs); N. de Jong (Nico); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerotic plaque neovascularization was shown to be one of the strongest predictors of future cardiovascular events. Yet, the clinical tools for coronary wall microvasculature detection invivo are lacking. Here we report an ultrasound pulse sequence capable of detecting

  7. Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Renaud (G.); J.G. Bosch (Hans); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); V. Shamdasani (V.); R. Entrekin (R.); N. de Jong (Nico); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMost techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, ...

  10. Bone surface enhancement in ultrasound images using a new Doppler-based acquisition/processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Tang, Songyuan; Tasciotti, Ennio; Righetti, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging has long been considered as a potential aid in orthopedic surgeries. US technologies are safe, portable and do not use radiations. This would make them a desirable tool for real-time assessment of fractures and to monitor fracture healing. However, image quality of US imaging methods in bone applications is limited by speckle, attenuation, shadow, multiple reflections and other imaging artifacts. While bone surfaces typically appear in US images as somewhat ‘brighter’ than soft tissue, they are often not easily distinguishable from the surrounding tissue. Therefore, US imaging methods aimed at segmenting bone surfaces need enhancement in image contrast prior to segmentation to improve the quality of the detected bone surface. In this paper, we present a novel acquisition/processing technique for bone surface enhancement in US images. Inspired by elastography and Doppler imaging methods, this technique takes advantage of the difference between the mechanical and acoustic properties of bones and those of soft tissues to make the bone surface more easily distinguishable in US images. The objective of this technique is to facilitate US-based bone segmentation methods and improve the accuracy of their outcomes. The newly proposed technique is tested both in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of these preliminary experiments suggest that the use of the proposed technique has the potential to significantly enhance the detectability of bone surfaces in noisy ultrasound images.

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It is ... Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound ...

  14. Intravascular ultrasound chirp imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresca, D.; Jansen, K.; Renaud, G.; Van Soest, G.; Li, X.; Zhou, Q.; De Jong, N.; Shung, K.K.; Van der Steen, A.F.W.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) chirp imaging as well as chirp reversal ultrasound contrast imaging at intravascular ultrasound frequency. Chirp excitations were emitted with a 34?MHz single crystal intravascular transducer and compared to conventional

  15. Attenuation Correction and Normalisation for Quantification of Contrast Enhancement in Ultrasound Images of Carotid Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wing Keung; Gujral, Dorothy M; Shah, Benoy N; Chahal, Navtej S; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Cosgrove, David O; Eckersley, Robert J; Harrington, Kevin J; Senior, Roxy; Nutting, Christopher M; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-07-01

    An automated attenuation correction and normalisation algorithm was developed to improve the quantification of contrast enhancement in ultrasound images of carotid arteries. The algorithm first corrects attenuation artefact and normalises intensity within the contrast agent-filled lumen and then extends the correction and normalisation to regions beyond the lumen. The algorithm was first validated on phantoms consisting of contrast agent-filled vessels embedded in tissue-mimicking materials of known attenuation. It was subsequently applied to in vivo contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) images of human carotid arteries. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicated significant reduction in the shadowing artefact and improved homogeneity within the carotid lumens after the correction. The error in quantification of microbubble contrast enhancement caused by attenuation on phantoms was reduced from 55% to 5% on average. In conclusion, the proposed method exhibited great potential in reducing attenuation artefact and improving quantification in contrast-enhanced ultrasound of carotid arteries. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound as a New Investigative Tool in Diagnostic Imaging of Muscle Injuries-A Pilot Study Evaluating Conventional Ultrasound, CEUS, and Findings in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotfiel, Thilo; Heiss, Rafael; Swoboda, Bernd; Kellermann, Marion; Gelse, Kolja; Grim, Casper; Strobel, Deike; Wildner, Dane

    2017-07-11

    To emphasize the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the imaging of muscle injuries with different degrees of severity by comparing findings to established imaging modalities such as conventional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Case series. Institutional study. Conventional ultrasound and CEUS were performed in the Department of Internal Medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in the Department of Radiology within the Magnetom Avanto 1.5T and Magnetom Skyra fit 3T (Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany) and in the Institution of Imaging Diagnostics and Therapy (Magnetom Avanto 1.5T; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Fifteen patients who underwent an acute muscle injury were recruited. The appearance and detectable size of muscle injuries were compared between each imaging modality. The injuries were assessed by 3 independent observers and blinded between imaging modalities. All 15 injuries were identified on MRI and CEUS, whereas 10 injuries showed abnormalities in conventional ultrasound. The determination and measurement revealed significant differences between conventional ultrasound and CEUS depending on injury severity. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound revealed an impairment of microcirculation in grade I lesions (corresponding to intramuscular edema observed in MRI), which was not detectable using conventional ultrasound. Our results indicate that performing CEUS seems to be a sensitive additional diagnostic modality in the early assessment of muscle injuries. Our results highlight the advantages of CEUS in the imaging of low-grade lesions when compared with conventional ultrasound, as this was the more accurate modality for identifying intramuscular edema.

  17. Incidental focal solid liver lesions: diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussan, Michael [Hopital Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Aube, Christophe [CHU Angers, Department of Radiology, Angers (France); Laboratoire HIFIH, Angers (France); Bahrami, Stephane [Universite Paris-Dauphine, Department of Medical Statistics, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Paris (France); Boursier, Jerome [CHU Angers, Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Laboratoire HIFIH, Angers (France); Valla, Dominique Charles [Universite Paris-7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); INSERM Centre de recherche Biomedicale Bichat Beaujon, Paris (France); Hopital Beaujon, Department of Hepatology, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Vilgrain, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Universite Paris-7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); INSERM Centre de recherche Biomedicale Bichat Beaujon, Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    To prospectively assess the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MR imaging in incidental solid focal liver lesions not characterised on ultrasound. Forty-seven patients with 50 lesions underwent MR imaging and CEUS: 24 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH), 11 adenomas, 10 haemangiomas, 1 focal fatty change and 4 malignant lesions were identified. Two experienced radiologists randomly reviewed contrast-enhanced MR imaging and CEUS data, and provided the most likely diagnosis. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), likelihood ratios (LR) and kappa value were calculated. A histotype diagnosis was obtained in 66-52% with MR imaging and 52-53% with CEUS, respectively, for both readers. Se, Sp and LR for haemangioma were 100-100, 100-100 and 78-78 with MR imaging and 89-89, 100-100 and 68-70 with CEUS; for FNH with MR imaging they were 88-63, 96-100 and 23-34 and 74-67, 88-96 and 6-17 with CEUS. If the diagnosis of haemangioma was uncertain with CEUS, MR imaging always confirmed the diagnosis. If the diagnosis of FNH was uncertain with either CEUS or MR imaging, the other imaging technique confirmed the diagnosis in approximately half the cases. Both CEUS and MR imaging have a high diagnostic performance in incidental focal liver lesions and are complementary when diagnosis is uncertain. (orig.)

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3- ...

  19. Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, G.; Bosch, J. G.; ten Kate, G. L.; Shamdasani, V.; Entrekin, R.; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, A. F. W.

    2012-11-01

    Most techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be misclassified as microbubbles, and contrast agent concentration can be overestimated; therefore, these artifacts can significantly impair the quality of medical diagnoses. Contrary to biological tissue, lipid-coated gas microbubbles used as a contrast agent allow the interaction of two acoustic waves propagating in opposite directions (counter-propagation). Based on that principle, we describe a strategy to detect microbubbles that is free from nonlinear propagation artifacts. In vitro images were acquired with an ultrasound scanner in a phantom of tissue-mimicking material with a cavity containing a contrast agent. Unlike the default mode of the scanner using amplitude modulation to detect microbubbles, the pulse sequence exploiting counter-propagating wave interaction creates no pseudoenhancement behind the cavity in the contrast image.

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called ... terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. It can ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a woman's vagina to view the uterus and ovaries. top ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illness. Ultrasound is used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. What is ... into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when the scan begins. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of ... poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ... usually stain or discolor clothing. In some ultrasound studies, the transducer is attached to a probe and ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  8. Enhancing obstetric and gynecology ultrasound images by adaptation of the speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Cristian; Morales, Francisco Cabrera; Fernández, Javier González; Rosa, Agostinho; Déniz, Luís Gómez

    2008-07-01

    So far there is no ideal speckle reduction filtering technique that is capable of enhancing and reducing the level of noise in medical ultrasound (US) images, while efficiently responding to medical experts' validation criteria which quite often include a subjective component. This paper presents an interactive tool called evolutionary speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion filter (EVOSRAD) that performs adaptive speckle filtering on ultrasound B-mode still images. The medical expert runs the algorithm interactively, having a permanent control over the output, and guiding the filtering process towards obtaining enhanced images that agree to his/her subjective quality criteria. We employ an interactive evolutionary algorithm (IGA) to adapt on-line the parameters of a speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD) filter. For a given input US image, the algorithm evolves the parameters of the SRAD filter according to subjective criteria of the medical expert who runs the interactive algorithm. The method and its validation are applied to a test bed comprising both real and simulated obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) ultrasound images. The potential of the method is analyzed in comparison to other speckle reduction filters: the original SRAD filter, the anisotropic diffusion, offset and median filters. Results obtained show the good potential of the method on several classes of OB/GYN ultrasound images, as well as on a synthetic image simulating a real fetal US image. Quality criteria for the evaluation and validation of the method include subjective scoring given by the medical expert who runs the interactive method, as well as objective global and local quality criteria. The method presented allows the medical expert to design its own filters according to the degree of medical expertise as well as to particular and often subjective assessment criteria. A filter is designed for a given class of ultrasound images and for a given medical expert who will later use the

  9. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: basic principles, present situation and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-11-14

    Over the last decade, the development of stabilised microbubble contrast agents and improvements in available ultrasonic equipment, such as harmonic imaging, have enabled us to display microbubble enhancements on a greyscale with optimal contrast and spatial resolution. Recent technological advances made contrast harmonic technology available for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the first time in 2008. Thus, the evaluation of microcirculation is now feasible with EUS, prompting the evolution of contrast-enhanced EUS from vascular imaging to images of the perfused tissue. Although the relevant experience is still preliminary, several reports have highlighted contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) as a promising noninvasive method to visualise and characterise lesions and to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions. Even if histology remains the gold standard, the combination of CH-EUS and EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can not only render EUS more accurate but may also assist physicians in making decisions when EUS-FNA is inconclusive, increasing the yield of EUS-FNA by guiding the puncture with simultaneous imaging of the vascularity. The development of CH-EUS has also opened up exciting possibilities in other research areas, including monitoring responses to anticancer chemotherapy or to ethanol-induced pancreatic tissue ablation, anticancer therapies based on ultrasound-triggered drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic adjuvants by contrast ultrasound-induced apoptosis. Contrast harmonic imaging is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, simplicity and non-invasive nature, and many expectations are currently resting on this technique. If its potential is confirmed in the near future, contrast harmonic imaging will become a standard practice in EUS.

  10. Real-time contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging of focal splenic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, GuangJian, E-mail: liugj@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhu; Huang, Yang; Xu, ZuoFeng; Xie, XiaoYan [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lu, MingDe [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: To investigate the imaging features of focal splenic lesions (FSLs) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Methods: Thirty two patients with FSLs proved by pathology were retrospectively analyzed. CEUS was performed using intravenous bolus injection of 2.4 ml sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubble contrast agent and real time scanning. There were hemangioma (n = 7), lymphoma (n = 8), true cyst (n = 3), infarction (n = 4), hematolymphangioma (n = 2), metastasis tumor (n = 2), and one for each of the following entities extramedullary hemopoiesis, hamartoma, tuberculosis, Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis, inflammatory pseudotumor and myxofibrosarcoma. Results: Among 21 benign lesions, 4 infarctions and 3 cysts presented non-enhancement throughout CEUS scanning, and the other 14 lesions displayed various enhancement levels with 6 (42.9%) hyper-enhancement, 2 (14.3%) iso-enhancement and 6 (42.9%) hypo-enhancement in arterial phase and 11 (78.6%) hypo-enhancement, 1 (7.1%) iso-enhancement and 2 (14.3%) hyper-enhancement in late phase, respectively. The enhancement pattern included 9 (64.3%) homogeneous, 4 (28.6%) heterogeneous and 1 (7.1%) rim-like enhancement. As for the malignant FSLs, all the lesions became completely or extensively hypo-enhancement during the late phase no matter their vascularity during arterial phase. Conclusions: The CEUS features reported in this series may enrich the knowledge for CEUS characterization of FSLs.

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal ...

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in Crohn's disease: technique, image interpretation and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés, Tomás; Martínez-Pérez, María J; Blanc, Esther; Delgado, Fructuoso; Vizuete, José; Paredes, José M; Vilar, José

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analysis has demonstrated no significant differences in diagnostic accuracy among different imaging techniques (US, MRI and CT) in the evaluation of Crohn's disease (CD). High-resolution bowel ultrasound has emerged as an alternative imaging technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CD, being as accurate as CT and MR for detecting intramural and extramural extension of the disease. B-Mode US can evaluate the localization and length of the affected intestinal segments and allow identification of transmural complications, stenosis and intestinal obstruction. Doppler techniques are tools that visualize and quantify bowel vascularization. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a new technique that involves IV administration of an ultrasound contrast agent with real-time examination, providing an accurate depiction of the bowel wall microvascularization and the perienteric tissues. The introduction of imaging quantification techniques enables an objective quantitative measurement of the enhancement. METHOD AND RESULTS: The article reviews the technique, sonographic findings, advantages and limitations, and clinical applications of contrast-enhanced US in the evaluation of Cohn's disease. Current CEUS applications in CD are: CD activity assessment, evaluation of inflammatory masses, distinguishing phlegmons from abscesses, characterization of stenosis by differentiating fibrosis from inflammation, monitoring the efficacy of drug treatments and improving the detection of disease recurrence. CONCLUSION: CEUS is an emerging technique that is part of the entire sonographic evaluation, with a role in the diagnosis and follow-up of CD, thus improving therapy planning and monitoring of the efficacy of treatment. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13244-011-0124-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to ...

  14. High Framerate Imaging of Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Viti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractUltrasound contrast agents (UCAs) consists of a suspension of tiny gas bubbles that is injected into a patient's bloodstream to enhance the visualization of blood in ultrasound images. As UCAs respond differently to ultrasound pulses compared to the surrounding soft tissues and blood, it is possible to employ specialized techniques to identify and isolate UCAs in an ultrasound image. This is commonly referred to as Ultrasound Contrast Imaging. This PhD thesis evaluates several...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... needed for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist ... poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... will share the results with you. In some cases, the radiologist may discuss results with you at ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... is performed using the same transducer. Rarely, young children may need to be sedated in order to ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a procedure like angioplasty . top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose- ... are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... In most cases, barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in ... including the abdominal aorta and its major ... of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... radiology examinations) or sonographer will apply a warm water-based gel to the area of the body ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures are ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Directed Ultrasound Imaging of Non-Mass Enhancement in the Breast: Outcomes and Frequency of Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, Adrienne R; Chhor, Chloe M; Young Lin, Leng Leng; Heller, Samantha L; Gillman, Jennifer; Toth, Hildegard K; Moy, Linda

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the frequency, predictors, and outcomes of ultrasound (US) correlates for non-mass enhancement. From January 2005 to December 2011, a retrospective review of 5837 consecutive breast magnetic resonance imaging examinations at our institution identified 918 non-mass enhancing lesions for which follow-up or biopsy was recommended. Retrospective review of the images identified 879 of 918 lesions (96%) meeting criteria for non-mass enhancement. Patient demographics, pathologic results, and the presence of an adjacent landmark were recorded. Targeted US examinations were recommended for 331 of 879 cases (38%), and 284 of 331 women (86%) underwent US evaluations. The US correlate rate for non-mass enhancement was 23% (64 of 284). An adjacent landmark was significantly associated with a US correlate (P imaging-guided biopsy, 14 of 117 (12%) were malignancies. For all biopsied non-mass enhancements, the malignancy rate was 18% (55 of 308) and was significantly more prevalent in the setting of a known index cancer (P enhancement with an adjacent landmark is more likely to have a US correlate compared to non-mass enhancement without an adjacent landmark. Non-mass enhancement in the setting of a known index cancer, older age, a landmark, and larger lesion size is more likely to be malignant. However, no statistical difference was detected in the rate of malignancy between non-mass enhancement with (18%) or without (12%) a correlate. Absence of a correlate does not obviate the need to biopsy suspicious non-mass enhancement. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and ... here Images × Image Gallery General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests ...

  9. Perfusion estimation using contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional subharmonic ultrasound imaging: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Liu, Ji-Bin; Machado, Priscilla; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Dave, Jaydev K; Zhao, Hongjia; He, Yu; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E; Forsberg, Flemming

    2013-09-01

    The ability to estimate tissue perfusion (in milliliter per minute per gram) in vivo using contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional (3D) harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging was investigated. A LOGIQ™ 9 scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) equipped with a 4D10L probe was modified to perform 3D harmonic imaging (HI; f(transmit), 5 MHz and f(receive), 10 MHz) and subharmonic imaging (SHI; f(transmit), 5.8 MHz and f(receive), 2.9 MHz). In vivo imaging was performed in the lower pole of both kidneys in 5 open-abdomen canines after injection of the ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA). The canines received a 5-μL/kg bolus injection of Definity for HI and a 20-μL/kg bolus for SHI in triplicate for each kidney. Ultrasound data acquisition was started just before the injection of UCA (to capture the wash-in) and continued until washout. A microvascular staining technique based on stable (nonradioactive) isotope-labeled microspheres (Biophysics Assay Laboratory, Inc, Worcester, MA) was used to quantify the degree of perfusion in each kidney (the reference standard). Ligating a surgically exposed branch of the renal arteries induced lower perfusion rates. This was followed by additional contrast-enhanced imaging and microsphere injections to measure post-ligation perfusion. Slice data were extracted from the 3D ultrasound volumes and used to generate time-intensity curves offline in the regions corresponding to the tissue samples used for microvascular staining. The midline plane was also selected from the 3D volume (as a quasi-2-dimensional [2D] image) and compared with the 3D imaging modes. Perfusion was estimated from the initial slope of the fractional blood volume uptake (for both HI and SHI) and compared with the reference standard using linear regression analysis. Both 3D HI and SHI were able to provide visualization of flow and, thus, perfusion in the kidneys. However, SHI provided near-complete tissue suppression

  10. Perfusion estimation using contrast enhanced three-dimensional subharmonic ultrasound imaging: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Machado, Priscilla; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Zhao, Hongjia; He, Yu; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The ability to estimate tissue perfusion (in mL/min/g) in vivo using contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging was investigated. Materials and Methods A Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) equipped with a 4D10L probe was modified to perform 3D harmonic imaging (HI; ftransmit = 5 MHz and freceive = 10 MHz) and subharmonic imaging (SHI; ftransmit= 5.8 MHz and freceive= 2.9 MHz). In vivo imaging was performed in the lower pole of both kidneys in five open-abdomen canines after injection of the ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA). The canines received a 5 μL/kg bolus injection of Definity for HI and a 20 μL/kg bolus for SHI in triplicate for each kidney. Ultrasound data acquisition was started just prior to injection of UCA (in order to capture the wash-in) and continued until washout. A microvascular staining technique based on stable (non-radioactive) isotope-labeled microspheres (Biophysics Assay Laboratory Inc, Worcester, MA) was used to quantify the degree of perfusion in each kidney (the reference standard). Ligating a surgically exposed branch of the renal arteries induced lower perfusion rates. This was followed by additional contrast-enhanced imaging and microsphere injections to measure post-ligation perfusion. Slice data were extracted from the 3D ultrasound volumes and used to generate time-intensity curves off-line in the regions corresponding to the tissue samples used for microvascular staining. The mid-line plane was also selected from the 3D volume (as a quasi-2D image) and compared to the 3D imaging modes. Perfusion was estimated from the initial slope of the fractional blood volume uptake (for both HI and SHI) and compared to the reference standard using linear regression analysis. Results Both 3D HI and SHI were able to provide visualization of flow and, thus, perfusion in the kidneys. However, SHI provided near complete tissue

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  12. Joint Beamforming and Feature Detection for Enhanced Visualization of Spinal Bone Surfaces in Ultrasound Images

    CERN Document Server

    Mehdizadeh, Saeed; Kiss, Gabriel; Johansen, Tonni F; Holm, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework for extracting the bone surface from B-mode images employing the eigenspace minimum variance (ESMV) beamformer and a ridge detection method. We show that an ESMV beamformer with a rank-1 signal subspace can preserve the bone anatomy and enhance the edges, despite an image which is less visually appealing due to some speckle pattern distortion. The beamformed images are post-processed using the phase symmetry (PS) technique. We validate this framework by registering the ultrasound images of a vertebra (in a water bath) against the corresponding Computed Tomography (CT) dataset. The results show a bone localization error in the same order of magnitude as the standard delay-and-sum (DAS) technique, but with approximately 20% smaller standard deviation (STD) of the image intensity distribution around the bone surface. This indicates a sharper bone surface detection. Further, the noise level inside the bone shadow is reduced by 60%. In in-vivo experiments, this framework is used for imaging ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  15. Hybrid ultrasound imaging techniques (fusion imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulescu, Daniela Larisa; Dumitrescu, Daniela; Rogoveanu, Ion; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-07

    Visualization of tumor angiogenesis can facilitate non-invasive evaluation of tumor vascular characteristics to supplement the conventional diagnostic imaging goals of depicting tumor location, size, and morphology. Hybrid imaging techniques combine anatomic [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and molecular (single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography) imaging modalities. One example is real-time virtual sonography, which combines ultrasound (grayscale, colour Doppler, or dynamic contrast harmonic imaging) with contrast-enhanced CT/MRI. The benefits of fusion imaging include an increased diagnostic confidence, direct comparison of the lesions using different imaging modalities, more precise monitoring of interventional procedures, and reduced radiation exposure.

  16. Value of combining dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound and optoacoustic tomography for hypoxia imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optoacoustic imaging (OAI can detect haemoglobin and assess its oxygenation. However, the lack of a haemoglobin signal need not indicate a lack of perfusion. This study uses a novel method to assist the co-registration of optoacoustic images with dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US images to demonstrate, in preclinical tumour models, the value of combining haemoglobin imaging with a perfusion imaging method, showing that a lack of a haemoglobin signal does not necessarily indicate an absence of perfusion. DCE-US was chosen for this particular experiment because US is extremely sensitive to microbubble contrast agents and because microbubbles, like red blood cells but unlike currently available optical contrast agents, do not extravasate. Significant spatial correlations were revealed between the DCE-US properties and tumour blood-oxygen saturation and haemoglobin, as estimated using OAI. It is speculated that DCE-US properties could be applied as surrogate biomarkers for hypoxia when planning clinical radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

  17. Imaging features of intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma on B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H-X; Lu, M-D; Liu, L-N; Zhang, Y-F; Guo, L-H; Liu, C; Wang, S

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the imaging features of intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma on B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. The B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of 6 intrahepatic biliary cystadenomas and 7 intrahepatic biliary cystadenocarcinomas were retrospectively analyzed, and the differences between cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas were compared. There were no significant differences between cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas in terms of patient gender, age, lesion location, size, and shape (all p > 0.05). On conventional ultrasound, biliary cystadenomas were more likely to be multilocular (6/6 for cystadenoma vs. 2/7 for cystadenocarcinoma) and cystadenocarcinomas more likely presented the features of a mural or septal nodule and a nodule diameter > 1.0 cm (0/6 for cystadenoma vs. 5/7 for cystadenocarcinoma). On contrast-enhanced ultrasound, hyper-enhancement (n = 4) or iso-enhancement (n = 2) was present in the cystic wall, septations or mural nodules of the cystadenomas during the arterial phase and the enhancement washed out to hypo-enhancement (n = 6) during the late phase. Cystadenocarcinomas also showed hyper-enhancement (n = 4) or iso-enhancement (n = 3) in the cystic wall, septations or mural nodules during the arterial phase and iso-enhancement (n = 1) or hypo-enhancement (n = 6) during the late phase. Intrahepatic biliary cystadenomas are more typically multilocular cystic lesions. A mural or septal nodule and a nodule diameter greater than 1.0 cm on conventional ultrasound are suggestive of cystadenocarcinomas. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is helpful for depicting the vascularity of the lesions but there was no significant difference between cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Automatic ultrasound image enhancement for 2D semi-automatic breast-lesion segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Hall, Christopher S.

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the fastest growing cancer, accounting for 29%, of new cases in 2012, and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States and worldwide. Ultrasound (US) has been used as an indispensable tool for breast cancer detection/diagnosis and treatment. In computer-aided assistance, lesion segmentation is a preliminary but vital step, but the task is quite challenging in US images, due to imaging artifacts that complicate detection and measurement of the suspect lesions. The lesions usually present with poor boundary features and vary significantly in size, shape, and intensity distribution between cases. Automatic methods are highly application dependent while manual tracing methods are extremely time consuming and have a great deal of intra- and inter- observer variability. Semi-automatic approaches are designed to counterbalance the advantage and drawbacks of the automatic and manual methods. However, considerable user interaction might be necessary to ensure reasonable segmentation for a wide range of lesions. This work proposes an automatic enhancement approach to improve the boundary searching ability of the live wire method to reduce necessary user interaction while keeping the segmentation performance. Based on the results of segmentation of 50 2D breast lesions in US images, less user interaction is required to achieve desired accuracy, i.e. < 80%, when auto-enhancement is applied for live-wire segmentation.

  19. Medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy...... are shown. Both systems using linear and non-linear propagation of ultrasound are described. The blood velocity can also be non-invasively visualized using ultrasound and the basic signal processing for doing this is introduced. Examples for spectral velocity estimation, color flow maging and the new vector...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of ...

