WorldWideScience

Sample records for enhanced ocean observational

  1. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Ocean Cooperation. The EU Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project pools the efforts of 57 European and 5 non-European partners (research institutes, universities, marine service providers, multi-institutional organisations, and the private sector) from 18 countries to collaborate on optimizing and enhancing Atlantic Ocean observing. The project has a budget of € 21M for 4 years (April 2015 - June 2019) and is coordinated by GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany (Prof. Dr. Martin Visbeck). The project is organized along work packages on: i) observing system requirements and design studies, ii) enhancement of ship-based and autonomous observing networks, iii) interfaces with coastal ocean observing systems, iv) integration of regional observing systems, v) cross-cutting issues and emerging networks, vi) data flow and data integration, vii) societal benefits from observing /information systems, viii) system evaluation and resource sustainability. Engagement with wider stakeholders including end-users of Atlantic Ocean observation products and services will also be key throughout the project. The AtlantOS initiative contributes to achieving the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation that was signed in 2013 by the EU, Canada and the US, launching a Transatlantic Ocean Research Alliance to enhance collaboration to better understand the Atlantic Ocean and sustainably manage and use its resources.

  2. Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System to enhance the societal, scientific and economic benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Karstensen, Johannes; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic Ocean observing by establishing an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the EU Horizon 2020 project AtlantOS with its 62 partners from 18 countries (European and international) and several members will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit by supporting the full cycle of the integrated ocean observation value chain from requirements via data gathering and observation, product generation, information, prediction, dissemination and stakeholder dialogue towards information and product provision. The benefits will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality

  3. Ocean Observations of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Don

    2016-01-01

    The ocean influences climate by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of climate change by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use change.Here I summarize the observational evidence of change in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale changes relevant to climate. These include: changes in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional changes in ocean salinity and their link to changes in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and change of ocean current patterns relevant to climate, observations of sea level change and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical changes in the ocean, including ocean acidification.

  4. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.

    2015-01-01

    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to

  5. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  6. Sustaining observations in the polar oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, E P

    2014-09-28

    Polar oceans present a unique set of challenges to sustained observations. Sea ice cover restricts navigation for ships and autonomous measurement platforms alike, and icebergs present a hazard to instruments deployed in the upper ocean and in shelf seas. However, the important role of the poles in the global ocean circulation provides ample justification for sustained observations in these regions, both to monitor the rapid changes taking place, and to better understand climate processes in these traditionally poorly sampled areas. In the past, the vast majority of polar measurements took place in the summer. In recent years, novel techniques such as miniature CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) tags carried by seals have provided an explosion in year-round measurements in areas largely inaccessible to ships, and, as ice avoidance is added to autonomous profiling floats and gliders, these promise to provide further enhancements to observing systems. In addition, remote sensing provides vital information about changes taking place in sea ice cover at both poles. To make these observations sustainable into the future, improved international coordination and collaboration is necessary to gain optimum utilization of observing networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  8. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajka-Williams, E

    2014-09-28

    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation with global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelicher, T. L.; Jaccard, S.; Dunne, J. P.; Paynter, D.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-first century coupled climate model simulations, observations from the recent past, and theoretical arguments suggest a consistent trend towards warmer ocean temperatures and fresher polar surface oceans in response to increased radiative forcing resulting in increased upper ocean stratification and reduced ventilation and oxygenation of the deep ocean. Paleo-proxy records of the warming at the end of the last ice age, however, suggests a different outcome, namely a better ventilated and oxygenated deep ocean with global warming. Here we use a four thousand year global warming simulation from a comprehensive Earth System Model (GFDL ESM2M) to show that this conundrum is a consequence of different rates of warming and that the deep ocean is actually better ventilated and oxygenated in a future warmer equilibrated climate consistent with paleo-proxy records. The enhanced deep ocean ventilation in the Southern Ocean occurs in spite of increased positive surface buoyancy fluxes and a constancy of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds - circumstances that would otherwise be expected to lead to a reduction in deep ocean ventilation. This ventilation recovery occurs through a global scale interaction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation undergoing a multi-centennial recovery after an initial century of transient decrease and transports salinity-rich waters inform the subtropical surface ocean to the Southern Ocean interior on multi-century timescales. The subsequent upwelling of salinity-rich waters in the Southern Ocean strips away the freshwater cap that maintains vertical stability and increases open ocean convection and the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters. As a result, the global ocean oxygen content and the nutrient supply from the deep ocean to the surface are higher in a warmer ocean. The implications for past and future changes in ocean heat and carbon storage will be discussed.

  10. Ocean Observatories and the Integrated Ocean Observing System, IOOS: Developing the Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalo, M. G.

    2006-05-01

    The National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations is responsible for the planning, coordination and development of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System, IOOS, which is both the U.S. contribution to GOOS as well as the ocean component of GEOSS. The IOOS is comprised of global observations as well as regional coastal observations coordinated so as to provide environmental information to optimize societal management decisions including disaster resilience, public health, marine transport, national security, climate and weather impact, and natural resource and ecosystem management. Data comes from distributed sensor systems comprising Federal and state monitoring efforts as well as regional enhancements, which are managed through data management and communications (DMAC) protocols. At present, 11 regional associations oversee the development of the observing System components in their region and are the primary interface with the user community. The ocean observatories are key elements of this National architecture and provide the infrastructure necessary to test new technologies, platforms, methods, models, and practices which, when validated, can transition into the operational components of the IOOS. This allows the IOOS to remain "state of the art" through incorporation of research at all phases. Both the observatories as well as the IOOS will contribute to the enhanced understanding of the ocean and coastal system so as to transform science results into societal solutions.

  11. COPEPOD: The Coastal & Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, & Observation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal & Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, & Observation Database (COPEPOD) provides NMFS scientists with quality-controlled, globally distributed...

  12. Real-time Ocean Observations and Forecast Facility (ROOFF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to visualize "ocean weather" for selected ocean regions. The collection of satellite observations with numerical circulation models...

  13. Advancing coastal ocean modelling, analysis, and prediction for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, John L.; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Allen, Arthur; Baltes, Rebecca; Baptista, Antonio; He, Ruoying; Hogan, Patrick; Kurapov, Alexander; Mehra, Avichal; Quintrell, Josie; Schwab, David; Signell, Richard; Smith, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines strategies that would advance coastal ocean modelling, analysis and prediction as a complement to the observing and data management activities of the coastal components of the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). The views presented are the consensus of a group of US-based researchers with a cross-section of coastal oceanography and ocean modelling expertise and community representation drawn from Regional and US Federal partners in IOOS. Priorities for research and development are suggested that would enhance the value of IOOS observations through model-based synthesis, deliver better model-based information products, and assist the design, evaluation, and operation of the observing system itself. The proposed priorities are: model coupling, data assimilation, nearshore processes, cyberinfrastructure and model skill assessment, modelling for observing system design, evaluation and operation, ensemble prediction, and fast predictors. Approaches are suggested to accomplish substantial progress in a 3–8-year timeframe. In addition, the group proposes steps to promote collaboration between research and operations groups in Regional Associations, US Federal Agencies, and the international ocean research community in general that would foster coordination on scientific and technical issues, and strengthen federal–academic partnerships benefiting IOOS stakeholders and end users.

  14. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  15. NOAA's Role in Sustaining Global Ocean Observations: Future Plans for OAR's Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, James; Legler, David; Piotrowicz, Stephen; Raymond, Megan; Smith, Emily; Tedesco, Kathy; Thurston, Sidney

    2017-04-01

    The Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division (OOMD, formerly the Climate Observation Division) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Program Office provides long-term, high-quality global observations, climate information and products for researchers, forecasters, assessments and other users of environmental information. In this context, OOMD-supported activities serve a foundational role in an enterprise that aims to advance 1) scientific understanding, 2) monitoring and prediction of climate and 3) understanding of potential impacts to enable a climate resilient society. Leveraging approximately 50% of the Global Ocean Observing System, OOMD employs an internationally-coordinated, multi-institution global strategy that brings together data from multiple platforms including surface drifting buoys, Argo profiling floats, flux/transport moorings (RAMA, PIRATA, OceanSITES), GLOSS tide gauges, SOOP-XBT and SOOP-CO2, ocean gliders and repeat hydrographic sections (GO-SHIP). OOMD also engages in outreach, education and capacity development activities to deliver training on the social-economic applications of ocean data. This presentation will highlight recent activities and plans for 2017 and beyond.

  16. PIR Marine Turtle Ocean Captures & Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  17. Coordinated Regional Benefit Studies of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Luger, Michael; Wieand, Ken; Pulsipher, Allan; Pendleton, Linwood; Wellman, Katherine; Pelsoci, Tom

    2003-01-01

    .... The authors will first produce regional "inventories" of ocean observation user sectors, including information about the physical and economic scale of their activities, how products from improved...

  18. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: The Gulf Component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L. J.; Moersdorf, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The United States is developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as the U.S. component of the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). IOOS consists of: (1) a coastal observing system for the U.S. EEZ, estuaries, and Great Lakes; and (2) a contribution to the global component of GOOS focused on climate and maritime services. The coastal component will consist of: (1) a National Backbone of observations and products from our coastal ocean supported by federal agencies; and (2) contributions of Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (RCOOS). The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) is one of eleven RCOOS. This paper describes how GCOOS is progressing as a system of systems to carry out data collection, analysis, product generation, dissemination of information, and data archival. These elements are provided by federal, state, and local government agencies, academic institutions, non-government organization, and the private sector. This end-to-end system supports the seven societal goals of the IOOS, as provided by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy: detect and forecast oceanic components of climate variability, facilitate safe and efficient marine operations, ensure national security, manage marine resources, preserve and restore healthy marine ecosystems, mitigate natural hazards, and ensure public health. The initial building blocks for GCOOS include continuing in situ observations, satellite products, models, and other information supported by federal and state government, private industry, and academia. GCOOS has compiled an inventory of such activities, together with descriptions, costs, sources of support, and possible out-year budgets. These activities provide information that will have broader use as they are integrated and enhanced. GCOOS has begun that process by several approaches. First, GCOOS has established a web site (www.gcoos.org) which is a portal to such activities and contains pertinent information

  19. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  20. The Impact of Ocean Observations in Seasonal Climate Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienecker, Michele; Keppenne, Christian; Kovach, Robin; Marshak, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The ocean provides the most significant memory for the climate system. Hence, a critical element in climate forecasting with coupled models is the initialization of the ocean with states from an ocean data assimilation system. Remotely-sensed ocean surface fields (e.g., sea surface topography, SST, winds) are now available for extensive periods and have been used to constrain ocean models to provide a record of climate variations. Since the ocean is virtually opaque to electromagnetic radiation, the assimilation of these satellite data is essential to extracting the maximum information content. More recently, the Argo drifters have provided unprecedented sampling of the subsurface temperature and salinity. Although the duration of this observation set has been too short to provide solid statistical evidence of its impact, there are indications that Argo improves the forecast skill of coupled systems. This presentation will address the impact these different observations have had on seasonal climate predictions with the GMAO's coupled model.

  1. Observing the Ocean from Space: Emerging Capabilities in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Johnny A.; Le Provost, Christian; Drange, Helge; Srokosz, Meric; Woodworth, Philip; Sclüssel, Peter; Le Grand, Pascal; Kerr, Yann; Wingham, Duncan; Rebhan, Helge

    2001-01-01

    Chap. 2.7 of "Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century, Chester J. Koblinsky and Neville R. Smith (Eds.)" http://www.bom.gov.au/GODAE/ocean_book.html During the first decade of the 21st century Earth observation from satellites will be faced with two major demands: provision of continuity missions and launch of new exploratory missions. This paper addresses European plans for new Earth observations in the context of Ocean Observing System for Climate at the onset of this new millennium. It...

  2. Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bindoff, N.L.; Willebrand, J.; Artale, V.; Cazenave, A; Gregory, J.; Gulev, S.; Hanawa, K.; LeQuere, C.; Levitus, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Shum, C.K.; Talley, L.D.; Unnikrishnan, A

    change is 10.9 ± 3.1 × 10 22 J or 0.14 ± 0.04 W m –2 (data from Levitus et al., 2005a). All of these estimates are per unit area of Earth surface. Despite the fact that there are differences between these three ocean heat content estimates due... to the data used, quality control applied, instrumental biases, temporal and spatial averaging and analysis methods (Appendix 5.A.1), they are consistent with each other giving a high degree of confidence for their use in climate change studies. The global...

  3. Autonomous observing strategies for the ocean carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, James K.; Davis, Russ E.

    2000-07-26

    Understanding the exchanges of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean and the fate of carbon delivered to the deep sea is fundamental to the evaluation of ocean carbon sequestration options. An additional key requirement is that sequestration must be verifiable and that environmental effects be monitored and minimized. These needs can be addressed by carbon system observations made from low-cost autonomous ocean-profiling floats and gliders. We have developed a prototype ocean carbon system profiler based on the Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO; Davis et al., 1999). The SOLO/ carbon profiler will measure the two biomass components of the carbon system and their relationship to physical variables, such as upper ocean stratification and mixing. The autonomous observations within the upper 1500 m will be made on daily time scales for periods of months to seasons and will be carried out in biologically dynamic locations in the world's oceans that are difficult to access with ships (due to weather) or observe using remote sensing satellites (due to cloud cover). Such an observational capability not only will serve an important role in carbon sequestration research but will provide key observations of the global ocean's natural carbon cycle.

  4. Are Global In-Situ Ocean Observations Fit-for-purpose? Applying the Framework for Ocean Observing in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbeck, M.; Fischer, A. S.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Mowlem, M. C.; Speich, S.; Larkin, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are an increasing number of global, regional and local processes that are in need of integrated ocean information. In the sciences ocean information is needed to support physical ocean and climate studies for example within the World Climate Research Programme and its CLIVAR project, biogeochemical issues as articulated by the GCP, IMBER and SOLAS projects of ICSU-SCOR and Future Earth. This knowledge gets assessed in the area of climate by the IPCC and biodiversity by the IPBES processes. The recently released first World Ocean Assessment focuses more on ecosystem services and there is an expectation that the Sustainable Development Goals and in particular Goal 14 on the Ocean and Seas will generate new demands for integrated ocean observing from Climate to Fish and from Ocean Resources to Safe Navigation and on a healthy, productive and enjoyable ocean in more general terms. In recognition of those increasing needs for integrated ocean information we have recently launched the Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project to promote the transition from a loosely-coordinated set of existing ocean observing activities to a more integrated, more efficient, more sustainable and fit-for-purpose Atlantic Ocean Observing System. AtlantOS takes advantage of the Framework for Ocean observing that provided strategic guidance for the design of the project and its outcome. AtlantOS will advance the requirements and systems design, improving the readiness of observing networks and data systems, and engaging stakeholders around the Atlantic. AtlantOS will bring Atlantic nations together to strengthen their complementary contributions to and benefits from the internationally coordinated Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Blue Planet Initiative of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). AtlantOS will fill gaps of the in-situ observing system networks and will ensure that their data are readily accessible and useable. AtlantOS will demonstrate the utility of

  5. Coordination and Integration of Global Ocean Observing through JCOMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, D. M.; Meldrum, D. T.; Hill, K. L.; Charpentier, E.

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of the JCOMM Observations Coordination Group (OCG) is to provide technical coordination to implement fully integrated ocean observing system across the entire marine meteorology and oceanographic community. JCOMM OCG works in partnership with the Global Ocean Observing System, , which focusses on setting observing system requirements and conducting evalutions. JCOMM OCG initially focused on major global observing networks (e.g. Argo profiling floats, moored buoys, ship based observations, sea level stations, reference sites, etc), and is now expanding its horizon in recognition of new observing needs and new technologies/networks (e.g. ocean gliders). Over the next five years the JCOMM OCG is focusing its attention on integration and coordination in four major areas: observing network implementation particularly in response to integrated ocean observing requirements; observing system monitoring and metrics; standards and best practices; and improving integrated data management and access. This presentation will describe the scope and mission of JCOMM OCG; summarize the state of the global ocean observing system; highlight recent successes and resources for the research, prediction, and assessment communities; summarize our plans for the next several years; and suggest engagement opportunities.

  6. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We develop a methodology to estimate the potential economic benefits from new investments in regional coastal ocean observing systems in US waters, and apply this methodology to generate preliminary...

  7. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ... prediction, offshore energy, power generation, and commercial fishing. Our findings suggest that annual benefits to users from the deployment of ocean observing systems are likely to run in the multiple...

  8. Promoting Implementation of Multi-Disciplinary Sustained Ocean Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Bourassa, Mark; Hill, Katherine; Miloslavich, Patricia; Simmons, Samantha; Sloyan, Bernadette; Telszewski, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Since the OceanObs'09 Conference, the ocean observing community has been improving coordination and collaboration amongst physical, biogeochemical and biology/ecosystem communities. Societal and scientific requirements for sustained observations are being captured in Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs), many of which are also Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System reporting to the UNFCCC. Significant progress has been made through the introduction of the Framework for Ocean Observing in 2012 and the creation and refinement of the disciplinary EOVs, based on expert evaluation of feasibility and impact. With advances in observing technology, and the definition of EOVs, clear opportunities exist to improve the coordinated planning and implementation of observing activities measuring EOVs across the three disciplines of physical, biogeochemical and biology/ecosystem oceanography. In early 2017, a workshop examined priority steps forward with the objectives: • To build on the established societal and scientific requirements expressed in EOVs, identify the key applications and phenomena that will benefit from co-located multi-disciplinary sustained observations • To identify near-term innovation priorities for observing platforms and sensors to enable multi-disciplinary observations, and • To identify programmatic and professional connections between existing and emerging observing networks that will increase multi-disciplinary observations. To support these objectives and to provide a mechanism for looking at convergence across the oceans disciplines, three preselected demonstration themes were defined and discussed: • Changes in plankton communities (including ocean color), • Oxygen minimum zones, • Open ocean/shelf interactions (including boundary currents) These themes were chosen because they represent global and challenging problems that are best addressed through collaboration of physical, biogeochemical and

  9. Validation and Inter-comparison Against Observations of GODAE Ocean View Ocean Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Smith, G. C.; Lu, Y.; Hernandez, F.; Regnier, C.; Drevillon, M.; Ryan, A.; Martin, M.; Spindler, T. D.; Brassington, G. B.; Oke, P. R.

    2016-02-01

    For weather forecasts, validation of forecast performance is done at the end user level as well as by the meteorological forecast centers. In the development of Ocean Prediction Capacity, the same level of care for ocean forecast performance and validation is needed. Herein we present results from a validation against observations of 6 Global Ocean Forecast Systems under the GODAE OceanView International Collaboration Network. These systems include the Global Ocean Ice Forecast System (GIOPS) developed by the Government of Canada, two systems PSY3 and PSY4 from the French Mercator-Ocean Ocean Forecasting Group, the FOAM system from UK met office, HYCOM-RTOFS from NOAA/NCEP/NWA of USA, and the Australian Bluelink-OceanMAPS system from the CSIRO, the Australian Meteorological Bureau and the Australian Navy.The observation data used in the comparison are sea surface temperature, sub-surface temperature, sub-surface salinity, sea level anomaly, and sea ice total concentration data. Results of the inter-comparison demonstrate forecast performance limits, strengths and weaknesses of each of the six systems. This work establishes validation protocols and routines by which all new prediction systems developed under the CONCEPTS Collaborative Network will be benchmarked prior to approval for operations. This includes anticipated delivery of CONCEPTS regional prediction systems over the next two years including a pan Canadian 1/12th degree resolution ice ocean prediction system and limited area 1/36th degree resolution prediction systems. The validation approach of comparing forecasts to observations at the time and location of the observation is called Class 4 metrics. It has been adopted by major international ocean prediction centers, and will be recommended to JCOMM-WMO as routine validation approach for operational oceanography worldwide.

  10. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  11. Assessing GOCE Gravity Models using Altimetry and In-situ Ocean Current Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Honecker, Johanna

    gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features and the associated geostrophic surface currents reveal improvements for all of the ocean's current systems. In this study, a series of 23 newer gravity models including observations from...... as quantified quality measures associated with the 23 GOCE gravity models.......The Gravity and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth's gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. Previous results have demonstrated a significant advance in our ability to determine the ocean's general circulation. The improved...

  12. Improving NOAA's NWLON Through Enhanced Data Inputs from NASA's Ocean Surface Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, DeNeice C.