  1. Image processing in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    This Ph.D project addresses image processing in medical ultrasound and seeks to achieve two major scientific goals: First to develop an understanding of the most significant factors influencing image quality in medical ultrasound, and secondly to use this knowledge to develop image processing...... methods for enhancing the diagnostic value of medical ultrasound. The project is an industrial Ph.D project co-sponsored by BK Medical ApS., with the commercial goal to improve the image quality of BK Medicals scanners. Currently BK Medical employ a simple conventional delay-and-sum beamformer to generate......-time data acquisition system. The system were implemented using the commercial available 2202 ProFocus BK Medical ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface and a standard PC. The main feature of the system is the possibility to acquire several seconds of interleaved data, switching between...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pictures are typically captured as still images. Short video loops of the images may also be saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time ... How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery General ultrasound procedure View full size with ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  9. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  10. Real-Time Ultrasound Doppler Enhances Precision in Image-Guided Approaches to the Cerebellopontine Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdasaryan, Davit; Albrecht, Marcel; Shahnazaryan, Mihr; Rosahl, Steffen

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate efficacy and reliability of intraoperative Doppler sonography in localizing the transverse and sigmoid sinuses during lateral suboccipital craniotomy. A 16-Mhz intraoperative micro-Doppler ultrasound (16Mhz, Multi-Dop pro, Compumedics, Singen, Germany) was applied to detect the medial border of the sigmoid sinus and the inferior border of the transverse sinus in 25 patients. Micro-Doppler measurements were compared with magnetic resonance- and computed tomography-based image guidance (Kolibri, Brainlab, Munich, Germany). Visual detectability of the sinuses with the operating microscope was also documented. Inadvertent incision of the transverse or sigmoid sinuses did not occur in any patient when the 2 localizing methods have been used in combination. The mean mismatch of image-guided system and micro-Doppler was 2.64 mm (range, 0-6 mm; standard deviation, 1.55 mm). With the microscope the transverse sinus was invisible in 7 patients, the sigmoid sinus was visually undetectable in 1 case. The micro-Doppler indicated blood flow outside the visible borders of the sinuses in 5 patients. A combination of image-guidance and micro-Doppler enhances the accuracy in localizing the margins of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses using the retrosigmoid approach, thus preventing inadvertent injury. The method could potentially be applied during other craniotomies involving the exposure of a venous sinus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel fluorescence nanobubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in rabbit VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Houqiang; Wang, Wei; He, Xiaoling; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) such as SonoVue or Optison have been used widely in clinic for contrast-enhanced vascular imaging. However, microbubbles UCAs display limitations in tumor-targeted imaging due to the large sizes, nanoscaled UCAs has consequently attracted increasing attentions. In this work, we synthesized nanobubbles (NBs) by ultrasonic cavitation method, then a fluorescent marker of Alexa Fluor 680 was conjugated to the shell in order to observe the localization of NBs in tumor tissue. Measurement of fundamental characteristics showed that the NBs had homogeneous distribution of mean diameter of 267.9 +/- 19.2 nm and polydispersity index of 0.410 +/- 0.056. To assess in vivo tumor-selectivity of NBs, we established the rabbits VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model though surgical implantation method. After the rabbits were intravenous administered of NBs, contrast-enhanced sonograms was observed in the surrounding of VX2 tumor, which showed there are rich capillaries in the tumor periphery. We additionally investigated the toxic of the NBs by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results indicated that the NBs is a biocompatible non-toxic lipid system. Furthermore, the VX2 tumors and major organs were analyzed using ex vivo fluorescence imaging to confirm the targeted selectivity of NBs, and the results verified that the NBs were capable of targeting VX2 tumor. Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination showed that the NBs can traverse the VX2 tumor capillaries and target to the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor cells. All these results suggested that the newly prepared NBs have a potential application in molecular imaging and tumor-targeting therapy.

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ...

  14. Spine surface detection from local phase-symmetry enhanced ridges in ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajudeen, Peer Mohamed S; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-11-01

    Improper administration of epidural anesthesia can result in nerve complications. This problem is exacerbated for obese patients whose vertebrae cannot be palpated. Ultrasound (US) has recently emerged as an attractive imaging modality for accurate epidural placement. However, anesthesiologists untrained in US have difficulty interpreting the anatomy in noisy spinal US images. Furthermore, the complex geometry in spinal US images is characterized by a discontinuous intensity profile because the transducer is often not perpendicularly oriented to spine surface regions such as laminae, articular and transverse processes. This makes the interpretation of spinal images more challenging than typical long bone surface images. In this article, we propose a new method to segment the spine anatomy in US images obtained in both the transverse and paramedian planes. A set of 108 B-mode images were randomly chosen from 35 cine loops obtained from scanning the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae of 17 healthy volunteers with a BMI ranging from 19.5 to 27.9. A local phase-symmetry technique was applied to the B-mode images for enhancement of bone-like ridges, and the spine blobs were subsequently classified. The segmented spine surface from the blobs was compared against a radiologist's manual delineation of the spine surface. For the performance of the spine blob classifier, we obtain a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.77 and a geometric mean (G-mean) of 0.96. The mean absolute error between the manual delineation of the laminae by the radiologist and the automatic laminae segmentation is found to be 0.26 mm with a maximum possible absolute error of 2.01 mm for spinal US images of 70 mm depth. Our proposed technique successfully performs automatic segmentation of the spine surface - specifically the laminae, ligamentum flava, spinous, transverse, and articular processes - and can be extended to any bone anatomy present in an US image. This has implications for 3D

  15. Ultrasound imaging and contrast agents: a safe alternative to MRI?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, Margot H.; Wijkstra, Hessel; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.

    2006-01-01

    Microbubble contrast media are used to enhance ultrasound images. Because ultrasound is a real-time investigation, contrast-enhanced ultrasound offers possibilities for perfusion imaging. This review is conducted to evaluate the safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and its possible role in medical

  16. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... of SA imaging. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have both dynamic transmit and receive focusing to improve contrast and resolution. It is also possible to improve penetration depth by employing codes during ultrasound transmission. Data sets for vector flow imaging can be acquired using...... short imaging sequences, whereby both the correct velocity magnitude and angle can be estimated. A number of examples of both phantom and in-vivo SA images will be presented measured by the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS to demonstrate the many benefits of SA imaging....

  17. Portable Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso

    This PhD project investigates hardware strategies and imaging methods for hand-held ultrasound systems. The overall idea is to use a wireless ultrasound probe linked to general-purpose mobile devices for the processing and visualization. The approach has the potential to reduce the upfront costs ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It is used to help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s also used to ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning ...

  20. High Framerate Imaging of Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Viti (Jacopo)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractUltrasound contrast agents (UCAs) consists of a suspension of tiny gas bubbles that is injected into a patient's bloodstream to enhance the visualization of blood in ultrasound images. As UCAs respond differently to ultrasound pulses compared to the surrounding soft tissues and

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... time, rather than as a color picture. It can also convert blood flow information into a distinctive ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement ... by a computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible ... principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast ... or for a referral to a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart conditions, ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It is used to help ... safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. It can ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination is complete, you may be asked to dress and wait while the ultrasound images are reviewed. ... the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ... the transducer. Doppler sonography is performed using the same transducer. Rarely, young children may need to be ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... knowledge about the speed and volume of blood flow gained from a Doppler ultrasound image, the physician can often determine whether a patient is a good candidate for a procedure like angioplasty . top of ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test ... that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the abdomen, ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors and congenital vascular malformations reduced or absent blood ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ... methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients are more difficult to image by ultrasound because ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the ... may be important in some situations. Spectral Doppler displays blood flow measurements graphically, in terms of the ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can often determine whether a patient is a good candidate for a procedure like angioplasty . top of ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  4. Optically and acoustically triggerable sub-micron phase-change contrast agents for enhanced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a versatile phase-change sub-micron contrast agent providing three modes of contrast enhancement: 1 photoacoustic imaging contrast, 2 ultrasound contrast with optical activation, and 3 ultrasound contrast with acoustic activation. This agent, which we name ‘Cy-droplet’, has the following novel features. It comprises a highly volatile perfluorocarbon for easy versatile activation, and a near-infrared optically absorbing dye chosen to absorb light at a wavelength with good tissue penetration. It is manufactured via a ‘microbubble condensation’ method. The phase-transition of Cy-droplets can be optically triggered by pulsed-laser illumination, inducing photoacoustic signal and forming stable gas bubbles that are visible with echo-ultrasound in situ. Alternatively, Cy-droplets can be converted to microbubble contrast agents upon acoustic activation with clinical ultrasound. Potentially all modes offer extravascular contrast enhancement because of the sub-micron initial size. Such versatility of acoustic and optical ‘triggerability’ can potentially improve multi-modality imaging, molecularly targeted imaging and controlled drug release.

  5. Optically and acoustically triggerable sub-micron phase-change contrast agents for enhanced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengtao; Shah, Anant; Hernández-Gil, Javier; Stanziola, Antonio; Harriss, Bethany I; Matsunaga, Terry O; Long, Nicholas; Bamber, Jeffrey; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a versatile phase-change sub-micron contrast agent providing three modes of contrast enhancement: 1) photoacoustic imaging contrast, 2) ultrasound contrast with optical activation, and 3) ultrasound contrast with acoustic activation. This agent, which we name 'Cy-droplet', has the following novel features. It comprises a highly volatile perfluorocarbon for easy versatile activation, and a near-infrared optically absorbing dye chosen to absorb light at a wavelength with good tissue penetration. It is manufactured via a 'microbubble condensation' method. The phase-transition of Cy-droplets can be optically triggered by pulsed-laser illumination, inducing photoacoustic signal and forming stable gas bubbles that are visible with echo-ultrasound in situ . Alternatively, Cy-droplets can be converted to microbubble contrast agents upon acoustic activation with clinical ultrasound. Potentially all modes offer extravascular contrast enhancement because of the sub-micron initial size. Such versatility of acoustic and optical 'triggerability' can potentially improve multi-modality imaging, molecularly targeted imaging and controlled drug release.

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of ... 30 minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proper blood flow into it. top of page How should we prepare for an abdominal ultrasound exam? ... are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based ...

  8. Epithelial cell biocompatibility of silica nanospheres for contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriaco, Fernanda; Conversano, Francesco; Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Ernesto [Institute of Clinical Physiology, Bioengineering Division, National Research Council (Italy); Ragusa, Andrea [National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-NANO (Italy); Sbenaglia, Enzo Antonio; Dipaola, Lucia [Institute of Clinical Physiology, Bioengineering Division, National Research Council (Italy); Casciaro, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.casciaro@cnr.it [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica (CNR-IFC) c/o Campus Universitario Ecotekne, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Nanosized particles are receiving increasing attention as future contrast agents (CAs) for ultrasound (US) molecular imaging, possibly decorated on its surface with biological recognition agents for targeted delivery and deposition of therapeutics. In particular, silica nanospheres (SiNSs) have been demonstrated to be feasible in terms of contrast enhancement on conventional US systems. In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of SiNSs on breast cancer (MCF-7) and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells employing NSs with sizes ranging from 160 to 330 nm and concentration range of 1.5-5 mg/mL. Cell viability was evaluated in terms of size, dose and time dependence, performing the MTT reduction assay with coated and uncoated SiNSs. Whereas uncoated SiNSs caused a variable significant decrease in cell viability on both cell lines mainly depending on size and exposure time, PEGylated SiNSs (SiNSs-PEG) exhibit a high level of biocompatibility. In fact, after 72-h incubation, viability of both cell types was above the cutoff value of 70 % at concentration up to 5 mg/mL. We also investigated the acoustical behavior of coated and uncoated SiNSs within conventional diagnostic US fields in order to determine a suitable configuration, in terms of particle size and concentration, for their employment as targetable CAs. Our results indicate that the employment of SiNSs with diameters around 240 nm assures the most effective contrast enhancement even at the lowest tested concentration, coupled with the possibility of targeting all tumor tissues, being the SiNSs still in a size range where reticuloendothelial system trapping effect is relatively low.

  9. Epithelial cell biocompatibility of silica nanospheres for contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriacò, Fernanda; Conversano, Francesco; Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Ernesto; Ragusa, Andrea; Sbenaglia, Enzo Antonio; Dipaola, Lucia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Nanosized particles are receiving increasing attention as future contrast agents (CAs) for ultrasound (US) molecular imaging, possibly decorated on its surface with biological recognition agents for targeted delivery and deposition of therapeutics. In particular, silica nanospheres (SiNSs) have been demonstrated to be feasible in terms of contrast enhancement on conventional US systems. In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of SiNSs on breast cancer (MCF-7) and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells employing NSs with sizes ranging from 160 to 330 nm and concentration range of 1.5-5 mg/mL. Cell viability was evaluated in terms of size, dose and time dependence, performing the MTT reduction assay with coated and uncoated SiNSs. Whereas uncoated SiNSs caused a variable significant decrease in cell viability on both cell lines mainly depending on size and exposure time, PEGylated SiNSs (SiNSs-PEG) exhibit a high level of biocompatibility. In fact, after 72-h incubation, viability of both cell types was above the cutoff value of 70 % at concentration up to 5 mg/mL. We also investigated the acoustical behavior of coated and uncoated SiNSs within conventional diagnostic US fields in order to determine a suitable configuration, in terms of particle size and concentration, for their employment as targetable CAs. Our results indicate that the employment of SiNSs with diameters around 240 nm assures the most effective contrast enhancement even at the lowest tested concentration, coupled with the possibility of targeting all tumor tissues, being the SiNSs still in a size range where reticuloendothelial system trapping effect is relatively low.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement ... of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  12. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  16. Deconvolution of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1992-01-01

    Based on physical models, it is indicated that the received pressure field in ultrasound B-mode images can be described by a convolution between a tissue reflection signal and the emitted pressure field. This result is used in a description of current image formation and in formulating a new...

  17. A method for estimating the microbubble concentration in contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciallero, C.; Crocco, M.; Trucco, A.

    2011-11-01

    The estimation of the contrast agent concentration can provide useful information in medical diagnostics. Because the intensity of an ultrasound image is not directly correlated with the volumetric concentration of a contrast agent, a method that can estimate the concentration, working only from the signals acquired by the ultrasound scanner, could be particularly useful in terms of precision, time consumption and cost. In this paper, a method to obtain the ultrasound image of a region of interest and the estimation of the related microbubble concentration is proposed. The mentioned tasks are performed in a unique investigation, working from the signals remotely acquired by means of an ultrasound scanner equipped with a grabber board, which is able to collect radio-frequency data. The algorithm is divided into two steps. Firstly, a signal-processing technique, based on multi-pulse transmission and recombination of the received signals, is used to obtain an image of the scene, emphasizing the bubble echoes and abating the contributions of surrounding tissue. Then, the concentration estimation method, based on a nonlinear regression approach carried out by a support vector machine, is applied. Because the training phase requires precise knowledge of the bubble concentration, a completely synthetic training set is assumed, whereas the test set is derived from real signals. In this paper, both non-specific and targeted microbubbles (able to selectively adhere to cancer cells) are considered. The results are encouraging and reveal that the proposed method can provide an accurate estimation in a small volume, which can be useful for diagnostic purposes.

  18. When is contrast-enhanced sonography preferable over conventional ultrasound combined with Doppler imaging in renal transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisbrich, Markus; Kihm, Lars P.; Drüschler, Felix; Zeier, Martin; Schwenger, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound in combination with colour Doppler imaging is still the standard diagnostic procedure for patients after renal transplantation. However, while conventional ultrasound in combination with Doppler imaging can diagnose renal artery stenosis and vein thrombosis, it is not possible to display subtle microvascular tissue perfusion, which is crucial for the evaluation of acute and chronic allograft dysfunctions. In contrast, real-time contrast-enhanced sonography (CES) uses gas-filled microbubbles not only to visualize but also to quantify renal blood flow and perfusion even in the small renal arterioles and capillaries. It is an easy to perform and non-invasive imaging technique that augments diagnostic capabilities in patients after renal transplantation. Specifically in the postoperative setting, CES has been shown to be superior to conventional ultrasound in combination with Doppler imaging in uncovering even subtle microvascular disturbances in the allograft perfusion. In addition, quantitative perfusion parameters derived from CES show predictive capability regarding long-term kidney function. PMID:26413289

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of ...

  1. Comparing the performance of different ultrasonic images enhancement for speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using techniques: a preference study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md. Shohel; Sarker, Kaushik; Bhuiyan, Touhid; Hassan, Md. Maruf

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound (US) is an important tool in today's sophisticated medical diagnostics. Nearly every medical discipline benefits itself from this relatively inexpensive method that provides a view of the inner organs of the human body without exposing the patient to any harmful radiations. Medical diagnostic images are usually corrupted by noise during their acquisition and most of the noise is speckle noise. To solve this problem, instead of using adaptive filters which are widely used, No-Local Means based filters have been used to de-noise the images. Ultrasound images of four organs such as Abdomen, Ortho, Liver, Kidney, Brest and Prostrate of a Human body have been used and applied comparative analysis study to find out the output. These images were taken from Siemens SONOLINE G60 S System and the output was compared by matrices like SNR, RMSE, PSNR IMGQ and SSIM. The significance and compared results were shown in a tabular format.

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients eyes thyroid and parathyroid glands scrotum (testicles) brain in infants hips in infants spine in infants Ultrasound is also used to: guide procedures such as needle biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler ... Do you have a personal ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, and vessels ... your body. The transducer is placed on the body and moved back and forth over the area of interest until the desired images are captured. There is usually no discomfort from ...

  5. Recursive ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for recursive ultrasound imaging is presented. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created at every pulse emission. In receive, parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data is added to the previously...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s ... imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal ...

  8. Ultrasound Imaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    texture mapping hardware," IEEE Tranactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, Submitted. [14] C.R. Castro Pareja , J.M. Jagadeesh and R. Shekhar...modulation in real-time three-dimensional sparse synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging systems "* Carlos R. Castro Pareja , Masters of Science, The Ohio...C.R. Castro Pareja , "An architecture for real-time image registration," M.S. Thesis, The Ohio State University, March 2002. 14. C.R. Castro Pareja , R

  9. Data on consistency among different methods to assess atherosclerotic plaque echogenicity on standard ultrasound and intraplaque neovascularization on contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in human carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Cattaneo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the correlation among different carotid ultrasound (US variables to assess echogenicity n standard carotid US and to assess intraplaque neovascularization on contrast enhanced US. We recruited 45 consecutive subjects with an asymptomatic≥50% carotid artery stenosis. Carotid plaque echogenicity at standard US was visually graded according to Gray–Weale classification (GW and measured by the greyscale median (GSM, a semi-automated computerized measurement performed by Adobe Photoshop®. On CEUS imaging IPNV was graded according to the visual appearance of contrast within the plaque according to three different methods: CEUS_A (1=absent; 2=present; CEUS_B a three-point scale (increasing IPNV from 1 to 3; CEUS_C a four-point scale (increasing IPNV from 0 to 3. We have also implemented a new simple quantification method derived from region of interest (ROI signal intensity ratio as assessed by QLAB software. Further information is available in “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of intraplaque neovascularization and its correlation to plaque echogenicity in human carotid arteries atherosclerosis (M. Cattaneo, D. Staub, A.P. Porretta, J.M. Gallino, P. Santini, C. Limoni et al., 2016 [1].

  10. Quantitative analysis of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L; Thomenius, Kai E; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-03-01

    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions.

  11. A contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of benign and malignant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enhanced ultrasound assessment in benign and malignant breast tissue, using histological examination as the reference standard. Methods. An HDI 5000 Phillips ultrasound scanner with microvascular imaging software and 2.5 ml SonoVue (Bracco ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... will share the results with you. In some cases, the radiologist may discuss results with you at ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... flow into it. top of page How should we prepare for an abdominal ultrasound exam? Your child ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... In most cases, barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the internal ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a clear picture of the internal organs and blood vessels within your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not ... of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly ... an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures are ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements ...

  4. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P

    2012-01-01

    Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...

  5. Ultrasound Imaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    diagnosis of breast diseases . Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill, Livingstone, 1994, pp 50-73. 8. Fornage BD, Lorigan JG, Andry E: Fibroadenoma of the breast ...to distinguish between mammographically identified cystic and solid masses. The accuracy rate of breast ultrasound (US) has been reported to be 96...and post-processing algorithms. PARTIALLY COMPLETED - The breast imaging toolbox has been completed and refined. The automated diagnostic tool

  6. Oxygen-generating hybrid nanoparticles to enhance fluorescent/photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging guided tumor photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi; Wang, Guohao; Qin, Zainen; Wang, Xiangyu; Zhao, Guoqing; Ma, Qingjie; Zhu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising tumor treatment modality that can convert oxygen into cytotoxic singlet oxygen (SO) via photosensitizer to ablate tumor growth. However, the uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation during tumor development and the oxygen consumption during PDT always result in an insufficient oxygen level in tumors, which can adversely affect the PDT efficiency in turn. We designed an oxygen-generating PDT nanocomplex by encapsulating a manganese dioxide nanoparticle (MnO 2 NP) in an indocyanine green (ICG) modified hyaluronic acid nanoparticle (HANP) to overcome this limitation. Because of the excellent fluorescent and photoacoustic properties, the tumor accumulation of the ICG-HANP/MnO 2 (IHM) nanocomplex was monitored by fluorescent imaging and photoacoustic imaging after intravenous administration into the SCC7 tumor-bearing mouse model. Both high fluorescent and photoacoustic signals were detected and found peak at 6 h post-injection (tumor-muscle ratio: 4.03 ± 0.36 for fluorescent imaging and 2.93 ± 0.13 for photoacoustic imaging). In addition, due to the high reactivity of MnO 2 NP to H 2 O 2 , an unfavorable tumor cell metabolic, the oxygen content in the tumor is elevated 2.25 ± 0.07 times compared to that without IHM treatment as ultrasound imaging confirmed. After laser irradiation, significant tumor growth inhibition was observed in the IHM-treated group compared to the ICG-HANP-treated group, attributed to the beneficial oxygen-generating property of IHM for PDT. It is expected that the design of IHM will provide an alternative way of improving clinical PDT efficacy and will be widely applied in cancer theranostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhen, Deydre; Koppenhaver, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular deficits have been linked with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. The use of ultrasound imaging(USI) to aid rehabilitation of neuromusculoskeletal disorders has been called rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI)and defined as ‘a procedure used by physical therapists to evaluate muscle and related soft tissue morphology and function during exercise and physical tasks. RUSI is used to assist in the application of therapeutic interventions,providing feedback to the patient and physical therapist (Teyhen 2006). Brightness mode (b-mode) USI is the most common form used by physical therapists and will be the focus of this summary. USI can distinguish between healthy adults and those with low back pain (LBP). Those with LBP have decreased muscle thickness, side-to-side asymmetry,and decreased ability to thicken the muscles during a contraction (Teyhen et al 2009). Moreover, when measured by USI, lumbar multifidus muscle asymmetry appears to be predictive of future episode of LBP up to three years later(Hides et al 2001). Finally, USI can distinguish between changes in muscle thickness during common LBP exercises when performed by healthy adults (Teyhen et al 2008) and is preliminarily supported as a biofeedback tool to enhance exercise effectiveness (Henry and Teyhan 2007). CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY: In a recent systematic review Koppenhaver et al (2009a) concluded that b-mode USI when applied in a rehabilitative setting is a valid tool to measure trunk muscle size and muscle activation during most submaximal contracted states. When comparing muscle thickness obtained by magnetic resonance imaging and USI, researchers have demonstrated substantial agreement(ICC 0.84 to –0.95) with only minimal differences between the modalities (0.03 to 0.21 cm2) (Hides et al 1995, 2006). Although comparisons between electromyography and change in muscle thickness obtained by USI have most often demonstrated a curvilinear relationship (Hodges et al 2003), the ability

  8. Quantitative correlational study of microbubble-enhanced ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging of glioma and early response to radiotherapy in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Mangraviti, Antonella; Su, Lin; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Yin; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wenxiao; Tyler, Betty; Wong, John; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Velarde, Esteban; Zhou, Jinyuan; Ding, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Radiotherapy remains a major treatment method for malignant tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard modality for assessing glioma treatment response in the clinic. Compared to MRI, ultrasound imaging is low-cost and portable and can be used during intraoperative procedures. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and MRI of irradiated gliomas in rats and to determine which quantitative ultrasound imaging parameters can be used for the assessment of early response to radiation in glioma. Thirteen nude rats with U87 glioma were used. A small thinned skull window preparation was performed to facilitate ultrasound imaging and mimic intraoperative procedures. Both CEUS and MRI with structural, functional, and molecular imaging parameters were performed at preradiation and at 1 day and 4 days postradiation. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlations between MRI and CEUS parameters and the changes between pre- and postradiation imaging. Area under the curve (AUC) in CEUS showed significant difference between preradiation and 4 days postradiation, along with four MRI parameters, T2, apparent diffusion coefficient, cerebral blood flow, and amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) (all p < 0.05). The APTw signal was correlated with three CEUS parameters, rise time (r = - 0.527, p < 0.05), time to peak (r = - 0.501, p < 0.05), and perfusion index (r = 458, p < 0.05). Cerebral blood flow was correlated with rise time (r = - 0.589, p < 0.01) and time to peak (r = - 0.543, p < 0.05). MRI can be used for the assessment of radiotherapy treatment response and CEUS with AUC as a new technique and can also be one of the assessment methods for early response to radiation in glioma.

  9. Quantitative correlational study of microbubble-enhanced ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging of glioma and early response to radiotherapy in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chen [Department of Ultrasound, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310022 (China); Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhang, Kai; Li, Wenxiao; Zhou, Jinyuan [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Mangraviti, Antonella; Tyler, Betty [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Su, Lin; Zhang, Yin; Zhang, Bin; Wong, John; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Velarde, Esteban; Ding, Kai, E-mail: kding1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy remains a major treatment method for malignant tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard modality for assessing glioma treatment response in the clinic. Compared to MRI, ultrasound imaging is low-cost and portable and can be used during intraoperative procedures. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and MRI of irradiated gliomas in rats and to determine which quantitative ultrasound imaging parameters can be used for the assessment of early response to radiation in glioma. Methods: Thirteen nude rats with U87 glioma were used. A small thinned skull window preparation was performed to facilitate ultrasound imaging and mimic intraoperative procedures. Both CEUS and MRI with structural, functional, and molecular imaging parameters were performed at preradiation and at 1 day and 4 days postradiation. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlations between MRI and CEUS parameters and the changes between pre- and postradiation imaging. Results: Area under the curve (AUC) in CEUS showed significant difference between preradiation and 4 days postradiation, along with four MRI parameters, T{sub 2}, apparent diffusion coefficient, cerebral blood flow, and amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) (all p < 0.05). The APTw signal was correlated with three CEUS parameters, rise time (r = − 0.527, p < 0.05), time to peak (r = − 0.501, p < 0.05), and perfusion index (r = 458, p < 0.05). Cerebral blood flow was correlated with rise time (r = − 0.589, p < 0.01) and time to peak (r = − 0.543, p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI can be used for the assessment of radiotherapy treatment response and CEUS with AUC as a new technique and can also be one of the assessment methods for early response to radiation in glioma.

  10. Enhanced lesion-to-bubble ratio on ultrasonic Nakagami imaging for monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Li, Chong; Zhou, Fanyu; Wan, Mingxi; Wang, Supin

    2014-06-01

    This work explored the feasibility of using ultrasonic Nakagami imaging to enhance the contrast between thermal lesions and bubbles induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound (US) in a transparent tissue-mimicking phantom at different acoustic power levels. The term "lesion-to-bubble ratio" was proposed and defined as the ratio of the scattered power from the thermal lesion to the scattered power from the bubbles calculated in the various monitoring of images for high-intensity focused US. Two-dimensional radiofrequency data backscattered from the exposed region were captured by a modified diagnostic US scanner to estimate the Nakagami statistical parameter, m, and reconstruct the ultrasonic B-mode images and Nakagami parameter images. The dynamic changes in the lesion-to-bubble ratio over the US exposure procedure were calculated simultaneously and compared among video photos, B-mode images, and Nakagami images for monitoring of high-intensity focused US. After a small thermal lesion was induced by high-intensity focused US in the phantom, the lesion-to-bubble ratio values corresponding to the video photo, B-mode image, and Nakagami image were 5.3, 1, and 9.8 dB, respectively. When a large thermal lesion appeared in the phantom, the ratio values increased to 7.2, 3, and 14 dB. During US exposure, the ratio values calculated for the video photo, B-mode image, and Nakagami image began to increase gradually and rose to peak values of 8.3, 2.9, and 14.8 dB at the end of the US exposure. This preliminary study on a tissue-mimicking phantom suggests that Nakagami imaging may have a potential use in enhancing the lesion-to-bubble ratio for monitoring high-intensity focused US. Further studies in vivo and in vitro will be needed to evaluate the potential applications for high-intensity focused US. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Up-to-date Doppler techniques for breast tumor vascularity: superb microvascular imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ah Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung

    2017-08-19

    Ultrasonographic Doppler techniques have improved greatly over the years, allowing more sophisticated evaluation of breast tumor vascularity. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with second-generation contrast agents are two representative up-to-date techniques. SMI is a sensitive Doppler technique that adopts an intelligent filter system to separate low-flow signals from artifacts. With the development of second-generation contrast agents, CEUS has also emerged as a useful Doppler technique for evaluating tumor microcirculation. Both techniques can improve the diagnostic performance of gray-scale ultrasonography by providing vascular information useful not only for the morphologic assessment of microvessels, but also for the quantitative analysis of perfusion. In this review, we explain the imaging principles and previous research underlying these two vascular techniques, and describe our clinical experiences.