    2010-01-01

    This report assesses the benefit of incorporating NASA's OSTM (Ocean Surface Topography Mission) altimeter data (C- and Ku-band) into NOAA's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) NWLON (National Water Level Observation Network) DSS (Decision Support System). This data will enhance the NWLON DSS by providing additional inforrnation because not all stations collect all meteorological parameters (sea-surface height, ocean tides, wave height, and wind speed over waves). OSTM will also provide data where NWLON stations are not present. OSTM will provide data on seasurface heights for determining sea-level rise and ocean circulation. Researchers and operational users currently use satellite altimeter data products with the GSFCOO NASA data model to obtain sea-surface height and ocean circulation inforrnation. Accurate and tirnely inforrnation concerning sea-level height, tide, and ocean currents is needed to irnprove coastal tidal predictions, tsunarni and storm surge warnings, and wetland restoration.

  13. Scientists and Educators: Joining Forces to Enhance Ocean Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener-Chavis, P.

    2004-12-01

    The need for scientists to work with educators to enhance the general public's understanding of science has been addressed for years in reports like Science for All Americans (1990), NSF in a Changing World (1995), Turning to the Sea: America's Ocean Future (1999), Discovering the Earth's Final Frontier, A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration (2000), and most recently, the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Report (2004). As reported in The National Science Foundation's Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) Workshop Report (2000), "The Ocean Sciences community did not answer (this) call, even though their discovery that the ocean was a more critical driving force in the natural environment than previously thought possessed great educational significance." It has been further acknowledged that "rapid and extensive improvement of science education is unlikely to occur until it becomes clear to scientists that they have an obligation to become involved in elementary- and secondary-level science (The Role of Scientists in the Professional Development of Science Teachers, National Research Council, 1996.) This presentation will focus on teachers' perceptions of how scientists conduct research, scientists' perceptions of how teachers should teach, and some misconceptions between the two groups. Criteria for high-quality professional development for teachers working with scientists will also be presented, along with a brief overview of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Ocean Exploration program efforts to bring teachers and ocean scientists together to further ocean science literacy at the national level through recommendations put forth in the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Report (2004).

  14. Evaluation of Oceanic Surface Observation for Reproducing the Upper Ocean Structure in ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Zheng, Fei; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Better constraints of initial conditions from data assimilation are necessary for climate simulations and predictions, and they are particularly important for the ocean due to its long climate memory; as such, ocean data assimilation (ODA) is regarded as an effective tool for seasonal to decadal predictions. In this work, an ODA system is established for a coupled climate model (ECHAM5/MPI-OM), which can assimilate all available oceanic observations using an ensemble optimal interpolation approach. To validate and isolate the performance of different surface observations in reproducing air-sea climate variations in the model, a set of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) was performed over 150 model years. Generally, assimilating sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and sea surface height (SSH) can reasonably reproduce the climate variability and vertical structure of the upper ocean, and assimilating SSH achieves the best results compared to the true states. For the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), assimilating different surface observations captures true aspects of ENSO well, but assimilating SSH can further enhance the accuracy of ENSO-related feedback processes in the coupled model, leading to a more reasonable ENSO evolution and air-sea interaction over the tropical Pacific. For ocean heat content, there are still limitations in reproducing the long time-scale variability in the North Atlantic, even if SSH has been taken into consideration. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of assimilating surface observations in capturing the interannual signal and, to some extent, the decadal signal but still highlight the necessity of assimilating profile data to reproduce specific decadal variability.

  15. A new space technology for ocean observation: the SMOS mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Font

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Capability for sea surface salinity observation was an important gap in ocean remote sensing in the last few decades of the 20th century. New technological developments during the 1990s at the European Space Agency led to the proposal of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, an Earth explorer opportunity mission based on the use of a microwave interferometric radiometer, MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis. SMOS, the first satellite ever addressing the observation of ocean salinity from space, was successfully launched in November 2009. The determination of salinity from the MIRAS radiometric measurements at 1.4 GHz is a complex procedure that requires high performance from the instrument and accurate modelling of several physical processes that impact on the microwave emission of the ocean’s surface. This paper introduces SMOS in the ocean remote sensing context, and summarizes the MIRAS principles of operation and the SMOS salinity retrieval approach. It describes the Spanish SMOS high-level data processing centre (CP34 and the SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre on Radiometric Calibration and Ocean Salinity (SMOS-BEC, and presents a preliminary validation of global sea surface salinity maps operationally produced by CP34.

  16. The RITMARE Ocean Observing System for the Italian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crise, A.

    2016-02-01

    Among its objectives, the Italian RITMARE Flagship Programme has the aim to produce a prototype of the RITMARE Ocean observing system explicitelly designed to provide a powerful infrastructure to the Italian marine science community, to help implement national and Europen environmental regulations and to contribute to the future European Ocean Observing System. The projects takes advantage of the existing platforms (fixed-point moorings, HF and X-band radars, gliders, satellite products), that constitute the basic components of the system. The structure of the RITMARE Ocean observing system is composed by a permanent component (mooring network, satellite images, HF radars) and relocatable component (gliders, drifters, relocatable infrastructures). The increasing number of available relocatable/expandable platforms allow a much larger flexibility in term of allocation of observations but requires an sampling strategy the can be modified according the scientific and socio-economic priorities. As an example, RITMARE focus is set on an experiment on the South Adriatic Pit convective area and its dynamic interactions with the adjacent Bari Canyon cascading site. (Central Mediterranean Sea). Additional effort is paid to support innovation for sensors (e.g. ship-borne LIDAR, stereo-optic directional wave detection, X-band radar innovative products), operational employment of gliders (e.g. Wave Glider) and new class of operational models. The integration can be obtained at different level: the is expected to be achieved at ICT level by defining standard interfaces (NedCDF, SOS) and catalogs in order to facilitate the discovery, viewing and downloading services of data and products. The implementation of a distributed platform-oriented RT repositories adopt a number of THREDDS web servers that act as endpoints for the RITMARE portal. The final aim is to decouple the platforms from the observations, moving from a set of observation to a suite of Essential Ocean Variables by

  17. Recent Ship, Satellite and Autonomous Observations of Southern Ocean Eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutton, P. G.; Moreau, S.; Llort, J.; Phillips, H. E.; Patel, R.; Della Penna, A.; Langlais, C.; Lenton, A.; Matear, R.; Dawson, H.; Boyd, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is the area of greatest uncertainty regarding the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere. It is also a region of abundant energetic eddies that significantly impact circulation and biogeochemistry. In the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, cyclonic eddies are unusual in that they are upwelling favorable, as for cyclonic eddies elsewhere, but during summer they are low in silicate and phytoplankton biomass. The reverse is true for anticyclonic eddies in that they have counter-intuitive positive chlorophyll anomalies in summer. Similar but less obvious patterns occur in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors. Using ship, satellite and autonomous observations in the region south of Australia, the physical and biogeochemical signatures of both types of eddies were documented in 2016. A cyclonic eddy that lived for seven weeks exhibited doming isopycnals indicative of upwelling. However, low surface silicate and chlorophyll concentrations appeared to be characteristic of surface waters to the south where the eddy formed. Higher chlorophyll was confined to filaments at the eddy edge. Surface nitrate and phosphate concentrations were more than sufficient for a bloom of non-siliceous phytoplankton to occur. Acoustic observations from a high resolution TRIAXUS transect through the eddy documented high zooplankton biomass in the upper 150m. It is hypothesized that a non-diatom bloom was prevented by grazing pressure, but light may have also been an important limiting resource in late summer (April). Two SOCCOM floats that were deployed in the eddy field continued to monitor the physics, nitrate and bio-optics through the transition to winter. These observations across complementary platforms have identified and then explained the reason for these unexpected biological anomalies in an energetic and globally important region of the global ocean. Understanding the role of eddies in this region will be critical to the representation of mesoscale

  18. Observing climate change trends in ocean biogeochemistry: when and where.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Stephanie A; Beaulieu, Claudie; Lampitt, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the influence of anthropogenic forcing on the marine biosphere is a high priority. Climate change-driven trends need to be accurately assessed and detected in a timely manner. As part of the effort towards detection of long-term trends, a network of ocean observatories and time series stations provide high quality data for a number of key parameters, such as pH, oxygen concentration or primary production (PP). Here, we use an ensemble of global coupled climate models to assess the temporal and spatial scales over which observations of eight biogeochemically relevant variables must be made to robustly detect a long-term trend. We find that, as a global average, continuous time series are required for between 14 (pH) and 32 (PP) years to distinguish a climate change trend from natural variability. Regional differences are extensive, with low latitudes and the Arctic generally needing shorter time series (ocean surface. Our results present a quantitative framework for assessing the adequacy of current and future ocean observing networks for detection and monitoring of climate change-driven responses in the marine ecosystem. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Enhanced weathering strategies for stabilizing climate and averting ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m-2 yr-1) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  20. Enhanced Weathering Strategies for Stabilizing Climate and Averting Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m(exp -2) yr (exp -1)) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  1. Towards a regional coastal ocean observing system: An initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, H. E.; Fletcher, M.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Nelson, J. R.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2009-05-01

    A conceptual design for a southeast United States regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) is built upon a partnership between institutions of the region and among elements of the academic, government and private sectors. This design envisions support of a broad range of applications (e.g., marine operations, natural hazards, and ecosystem-based management) through the routine operation of predictive models that utilize the system observations to ensure their validity. A distributed information management system enables information flow, and a centralized information hub serves to aggregate information regionally and distribute it as needed. A variety of observing assets are needed to satisfy model requirements. An initial distribution of assets is proposed that recognizes the physical structure and forcing in the southeast U.S. coastal ocean. In-situ data collection includes moorings, profilers and gliders to provide 3D, time-dependent sampling, HF radar and surface drifters for synoptic sampling of surface currents, and satellite remote sensing of surface ocean properties. Nested model systems are required to properly represent ocean conditions from the outer edge of the EEZ to the watersheds. An effective RCOOS will depend upon a vital "National Backbone" (federally supported) system of in situ and satellite observations, model products, and data management. This dependence highlights the needs for a clear definition of the National Backbone components and a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that defines the roles, functions and interactions of regional and federal components of the integrated system. A preliminary CONOPS is offered for the Southeast (SE) RCOOS. Thorough system testing is advocated using a combination of application-specific and process-oriented experiments. Estimates of costs and personnel required as initial components of the SE RCOOS are included. Initial thoughts on the Research and Development program required to support the RCOOS are

  2. The enhanced nodal equilibrium ocean tide and polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, B. V.

    1979-01-01

    The tidal response of the ocean to long period forcing functions was investigated. The results indicate the possibility of excitation of a wobble component with the amplitude and frequency indicated by the data. An enhancement function for the equilibrium tide was postulated in the form of an expansion in zonal harmonics and the coefficients of such an expansion were estimated so as to obtain polar motion components of the required magnitude.

  3. Impact of Langmuir Turbulence on Upper Ocean Response to Hurricane Edouard: Model and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A.; Ginis, I.; Hara, T.; Ulhorn, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclone intensity is strongly affected by the air-sea heat flux beneath the storm. When strong storm winds enhance upper ocean turbulent mixing and entrainment of colder water from below the thermocline, the resulting sea surface temperature cooling may reduce the heat flux to the storm and weaken the storm. Recent studies suggest that this upper ocean turbulence is strongly affected by different sea states (Langmuir turbulence), which are highly complex and variable in tropical cyclone conditions. In this study, the upper ocean response under Hurricane Edouard (2014) is investigated using a coupled ocean-wave model with and without an explicit sea state dependent Langmuir turbulence parameterization. The results are compared with in situ observations of sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth from AXBTs, as well as satellite sea surface temperature observations. Overall, the model results of mixed layer deepening and sea surface temperature cooling under and behind the storm are consistent with observations. The model results show that the effects of sea state dependent Langmuir turbulence can be significant, particularly on the mixed layer depth evolution. Although available observations are not sufficient to confirm such effects, some observed trends suggest that the sea state dependent parameterization might be more accurate than the traditional (sea state independent) parameterization.

  4. Novel compact tiltmeter for ocean bottom and other frontier observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Akiteru; Araya, Akito; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Shinohara, Masanao; Bertolini, Alessandro; DeSalvo, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Long-term observations conducted with large arrays of tiltmeters deployed in ocean-bottom boreholes, on the seafloor and in other hazardous regions are expected to provide rich information useful in geosciences, social engineering, resource monitoring and other applications. To facilitate such observations, we designed and built a compact, highly sensitive tiltmeter with sufficient performance, comparable to that of much larger instruments that are difficult to operate in the target locations. The new tiltmeter is suitable for observations requiring multiple instruments because its design is optimized for low-cost mass production. This paper describes its key technologies, including a very compact folded pendulum and an optical fiber readout. Preliminary results of test observations conducted using a prototype tiltmeter are compared with a conventional water-tube tiltmeter

  5. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  6. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS): New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerhayes, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    GOOS will provide information about the present and future states of seas and oceans and their living resources, and on the role of the oceans in climate change. Among other things, it will include monitoring the extent to which the sea is polluted, and applying models enabling the behaviour of polluted environments to be forecast given a variety of forcing conditions including anthropogenic and natural changes. Implementation has begun through integration of previously separate existing observing systems into a GOOS Initial Observing System, and through the development of Pilot Projects, most notably in the coastal seas of Europe and North-east Asia. Although the present emphasis is on the measurement of physical properties, plans are underway for increasing the observation of chemical and biological parameters. The main biological thrust at present comes through the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN). Consideration needs to be given to incorporation into the GOOS Initial Observing System of present national, international and global chemical and biological monitoring systems, and the development and implementation of new chemical and biological monitoring subsystems, especially in coastal seas for monitoring the health of those environments. GOOS will offer marine scientists and other users a scheme of continuing measurements on a scale larger in time and space than can be accomplished by individuals for their own applications, and a vastly improved store of basic marine environmental data for a multitude of purposes. For GOOS news see the GOOS Homepage at http://ioc.unesco.org/GOOS/. (author)

  7. RU COOL's scalable educational focus on immersing society in the ocean through ocean observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, O.; McDonnell, J. D.; Kohut, J. T.; Glenn, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Many regions of the ocean are exhibiting significant change, suggesting the need to develop effective focused education programs for a range of constituencies (K-12, undergraduate, and general public). We have been focused on developing a range of educational tools in a multi-pronged strategy built around using streaming data delivered through customized web services, focused undergraduate tiger teams, teacher training and video/documentary film-making. Core to the efforts is on engaging the undergraduate community by leveraging the data management tools of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and the education tools of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ocean Observing Initiative (OOI). These intuitive interactive browser-based tools reduce the barriers for student participation in sea exploration and discovery, and allowing them to become "field going" oceanographers while sitting at their desk. Those undergraduate student efforts complement efforts to improve educator and student engagement in ocean sciences through exposure to scientists and data. Through professional development and the creation of data tools, we will reduce the logistical costs of bringing ocean science to students in grades 6-16. We are providing opportunities to: 1) build capacity of scientists in communicating and engaging with diverse audiences; 2) create scalable, in-person and virtual opportunities for educators and students to engage with scientists and their research through data visualizations, data activities, educator workshops, webinars, and student research symposia. We are using a blended learning approach to promote partnerships and cross-disciplinary sharing. Finally we use data and video products to entrain public support through the development of science documentaries about the science and people who conduct it. For example Antarctic Edge is a feature length award-winning documentary about climate change that has garnered interest in movie theatres

  8. Transformative ocean science through the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada ocean observing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Taylor, S.

    2009-01-01

    The health of the world's oceans and their impact on global environmental and climate change make the development of cabled observing systems vital and timely as a data source and archive of unparalleled importance for new discoveries. The VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories are on the forefront of a new generation of ocean science and technology. Funding of over $100M, principally from the Governments of Canada and BC, for these two observatories supports integrated ocean systems science at a regional scale enabled by new developments in powered sub-sea cable technology and in cyber-infrastructure that streams continuous real-time data to Internet-based web platforms. VENUS is a coastal observatory supporting two instrumented arrays in the Saanich Inlet, near Victoria, and in the Strait of Georgia, off Vancouver. NEPTUNE Canada is an 800 km system on the Juan de Fuca Plate off the west coast of British Columbia, which will have five instrumented nodes in operation over the next 18 months. This paper describes the development and management of these two observatories, the principal research themes, and the applications of the research to public policy, economic development, and public education and outreach. Both observatories depend on partnerships with universities, government agencies, private sector companies, and NGOs. International collaboration is central to the development of the research programs, including partnerships with initiatives in the EU, US, Japan, Taiwan and China.

  9. ESONET , a milestone towards sustained multidisciplinary ocean observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, J.-F.

    2012-04-01

    At the end of a 4 year project dedicated to the constitution of a Network of Excellence (NoE) on subsea observatories in Europe, large expectations are still in the agenda. The economical crisis changes the infrastructure construction planning in many ways but the objectives are quite clear and may be reached at European scale. The overall objective of the ESONET NoE was to create an organisation able to implement, operate and maintain a sustainable underwater observation network, extending into deep water, capable of monitoring biological, geo-chemical, geological, geophysical and physical processes occurring throughout the water column, sea floor interface and solid earth below. This main objective of ESONET has been met by creating the network of 11 permanent underwater observation sites together with the "ESONET Vi" Virtual Institute organising the exchange of staff and joint experiments on EMSO large research infrastructure observatories. The development of recommendations on best practices, standardization and interoperability concepts concerning underwater observatory equipment, as synthetized by the so called ESONET Label document has been created. The ESONET Label is a set of criteria to be met by the deep-sea observatory equipment as well as recommended solutions and options to guarantee their optimal operation in the ocean over long time periods. ESONET contributes to the fixed point sustained observatory community which extends worldwide, is fully multidisciplinary and in its way may open a new page in ocean sciences history.

  10. Ocean Response to Tropical Storms as Observed by a Moored Ocean Observing System in the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropeza, F.; Jaramillo, S.; Fan, S.

    2013-05-01

    As part of the support activities for a deepwater development in the Gulf of Mexico, a moored ocean observing system (OOS) was deployed in a water depth of approximately 2500m, 300km south of the Louisiana Coast. From June 2007 to May 2009, the system comprised seven single point Aanderaa Recording Current Meters (RCM), deployed at 450m, 700m, 1,100m, 1,500m, 2,000m, 2,400m and 2,490m below surface, and an RDI 75kHz Longranger Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), deployed between 249 and 373m below surface in upward-looking mode. Since May 2009, the OOS was upgraded to a Wavescan Buoy based moored system including meteorological sensors for: atmospheric pressure, air temperature, wind speed and direction; directional waves sensor; a Doppler Current Sensor (DCS) at 1.5 m depth for surface currents; and two downward-looking ADCP's covering the upper 1,000m of the water column. This OOS has been operating without interruptions from 2007 to the present and has registered data associated with nine tropical storms, including the direct passage of Hurricane Ike, in September of 2008, and loop current events with speeds of up to 4 knots. It has provided one of the most comprehensive set of velocity observations in the Gulf of Mexico, especially, the near surface currents, during pre-storm conditions, response, and ocean relaxation following hurricanes/tropical storms. Based on these observations the upper ocean responses to the energy input from tropical storms are characterized in terms of the associated mixing processes and momentum balances.

  11. Tropical cyclone turbulent mixing as observed by autonomous oceanic profilers with the high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, D B; Malinowski, S P; Flatau, P J

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the ocean mixed layer caused by passage of two consecutive typhoons in the Western Pacific are presented. Ocean profiles were measured by a unique Argo float sampling the upper ocean in high repetition cycle with a period of about one day. It is shown that the typhoon passage coincides with cooling of the mixed layer and variations of its salinity. Independent data from satellite measurements of surface winds were used to set-up an and idealized numerical simulation of mixed layer evolution. Results, compared to Argo profiles, confirm known effect that cooling is a result of increased entrainment from the thermocline due to enhancement of turbulence in the upper ocean by the wind stress. Observed pattern of salinity changes in the mixed layer suggest important role of typhoon precipitation. Fast changes of the mixed layer in course of typhoon passage show that fast profiling (at least once a day) is crucial to study response of the upper ocean to tropical cyclone.

  12. The inverse problem: Ocean tides derived from earth tide observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Indirect mapping ocean tides by means of land and island-based tidal gravity measurements is presented. The inverse scheme of linear programming is used for indirect mapping of ocean tides. Open ocean tides were measured by the numerical integration of Laplace's tidal equations.

  13. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.

    2015-08-31

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate1 and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification2, 3. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs4, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production5. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145–2,099 μatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  14. Ship Sensor Observations for The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the US Coast Guard icebreaker Healy during the "The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005" expedition sponsored by the...

  15. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) with Enhanced Trimming, Release 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains the latest official release of International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) with Enhanced Trimming, provided in a common...

  16. Existing and Emerging Best Practices for Ocean Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Simpson, P.; Arko, R. A.; Garello, R.; Pissierssens, P.