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  16. Innovations in contrast enhanced high resolution ultrasound improve sonographic imaging of the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlich, C; Schacherer, D; Lamby, P; Scherer, M N; Schreyer, A G; Jung, E M

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to describe the perfusion pattern of the inflamed bowel wall and the surrounding tissue in inflammatory bowel disease and diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon applying a high resolution matrix transducer and the new hybrid technique. We performed contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using an updated version of the 1-5 MHz (C1-5-D convex probe) and the 6-9 MHz probe (9L-D linear probe) as well as a matrix 6-15 MHz transducer (ML 6-15-D Matrix Array Linear Probe) and updated post-processing procedures to examine microvascularization of inflamed bowel wall in Crohn's disease (11 patients), ulcerative colitis (1 patient) and diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon (2 patients). Assessment of mural microvascularization was successful as well as identification of fistulas (2 patients) and covered perforation (1 patient). Moreover analysis of time intensity curves revealed increase of signal intensity up to 20 dB. Summarizing, application of high resolution linear probes and use of updated post-processing methods substantially improve detection of inflammation-caused increased microcirculation of the bowel wall and the surrounding tissue as well as identification of complications as fistulas or covered perforations.

  17. Heat transfer enhancement using 2MHz ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliard-Sauret, Odin; Ferrouillat, Sebastien; Vignal, Laure; Memponteil, Alain; Gondrexon, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The present work focuses on possible heat transfer enhancement from a heating plate towards tap water in forced convection by means of 2MHz ultrasound. The thermal approach allows to observe the increase of local convective heat transfer coefficients in the presence of ultrasound and to deduce a correlation between ultrasound power and Nusselt number. Heat transfer coefficient under ultrasound remains constant while heat transfer coefficient under silent conditions increases with Reynolds number from 900 up to 5000. Therefore, heat transfer enhancement factor ranges from 25% up to 90% for the same energy conditions (supplied ultrasonic power=110W and supplied thermal power=450W). In the same time cavitational activity due to 2MHz ultrasound emission was characterized from mechanical and chemical viewpoints without significant results. At least, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements have been performed in order to investigate hydrodynamic modifications due to the presence of 2MHz ultrasound. It was therefore possible to propose a better understanding of heat transfer enhancement mechanism with high frequency ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR, ultrasound and optical imaging modalities to evaluate the antiangiogenic effect of PF-03084014 and sunitinib

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cathy C.; Yan, Zhengming; Giddabasappa, Anand; Lappin, Patrick B; Painter, Cory L; Zhang, Qin; Li, Gang; Goodman, James; Simmons, Brett; Pascual, Bernadette; Lee, Joseph; Levkoff, Ted; Nichols, Tim; Xie, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging has been widely applied for monitoring antiangiogenesis therapy in cancer drug discovery. In this report, we used different imaging modalities including high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS), dynamic contrast enhanced-MR (DCE-MR), and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging systems to monitor the changes in the tumor vascular properties after treatment with γ-secretase inhibitor PF-03084014. Sunitinib was tested in parallel for comparison. In the MDA-MB-231Luc model, we...

  19. Ultrasound enhanced delivery of molecular imaging and therapeutic agents in Alzheimer's disease mouse models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymond, Scott B; Treat, Lisa H; Dewey, Jonathan D; McDannold, Nathan J; Hynynen, Kullervo; Bacskai, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    .... Here we demonstrate that low-intensity focused ultrasound with a microbubble contrast agent may be used to transiently disrupt the blood-brain barrier, allowing non-invasive, localized delivery...

  20. Ultrasound imaging velocimetry : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelma, C.

    2017-01-01

    Whole-field velocity measurement techniques based on ultrasound imaging (a.k.a. ‘ultrasound imaging velocimetry’ or ‘echo-PIV’) have received significant attention from the fluid mechanics community in the last decade, in particular because of their ability to obtain velocity fields in flows that

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pictures are typically captured as still images. Short video loops of the images may also be saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch ...

  4. Objective Image Quality Metrics for Ultrasound Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Cecilie Øinæs

    2009-01-01

    Objective evaluation of the image quality on ultrasound images is a comprehensive task due to the relatively low image quality compared to other imaging techniques. It is desirable to objectively determine the quality of ultrasound images since quantification of the quality removes the subjective evaluation which can lead to varying results. The scanner will also be more user friendly if the user is given feedback on the quality of the current image. This thesis has investigated in the obje...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - ... computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such ... abdomen help determine causes of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  8. Contrast-enhanced and targeted ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, Michiel; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is becoming the most popular medical imaging modality, owing to the low price per examination and its safety. However, blood is a poor scatterer of ultrasound waves at clinical diagnostic transmit frequencies. For perfusion imaging, markers have been designed to enhance the contrast in B-mode imaging. These so-called ultrasound contrast agents consist of microscopically small gas bubbles encapsulated in biodegradable shells. In this review, the physical principles of ultrasound contrast agent microbubble behavior and their adjustment for drug delivery including sonoporation are described. Furthermore, an outline of clinical imaging applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is given. It is a challenging task to quantify and predict which bubble phenomenon occurs under which acoustic condition, and how these phenomena may be utilized in ultrasonic imaging. Aided by high-speed photography, our improved understanding of encapsulated microbubble behavior will lead to more sophisticated detection and delivery techniques. More sophisticated methods use quantitative approaches to measure the amount and the time course of bolus or reperfusion curves, and have shown great promise in revealing effective tumor responses to anti-angiogenic drugs in humans before tumor shrinkage occurs. These are beginning to be accepted into clinical practice. In the long term, targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging and eventually for directed anti-tumor therapy are expected to be tested. PMID:21218081

  9. Contrast-enhanced and targeted ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, Michiel; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2011-01-07

    Ultrasonic imaging is becoming the most popular medical imaging modality, owing to the low price per examination and its safety. However, blood is a poor scatterer of ultrasound waves at clinical diagnostic transmit frequencies. For perfusion imaging, markers have been designed to enhance the contrast in B-mode imaging. These so-called ultrasound contrast agents consist of microscopically small gas bubbles encapsulated in biodegradable shells. In this review, the physical principles of ultrasound contrast agent microbubble behavior and their adjustment for drug delivery including sonoporation are described. Furthermore, an outline of clinical imaging applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is given. It is a challenging task to quantify and predict which bubble phenomenon occurs under which acoustic condition, and how these phenomena may be utilized in ultrasonic imaging. Aided by high-speed photography, our improved understanding of encapsulated microbubble behavior will lead to more sophisticated detection and delivery techniques. More sophisticated methods use quantitative approaches to measure the amount and the time course of bolus or reperfusion curves, and have shown great promise in revealing effective tumor responses to anti-angiogenic drugs in humans before tumor shrinkage occurs. These are beginning to be accepted into clinical practice. In the long term, targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging and eventually for directed anti-tumor therapy are expected to be tested.

  10. An Algorithm of Image Heterogeneity with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Differential Diagnosis of Solid Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lifang; Xu, Changsong; Xie, Xueqian; Li, Fan; Lv, Xiuhong; Du, Lianfang

    2017-01-01

    Enhancement heterogeneity on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is used to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. In this study, we used an algorithm to quantify enhancement heterogeneity of solid thyroid nodules on CEUS. The heterogeneity value (HV) is calculated as standard deviation/mean intensity × 100 (using Adobe Photoshop). The heterogeneity ratio (HR) is calculated as the ratio of the HV of the nodule to that of the surrounding parenchyma. Three phases-ascending, peak and descending phases-were studied. HV values at ascending (HVa) and peak (HVp) phases were significantly higher in malignant nodules than in benign nodules (95.57 ± 43.87 vs. 73.06 ± 44.04, p = 0.009, and 32.53 ± 10.73 vs. 26.44 ± 8.25, p = 0.002, respectively). HRa, HRp and HRd were significantly higher in malignant nodules than in benign nodules (1.93 ± 1.03 vs. 1.00 ± 0.47, p = 0.000, 1.43 ± 0.51 vs. 1.09 ± 0.28, p = 0.000, and 1.33 ± 0.40 vs. 1.08 ± 0.33, p = 0.001, respectively). HRa achieved optimal diagnostic performance on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The algorithm used for assessment of image heterogeneity on CEUS examination may be a useful adjunct to conventional ultrasound for differential diagnosis of solid thyroid nodules. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnose heart conditions, and assess damage after a heart attack. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ... heart failure, and to assess damage after a heart attack. Ultrasound of the heart is commonly called an “ ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles ... procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... color picture. It can also convert blood flow information into a distinctive sound that can be heard ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... extremely safe and does not use any ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to diagnose a ... the scan begins. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in infections With knowledge about the speed and volume of blood flow gained from a Doppler ultrasound ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may also be saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of ... following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may also be saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of ... care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring ...

  20. Arterial input function calculation in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: an in vivo validation study using co-registered contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Chandrana, Chaitanya; Pang, Ian; Chopra, Rajiv; Martel, Anne L. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    Developing a method of separating intravascular contrast agent concentration to measure the arterial input function (AIF) in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of tumours, and validating its performance in phantom and in vivo experiments. A tissue-mimicking phantom was constructed to model leaky tumour vasculature and DCE-MR images of this phantom were acquired. An in vivo study was performed using tumour-bearing rabbits. Co-registered DCE-MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) images were acquired. An independent component analysis (ICA)-based method was developed to separate the intravascular component from DCE-MRI. Results were validated by comparing the time-intensity curves with the actual phantom and in vivo curves. Phantom study: the AIF extracted using ICA correlated well with the true intravascular curve. In vivo study: the AIFs extracted from DCE-MRI using ICA were very close to the true AIF. Intravascular component images were very similar to the CEUS images. The contrast onset times and initial wash-in slope of the ICA-derived AIF showed good agreement with the CEUS curves. ICA has the potential to separate the intravascular component from DCE-MRI. This could eliminate the requirement for contrast medium uptake measurements in a major artery and potentially result in more accurate pharmacokinetic parameters. (orig.)

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning ...

  2. Ultrasound Imaging and its modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Modern medical ultrasound scanners are used for imaging nearly all soft tissue structures in the body. The anatomy can be studied from gray-scale B-mode images, where the reflectivity and scattering strength of the tissues are displayed. The imaging is performed in real time with 20 to 100 images...

  3. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging and In Vivo Circulatory Kinetics with Low Boiling Point Nanoscale Phase-Change Perfluorocarbon Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S.; Rojas, Juan D.; Puett, Connor; Hjelmquist, Jordan; Arena, Christopher B.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have explored phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) that can be vaporized by an ultrasonic pulse to form microbubbles for ultrasound imaging and therapy. However, few investigations have been published demonstrating the utility and characteristics of PCCAs as contrast agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the properties of low boiling point nanoscale PCCAs evaluated in vivo, and compare data to conventional microbubbles with respect to contrast generation and circulation properties. In order to do this, we develop a custom pulse sequence to vaporize and image PCCAs using the Verasonics research platform and a clinical array transducer. Results show that droplets can produce similar contrast enhancement to microbubbles (7.29 to 18.24 dB over baseline, depending on formulation), and can be designed to circulate for as much as 3.3 times longer than microbubbles. This study also demonstrates for the first time the ability to capture contrast wash-out kinetics of the target organ as a measure of vascular perfusion. PMID:25619781

  4. Focused ultrasound enhanced molecular imaging and gene therapy for multifusion reporter gene in glioma-bearing rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Chang, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Chien, Yi-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Tsai, Min-Lan

    2015-11-03

    The ability to monitor the responses of and inhibit the growth of brain tumors during gene therapy has been severely limited due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A previous study has demonstrated the feasibility of noninvasive in vivo imaging with 123I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodo-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (123I-FIAU) for monitoring herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) cancer gene expression in an experimental animal model. Here, we tested the enhancement of SPECT with 123I-FIAU and ganciclovir (GCV) treatment in brain tumors after BBB disruption induced by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles. We established an orthotopic F98 glioma-bearing rat model with trifusion reporter genes. The results of this study showed that the rat model of HSV1-tk-expressing glioma cells could be successfully detected by SPECT imaging after FUS-induced BBB disruption on day 10 after implantation. Compared to the control group, animals receiving the GCV with or without sonication exhibited a significant antitumor activity (P therapy in brain diseases.

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses ... appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and ... radiologist scanning a boy's abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Appendicitis ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys ... as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an inflamed appendix guide procedures such as biopsies, in which needles, ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... the scanner by a cord. Some exams may use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible ... principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, ... capabilities) during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination is complete, you may be asked to dress and wait while the ultrasound images are reviewed. ... the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the internal organs and blood vessels within ... Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes ... specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ... of concern. Doppler sonography is performed using the same transducer. When the examination is complete, you may ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ... methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients are more difficult to image by ultrasound because ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be ... and avoid urinating so that his or her bladder is reasonably full when the scan begins. Sedation ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used to ... ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen that looks like a computer or television ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... scan begins. top of page What does the equipment look ... is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler ... and its major ... infants hips in infants spine in infants Ultrasound is also used to: guide procedures such as ...

  6. Semi-automatic motion compensation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound images from abdominal organs for perfusion analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schafer, S.; Nylund, K.; Saevik, F.; Engjom, T.; Mézl, M.; Jiřík, Radovan; Dimcevski, G.; Gilja, O.H.; Tönnies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, AUG 1 (2015), s. 229-237 ISSN 0010-4825 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2380 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ultrasonography * motion analysis * motion compensation * registration * CEUS * contrast-enhanced ultrasound * perfusion * perfusion modeling Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2015

  7. Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR, ultrasound and optical imaging modalities to evaluate the antiangiogenic effect of PF-03084014 and sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cathy C; Yan, Zhengming; Giddabasappa, Anand; Lappin, Patrick B; Painter, Cory L; Zhang, Qin; Li, Gang; Goodman, James; Simmons, Brett; Pascual, Bernadette; Lee, Joseph; Levkoff, Ted; Nichols, Tim; Xie, Zhiyong

    2014-06-01

    Noninvasive imaging has been widely applied for monitoring antiangiogenesis therapy in cancer drug discovery. In this report, we used different imaging modalities including high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS), dynamic contrast enhanced-MR (DCE-MR), and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging systems to monitor the changes in the tumor vascular properties after treatment with γ-secretase inhibitor PF-03084014. Sunitinib was tested in parallel for comparison. In the MDA-MB-231Luc model, we demonstrated that antiangiogenesis was one of the contributing mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of PF-03084014. By immunohistochemistry and FITC-lectin perfusion assays, we showed that the vascular defects upon treatment with PF-03084014 were associated with Notch pathway modulation, evidenced by a decrease in the HES1 protein and by the changes in VEGFR2 and HIF1α levels, which indicates down-stream effects. Using a 3D power Doppler scanning method, ultrasound imaging showed that the% vascularity in the MDA-MB-231Luc tumor decreased significantly at 4 and 7 days after the treatment with PF-03084014. A decrease in the tumor vessel function was also observed through contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging with microbubble injection. These findings were consistent with the PF-03084014-induced functional vessel changes measured by suppressing the K(trans) values using DCE-MRI. In contrast, the FMT imaging with the AngioSence 680EX failed to detect any treatment-associated tumor vascular changes. Sunitinib demonstrated an outcome similar to PF-03084014 in the tested imaging modalities. In summary, ultrasound and DCE-MR imaging successfully provided longitudinal measurement of the phenotypic and functional changes in tumor vasculature after treatment with PF-03084014 and sunitinib. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... Field II simulations and measurements with the ultrasound research scanner SARUS and a 3.5MHz 1024 element 2-D transducer array. In all investigations, 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieved a smaller main-lobe, lower sidelobes, higher contrast, and better signal to noise ratio than parallel...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color ... and its major branches liver gallbladder spleen pancreas kidneys bladder uterus , ovaries , and unborn child ( fetus ) in ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to ... the scanner by a cord. Some exams may use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure like angioplasty . top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing ... uterus and ovaries. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, ... the sensitive receiver in the transducer records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s also used to help guide ... and parathyroid glands scrotum (testicles) brain in infants hips in infants spine in infants Ultrasound is also ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnose a variety of heart conditions, including valve problems and congestive heart failure, and to assess damage ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to diagnose a ... procedure like angioplasty . top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because greater amounts of tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe ... during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for your ultrasound exam. You may need to remove all clothing and ... glasses of water two hours prior to your exam and avoid urinating so that your bladder is ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs and to examine ... help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a useful way of examining many ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for your ultrasound exam. You may need to ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and be made aware of food and drink restrictions that may be needed prior to sedation. Once ... minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is used to help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs ... used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a useful way of ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ... a blood vessel. Power Doppler is a newer technique that is more sensitive than color Doppler and ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a useful way of ...

  11. Ultrasound in pregnancy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing ... abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other ... does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top ... make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the ... probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back and a ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through ... a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For others you may be asked to drink up to six glasses of water two hours prior ... ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be tilted ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the ... within 30 minutes, although more extensive exams may take up to an hour. When the examination is ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  19. OSPACS: Ultrasound image management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessant Conrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound scanning uses the medical imaging format, DICOM, for electronically storing the images and data associated with a particular scan. Large health care facilities typically use a picture archiving and communication system (PACS for storing and retrieving such images. However, these systems are usually not suitable for managing large collections of anonymized ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. Results We have developed a system enabling the accurate archiving and management of ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. It is based upon a Windows application utilizing an open-source DICOM image viewer and a relational database. The system automates the bulk import of DICOM files from removable media by cross-validating the patient information against an external database, anonymizing the data as well as the image, and then storing the contents of the file as a field in a database record. These image records may then be retrieved from the database and presented in a tree-view control so that the user can select particular images for display in a DICOM viewer or export them to external media. Conclusion This system provides error-free automation of ultrasound image archiving and management, suitable for use in a clinical trial. An open-source project has been established to promote continued development of the system.

  20. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... of the excitation signal. Although a gain in signal-to-noise ratio of about 20 dB is theoretically possible for the time-bandwidth product available in ultrasound, it is shown that the effects of transducer weighting and tissue attenuation reduce the maximum gain at 10 dB for robust compression with low sidelobes...... is described. Application of coded excitation in array imaging is evaluated through simulations in Field II. The low degree of the orthogonality among coded signals for ultrasound systems is first discussed, and the effect of mismatched filtering in the cross-correlation properties of the signals is evaluated...

  1. Recent Experiences and Advances in Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Eisenbrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging schemes strive to suppress tissue signals in order to better visualize nonlinear signals from blood-pooling ultrasound contrast agents. Because tissue does not generate a subharmonic response (i.e., signal at half the transmit frequency, subharmonic imaging has been proposed as a method for isolating ultrasound microbubble signals while suppressing surrounding tissue signals. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the use of subharmonic imaging in vivo. These advances include the implementation of subharmonic imaging on linear and curvilinear arrays, intravascular probes, and three-dimensional probes for breast, renal, liver, plaque, and tumor imaging.

  2. Recent Experiences and Advances in Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Sridharan, Anush; Liu, Ji-Bin; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging schemes strive to suppress tissue signals in order to better visualize nonlinear signals from blood-pooling ultrasound contrast agents. Because tissue does not generate a subharmonic response (i.e., signal at half the transmit frequency), subharmonic imaging has been proposed as a method for isolating ultrasound microbubble signals while suppressing surrounding tissue signals. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the use of subharmonic imaging in vivo. These advances include the implementation of subharmonic imaging on linear and curvilinear arrays, intravascular probes, and three-dimensional probes for breast, renal, liver, plaque, and tumor imaging.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the ... like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Once the imaging ... The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  5. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound-Targeted Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    predictions were confirmed by gross examination of hens at necropsy . Ovarian tumors, their stages, and types were confirmed by routine histologic... rabbit anti- chicken DR-6 antibodies. Sera (n = 22; age range 2.5 to 3.0 years) from hens with ovarian cancer were compared with normal hens...of targeted imaging were compared and confirmed by gross examination of hens at necropsy and from routine histology. As observed on sonography

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and ovaries. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations are ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  8. Carotid Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child and make the time pass quickly. The ultrasound exam room may have a television. Feel free to ask for your child's favorite channel. No other preparation is required. top of ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top ... waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, including but not limited to the: heart and blood vessels, including the abdominal aorta and its major branches ... damage after a heart attack. Ultrasound of the heart is commonly called an ... and congenital vascular malformations reduced or absent blood flow to various ...

  11. Cardiological Ultrasound Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, J.M.; Korte, C.L. de

    2014-01-01

    This review paper is intended for the interested outsider of the field of echocardiography and it presents a short introduction into the numerous ultrasound (US) methods and techniques for anatomical and functional diagnosis of the heart. The basic techniques are generally used for some time

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... so that your bladder is full when the scan begins. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used ...

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound: clinical applications in patients with atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); M. Kaspar (Mathias); D. Staub (Daniel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractContrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is increasingly being used to evaluate patients with known or suspected atherosclerosis. The administration of a microbubble contrast agent in conjunction with ultrasound results in an improved image quality and provides information that cannot be

  14. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of Colorectal Liver Metastases as an Imaging Modality for Early Response Prediction to Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Marie Benzon; Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Henriksen, Birthe Merete

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) can detect early changes in perfusion of colorectal liver metastases after initiation of chemotherapy. Newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer with liver metastases were enrolled in this explorative prospective...... study. Patients were treated with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. DCE-US was performed before therapy (baseline) and again 10 days after initiation of treatment. Change in contrast-enhancement in one liver metastasis (indicator lesion) was measured...

  15. The diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as a new technique for imaging of vascular complications in renal transplants compared to standard imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Peltzer, K; Rübenthaler, J; Fischereder, M; Habicht, A; Reiser, M; Clevert, D-A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular complications in renal transplant patients are a well-known issue in post transplant patient care. If malfunctioning of the renal transplant is suspected to be caused by vascular complications an early diagnosis and therapy is required to maintain the renal transplant. Computed tomography (CT), digital substraction angiography (DSA) and radioisotope renography are the gold standard imaging modalities to diagnose vascular complications. To analyse the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in comparison to the standard imaging modalities CT, DSA and radioisotope renography in the diagnosis of vascular complications in renal transplant patients. A total of 33 renal transplant recipients with elevated kidney function parameters with initial diagnostic imaging between 2006 and 2017 were included in the study. The imaging studies and clinical data were analysed retrospectively. The diagnostic accuracy of CEUS was compared to CT, DSA and renal scintigraphy respectively which are classified as gold standard for diagnosis of vascular complications in renal transplant patients. Out of 23 patients 15 patients showed vascular complications in CT, DSA or radioisotope renography and in 15 out of 15 patients CEUS detected the vascular complication. CEUS showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 66.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 71.4%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. CEUS is a non-nephrotoxic and safe method for the initial imaging of vascular complications in renal transplant recipients. Compared to the gold standard imaging modalities CT, DSA and radioisotope renography CEUS shows a high sensitivity and NPV in detecting vascular complications. In cases with suspected stenosis of the transplant renal artery additional DSA might be needed.

  16. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  17. Dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound for therapy monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John M. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Williams, Ross [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Sheeran, Paul S. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Milot, Laurent [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bjarnason, Georg A. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Toronto, and Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Burns, Peter N., E-mail: burns@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative imaging is a crucial component of the assessment of therapies that target the vasculature of angiogenic or inflamed tissue. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) using microbubble contrast offers the advantages of being sensitive to perfusion, non-invasive, cost effective and well suited to repeated use at the bedside. Uniquely, it employs an agent that is truly intravascular. This papers reviews the principles and methodology of DCE-US, especially as applied to anti-angiogenic cancer therapies. Reproducibility is an important attribute of such a monitoring method: results are discussed. More recent technical advances in parametric and 3D DCE-US imaging are also summarised and illustrated.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, and vessels ... either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of the body being studied to help the transducer make secure ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an area of tenderness, your child may feel pressure or minor pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse-like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Once the imaging ...

  1. Assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Stijn C H; ten Kate, Gerrit L; Akkus, Zeynettin; Renaud, Guillaume; Sijbrands, Eric J G; ten Cate, Folkert J; van der Lugt, Aad; Bosch, Johan G; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of standard carotid ultrasound and colour Doppler for the detection of subclinical atherosclerotic plaques is suboptimal. The aim of this study is to assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) added to standard carotid ultrasound improves the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement, standard carotid ultrasound including colour Doppler imaging, and CEUS were performed in 100 asymptomatic patients with one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis. CEUS was performed using intravenous administration of SonoVue™ contrast agent (Bracco S.p.A., Milan, Italy). CIMT, standard ultrasound, colour Doppler, and CEUS were reviewed by two independent observers. Standard ultrasound, colour Doppler, and CEUS were scored for the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Subclinical atherosclerosis was diagnosed if patients had a CIMT above their age-corrected threshold value or if atherosclerotic plaques were present on standard carotid ultrasound clips or CEUS clips. McNemar's test was performed to compare between groups. Twenty-one patients (21%) had a thickened CIMT value and were considered to have subclinical atherosclerosis. Standard carotid ultrasound including colour Doppler demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques in 77 patients (77%). The addition of CEUS to the standard ultrasound protocol demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques in 88 patients (88%). The incorporation of CEUS into the standard carotid ultrasound protocol resulted in a significantly improved detection of patients with subclinical atherosclerosis (P subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Atherosclerotic plaques which were only detected with CEUS and not with standard carotid ultrasound and colour Doppler imaging were predominantly hypoechoic.

  2. Usefulness of combining gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound for diagnosing the macroscopic classification of small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tomoki; Aikata, Hiroshi; Hatooka, Masahiro; Morio, Kei; Morio, Reona; Kan, Hiromi; Fujino, Hatsue; Fukuhara, Takayuki; Masaki, Keiichi; Ohno, Atsushi; Naeshiro, Noriaki; Nakahara, Takashi; Honda, Yohji; Murakami, Eisuke; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Akira; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Shoichi [Hiroshima University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiroshima University, Liver Research Project Center, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Non-simple nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) correlate with poor prognosis. Therefore, we examined the diagnostic ability of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for diagnosing the macroscopic classification of small HCCs. A total of 85 surgically resected nodules (≤30 mm) were analyzed. HCCs were pathologically classified as simple nodular (SN) and non-SN. By evaluating hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of EOB-MRI and Kupffer phase of CEUS, the diagnostic abilities of both modalities to correctly distinguish between SN and non-SN were compared. Forty-six nodules were diagnosed as SN and the remaining 39 nodules as non-SN. The area under the ROC curve (AUROCs, 95 % confidence interval) for the diagnosis of non-SN were EOB-MRI, 0.786 (0.682-0.890): CEUS, 0.784 (0.679-0.889), in combination, 0.876 (0.792-0.959). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64.1 %, 95.7 %, and 81.2 % in EOB-MRI, 56.4 %, 97.8 %, and 78.8 % in CEUS, and 84.6 %, 95.7 %, and 90.6 % in combination, respectively. High diagnostic ability was obtained when diagnosed in both modalities combined. The sensitivity was especially statistically significant compared to CEUS. Combined diagnosis by EOB-MRI and CEUS can provide high-quality imaging assessment for determining non-SN in small HCCs. (orig.)

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America ( ...

  4. Functional Imaging of the kidney graft: Introduction of contrast medium enhanced ultrasound for the detection of nephrological and surgical complications of the early post operative phase

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Contrast ultrasound is a promising and new method that is superior to established ultrasound techniques like conventional B-mode scanning for volume measurement, demonstration of hematoma and color Doppler for the detection of acute rejection or perfusion defects in the diagnostic evaluation of kidney grafts. Moreover, contrast enhanced ultrasound has the potential for tumor characterization in transplant and normal kidneys. A single examination by contrast ultrasound can answer a variety of ...

  5. Non-linear Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang

    without iteration steps. The ASA is implemented in combination with Field II and extended to simulate the pulsed ultrasound fields. The simulated results from a linear array transducer are made by the ASA based on Field II, and by a released non-linear simulation program- Abersim, respectively....... The calculation speed of the ASA is increased approximately by a factor of 140. For the second harmonic point spread function the error of the full width is 1.5% at -6 dB and 6.4% at -12 dB compared to Abersim. To further investigate the linear and non-linear ultrasound fields, hydrophone measurements.......3% relative to the measurement from a 1 inch diameter transducer. A preliminary study for harmonic imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has been demonstrated. A wire phantom underwater measurement is made by an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS...

  6. Synthetic Aperture Imaging in Medical Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim; Pedersen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) ultrasound imaging is a relatively new and unexploited imaging technique. The images are perfectly focused both in transmit and receive, and have a better resolution and higher dynamic range than conventional ultrasound images. The blood flow can be estimated from SA image...

  7. Recursive Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new imaging method, applicable for both 2D and 3D imaging. It is based on Synthetic Transmit Aperture Focusing, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created after every pulse emission. The elements from a linear transducer array emit pulses one after another. The sa...

  8. High-Speed Synchrotron X-ray Imaging Studies of the Ultrasound Shockwave and Enhanced Flow during Metal Solidification Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Dongyue; Lee, Tung Lik; Khong, Jia Chuan; Connolley, Thomas; Fezzaa, Kamel; Mi, Jiawei

    2015-03-31

    The highly dynamic behavior of ultrasonic bubble implosion in liquid metal, the multiphase liquid metal flow containing bubbles and particles, and the interaction between ultrasonic waves and semisolid phases during solidification of metal were studied in situ using the complementary ultrafast and high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging facilities housed, respectively, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, US, and Diamond Light Source, UK. Real-time ultrafast X-ray imaging of 135,780 frames per second revealed that ultrasonic bubble implosion in a liquid Bi-8 wt pctZn alloy can occur in a single wave period (30 kHz), and the effective region affected by the shockwave at implosion was 3.5 times the original bubble diameter. Furthermore, ultrasound bubbles in liquid metal move faster than the primary particles, and the velocity of bubbles is 70 similar to 100 pct higher than that of the primary particles present in the same locations close to the sonotrode. Ultrasound waves can very effectively create a strong swirling flow in a semisolid melt in less than one second. The energetic flow can detach solid particles from the liquid-solid interface and redistribute them back into the bulk liquid very effectively.

  9. High-Speed Synchrotron X-ray Imaging Studies of the Ultrasound Shockwave and Enhanced Flow during Metal Solidification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dongyue; Lee, Tung Lik; Khong, Jia Chuan; Connolley, Thomas; Fezzaa, Kamel; Mi, Jiawei

    2015-07-01

    The highly dynamic behavior of ultrasonic bubble implosion in liquid metal, the multiphase liquid metal flow containing bubbles and particles, and the interaction between ultrasonic waves and semisolid phases during solidification of metal were studied in situ using the complementary ultrafast and high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging facilities housed, respectively, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, US, and Diamond Light Source, UK. Real-time ultrafast X-ray imaging of 135,780 frames per second revealed that ultrasonic bubble implosion in a liquid Bi-8 wt pctZn alloy can occur in a single wave period (30 kHz), and the effective region affected by the shockwave at implosion was 3.5 times the original bubble diameter. Furthermore, ultrasound bubbles in liquid metal move faster than the primary particles, and the velocity of bubbles is 70 ~ 100 pct higher than that of the primary particles present in the same locations close to the sonotrode. Ultrasound waves can very effectively create a strong swirling flow in a semisolid melt in less than one second. The energetic flow can detach solid particles from the liquid-solid interface and redistribute them back into the bulk liquid very effectively.

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of ... by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. After you are positioned on ... about this beforehand and be made aware of food and drink restrictions that may be needed prior ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In most cases, barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a ... or certain joints, other imaging modalities such as MRI are typically used. top of page This page ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient ... caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child- ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image the breasts and guide ... organs greater than normal blood flow to different areas, which is sometimes seen in infections With knowledge ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank ... View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ... are typically used. top of page This page was reviewed on May 30, 2016 Send us your ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude ( ... turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ...

  5. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound molecular imaging is a highly sensitive modality. • A clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent has entered first in human clinical trials. • Several new potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging are being explored. - Abstract: Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging.

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. ( ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. After you are positioned on the examination table, the radiologist (a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations) or sonographer will apply a warm water-based gel to the area of the body ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical ... is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached to the scanner ...

  10. Ultrasound technologies for biomaterials fabrication and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Diane; Hocking, Denise C

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound is emerging as a powerful tool for developing biomaterials for regenerative medicine. Ultrasound technologies are finding wide-ranging, innovative applications for controlling the fabrication of bioengineered scaffolds, as well as for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the properties of engineered constructs both during fabrication processes and post-implantation. This review provides an overview of the biomedical applications of ultrasound for imaging and therapy, a tutorial of the physical mechanisms through which ultrasound can interact with biomaterials, and examples of how ultrasound technologies are being developed and applied for biomaterials fabrication processes, non-invasive imaging, and quantitative characterization of bioengineered scaffolds in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound score and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging score in evaluating breast tumor angiogenesis: Correlation with biological factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Wan-Ru, E-mail: jiawanru@126.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chai, Wei-Min, E-mail: chai_weimin@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Tang, Lei, E-mail: jessietang1003@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Yi, E-mail: xiatian.0602@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Fei, Xiao-Chun, E-mail: xcf0222@163.com [Department of Pathology, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Han, Bao-San, E-mail: hanbaosan@126.com [Department of Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Man, E-mail: lucyjia1370@126.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) score systems in evaluating breast tumor angiogenesis by comparing their diagnostic efficacy and correlation with biological factors. Methods: 3D-CEUS was performed in 183 patients with breast tumors by Esaote Mylab90 with SonoVue (Bracco, Italy), DCE-MRI was performed on a dedicated breast magnetic resonance imaging (DBMRI) system (Aurora Dedicated Breast MRI Systems, USA) with a dedicated breast coil. 3D-CEUS and DCE-MRI score systems were created based on tumor perfusion and vascular characteristics. Microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) expression were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pathological results showed 35 benign and 148 malignant breast tumors. MVD (P = 0.000, r = 0.76), VEGF (P = 0.000, r = 0.55), MMP-2 (P = 0.000, r = 0.39) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000, r = 0.41) expression were all significantly different between benignity and malignancy. Regarding 3D-CEUS 4 points as cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 85.1%, 94.3% and 86.9%, respectively, and correlated well with MVD (P = 0.000, r = 0.50), VEGF (P = 0.000, r = 0.50), MMP-2 (P = 0.000, r = 0.50) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000, r = 0.66). Taking DCE-MRI 5 points as cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 86.5%, 94.3% and 88.0%, respectively and also correlated well with MVD (P = 0.000, r = 0.52), VEGF (P = 0.000, r = 0.44), MMP-2 (P = 0.000, r = 0.42) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000, r = 0.35). Conclusions: 3D-CEUS score system displays inspiring diagnostic performance and good agreement with DCE-MRI scoring. Moreover, both score systems correlate well with MVD, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, and thus have great potentials in tumor angiogenesis evaluation.

  12. Medical Imaging with Ultrasound: Some Basic Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are medical applications of ultrasound. The physics of the wave nature of ultrasound including its propagation and production, return by the body, spatial and contrast resolution, attenuation, image formation using pulsed echo ultrasound techniques, measurement of velocity and duplex scanning are described. (YP)

  13. Despeckling of Medical Ultrasound Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailovich, Oleg V.; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Speckle noise is an inherent property of medical ultrasound imaging, and it generally tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic value of this imaging modality. As a result, speckle noise reduction is an important prerequisite, whenever ultrasound imaging is used for tissue characterization. Among the many methods that have been proposed to perform this task, there exists a class of approaches that use a multiplicative model of speckled image formation and take advantage of the logarithmical transformation in order to convert multiplicative speckle noise into additive noise. The common assumption made in a dominant number of such studies is that the samples of the additive noise are mutually uncorrelated and obey a Gaussian distribution. The present study shows conceptually and experimentally that this assumption is oversimplified and unnatural. Moreover, it may lead to inadequate performance of the speckle reduction methods. The study introduces a simple preprocessing procedure, which modifies the acquired radio-frequency images (without affecting the anatomical information they contain), so that the noise in the log-transformation domain becomes very close in its behavior to a white Gaussian noise. As a result, the preprocessing allows filtering methods based on assuming the noise to be white and Gaussian, to perform in nearly optimal conditions. The study evaluates performances of three different, nonlinear filters—wavelet denoising, total variation filtering, and anisotropic diffusion—and demonstrates that, in all these cases, the proposed preprocessing significantly improves the quality of resultant images. Our numerical tests include a series of computer-simulated and in vivo experiments. PMID:16471433

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood vessels located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child's abdominal ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ... pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse- ...

  17. Handheld ultrasound array imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juin-Jet; Quistgaard, Jens

    1999-06-01

    A handheld ultrasound imaging device, one that weighs less than five pounds, has been developed for diagnosing trauma in the combat battlefield as well as a variety of commercial mobile diagnostic applications. This handheld device consists of four component ASICs, each is designed using the state of the art microelectronics technologies. These ASICs are integrated with a convex array transducer to allow high quality imaging of soft tissues and blood flow in real time. The device is designed to be battery driven or ac powered with built-in image storage and cineloop playback capability. Design methodologies of a handheld device are fundamentally different to those of a cart-based system. As system architecture, signal and image processing algorithm as well as image control circuit and software in this device is deigned suitably for large-scale integration, the image performance of this device is designed to be adequate to the intent applications. To elongate the battery life, low power design rules and power management circuits are incorporated in the design of each component ASIC. The performance of the prototype device is currently being evaluated for various applications such as a primary image screening tool, fetal imaging in Obstetrics, foreign object detection and wound assessment for emergency care, etc.

  18. Fast and Automatic Ultrasound Simulation from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Cong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is currently widely used in clinical diagnosis because of its fast and safe imaging principles. As the anatomical structures present in an ultrasound image are not as clear as CT or MRI. Physicians usually need advance clinical knowledge and experience to distinguish diseased tissues. Fast simulation of ultrasound provides a cost-effective way for the training and correlation of ultrasound and the anatomic structures. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for fast simulation of ultrasound from a CT image. A multiscale method is developed to enhance tubular structures so as to simulate the blood flow. The acoustic response of common tissues is generated by weighted integration of adjacent regions on the ultrasound propagation path in the CT image, from which parameters, including attenuation, reflection, scattering, and noise, are estimated simultaneously. The thin-plate spline interpolation method is employed to transform the simulation image between polar and rectangular coordinate systems. The Kaiser window function is utilized to produce integration and radial blurring effects of multiple transducer elements. Experimental results show that the developed method is very fast and effective, allowing realistic ultrasound to be fast generated. Given that the developed method is fully automatic, it can be utilized for ultrasound guided navigation in clinical practice and for training purpose.

  19. Fast and automatic ultrasound simulation from CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Weijian; Yang, Jian; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently widely used in clinical diagnosis because of its fast and safe imaging principles. As the anatomical structures present in an ultrasound image are not as clear as CT or MRI. Physicians usually need advance clinical knowledge and experience to distinguish diseased tissues. Fast simulation of ultrasound provides a cost-effective way for the training and correlation of ultrasound and the anatomic structures. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for fast simulation of ultrasound from a CT image. A multiscale method is developed to enhance tubular structures so as to simulate the blood flow. The acoustic response of common tissues is generated by weighted integration of adjacent regions on the ultrasound propagation path in the CT image, from which parameters, including attenuation, reflection, scattering, and noise, are estimated simultaneously. The thin-plate spline interpolation method is employed to transform the simulation image between polar and rectangular coordinate systems. The Kaiser window function is utilized to produce integration and radial blurring effects of multiple transducer elements. Experimental results show that the developed method is very fast and effective, allowing realistic ultrasound to be fast generated. Given that the developed method is fully automatic, it can be utilized for ultrasound guided navigation in clinical practice and for training purpose.

  20. Comparison of imaging characteristics between hepatic benign regenerative nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome by contrast enhanced ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruifang, E-mail: zhangruifang999@hotmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 1 Eastern Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052 (China); Qin, Shicheng, E-mail: qsc@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 1 Eastern Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052 (China); Zhou, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yuanyuanzhou288@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 1 Eastern Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052 (China); Song, Yi, E-mail: twinkle_song@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 1 Eastern Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052 (China); Sun, Lulu, E-mail: sunluyytr@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 1 Eastern Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To compare different imaging characteristics between hepatic benign regenerative nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) by contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Materials and methods: A total of 32 chronic BCS patients (mean age, 42 years; age range, 18-59 years) with hepatic nodules who underwent CEUS were retrospectively studied. All patients had no the history of viral hepatitis. There were 23 patients with benign regenerative nodules (22 {+-} 9 mm; range, 8-42 mm) and 9 patients with HCCs (63 {+-} 21 mm; range, 26-90 mm). Lesion characteristics, including number, size, vascularization on color Doppler flow imaging, echogenicity, peripheral hypoechoic rim, and enhancement patterns in arterial, portal, and late phases on CEUS, were analyzed. Results: There were significant differences in number and size of the lesions between two groups. No significant differences were observed in vascularity, echogenicity, and peripheral hypoechoic rim. Overall, there were significant differences in enhancement patterns in arterial, portal, and late phases between them on CEUS. Of 23 patients with benign regenerative nodules, 16 (70%) were center-to-periphery hyperenhanced and 7 patients (30%) were homogeneously hyperenhanced in arterial phase; the majority were homogeneously hyperenhanced in portal and late phases. Of 9 patients with HCCs, 8 (89%) were heterogeneously hyperenhanced in arterial phase and most of them were hypoenhanced in portal and late phases. Conclusion: CEUS imaging characteristics of benign regenerative nodules radically differ from that of HCCs in BCS patients.

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and in vivo circulatory kinetics with low-boiling-point nanoscale phase-change perfluorocarbon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Rojas, Juan D; Puett, Connor; Hjelmquist, Jordan; Arena, Christopher B; Dayton, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have explored phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) that can be vaporized by an ultrasonic pulse to form microbubbles for ultrasound imaging and therapy. However, few investigations have been published on the utility and characteristics of PCCAs as contrast agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the properties of low-boiling-point nanoscale PCCAs evaluated in vivo and compare data with those for conventional microbubbles with respect to contrast generation and circulation properties. To do this, we develop a custom pulse sequence to vaporize and image PCCAs using the Verasonics research platform and a clinical array transducer. Results indicate that droplets can produce contrast enhancement similar to that of microbubbles (7.29 to 18.24 dB over baseline, depending on formulation) and can be designed to circulate for as much as 3.3 times longer than microbubbles. This study also reports for the first time the ability to capture contrast washout kinetics of the target organ as a measure of vascular perfusion. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Programmable ultrasound imaging using multimedia technologies: a next-generation ultrasound machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Kim, J H; Basoglu, C; Winter, T C

    1997-03-01

    High computational and throughput requirements in modern ultrasound machines have restricted their internal design to algorithm-specific hardware with limited programmability. We have architected a programmable ultrasound processing system, Programmable Ultrasound Image Processor (PUIP), to facilitate engineering and clinical ultrasound innovations. Multiple high-performance multimedia processors were used to provide a computing power of 4 billion operations per second. Flexibility was achieved by making our system programmable and multimodal, e.g., B-mode, color flow, cine and Doppler data can be processed. We have successfully designed and implemented the PUIP to fit within an ultrasound machine. It provides a platform for rapid testing of new concepts in ultrasound processing and enables software upgrades for future technologies. Current and future clinical applications include extended fields of view, quantitative measurements, three-dimensional ultrasound reconstruction and visualization, adaptive persistence, speckle reduction, edge enhancement, image segmentation, and motion analysis. The PUIP is a significant step in the evolution of ultrasound machines toward more flexible and generalized systems bridging the gap between many innovative ideas and their clinical use in ultrasound machines.

  3. Imaging modalities in Focal Therapy: Multiparametric Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeboer, R R; Panfilova, A P; Mischi, M; Wijkstra, H

    2016-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common form of cancer among men in the US and the second most common cause of death. It has been observed that an increasing number of newly diagnosed patients exhibit low-risk features and that over-treatment with radical prostatectomy is a growing problem. The feasibility of focal therapy as an organsparing alternative, however, depends on the reliability of imaging techniques to identify, localize and monitor clinically relevant PCa lesions. The aim of this review is to investigate the potential of multiparametric ultrasound (mpUS) for focal therapy. We briefly introduce the most common focal therapies and thoroughly discuss the ability of available ultrasound modalities to localize PCa and reflect tissue properties. The imaging requirements of the focal therapies are studied to put the performance of the US techniques into perspective. We found that transrectal greyscale echography, Doppler sonography, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and computerized ultrasound have been studied for the purpose of prostate imaging. Several of these modalities are already frequently used in current clinical practice; to add to the diagnostic process of PCa, to guide and monitor the application of focal therapy or to perform follow-up after treatment. Despite their capability to detect a large fraction of the PCa lesions, none of these modalities is currently considered sufficiently accurate for stand-alone tumour detection and localization. However, although there are only few studies reporting on a combined use of different ultrasound modalities, the results of an mpUS approach seem promising. Several US modalities have been successfully applied as a viable alternative to monitor tissue destruction during and after treatment. In view of the advantages of US and the promising results of a multiparametric approach in PCa detection and localization, researchers are urged to further investigate mpUS for therapeutic purposes.

  4. Artifacts in contrast-enhanced ultrasound: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, David T; Rafailidis, Vasileios; Peterson, Cynthia; Grant, Edward G; Sidhu, Paul; Barr, Richard G

    2017-12-02

    Although contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become a widely utilized and accepted modality in much of the world, the associated contrast agents have only recently received approval in the United States. As with all radiological techniques, image artifacts are encountered in CEUS, some of which relate to commonly encountered ultrasound artifacts, while others are unique to this technique. Image artifacts must be recognized when performing and interpreting examinations to improve technique and diagnostic accuracy. In this article, we review artifacts that may be encountered in CEUS, and where possible discuss how to minimize them or mitigate their effect on image quality and interpretation.

  5. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of tumor cell death: ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles for radiation enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjung Christina Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of quantitative ultrasound imaging in characterizing cancer cell death caused by enhanced radiation treatments. This investigation focused on developing this ultrasound modality as an imaging-based non-invasive method that can be used to monitor therapeutic ultrasound and radiation effects. High-frequency (25 MHz ultrasound was used to image tumor responses caused by ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles in combination with radiation. Human prostate xenografts grown in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice were treated using 8, 80, or 1000 µL/kg of microbubbles stimulated with ultrasound at 250, 570, or 750 kPa, and exposed to 0, 2, or 8 Gy of radiation. Tumors were imaged prior to treatment and 24 hours after treatment. Spectral analysis of images acquired from treated tumors revealed overall increases in ultrasound backscatter intensity and the spectral intercept parameter. The increase in backscatter intensity compared to the control ranged from 1.9±1.6 dB for the clinical imaging dose of microbubbles (8 µL/kg, 250 kPa, 2 Gy to 7.0±4.1 dB for the most extreme treatment condition (1000 µL/kg, 750 kPa, 8 Gy. In parallel, in situ end-labelling (ISEL staining, ceramide, and cyclophilin A staining demonstrated increases in cell death due to DNA fragmentation, ceramide-mediated apoptosis, and release of cyclophilin A as a result of cell membrane permeabilization, respectively. Quantitative ultrasound results indicated changes that paralleled increases in cell death observed from histology analyses supporting its use for non-invasive monitoring of cancer treatment outcomes.

  6. Added value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound on biopsies of focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Min Woo; Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Mimi; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Seong Hyun; Ha, Sang Yun [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid can improve the lesion conspicuity and feasibility of percutaneous biopsies for focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging of real-time ultrasonography (US) with computed tomography/magnetic resonance images, and evaluate its impact on clinical decision making. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. Between June 2013 and January 2015, 711 US-guided percutaneous biopsies were performed for focal hepatic lesions. Biopsies were performed using CEUS for guidance if lesions were invisible on fusion imaging. We retrospectively evaluated the number of target lesions initially invisible on fusion imaging that became visible after applying CEUS, using a 4-point scale. Technical success rates of biopsies were evaluated based on histopathological results. In addition, the occurrence of changes in clinical decision making was assessed. Among 711 patients, 16 patients (2.3%) were included in the study. The median size of target lesions was 1.1 cm (range, 0.5–1.9 cm) in pre-procedural imaging. After CEUS, 15 of 16 (93.8%) focal hepatic lesions were visualized. The conspicuity score was significantly increased after adding CEUS, as compared to that on fusion imaging (p < 0.001). The technical success rate of biopsy was 87.6% (14/16). After biopsy, there were changes in clinical decision making for 11 of 16 patients (68.8%). The addition of CEUS could improve the conspicuity of focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging. This dual guidance using CEUS and fusion imaging may affect patient management via changes in clinical decision-making.

  7. Anisotropic diffusion filter based edge enhancement for the segmentation of carotid intima-media layer in ultrasound images using variational level set method without re-initialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, K; Anandh, K R; Mahesh, V; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    In this work an attempt has been made to enhance the edges and segment the boundary of intima-media layer of Common Carotid Artery (CCA) using anisotropic diffusion filter and level set method. Ultrasound B mode longitudinal images of normal and abnormal images of common carotid arteries are used in this study. The images are subjected to anisotropic diffusion filter to generate edge map. This edge map is used as a stopping boundary in variational level set method without re-initialisation to segment the intima-media layer. Geometric features are extracted from this layer and analyzed statistically. Results show that anisotropic diffusion filtering is able to extract the edges in both normal and abnormal images. The obtained edge maps are found to have high contrast and sharp edges. The edge based variational level set method is able to segment the intima-media layer precisely from common carotid artery. The extracted geometrical features such as major axis and extent are found to be statistically significant in differentiating normal and abnormal images. Thus this study seems to be clinically useful in diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Breast ultrasound image segmentation: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Luo, Yaozhong; Zhang, Qiangzhi

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women worldwide. Ultrasound imaging is one of the most frequently used diagnostic tools to detect and classify abnormalities of the breast. Recently, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems using ultrasound images have been developed to help radiologists to increase diagnosis accuracy. However, accurate ultrasound image segmentation remains a challenging problem due to various ultrasound artifacts. In this paper, we investigate approaches developed for breast ultrasound (BUS) image segmentation. In this paper, we reviewed the literature on the segmentation of BUS images according to the techniques adopted, especially over the past 10 years. By dividing into seven classes (i.e., thresholding-based, clustering-based, watershed-based, graph-based, active contour model, Markov random field and neural network), we have introduced corresponding techniques and representative papers accordingly. We have summarized and compared many techniques on BUS image segmentation and found that all these techniques have their own pros and cons. However, BUS image segmentation is still an open and challenging problem due to various ultrasound artifacts introduced in the process of imaging, including high speckle noise, low contrast, blurry boundaries, low signal-to-noise ratio and intensity inhomogeneity CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of the approaches developed for segmentation of BUS images. With most techniques involved, this paper will be useful and helpful for researchers working on segmentation of ultrasound images, and for BUS CAD system developers.

  9. Ultrasound Molecular Imaging: Moving Towards Clinical Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging. PMID:25851932

  10. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of hepatic vascular endothelial injury during liver storage by molecular detection and targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Zhang, Shu-Hua; Cheng, Jia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Fei, Xiang; Jiao, Zi-Yu; Tang, Jie; Luo, Yu-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that lack of the high-energy phosphates during liver storage may potentially cause persistent injury to the vascular endothelium. Biopsies were obtained from livers obtained from beating heart human donors, stored either in the standard storage solution, that is, University of Wisconsin solution (UWS) or Celsior, and examined for various markers related to progressive endothelial injury. The expression of P2Y1 receptor, the major signal transduction machinery for adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate, decreased in hepatic vascular endothelial cells over time. Despite unaltered endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels, serine1177-phosphorylated eNOS, the active form of eNOS, progressively decreased with time. The production of nitric oxide enzyme decreased with time when liver tissues were examined in vitro. This also coincided with decreased interaction of eNOS with actin nucleating proteins like myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate and Rac1, which plays a role in modulating the cytoskeleton and helps position eNOS in a favorable cytosolic position for active enzymatic activity. Conversely, the interaction of eNOS with caveolin1 was significantly increased 6 H after ex vivo storage. Finally, we demonstrated by targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound that membrane-bound vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the hepatic vascular endothelial cell increased after 6 H of ex vivo storage. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence of a progressive hepatic vascular endothelial injury during the ex vivo storage. This may be a causative factor for ischemic cholangiopathy and delayed graft function post liver transplantation. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):51-57, 2015. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Reduced speckle noise on medical ultrasound images using cellular neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunkyung; Nishimura, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Speckle noise is indispensable get from ultrasound image. In general tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast. In addition to the doctor diagnosis, is lacking for judgment accuracy. This paper is reduced the speckle noise and enhanced boundary of a tumor in the medical ultrasound images. The proposed method is valuated using numerical phantom simulating ultrasound B-mode images, and the effect is confirmed by applying to medical ultrasound images. Therefore, some important features such as tissue boundaries and small tumors may be overlooked. A cellular neural network which is a kind of recurrent neural network can deal with images by the weight of neurons called a cell. It could be obtained more detail images recognition compared with the previous studies. Determination template parameters of the cellular neural network for ultrasound image processing are discussed. The experimental results show effectiveness of applying the proposed method to boundary enhancement and the speckle noise reduction of medical ultrasound image.