    2016-12-01

    Best practices emerge from experience, usually at the local level - in universities, private and public research institutions and other organizations. Large programs such as the European FixO3 for fixed mooring observations or IOOS in the USA for data management may document best practices and urge propagation of techniques. Sometimes communities come together under projects such as the Ocean Data Interoperability Project (ODIP), AtlantOS or international organizations such as the UNESCO IODE or GOOS to create a forum for discussing, recommending and documenting observation and data practices. On the whole the process is fragmented and results are difficult to sustain. From this perspective, several projects and organizations such as ODIP, IODE and AtlantOS are working in collaboration with Ocean Networks Canada, IOOS and selected European projects to address means of improved access to documented best practices and a way to provide the observing community with a compendium that can be sustained for use in training new oceanographers and data scientists and also providing references for experts that are working across disciplines. Where practical, a solution should reach across science communities and networks to support multi-disciplinary applications The initial challenge is to create a base for efficient discovery of documented best practices and getting sufficient documentation in the first place. Working across disciplines, this becomes both a question of appropriate vocabularies and some means for a scientist to understand the background, provenance (including any certification) and value of a best practice. New approaches to semantics and Linked Data, and increasing use of persistent identifiers such as Open Researcher and Contributor IDs (ORCIDs) and International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs), will facilitate distributed search across repositories. The approach must be scalable and easy for users to engage so provision of best practice documentation has a low

  17. Observational description of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers over the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dourado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Time evolution of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers are described for an upwelling region in the Atlantic Ocean located in Cabo Frio, Brazil (23°00'S, 42°08'W. The observations were obtained during a field campaign carried out by the "Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira", on board of the oceanographic ship Antares of the Brazilian Navy, between July 7 and 10 of 1992. The analysis shown here was based on 19 simultaneous vertical soundings of atmosphere and ocean, carried out consecutively every 4 hours. The period of observation was characterized by a passage of a cold front that penetrated in Cabo Frio on July 6. During the cold front passage the vertical extension of atmospheric (and oceanic mixed layer varied from 200 m (and 13 m to 1000 m (and 59 m. These changes occurred in the first day of observation and were followed by an increase of 1.2°C in the oceanic mixed layer temperature and by a decrease of 6 K and 6 g/kg in the virtual potential temperature and specific humidity of the atmospheric mixed layer. The short time scale variations in the ocean can be explained in terms of the substitution of cold upwelling water by warm downwelling water regime, as the surface winds shift from pre-frontal NE to post-frontal SSW during the cold front passage in Cabo Frio. The large vertical extent of the atmospheric mixed layer can be explained in terms of an intensification of the thermal mixing induced by the warming of the oceanic upper layers combined with the cooling of the lower atmospheric layers during the cold front passage. An intensification of the mechanical mixing, observed during the cold front passage, may also be contributing to the observed variations in the vertical extent of both layers.A evolução temporal das camadas limites atmosféricas e oceânicas são descritas para a região de ressurgência do Oceano Atlântico localizada em Cabo Frio. As observações foram obtidas durante a campanha de medidas

  18. Time Series Observations in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoy, D.M.; Naik, H.; Kurian, S.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Khare, N.

    Ocean and the ongoing time series study (Candolim Time Series; CaTS) off Goa. In addition, this article also focuses on the new time series initiative in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal under Sustained Indian Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem...

  19. Coastal Ocean Observing Network - Open Source Architecture for Data Management and Web-Based Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattabhi Rama Rao, E.; Venkat Shesu, R.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.

    2012-07-01

    The observations from the oceans are the backbone for any kind of operational services, viz. potential fishing zone advisory services, ocean state forecast, storm surges, cyclones, monsoon variability, tsunami, etc. Though it is important to monitor open Ocean, it is equally important to acquire sufficient data in the coastal ocean through coastal ocean observing systems for re-analysis, analysis and forecast of coastal ocean by assimilating different ocean variables, especially sub-surface information; validation of remote sensing data, ocean and atmosphere model/analysis and to understand the processes related to air-sea interaction and ocean physics. Accurate information and forecast of the state of the coastal ocean at different time scales is vital for the wellbeing of the coastal population as well as for the socio-economic development of the country through shipping, offshore oil and energy etc. Considering the importance of ocean observations in terms of understanding our ocean environment and utilize them for operational oceanography, a large number of platforms were deployed in the Indian Ocean including coastal observatories, to acquire data on ocean variables in and around Indian Seas. The coastal observation network includes HF Radars, wave rider buoys, sea level gauges, etc. The surface meteorological and oceanographic data generated by these observing networks are being translated into ocean information services through analysis and modelling. Centralized data management system is a critical component in providing timely delivery of Ocean information and advisory services. In this paper, we describe about the development of open-source architecture for real-time data reception from the coastal observation network, processing, quality control, database generation and web-based data services that includes on-line data visualization and data downloads by various means.

  20. Thermal power plant efficiency enhancement with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio

    2014-01-01

    In addition to greenhouse gas emissions, coastal thermal power plants would gain further opposition due to their heat rejection distressing the local ecosystem. Therefore, these plants need to enhance their thermal efficiency while reducing their environmental offense. In this study, a hybrid plant based on the principle of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion was coupled to a 740 MW coal-fired power plant project located at latitude 28°S where the surface to deepwater temperature difference would not suffice for regular OTEC plants. This paper presents the thermodynamical model to assess the overall efficiency gained by adopting an ammonia Rankine cycle plus a desalinating unit, heated by the power plant condenser discharge and refrigerated by cold deep seawater. The simulation allowed us to optimize a system that would finally enhance the plant power output by 25–37 MW, depending on the season, without added emissions while reducing dramatically the water temperature at discharge and also desalinating up to 5.8 million tons per year. The supplemental equipment was sized and the specific emissions reduction was estimated. We believe that this approach would improve the acceptability of thermal and nuclear power plant projects regardless of the plant location. -- Highlights: • An Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion hybrid plant was designed. • The waste heat of a power plant was delivered as an OTEC heat source. • The effect of size and operating conditions on plant efficiency were studied. • The OTEC implementation in a Chilean thermal power plant was evaluated. • The net efficiency of the thermal power plant was increased by 1.3%

  1. The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part I - An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on physical and biological processes in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, Ella L.; Joos, Fortunat; Eakin, Mark; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The oceans have absorbed approximately 93% of the excess heat caused by global warming. Warming increases stratification, limiting the circulation of nutrients from deep waters to the surface. There is evidence that enhanced stratification and increasing temperature are causing a decline in dissolved oxygen concentration and expanding existing oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Approximately 26% of anthropogenic CO 2 is absorbed by the oceans, resulting in a reduction in pH and carbonate ion concentration, termed ocean acidification. Anthropogenic CO 2 has caused global ocean pH to decrease by 0.1 units since the start of the Industrial Revolution. The ocean ecosystems are responding to the changing environment, but at different rates and magnitudes and with interspecific and geographic variation in responses. Warming causes shifts in species' geographic distribution, abundance, migration patterns and phenology. Organisms that produce shells and skeletons from calcium carbonate are at most risk from ocean acidification as it lowers the saturation state of the mineral, favouring a dissolution reaction. To date, there are few observations of ocean acidification effects in natural communities; however, experimental evidence suggests that the risk to ecosystems will increase over the coming decades. Decreasing dissolved oxygen concentrations and expanding OMZs will favour anaerobic metabolisers such as bacteria and small microbes whilst reducing habitat for larger, oxygen dependent organisms. The interaction of multiple drivers can amplify or alleviate each other's effects. It is likely that marine organisms will experience a combination of warming, acidification and declining oxygen concentrations as well as regionally specific local stressors. This makes it difficult to predict the responses of individual species to multiple drivers, and species interactions make ecosystem- based projections challenging. Using the available evidence, projections have been

  2. Interoperable Access to Near Real Time Ocean Observations with the Observing System Monitoring Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S.; Mendelssohn, R.; Simons, R.; Smith, B.; Kern, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Observing System Monitoring Center (OSMC), a project funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Observations Division (COD), exists to join the discrete 'networks' of In Situ ocean observing platforms -- ships, surface floats, profiling floats, tide gauges, etc. - into a single, integrated system. The OSMC is addressing this goal through capabilities in three areas focusing on the needs of specific user groups: 1) it provides real time monitoring of the integrated observing system assets to assist management in optimizing the cost-effectiveness of the system for the assessment of climate variables; 2) it makes the stream of real time data coming from the observing system available to scientific end users into an easy-to-use form; and 3) in the future, it will unify the delayed-mode data from platform-focused data assembly centers into a standards- based distributed system that is readily accessible to interested users from the science and education communities. In this presentation, we will be focusing on the efforts of the OSMC to provide interoperable access to the near real time data stream that is available via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). This is a very rich data source, and includes data from nearly all of the oceanographic platforms that are actively observing. We will discuss how the data is being served out using a number of widely used 'web services' (including OPeNDAP and SOS) and downloadable file formats (KML, csv, xls, netCDF), so that it can be accessed in web browsers and popular desktop analysis tools. We will also be discussing our use of the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP), available from NOAA/NMFS, which has allowed us to achieve our goals of serving the near real time data. From an interoperability perspective, it's important to note that access to the this stream of data is not just for humans, but also for machine-to-machine requests. We'll also delve into how we

  3. Polarization-based enhancement of ocean color signal for estimating suspended particulate matter: radiative transfer simulations and laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; He, Xianqiang; Liu, Jiahang; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Tieqiao; Wang, Yihao; Zhu, Feng

    2017-04-17

    Absorption and scattering by molecules, aerosols and hydrosols, and the reflection and transmission over the sea surface can modify the original polarization state of sunlight. However, water-leaving radiance polarization, containing embedded water constituent information, has largely been neglected. Here, the efficiency of the parallel polarization radiance (PPR) for enhancing ocean color signal of suspended particulate matter is examined via vector radiative transfer simulations and laboratory experiments. The simulation results demonstrate that the PPR has a slightly higher ocean color signal at the top-of-atmosphere as compared with that of the total radiance. Moreover, both the simulations and laboratory measurements reveal that, compared with total radiance, PPR can effectively enhance the normalized ocean color signal for a large range of observation geometries, wavelengths, and suspended particle concentrations. Thus, PPR has great potential for improving the ocean color signal detection from satellite.

  4. Vertical suspsended sediment fluxes observed from ocean gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckelbach, Lucas; Carpenter, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Many studies trying to understand a coastal system in terms of sediment transport paths resort to numerical modelling - combining circulation models with sediment transport models. Two aspects herein are crucial: sediment fluxes across the sea bed-water column interface, and the subsequent vertical mixing by turbulence. Both aspects are highly complex and have relatively short time scales, so that the processes involved are implemented in numerical models as parameterisations. Due to the effort required to obtain field observations of suspended sediment concentrations (and other parameters), measurements are scarce, which makes the development and tuning of parameterisations a difficult task. Ocean gliders (autonomous underwater vehicles propelled by a buoyancy engine) provide a platform complementing more traditional methods of sampling. In this work we present observations of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and dissipation rate taken by two gliders, each equipped with optical sensors and a microstructure sensor, along with current observations from a bottom mounted ADCP, all operated in the German Bight sector of the North Sea in Summer 2014. For about two weeks of a four-week experiment, the gliders were programmed to fly in a novel way as Lagrangian profilers to water depths of about 40 m. The benefit of this approach is that the rate of change of SSC - and other parameters - is local to the water column, as opposed to an unknown composition of temporal and spatial variability when gliders are operated in the usual way. Therefore, vertical sediment fluxes can be calculated without the need of the - often dubious - assumption that spatial variability can be neglected. During the experiment the water column was initially thermally stratified, with a cross-pycnocline diffusion coefficient estimated at 7\\cdot10-5 m2 s-1. Halfway through the experiment the remnants of tropical storm Bertha arrived at the study site and caused a complete mixing of the water

  5. The Chinese FY-1 Meteorological Satellite Application in Observation on Oceanic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin, S.

    meteorological satellite is stated in this paper. exploration of the ocean resources has been a very important question of global strategy in the world. The exploration of the ocean resources includes following items: Making full use of oceanic resources and space, protecting oceanic environment. to observe the ocean is by using of satellite. In 1978, US successfully launched the first ocean observation satellite in the world --- Sea Satellite. It develops ancient oceanography in to advanced space-oceanography. FY-1 B and FY- IC respectively. High quality data were acquired at home and abroad. FY-1 is Chinese meteorological satellite, but with 0.43 ~ 0.48 μm ,0.48 ~ 0.53 μm and 0.53 ~ 0.58 μm three ocean color channels, actually it is a multipurpose remote sensing satellite of meteorology and oceanography. FY-1 satellite's capability of observation on ocean partly, thus the application field is expanded and the value is increased. With the addition of oceanic channels on FY-1, the design of the satellite is changed from the original with meteorological observation as its main purpose into remote sensing satellite possessing capability of observing meteorology and ocean as well. Thus, the social and economic benefit of FY-1 is increased. the social and economic benefit of the development of the satellite is the key technique in the system design of the satellite. technically feasible but also save the funds in researching and manufacturing of the satellite, quicken the tempo of researching and manufacturing satellite. the scanning radiometer for FY-1 is conducted an aviation experiment over Chinese ocean. This experiment was of vital importance to the addition of oceanic observation channel on FY-1. FY-1 oceanic channels design to be correct. detecting ocean color. This is the unique character of Chinese FY-1 meteorological satellite. meteorological remote sensing channel on FY-1 to form detecting capability of three visible channels: red, yellow and blue

  6. Advancing Marine Biological Observations and Data Requirements of the Complementary Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs and Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E. Muller-Karger

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the status and trends of key indicators for the ocean and marine life are required to inform policy and management in the context of growing human uses of marine resources, coastal development, and climate change. Two synergistic efforts identify specific priority variables for monitoring: Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs through the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS, and Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON (see Data Sheet 1 in Supplementary Materials for a glossary of acronyms. Both systems support reporting against internationally agreed conventions and treaties. GOOS, established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC, plays a leading role in coordinating global monitoring of the ocean and in the definition of EOVs. GEO BON is a global biodiversity observation network that coordinates observations to enhance management of the world's biodiversity and promote both the awareness and accounting of ecosystem services. Convergence and agreement between these two efforts are required to streamline existing and new marine observation programs to advance scientific knowledge effectively and to support the sustainable use and management of ocean spaces and resources. In this context, the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON, a thematic component of GEO BON, is collaborating with GOOS, the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS, and the Integrated Marine Biosphere Research (IMBeR project to ensure that EBVs and EOVs are complementary, representing alternative uses of a common set of scientific measurements. This work is informed by the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM, an intergovernmental body of technical experts that helps international coordination on best practices for observing, data management and services, combined with capacity development expertise

  7. Arctic Ice-Ocean Coupling and Gyre Equilibration Observed With Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Sarah; Morison, James; Kwok, Ronald; Dickinson, Suzanne; Morison, David; Andersen, Roger

    2018-02-01

    Model and observational evidence has shown that ocean current speeds in the Beaufort Gyre have increased and recently stabilized. Because these currents rival ice drift speeds, we examine the potential for the Beaufort Gyre's shift from a system in which the wind drives the ice and the ice drives a passive ocean to one in which the ocean often, in the absence of high winds, drives the ice. The resultant stress exerted on the ocean by the ice and the resultant Ekman pumping are reversed, without any change in average wind stress curl. Through these curl reversals, the ice-ocean stress provides a key feedback in Beaufort Gyre stabilization. This manuscript constitutes one of the first observational studies of ice-ocean stress inclusive of geostrophic ocean currents, by making use of recently available remote sensing data.

  8. Spacebased Observation of Water Balance Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Xie, X.

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrated that ocean surface fresh water flux less the water discharge into the ocean from river and ice melt balances the mass loss in the ocean both in magnitude and in the phase of annual variation. The surface water flux was computed from the divergence of the water transport integrated over the depth of the atmosphere. The atmospheric water transport is estimated from the precipitable water measured by Special Sensor Microwave Imager, the surface wind vector by QuikSCAT, and the NOAA cloud drift wind through a statistical model. The transport has been extensively validated using global radiosonde and data and operational numerical weather prediction results. Its divergence has been shown to agree with the difference between evaporation estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer data and the precipitation measured by Tropical Rain Measuring Mission over the global tropical and subtropical oceans both in magnitude and geographical distribution for temporal scales ranging from intraseasonal to interannual. The water loss rate in the ocean is estimated by two methods, one is from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and the other is by subtracting the climatological steric change from the sea level change measured by radar altimeter on Jason. Only climatological river discharge and ice melt from in situ measurements are available and the lack of temporal variation may contribute to discrepancies in the balance. We have successfully used the spacebased surface fluxes to estimate to climatological mean heat transport in the Atlantic ocean and is attempting to estimate the meridional fresh water (or salt) transport from the surface flux. The approximate closure of the water balance gives a powerful indirect validation of the spacebased products.

  9. The Ocean Tracking Network and its contribution to ocean biological observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whoriskey, F. G.

    2016-02-01

    Animals move to meet their needs for food, shelter, reproduction and to avoid unfavorable environments. In aquatic systems, it is essential that we understand these movements if we are to sustainably manage populations and maintain healthy ecosystems. Thus the ability to document and monitor changes in aquatic animal movements is a biological observing system need. The Ocean Tracking Network (OTN) is a global research, technology development, and data management platform headquartered at Dalhousie University, in Halifax, Nova Scotia working to fill this need. OTN uses electronic telemetry to document the local-to-global movements and survival of aquatic animals, and to correlate them to oceanographic or limnological variables that are influencing movements. Such knowledge can assist with planning for and managing of anthropogenic impacts on present and future animal distributions, including those due to climate change. OTN works with various tracking methods including satellite and data storage tag systems, but its dominant focus is acoustic telemetry. OTN is built on global partnerships for the sharing of equipment and data, and has stimulated technological development in telemetry by bringing researchers with needs for new capabilities together with manufacturers to generate, test, and operationalize new technologies. This has included pioneering work into the use of marine autonomous vehicles (Slocum electric gliders; Liquid Robotics Wave Glider) in animal telemetry research. Similarly, OTN scientists worked with the Sea Mammal Research Unit to develop mobile acoustic receiver that have been placed on grey seals and linked via Bluetooth to a satellite transmitter/receiver. This provided receiver coverage in areas occupied by the seals during their typically extensive migrations and allowed for the examination of ecosystem linkages by documenting behavioral interactions the seals had with the physical environment, conspecifics, and other tagged species.