  13. Ablative safety margin depicted by fusion imaging with post-treatment contrast-enhanced ultrasound and pre-treatment CECT/CEMRI after radiofrequency ablation for liver cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiao-Wan; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Guo, Le-Hang; Sun, Li-Ping; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Chong-Ke; He, Ya-Ping; Liu, Bo-Ji; Li, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Dan

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the value of fusion imaging with post-treatment contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and pre-treatment contrast-enhanced CT/MRI (CECT/CEMRI) in evaluating ablative safety margin after percutaneous ultrasound (US)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for liver cancers. 34 consecutive patients with 47 liver lesions who had undergone RFA were included. Fusion imaging with post-treatment CEUS and pre-treatment CECT/CEMRI was carried out to evaluate local treatment response and ablative safety margin within 1-3 days after RFA. The minimal ablative safety margins of the ablation zones were recorded. The complete response (CR) rate was calculated with reference to CECT/CEMRI results 1 month after RFA. The local tumour progression (LTP) was also recorded. Of the 47 ablation zones, 47 (100%) were clearly depicted with CEUS-CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging, 36 (76.6%) with US-CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging and 21 (44.7%) with conventional US (both p ablative safety margins were great than or equal to 5 mm in 28 ablation zones, between 0 and 5 mm in 15, and less than 0 mm in 4. For the four lesions without enough ablative safety margin, three were referred to follow-up because CEUS showed larger ablation zones than pre-treatment lesions and the remaining lesion was subject to additional RFA 5 days after the first RFA. The CR rate was 95.7% (45/47) with reference to CECT/CEMRI results 1 month after RFA. During 2 to 34 months follow-up, LTP was found in two (4.4%) of 45 lesions with CR. Insufficient ablative safety margin was more commonly found in those lesions with LTP than those without LTP (1/4 vs 1/43, p ablative safety margin accurately after RFA. Inadequate ablative safety margin is associated with LTP. Depiction of ablative safety margin by fusion imaging after ablation might be considered as a routine procedure to assess the treatment response of RFA. Advances in knowledge: Fusion imaging with post-treatment CEUS and pre-treatment CECT/CEMRI is an effective method to

  14. Parametric imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: usefulness for characterization of dynamic effects of microvascularization for hepatocellular carcinoma and focal nodular hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shu-Guang; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Liu, Lin-Na; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Chang; Xu, Jun-Mei; Sun, Li-Ping; Wu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether parametric imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is equal to experienced radiologists after review of CEUS in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). An image processing software was used to quantitatively analyze the CEUS clips of 30 HCCs (mean diameter, 3.4±0.9 cm; range, 1.8-5.0 cm) and 30 FNHs (mean diameter, 3.0±1.1 cm; range, 1.1-5.0 cm). Low mechanical index contrast specific imaging modes and contrast agent of SonoVue® were applied for CEUS. Fourteen HCCs were pathologically diagnosed and 16 were clinically diagnosed, whereas all the FNHs were confirmed by pathological examination. Quantitative parameters of HCC and FNH were compared. The diagnostic performance between parametric imaging and two experienced readers was compared using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. On parametric imaging, the rise time, time to peak and mean transit time for HCC and FNH were 16.7±11.1 s vs. 21.9±9.0 s (P=0.052), 29.9±14.1 s vs. 33.2±11.1 s (P=0.322), 115.0±90.9 s vs. 271.5±147.6 s (Pparametric imaging, and 86.7%, 76.7%, 81.7%, 78.8%, and 85.2%, respectively, for two experienced readers (all P>0.05 compared with parametric imaging). Parametric imaging with CEUS is helpful for characterization the typical dynamic effects of microvascularization of HCC and FHH and is equal to experienced readers in the differential diagnosis between HCC and FNH.

  15. Ultrasound elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in infants, children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin, E-mail: martin.stenzel@med.uni-jena.de; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim

    2014-09-15

    Objective: To describe prerequisites, use, and safety of ultrasound elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in infants, children, and adolescents. Method: This review deals with two latest developments in ultrasonography in children. The principle of strain elastography, transient elastography, and acoustic radiation force imaging is discussed, including limitations, and advantages of the different techniques in diagnosing focal and diffuse organ disease. The intravesical (contrast-enhanced voiding ultrasonography) and intravascular use of contrast-media to outline blood, and urinary flow is described, with special emphasis on indications, off-label use, and diagnostic gain. Examples of indications for performing the advanced ultrasound techniques are presented. Summary and conclusion: Latest developments in ultrasound machine engineering, and the availability of contrast-media that interact with ultrasound waves allow for assessment of tissue stiffness/elasticity properties, blood, and urinary flow. Thereby ultrasound is capable not only to depict morphology, but gives the additional information on organ, and focal lesion perfusion, and urinary flow dynamics. The information gap to other cross-sectional techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, that make potential harmful sedation, and anaesthesia in the youngest children necessary, thereby gets closer.

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations are ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound may also be used ... organs greater than normal blood flow to different areas, which is sometimes seen in infections Doppler ultrasound ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be guided by ultrasound, are used to sample cells from organs for laboratory testing help detect the ... in which needles are used to extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. What is ... within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound examination. ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How should we prepare for an abdominal ultrasound exam? Your child should be dressed in comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for an ultrasound exam. Other preparation depends on the type of examination. ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles ... cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature waves are instantly measured and displayed ... ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... extremely safe and does not use any ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may also be saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of ... following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may also be saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of ... care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring ...

  6. Ultrasound Imaging of Cystic Nephroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Greco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic nephroma is a rare, benign multicystic lesion of the kidney. This tumor occurs both in children and in adults. In children, it is highly prevalent in males; in adults, it is more frequent in women. The term “cystic nephroma” represents two apparently different entities: pediatric cystic nephroma, a benign form thought to originate from metanephric tissue, and adult cystic nephroma, considered as a lesion of mixed epithelial stromal tumor. The clinical presentation may be a palpable mass or nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain, hematuria, and urinary tract infections. In this review, we summarize the ultrasound imaging features of cystic nephroma and describe the characteristics of the most common renal cystic lesions and the differential diagnosis of cystic nephroma with other renal cystic lesions.

  7. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Gill, Norman W; Whittaker, Jackie L; Henry, Sharon M; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul

    2007-08-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) of the abdominal muscles is increasingly being used in the management of conditions involving musculoskeletal dysfunctions associated with the abdominal muscles, including certain types of low back and pelvic pain. This commentary provides an overview of current concepts and evidence related to RUSI of the abdominal musculature, including issues addressing the potential role of ultrasound imaging in the assessment and training of these muscles. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects associated with clinical and research applications are considered, as are the possible limitations related to the interpretation of measurements made with RUSI. Research to date has utilized a range of methodological approaches, including different transducer placements and imaging techniques. The pros and cons of the various methods are discussed, and guidelines for future investigations are presented. Potential implications and opportunities for clinical use of RUSI to enhance evidence-based practice are outlined, as are suggestions for future research to further clarify the possible role of RUSI in the evaluation and treatment of abdominal muscular morphology and function.

  8. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  9. Hemodynamic changes on color Doppler flow imaging and intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasound for assessing transplanted liver and early diagnosis of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Daozhong; Chen, Yunchao; Li, Kaiyan; Zhang, Qingping

    2008-06-01

    The value of color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for assessing the transplanted liver and early diagnosing complications by examining hemodynamic changes was discussed. Seventy-five patients with orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) underwent CDFI. The following parameters were measured: peak systolic velocity (PS), resistance index (RI) and Doppler perfusion index (DPI) of the hepatic artery (HA), time average velocity (TAV) of portal vein (PV) and velocity of hepatic vein (HV) in different stages postoperation. And 11 patients of them received CEUS. Thirty healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. The results showed that: (1) In 23 patients without obvious complications, TAV of PV within 15 days post-operation was significantly higher than in controls (Pliver transplantation was increased when DPI was reduced; (5) Seven cases of hepatic carcinoma relapse after OLT demonstrated hyperecho in the arterial phase and hypoecho in the portal and later phase on CEUS; (6) In 2 cases of HA thrombus, there was no visualized enhancement in arterial phase of CEUS, but enhancement during the portal vein and parenchymal phase. It was concluded that the hemodynamic changes of PV, HA and HV in the transplanted liver are valuable for assessing the transplanted liver and early diagnosing complications on CDFI and CEUS.

  10. Linear description of ultrasound imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    These notes have been prepared for the international summer school on advanced ultrasound imaging sponsored by The Danish Research Academy. The notes should be read in conjunction with the notes prepared by Anderson and Trahey1. The intended audience is Ph.D. students working in medical ultrasound...

  11. Preservation of the endometrial enhancement after magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of submucosal uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lim, Hyo Keun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Jung, Sin-Ho; Ahn, Joong Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the integrity of endometrial enhancement after magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of submucosal uterine fibroids based on contrast-enhanced MRI findings, and to identify the risk factors for endometrial impairment. In total, 117 submucosal fibroids (diameter: 5.9 ± 3.0 cm) in 101 women (age: 43.6 ± 4.4 years) treated with MR-HIFU ablation were retrospectively analysed. Endometrial integrity was assessed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images at immediate (n = 101), 3-month (n = 62) and 12-month (n = 15) follow-ups. Endometrial impairment was classified into grades 0 (continuous endometrium), 1 (pin-point, full-thickness discontinuity), 2 (between grade 1 and 3), or 3 (full-thickness discontinuity >1 cm). Risk factors were assessed with generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. Among 117 fibroids, grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 endometrial impairments were observed at initial examination in 56.4%, 24.8%, 13.7% and 4.3%, respectively. Among 37 fibroid cases of endometrial impairment for which follow-ups were conducted, 30 showed improvements at 3- and/or 12-month follow-up. GEE analysis revealed the degree of endometrial protrusion was significantly associated with severity of endometrial injury (P HIFU ablation of submucosal fibroids, endometrial enhancement was preserved intact or minimally impaired in most cases. Impaired endometrium, which is more common after treating endometrially-protruded fibroids, may recover spontaneously. • After MR-HIFU ablation for submucosal fibroid, endometrium is mostly preserved/minimally impaired. • Endometrial-protruded submucosal fibroid is susceptible to more severe endometrial impairment. • The impaired endometrium may recover spontaneously at follow-up MR exams.

  12. Preservation of the endometrial enhancement after magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of submucosal uterine fibroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-sun [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Uterine Fibroid Integrated Management Center, MINT Intervention Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Keun [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyunchul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sin-Ho [SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joong Hyun [Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Biostatistics Team, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the integrity of endometrial enhancement after magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of submucosal uterine fibroids based on contrast-enhanced MRI findings, and to identify the risk factors for endometrial impairment. In total, 117 submucosal fibroids (diameter: 5.9 ± 3.0 cm) in 101 women (age: 43.6 ± 4.4 years) treated with MR-HIFU ablation were retrospectively analysed. Endometrial integrity was assessed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images at immediate (n = 101), 3-month (n = 62) and 12-month (n = 15) follow-ups. Endometrial impairment was classified into grades 0 (continuous endometrium), 1 (pin-point, full-thickness discontinuity), 2 (between grade 1 and 3), or 3 (full-thickness discontinuity >1 cm). Risk factors were assessed with generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. Among 117 fibroids, grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 endometrial impairments were observed at initial examination in 56.4%, 24.8%, 13.7% and 4.3%, respectively. Among 37 fibroid cases of endometrial impairment for which follow-ups were conducted, 30 showed improvements at 3- and/or 12-month follow-up. GEE analysis revealed the degree of endometrial protrusion was significantly associated with severity of endometrial injury (P < 0.0001). After MR-HIFU ablation of submucosal fibroids, endometrial enhancement was preserved intact or minimally impaired in most cases. Impaired endometrium, which is more common after treating endometrially-protruded fibroids, may recover spontaneously. (orig.)

  13. Ultrasound enhances retrovirus-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Toshio; Sakoda, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Takashi; Tsujino, Takeshi; Masuyama, Tohru; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2007-01-01

    Viral vector systems are efficient for transfection of foreign genes into many tissues. Especially, retrovirus based vectors integrate the transgene into the genome of the target cells, which can sustain long term expression. However, it has been demonstrated that the transduction efficiency using retrovirus is relatively lower than those of other viruses. Ultrasound was recently reported to increase gene expression using plasmid DNA, with or without, a delivery vehicle. However, there are no reports, which show an ultrasound effect to retrovirus-mediated gene transfer efficiency. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer systems were used for transfection of 293T cells, bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), and rat skeletal muscle myoblasts (L6 cells) with beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) genes. Transduction efficiency and cell viability assay were performed on 293T cells that were exposed to varying durations (5 to 30 seconds) and power levels (1.0 watts/cm(2) to 4.0 watts/cm(2)) of ultrasound after being transduced by a retrovirus. Effects of ultrasound to the retrovirus itself was evaluated by transduction efficiency of 293T cells. After exposure to varying power levels of ultrasound to a retrovirus for 5 seconds, 293T cells were transduced by a retrovirus, and transduction efficiency was evaluated. Below 1.0 watts/cm(2) and 5 seconds exposure, ultrasound showed increased transduction efficiency and no cytotoxicity to 293T cells transduced by a retrovirus. Also, ultrasound showed no toxicity to the virus itself at the same condition. Exposure of 5 seconds at the power of 1.0 watts/cm(2) of an ultrasound resulted in significant increases in retrovirus-mediated gene expression in all four cell types tested in this experiment. Transduction efficiencies by ultrasound were enhanced 6.6-fold, 4.8-fold, 2.3-fold, and 3.2-fold in 293T cells, BAECs, RASMCs, and L6 cells, respectively. Furthermore, beta-Gal activities were also increased

  14. Virtual ultrasound sources in high-resolution ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    beamforming procedure for 3D ultrasound imaging. The position of the virtual source, and the created waveform are investigated with simulation, and with pulse-echo measurements. There is good agreement between the estimated wavefront and the theoretically tted one. Several examples of the use of virtual...

  15. Synthetic aperture tissue and flow ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    This Ph.D. project was carried out at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging, Technical University of Denmark. The goal was to improve existing imaging techniques in order to make them suitable for real-time three-dimensional ultrasound scanning. This dissertation focuses on the synthetic aperture...... imaging applied to medical ultrasound. It is divided into two major parts: tissue and blood flow imaging. Tissue imaging using synthetic aperture algorithms has been investigated for about two decades, but has not been implemented in medical scanners yet. Among the other reasons, the conventional scanning...... and beamformation methods are adequate for the imaging modalities in clinical use - the B-mode imaging of tissue structures, and the color mapping of blood flow. The acquisition time, however, is too long, and these methods fail to perform real-time three-dimensional scans. The synthetic transmit aperture...

  16. Enhanced therapeutic agent delivery through magnetic resonance imaging-monitored focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier disruption for brain tumor treatment: an overview of the current preclinical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Yang, Hung-Wei; Hua, Mu-Yi; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a severe primary CNS cancer with a high recurrence and mortality rate. The current strategy of surgical debulking combined with radiation therapy or chemotherapy does not provide good prognosis, tumor progression control, or improved patient survival. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) acts as a major obstacle to chemotherapeutic treatment of brain tumors by severely restricting drug delivery into the brain. Because of their high toxicity, chemotherapeutic drugs cannot be administered at sufficient concentrations by conventional delivery methods to significantly improve long-term survival of patients with brain tumors. Temporal disruption of the BBB by microbubble-enhanced focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure can increase CNS-blood permeability, providing a promising new direction to increase the concentration of therapeutic agents in the brain tumor and improve disease control. Under the guidance and monitoring of MR imaging, a brain drug-delivery platform can be developed to control and monitor therapeutic agent distribution and kinetics. The success of FUS BBB disruption in delivering a variety of therapeutic molecules into brain tumors has recently been demonstrated in an animal model. In this paper the authors review a number of critical studies that have demonstrated successful outcomes, including enhancement of the delivery of traditional clinically used chemotherapeutic agents or application of novel nanocarrier designs for actively transporting drugs or extending drug half-lives to significantly improve treatment efficacy in preclinical animal models.

  17. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of nerves with a clinical ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate and efficient identification of nerves is of great importance during many ultrasound-guided clinical procedures, including nerve blocks and prostate biopsies. It can be challenging to visualise nerves with conventional ultrasound imaging, however. One of the challenges is that nerves can have very similar appearances to nearby structures such as tendons. Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of near-infrared optical spectroscopy for differentiating nerves and adjacent tissues, as this modality can be sensitive to optical absorption of lipids that are present in intra- and extra-neural adipose tissue and in the myelin sheaths. These studies were limited to point measurements, however. In this pilot study, a custom photoacoustic system with a clinical ultrasound imaging probe was used to acquire multi-spectral photoacoustic images of nerves and tendons from swine ex vivo, across the wavelength range of 1100 to 1300 nm. Photoacoustic images were processed and overlaid in colour onto co-registered conventional ultrasound images that were acquired with the same imaging probe. A pronounced optical absorption peak centred at 1210 nm was observed in the photoacoustic signals obtained from nerves, and it was absent in those obtained from tendons. This absorption peak, which is consistent with the presence of lipids, provides a novel image contrast mechanism to significantly enhance the visualization of nerves. In particular, image contrast for nerves was up to 5.5 times greater with photoacoustic imaging (0.82 +/- 0.15) than with conventional ultrasound imaging (0.148 +/- 0.002), with a maximum contrast of 0.95 +/- 0.02 obtained in photoacoustic mode. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of photoacoustic imaging to improve clinical outcomes in ultrasound-guided interventions in regional anaesthesia and interventional oncology.

  18. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Vascular Surgery: Review and Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Kim; Mestre, Xavier Marti; Coll, Ramon Vila

    2017-01-01

    are easy to use, manageable, and safe. This topical review attempts to summarize and highlight the current evidence and future prospects for contrast-enhanced ultrasound in vascular surgery, with a particular focus on opportunities in carotid and lower limb arteriosclerotic disease and surveillance after......Accurate imaging methods associated with minimum patient risk are important tools for clinical decision-making in vascular surgery. Today, traditional imaging methods, such as computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography are the preferred...... modalities. Ultrasound has only challenged these methods in assessment of carotid disease, aortic aneurysms, venous insufficiency, and thromboembolism and in surveillance of in situ bypasses. These practice patterns may change with the introduction of second-generation ultrasound contrast agents which...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects ...

  20. An Assessment of Iterative Reconstruction Methods for Sparse Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Solivan A; Zibetti, Marcelo V W; Pipa, Daniel R; Maia, Joaquim M; Schneider, Fabio K

    2017-03-08

    Ultrasonic image reconstruction using inverse problems has recently appeared as an alternative to enhance ultrasound imaging over beamforming methods. This approach depends on the accuracy of the acquisition model used to represent transducers, reflectivity, and medium physics. Iterative methods, well known in general sparse signal reconstruction, are also suited for imaging. In this paper, a discrete acquisition model is assessed by solving a linear system of equations by an ℓ 1 -regularized least-squares minimization, where the solution sparsity may be adjusted as desired. The paper surveys 11 variants of four well-known algorithms for sparse reconstruction, and assesses their optimization parameters with the goal of finding the best approach for iterative ultrasound imaging. The strategy for the model evaluation consists of using two distinct datasets. We first generate data from a synthetic phantom that mimics real targets inside a professional ultrasound phantom device. This dataset is contaminated with Gaussian noise with an estimated SNR, and all methods are assessed by their resulting images and performances. The model and methods are then assessed with real data collected by a research ultrasound platform when scanning the same phantom device, and results are compared with beamforming. A distinct real dataset is finally used to further validate the proposed modeling. Although high computational effort is required by iterative methods, results show that the discrete model may lead to images closer to ground-truth than traditional beamforming. However, computing capabilities of current platforms need to evolve before frame rates currently delivered by ultrasound equipments are achievable.

  1. Evaluation of short-term response of high intensity focused ultrasound ablation for primary hepatic carcinoma: Utility of contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuanyuan; Zhao Jiannong [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 74 Linjiang Rd, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Guo Dajing, E-mail: guodaj@163.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 74 Linjiang Rd, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zhong Weijia [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 74 Linjiang Rd, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Ran Lifen [Clinical Center for Tumor Therapy, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 74 Linjiang Rd, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To explore the significance of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in evaluating the short-term response of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC). Methods: Thirty-nine lesions in the livers of 27 patients were performed HIFU ablation. Conventional MRI sequences, CE-MRI and DWI were performed 1 week before HIFU and 1 week, 3 months after the therapy, respectively. The short-term responses of HIFU for all lesions were evaluated with MRI. Results: 28 of the 39 lesions (28/39, 71.8%) showed complete necrosis with no enhancement 1 week and 3 months after HIFU. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values 1 week and 3 months after HIFU were significantly higher than those 1 week before treatment (p < 0.05). The tumor recurrence was detected in 7 of the 39 lesions (7/39, 17.9%) which had no significant enhancement 1 week after HIFU. On the 3 months follow-up, focal nodules were found on the inner aspects of the treated areas. The ADC values had no significant difference between 1 week before and after treatment (p > 0.05), however, they were significantly higher 3 months after HIFU (p < 0.05). The tumor residuals were detected in 4 of the 39 lesions (4/39, 10.3%) showing enhancement 1 week after treatment and increased size 3 months after HIFU. The ADC values had no significant difference among 1 week before HIFU, 1 week and 3 months after treatment (p > 0.05). Conclusion: CE-MRI and DWI can be employed to evaluate the short-term response of HIFU ablation for PHC and to guide the patient management.

  2. Deconvolution of in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1990-01-01

    In an ultrasound image, the influence of the pulse and attenuation should be removed from the picture in order to display a more consistent and uniform image. The author describes an algorithm to remove the influence of the attenuated pulse on the image. The algorithm takes into account the varying...

  3. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation for liver tumors: comparison of contrast-enhanced ultrasound with contrast-enhanced MRI/CT in the posttreatment imaging evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiao-Wan; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Sun, Li-Ping; Zheng, Shu-Guang; Guo, Le-Hang; Lu, Feng; Wu, Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in treatment response evaluation after percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency ablation (BRFA) for liver tumors. From May 2012 to May 2014, 39 patients with 73 tumors were treated by BRFA. One month after the treatment, CEUS and CEMRI/CECT were conducted to evaluate the treatment response. The results of CEUS were compared with CEMRI/CECT. Of the 73 tumors ablated, eight (11.0%) were found to have residual viable tumor tissue and 65 (89.0%) were successfully ablated based on CEMRI/CECT within 1-month after ablation. CEUS detected seven of the eight residual tumors and 63 of 65 completely ablated tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of CEUS were 87.5% (7/8), 96.9% (63/65), 77.8% (7/9), 98.4% (63/64) and 95.9% (70/73), respectively. The complete ablation (CR) rates for the tumors ≤ 3.0 cm, 3.1-5.0 cm, and >5.0 cm were 96.6% (58/60), 63.6% (7/11), and 0% (0/2), respectively (Ptechnique of percutaneous ablation for liver tumors and CEUS can be used to assess its therapeutic effect accurately.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, ... the sensitive receiver in the transducer records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... within 30 minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scans, your doctor may ask you to withhold food and drink for several hours before your child's ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are used to sample cells from organs for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of ... extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound may also be used to guide ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show up ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be tilted ... you at the conclusion of your examination. Follow-up examinations may be necessary. Your doctor will explain ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe ... during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. ... child should be dressed in comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for an ultrasound exam. Other preparation depends on ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the ... of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine causes of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to sample cells from organs for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an ... sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound may also be used to guide the ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors and congenital vascular malformations reduced or absent blood ... vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top ... make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the ... probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back and a ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through ... a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) ...

  4. Multimodality ultrasound imaging in stroke: current concepts and future focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yumei; Hua, Yang; Feng, Wuwei; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide. Ultrasound is a real-time imaging technique that is inexpensive, portable, non-invasive, and safe, with high diagnostic accuracy. Ultrasonic imaging can provide useful direct and indirect information about the characteristics of various vessels in the both intracranial and extracranial segments. Areas covered: In this review, we will discuss multimodal applications of ultrasonic imaging in stroke prevention and management including checking carotid intima-media thickness progression, evaluating the plaque morphology, calibrating the degree of stenosis, detecting the presence of patent foramen ovale, monitoring microembolization, and screening for stroke risk in patients with sickle cell disease. We present the conventional ultrasonography as well as the novel ultrasound techniques including gray scale median, 3-dementional ultrasound, elastography, intravascular ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Expert commentary: Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, low-cost, safe, fast, and real-time imaging technology for stroke risk assessment. Each modality has its own advantage as well as limitation. Future research should be focused on developing new technologies that can improve the quality of imaging and accuracy of diagnosis.

  5. Nonlinear ultrasound imaging of nanoscale acoustic biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, David; Lakshmanan, Anupama; Lee-Gosselin, Audrey; Melis, Johan M.; Ni, Yu-Li; Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Kochmann, Dennis M.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used to probe the mechanical structure of tissues and visualize blood flow. However, the ability of ultrasound to observe specific molecular and cellular signals is limited. Recently, a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures called gas vesicles (GVs) was introduced as nanoscale (˜250 nm) contrast agents for ultrasound, accompanied by the possibilities of genetic engineering, imaging of targets outside the vasculature and monitoring of cellular signals such as gene expression. These possibilities would be aided by methods to discriminate GV-generated ultrasound signals from anatomical background. Here, we show that the nonlinear response of engineered GVs to acoustic pressure enables selective imaging of these nanostructures using a tailored amplitude modulation strategy. Finite element modeling predicted a strongly nonlinear mechanical deformation and acoustic response to ultrasound in engineered GVs. This response was confirmed with ultrasound measurements in the range of 10 to 25 MHz. An amplitude modulation pulse sequence based on this nonlinear response allows engineered GVs to be distinguished from linear scatterers and other GV types with a contrast ratio greater than 11.5 dB. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this nonlinear imaging strategy in vitro, in cellulo, and in vivo.

  6. Evolution of contrast agents for ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera ePaefgen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is one of the most frequently used diagnostic methods. It is a non-invasive, comparably inexpensive imaging method with a broad spectrum of applications, which can be increased even more by using bubbles as contrast agents. There are various different types of bubbles: filled with different gases, composed of soft- or hard-shell materials, and ranging in size from nano- to micrometers. These intravascular contrast agents enable functional analyses, e.g. to acquire organ perfusion in real-time. Molecular analyses are achieved by coupling specific ligands to the bubbles’ shell, which bind to marker molecules in the area of interest. Bubbles can also be loaded with or attached to drugs, peptides or genes and can be destroyed by ultrasound pulses to locally release the entrapped agent. Recent studies show that ultrasound contrast agents are also valuable tools in hyperthermia-induced ablation therapy of tumors, or can increase cellular uptake of locally released drugs by enhancing membrane permeability. This review summarizes important steps in the development of ultrasound contrast agents and introduces the current clinical applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Additionally, an overview of the recent developments in ultrasound probe design for functional and molecular diagnosis as well as for drug delivery is given.