  10. The EuroSITES network: Integrating and enhancing fixed-point open ocean observatories around Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; EuroSITES Consortium

    2010-05-01

    EuroSITES is a 3 year (2008-2011) EU collaborative project (3.5MEuro) with the objective to integrate and enhance the nine existing open ocean fixed point observatories around Europe (www.eurosites.info). These observatories are primarily composed of full depth moorings and make multidisciplinary in situ observations within the water column as the European contribution to the global array OceanSITES (www.oceansites.org). In the first 18 months, all 9 observatories have been active and integration has been significant through the maintenance and enhancement of observatory hardware. Highlights include the enhancement of observatories with sensors to measure O2, pCO2, chlorophyll, and nitrate in near real-time from the upper 1000 m. In addition, some seafloor missions are also actively supported. These include seafloor platforms currently deployed in the Mediterranean, one for tsunami detection and one to monitor fluid flow related to seismic activity and slope stability. Upcoming seafloor science missions in 2010 include monitoring benthic biological communities and associated biogeochemistry as indicators of climate change in both the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. EuroSITES also promotes the development of innovative sensors and samplers in order to progress capability to measure climate-relevant properties of the ocean. These include further developing current technologies for autonomous long-term monitoring of oxygen consumption in the mesopelagic, pH and mesozooplankton abundance. Many of these science missions are directly related to complementary activities in other European projects such as EPOCA, HYPOX and ESONET. In 2010 a direct collaboration including in situ field work will take place between ESONET and EuroSITES. The demonstration mission MODOO (funded by ESONET) will be implemented in 2010 at the EuroSITES PAP observatory. Field work will include deployment of a seafloor lander system with various sensors which will send data to shore in real

  11. Using Combined Marine Spatial Planning Tools and Observing System Experiments to define Gaps in the Emerging European Ocean Observing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G.; Pinardi, N.; Vukicevic, T.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Fernandez, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean observations are critical to providing accurate ocean forecasts that support operational decision making in European open and coastal seas. Observations are available in many forms from Fixed platforms e.g. Moored Buoys and tide gauges, underway measurements from Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars and more recently from underwater Gliders and profiling floats. Observing System Simulation Experiments have been conducted to examine the relative contribution of each type of platform to an improvement in our ability to accurately forecast the future state of the ocean with HF radar and Gliders showing particular promise in improving model skill. There is considerable demand for ecosystem products and services from today's ocean observing system and biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. There is a need to widen the techniques used to assess the fitness for purpose and gaps in the ocean observing system. As well as Observing System Simulation Experiments that quantify the effect of observations on the overall model skill we present a gap analysis based on (1) Examining where high model skill is required based on a marine spatial planning analysis of European seas i.e where does activity take place that requires more accurate forecasts? and (2) assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems. The broad based analysis will inform the development of the proposed European Ocean Observing System as a contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

  12. Transforming Ocean Observations of the Carbon Budget, Acidification, Hypoxia, Nutrients, and Biological Productivity: a Global Array of Biogeochemical Argo Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L. D.; Johnson, K. S.; Claustre, H.; Boss, E.; Emerson, S. R.; Westberry, T. K.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Mazloff, M. R.; Riser, S.; Russell, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Our ability to detect changes in biogeochemical (BGC) processes in the ocean that may be driven by increasing atmospheric CO2, as well as by natural climate variability, is greatly hindered by undersampling in vast areas of the open ocean. Argo is a major international program that measures ocean heat content and salinity with about 4000 floats distributed throughout the ocean, profiling to 2000 m every 10 days. Extending this approach to a global BGC-Argo float array, using recent, proven sensor technology, and in close synergy with satellite systems, will drive a transformative shift in observing and predicting the effects of climate change on ocean metabolism, carbon uptake, acidification, deoxygenation, and living marine resource management. BGC-Argo will add sensors for pH, oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll, suspended particles, and downwelling irradiance, with sufficient accuracy for climate studies. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) using BGC models indicate that 1000 BGC floats would provide sufficient coverage, hence equipping 1/4 of the Argo array. BGC-Argo (http://biogeochemical-argo.org) will enhance current sustained observational programs such as Argo, GO-SHIP, and long-term ocean time series. BGC-Argo will benefit from deployments on GO-SHIP vessels, which provide sensor verification. Empirically derived algorithms that relate the observed BGC float parameters to the carbon system parameters will provide global information on seasonal ocean-atmosphere carbon exchange. BGC Argo measurements could be paired with other emerging technology, such as pCO2 measurements from ships of opportunity and wave gliders, to extend and validate exchange estimates. BGC-Argo prototype programs already show the potential of a global observing system that can measure seasonal to decadal variability. Various countries have developed regional BGC arrays: Southern Ocean (SOCCOM), North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (remOcean), Mediterranean (NAOS), the Kuroshio (INBOX

  13. Marine Vehicle Sensor Network Architecture and Protocol Designs for Ocean Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeqiang Shu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro-scale and meso-scale ocean dynamic processes which are nonlinear and have large variability, have a significant impact on the fisheries, natural resources, and marine climatology. A rapid, refined and sophisticated observation system is therefore needed in marine scientific research. The maneuverability and controllability of mobile sensor platforms make them a preferred choice to establish ocean observing networks, compared to the static sensor observing platform. In this study, marine vehicles are utilized as the nodes of mobile sensor networks for coverage sampling of a regional ocean area and ocean feature tracking. A synoptic analysis about marine vehicle dynamic control, multi vehicles mission assignment and path planning methods, and ocean feature tracking and observing techniques is given. Combined with the observation plan in the South China Sea, we provide an overview of the mobile sensor networks established with marine vehicles, and the corresponding simulation results.

  14. Use of Multiangle Satellite Observations to Retrieve Aerosol Properties and Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonchik, John V.; Diner, David; Khan, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    A new technique is described for retrieving aerosol over ocean water and the associated ocean color using multiangle satellite observations. Unlike current satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms which only utilize observations at red wavelengths and longer, with the assumption that these wavelengths have a negligible ocean (water-leaving radiance), this new algorithm uses all available spectral bands and simultaneously retrieves both aerosol properties and the spectral ocean color. We show some results of case studies using MISR data, performed over different water conditions (coastal water, blooms, and open water).

  15. Synthesis and Assimilation Systems - Essential Adjuncts to the Global Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienecker, Michele M.; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Barnier, Bernard; Behringer, David; Bell, Mike; Bourassa, Mark; Brasseur, Pierre; Breivik, Lars-Anders; Carton, James; hide

    2009-01-01

    Ocean assimilation systems synthesize diverse in situ and satellite data streams into four-dimensional state estimates by combining the various observations with the model. Assimilation is particularly important for the ocean where subsurface observations, even today, are sparse and intermittent compared with the scales needed to represent ocean variability and where satellites only sense the surface. Developments in assimilation and in the observing system have advanced our understanding and prediction of ocean variations at mesoscale and climate scales. Use of these systems for assessing the observing system helps identify the strengths of each observation type. Results indicate that the ocean remains under-sampled and that further improvements in the observing system are needed. Prospects for future advances lie in improved models and better estimates of error statistics for both models and observations. Future developments will be increasingly towards consistent analyses across components of the Earth system. However, even today ocean synthesis and assimilation systems are providing products that are useful for many applications and should be considered an integral part of the global ocean observing and information system.

  16. Ocean observation data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution ships Oceanus, Knorr, and Atlantis, in world-wide oceans from 1993-06-26 to 2011-08-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of a collection of ocean observation data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution ships OCEANUS (call sign WXAQ; built 1975.00; IMO 7603617),...

  17. 76 FR 27019 - Interagency Ocean Observation Committee, Meeting of the Data Management and Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Observation Committee, Meeting of the Data Management and Communications Steering Team AGENCY: National Ocean... meeting of the IOOC's Data Management and Communications Steering Team (DMAC-ST). The DMAC-ST membership... the IOOC in December 2010 to assist with technical guidance with respect to the management of ocean...

  18. The M-2 ocean tide loading wave in Alaska: vertical and horizontal displacements, modelled and observed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Scherneck, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    Crustal deformations caused by surface load due to ocean tides are strongly dependent on the surface load closest to the observing site. In order to correctly model this ocean loading effect near irregular coastal areas, a high-resolution coastline is required. A test is carried out using two GPS...

  19. 76 FR 68791 - Notice of Availability for Public Comment on the Interagency Ocean Observing Committee Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    .... This criteria was developed in response to a requirement in the Integrated Coastal Ocean Observation....us . For the public unable to access the internet, printed copies can be requested by contacting the.... Comments may be submitted in writing to the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, Attention: IOOC Support Office...

  20. Direct observations of atmosphere - sea ice - ocean interactions during Arctic winter and spring storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. M.; Itkin, P.; Granskog, M. A.; Assmy, P.; Cohen, L.; Duarte, P.; Doble, M. J.; Fransson, A.; Fer, I.; Fernandez Mendez, M.; Frey, M. M.; Gerland, S.; Haapala, J. J.; Hudson, S. R.; Liston, G. E.; Merkouriadi, I.; Meyer, A.; Muilwijk, M.; Peterson, A.; Provost, C.; Randelhoff, A.; Rösel, A.; Spreen, G.; Steen, H.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Sundfjord, A.

    2017-12-01

    To study the thinner and younger sea ice that now dominates the Arctic the Norwegian Young Sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015) was launched in the ice-covered region north of Svalbard, from January to June 2015. During this time, eight local and remote storms affected the region and rare direct observations of the atmosphere, snow, ice and ocean were conducted. Six of these winter storms passed directly over the expedition and resulted in air temperatures rising from below -30oC to near 0oC, followed by abrupt cooling. Substantial snowfall prior to the campaign had already formed a snow pack of approximately 50 cm, to which the February storms contributed an additional 6 cm. The deep snow layer effectively isolated the ice cover and prevented bottom ice growth resulting in low brine fluxes. Peak wind speeds during winter storms exceeded 20 m/s, causing strong snow re-distribution, release of sea salt aerosol and sea ice deformation. The heavy snow load caused widespread negative freeboard; during sea ice deformation events, level ice floes were flooded by sea water, and at least 6-10 cm snow-ice layer was formed. Elevated deformation rates during the most powerful winter storms damaged the ice cover permanently such that the response to wind forcing increased by 60 %. As a result of a remote storm in April deformation processes opened about 4 % of the total area into leads with open water, while a similar amount of ice was deformed into pressure ridges. The strong winds also enhanced ocean mixing and increased ocean heat fluxes three-fold in the pycnocline from 4 to 12 W/m2. Ocean heat fluxes were extremely large (over 300 W/m2) during storms in regions where the warm Atlantic inflow is located close to surface over shallow topography. This resulted in very large (5-25 cm/day) bottom ice melt and in cases flooding due to heavy snow load. Storm events increased the carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and ocean but also affected the pCO2 in surface waters

  1. Shelf sea tidal currents and mixing fronts determined from ocean glider observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Peter M. F.; Berx, Barbara; Gallego, Alejandro; Hall, Rob A.; Heywood, Karen J.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Queste, Bastien Y.

    2018-03-01

    Tides and tidal mixing fronts are of fundamental importance to understanding shelf sea dynamics and ecosystems. Ocean gliders enable the observation of fronts and tide-dominated flows at high resolution. We use dive-average currents from a 2-month (12 October-2 December 2013) glider deployment along a zonal hydrographic section in the north-western North Sea to accurately determine M2 and S2 tidal velocities. The results of the glider-based method agree well with tidal velocities measured by current meters and with velocities extracted from the TPXO tide model. The method enhances the utility of gliders as an ocean-observing platform, particularly in regions where tide models are known to be limited. We then use the glider-derived tidal velocities to investigate tidal controls on the location of a front repeatedly observed by the glider. The front moves offshore at a rate of 0.51 km day-1. During the first part of the deployment (from mid-October until mid-November), results of a one-dimensional model suggest that the balance between surface heat fluxes and tidal stirring is the primary control on frontal location: as heat is lost to the atmosphere, full-depth mixing is able to occur in progressively deeper water. In the latter half of the deployment (mid-November to early December), a front controlled solely by heat fluxes and tidal stirring is not predicted to exist, yet a front persists in the observations. We analyse hydrographic observations collected by the glider to attribute the persistence of the front to the boundary between different water masses, in particular to the presence of cold, saline, Atlantic-origin water in the deeper portion of the section. We combine these results to propose that the front is a hybrid front: one controlled in summer by the local balance between heat fluxes and mixing and which in winter exists as the boundary between water masses advected to the north-western North Sea from diverse source regions. The glider observations

  2. Shelf sea tidal currents and mixing fronts determined from ocean glider observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. F. Sheehan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tides and tidal mixing fronts are of fundamental importance to understanding shelf sea dynamics and ecosystems. Ocean gliders enable the observation of fronts and tide-dominated flows at high resolution. We use dive-average currents from a 2-month (12 October–2 December 2013 glider deployment along a zonal hydrographic section in the north-western North Sea to accurately determine M2 and S2 tidal velocities. The results of the glider-based method agree well with tidal velocities measured by current meters and with velocities extracted from the TPXO tide model. The method enhances the utility of gliders as an ocean-observing platform, particularly in regions where tide models are known to be limited. We then use the glider-derived tidal velocities to investigate tidal controls on the location of a front repeatedly observed by the glider. The front moves offshore at a rate of 0.51 km day−1. During the first part of the deployment (from mid-October until mid-November, results of a one-dimensional model suggest that the balance between surface heat fluxes and tidal stirring is the primary control on frontal location: as heat is lost to the atmosphere, full-depth mixing is able to occur in progressively deeper water. In the latter half of the deployment (mid-November to early December, a front controlled solely by heat fluxes and tidal stirring is not predicted to exist, yet a front persists in the observations. We analyse hydrographic observations collected by the glider to attribute the persistence of the front to the boundary between different water masses, in particular to the presence of cold, saline, Atlantic-origin water in the deeper portion of the section. We combine these results to propose that the front is a hybrid front: one controlled in summer by the local balance between heat fluxes and mixing and which in winter exists as the boundary between water masses advected to the north-western North Sea from diverse source

  3. Observational Evidence of a Hemispheric-wide Ice-ocean Albedo Feedback Effect on Antarctic Sea-ice Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ice-ocean albedo feedback (a kind of ice-albedo feedback) on sea-ice decay is demonstrated over the Antarctic sea-ice zone from an analysis of satellite-derived hemispheric sea ice concentration and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-40) atmospheric data for the period 1979-2001. Sea ice concentration in December (time of most active melt) correlates better with the meridional component of the wind-forced ice drift (MID) in November (beginning of the melt season) than the MID in December. This 1 month lagged correlation is observed in most of the Antarctic sea-ice covered ocean. Daily time series of ice , concentration show that the ice concentration anomaly increases toward the time of maximum sea-ice melt. These findings can be explained by the following positive feedback effect: once ice concentration decreases (increases) at the beginning of the melt season, solar heating of the upper ocean through the increased (decreased) open water fraction is enhanced (reduced), leading to (suppressing) a further decrease in ice concentration by the oceanic heat. Results obtained fi-om a simple ice-ocean coupled model also support our interpretation of the observational results. This positive feedback mechanism explains in part the large interannual variability of the sea-ice cover in summer.

  4. NANOOS, the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems: a regional Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the Pacific Northwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J.; Martin, D.; Kosro, M.

    2012-12-01

    NANOOS is the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems, the Pacific Northwest Regional Association of the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS). User driven since its inception in 2003, this regional observing system is responding to a variety of scientific and societal needs across its coastal ocean, estuaries, and shorelines. Regional priorities have been solicited and re-affirmed through active engagement with users and stakeholders. NANOOS membership is composed of an even mix of academic, governmental, industry, and non-profit organizations, who appoint representatives to the NANOOS Governing Council who confirm the priority applications of the observing system. NANOOS regional priorities are: Maritime Operations, Regional Fisheries, Ecosystem Assessment, Coastal Hazards, and Climate. NANOOS' regional coastal ocean observing system is implemented by seven partners (three universities, three state agencies, and one industry). Together, these partners conduct the observations, modeling, data management and communication, analysis products, education and outreach activities of NANOOS. Observations, designed to span coastal ocean, shorelines, and estuaries, include physical, chemical, biological and geological measurements. To date, modeling has been more limited in scope, but has provided the system with increased coverage for some parameters. The data management and communication system for NANOOS, led by the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS) is the cornerstone of the user interaction with NANOOS. NVS gives users access to observational data, both real time and archived, as well as modeling output. Given the diversity of user needs, measurements, and the complexity of the coastal environment, the challenge for the system is large. NANOOS' successes take advantage of technological advances, including real-time data transmission, profiling buoys, gliders, HF radars, and modeling. The most profound challenges NANOOS faces stem

  5. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  6. Observations of trace gases and aerosols over the Indian Ocean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analyzer operates on the principle of infrared absorption at ... The difference between the weight of filter paper before and .... with enhanced biomass burning during dry El-Ni˜no periods (e.g. ..... port and dispersion model and/or READY web-.

  7. 78 FR 55063 - U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... teleconference). SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a virtual meeting of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing.../advisorycommittee . Dated: August 30, 2013. Christopher C. Cartwright, Associate Assistant Administrator for...

  8. Saccharides enhance iron bioavailability to Southern Ocean phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, C.S.; Schoemann, V.; Nichols, C.M.; Butler, E.C.V.; Boyd, P.W.; Nichols, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Iron limits primary productivity in vast regions of the ocean. Given that marine phytoplankton contribute up to 40% of global biological carbon fixation, it is important to understand what parameters control the availability of iron (iron bioavailability) to these organisms. Most studies on iron

  9. Paradigm change in ocean studies: multi-platform observing and forecasting integrated approach in response to science and society needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintoré, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    -platform approach in ocean observation. Three examples from the integration capabilities of SOCIB facilities will be presented and discussed. First the quasi-continuous high frequency glider monitoring of the Ibiza Channel since 2011, an important biodiversity hot spot and a 'choke' point in the Western Mediterranean circulation, has allowed us to reveal a high frequency variability in the North-South exchanges, with very significant changes (0.8 - 0.9 Sv) occurring over periods of days to week of the same order as the previously known seasonal cycle. HF radar data and model results have also contributed more recently to better describe and understand the variability at small scales. Second, the Alborex/Perseus project multi-platform experiment (e.g., RV catamaran, 2 gliders, 25 drifters, 3 Argo type profilers & satellite data) that focused on submesoscale processes and ecosystem response and carried out in the Alborán Sea in May 2014. Glider results showed significant chlorophyll subduction in areas adjacent to the steep density front with patterns related to vertical motion. Initial dynamical interpretations will be presented. Third and final, I will discuss the key relevance of the data centre to guarantee data interoperability, quality control, availability and distribution for this new approach to ocean observation and forecasting to be really efficient in responding to key scientific state of the art priorities, enhancing technology development and responding to society needs.

  10. Oceanic turbidity and chlorophyll as inferred from ERTS-1 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral signatures of phytoplankton and other obscuring effects are considered in order to determine how to best use satellite data. The results of this study were then used to analyze the spectral data obtained from the ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS). The analyzed satellite data were finally compared with surface ship measurements of chlorophyll concentration. It was found that the effects of water turbidity on the multispectral imagery can be discriminated by rationing the two shortest wavelength channels so that the effect of phytoplankton is enhanced.

  11. Geomagnetic observations on Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, Nils; Maule, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37 degrees 05' S, 12 degrees 18' W, is therefore of cr...

  12. Ocean and laboratory observations on waves over topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, F.P. A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses the observation, analysis and dynamics of waves as being trapped, generated and focused by sloping topography. ---Shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency off Greenland--- Tidal analysis has been carried out on current measurements at a “cross-shelf” transect off Greenland at

  13. Restricted Inter-ocean Exchange and Attenuated Biological Export Caused Enhanced Carbonate Preservation in the PETM Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Boudreau, B. P.; Dickens, G. R.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) release during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.8 Myr BP) acidified the oceans, causing a decrease in calcium carbonate (CaCO3) preservation. During the subsequent recovery from this acidification, the sediment CaCO3 content came to exceed pre-PETM values, known as over-deepening or over-shooting. Past studies claim to explain these trends, but have failed to reproduce quantitatively the time series of CaCO3 preservation. We employ a simple biogeochemical model to recreate the CaCO3 records preserved at Walvis Ridge of the Atlantic Ocean. Replication of the observed changes, both shallowing and the subsequent over-deepening, requires two conditions not previously considered: (1) limited deep-water exchange between the Indo-Atlantic and Pacific oceans and (2) a ~50% reduction in the export of CaCO3 to the deep sea during acidification. Contrary to past theories that attributed over-deepening to increased riverine alkalinity input, we find that over-deepening is an emergent property, generated at constant riverine input when attenuation of CaCO3 export causes an unbalanced alkalinity input to the deep oceans (alkalinization) and the development of deep super-saturation. Restoration of CaCO3 export, particularly in the super-saturated deep Indo-Atlantic ocean, later in the PETM leads to greater accumulation of carbonates, ergo over-shooting, which returns the ocean to pre-PETM conditions over a time scale greater than 200 kyr. While this feedback between carbonate export and the riverine input has not previously been considered, it appears to constitute an important modification of the classic carbonate compensation concept used to explain oceanic response to acidification.

  14. Red coral extinction risk enhanced by ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrano, Carlo; Cardini, Ulisse; Bianchelli, Silvia; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The red coral Corallium rubrum is a habitat-forming species with a prominent and structural role in mesophotic habitats, which sustains biodiversity hotspots. This precious coral is threatened by both over-exploitation and temperature driven mass mortality events. We report here that biocalcification, growth rates and polyps' (feeding) activity of Corallium rubrum are significantly reduced at pCO2 scenarios predicted for the end of this century (0.2 pH decrease). Since C. rubrum is a long-living species (>200 years), our results suggest that ocean acidification predicted for 2100 will significantly increases the risk of extinction of present populations. Given the functional role of these corals in the mesophotic zone, we predict that ocean acidification might have cascading effects on the functioning of these habitats worldwide.

  15. Pelagic Nitrogen Cycle Observations In The Arctic Ocean - How Might They Change In Response To Ocean Acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. R.; Rees, A.; Brown, I.; Al-Moosawi, L.; Cripps, G.

    2016-02-01

    Phytoplankton forms the base of marine food webs by assimilating nutrients and generating biomass that supports higher trophic levels. Conversely, marine heterotrophs degrade organic matter produced by phytoplankton and recycle nutrients, maintaining food web integrity. We investigated the assimilation and regeneration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) at stations located in the Arctic Ocean. In addition, we measured the concentration of nitrous oxide, a by-product of N-regeneration (specifically nitrification) and a climatically active gas. Measurements demonstrated the simultaneous regeneration and assimilation of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate at open ocean, ice-edge and within-ice locations. Ammonium was regenerated and assimilated within the range 0.2-4.5 nmol·L-1·h-1 and 0.5-24.8 nmol·L-1·h-1 respectively. Nitrite was regenerated and assimilated within the range 0.1-9.2 nmol·L-1·h-1 and 0.0-6.9 nmol·L-1·h-1 respectively. Nitrate was regenerated and assimilated within the range 0.3-372.7 nmol·L-1·h-1 and 0.1-48.3 nmol·L-1·h-1 respectively. Results indicated that the ice-edge was associated with enhanced DIN assimilation. The concentration of nitrous oxide (oxidation and the concentration of nitrous oxide did not respond in a clear or consistent way to OA treatments. In contrast, the regeneration of NH4+ increased in response to elevated PCO2. The bacterial degradation of organic matter may be enhanced in the Arctic Ocean in response to OA, potentially modifying DIN pool composition and concentration in the future.

  16. South African carbon observations: CO2 measurements for land, atmosphere and ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Feig, Gregor T

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available , Mudau AE, Monteiro PMS. South African carbon observations: CO2 measurements for land, atmosphere and ocean. S Afr J Sci. 2017;113(11/12), Art. #a0237, 4 pages. http://dx.doi. org/10.17159/sajs.2017/a0237 Carbon dioxide plays a central role in earth... References 1. Houghton RA. Balancing the global carbon budget. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci. 2007;35:313–347. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev. earth.35.031306.140057 2. Denman KL. Climate change, ocean processes and ocean iron fertilization. Mar Ecol Prog Ser...

  17. The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System: From R&D to Operational Regional Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha Fragoso, M.; Moore, A. M.; dos Santos, F. A.; Marques Da Cruz, L.; Carvalho, G. V.; Soares, F.

    2016-02-01

    Santos Basin is located on the Southwestern Brazilian Ocean Basin and comprises the main offshore oil reserves of Brazil. The exploration and production activities on its ocean are growing in accelerated pace, which means that oil spill contingency and search & rescue operations are likely to be more frequent. Therefore, ocean current reliable nowcasts and forecasts has become even more important for this region. The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System was designed as an R&D project and its main objective was to establish and maintain a systematic oceanographic data collection for this region in order to study its ocean dynamics and improve regional ocean forecast through data assimilation. In the first three years of the project surface drifters, profiling floats and gliders were deployed to measure and monitor mainly the Brazil Current Western Boundary System, a highly unstable baroclinic current system, that present several meanders and mesoscale eddies activities. Throughout the development of the project, the team involved was able to learn how to operate the equipment, treat the collected data and use it to assimilate on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). After performing a one-year 4DVAR assimilation cycle (Fragoso et al., 2015) in which the forecasting skill was assessed, the system was considered mature enough to start producing ocean circulation forecasts for Santos Basin. It is the first time in Brazil that a regional ocean model using a 4DVAR data assimilation scheme was used to produce high resolution operational ocean current forecasts. This paper describes all the components of this forecasting system, its main results and discoveries with special focus on the Brazil Current System Transport and mesocale eddies dynamics and statistics.

  18. Effect of tropical cyclones on the stratosphere–troposphere exchange observed using satellite observations over the north Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkat Ratnam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclones play an important role in modifying the tropopause structure and dynamics as well as stratosphere–troposphere exchange (STE processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS region. In the present study, the impact of cyclones that occurred over the north Indian Ocean during 2007–2013 on the STE processes is quantified using satellite observations. Tropopause characteristics during cyclones are obtained from the Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO measurements, and ozone and water vapour concentrations in the UTLS region are obtained from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite observations. The effect of cyclones on the tropopause parameters is observed to be more prominent within 500 km of the centre of the tropical cyclone. In our earlier study, we observed a decrease (increase in the tropopause altitude (temperature up to 0.6 km (3 K, and the convective outflow level increased up to 2 km. This change leads to a total increase in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL thickness of 3 km within 500 km of the centre of cyclone. Interestingly, an enhancement in the ozone mixing ratio in the upper troposphere is clearly noticed within 500 km from the cyclone centre, whereas the enhancement in the water vapour in the lower stratosphere is more significant on the south-east side, extending from 500 to 1000 km away from the cyclone centre. The cross-tropopause mass flux for different intensities of cyclones is estimated and it is found that the mean flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere for cyclonic storms is 0.05 ± 0.29 × 10−3 kg m−2, and for very severe cyclonic storms it is 0.5 ± 1.07 × 10−3 kg m−2. More downward flux is noticed on the north-west and south-west side of the cyclone centre. These results indicate that the cyclones have significant impact in effecting the tropopause structure, ozone and water vapour budget, and

  19. Ocean Surface Wind Speed of Hurricane Helene Observed by SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Cheng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Prediction System (NOGAPS) model, C-band geophysical model functions (GMFs) which describe the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) dependence on the wind speed and the geometry of radar observations (i.e., incidence angle and azimuth angle with respect to wind direction) such as CMOD5 and newly developed......The hurricanes can be detected by many remote sensors, but synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can yield high-resolution (sub-kilometer) and low-level wind information that cannot be seen below the cloud by other sensors. In this paper, an assessment of SAR capability of monitoring high...

  20. Consistent estimate of ocean warming, land ice melt and sea level rise from Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Alejandro; Meyssignac, Benoît; Lemoine, Jean Michel

    2016-04-01

    Based on the sea level budget closure approach, this study investigates the consistency of observed Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) estimates from satellite altimetry, observed Ocean Thermal Expansion (OTE) estimates from in-situ hydrographic data (based on Argo for depth above 2000m and oceanic cruises below) and GRACE observations of land water storage and land ice melt for the period January 2004 to December 2014. The consistency between these datasets is a key issue if we want to constrain missing contributions to sea level rise such as the deep ocean contribution. Numerous previous studies have addressed this question by summing up the different contributions to sea level rise and comparing it to satellite altimetry observations (see for example Llovel et al. 2015, Dieng et al. 2015). Here we propose a novel approach which consists in correcting GRACE solutions over the ocean (essentially corrections of stripes and leakage from ice caps) with mass observations deduced from the difference between satellite altimetry GMSL and in-situ hydrographic data OTE estimates. We check that the resulting GRACE corrected solutions are consistent with original GRACE estimates of the geoid spherical harmonic coefficients within error bars and we compare the resulting GRACE estimates of land water storage and land ice melt with independent results from the literature. This method provides a new mass redistribution from GRACE consistent with observations from Altimetry and OTE. We test the sensibility of this method to the deep ocean contribution and the GIA models and propose best estimates.

  1. Observed microphysical changes in Arctic mixed-phase clouds when transitioning from sea ice to open ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Young

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In situ airborne observations of cloud microphysics, aerosol properties, and thermodynamic structure over the transition from sea ice to ocean are presented from the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA campaign. A case study from 23 March 2013 provides a unique view of the cloud microphysical changes over this transition under cold-air outbreak conditions. Cloud base lifted and cloud depth increased over the transition from sea ice to ocean. Mean droplet number concentrations, Ndrop, also increased from 110 ± 36 cm−3 over the sea ice to 145 ± 54 cm−3 over the marginal ice zone (MIZ. Downstream over the ocean, Ndrop decreased to 63 ± 30 cm−3. This reduction was attributed to enhanced collision-coalescence of droplets within the deep ocean cloud layer. The liquid water content increased almost four fold over the transition and this, in conjunction with the deeper cloud layer, allowed rimed snowflakes to develop and precipitate out of cloud base downstream over the ocean. The ice properties of the cloud remained approximately constant over the transition. Observed ice crystal number concentrations averaged approximately 0.5–1.5 L−1, suggesting only primary ice nucleation was active; however, there was evidence of crystal fragmentation at cloud base over the ocean. Little variation in aerosol particle number concentrations was observed between the different surface conditions; however, some variability with altitude was observed, with notably greater concentrations measured at higher altitudes ( >  800 m over the sea ice. Near-surface boundary layer temperatures increased by 13 °C from sea ice to ocean, with corresponding increases in surface heat fluxes and turbulent kinetic energy. These significant thermodynamic changes were concluded to be the primary driver of the microphysical evolution of the cloud. This study represents the first investigation, using in situ

  2. Observations of turbulent energy dissipation rate in the upper ocean of the central South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of turbulent energy dissipation rate, velocity, temperature, and salinity were obtained in the upper ocean of the central South China Sea (14.5˚N, 117.0˚E) during an experimental campaign from May 11th to 13th 2010. Dissipation rate was elevated ( 10-7 Wkg-1) at night by convection mixing and was weakened ( 10-9 Wkg-1) in daytime due to the warming stratification. Thermocline dissipation rate varied with time ( 10-9 Wkg-1 to 10-8 Wkg-1) under the influence of internal waves. Energy was transferred from the diurnal internal tides to high frequency internal waves through nonlinear wave-wave interactions. This energy cascade process was accompanied by elevated shear and enhanced dissipation, which played an important role in the turbulent mixing in thermocline. Compare with the thermocline dissipation, dissipation below the thermocline was more stable and weak ( 10-10 Wkg-1). The observed dissipation rate during the measurement was well parameterized by the MacKinnon-Gregg parameterization (a model based on a reinterpretation of wave-wave interaction theory), whereas the Gregg-Henyey parameterization was not in good agreement with the observed dissipation rate.

  3. A Novel Scoring Metrics for Quality Assurance of Ocean Color Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Lee, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Interpretation of the ocean bio-optical properties from ocean color observations depends on the quality of the ocean color data, specifically the spectrum of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). The in situ and remotely measured Rrs spectra are inevitably subject to errors induced by instrument calibration, sea-surface correction and atmospheric correction, and other environmental factors. Great efforts have been devoted to the ocean color calibration and validation. Yet, there exist no objective and consensus criteria for assessment of the ocean color data quality. In this study, the gap is filled by developing a novel metrics for such data quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC). This new QA metrics is not intended to discard "suspicious" Rrs spectra from available datasets. Rather, it takes into account the Rrs spectral shapes and amplitudes as a whole and grades each Rrs spectrum. This scoring system is developed based on a large ensemble of in situ hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance data measured from various aquatic environments and processed with robust procedures. This system is further tested with the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Data set (NOMAD), with results indicating significant improvements in the estimation of bio-optical properties when Rrs spectra marked with higher quality assurance are used. This scoring system is further verified with simulated data and satellite ocean color data in various regions, and we envision higher quality ocean color products with the implementation of such a quality screening system.

  4. Combined constraints on global ocean primary production using observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Hashioka, Taketo; Quéré, Corinne Le

    2013-09-01

    production is at the base of the marine food web and plays a central role for global biogeochemical cycles. Yet global ocean primary production is known to only a factor of 2, with previous estimates ranging from 38 to 65 Pg C yr-1 and no formal uncertainty analysis. Here, we present an improved global ocean biogeochemistry model that includes a mechanistic representation of photosynthesis and a new observational database of net primary production (NPP) in the ocean. We combine the model and observations to constrain particulate NPP in the ocean with statistical metrics. The PlankTOM5.3 model includes a new photosynthesis formulation with a dynamic representation of iron-light colimitation, which leads to a considerable improvement of the interannual variability of surface chlorophyll. The database includes a consistent set of 50,050 measurements of 14C primary production. The model best reproduces observations when global NPP is 58 ± 7 Pg C yr-1, with a most probable value of 56 Pg C yr-1. The most probable value is robust to the model used. The uncertainty represents 95% confidence intervals. It considers all random errors in the model and observations, but not potential biases in the observations. We show that tropical regions (23°S-23°N) contribute half of the global NPP, while NPPs in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are approximately equal in spite of the larger ocean area in the South.

  5. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: A Gulf Science Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Gayanilo, F.; Kobara, S.; Jochens, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System's (GCOOS) regional science portal (gcoos.org) was designed to aggregate data and model output from distributed providers and to offer these, and derived products, through a single access point in standardized ways to a diverse set of users. The portal evolved under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) program where automated largely-unattended machine-to-machine interoperability has always been a guiding tenet for system design. The web portal has a business unit where membership lists, new items, and reference materials are kept, a data portal where near real-time and historical data are held and served, and a products portal where data are fused into products tailored for specific or general stakeholder groups. The staff includes a system architect who built and maintains the data portal, a GIS expert who built and maintains the current product portal, the executive director who marshals resources to keep news items fresh and data manger who manages most of this. The business portal is built using WordPress which was selected because it appeared to be the easiest content management system for non-web programmers to add content to, maintain and enhance. The data portal is custom built and uses database, PHP, and web services based on Open Geospatial Consortium standards-based Sensor Observation Service (SOS) with Observations and Measurements (O&M) encodings. We employ a standards-based vocabulary, which we helped develop, which is registered at the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org). The registry is currently maintained by one of the authors. Products appearing in the products portal are primarily constructed using ESRI software by a Ph.D. level Geographer. Some products were built with other software, generally by graduate students over the years. We have been sensitive to the private sector when deciding which products to produce. While

  6. Partly standing internal tides in a dendritic submarine canyon observed by an ocean glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rob A.; Aslam, Tahmeena; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2017-08-01

    An autonomous ocean glider is used to make the first direct measurements of internal tides within Whittard Canyon, a large, dendritic submarine canyon system that incises the Celtic Sea continental slope and a site of high benthic biodiversity. This is the first time a glider has been used for targeted observations of internal tides in a submarine canyon. Vertical isopycnal displacement observations at different stations fit a one-dimensional model of partly standing semidiurnal internal tides - comprised of a major, incident wave propagating up the canyon limbs and a minor wave reflected back down-canyon by steep, supercritical bathymetry near the canyon heads. The up-canyon internal tide energy flux in the primary study limb decreases from 9.2 to 2.0 kW m-1 over 28 km (a dissipation rate of 1 - 2.5 ×10-7 Wkg-1), comparable to elevated energy fluxes and internal tide driven mixing measured in other canyon systems. Within Whittard Canyon, enhanced mixing is inferred from collapsed temperature-salinity curves and weakened dissolved oxygen concentration gradients near the canyon heads. It has previously been hypothesised that internal tides impact benthic fauna through elevated near-bottom current velocities and particle resuspension. In support of this, we infer order 20 cm s-1 near-bottom current velocities in the canyon and observe high concentrations of suspended particulate matter. The glider observations are also used to estimate a 1 °C temperature range and 12 μmol kg-1 dissolved oxygen concentration range, experienced twice a day by organisms on the canyon walls, due to the presence of internal tides. This study highlights how a well-designed glider mission, incorporating a series of tide-resolving stations at key locations, can be used to understand internal tide dynamics in a region of complex topography, a sampling strategy that is applicable to continental shelves and slopes worldwide.

  7. Variability in the mechanisms controlling Southern Ocean phytoplankton bloom phenology in an ocean model and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Tyler; Long, Matthew C.; Kavanaugh, Maria T.; Lindsay, Keith; Doney, Scott C.

    2017-05-01

    A coupled global numerical simulation (conducted with the Community Earth System Model) is used in conjunction with satellite remote sensing observations to examine the role of top-down (grazing pressure) and bottom-up (light, nutrients) controls on marine phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean. Phytoplankton seasonal phenology is evaluated in the context of the recently proposed "disturbance-recovery" hypothesis relative to more traditional, exclusively "bottom-up" frameworks. All blooms occur when phytoplankton division rates exceed loss rates to permit sustained net population growth; however, the nature of this decoupling period varies regionally in Community Earth System Model. Regional case studies illustrate how unique pathways allow blooms to emerge despite very poor division rates or very strong grazing rates. In the Subantarctic, southeast Pacific small spring blooms initiate early cooccurring with deep mixing and low division rates, consistent with the disturbance-recovery hypothesis. Similar systematics are present in the Subantarctic, southwest Atlantic during the spring but are eclipsed by a subsequent, larger summer bloom that is coincident with shallow mixing and the annual maximum in division rates, consistent with a bottom-up, light limited framework. In the model simulation, increased iron stress prevents a similar summer bloom in the southeast Pacific. In the simulated Antarctic zone (70°S-65°S) seasonal sea ice acts as a dominant phytoplankton-zooplankton decoupling agent, triggering a delayed but substantial bloom as ice recedes. Satellite ocean color remote sensing and ocean physical reanalysis products do not precisely match model-predicted phenology, but observed patterns do indicate regional variability in mechanism across the Atlantic and Pacific.

  8. Observation impact studies with the Mercator Ocean analysis and forecasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, E. D.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Lellouche, J. M.; Drevillon, M.; Turpin, V.; Benkiran, M.

    2016-02-01

    Mercator Ocean produces and delivers in real-time ocean analysis and forecasts on a daily basis. The quality of the analysis highly relies on the availability and quality of the assimilated observations.Tools are developed to estimate the impact of the present network and to help designing the future evolutions of the observing systems in the context of near real time production of ocean analysis and forecasts. OSE and OSSE are the main approaches used in this context. They allow the assessment of the efficiency of a given data set to constrain the ocean model circulation through the data assimilation process. Illustrations will mainly focus on the present and future evolution of the Argo observation network and altimetry constellation, including the potential impact of future SWOT data. Our systems show clear sensitivities to observation array changes, mainly depending on the specified observation error and regional dynamic. Impact on non observed variables can be important and are important to evaluate. Dedicated diagnostics has to be define to measure the improvements bring by each data set. Alternative approaches to OSE and OSSE are also explored: approximate computation of DFS will be presented and discussed. Limitations of each approach will be discussed in the context of real time operation.

  9. Mapping Global Ocean Surface Albedo from Satellite Observations: Models, Algorithms, and Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Fan, X.; Yan, H.; Li, A.; Wang, M.; Qu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean surface albedo (OSA) is one of the important parameters in surface radiation budget (SRB). It is usually considered as a controlling factor of the heat exchange among the atmosphere and ocean. The temporal and spatial dynamics of OSA determine the energy absorption of upper level ocean water, and have influences on the oceanic currents, atmospheric circulations, and transportation of material and energy of hydrosphere. Therefore, various parameterizations and models have been developed for describing the dynamics of OSA. However, it has been demonstrated that the currently available OSA datasets cannot full fill the requirement of global climate change studies. In this study, we present a literature review on mapping global OSA from satellite observations. The models (parameterizations, the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer (COART), and the three component ocean water albedo (TCOWA)), algorithms (the estimation method based on reanalysis data, and the direct-estimation algorithm), and datasets (the cloud, albedo and radiation (CLARA) surface albedo product, dataset derived by the TCOWA model, and the global land surface satellite (GLASS) phase-2 surface broadband albedo product) of OSA have been discussed, separately.

  10. Making United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) inclusive of marine biological resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustahfid, H.; Potemra, J.; Goldstein, P.; Mendelssohn, R.; Desrochers, A.

    2011-01-01

    An important Data Management and Communication (DMAC) goal is to enable a multi-disciplinary view of the ocean environment by facilitating discovery and integration of data from various sources, projects and scientific domains. United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) DMAC functional requirements are based upon guidelines for standardized data access services, data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and other conventions. So far, the data integration effort has focused on geophysical U.S. IOOS core variables such as temperature, salinity, ocean currents, etc. The IOOS Biological Observations Project is addressing the DMAC requirements that pertain to biological observations standards and interoperability applicable to U.S. IOOS and to various observing systems. Biological observations are highly heterogeneous and the variety of formats, logical structures, and sampling methods create significant challenges. Here we describe an informatics framework for biological observing data (e.g. species presence/absence and abundance data) that will expand information content and reconcile standards for the representation and integration of these biological observations for users to maximize the value of these observing data. We further propose that the approach described can be applied to other datasets generated in scientific observing surveys and will provide a vehicle for wider dissemination of biological observing data. We propose to employ data definition conventions that are well understood in U.S. IOOS and to combine these with ratified terminologies, policies and guidelines. ?? 2011 MTS.

  11. Improvements to TAO Ocean Observations as a Result of Refresh Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, K.; Petraitis, D. C.; Pounder, D.

    2016-02-01

    The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array has been a major observational component of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and climate prediction research since its completion in 1994 by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). In 2005 operational responsibility and control of the TAO array was transitioned from PMEL to the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). As part of the transition, a project for TAO Technology Refresh was developed to address equipment obsolescence and the need for higher data throughput in real-time. Completed in 2014, the "TAO Refresh" array has met the requirements of the NOAA transition plan and added new capabilities and value. These new capabilities include a reduced latency of data and increased real-time resolution from one observation per sensor each day to 144+ observations per sensor each day. Also, improvements in NDBC data management practices resulted in the development of a new TAO Automated Statistical Quality-control (TASQ) system that provides a real-time automated quality-control method based upon 20 years of historical data. In addition, an active method for gathering actionable evidence and combating vandalism was achieved through the installation of cameras on TAO buoys. With these enhanced capabilities, the TAO Refresh array is better positioned to support timely analyses of the diurnal cycle and high frequency weather phenomena that affect climate. An added benefit of the Refresh technology is the reduced sampling error due to the temporal averaging. For example, during a recent week long vandalism event at a Refresh buoy we have found an average error of 0.24°C (±0.17) in the subsurface temperature daily average, with the maximum error of 0.67°C. Historically, due to the limitations of real-time communications, these errors were masked within the daily average. However, with today's satellite system we can retrieve the full-resolution time series in real-time and improve the quality of our data.