  7. Influence of contrast-enhanced ultrasound administration setups on microbubble enhancement: a focus on pediatric applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Bhagat, Nishi; Back, Susan J; Poznick, Laura; Forsberg, Flemming; Darge, Kassa; Eisenbrey, John R

    2017-09-11

    In pediatrics, contrast-enhanced ultrasound offers high-quality imaging with an excellent safety profile. To investigate the effects of varying intravenous administration setups on in vitro enhancement and concentration of two commercially available ultrasound contrast agents, taking into consideration potential pediatric applications. We quantified in vitro enhancement using a flow phantom (ATS Laboratories, Bridgeport, CT) and Acuson S3000 ultrasound system (Siemens Healthineers, Mountain View, CA) with a 9L4 probe in Cadence pulse sequencing mode. We determined microbubble concentration with an LSRII flow cytometer (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). We investigated Optison (GE Healthcare, Princeton, NJ) and Lumason (Bracco, Geneva, Switzerland) ultrasound contrast agents. The ultrasound (US) contrast agent was injected via a 1 mL syringe and flushed with 5 mL of saline through a 22-gauge diffusion catheter (BD Medical, Franklin Lakes, NJ) with the following variations: in-line injection through a 3-way stopcock with and without a neutral displacement connector (ICU Medical, San Clemente, CA), perpendicular through a 3-way stopcock with and without a connector, and without a 3-way stopcock. We also conducted injections through a 22-gauge standard angiocatheter. Injection through the connector and perpendicular injection via the 3-way stopcock resulted in significant decreases in enhancement for both ultrasound contrast agents (P0.24) nor use of a pediatric diffusion catheter (P>0.28) affected the enhancement. Ultrasound contrast agent enhancement depends on the administration route, although some effects appear to be specific to the ultrasound contrast agent used. To avoid loss of enhancement, neutral displacement connectors and perpendicular injection should be avoided.

  8. Spectral clustering algorithms for ultrasound image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archip, Neculai; Rohling, Robert; Cooperberg, Peter; Tahmasebpour, Hamid; Warfield, Simon K

    2005-01-01

    Image segmentation algorithms derived from spectral clustering analysis rely on the eigenvectors of the Laplacian of a weighted graph obtained from the image. The NCut criterion was previously used for image segmentation in supervised manner. We derive a new strategy for unsupervised image segmentation. This article describes an initial investigation to determine the suitability of such segmentation techniques for ultrasound images. The extension of the NCut technique to the unsupervised clustering is first described. The novel segmentation algorithm is then performed on simulated ultrasound images. Tests are also performed on abdominal and fetal images with the segmentation results compared to manual segmentation. Comparisons with the classical NCut algorithm are also presented. Finally, segmentation results on other types of medical images are shown.

  9. Simulation of ultrasound backscatter images from fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, An Hoai; Stage, Bjarne; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate ultrasound (US) backscatter in the MHz range from fis to develop a realistic and reliable simulation model. The long term objective of the work is to develop the needed signal processing for fis species differentiation using US. In in-vitro experiments...... images reproduce most of the important characteristics of the measured US image....

  10. Ultrasound image guidance of cardiac interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Terry M.; Pace, Danielle F.; Lang, Pencilla; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Linte, Cristian A.

    2011-03-01

    Surgical procedures often have the unfortunate side-effect of causing the patient significant trauma while accessing the target site. Indeed, in some cases the trauma inflicted on the patient during access to the target greatly exceeds that caused by performing the therapy. Heart disease has traditionally been treated surgically using open chest techniques with the patient being placed "on pump" - i.e. their circulation being maintained by a cardio-pulmonary bypass or "heart-lung" machine. Recently, techniques have been developed for performing minimally invasive interventions on the heart, obviating the formerly invasive procedures. These new approaches rely on pre-operative images, combined with real-time images acquired during the procedure. Our approach is to register intra-operative images to the patient, and use a navigation system that combines intra-operative ultrasound with virtual models of instrumentation that has been introduced into the chamber through the heart wall. This paper illustrates the problems associated with traditional ultrasound guidance, and reviews the state of the art in real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound technology. In addition, it discusses the implementation of an image-guided intervention platform that integrates real-time ultrasound with a virtual reality environment, bringing together the pre-operative anatomy derived from MRI or CT, representations of tracked instrumentation inside the heart chamber, and the intra-operatively acquired ultrasound images.

  11. Cortical necrosis secondary to trauma in a child: contrast-enhanced ultrasound comparable to magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusuf, Gibran T.; Sellars, Maria E.; Huang, Dean Y.; Deganello, Annamaria; Sidhu, Paul S. [King' s College Hospital, King' s College London, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Cortical necrosis is an uncommon cause of renal impairment and is rarely a consequence of blunt abdominal trauma. We present a case of unilateral traumatic acute cortical necrosis in a child demonstrated on contrast-enhanced US with confirmation on MRI. Contrast-enhanced US provides a rapid, accurate evaluation of renal parenchyma abnormalities in blunt abdominal trauma in children without exposure to ionising radiation or the risk of sedation. (orig.)

  12. Ultrasound imaging beyond the vasculature with new generation contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Reshani H; Hernandez, Christopher; Zhou, Haoyan; Kota, Pavan; Burke, Alan; Exner, Agata A

    2015-01-01

    Current commercially available ultrasound contrast agents are gas-filled, lipid- or protein-stabilized microbubbles larger than 1 µm in diameter. Because the signal generated by these agents is highly dependent on their size, small yet highly echogenic particles have been historically difficult to produce. This has limited the molecular imaging applications of ultrasound to the blood pool. In the area of cancer imaging, microbubble applications have been constrained to imaging molecular signatures of tumor vasculature and drug delivery enabled by ultrasound-modulated bubble destruction. Recently, with the rise of sophisticated advancements in nanomedicine, ultrasound contrast agents, which are an order of magnitude smaller (100-500 nm) than their currently utilized counterparts, have been undergoing rapid development. These agents are poised to greatly expand the capabilities of ultrasound in the field of targeted cancer detection and therapy by taking advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon of many tumors and can extravasate beyond the leaky tumor vasculature. Agent extravasation facilitates highly sensitive detection of cell surface or microenvironment biomarkers, which could advance early cancer detection. Likewise, when combined with appropriate therapeutic agents and ultrasound-mediated deployment on demand, directly at the tumor site, these nanoparticles have been shown to contribute to improved therapeutic outcomes. Ultrasound's safety profile, broad accessibility and relatively low cost make it an ideal modality for the changing face of healthcare today. Aided by the multifaceted nano-sized contrast agents and targeted theranostic moieties described herein, ultrasound can considerably broaden its reach in future applications focused on the diagnosis and staging of cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quantitative Nonlinear Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer among women (25% of all cancers). The angiogenic process that fuels the growth of tumors is a potential early indicator for differentiating between malignant and benign tumors. Recently, the use of microbubble-based contrast agents combined with ultrasound has allowed the development of contrast agent-specific imaging modes that provide visualization of tumor neovascularity. Contrast-enhanced Doppler, harmonic, and subharmonic imaging are some of the imaging modes that have been investigated for visualizing and quantifying the vascularity in breast tumors.

  14. Quantitative Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Parameters in Crohn Disease: Their Role in Disease Activity Determination With Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Kowalewski, Alexandra; Wilkens, Rune; Wilson, Alexandra; Ruan, Ji; Wilson, Stephanie R

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of our study was to examine the association between contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) parameters and established gray-scale ultrasound with color Doppler imaging (CDI) for the determination of disease activity in patients with Crohn disease. Our secondary objective was to develop quantitative time-signal intensity curve thresholds for disease activity. One hundred twenty-seven patients with Crohn disease underwent ultrasound with CDI and CEUS. Reviewers graded wall thickness, inflammatory fat, and mural blood flow as showing remission or inflammation (mild, moderate, or severe). If both gray-scale ultrasound and CDI predicted equal levels of disease activity, the studies were considered concordant. If ultrasound images suggested active disease not supported by CDI findings, the ultrasound results for disease activity were indeterminate. Time-signal intensity curves from CEUS were acquired with calculation of peak enhancement (PE), and AUCs. Interobserver variation and associations between PE and ultrasound parameters were examined. Multiclass ROC analysis was used to develop CEUS thresholds for activity. Ninety-six (76%) studies were concordant, 19 of which showed severe disease, and 31 (24%) studies were indeterminate. Kappa analyses revealed good interobserver agreement on grades for CDI (κ = 0.76) and ultrasound (κ = 0.80) assessments. PE values on CEUS and wall thickness showed good association with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient for the entire population (ρ = 0.62, p disease activity level determinations.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type of examination. Ask your doctor if there are ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  17. Vascular ultrasound for atherosclerosis imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. de Korte (Chris); H.H.G. Hansen (Hendrik); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world. Therefore, detection and quantification of atherosclerotic disease is of paramount importance to monitor treatment and possible prevention of acute events. Vascular ultrasound is an excellent technique to assess the

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations are ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type ... aspiration. Ultrasound is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in young children. It is also valuable for ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top ... waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer ...

  1. Quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for the assessment of vascular parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Meiburger, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the development of quantitative techniques for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in the assessment of architectural and vascular parameters. It presents morphological vascular research based on the development of quantitative imaging techniques for the use of clinical B-mode ultrasound images, and preclinical architectural vascular investigations on quantitative imaging techniques for ultrasounds and photoacoustics. The book is divided into two main parts, the first of which focuses on the development and validation of quantitative techniques for the assessment of vascular morphological parameters that can be extracted from B-mode ultrasound longitudinal images of the common carotid artery. In turn, the second part highlights quantitative imaging techniques for assessing the architectural parameters of vasculature that can be extracted from 3D volumes, using both contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and photoacoustic imaging without the addition of any contrast agent. Sharing and...

  2. Review of Laser-Generated Ultrasound Transmitters and Their Applications to All-Optical Ultrasound Transducers and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Liang Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical ultrasound is an imaging technique that utilizes ultrasonic signals as information carriers, and has wide applications such as seeing internal body structures, finding a source of a disease, and examining pregnant women. The most commonly used ultrasonic transducer today is based on piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric transducer, however, may have a limited bandwidth and insufficient sensitivity for reduced element size. Laser-generated ultrasound (LGUS technique is an effective way to resolve these issues. The LGUS approach based on photoacoustic effect is able to greatly enhance the bandwidth of ultrasound signals and has the potential for high-resolution imaging. High-amplitude LGUS could also be used for therapy to accomplish high precision surgery without an incision. Furthermore, LGUS in conjunction with optical detection of ultrasound allows all-optical ultrasound imaging (i.e., ultrasound is generated and received optically. The all-optical platform offers unique advantages in providing high-resolution information and in facilitating the construction of miniature probes for endoscopic ultrasound. In this article, a detailed review of the recent development of various LGUS transmitters is presented. In addition, a recent research interest in all-optical ultrasound imaging, as well as its applications, is also discussed.

  3. Ultrasound in Radiology: from Anatomic, Functional, Molecular Imaging to Drug Delivery and Image-Guided Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, ultrasound has expanded medical imaging well beyond the “traditional” radiology setting - a combination of portability, low cost and ease of use makes ultrasound imaging an indispensable tool for radiologists as well as for other medical professionals who need to obtain imaging diagnosis or guide a therapeutic intervention quickly and efficiently. Ultrasound combines excellent ability for deep penetration into soft tissues with very good spatial resolution, with only a few exceptions (i.e. those involving overlying bone or gas). Real-time imaging (up to hundreds and thousands frames per second) enables guidance of therapeutic procedures and biopsies; characterization of the mechanical properties of the tissues greatly aids with the accuracy of the procedures. The ability of ultrasound to deposit energy locally brings about the potential for localized intervention encompassing: tissue ablation, enhancing penetration through the natural barriers to drug delivery in the body and triggering drug release from carrier micro- and nanoparticles. The use of microbubble contrast agents brings the ability to monitor and quantify tissue perfusion, and microbubble targeting with ligand-decorated microbubbles brings the ability to obtain molecular biomarker information, i.e., ultrasound molecular imaging. Overall, ultrasound has become the most widely used imaging modality in modern medicine; it will continue to grow and expand. PMID:26200224

  4. Smart Image Enhancement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Contrast and lightness measures are used to first classify the image as being one of non-turbid and turbid. If turbid, the original image is enhanced to generate a first enhanced image. If non-turbid, the original image is classified in terms of a merged contrast/lightness score based on the contrast and lightness measures. The non-turbid image is enhanced to generate a second enhanced image when a poor contrast/lightness score is associated therewith. When the second enhanced image has a poor contrast/lightness score associated therewith, this image is enhanced to generate a third enhanced image. A sharpness measure is computed for one image that is selected from (i) the non-turbid image, (ii) the first enhanced image, (iii) the second enhanced image when a good contrast/lightness score is associated therewith, and (iv) the third enhanced image. If the selected image is not-sharp, it is sharpened to generate a sharpened image. The final image is selected from the selected image and the sharpened image.

  5. Ultrasound-transmission parameter imaging in a photoacoustic imager

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Jose, J.; Willemink, Rene; Resink, Steffen; Maalderink, T.; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; van Leeuwen, Ton; Manohar, Srirang; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2009-01-01

    We present a 'hybrid' imaging system, which can image both optical absorption properties and acoustic transmission properties of an object in a two-dimensional slice using a computed tomography photoacoustic imager. The ultrasound transmission measurement method uses a strong absorber of light which

  6. Needle Tip Visibility in 3D Ultrasound Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arif (Muhammad); A. Moelker (Adriaan); T.W. van Walsum (Theo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAim: Needle visibility is crucial for effective and safe ultrasound-guided interventional procedures. Several studies have investigated needle visibility in 2D ultrasound imaging, but less information is available for 3D ultrasound imaging, a modality that has great potential for image

  7. Ultrasound imaging as an undergraduate physics laboratory exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Timothy A.

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound imaging provides an interesting and accessible example of the intersection between biology, medicine, and physics. This article provides a review of the physics and technology currently available and discusses two recent methods that have expanded the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound imaging. We also describe two undergraduate physics laboratory exercises involving ultrasound imaging.

  8. The clinical use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenant, Sean C; Gutteridge, Catherine M

    2016-05-01

    Traditional B-Mode and Doppler sonography have been the stalwart of renal tract imaging for many years, and indeed, are in daily use in most centres as the modality of choice for the initial assessment of renal pathology. However, traditional ultrasound scanning can be limited in its ability to accurately characterise renal pathology, and can be inaccurate at determining benign from malignant lesions. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound conveys many benefits, being safe (especially in patients with renal dysfunction), does not require the use of ionising radiation, is quick and relatively cheap and can help to establish whether a focal renal lesion is sinister. Furthermore, it is our experience that contrast-enhanced ultrasound is not a difficult technique to master for the experienced ultrasound practitioner. In this article, we discuss the technique, interpretation and value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in renal imaging, and describe how we use it in our practice.

  9. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rogers, B; Walsh, N. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  10. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Joachim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    with THI improves the image qual- ity compared to DRF-THI. The major benet of SASB is a reduced bandwidth between the probe and processing unit. A BK Medical 2202 Ultraview ultrasound scanner was used to acquire beamformed RF data for oine evaluation. The acquisition was made interleaved between methods...

  11. Ultrasound Imaging in Teaching Cardiac Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D.; Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Quinn, Joe G.; Roe, Sean M.; Stewart, Michael T.; Tansey, Etain A.

    2016-01-01

    This laboratory session provides hands-on experience for students to visualize the beating human heart with ultrasound imaging. Simple views are obtained from which students can directly measure important cardiac dimensions in systole and diastole. This allows students to derive, from first principles, important measures of cardiac function, such…

  12. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis

  13. Ultrasound imaging of the rabbit peroneal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.S. de Kool (Stefan); J.W. van Neck (Han); J.H. Blok (Joleen); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik); J.M. Hekking-Weijma (Ineke); G.H. Visser (Gerhard Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUltrasound imaging of peripheral nerves is increasingly used in the clinic for a wide range of applications. Although yet unapplied for experimental neuroscience, it also has potential value in this research area. This study explores the feasibility, possibilities and limitations of this

  14. An intelligent nanotheranostic agent for targeting, redox-responsive ultrasound imaging, and imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound synergistic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Chen, Hangrong; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Ming; Li, Faqi; Zeng, Deping; Zheng, Shuguang; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Lixin; Xu, Huixiong; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-04-09

    A novel multifunctional nanotheranostic agent with targeting, redox-responsive ultrasound imaging and ultrasound imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy (MSNC-PEG-HA(SS)-PFH, abbreviated as MPH(SS)-PFH) capabilities is developed. The redox-responsive guest molecule release and ultrasound imaging functions can be both integrated in such a "smart" theranostic agent, which is accomplished by the redox-triggered transition from the crosslinking state to retrocrosslinking state of the grafted polyethylene glycol-disulfide hyaluronic acid molecules on the particle surface when reaching a reducing environment in vitro. More importantly, under the tailored ultrasound imaging guiding, in vivo Hela tumor-bearing nude mice can be thoroughly and spatial-accurately ablated during HIFU therapy, due to the targeted accumulation, responsive ultrasound imaging guidance and the synergistic ablation functions of nanotheranostic agent MPH(SS)-PFH in the tumors. This novel multifunctional nano-platform can serve as a promising candidate for further studies on oncology therapy, due to its high stability, responsive and indicative ultrasound imaging of tumors, and enhanced HIFU therapeutic efficiency and spatial accuracy under ultrasound-guidance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America ( ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also can be used to guide procedures such ... of a testicle limiting proper blood flow into it. top of page How should we prepare for ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Pediatric radiologist scanning a boy's abdomen using ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  18. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging predicts immediate therapeutic response of magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sun; Lim, Hyo K; Kim, Jae-Hun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Park, Byung Kwan; Keserci, Bilgin; Köhler, Max O; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joong; Sokka, Shunmugavelu; Lee, Jung Hee

    2011-10-01

    : To evaluate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters in the prediction of the immediate therapeutic response of MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids : Institutional review board approved this study, and informed consent was obtained from all participants. A total of 10 symptomatic uterine fibroids (diameter: mean, 8.9 cm; range, 4.7-12 cm) in 10 female patients (mean age, 42.2 years) were treated with MR-HIFU therapy using the volumetric ablation technique. DCE-MRI and conventional contrast-enhanced MRI were obtained as a baseline and as an immediate follow-up study, respectively. After regions of interest of each treatment cell were properly registered to both MRI studies, DCE-MRI parameters (K, ve, vp) and operator-controllable therapy parameters (power, treatment cell size, sonication depth) were investigated on a cell-by-cell basis to reflect tissue inhomogeneity. Two types of ablation efficacy indices (volume of 240 equivalent minutes at 43°C/treatment-cell volume, nonperfused volume/treatment-cell volume) were then correlated with those parameters using multiple linear regression analysis to determine which factors were significant predictors for ablation efficacy. : We used 293 treatment cells (4 mm, n = 12; 8 mm, n = 115; 12 mm, n = 149; 16 mm, n = 17), and all of them were analyzable. Ablation efficacies were 1.06 ± 0.58 and 0.67 ± 0.39. K (B = -12.035, P < 0.001 and B = -11.516, P < 0.001, respectively) among DCE-MRI parameters and acoustic power (B = 0.008, P < 0.001; B = 0.010, P < 0.001, respectively) among therapy parameters were revealed to be independently significant predictors for both types of ablation efficacy. : A higher K value at baseline DCE-MRI suggested a poor ablation efficacy of MR-HIFU therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids.

  19. Ditigal-Image Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R.; Gonzalez, R.

    1984-01-01

    Programable system enhances digitally monocular and stereographic images at video rates. Provides automatic and interactive enhancement modes based on histogram modification and intensity-mapping techniques.

  20. Sampling system for in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jorgen Arendt; Mathorne, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Newly developed algorithms for processing medical ultrasound images use the high frequency sampled transducer signal. This paper describes demands imposed on a sampling system suitable for acquiring such data and gives details about a prototype constructed. It acquires full clinical images at a s...... at a sampling frequency of 20 MHz with a resolution of 12 bits. The prototype can be used for real time image processing. An example of a clinical in vivo image is shown and various aspects of the data acquisition process are discussed....

  1. Hybrid-array-based optoacoustic and ultrasound (OPUS) imaging of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. L.; Merčep, E.; Razansky, D.

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid optoacoustic and pulse-echo ultrasound imaging is an attractive multi-modal combination owing to the highly complementary contrast of the two techniques. Efficient hybridization is often hampered by significant dissimilarities between their optimal data acquisition and image formation strategies. Herein, we introduce an approach for combined optoacoustic and ultrasound imaging based on a plano-concave detector array design with a non-uniform pitch distribution. The hybrid design optimized for both modalities allows for maintaining an extended field of view for efficient ultrasound navigation while simultaneously providing broad tomographic coverage for optimal optoacoustic imaging performance. Imaging sessions performed in tissue-mimicking phantoms and healthy volunteers demonstrate that the suggested approach renders an enhanced imaging performance as compared with the previously reported hybrid optoacoustic and ultrasound imaging approaches. Thus, it can greatly facilitate clinical translation of the optoacoustic imaging technology by means of its efficient combination with ultrasonography, a well-established clinical imaging modality.

  2. Micromachined Integrated Transducers for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding

    The purpose of this project is to develop capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) for medical imaging. Medical ultrasound transducers used today are fabricated using piezoelectric materials and bulk processing. To fabricate transducers capable of delivering a higher imaging...... characterizations are carried out successfully for both types of arrays. The arrays made at Stanford is found to suffer from low breakdown voltage of the supporting oxide and was not useful for medical imaging. The arrays made at DTU are used for various tests, both of the design, performance, possible packaging...... resolution it is however necessary to develop new fabrication methods that allows fabrication of transducer elements with smaller dimensions. By using microfabrication technology it is possible to push the dimensions down and provide higher design flexibility. This project is part of a large ultrasound...

  3. Automatic assessment of ultrasound image usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luca; Funka-Lea, Gareth; Stoll, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    We present a novel and efficient approach for evaluating the quality of ultrasound images. Image acquisition is sensitive to skin contact and transducer orientation and requires both time and technical skill to be done properly. Images commonly suffer degradation due to acoustic shadows and signal attenuation, which present as regions of low signal intensity masking anatomical details and making the images partly or totally unusable. As ultrasound image acquisition and analysis becomes increasingly automated, it is beneficial to also automate the estimation of image quality. Towards this end, we present an algorithm that classifies regions of an image as usable or un-usable. Example applications of this algorithm include improved compounding of free-hand 3D ultrasound volumes by eliminating unusable data and improved automatic feature detection by limiting detection to only usable areas. The algorithm operates in two steps. First, it classifies the image into bright areas, likely to have image content, and dark areas, likely to have no content. Second, it classifies the dark areas into unusable (i.e. due to shadowing and/or signal loss) and usable (i.e. anatomically accurate dark regions, such as with a blood vessel) sub-areas. The classification considers several factors, including statistical information, gradient intensity and geometric properties such as shape and relative position. Relative weighting of factors was obtained through the training of a Support Vector Machine. Classification results for both human and phantom images are presented and compared to manual classifications. This method achieves 91% sensitivity and 91% specificity for usable regions of human scans.

  4. Fast simulation of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2000-01-01

    Realistic B-mode and flow images can be simulated with scattering maps based on optical, CT, or MR images or parametric flow models. The image simulation often includes using 200,000 to 1 million point scatterers. One image line typically takes 1800 seconds to compute on a state-of-the-art PC...... be split among a number of PCs for speeding up the simulation. A full 3D one second volume simulation then takes 7,500 seconds on a 32 CPU 600 MHz Pentium III PC cluster....

  5. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  6. Method and system to synchronize acoustic therapy with ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Neil (Inventor); Bailey, Michael R. (Inventor); Hossack, James (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Interference in ultrasound imaging when used in connection with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is avoided by employing a synchronization signal to control the HIFU signal. Unless the timing of the HIFU transducer is controlled, its output will substantially overwhelm the signal produced by ultrasound imaging system and obscure the image it produces. The synchronization signal employed to control the HIFU transducer is obtained without requiring modification of the ultrasound imaging system. Signals corresponding to scattered ultrasound imaging waves are collected using either the HIFU transducer or a dedicated receiver. A synchronization processor manipulates the scattered ultrasound imaging signals to achieve the synchronization signal, which is then used to control the HIFU bursts so as to substantially reduce or eliminate HIFU interference in the ultrasound image. The synchronization processor can alternatively be implemented using a computing device or an application-specific circuit.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... imaging of the abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear ...

  8. Application of reinforcement learning for segmentation of transrectal ultrasound images

    OpenAIRE

    Sahba, Farhang; Tizhoosh, Hamid R; Salama, Magdy MA

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Among different medical image modalities, ultrasound imaging has a very widespread clinical use. But, due to some factors, such as poor image contrast, noise and missing or diffuse boundaries, the ultrasound images are inherently difficult to segment. An important application is estimation of the location and volume of the prostate in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images. For this purpose, manual segmentation is a tedious and time consuming procedure. Methods We introduce ...

  9. Integrated ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for simultaneous temperature and cavitation monitoring during focused ultrasound therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Costas D.; McDannold, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound can be used to noninvasively produce different bioeffects via viscous heating, acoustic cavitation, or their combination, and these effects can be exploited to develop a wide range of therapies for cancer and other disorders. In order to accurately localize and control these different effects, imaging methods are desired that can map both temperature changes and cavitation activity. To address these needs, the authors integrated an ultrasound imaging array into an MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) system to simultaneously visualize thermal and mechanical effects via passive acoustic mapping (PAM) and MR temperature imaging (MRTI), respectively. Methods: The system was tested with an MRgFUS system developed for transcranial sonication for brain tumor ablation in experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and a phantom-filled ex vivo macaque skull. In experiments on cavitation-enhanced heating, 10 s continuous wave sonications were applied at increasing power levels (30–110 W) until broadband acoustic emissions (a signature for inertial cavitation) were evident. The presence or lack of signal in the PAM, as well as its magnitude and location, were compared to the focal heating in the MRTI. Additional experiments compared PAM with standard B-mode ultrasound imaging and tested the feasibility of the system to map cavitation activity produced during low-power (5 W) burst sonications in a channel filled with a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent. Results: When inertial cavitation was evident, localized activity was present in PAM and a marked increase in heating was observed in MRTI. The location of the cavitation activity and heating agreed on average after registration of the two imaging modalities; the distance between the maximum cavitation activity and focal heating was −3.4 ± 2.1 mm and −0.1 ± 3.3 mm in the axial and transverse ultrasound array directions, respectively. Distortions and other MRI issues introduced small

  10. Integrated ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for simultaneous temperature and cavitation monitoring during focused ultrasound therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Costas D; McDannold, Nathan

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound can be used to noninvasively produce different bioeffects via viscous heating, acoustic cavitation, or their combination, and these effects can be exploited to develop a wide range of therapies for cancer and other disorders. In order to accurately localize and control these different effects, imaging methods are desired that can map both temperature changes and cavitation activity. To address these needs, the authors integrated an ultrasound imaging array into an MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) system to simultaneously visualize thermal and mechanical effects via passive acoustic mapping (PAM) and MR temperature imaging (MRTI), respectively. The system was tested with an MRgFUS system developed for transcranial sonication for brain tumor ablation in experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and a phantom-filled ex vivo macaque skull. In experiments on cavitation-enhanced heating, 10 s continuous wave sonications were applied at increasing power levels (30-110 W) until broadband acoustic emissions (a signature for inertial cavitation) were evident. The presence or lack of signal in the PAM, as well as its magnitude and location, were compared to the focal heating in the MRTI. Additional experiments compared PAM with standard B-mode ultrasound imaging and tested the feasibility of the system to map cavitation activity produced during low-power (5 W) burst sonications in a channel filled with a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent. When inertial cavitation was evident, localized activity was present in PAM and a marked increase in heating was observed in MRTI. The location of the cavitation activity and heating agreed on average after registration of the two imaging modalities; the distance between the maximum cavitation activity and focal heating was -3.4 ± 2.1 mm and -0.1 ± 3.3 mm in the axial and transverse ultrasound array directions, respectively. Distortions and other MRI issues introduced small uncertainties in the PAM

  11. Ultrasound contrast agent fabricated from microbubbles containing instant adhesives, and its ultrasound imaging ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuta, T.; Tamakawa, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Non-invasive surgery techniques and drug delivery system with acoustic characteristics of ultrasound contrast agent have been studied intensively in recent years. Ultrasound contrast agent collapses easily under the blood circulating and the ultrasound irradiating because it is just a stabilized bubble without solid-shell by surface adsorption of surfactant or lipid. For improving the imaging stability, we proposed the fabrication method of the hollow microcapsule with polymer shell, which can be fabricated just blowing vapor of commonly-used instant adhesive (Cyanoacrylate monomer) into water as microbubbles. Therefore, the cyanoacrylate vapor contained inside microbubble initiates polymerization on the gasliquid interface soon after microbubbles are generated in water. Consequently, hollow microspheres coated by cyanoacrylate thin film are generated. In this report, we revealed that diameter distributions of microbubbles and microcapsules were approximately same and most of them were less than 10 μm, that is, smaller than blood capillary. In addition, we also revealed that hollow microcapsules enhanced the acoustic signal especially in the harmonic contrast imaging and were broken or agglomerated under the ultrasound field. As for the yield of hollow microcapsules, we revealed that sodium dodecyl sulfate addition to water phase instead of deoxycolic acid made the fabrication yield increased.