  12. Tools for Tomorrow's Science and Technology Workforce: MATE's 2006 ROV Competition Sets Students' Sights on Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zande, Jill; Meeson, Blanche; Cook, Susan; Matsumoto, George

    2006-01-01

    Teams participating in the 2006 ROV competition organized by the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center and the Marine Technology Society's (MTS) ROV Committee experienced first-hand the scientific and technical challenges that many ocean scientists, technicians, and engineers face every day. The competition tasked more than 1,000 middle and high school, college, and university students from Newfoundland to Hong Kong with designing and building ROVs to support the next generation of ocean observing systems. Teaming up with the National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations, Ocean. US, and the Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION) Program, the competition highlighted ocean observing systems and the careers, organizations, and technologies associated with ocean observatories. The student teams were challenged to develop vehicles that can deploy, install, and maintain networks of instruments as well as to explore the practical applications and the research questions made possible by observing systems.

  13. Mismatch between observed and modeled trends in dissolved upper-ocean oxygen over the last 50 yr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stramma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations and model runs indicate trends in dissolved oxygen (DO associated with current and ongoing global warming. However, a large-scale observation-to-model comparison has been missing and is presented here. This study presents a first global compilation of DO measurements covering the last 50 yr. It shows declining upper-ocean DO levels in many regions, especially the tropical oceans, whereas areas with increasing trends are found in the subtropics and in some subpolar regions. For the Atlantic Ocean south of 20° N, the DO history could even be extended back to about 70 yr, showing decreasing DO in the subtropical South Atlantic. The global mean DO trend between 50° S and 50° N at 300 dbar for the period 1960 to 2010 is –0.066 μmol kg−1 yr−1. Results of a numerical biogeochemical Earth system model reveal that the magnitude of the observed change is consistent with CO2-induced climate change. However, the pattern correlation between simulated and observed patterns of past DO change is negative, indicating that the model does not correctly reproduce the processes responsible for observed regional oxygen changes in the past 50 yr. A negative pattern correlation is also obtained for model configurations with particularly low and particularly high diapycnal mixing, for a configuration that assumes a CO2-induced enhancement of the C : N ratios of exported organic matter and irrespective of whether climatological or realistic winds from reanalysis products are used to force the model. Depending on the model configuration the 300 dbar DO trend between 50° S and 50° N is −0.027 to –0.047 μmol kg−1 yr−1 for climatological wind forcing, with a much larger range of –0.083 to +0.027 μmol kg−1 yr−1 for different initializations of sensitivity runs with reanalysis wind forcing. Although numerical models reproduce the overall sign and, to

  14. Ship Sensor Observations for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats" expedition sponsored by...

  15. 78 FR 39638 - U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System; Regulations To Certify and Integrate Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... regional system operations and maintenance. The RICE must illustrate its standard operating procedures for... designing, operating, and improving regional coastal and ocean observing systems in order to ensure the... set priorities for distributing funds (e.g., requirement for Governing Board or governing body...

  16. Retrieving Temperature Anomaly in the Global Subsurface and Deeper Ocean From Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hua; Li, Wene; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving the subsurface and deeper ocean (SDO) dynamic parameters from satellite observations is crucial for effectively understanding ocean interior anomalies and dynamic processes, but it is challenging to accurately estimate the subsurface thermal structure over the global scale from sea surface parameters. This study proposes a new approach based on Random Forest (RF) machine learning to retrieve subsurface temperature anomaly (STA) in the global ocean from multisource satellite observations including sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA), and sea surface wind anomaly (SSWA) via in situ Argo data for RF training and testing. RF machine-learning approach can accurately retrieve the STA in the global ocean from satellite observations of sea surface parameters (SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, SSWA). The Argo STA data were used to validate the accuracy and reliability of the results from the RF model. The results indicated that SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, and SSWA together are useful parameters for detecting SDO thermal information and obtaining accurate STA estimations. The proposed method also outperformed support vector regression (SVR) in global STA estimation. It will be a useful technique for studying SDO thermal variability and its role in global climate system from global-scale satellite observations.

  17. Design of a Push-Broom Multi-Beam Radiometer for Future Ocean Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    The design of a push-broom multi-beam radiometer for future ocean observations is described. The radiometer provides a sensitivity one order of magnitude higher than a traditional conical scanning radiometer, and has the big advantage of being fully stationary relative to the satellite platform...

  18. Defining Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as a contribution to Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs): A Core Task of the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) to Accelerate Integration of Biological Observations in the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Sousa Pinto, I.; Costello, M. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Appeltans, W.; Fischer, A. S.; Canonico, G.; Klein, E.; Obura, D.; Montes, E.; Miloslavich, P.; Howard, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a networking effort under the umbrella of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). The objective of the MBON is to link existing groups engaged in ocean observation and help define practical indices to deploy in an operational manner to track changes in the number of marine species, the abundance and biomass of marine organisms, the diverse interactions between organisms and the environment, and the variability and change of specific habitats of interest. MBON serves as the biodiversity arm of Blue Planet, the initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) for the benefit of society. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) was established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in 1991 to organize international ocean observing efforts. The mission of the GOOS is to support monitoring to improve the management of marine and coastal ecosystems and resources, and to enable scientific research. GOOS is engaged in a continuing, rigorous process of identifying Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs). MBON is working with GOOS and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS, also under the IOC) to define Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as those Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) that have explicit taxonomic records associated with them. For practical purposes, EBVs are a subset of the EOVs. The focus is to promote the integration of biological EOVs including EBVs into the existing and planned national and international ocean observing systems. The definition avoids a proliferation of 'essential' variables across multiple organizations. MBON will continue to advance practical and wide use of EBVs and related EOV. This is an effective way to contribute to several UN assessments (e.g., from IPBES, IPCC, and the World Ocean Assessment under the UN Regular Process), UN Sustainable Development Goals, and to address targets and goals defined under

  19. Linking source region and ocean wave parameters with the observed primary microseismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretzek, C.; Hadziioannou, C.

    2017-12-01

    In previous studies, the contribution of Love waves to the primary microseismic noise field was found to be comparable to those of Rayleigh waves. However, so far only few studies analysed both wave types present in this microseismic noise band, which is known to be generated in shallow water and the theoretical understanding has mainly evolved for Rayleigh waves only. Here, we study the relevance of different source region parameters on the observed primary microseismic noise levels of Love and Rayleigh waves simultaneously. By means of beamforming and correlation of seismic noise amplitudes with ocean wave heights in the period band between 12 and 15 s, we analysed how source areas of both wave types compare with each other around Europe. The generation effectivity in different source regions was compared to ocean wave heights, peak ocean gravity wave propagation direction and bathymetry. Observed Love wave noise amplitudes correlate comparably well with near coastal ocean wave parameters as Rayleigh waves. Some coastal regions serve as especially effective sources for one or the other wave type. These coincide not only with locations of high wave heights but also with complex bathymetry. Further, Rayleigh and Love wave noise amplitudes seem to depend equally on the local ocean wave heights, which is an indication for a coupled variation with swell height during the generation of both wave types. However, the wave-type ratio varies directionally. This observation likely hints towards a spatially varying importance of different source mechanisms or structural influences. Further, the wave-type ratio is modulated depending on peak ocean wave propagation directions which could indicate a variation of different source mechanism strengths but also hints towards an imprint of an effective source radiation pattern. This emphasizes that the inclusion of both wave types may provide more constraints for the understanding of acting generation mechanisms.

  20. Observed sea-level rise in the north Indian Ocean coasts during the past century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 91 Observed sea-level rise in the north Indian Ocean coasts during the past century A. S. Unnikrishnan National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403004 unni@nio.org Introduction Sea-level... rise is one of the good indicators of global warming. Rise in sea level occurs mainly through melting of glaciers, thermal expansion due to ocean warming and some other processes of relatively smaller magnitudes. Sea level rise is a global...

  1. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sanz-Martí n, M.; Mesa, E.; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, M.; Hendriks, I.  E.; Garcí a-Corral, L. S.; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A.; Delgado, A.; Reigstad, M.; Wassmann, P.; Agusti, Susana

    2015-01-01

    production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range

  2. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: Building an MBON for the Florida Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Stoessel, M. M.; Currier, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) Data Portal was designed to aggregate regional data and to serve it to the public through standards-based services in useful and desirable forms. These standards are established and sanctioned for use by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office with inputs from experts on the Integrated Ocean Observation Committee and the RA informatics community. In 2012, with considerable input from staff from Ocean Biogeographical Information System USA (OBIS-USA), IOOS began to develop and adopt standards for serving biological datasets. GCOOS-RA applied these standards the following year and began serving fisheries independent data through an GCOOS ERDDAP server. In late 2014, GCOOS-RA partnered with the University of South Florida in a 5-year Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (MBON) Project sponsored by NOAA, NASA and BOEM. Work began in 2015. GCOOS' primary role is to aggregate, organize and serve data that are useful to an MBON for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. GCOOS, in collaboration with Axiom Data Science, will produce a decision support system (DSS) for stakeholders such as NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries Program managers. The datasets to be managed include environmental observations from: field surveys, fixed platforms, and satellites; GIS layers of: bathymetry, shoreline, sanctuary boundaries, living marine resources and habitats; outputs from ocean circulation models and ecosystem models (e.g., Ecopath/Ecosim) and Environmental DNA. Additionally, the DSS may be called upon to perform analyses, compute indices of biodiversity and present results in tabular, graphic and fused forms in an interactive setting. This presentation will discuss our progress to date for this challenging work in data integration.

  3. A Record-High Ocean Bottom Pressure in the South Pacific Observed by GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boening, Carmen; Lee, Tong; Zlotnicki, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 to early 2010, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite pair observed a record increase in ocean bottom pressure (OBP) over a large mid-latitude region of the South East Pacific. Its magnitude is substantially larger than other oceanic events in the Southern Hemisphere found in the entire GRACE data records (2003-2010) on multi-month time scales. The OBP data help to understand the nature of a similar signal in sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observed by altimetry: the SSH increase is mainly due to mass convergence. Analysis of the barotropic vorticity equation using scatterometer data, atmospheric reanalysis product, and GRACE and altimeter an atmospheric reanalysis product observations suggests that the observed OBP/SSH signal was primarily caused by wind stress curl associated with a strong and persistent anticyclone in late 2009 in combination with effects of planetary vorticity gradient, bottom topography, and friction

  4. AtlantOS WP2, Enhancement of ship-based observing networks - Bathymetric integration and visualization of Europe's data holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Devey, Colin; Augustin, Nico

    2017-04-01

    The European Horizon 2020 research and innovation project AtlantOS - Optimising and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing Systems - aims to improve the present-day ocean observing activities in the Atlantic Ocean by establishing a sustainable, efficient and integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System. 62 partners from 18 countries are working on solutions I) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, II) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, III) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, IV) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, V) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and VI) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation. The Work Package 2 of the AtlantOS project focuses on improving, expanding, integrating and innovating ship-based observations. One of the tasks is the provision of Europe's existing and future bathymetric data sets from the Atlantic Ocean in accessible formats enabling easy processing and visualization for stakeholders. Furthermore, a new concept has recently been implemented, where three large German research vessels continuously collect bathymetric data during their transits. All data sets are gathered and processed with the help of national data centers and partner institutions and integrated into existing open access data systems, such as Pangaea in Germany, EMODnet at European level and GMRT (Global Multi-Resolution Topography synthesis) at international level. The processed data will be linked to the original data holdings, that can easily be accessed if required. The overall aim of this task is to make bathymetric data publicly available for specialists and non-specialists both

  5. Observations of Near-Surface Current Shear Help Describe Oceanic Oil and Plastic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxague, Nathan J. M.; Ö-zgökmen, Tamay M.; Haus, Brian K.; Novelli, Guillaume; Shcherbina, Andrey; Sutherland, Peter; Guigand, Cédric M.; Lund, Björn; Mehta, Sanchit; Alday, Matias; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Plastics and spilled oil pose a critical threat to marine life and human health. As a result of wind forcing and wave motions, theoretical and laboratory studies predict very strong velocity variation with depth over the upper few centimeters of the water column, an observational blind spot in the real ocean. Here we present the first-ever ocean measurements of the current vector profile defined to within 1 cm of the free surface. In our illustrative example, the current magnitude averaged over the upper 1 cm of the ocean is shown to be nearly four times the average over the upper 10 m, even for mild forcing. Our findings indicate that this shear will rapidly separate pieces of marine debris which vary in size or buoyancy, making consideration of these dynamics essential to an improved understanding of the pathways along which marine plastics and oil are transported.

  6. Robustness of observation-based decadal sea level variability in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidheesh, A. G.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Meyssignac, B.; Hamlington, B.; de Boyer Montegut, C.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the consistency of Indo-Pacific decadal sea level variability in 10 gridded, observation-based sea level products for the 1960-2010 period. Decadal sea level variations are robust in the Pacific, with more than 50% of variance explained by decadal modulation of two flavors of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (classical ENSO and Modoki). Amplitude of decadal sea level variability is weaker in the Indian Ocean than in the Pacific. All data sets indicate a transmission of decadal sea level signals from the western Pacific to the northwest Australian coast through the Indonesian throughflow. The southern tropical Indian Ocean sea level variability is associated with decadal modulations of ENSO in reconstructions but not in reanalyses or in situ data set. The Pacific-independent Indian Ocean decadal sea level variability is not robust but tends to be maximum in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The inconsistency of Indian Ocean decadal variability across the sea level products calls for caution in making definitive conclusions on decadal sea level variability in this basin.

  7. Sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean observed by satellite altimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Prandi, P.; Ablain, M.; Cazenave, A.; Picot, N.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean from observations. Variability estimates are derived both at the basin scale and on smaller local spatial scales. The periods of the signals studied vary from high frequency (intra-annual) to long term trends. We also investigate the mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Different data types are used, the main one being a recent reprocessing of satellite altimetry data...

  8. Community Observatories: Fostering Ideas that STEM From Ocean Sense: Local Observations. Global Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M. S.; Ewing, N.; Hoeberechts, M.; Riddell, D. J.; McLean, M. A.; Brown, J. C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) uses education and communication to inspire, engage and educate via innovative "meet them where they are, and take them where they need to go" programs. ONC data are accessible via the internet allowing for the promotion of programs wherever the learners are located. We use technologies such as web portals, mobile apps and citizen science to share ocean science data with many different audiences. Here we focus specifically on one of ONC's most innovative programs: community observatories and the accompanying Ocean Sense program. The approach is based on equipping communities with the same technology enabled on ONC's large cabled observatories. ONC operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories and they collect data on physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of the ocean over long time periods, supporting research on complex Earth processes in ways not previously possible. Community observatories allow for similar monitoring on a smaller scale, and support STEM efforts via a teacher-led program: Ocean Sense. This program, based on local observations and global connections improves data-rich teaching and learning via visualization tools, interactive plotting interfaces and lesson plans for teachers that focus on student inquiry and exploration. For example, students use all aspects of STEM by accessing, selecting, and interpreting data in multiple dimensions, from their local community observatories to the larger VENUS and NEPTUNE networks. The students make local observations and global connections in all STEM areas. The first year of the program with teachers and students who use this innovative technology is described. Future community observatories and their technological applications in education, communication and STEM efforts are also described.

  9. Ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) and Superstorm Sandy (2012): Coupled model predictions and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.

  10. Observing Crustal Magnetic Anomalies in Remote Ocean Regions: Filling in the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, B.; Kinsey, J. C.; Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.

    2016-12-01

    The use of long duration ocean observing platforms is necessary for filling in broad gaps in the observational record of magnetic anomaly measurements in the ocean basins -- observations that are necessary for understanding a variety of geophysical processes. Such an instrument would need to gather 1000s of kilometers of magnetic data untended, requiring in-situ calibration methods and minimization of energy usage. In this work an autonomous underwater glider (AUG) has been equipped with a low power flux-gate magnetic sensor. Sensor integration was tested locally in shallow water followed by deep water trials to verify the calibration procedure in June of 2016. During this cruise a 160 kilometer magnetic tow was also collected across the East Coast Shelf Anomaly to the South-East of Cape Cod. Following these tests, the AUG was deployed such that it followed the trajectory of the towed magnetic survey to provide a baseline comparison against a known methodology. For these deployments an in-situ calibration procedure was used whereby the vehicle was commanded to perform descending and ascending spirals with its actuators at various discrete locations. When combined with a temperature model for the sensor the calibrated measurements were found to be in agreement with the towed data to within several 10's of nT. These comparative measurements demonstrate the utility of using directed long duration autonomous ocean observing platforms to gather medium wavelength crustal magnetic anomaly features. This ability is especially desirable for collecting measurements in remote ocean basins, such as the Southern Ocean, where presently only a few ship tracks exist and are likely to never be sampled by conventional research vessels surveys.

  11. Citizen Bio-Optical Observations from Coast- and Ocean and Their Compatibility with Ocean Colour Satellite Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Busch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine processes are observed with sensors from both the ground and space over large spatio-temporal scales. Citizen-based contributions can fill observational gaps and increase environmental stewardship amongst the public. For this purpose, tools and methods for citizen science need to (1 complement existing datasets; and (2 be affordable, while appealing to different user and developer groups. In this article, tools and methods developed in the 7th Framework Programme of European Union (EU FP 7 funded project Citclops (citizens’ observatories for coast and ocean optical monitoring are reviewed. Tools range from a stand-alone smartphone app to devices with Arduino and 3-D printing, and hence are attractive to a diversity of users; from the general public to more specified maker- and open labware movements. Standardization to common water quality parameters and methods allows long-term storage in regular marine data repositories, such as SeaDataNet and EMODnet, thereby providing open data access. Due to the given intercomparability to existing remote sensing datasets, these tools are ready to complement the marine datapool. In the future, such combined satellite and citizen observations may set measurements by the engaged public in a larger context and hence increase their individual meaning. In a wider sense, a synoptic use can support research, management authorities, and societies at large.

  12. Response of Southern Ocean circulation to global warming may enhance basal ice shelf melting around Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattermann, Tore; Levermann, Anders [Potsdam University, Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the large-scale oceanic features determining the future ice shelf-ocean interaction by analyzing global warming experiments in a coarse resolution climate model with a comprehensive ocean component. Heat and freshwater fluxes from basal ice shelf melting (ISM) are parameterized following Beckmann and Goosse [Ocean Model 5(2):157-170, 2003]. Melting sensitivities to the oceanic temperature outside of the ice shelf cavities are varied from linear to quadratic (Holland et al. in J Clim 21, 2008). In 1% per year CO{sub 2}-increase experiments the total freshwater flux from ISM triples to 0.09 Sv in the linear case and more than quadruples to 0.15 Sv in the quadratic case after 140 years at which 4 x 280 ppm = 1,120 ppm was reached. Due to the long response time of subsurface temperature anomalies, ISM thereafter increases drastically, if CO{sub 2} concentrations are kept constant at 1,120 ppm. Varying strength of the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) is crucial for ISM increase, because southward advection of heat dominates the warming along the Antarctic coast. On centennial timescales the ACC accelerates due to deep ocean warming north of the current, caused by mixing of heat along isopycnals in the Southern Ocean (SO) outcropping regions. In contrast to previous studies we find an initial weakening of the ACC during the first 150 years of warming. This purely baroclinic effect is due to a freshening in the SO which is consistent with present observations. Comparison with simulations with diagnosed ISM but without its influence on the ocean circulation reveal a number of ISM-related feedbacks, of which a negative ISM-feedback, due to the ISM-related local oceanic cooling, is the dominant one. (orig.)