  12. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zordo, Tobias de; Mlekusch, Sabine P.; Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Department of Radiology II, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Mur, Erich [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schirmer, Michael [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of the Elisabethines Klagenfurt, Voelkermarkter Strasse 15-19, 9020 Klagenfurt (Austria); Klauser, Andrea S. [Department of Radiology II, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: andrea.klauser@i-med.ac.at

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this review is to describe the spectrum of sonographic findings in rheumatic diseases with respect to the diagnostic potential using US contrast media which prove activity or inactivity in synovial tissue where new treatment regimes target. Synovial activity can be found in non-erosive and erosive forms of primary and secondary osteoarthritis, and in inflammatory forms of joint diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and peripheral manifestations of spondyloarthritis including, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis and enteropathic arthritis. It can also be present in metabolic and endocrine forms of arthritis, in connective tissue arthropathies like systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma and in infectious arthritis. Ultrasound should be used as first-line imaging modality in suspected early cases of RA and other forms of arthritis, whereas contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can further enable for sensitive assessment of vascularity which correlates with disease activity.

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ... transducer for analysis. top of page This page was reviewed on February 17, 2017 Send us your ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. Discuss the fees associated with your prescribed ... Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. ( ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to have your child drink several glasses of water, depending on the child's size, two hours prior ... improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude ( ... turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures ...

  4. Methods and systems for producing compounded ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for producing compounded ultrasound images by beamforming a first and a second low-resolution image using data from a first ultrasound emission, beamforming a third and a fourth low-resolution image using data from a second ultrasound emission, summing said first and said...... third low-resolution image creating a first high-resolution image and said second and said fourth low-resolution image creating a second high-resolution image, wherein the method further comprises computing a first envelope image for said first high-resolution image and a second envelope image for said...

  5. An open access thyroid ultrasound image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Lina; Vargas, Carlos; Narváez, Fabián.; Durán, Oscar; Muñoz, Emma; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD) have been developed to assist radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities and a large number of pattern recognition techniques have been proposed to obtain a second opinion. Most of these strategies have been evaluated using different datasets making their performance incomparable. In this work, an open access database of thyroid ultrasound images is presented. The dataset consists of a set of B-mode Ultrasound images, including a complete annotation and diagnostic description of suspicious thyroid lesions by expert radiologists. Several types of lesions as thyroiditis, cystic nodules, adenomas and thyroid cancers were included while an accurate lesion delineation is provided in XML format. The diagnostic description of malignant lesions was confirmed by biopsy. The proposed new database is expected to be a resource for the community to assess different CAD systems.

  6. Fast and Automatic Ultrasound Simulation from CT Images

    OpenAIRE

    Weijian Cong; Jian Yang; Yue Liu; Yongtian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently widely used in clinical diagnosis because of its fast and safe imaging principles. As the anatomical structures present in an ultrasound image are not as clear as CT or MRI. Physicians usually need advance clinical knowledge and experience to distinguish diseased tissues. Fast simulation of ultrasound provides a cost-effective way for the training and correlation of ultrasound and the anatomic structures. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for fast simulation of...

  7. Enhancement of bone shadow region using local phase-based ultrasound transmission maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacihaliloglu, Ilker

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly being employed in different orthopedic procedures as an imaging modality for real-time guidance. Nevertheless, low signal-to-noise-ratio and different imaging artifacts continue to hamper the success of ultrasound-based procedures. Bone shadow region is an important feature indicating the presence of bone/tissue interface in the acquired ultrasound data. Enhancement and automatic detection of this region could improve the sensitivity of ultrasound for imaging bone and result in improved guidance for various orthopedic procedures. In this work, a method is introduced for the enhancement of bone shadow regions from B-mode ultrasound data. The method is based on the combination of three different image phase features: local phase tensor, local weighted mean phase angle, and local phase energy. The combined local phase image features are used as an input to an [Formula: see text] norm-based contextual regularization method which emphasizes uncertainty in the shadow regions. The enhanced bone shadow images are automatically segmented and compared against expert segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative validation was performed on 100 in vivo US scans obtained from five subjects by scanning femur and vertebrae bones. Validation against expert segmentation achieved a mean dice similarity coefficient of 0.88. The encouraging results obtained in this initial study suggest that the proposed method is promising enough for further evaluation. The calculated bone shadow maps could be incorporated into different ultrasound bone segmentation and registration approaches as an additional feature.

  8. Adaptive Beamforming for Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund

    This dissertation investigates the application of adaptive beamforming for medical ultrasound imaging. The investigations have been concentrated primarily on the Minimum Variance (MV) beamformer. A broadband implementation of theMV beamformer is described, and simulated data have been used...... of the influence of sound speed errors on the adaptive beamformers; MV and the Amplitude and Phase EStimation (APES) beamformer. Furthermore, the investigations of previously suggested adaptive spectral Doppler techniques are continued by additional in-vivo measurements. These investigations shows...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. ( ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of the body being studied to help the transducer make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical ... a catheter or other drainage device and helps assure safe and accurate placement and ...

  13. Impact of element pitch on synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasegawa, H.; Korte, C.L. de

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Synthetic aperture imaging was introduced in medical ultrasound to obtain high-quality images. In synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging, spherical transmit waves illuminate a target region from different positions, resulting in low-resolution images for each transmission. By coherent

  14. Contrast-Enhanced Dynamic MR Imaging of Uterine Fibroids as a Potential Predictor of Patient Eligibility for MR Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS Treatment for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS is a non-invasive treatment approach for symptomatic uterine fibroids. One imaging characteristic considered in selecting patients who may benefit from MRgFUS of their uterine fibroids is the signal intensity of the fibroid compared with surrounding myometrium on T2-weighted MR images. Previous reports suggest that hyper-intense fibroids are less amenable to MRgFUS compared with iso- or hypo-intense fibroids. In this case study, we utilized contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging to further characterize the vascularity of a hyper-intense fibroid. Based on the results of dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced images, we assumed that the hyper-intense appearance resulted from high fluid content rather than high vascularity and predicted that the fibroid would respond to MRgFUS. The patient underwent the MRgFUS without complication and reported significant decrease in fibroid symptoms at 3 and 12 months post-treatment. This case suggests that pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging used in conjunction with T2-weighted imaging may improve the criteria for selecting uterine fibroids amenable to treatment with MRgFUS, potentially leading to improved patient outcomes.

  15. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging: understanding the technology and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Teyhen, Deydre S; Elliott, James M; Cook, Katy; Langevin, Helene M; Dahl, Haldis H; Stokes, Maria

    2007-08-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging by physical therapists is growing in popularity. This commentary has 2 aims. The first is to introduce the concept of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), provide a definition of the scope of this emerging tool in regard to the physical therapy profession, and describe how this relates to the larger field of medical ultrasound imaging. The second aim is to provide an overview of basic ultrasound imaging and instrumentation principles, including an understanding of the various modes and applications of the technology with respect to neuromusculoskeletal rehabilitation and in relation to other common imaging modalities.

  16. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  17. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in ovarian tumors – diagnostic parameters: method presentation and initial experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAXIM, ANITA-ROXANA; BADEA, RADU; TAMAS, ATILLA; TRAILA, ALEXANDRU

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and illustrate the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating ovarian tumors compared to conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and the histopathological analysis and suggest how this technique may best be used to distinguish benign from malignant ovarian masses. We present the method and initial experience of our center by analyzing the parameters used in contrast-enhanced ultrasound in 6 patients with ovarian tumors of uncertain etiology. For examination we used a Siemens ultrasound machine with dedicated contrast software and the contrast agent SonoVue, Bracco. The patients underwent conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and i.v. administration of the contrast agent. The parameters studied were: inflow of contrast (rise time), time to peak enhancement, mean transit time. The series of patients is part of an extensive prospective PhD study aimed at elaborating a differential diagnosis protocol for benign versus malignant ovarian tumors, by validating specific parameters for contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Although the method is currently used with great success in gastroenterology, urology and senology, its validation in gynecology is still in the early phases. Taking into consideration that the method is minimally invasive and much less costly that CT/MRI imaging, demonstrating its utility in oncologic gynecology would be a big step in preoperative evaluation of these cases. PMID:26527912

  18. Stable phantom materials for ultrasound and optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrelli, Luciana C.; Pelissari, Pedro I. B. G. B.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Carneiro, Antonio A. O.; Pavan, Theo Z.

    2017-01-01

    Phantoms mimicking the specific properties of biological tissues are essential to fully characterize medical devices. Water-based materials are commonly used to manufacture phantoms for ultrasound and optical imaging techniques. However, these materials have disadvantages, such as easy degradation and low temporal stability. In this study, we propose an oil-based new tissue-mimicking material for ultrasound and optical imaging, with the advantage of presenting low temporal degradation. A styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) copolymer in mineral oil samples was made varying the SEBS concentration between 5%-15%, and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) between 0%-9%. Acoustic properties, such as the speed of sound and the attenuation coefficient, were obtained using frequencies ranging from 1-10 MHz, and were consistent with that of soft tissues. These properties were controlled varying SEBS and LDPE concentration. To characterize the optical properties of the samples, the diffuse reflectance and transmittance were measured. Scattering and absorption coefficients ranging from 400 nm-1200 nm were calculated for each compound. SEBS gels are a translucent material presenting low optical absorption and scattering coefficients in the visible region of the spectrum, but the presence of LDPE increased the turbidity. Adding LDPE increased the absorption and scattering of the phantom materials. Ultrasound and photoacoustic images of a heterogeneous phantom made of LDPE/SEBS containing a spherical inclusion were obtained. Annatto dye was added to the inclusion to enhance the optical absorbance. The results suggest that copolymer gels are promising for ultrasound and optical imaging, making them also potentially useful for photoacoustic imaging.

  19. Stable phantom materials for ultrasound and optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrelli, Luciana C; Pelissari, Pedro I B G B; Deana, Alessandro M; Carneiro, Antonio A O; Pavan, Theo Z

    2017-01-21

    Phantoms mimicking the specific properties of biological tissues are essential to fully characterize medical devices. Water-based materials are commonly used to manufacture phantoms for ultrasound and optical imaging techniques. However, these materials have disadvantages, such as easy degradation and low temporal stability. In this study, we propose an oil-based new tissue-mimicking material for ultrasound and optical imaging, with the advantage of presenting low temporal degradation. A styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) copolymer in mineral oil samples was made varying the SEBS concentration between 5%-15%, and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) between 0%-9%. Acoustic properties, such as the speed of sound and the attenuation coefficient, were obtained using frequencies ranging from 1-10 MHz, and were consistent with that of soft tissues. These properties were controlled varying SEBS and LDPE concentration. To characterize the optical properties of the samples, the diffuse reflectance and transmittance were measured. Scattering and absorption coefficients ranging from 400 nm-1200 nm were calculated for each compound. SEBS gels are a translucent material presenting low optical absorption and scattering coefficients in the visible region of the spectrum, but the presence of LDPE increased the turbidity. Adding LDPE increased the absorption and scattering of the phantom materials. Ultrasound and photoacoustic images of a heterogeneous phantom made of LDPE/SEBS containing a spherical inclusion were obtained. Annatto dye was added to the inclusion to enhance the optical absorbance. The results suggest that copolymer gels are promising for ultrasound and optical imaging, making them also potentially useful for photoacoustic imaging.

  20. Applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierski, Brittany; Deurdulian, Corinne; Tchelepi, Hisham; Grant, Edward G

    2017-08-30

    Incidental discovery of renal lesions on cross-sectional imaging studies performed for other indications is not uncommon. With the increased reliance on medical imaging, the number of incidentally detected renal lesions has also grown over time. While simple cysts account for the majority of these lesions, the presence of complex features within a cystic lesion, such as septations and solid components, can present a confusing picture. Solid lesions, too, can be indeterminate, and distinguishing between benign solid masses (like lipid-poor angiomyolipomas and oncocytomas) and renal cell carcinoma affects patient management and can prevent unnecessary interventions. Indeterminate renal lesions are traditionally further characterized by multiphase imaging, such as contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a new, relatively inexpensive technique that has become increasingly employed in the diagnostic workup of indeterminate renal lesions. With its lack of nephrotoxicity, the absence of ionizing radiation, and the ability to evaluate the enhancement pattern of renal lesions quickly and in real-time, CEUS has unique advantages over traditional imaging modalities. This article provides an overview of the current clinical applications of CEUS in characterizing renal lesions, both cystic and solid. Additional applications of CEUS in the kidney, including its roles in renal transplant evaluation and guidance for percutaneous biopsy, will also be briefly discussed.

  1. 3D Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R.; Sridharan, Anush; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives While contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging techniques such as harmonic imaging (HI) have evolved to reduce tissue signals using the nonlinear properties of the contrast agent, levels of background suppression have been mixed. Subharmonic imaging (SHI) offers near-complete tissue suppression by centering the receive bandwidth at half the transmitting frequency. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SHI and compare it to 3D HI. Materials and Methods 3D HI and SHI were implemented on a Logiq 9 ultrasound scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) with a 4D10L probe. Four-cycle SHI was implemented to transmit at 5.8 MHz and receive at 2.9 MHz, while 2-cycle HI was implemented to transmit at 5 MHz and receive at 10 MHz. The ultrasound contrast agent Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, MA) was imaged within a flow phantom and the lower pole of two canine kidneys in both HI and SHI modes. Contrast to tissue ratios (CTR) and rendered images were compared offline. Results SHI resulted in significant improvement in CTR levels relative to HI both in vitro (12.11±0.52 vs. 2.67±0.77, p<0.001) and in vivo (5.74±1.92 vs. 2.40±0.48, p=0.04). Rendered 3D SHI images provided better tissue suppression and a greater overall view of vessels in a flow phantom and canine renal vasculature. Conclusions The successful implementation of SHI in 3D allows imaging of vascular networks over a heterogeneous sample volume and should improve future diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, 3D SHI provides improved CTR values relative to 3D HI. PMID:22464198

  2. APES Beamforming Applied to Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Ann E. A.; Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Austeng, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Recently, adaptive beamformers have been introduced to medical ultrasound imaging. The primary focus has been on the minimum variance (MV) (or Capon) beamformer. This work investigates an alternative but closely related beamformer, the Amplitude and Phase Estimation (APES) beamformer. APES offers...... added robustness at the expense of a slightly lower resolution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the APES beamformer on medical imaging data, since correct amplitude estimation often is just as important as spatial resolution. In our simulations we have used a 3.5 MHz, 96...... element linear transducer array. When imaging two closely spaced point targets, APES displays nearly the same resolution as the MV, and at the same time improved amplitude control. When imaging cysts in speckle, APES offers speckle statistics similar to that of the DAS, without the need for temporal...

  3. Parametric imaging of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology using ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    A new image processing strategy is detailed for the simultaneous measurement of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology parameters from a sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) images. A technique for locally mapping tumor perfusion parameters using skeletonized neovascular data is also introduced. Simulated images were used to test the neovascular skeletonization technique and variance (error) of relevant parametric estimates. Preliminary DCE-US image datasets were collected in 6 female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system equipped with a L9-3 MHz transducer and Definity contrast agent. Simulation data demonstrates that neovascular morphology parametric estimation is reproducible albeit measurement error can occur at a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Experimental results indicate the feasibility of our approach to performing both tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology measurements from DCE-US images. Future work will expand on our initial clinical findings and also extent our image processing strategy to 3-dimensional space to allow whole tumor characterization.

  4. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging for the Detection of Neural Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kevin R.

    Molecular imaging is a form of nanotechnology that enables the noninvasive examination of biological processes in vivo. Radiopharmaceutical agents are used to selectively target biochemical markers, which permits their detection and evaluation. Early visualization of molecular variations indicative of pathophysiological processes can aid in patient diagnoses and management decisions. Molecular imaging is performed by introducing molecular probes into the body. Molecular probes are often contrast agents that have been nanoengineered to selectively target and tether to molecules, enabling their radiologic identification. Ultrasound contrast agents have been demonstrated as an effective method of detecting perfusion at the tissue level. Through a nanoengineering process, ultrasound contrast agents can be targeted to specific molecules, thereby extending ultrasound's capabilities from the tissue to molecular level. Molecular ultrasound, or targeted contrast enhanced ultrasound (TCEUS), has recently emerged as a popular molecular imaging technique due to its ability to provide real-time anatomical and functional information in the absence of ionizing radiation. However, molecular ultrasound represents a novel form of molecular imaging, and consequently remains largely preclinical. A review of the TCEUS literature revealed multiple preclinical studies demonstrating its success in detecting inflammation in a variety of tissues. Although, a gap was identified in the existing evidence, as TCEUS effectiveness for detection of neural inflammation in the spinal cord was unable to be uncovered. This gap in knowledge, coupled with the profound impacts that this TCEUS application could have clinically, provided rationale for its exploration, and use as contributory evidence for the molecular ultrasound body of literature. An animal model that underwent a contusive spinal cord injury was used to establish preclinical evidence of TCEUS to detect neural inflammation. Imaging was

  5. Broadband ultrasound attenuation imaging: a new imaging method in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, C; Fournier, B; Laugier, P; Chappard, C; Kolta, S; Dougados, M; Berger, G

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness in osteoporosis of a new ultrasound imaging device able to create a parametric image of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) at the os calcis. Three regions of interest were located in the great tuberosity of the os calcis. Precision was evaluated in 37 patients. Calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) and BUA were compared in 33 patients. In 236 patients (including 77 with osteoporotic fractures), BUA and lumbar and femoral BMD measurements were performed. The measurements were compared using correlation coefficients. Their clinical value was estimated by comparisons of the results between patients with fractures and age-matched controls, using comparisons of the means, areas under the ROC curves, and logistic regression. Precision was in a 1.4-3.3% range. Local BUA and BMD were highly correlated (r = 0.88). Significant correlations were found between BUA and lumbar (r = 0.56) and femur (r = 0.66) BMD. In multiple regression, years since menopause and weight were significant predictors of BUA. Patients with fractures had lower BUA and BMD than age-matched controls. BUA showed the largest difference between the two populations (13-16%). Areas under the ROC curves were similar for BUA and BMD. Logistic regression after adjustment for confounding factors showed that BUA discriminated between fracture and nonfracture subjects. Broadband ultrasound attenuation imaging improves the reproducibility of ultrasound measurements. It may be useful in osteoporosis, due to its good discriminating value.

  6. Contrast enhanced ultrasound features of hepatic cystadenoma and hepatic cystadenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Mao, Feng; Fan, Mei; Ignee, Andre; Serra, Carla; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Braden, Barbara; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2017-03-01

    Hepatic (biliary) cystic tumor (HBCT) is a rare focal cystic liver lesion, which has been rarely described in the literature. In our current multicenter, retrospective study, we aimed to analyze contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features and its diagnostic performance in histologically proved HBCT. Twenty-three patients with single HBCT were retrospectively analyzed. Histologically, 17 (73.9%) were benign hepatic (biliary) cystadenoma (HBCA), 6 (26.1%) were hepatic (biliary) cystadenocarcinoma (HBCAC). All CEUS examinations were assessed by two independent radiologists in consensus. Criteria of CEUS imaging evaluation included the contrast enhancement pattern of lesion (hypoenhancing, hyperenhancing, isoenhancing in comparison to the surrounding liver parenchyma) during the arterial, portal venous and late phases. After injection of ultrasound contrast agents, most of the HBCTs (78.3%, 18/23) had typical honeycomb enhancement pattern of the cystic wall, septa or mural nodules. Comparing between HBCA and HBCAC, hyperenhancement of the honeycomb septa during the arterial phase was more common in HBCA (p = .047). However, hypoenhancement during the portal venous and late phases was the characteristic of HBCAC (p = .041). The EFSUMB algorithm for CEUS for characterization of solid focal liver lesions is also applicable to HBCT. CEUS evaluation can avoid further diagnostic investigations or invasive biopsy procedure.

  7. Image-Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Christine G.; Stacy, Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    ENHANCETOOL computer program has capabilities for interactive enhancement of digital images. Includes particularly useful combination of algorithms not existing in single interactive program. Software package also provides means through which additional image-enhancement algorithms easily integrated and made available to user. Written in C Language.

  8. The clinical use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Tenant, Sean C; Gutteridge, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Traditional B-Mode and Doppler sonography have been the stalwart of renal tract imaging for many years, and indeed, are in daily use in most centres as the modality of choice for the initial assessment of renal pathology. However, traditional ultrasound scanning can be limited in its ability to accurately characterise renal pathology, and can be inaccurate at determining benign from malignant lesions. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound conveys many benefits, being safe (especially in patients with ...

  9. Detection and Characterization of focal Hepatic Lesions Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging in Late Phase with ADI Mode. Preliminary study; Detection y caracterizacion de lesiones focales hepaticas con contraste ecografico en la fase tardia mediante la tecnica ADI. Estudio preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, C.; Blomley, M.; Harvey, C.; Bru, C.

    2003-07-01

    ADI (agent diagnostic imaging) permits the detection of contrast agent micro bubbles which settle in hepatic parenchyma during late phase, once the vascular phase is over. the aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of this technology in the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound scan with ADI mode after administration of the contrast agent Levovist (SHU 508) was performed on 17 patients, Spiral CT was also performed either for reasons of a clinically suspected metastasis or received tumor (n=12), or for the study of a focal hepatic lesion (n=5). The findings obtained using ultrasound scan with ADI were compared with those using standard ultrasound scan and spiral CT. ADI detected 100% of focal lesions detected by CT. In 2 patients the ultrasound scan detected a 1 cm. lesion not detected in the CT. In comparison to CT, standard ultrasound imaging correctly classified the lesions as being either malignant or benign in 71.4% of the cases (10/14 lesions), whereas ADI did so in 92.8% (13/14 lesions). This represents an increase of 21.4% in diagnostic yield with regard to standard ultrasound imaging. ADI during late phase is useful in differentiating malignant from benign focal hepatic lesions, permitting an increase in diagnostic yield over that of standard ultrasound imaging. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of urogenital pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libero Barozzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is an innovative technique that employs microbubble contrast agents to demonstrate parenchymal perfusion. Although initial clinical application was focused on the liver pathology, a wide variety of clinical conditions can be assessed now with CEUS. CEUS is a well-tolerated technique and is acquiring an increasing role in the assessment of renal pathology because contrast agents are not excreted by the kidney and do not affect the renal function. CEUS demonstrated an accuracy similar to contrast enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (CEMDCT in detecting focal lesions, with the advantage of the real-time assessment of microvascular perfusion by using time-intensity curves. The aim of this paper is to review the main indications of CEUS in the assessment of renal and urogenital pathology. Imaging examples are presented and described. Advantages and limitations of CEUS with reference to conventional US and CE-MDCT are discussed.

  11. Consider ultrasound first for imaging the female pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacerraf, Beryl R; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Bromley, Bryann; Goldstein, Steven R; Groszmann, Yvette; Shipp, Thomas D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound technology has evolved dramatically in recent years and now includes applications such as 3-dimensional volume imaging, real-time evaluation of pelvic organs (simultaneous with the physical examination), and Doppler blood flow mapping without the need for contrast, which makes ultrasound imaging unique for imaging the female pelvis. Among the many cross-sectional imaging techniques, we should use the most informative, less invasive, and less expensive modality to avoid radiation when possible. Hence, ultrasound imaging should be the first imaging modality used in women with pelvic symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Harmonic ultrasound imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A method includes generating an ultrasound image based on the harmonic components in the received echoes using multi-stage beam forming and data generated therefrom. An ultrasound imaging system (100, 200) includes a transducer array (108) including a plurality of transducer elements configured t....... The ultrasound imaging system further includes a synthetic aperture processor (128), including a second beam former (130) configured to process the stored intermediate scan lines, based on a synthetic aperture algorithm, generating a focused image.......A method includes generating an ultrasound image based on the harmonic components in the received echoes using multi-stage beam forming and data generated therefrom. An ultrasound imaging system (100, 200) includes a transducer array (108) including a plurality of transducer elements configured...... to emit ultrasound signals and receive echoes generated in response to the emitted ultrasound signals. The ultrasound imaging system further includes transmit circuitry (1 10) that generates a set of pulses that actuate a set of the plurality of transducer elements to emit ultrasound signals...