  13. Exploring image data assimilation in the prospect of high-resolution satellite oceanic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Moro, Marina; Brankart, Jean-Michel; Brasseur, Pierre; Verron, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Satellite sensors increasingly provide high-resolution (HR) observations of the ocean. They supply observations of sea surface height (SSH) and of tracers of the dynamics such as sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST). In particular, the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will provide measurements of the surface ocean topography at very high-resolution (HR) delivering unprecedented information on the meso-scale and submeso-scale dynamics. This study investigates the feasibility to use these measurements to reconstruct meso-scale features simulated by numerical models, in particular on the vertical dimension. A methodology to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) multivariate meso-scale scenes is developed by using a HR numerical model of the Solomon Sea region. An inverse problem is defined in the framework of a twin experiment where synthetic observations are used. A true state is chosen among the 3D multivariate states which is considered as a reference state. In order to correct a first guess of this true state, a two-step analysis is carried out. A probability distribution of the first guess is defined and updated at each step of the analysis: (i) the first step applies the analysis scheme of a reduced-order Kalman filter to update the first guess probability distribution using SSH observation; (ii) the second step minimizes a cost function using observations of HR image structure and a new probability distribution is estimated. The analysis is extended to the vertical dimension using 3D multivariate empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and the probabilistic approach allows the update of the probability distribution through the two-step analysis. Experiments show that the proposed technique succeeds in correcting a multivariate state using meso-scale and submeso-scale information contained in HR SSH and image structure observations. It also demonstrates how the surface information can be used to reconstruct the ocean state below

  14. Autonomous Observations of the Upper Ocean Stratification and Velocity Field about the Seasonality Retreating Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    fluxes of heat, salt, and momentum. Hourly GPS fixes tracked the motion of the supporting ice floes and T/C recorders sampled the ocean waters just... sampled in a range of ice conditions from full ice cover to nearly open water and observed a variety of stratification and ocean velocity signals (e.g...From - To) 12/30/2016 final 01-Nov-2011to 30-Sep-201 6 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Autonomous observations of the upper ocean

  15. Using the Alaska Ocean Observing System to Inform Decision Making for Coastal Resiliency Relating to Inundation, Ocean Acidification, Harmful Algal Blooms, Navigation Safety and Impacts of Vessel Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, M.

    2017-12-01

    State and federal agencies, coastal communities and Alaska Native residents, and non-governmental organizations are increasingly turning to the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) as a major source of ocean and coastal data and information products to inform decision making relating to a changing Arctic. AOOS implements its mission to provide ocean observing data and information to meet stakeholder needs by ensuring that all programs are "science based, stakeholder driven and policy neutral." Priority goals are to increase access to existing coastal and ocean data; package information and data in useful ways to meet stakeholder needs; and increase observing and forecasting capacity in all regions of the state. Recently certified by NOAA, the AOOS Data Assembly Center houses the largest collection of real-time ocean and coastal data, environmental models, and biological data in Alaska, and develops tools and applications to make it more publicly accessible and useful. Given the paucity of observations in the Alaska Arctic, the challenge is how to make decisions with little data compared to other areas of the U.S. coastline. AOOS addresses this issue by: integrating and visualizing existing data; developing data and information products and tools to make data more useful; serving as a convener role in areas such as coastal inundation and flooding, impacts of warming temperatures on food security, ocean acidification, observing technologies and capacity; and facilitating planning efforts to increase observations. In this presentation, I will give examples of each of these efforts, lessons learned, and suggestions for future actions.

  16. Global assessment of ocean carbon export by combining satellite observations and food-web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. A.; Buesseler, K. O.; Doney, S. C.; Sailley, S. F.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Boyd, P. W.

    2014-03-01

    The export of organic carbon from the surface ocean by sinking particles is an important, yet highly uncertain, component of the global carbon cycle. Here we introduce a mechanistic assessment of the global ocean carbon export using satellite observations, including determinations of net primary production and the slope of the particle size spectrum, to drive a food-web model that estimates the production of sinking zooplankton feces and algal aggregates comprising the sinking particle flux at the base of the euphotic zone. The synthesis of observations and models reveals fundamentally different and ecologically consistent regional-scale patterns in export and export efficiency not found in previous global carbon export assessments. The model reproduces regional-scale particle export field observations and predicts a climatological mean global carbon export from the euphotic zone of 6 Pg C yr-1. Global export estimates show small variation (typically model parameter values. The model is also robust to the choices of the satellite data products used and enables interannual changes to be quantified. The present synthesis of observations and models provides a path for quantifying the ocean's biological pump.

  17. Impacts of Interactive Stratospheric Chemistry on Antarctic and Southern Ocean Climate Change in the Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Vikhliaev, Yury V.; Newman, Paul A.; Pawson, Steven; Perlwitz, Judith; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2016-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion plays a major role in driving climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. To date, many climate models prescribe the stratospheric ozone layer's evolution using monthly and zonally averaged ozone fields. However, the prescribed ozone underestimates Antarctic ozone depletion and lacks zonal asymmetries. In this study we investigate the impact of using interactive stratospheric chemistry instead of prescribed ozone on climate change simulations of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean. Two sets of 1960-2010 ensemble transient simulations are conducted with the coupled ocean version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5: one with interactive stratospheric chemistry and the other with prescribed ozone derived from the same interactive simulations. The model's climatology is evaluated using observations and reanalysis. Comparison of the 1979-2010 climate trends between these two simulations reveals that interactive chemistry has important effects on climate change not only in the Antarctic stratosphere, troposphere, and surface, but also in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice. Interactive chemistry causes stronger Antarctic lower stratosphere cooling and circumpolar westerly acceleration during November-December-January. It enhances stratosphere-troposphere coupling and leads to significantly larger tropospheric and surface westerly changes. The significantly stronger surface wind stress trends cause larger increases of the Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation, leading to year-round stronger ocean warming near the surface and enhanced Antarctic sea ice decrease.

  18. Ocean bottom pressure observations near the source of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazu, D.; Hino, R.; Suzuki, S.; Osada, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Iinuma, T.; Tsushima, H.; Ito, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    A Mw9.0 earthquake occurred off Miyagi, northeast Japan, on 11 March 2011 (hereafter mainshock). An earthquake of M7.3, considered to be the largest foreshock of the mainshock, occurred on 9 March 2011 near the mainshock hypocenter. A suite of seismic and geodetic variations related to these earthquakes was observed by autonomous, ocean bottom pressure (OBP) gauges at multiple sites (4 sites at present) near the sources within a distance of about 100 km. This paper presents the OBP records with a focus on the earthquakes. Thanks to correcting tides, instrumental drifts, and non-tidal oceanic variations, we can detect OBP signals of tsunamis and vertical seafloor deformation of the order of centimeters with timescales of less than months. In the following we review the detected signals and how to correct the OBP data. The coseismic seafloor displacement and the tsunami accompanied by the mainshock were of the order of meters and large enough to be distinctly identified (Ito et al., 2011, GRL). Co- and post-seismic seafloor displacement and tsunami accompanied by the foreshock were of the order of centimeters which is difficult to be identified from the raw OBP records. The first evident pulses of these tsunamis in the deep sea have durations (periods) of ~20 minutes and ~10 minutes, for the mainshock and the foreshock, respectively. Amounts of seafloor vertical displacement due to post-mainshock deformation reached a few tens of centimeters in two months. It is worth noting that elevation and depression of seafloor were detected at rates of a couple of centimeters in a day after the largest foreshock. The seafloor displacement of centimeters between the largest foreshock and the mainshock can be reasonably identified after correcting non-tidal oceanic variations. The oceanic variations are simulated by a barotropic ocean model driven by atmospheric disturbances (Inazu et al., 2011, Ann. Rep. Earth Simulator Center 2011). The model enables residual OBP time series of

  19. Patterns and Variability in Global Ocean Chlorophyll: Satellite Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson

    2004-01-01

    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 4% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. These trend analyses follow earlier results showing decadal declines in global ocean chlorophyll and primary production. To understand the causes of these changes and trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The model utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. This enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll. A full discussion of the changes and trends, possible causes, modeling approaches, and data assimilation will be the focus of the seminar.

  20. Origin, dynamics and evolution of ocean garbage patches from observed surface drifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sebille, Erik; England, Matthew H; Froyland, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debris in the near-surface ocean collects in so-called garbage patches where, due to convergence of the surface flow, the debris is trapped for decades to millennia. Until now, studies modelling the pathways of surface marine debris have not included release from coasts or factored in the possibilities that release concentrations vary with region or that pathways may include seasonal cycles. Here, we use observational data from the Global Drifter Program in a particle-trajectory tracer approach that includes the seasonal cycle to study the fate of marine debris in the open ocean from coastal regions around the world on interannual to centennial timescales. We find that six major garbage patches emerge, one in each of the five subtropical basins and one previously unreported patch in the Barents Sea. The evolution of each of the six patches is markedly different. With the exception of the North Pacific, all patches are much more dispersive than expected from linear ocean circulation theory, suggesting that on centennial timescales the different basins are much better connected than previously thought and that inter-ocean exchanges play a large role in the spreading of marine debris. This study suggests that, over multi-millennial timescales, a significant amount of the debris released outside of the North Atlantic will eventually end up in the North Pacific patch, the main attractor of global marine debris. (letter)

  1. The Seasonal Cycle of Carbon in the Southern Pacific Ocean Observed from Biogeochemical Profiling Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J. L.; Gray, A. R.; Johnson, K. S.; Carter, B.; Riser, S.; Talley, L. D.; Williams, N. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is thought to play an important role in the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. However, the total number of observations of the carbonate system in this region is small and heavily biased towards the summer. Here we present 1.5 years of biogeochemical measurements, including pH, oxygen, and nitrate, collected by 11 autonomous profiling floats deployed in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean in April 2014. These floats sampled a variety of oceanographic regimes ranging from the seasonally ice-covered zone to the subtropical gyre. Using an algorithm trained with bottle measurements, alkalinity is estimated from salinity, temperature, and oxygen and then used together with the measured pH to calculate total carbon dioxide and pCO2 in the upper 1500 dbar. The seasonal cycle in the biogeochemical quantities is examined, and the factors governing pCO2 in the surface waters are analyzed. The mechanisms driving the seasonal cycle of carbon are further investigated by computing budgets of heat, carbon, and nitrogen in the mixed layer. Comparing the different regimes sampled by the floats demonstrates the complex and variable nature of the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean.

  2. Enhanced ocean carbon storage from anaerobic alkalinity generation in coastal sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The coastal ocean is a crucial link between land, the open ocean and the atmosphere. The shallowness of the water column permits close interactions between the sedimentary, aquatic and atmospheric compartments, which otherwise are decoupled at long time scales (≅ 1000 yr in the open oceans. Despite the prominent role of the coastal oceans in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and transferring it into the deep oceans via the continental shelf pump, the underlying mechanisms remain only partly understood. Evaluating observations from the North Sea, a NW European shelf sea, we provide evidence that anaerobic degradation of organic matter, fuelled from land and ocean, generates total alkalinity (AT and increases the CO2 buffer capacity of seawater. At both the basin wide and annual scales anaerobic AT generation in the North Sea's tidal mud flat area irreversibly facilitates 7–10%, or taking into consideration benthic denitrification in the North Sea, 20–25% of the North Sea's overall CO2 uptake. At the global scale, anaerobic AT generation could be accountable for as much as 60% of the uptake of CO2 in shelf and marginal seas, making this process, the anaerobic pump, a key player in the biological carbon pump. Under future high CO2 conditions oceanic CO2 storage via the anaerobic pump may even gain further relevance because of stimulated ocean productivity.

  3. Enhanced Weathering Strategies for Stabilizing Climate and Averting Ocean Acidification - Supplementary Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m(exp. -2) yr (exp -1)) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  4. Contrasting spatial structures of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation between observations and slab ocean model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Kucharski, Fred; Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Xiang

    2018-04-01

    The spatial structure of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) is analyzed and compared between the observations and simulations from slab ocean models (SOMs) and fully coupled models. The observed sea surface temperature (SST) pattern of AMO is characterized by a basin-wide monopole structure, and there is a significantly high degree of spatial coherence of decadal SST variations across the entire North Atlantic basin. The observed SST anomalies share a common decadal-scale signal, corresponding to the basin-wide average (i. e., the AMO). In contrast, the simulated AMO in SOMs (AMOs) exhibits a tripole-like structure, with the mid-latitude North Atlantic SST showing an inverse relationship with other parts of the basin, and the SOMs fail to reproduce the observed strong spatial coherence of decadal SST variations associated with the AMO. The observed spatial coherence of AMO SST anomalies is identified as a key feature that can be used to distinguish the AMO mechanism. The tripole-like SST pattern of AMOs in SOMs can be largely explained by the atmosphere-forced thermodynamics mechanism due to the surface heat flux changes associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The thermodynamic forcing of AMOs by the NAO gives rise to a simultaneous inverse NAO-AMOs relationship at both interannual and decadal timescales and a seasonal phase locking of the AMOs variability to the cold season. However, the NAO-forced thermodynamics mechanism cannot explain the observed NAO-AMO relationship and the seasonal phase locking of observed AMO variability to the warm season. At decadal timescales, a strong lagged relationship between NAO and AMO is observed, with the NAO leading by up to two decades, while the simultaneous correlation of NAO with AMO is weak. This lagged relationship and the spatial coherence of AMO can be well understood from the view point of ocean dynamics. A time-integrated NAO index, which reflects the variations in Atlantic meridional overturning

  5. OBIS-USA: Enhancing Ocean Science Outcomes through Data Interoperability and Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, P.; Fornwall, M.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial and industrial information systems have long built and relied upon standard data formats and transactions. Business processes, analytics, applications, and social networks emerge on top of these standards to create value. Examples of value delivered include operational productivity, analytics that enable growth and profit, and enhanced human communication and creativity for innovation. In science informatics, some research and operational activities operate with only scattered adoption of standards and few of the emergent benefits of interoperability. In-situ biological data management in the marine domain is an exemplar. From the origination of biological occurrence records in surveys, observer programs, monitoring and experimentation, through distribution techniques, to applications, decisions, and management response, marine biological data can be difficult, limited, and costly to integrate because of non-standard and undocumented conditions in the data. While this presentation identifies deficits in marine biological data practices, the presentation also identifies this as a field of opportunity. Standards for biological data and metadata do exist, with growing global adoption and extensibility features. Scientific, economic, and social-value motivations provide incentives to maximize marine science investments. Diverse science communities of national and international scale begin to see benefits of collaborative technologies. OBIS-USA (http://USGS.gov/obis-usa) is a program of the United States Geological Survey. This presentation shows how OBIS-USA directly addresses the opportunity to enhance ocean science outcomes through data infrastructure, including: (1) achieving rapid, economical, and high-quality data capture and data flow, (2) offering technology for data storage and methods for data discovery and quality/suitability evaluation, (3) making data understandable and consistent for application purposes, (4) distributing and integrating data in

  6. On Verifying Currents and Other Features in the Hawaiian Islands Region Using Fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System Compared to Global Ocean Model and Ocean Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, P. G.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster introduces and evaluates features concerning the Hawaii, USA region using the U.S. Navy's fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS-OS™) coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). It also outlines some challenges in verifying ocean currents in the open ocean. The system is evaluated using in situ ocean data and initial forcing fields from the operational global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Verification shows difficulties in modelling downstream currents off the Hawaiian islands (Hawaii's wake). Comparing HYCOM to NCOM current fields show some displacement of small features such as eddies. Generally, there is fair agreement from HYCOM to NCOM in salinity and temperature fields. There is good agreement in SSH fields.

  7. Observations of frozen skin of southern ocean from multifrequency scanning microwave radiometer (MSMR) onboard oceansat - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.; Bhandari, S.; Dash, M.; Pandey, P.; Khare, N.

    the expectations from global warming. This has stimulated the scientific interest in Antarctic sea ice. The recent break-up of Larsen-B ice shelf in Antarctic Peninsula, where a warming of 2.5 degree centigrade has been observed during the last 50 years has added a sense of urgency to these studies. The sea ice has also been studied in individual sectors around Antarctic. It is also proposed to explore the potential of MSMR data in characterizing the Antarctic waters of different sectors to locate, in space and time, the source for Antarctic Bottom water formation which influences the physical, chemical and biological properties of the world ocean.

  8. Observation- and model-based estimates of particulate dry nitrogen deposition to the oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Baker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic nitrogen (N emissions to the atmosphere have increased significantly the deposition of nitrate (NO3− and ammonium (NH4+ to the surface waters of the open ocean, with potential impacts on marine productivity and the global carbon cycle. Global-scale understanding of the impacts of N deposition to the oceans is reliant on our ability to produce and validate models of nitrogen emission, atmospheric chemistry, transport and deposition. In this work,  ∼  2900 observations of aerosol NO3− and NH4+ concentrations, acquired from sampling aboard ships in the period 1995–2012, are used to assess the performance of modelled N concentration and deposition fields over the remote ocean. Three ocean regions (the eastern tropical North Atlantic, the northern Indian Ocean and northwest Pacific were selected, in which the density and distribution of observational data were considered sufficient to provide effective comparison to model products. All of these study regions are affected by transport and deposition of mineral dust, which alters the deposition of N, due to uptake of nitrogen oxides (NOx on mineral surfaces. Assessment of the impacts of atmospheric N deposition on the ocean requires atmospheric chemical transport models to report deposition fluxes; however, these fluxes cannot be measured over the ocean. Modelling studies such as the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, which only report deposition flux, are therefore very difficult to validate for dry deposition. Here, the available observational data were averaged over a 5° × 5° grid and compared to ACCMIP dry deposition fluxes (ModDep of oxidised N (NOy and reduced N (NHx and to the following parameters from the Tracer Model 4 of the Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (TM4: ModDep for NOy, NHx and particulate NO3− and NH4+, and surface-level particulate NO3− and NH4+ concentrations. As a model ensemble, ACCMIP can be

  9. Enhanced Open Ocean Storage of CO2 from Shelf Sea Pumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Elkalay, K.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal field observations show that the North Sea, a Northern European shelf sea, is highly efficient in pumping carbon dioxide fromthe atmosphere to the North Atlantic Ocean. The bottom topography–controlled stratification separates production and respiration processes in the North Sea, causing a

  10. Year Five of Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEACOOS) Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    established the first network of subsurface observing locations (of temperature and salinity ) and shelf current observations. The program also initiated a...evolving, three-dimensional fields of the coastal ocean from the estuaries out to the boundaries of the EEZ was the ambitious goal of the SEACOOS...fiddler crab Uca minax, Marine Biology, 152:1283-1291, doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0777- y. Chassignet, E.P., H.E. Hurlburt, O.M. Smedstad, G.R

  11. Evaluation of tropical Pacific observing systems using NCEP and GFDL ocean data assimilation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, Caihong; Yang, Xiaosong; Behringer, David; Kumar, Arun; Vecchi, Gabriel; Rosati, Anthony; Gudgel, Rich

    2017-08-01

    The TAO/TRITON array is the cornerstone of the tropical Pacific and ENSO observing system. Motivated by the recent rapid decline of the TAO/TRITON array, the potential utility of TAO/TRITON was assessed for ENSO monitoring and prediction. The analysis focused on the period when observations from Argo floats were also available. We coordinated observing system experiments (OSEs) using the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for the period 2004-2011. Four OSE simulations were conducted with inclusion of different subsets of in situ profiles: all profiles (XBT, moorings, Argo), all except the moorings, all except the Argo and no profiles. For evaluation of the OSE simulations, we examined the mean bias, standard deviation difference, root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and anomaly correlation against observations and objective analyses. Without assimilation of in situ observations, both GODAS and ECDA had large mean biases and RMSD in all variables. Assimilation of all in situ data significantly reduced mean biases and RMSD in all variables except zonal current at the equator. For GODAS, the mooring data is critical in constraining temperature in the eastern and northwestern tropical Pacific, while for ECDA both the mooring and Argo data is needed in constraining temperature in the western tropical Pacific. The Argo data is critical in constraining temperature in off-equatorial regions for both GODAS and ECDA. For constraining salinity, sea surface height and surface current analysis, the influence of Argo data was more pronounced. In addition, the salinity data from the TRITON buoys played an important role in constraining salinity in the western Pacific. GODAS was more sensitive to withholding Argo data in off-equatorial regions than ECDA because it relied on local observations to correct model biases and

  12. Atmospheric, Non-Tidal Oceanic and Hydrological Loading Effects Observed with GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, J. P.; Memin, A.; Watson, C.; Tregoning, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  13. 3-D modelling the electric field due to ocean tidal flow and comparison with observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Junge, A.; Utada, H.

    2006-01-01

    The tidal motion of the ocean water through the ambient magnetic field, generates secondary electric field. This motionally induced electric field can be detected in the sea or inland and has a potential for electrical soundings of the Earth. A first goal of the paper is to gain an understanding...... that in some coastal regions the amplitudes of the electric field can reach 100 mV/km and 10 mV/km for M2 and O1 tides respectively. The changes of lithosphere resistance produce detectable changes in the tidal electric signals. We show that our predictions are in a good agreement with observations....... of the global distribution of the electric signal due to tidal ocean flow. We simulate the electric signals for two tidal constituents - lunar semidiurnal (M2) and diurnal (O1) tides. We assume a realistic Earth's conductivity model with a surface thin shell and 1-D mantle underneath. Simulations demonstrate...