  13. Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic and Harmonic Ultrasound of Renal Masses Undergoing Percutaneous Cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Shaw, Colette M; Lyshchik, Andrej; Machado, Priscilla; Lallas, Costas D; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Merton, Daniel A; Fox, Traci B; Liu, Ji-Bin; Brown, Daniel B; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare contrast-enhanced subharmonic and harmonic ultrasound as tools for characterizing solid renal masses and monitoring their response to cryoablation therapy. Sixteen patients undergoing percutaneous ablation of a renal mass provided informed consent to undergo ultrasound examinations the morning before and approximately 4 months after cryoablation. Ultrasound contrast parameters during pretreatment imaging were compared to biopsy results obtained during ablation (n = 13). Posttreatment changes were evaluated by a radiologist and compared to contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT) follow-up. All masses initially showed heterogeneous enhancement with both subharmonic and harmonic ultrasound. Early contrast washout in the mass relative to the cortex was observed in 6 of 9 malignant and 0 of 4 benign lesions in subharmonic mode and 8 of 9 malignant and 1 of 4 benign lesions in harmonic imaging. In cases where the lesion was adequately visualized at follow-up (n = 12), subharmonic and harmonic ultrasound showed accuracies of 83% and 75%, respectively, in predicting treatment outcome. Although harmonic imaging showed less overall error, no significant differences (P > .29) in ablation cavity volumes were observed between MRI/CT and either contrast-imaging mode. Subharmonic and harmonic contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be a safe and accurate imaging alternative for characterizing renal masses and evaluating their response to cryoablation therapy. Although subharmonic imaging was more accurate in detecting effective cryoablation, harmonic imaging was superior in quantifying ablation cavity volumes. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound imaging for cavitation detection during HIFU ablation in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tao; Amin, Viren; McClure, Scott; Roberts, Ronald; Wu, Liangshou; Heise, Matthew; Ryken, Timothy

    2007-03-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (abbreviated as HIFU) has its potential in tumor treatment due to its non-invasive benefits. During HIFU exposure, cavitation (generation of gas bubbles) is often observed, which can be an indication of potential lesion created by HIFU power. Due to a large difference in ultrasound acoustic properties between the gas bubble and surrounding tissues, ultrasonic energy is reflected and scattered at the HIFU focus, thus indicating activity around the focal area and often interfering HIFU dosage delivery. A good understanding and control of cavitation phenomenon could potentially enhance the HIFU delivery and treatment outcomes. Quantifying the onset timing and extent of the cavitation could be potentially used for detecting HIFU effects and therapy guidance. In this paper, we study the relationships among HIFU parameters, the characteristics of cavitation quantified from ultrasound imaging, and characteristics of the final tissue lesion created by HIFU. In our study, we used 12 freshly excised pig brains in vitro for observation and analysis of cavitation activities during HIFU exposure with different HIFU parameters. Final lesions were examined by slicing the brain tissues into thin slices and 3D volume was constructed with segmentation of the lesion. HIFU parameters, cavitation activities through image processing and lesion characterization were correlated. We also present our initial understanding of the process of cavitation activities under certain HIFU parameters and control of such activities that could lead to optimal lesion

  15. Basic physics and imaging characteristics of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, G

    2000-02-01

    The imaging characteristics of diagnostic ultrasound (US) are determined by the ultrasonic properties of tissue. The velocity of propagation of US and the attenuation are the 2 most important parameters. These determine the frequency with which the tissues may be imaged, which in turn sets a fundamental limit on the axial and the lateral resolution. Ultrasonic imaging equipment is designed on the premise that the ultrasonic energy propagates through tissue in a straight line and that the ultrasonic beam is very narrow. In fact, the ultrasonic energy propagates through tissue as a beam of finite dimensions set by the physical dimensions of the transducer, the way it is constructed, and the way it is energized. Also, the velocity of propagation in different tissues varies and this can lead to deviation of the ultrasonic beam from the assumed direction of propagation. This breakdown in assumptions leads to the creation of artifacts that must be appreciated in the interpretation of ultrasonic images. For this reason skilled interpreters of ultrasonic images follow 3 golden rules: never make an interpretation on a single image; just because a feature is displayed do not consider that it is necessarily real; and just because a feature is not displayed do not consider that it is necessarily not there.

  16. Ultrasound: A novel tool for airway imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharthkumar Bhikhabhai Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The scope of ultrasound is emerging in medical science, particularly outside traditional areas of radiology practice. Aims: We designed this study to evaluate feasibility of bedside sonography as a tool for airway assessment and to describe sonographic anatomy of airway. Settings and Design: A prospective, clinical study. Materials and Methods: We included 100 adult, healthy volunteers of either sex to undergo airway imaging systemically starting from floor of the mouth to the sternal notch in anterior aspect of neck by sonography. Results: We could visualize mandible and hyoid bone as a bright hyperechoic structure with hypoechoic acoustic shadow underneath. Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and tracheal rings appeared hypoechoic. Vocal cords were visualized through thyroid cartilage. Interface between air and mucosa lining the airway produced a bright hyperechoic linear appearance. Artifacts created by intraluminal air prevented visualization of posterior pharynx, posterior commissure, and posterior wall of trachea. Conclusions: Ultrasound is safe, quick, noninvasive, repeatable, and bedside tool to assess the airway and can provide real-time dynamic images relevant for several aspects of airway management.

  17. Physics of tissue harmonic imaging by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan

    Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) is an imaging modality that is currently deployed on diagnostic ultrasound scanners. In THI the amplitude of the ultrasonic pulse that is used to probe the tissue is large enough that the pulse undergoes nonlinear distortion as it propagates into the tissue. One result of the distortion is that as the pulse propagates energy is shifted from the fundamental frequency of the source pulse into its higher harmonics. These harmonics will scatter off objects in the tissue and images formed from the scattered higher harmonics are considered to have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Processes that have been suggested as possibly responsible for the improved imaging in THI include: (1) reduced sensitivity to reverberation, (2) reduced sensitivity to aberration, and (3) reduction in side lobes. By using a combination of controlled experiments and numerical simulations, these three reasons have been investigated. A single element transducer and a clinical ultrasound scanner with a phased array transducer were used to image a commercial tissue-mimicking phantom with calibrated targets. The higher image quality achieved with THI was quantified in terms of spatial resolution and "clutter" signals. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation of nonlinear sound beams in media with arbitrary spatial properties (a generalized KZK equation) was developed. A time-domain code for solving the KZK equation was validated with measurements of the acoustic field generated by the single element transducer and the phased array transducer. The code was used to investigate the impact of aberration using tissue-like media with three-dimensional variations in all acoustic properties. The three-dimensional maps of tissue properties were derived from the datasets available through the Visible Female project. The experiments and simulations demonstrated that second harmonic imaging (1) suffers less clutter associated with

  18. Interference-free ultrasound imaging during HIFU therapy, using software tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezy, Shahram (Inventor); Held, Robert (Inventor); Sikdar, Siddhartha (Inventor); Managuli, Ravi (Inventor); Zderic, Vesna (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method for obtaining a composite interference-free ultrasound image when non-imaging ultrasound waves would otherwise interfere with ultrasound imaging. A conventional ultrasound imaging system is used to collect frames of ultrasound image data in the presence of non-imaging ultrasound waves, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The frames are directed to a processor that analyzes the frames to identify portions of the frame that are interference-free. Interference-free portions of a plurality of different ultrasound image frames are combined to generate a single composite interference-free ultrasound image that is displayed to a user. In this approach, a frequency of the non-imaging ultrasound waves is offset relative to a frequency of the ultrasound imaging waves, such that the interference introduced by the non-imaging ultrasound waves appears in a different portion of the frames.

  19. Acoustic Droplet Vaporization for the Enhancement of Ultrasound Thermal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Fabiilli, Mario; Carson, Paul; Padilla, Frederic; Swanson, Scott; Kripfgans, Oliver; Fowlkes, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is an ultrasound method for converting biocompatible microdroplets into microbubbles. The objective is to demonstrate that ADV bubbles can enhance high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy by controlling and increasing energy absorption at the focus. Thermal phantoms were made with or without droplets. Compound lesions were formed in the phantoms by 5-second exposures with 5-second delays. Center to center spacing of individual lesions was 5.5 mm in either a linear pattern or a spiral pattern. Prior to the HIFU, 10 cycle tone bursts with 0.25% duty cycle were used to vaporize the droplets, forming an “acoustic trench” within 30 seconds. The transducer was then focused in the middle of the back bubble wall to form thermal lesions in the trench. All lesions were imaged optically and with 2T MRI. With the use of ADV and the acoustic trench, a uniform thermal ablation volume of 15 cm3 was achieved in 4 minutes; without ADV only less than 15% of this volume was filled. The commonly seen tadpole shape characteristic of bubble-enhanced HIFU lesions was not evident with the acoustic trench. In conclusion, ADV shows promise for the spatial control and dramatic acceleration of thermal lesion production by HIFU. PMID:21804749

  20. A minimally-invasive closed chest myocardial occlusion-reperfusion model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): monitoring by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamin, Hugues; Rioufol, Gilles; Bettinger, Thierry; Helbert, Alexandre; Portier, Karine G; Lepage, Olivier M; Thomas, Regi; Broillet, Anne; Tranquart, François; Schneider, Michel

    2012-03-01

    Myocardial infarction is frequently developed in canine and porcine models but exceptionally in non-human primates. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive myocardial ischemic/reperfusion model in the monkey intended to be combined with imaging techniques, in particular myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). A balloon-tipped catheter was advanced via the femoral artery into the left anterior descending artery (LAD) under fluoroscopic guidance in ten anaesthetized male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The balloon was inflated to completely occlude the vessel. Coronary angiography (CA) was performed to control the reality of the LAD occlusion/reperfusion. The ischemia period was followed by 3-6 h of reperfusion. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated during ischemia and at reperfusion by MCE using a novel ultrasound contrast agent (BR38). Occlusion was successfully induced during 18-50 min in nine out of the ten evaluated monkeys. ST segment elevation indicated myocardial ischemia. MCE showed complete transmural arrest of myocardial blood flow during the ischemia period and no persistent microvascular perfusion defects during reperfusion. A minimally invasive closed-chest model was successfully developed for creating myocardial ischemia in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This technique could have an important role in mimicking acute coronary syndrome under physiologically and ethically-acceptable conditions. MCE provides non-invasively information on myocardial perfusion status, information not available from CA.

  1. Is ultrasound perfusion imaging capable of detecting mismatch? A proof-of-concept study in acute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmeir, Raluca; Eyding, Jens; Oertel, Markus F; Wiest, Roland; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs; Giquel, Pierre-Yves; Weber, Stefan; Raabe, Andreas; Mattle, Heinrich P; Z'Graggen, Werner J; Beck, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we compared contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion imaging with magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging or perfusion computed tomography for detecting normo-, hypo-, and nonperfused brain areas in acute middle cerebral artery stroke. We performed high mechanical index contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion imaging in 30 patients. Time-to-peak intensity of 10 ischemic regions of interests was compared to four standardized nonischemic regions of interests of the same patient. A time-to-peak >3 s (ultrasound perfusion imaging) or >4 s (perfusion computed tomography and magnetic resonance perfusion) defined hypoperfusion. In 16 patients, 98 of 160 ultrasound perfusion imaging regions of interests of the ischemic hemisphere were classified as normal, and 52 as hypoperfused or nonperfused. Ten regions of interests were excluded due to artifacts. There was a significant correlation of the ultrasound perfusion imaging and magnetic resonance perfusion or perfusion computed tomography (Pearson's chi-squared test 79.119, p ultrasound perfusion imaging (18 regions of interests) correlated highly with diffusion restriction on magnetic resonance imaging (Pearson's chi-squared test 42.307, p ultrasound perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of hypoperfused area under the curve, (AUC = 0.917; p ultrasound perfusion imaging.

  2. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound after liver transplantation: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Wu, Tao; Zheng, Bo-Wen; Tan, Ying-Yi; Zheng, Rong-Qin; Chen, Gui-Hua

    2016-01-28

    Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Accurate imaging evaluation of the transplanted patient is critical for ensuring that the limited donor liver is functioning appropriately. Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs), in combination with contrast-specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for the assessment of the hepatic vasculature, bile ducts and liver parenchyma in pre-, intra- and post-transplant patients. We describe UCAs, their technical requirements, the recommended clinical indications, image interpretation and the limitations for contrast-enhanced ultrasound applications in liver transplantation.

  3. Application of external tracking in ultrasound elasticity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Pezhman; Hager, Gregory D.; Wacker, Frank K.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2010-03-01

    Despite the success of ultrasound elasticity imaging (USEI) in medical applications such as diagnosis and screening of breast lesions and prostate cancer, USEI has not been adopted in routine clinical procedures. This is partly caused by the difficulty in acquiring reliable images and interpreting them, the lack of consistency over time, and the dependency of image quality to the expertise of the user. We previously demonstrated the potential of exploiting an external tracker to partially alleviate these issues and enhance the quality of USEI. The tracking data enabled fast and automatic selection of pairs of RF frames used in strain calculation. Here, we expand this method by including new features. The proposed method employs image content to compensate for the limited accuracy of the tracking device. It also combines multiple strain images to improve the quality of the final image. For this purpose, It normalizes the images and determines which images can be combined relying on the tracking information. We have acquired RF frames synchronized with tracking data from livers of pig containing an ablated region and a breast phantom using two different tracking devices; an optical tracker and a less accurate electromagnetic tracker. We present the promising results of the proposed method and investigate the sensitivity of frame selection technique without using the image content to inaccuracies in tracking information.

  4. Imaging of Groin Pain: Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan C; Endo, Yoshimi; Potter, Hollis G

    Evaluation of groin pain in athletes may be challenging as pain is typically poorly localized and the pubic symphyseal region comprises closely approximated tendons and muscles. As such, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) may help determine the etiology of groin pain. A PubMed search was performed using the following search terms: ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, sports hernia, athletic pubalgia, and groin pain. Date restrictions were not placed on the literature search. Clinical review. Level 4. MRI is sensitive in diagnosing pathology in groin pain. Not only can MRI be used to image rectus abdominis/adductor longus aponeurosis and pubic bone pathology, but it can also evaluate other pathology within the hip and pelvis. MRI is especially helpful when groin pain is poorly localized. Real-time capability makes ultrasound useful in evaluating the pubic symphyseal region, as it can be used for evaluation and treatment. MRI and US are valuable in diagnosing pathology in athletes with groin pain, with the added utility of treatment using US-guided intervention. Strength-of Recommendation Taxonomy: C.

  5. Porphyrin Nanodroplets: Sub-micrometer Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Contrast Imaging Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproski, Robert J; Forbrich, Alexander; Huynh, Elizabeth; Chen, Juan; Lewis, John D; Zheng, Gang; Zemp, Roger J

    2016-01-20

    A novel class of all-organic nanoscale porphyrin nanodroplet agents is presented which is suitable for multimodality ultrasound and photoacoustic molecular imaging. Previous multimodality photoacoustic-ultrasound agents are either not organic, or not yet demonstrated to exhibit enhanced accumulation in leaky tumor vasculature, perhaps because of large diameters. In the current study, porphyrin nanodroplets are created with a mean diameter of 185 nm which is small enough to exhibit the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Porphyrin within the nanodroplet shell has strong optical absorption at 705 nm with an estimated molar extinction coefficient >5 × 10(9) m(-1) cm(-1) , allowing both ultrasound and photoacoustic contrast in the same nanoparticle using all organic materials. The potential of nanodroplets is that they may be phase-changed into microbubbles using high pressure ultrasound, providing ultrasound contrast with single-bubble sensitivity. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging allows visualization of nanodroplets when injected intratumorally in an HT1080 tumor in the chorioallantoic membrane of a chicken embryo. Intravital microscopy imaging of Hep3-GFP and HT1080-GFP tumors in chicken embryos determines that nanodroplets accumulated throughout or at the periphery of tumors, suggesting that porphyrin nanodroplets may be useful for enhancing the visualization of tumors with ultrasound and/or photoacoustic imaging. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  7. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) - ultrasound (US) imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Zhang, Jun; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are considered two complementary imaging techniques in the detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. OCT permits visualization of micron-scale features of atherosclerosis plaque, and IVUS offers full imaging depth of vessel wall. Under the guidance of IVUS, minimal amount of flushing agent will be needed to obtain OCT imaging of the interested area. We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) - ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an ultrasound transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single mode fiber, a gradient index (GRIN) lens for light beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40MHz PZT-5H side-viewing ultrasound transducer was fabricated to obtain the ultrasound image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and ultrasound imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis.

  8. Microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jonathan D; Sidhu, Paul S

    2004-10-01

    The use of liver transplantation for treatment of end-stage liver disease is now commonplace. The accurate assessment of the pre-transplant candidate and long-term follow-up of the posttransplant patient is vital in ensuring that the limited resource of donor livers is appropriately used. Ultrasound is accepted as playing an important role in this process. The advent of microbubble contrast enhanced ultrasound provides new opportunities in terms of improving diagnostic accuracy and obviating more invasive investigations with their associated patient morbidity and mortality. We present the current and developing applications of microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the field of liver transplantation.

  9. A new architecture for fast ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruza, J. F. [Instituto de Tecnologías Físicas y de la Información ' ' Torres Quevedo' ' Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Camacho, J.; Moreno, J. M.; Medina, L. [Instituto de Tecnologías Físicas y de la Información Torres Quevedo Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-18

    Some ultrasound imaging applications require high frame rate, for example 3D imaging and automated inspections of large components. Being the signal-processing throughput of the system the main bottleneck, parallel beamforming is required to achieve hundreds to thousands of images per second. Simultaneous A-scan line beamforming in all active channels is required to reach the intended high frame rate. To this purpose, a new parallel beamforming architecture that exploits the currently available processing resources available in state-of-the-art FPGAs is proposed. The work aims to get the optimal resource usage, high scalability and flexibility for different applications. To achieve these goals, the basic beamforming function is reformulated to be adapted to the DSP-cell architecture of state-of-the-art FPGAs. This allows performing simultaneous dynamic focusing on multiple A-scan lines. Some realistic examples are analyzed, evaluating resource requirements and maximum operating frequency. For example, a 128-channel system, with 128 scan lines and acquiring at 20 MSPS, can be built with 4 mid-range FPGAs, achieving up to 18000 frames per second, just limited by the maximum PRF. The gold standard Synthetic Transmit Aperture method (also called Total Focusing Method) can be carried out in real time at a processing rate of 140 high-resolution images per second (16 cm depth on steel)

  10. Biodegradable nanoparticles for targeted ultrasound imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University, 270 Bevis Hall, 1080 Carmack Rd, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Jie [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University, 270 Bevis Hall, 1080 Carmack Rd, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rosol, Thomas J [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Ohio State University, 1925 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan Xueliang [Department of Statistics, Ohio State University, 1958 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Voorhees, Jeffrey L [Ohio State Biochemistry Program, Ohio State University, 108 Aronoff Building, 318 West 12 Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2007-08-21

    Disease-specific enhanced imaging through a targeted agent promises to improve the specificity of medical ultrasound. Nanoparticles may provide unique advantages for targeted ultrasound imaging due to their novel physical and surface properties. In this study, we examined a nanoparticle agent developed from a biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA). The nanoparticles (mean diameter = 250 nm) were surface conjugated to an anti-Her2 antibody (i.e., Herceptin) for specific binding to breast cancer cells that overexpress Her2 receptors. We examined the targeting specificity and the resultant ultrasound enhancement in Her2-positive and negative cells. Flow cytometry and confocal imaging were used to assess the nanoparticle-cell binding. Her2-positive cells demonstrated substantial staining after incubation with nanoparticle/antibody conjugates, while minimal staining was found in Her2-negative cells, indicating receptor-specific binding of the conjugated PLA nanoparticles. In high-resolution ultrasound B-mode images, the average gray scale of the Her2-positive cells was consistently and significantly higher after nanoparticle treatment (133 {+-} 4 in treated cells versus 109 {+-} 4 in control, p < 0.001, n = 5), while no difference was detected in the cells that did not overexpress the receptors (117 {+-} 3 in treated cells versus 118 {+-} 5 in control). In conclusion, the feasibility of using targeted nanoparticles to enhance ultrasonic images was demonstrated in vitro. This may be a promising approach to target cancer biomarkers for site-specific ultrasound imaging.

  11. Compensated Row-Column Ultrasound Imaging System Using Fisher Tippett Multilayered Conditional Random Field Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ben Daya

    Full Text Available 3-D ultrasound imaging offers unique opportunities in the field of non destructive testing that cannot be easily found in A-mode and B-mode images. To acquire a 3-D ultrasound image without a mechanically moving transducer, a 2-D array can be used. The row column technique is preferred over a fully addressed 2-D array as it requires a significantly lower number of interconnections. Recent advances in 3-D row-column ultrasound imaging systems were largely focused on sensor design. However, these imaging systems face three intrinsic challenges that cannot be addressed by improving sensor design alone: speckle noise, sparsity of data in the imaged volume, and the spatially dependent point spread function of the imaging system. In this paper, we propose a compensated row-column ultrasound image reconstruction system using Fisher-Tippett multilayered conditional random field model. Tests carried out on both simulated and real row-column ultrasound images show the effectiveness of our proposed system as opposed to other published systems. Visual assessment of the results show our proposed system's potential at preserving detail and reducing speckle. Quantitative analysis shows that our proposed system outperforms previously published systems when evaluated with metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Coefficient of Correlation, and Effective Number of Looks. These results show the potential of our proposed system as an effective tool for enhancing 3-D row-column imaging.

  12. Despeckle filtering for ultrasound imaging and video II selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loizou, Christos P

    2015-01-01

    In ultrasound imaging and video visual perception is hindered by speckle multiplicative noise that degrades the quality. Noise reduction is therefore essential for improving the visual observation quality or as a pre-processing step for further automated analysis, such as image/video segmentation, texture analysis and encoding in ultrasound imaging and video. The goal of the first book (book 1 of 2 books) was to introduce the problem of speckle in ultrasound image and video as well as the theoretical background, algorithmic steps, and the MatlabTM for the following group of despeckle filters:

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound ... limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? What is Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  14. SVM-Based CAC System for B-Mode Kidney Ultrasound Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subramanya, M B; Kumar, Vinod; Mukherjee, Shaktidev; Saini, Manju

    2015-01-01

    .... normal, medical renal disease (MRD) and cyst using B-mode ultrasound images. Thirty-five B-mode kidney ultrasound images consisting of 11 normal images, 8 MRD images and 16 cyst images have been used...

  15. Digital Path Approach Despeckle Filter for Ultrasound Imaging and Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szczepański

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel filtering technique capable of reducing the multiplicative noise in ultrasound images that is an extension of the denoising algorithms based on the concept of digital paths. In this approach, the filter weights are calculated taking into account the similarity between pixel intensities that belongs to the local neighborhood of the processed pixel, which is called a path. The output of the filter is estimated as the weighted average of pixels connected by the paths. The way of creating paths is pivotal and determines the effectiveness and computational complexity of the proposed filtering design. Such procedure can be effective for different types of noise but fail in the presence of multiplicative noise. To increase the filtering efficiency for this type of disturbances, we introduce some improvements of the basic concept and new classes of similarity functions and finally extend our techniques to a spatiotemporal domain. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm provides the comparable results with the state-of-the-art techniques for multiplicative noise removal in ultrasound images and it can be applied for real-time image enhancement of video streams.

  16. Ultrasound: medical imaging and beyond (an invited review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhari, Haim

    2012-09-01

    Medical applications of ultrasound were first investigated about seventy years ago. It has rapidly evolved since then, becoming an essential tool in medical imaging. Ultrasound ability to provide real time images with frame rates exceeding several hundred frames per second allows one to view rapid anatomical changes as well as to guide minimal invasive procedures. By, combining Doppler techniques with anatomical images ultrasound provides real time quantitative flow information as well. It is portable, versatile, cost effective and considered sufficiently hazardless to monitor pregnancy. Moreover, ultrasound has the unique capacity to offer therapeutic capabilities in addition to its outstanding imaging abilities. It can be used for physiotherapy, lithotripsy, and thermal ablation, and recent studies have demonstrated its usefulness in drug delivery, gene therapy and molecular imaging. The purpose of this article is to provide an introductory review of the field covering briefly topics from basic physics through current imaging methods to therapeutic applications.

  17. The role of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (CE-EUS) allows characterization, differentiation, and staging of focal pancreatic masses. The method has a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma which is visualized as hypo-enhanced as compared to the rest of the p......Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (CE-EUS) allows characterization, differentiation, and staging of focal pancreatic masses. The method has a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma which is visualized as hypo-enhanced as compared to the rest...... of the parenchyma while chronic pancreatitis and neuroendocrine tumors are generally either iso-enhanced or hyper-enhanced. The development of contrast-enhanced low mechanical index harmonic imaging techniques used in real time during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allowed perfusion imaging and the quantification...... contrast agents for early detection, tridimensional and fusion techniques for enhanced staging and resectability assessment but also novel applications of perfusion imaging for monitoring ablative therapy, improved local detection through EUS-guided sampling of portal vein flow or enhanced drug delivery...

  18. Segmentation of tumor ultrasound image in HIFU therapy based on texture and boundary encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Xu, Menglong; Quan, Long; Yang, Yan; Qin, Qianqing; Zhu, Wenbin

    2015-02-01

    It is crucial in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy to detect the tumor precisely with less manual intervention for enhancing the therapy efficiency. Ultrasound image segmentation becomes a difficult task due to signal attenuation, speckle effect and shadows. This paper presents an unsupervised approach based on texture and boundary encoding customized for ultrasound image segmentation in HIFU therapy. The approach oversegments the ultrasound image into some small regions, which are merged by using the principle of minimum description length (MDL) afterwards. Small regions belonging to the same tumor are clustered as they preserve similar texture features. The mergence is completed by obtaining the shortest coding length from encoding textures and boundaries of these regions in the clustering process. The tumor region is finally selected from merged regions by a proposed algorithm without manual interaction. The performance of the method is tested on 50 uterine fibroid ultrasound images from HIFU guiding transducers. The segmentations are compared with manual delineations to verify its feasibility. The quantitative evaluation with HIFU images shows that the mean true positive of the approach is 93.53%, the mean false positive is 4.06%, the mean similarity is 89.92%, the mean norm Hausdorff distance is 3.62% and the mean norm maximum average distance is 0.57%. The experiments validate that the proposed method can achieve favorable segmentation without manual initialization and effectively handle the poor quality of the ultrasound guidance image in HIFU therapy, which indicates that the approach is applicable in HIFU therapy.

  19. Focused Ultrasound Enhances Central Nervous System Delivery of Bevacizumab for Malignant Glioma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsu, Po-Hung; Lin, Chung-Yin; Huang, Chiun-Wei; Chai, Wen-Yen; Chu, Po-Chun; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Kuo, John S; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-monitored transcranial focused ultrasound can enhance the delivery of the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab into the central nervous system (CNS) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. Materials and Methods All animal experiments were approved by the animal committee and adhered to experimental animal care guidelines. Transcranial focused ultrasound exposure in the presence of microbubbles was used to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enhance bevacizumab penetration into the CNS in healthy and glioma-bearing mice. Bevacizumab concentration was quantitated with high-performance liquid chromatography, and Western blot testing was performed to confirm the specific biologic form in the CNS. Penetration of bevacizumab into brain tissue was estimated in vivo by means of contrast material-enhanced MR imaging and quantitative gallium 68 ((68)Ga)-bevacizumab micro-positron emission tomography, and glioma progression was longitudinally followed with T2-weighted MR imaging. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and cluster of differentiation 31 immunostaining were used to assess morphologic changes and vascular inhibition at histologic examination. The two-tailed Student t test and the Mantel-Cox log-rank test were used for statistical analyses, with a significance level of .05. Results Focused ultrasound significantly enhanced bevacizumab penetration into the CNS by 5.7- to 56.7-fold compared with that in nonexposed brain (both P Focused ultrasound-enhanced bevacizumab delivery significantly retarded glioma progression, with a significantly increased median survival (median increase in survival time = 135% in the group treated with bevacizumab and focused ultrasound, P Focused ultrasound-enhanced bevacizumab delivery can provide an antivascularization normalization effect to suppress glioma. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. l1-norm regularized beamforming in ultrasound imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz, Teodora; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper is part of the challenge on plane wave imaging in medical ultrasound , organized during the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium 2016 in Tours (France). Herein, we address beamforming in ultrasound imaging, by formulating it, for each image depth, as an inverse problem solved using Laplacian prior through Basis Pursuit (BP). This approach was evaluated for the four different categories proposed for the competition, using 1, 11, 75 plane waves, and for th...