  14. Observations of high droplet number concentrations in Southern Ocean boundary layer clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chubb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud physics data collected during the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO campaigns provide a snapshot of unusual wintertime microphysical conditions in the boundary layer over the Southern Ocean. On 29 June 2011, the HIAPER sampled the boundary layer in a region of pre-frontal warm air advection between 58 and 48° S to the south of Tasmania. Cloud droplet number concentrations were consistent with climatological values in the northernmost profiles but were exceptionally high for wintertime in the Southern Ocean at 100–200 cm−3 in the southernmost profiles. Sub-micron (0.06  < D <  1 µm aerosol concentrations for the southern profiles were up to 400 cm−3. Analysis of back trajectories and atmospheric chemistry observations revealed that while conditions in the troposphere were more typical of a clean remote ocean airmass, there was some evidence of continental or anthropogenic influence. However, the hypothesis of long-range transport of continental aerosol fails to explain the magnitude of the aerosol and cloud droplet concentration in the boundary layer. Instead, the gale force surface winds in this case (wind speed at 167 m above sea level was  > 25 m s−1 were most likely responsible for production of sea spray aerosol which influenced the microphysical properties of the boundary layer clouds. The smaller size and higher number concentration of cloud droplets is inferred to increase the albedo of these clouds, and these conditions occur regularly, and are expected to increase in frequency, over windy parts of the Southern Ocean.

  15. NeXOS, developing and evaluating a new generation of insitu ocean observation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delory, Eric; del Rio, Joaquin; Golmen, Lars; Roar Hareide, Nils; Pearlman, Jay; Rolin, Jean-Francois; Waldmann, Christoph; Zielinski, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Ocean biological, chemical or physical processes occur over widely varying scales in space and time: from micro- to kilometer scales, from less than seconds to centuries. While space systems supply important data and information, insitu data is necessary for comprehensive modeling and forecasting of ocean dynamics. Yet, collection of in-situ observation on these scales is inherently challenging and remains generally difficult and costly in time and resources. This paper address the innovations and significant developments for a new generation of insitu sensors in FP7 European Union project "Next generation, Cost- effective, Compact, Multifunctional Web Enabled Ocean Sensor Systems Empowering Marine, Maritime and Fisheries Management" or "NeXOS" for short. Optical and acoustics sensors are the focus of NeXOS but NeXOS moves beyond just sensors as systems that simultaneously address multiple objectives and applications are becoming increasingly important. Thus NeXOS takes a perspective of both sensors and sensor systems with significant advantages over existing observing capabilities via the implementation of innovations such as multiplatform integration, greater reliability through better antifouling management and greater sensor and data interoperability through use of OGC standards. This presentation will address the sensor system development and field-testing of the new NeXOS sensor systems. This is being done on multiple platforms including profiling floats, gliders, ships, buoys and subsea stations. The implementation of a data system based on SWE and PUCK furthers interoperability across measurements and platforms. This presentation will review the sensor system capabilities, the status of field tests and recommendations for long-term ocean monitoring.

  16. Analysis of Enhanced Velocity Signals Observed during Solar Flares ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2003-10-28

    Oct 28, 2003 ... close to the vicinity of the hard X-ray source regions as observed with. RHESSI. The power maps of the active region show enhancement in the frequency regime 5–6.5mHz, while there is feeble or no enhancement of these signals in 2–4 mHz frequency band. High energy particles with sufficient momentum ...

  17. Use of Ocean Remote Sensing Data to Enhance Predictions with a Coupled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienecker, Michele M.

    1999-01-01

    Surface height, sea surface temperature and surface wind observations from satellites have given a detailed time sequence of the initiation and evolution of the 1997/98 El Nino. The data have beet complementary to the subsurface TAO moored data in their spatial resolution and extent. The impact of satellite observations on seasonal prediction in the tropical Pacific using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model will be presented.

  18. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis wind products with in situ wave glider wind observations in the Southern Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmidt, KM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available observations in the Southern Ocean 2 3 Kevin M. Schmidta, Sebastiaan Swartb,c,d, Chris Reasonc, Sarah Nicholsonb,c 4 a Marine Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa 5 b Southern Ocean Carbon & Climate Observatory, Council...

  19. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  20. Automatic tracking of dynamical evolutions of oceanic mesoscale eddies with satellite observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Li, Qiu-Yang

    2017-04-01

    The oceanic mesoscale eddies play a major role in ocean climate system. To analyse spatiotemporal dynamics of oceanic mesoscale eddies, the Genealogical Evolution Model (GEM) based on satellite data is developed, which is an efficient logical model used to track dynamic evolution of mesoscale eddies in the ocean. It can distinguish different dynamic processes (e.g., merging and splitting) within a dynamic evolution pattern, which is difficult to accomplish using other tracking methods. To this end, a mononuclear eddy detection method was firstly developed with simple segmentation strategies, e.g. watershed algorithm. The algorithm is very fast by searching the steepest descent path. Second, the GEM uses a two-dimensional similarity vector (i.e. a pair of ratios of overlap area between two eddies to the area of each eddy) rather than a scalar to measure the similarity between eddies, which effectively solves the ''missing eddy" problem (temporarily lost eddy in tracking). Third, for tracking when an eddy splits, GEM uses both "parent" (the original eddy) and "child" (eddy split from parent) and the dynamic processes are described as birth and death of different generations. Additionally, a new look-ahead approach with selection rules effectively simplifies computation and recording. All of the computational steps are linear and do not include iteration. Given the pixel number of the target region L, the maximum number of eddies M, the number N of look-ahead time steps, and the total number of time steps T, the total computer time is O (LM(N+1)T). The tracking of each eddy is very smooth because we require that the snapshots of each eddy on adjacent days overlap one another. Although eddy splitting or merging is ubiquitous in the ocean, they have different geographic distribution in the Northern Pacific Ocean. Both the merging and splitting rates of the eddies are high, especially at the western boundary, in currents and in "eddy deserts". GEM is useful not only for

  1. Intelligent Cognitive Radio Models for Enhancing Future Radio Astronomy Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Abiola Periola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio astronomy organisations desire to optimise the terrestrial radio astronomy observations by mitigating against interference and enhancing angular resolution. Ground telescopes (GTs experience interference from intersatellite links (ISLs. Astronomy source radio signals received by GTs are analysed at the high performance computing (HPC infrastructure. Furthermore, observation limitation conditions prevent GTs from conducting radio astronomy observations all the time, thereby causing low HPC utilisation. This paper proposes mechanisms that protect GTs from ISL interference without permanent prevention of ISL data transmission and enhance angular resolution. The ISL transmits data by taking advantage of similarities in the sequence of observed astronomy sources to increase ISL connection duration. In addition, the paper proposes a mechanism that enhances angular resolution by using reconfigurable earth stations. Furthermore, the paper presents the opportunistic computing scheme (OCS to enhance HPC utilisation. OCS enables the underutilised HPC to be used to train learning algorithms of a cognitive base station. The performances of the three mechanisms are evaluated. Simulations show that the proposed mechanisms protect GTs from ISL interference, enhance angular resolution, and improve HPC utilisation.

  2. Observations of the upper ocean response to storm forcing in the South Atlantic Roaring Forties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In the austral summer of 1992–1993 the passage of a storm system drove a strong upper ocean response at 45°S in the mid-South Atlantic. Good in situ observations were obtained. CTD casts revealed that the mixed layer deepened by ~40 m over 4 days. Wind stirring dominated over buoyancy flux-driven mixing during the onset of high winds. Doppler shear currents further reveal this to be intimately related to inertial dynamics. The penetration depth of inertial currents, which are confined to the mixed layer, increases with time after a wind event, matched by a downward propagation of low values of the Richardson number. This suggests that inertial current shear is instrumental in producing turbulence at the base of the mixed layer. Evolution of inertial transport is simulated using a time series of ship-observed wind stress. Simulated transport is only 30–50% of the observed transport, suggesting that much of the observed inertial motion was forced by an earlier (possibly remote storm. Close proximity of the subtropical front further complicates the upper ocean response to the storm. A simple heat balance for the upper 100 m reveals that surface cooling and mixing (during the storm can account for only a small fraction of an apparent ~1 °C mixed layer cooling.

  3. Remote sensing of ocean surface currents: a review of what is being observed and what is being assimilated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio; García-Ladona, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    Ocean currents play a key role in Earth's climate - they impact almost any process taking place in the ocean and are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, no observing system is able to provide direct measurements of global ocean currents on synoptic scales. Consequently, it has been necessary to use sea surface height and sea surface temperature measurements and refer to dynamical frameworks to derive the velocity field. Second, the assimilation of the velocity field into numerical models of ocean circulation is difficult mainly due to lack of data. Recent experiments that assimilate coastal-based radar data have shown that ocean currents will contribute to increasing the forecast skill of surface currents, but require application in multidata assimilation approaches to better identify the thermohaline structure of the ocean. In this paper we review the current knowledge in these fields and provide a global and systematic view of the technologies to retrieve ocean velocities in the upper ocean and the available approaches to assimilate this information into ocean models.

  4. AMS Observations over Coastal California from the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K. H.; Coggon, M. M.; Hodas, N.; Negron, A.; Ortega, A. M.; Crosbie, E.; Sorooshian, A.; Nenes, A.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.

    2015-12-01

    In July 2015, fifteen research flights were conducted on a US Navy Twin Otter aircraft as part of the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS) campaign. The flights took place near the California coast at Monterey, to investigate the effects of sea surface temperature and algal blooms on oceanic particulate emissions, the diurnal mixing of urban pollution with other airmasses, and the impacts of biological aerosols on the California atmosphere. The aircraft's payload included an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), a differential mobility analyzer, a cloud condensation nuclei counter, a counterflow virtual impactor, a cloudwater collector, and two instruments designed to detect biological aerosols - a wideband integrated biological spectrometer and a SpinCon II - as well as a number of meteorology and aerosol probes, two condensation particle counters, and instruments to measure gas-phase CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. Here, we describe in depth the objectives and outcomes of BOAS and report preliminary results, primarily from the AMS. We detail the spatial characteristics and meteorological variability of speciated aerosol components over a strong and persistent bloom of Pseudo-Nitzschia, the harmful algae that cause 'red tide', and report newly identified AMS markers for biological particles. Finally, we compare these results with data collected during BOAS over urban, forested, and agricultural environments, and describe the mixing observed between oceanic and terrestrial airmasses.

  5. Observationally-based Metrics of Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemical Variables are Essential for Evaluating Earth System Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. L.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is central to the climate's response to increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases as it ventilates a large fraction of the global ocean volume. Global coupled climate models and earth system models, however, vary widely in their simulations of the Southern Ocean and its role in, and response to, the ongoing anthropogenic forcing. Due to its complex water-mass structure and dynamics, Southern Ocean carbon and heat uptake depend on a combination of winds, eddies, mixing, buoyancy fluxes and topography. Understanding how the ocean carries heat and carbon into its interior and how the observed wind changes are affecting this uptake is essential to accurately projecting transient climate sensitivity. Observationally-based metrics are critical for discerning processes and mechanisms, and for validating and comparing climate models. As the community shifts toward Earth system models with explicit carbon simulations, more direct observations of important biogeochemical parameters, like those obtained from the biogeochemically-sensored floats that are part of the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling project, are essential. One goal of future observing systems should be to create observationally-based benchmarks that will lead to reducing uncertainties in climate projections, and especially uncertainties related to oceanic heat and carbon uptake.

  6. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic region is an important regulating component of the global climate system, and is also experiencing a considerable change during recent decades. More than 10% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in its fresh-water balance. However, about 30% of the Arctic basin is still ungauged, with differing monitoring practices and data availability from the countries in the region. A consistent system for monitoring and sharing of hydrological information throughout the Arctic region is thus of highest interest for further studies and monitoring of the freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the Arctic-HYCOS project is to allow for collection and sharing of hydrological data. Preliminary 616 stations were identified with long-term daily discharge data available, and around 250 of these already provide online available data in near real time. This large sample will be used in the following scientific analysis: 1) to evaluate freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean and Seas, 2) to monitor changes and enhance understanding of the hydrological regime and 3) to estimate flows in ungauged regions and develop models for enhanced hydrological prediction in the Arctic region. The project is intended as a component of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) WHYCOS (World Hydrological Cycle Observing System) initiative, covering the area of the expansive transnational Arctic basin with participation from Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and United States of America. The overall objective is to regularly collect, manage and share high quality data from a defined basic network of hydrological stations in the Arctic basin. The project focus on collecting data on discharge and possibly sediment transport and temperature. Data should be provisional in near-real time if available, whereas time-series of historical data should be provided once quality assurance has been completed. The

  7. Enhancing User Access to Australian marine data - the Australian Ocean Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Mancini, S.; Blain, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a national project funded by the Australian government established to deliver ocean observations to the marine and climate science community. Now in its 10th year its mission is to undertake systematic and sustained observations and to turn them into data, products and analyses that can be freely used and reused for broad societal benefits. As IMOS has matured as an observing system the expectation of the system's availability and reliability has also increased and IMOS is now seen as delivering `operational' information; it does this through the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN). The AODN runs its services in the commercial cloud service Amazon Web Services. This has enabled the AODN to improve the system architecture, utilizing more advanced features like object storage (S3 - Simple Storage Service) and autoscaling features, and introducing new checking and logging procedures in a pipeline approach. This has improved data availability and resilience while protecting against human errors in data handling and providing a more efficient ingestion process. Many of these features are available through AODN to the wider Australian marine and science community enabling the `family' of AODN to grow, thereby enabling rapid access to an increasing collection of ocean observations.

  8. On the use of contraction theory for the design of nonlinear observers for ocean vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Lottin, Jacques

    and practice. This paper addresses the question of the applicability of contraction theory to the design of UGES observers for ocean vehicles. A relation between the concept of exponential convergence of a contracting system and uniform global exponential stability (UGES) is rst given. Then two contraction......Guaranteeing that traditional concepts of stability like uniform global exponential or asymptotic stability (UGES or UGAS) are veri ed when using design tools based on new concepts of stability may be of signicant importance. It is especially so when attempting to bridge the gap between theory...

  9. A century of ocean warming on Florida Keys coral reefs: historic in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Lidz, Barbara H.; Hudson, J. Harold; Anderson, Jeffery S.

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that global climate change over the last several decades has caused shifts in species distributions, species extinctions, and alterations in the functioning of ecosystems. However, because of high variability on short (i.e., diurnal, seasonal, and annual) timescales as well as the recency of a comprehensive instrumental record, it is difficult to detect or provide evidence for long-term, site-specific trends in ocean temperature. Here we analyze five in situ datasets from Florida Keys coral reef habitats, including historic measurements taken by lighthouse keepers, to provide three independent lines of evidence supporting approximately 0.8 °C of warming in sea surface temperature (SST) over the last century. Results indicate that the warming observed in the records between 1878 and 2012 can be fully accounted for by the warming observed in recent decades (from 1975 to 2007), documented using in situ thermographs on a mid-shore patch reef. The magnitude of warming revealed here is similar to that found in other SST datasets from the region and to that observed in global mean surface temperature. The geologic context and significance of recent ocean warming to coral growth and population dynamics are discussed, as is the future prognosis for the Florida reef tract.

  10. Constraints on global oceanic emissions of N2O from observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2018-04-01

    We estimate the global ocean N2O flux to the atmosphere and its confidence interval using a statistical method based on model perturbation simulations and their fit to a database of ΔpN2O (n = 6136). We evaluate two submodels of N2O production. The first submodel splits N2O production into oxic and hypoxic pathways following previous publications. The second submodel explicitly represents the redox transformations of N that lead to N2O production (nitrification and hypoxic denitrification) and N2O consumption (suboxic denitrification), and is presented here for the first time. We perturb both submodels by modifying the key parameters of the N2O cycling pathways (nitrification rates; NH4+ uptake; N2O yields under oxic, hypoxic and suboxic conditions) and determine a set of optimal model parameters by minimisation of a cost function against four databases of N cycle observations. Our estimate of the global oceanic N2O flux resulting from this cost function minimisation derived from observed and model ΔpN2O concentrations is 2.4 ± 0.8 and 2.5 ± 0.8 Tg N yr-1 for the two N2O submodels. These estimates suggest that the currently available observational data of surface ΔpN2O constrain the global N2O flux to a narrower range relative to the large range of results presented in the latest IPCC report.

  11. A Hierarchical and Dynamic Seascape Framework for Scaling and Comparing Ocean Biodiversity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, M.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Montes, E.; Santora, J. A.; Chavez, F.; Messié, M.; Doney, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    The pelagic ocean is a complex system in which physical, chemical and biological processes interact to shape patterns on multiple spatial and temporal scales and levels of ecological organization. Monitoring and management of marine seascapes must consider a hierarchical and dynamic mosaic, where the boundaries, extent, and location of features change with time. As part of a Marine Biodiversity Observing Network demonstration project, we conducted a multiscale classification of dynamic coastal seascapes in the northeastern Pacific and Gulf of Mexico using multivariate satellite and modeled data. Synoptic patterns were validated using mooring and ship-based observations that spanned multiple trophic levels and were collected as part of several long-term monitoring programs, including the Monterey Bay and Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuaries. Seascape extent and habitat diversity varied as a function of both seasonal and interannual forcing. We discuss the patterns of in situ observations in the context of seascape dynamics and the effect on rarefaction, spatial patchiness, and tracking and comparing ecosystems through time. A seascape framework presents an effective means to translate local biodiversity measurements to broader spatiotemporal scales, scales relevant for modeling the effects of global change and enabling whole-ecosystem management in the dynamic ocean.

  12. Modeling the response of Northwest Greenland to enhanced ocean thermal forcing and subglacial discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlighem, M.; Wood, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Bondzio, J. H.; Rignot, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier-front dynamics is an important control on Greenland's ice mass balance. Warm and salty Atlantic water, which is typically found at a depth below 200-300 m, has the potential to trigger ice-front retreats of marine-terminating glaciers, and the corresponding loss in resistive stress leads to glacier acceleration and thinning. It remains unclear, however, which glaciers are currently stable but may retreat in the future, and how far inland and how fast they will retreat. Here, we quantify the sensitivity and vulnerability of marine-terminating glaciers along the Northwest coast of Greenland (from 72.5° to 76°N) to ocean forcing using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), and its new ice front migration capability. We rely on the ice melt parameterization from Rignot et al. 2016, and use ocean temperature and salinity from high-resolution ECCO2 simulations on the continental shelf to constrain the thermal forcing. The ice flow model includes a calving law based on a Von Mises criterion. We investigate the sensitivity of Northwest Greenland to enhanced ocean thermal forcing and subglacial discharge. We find that some glaciers, such as Dietrichson Gletscher or Alison Gletscher, are sensitive to small increases in ocean thermal forcing, while others, such as Illullip Sermia or Qeqertarsuup Sermia, are very difficult to destabilize, even with a quadrupling of the melt. Under the most intense melt experiment, we find that Hayes Gletscher retreats by more than 50 km inland into a deep trough and its velocity increases by a factor of 10 over only 15 years. The model confirms that ice-ocean interactions are the triggering mechanism of glacier retreat, but the bed controls its magnitude. This work was performed at the University of California Irvine under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cryospheric Sciences Program (#NNX15AD55G), and the National Science Foundation's ARCSS program (#1504230).

  13. Evaluating Surface Radiation Fluxes Observed From Satellites in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, R. T.; Zhang, B.; Weller, R. A.; Chen, W.

    2018-03-01

    This study is focused on evaluation of current satellite and reanalysis estimates of surface radiative fluxes in a climatically important region. It uses unique observations from the STRATUS Ocean Reference Station buoy in a region of persistent marine stratus clouds 1,500 km off northern Chile during 2000-2012. The study shows that current satellite estimates are in better agreement with buoy observations than model outputs at a daily time scale and that satellite data depict well the observed annual cycle in both shortwave and longwave surface radiative fluxes. Also, buoy and satellite estimates do not show any significant trend over the period of overlap or any interannual variability. This verifies the stability and reliability of the satellite data and should make them useful to examine El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability influences on surface radiative fluxes at the STRATUS site for longer periods for which satellite record is available.

  14. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2011-07-01

    acid (HNO3, was confirmed through the comparison of the CO/NOy ratio in photochemically fresh and aged NYC plumes, implying the possibility of long-range transport of O3 over the stable MBL over the North Atlantic Ocean in association with NOx regeneration mechanism. The impact of chemical initial and boundary conditions (IC/BCs on modelled O3 urban plumes was investigated in terms of the background O3 level and the vertical structure of the urban plumes. Simulations with dynamic ("time-variant" chemical IC/BCs enhanced the O3 level by 2–12 ppbv on average in the atmospheric layer below 3 km, showing better agreement with the observed NYC plumes and biomass-burning plumes than the simulation with prescribed static IC/BCs. The simulation including MOZART-4 chemical IC/BCs and Alaskan/Canadian wildfire emissions compared better to the observed O3 profiles in the upper atmospheric layer (>~3 km than models that only accounted for North American anthropogenic/biogenic and wildfire contributions to background ozone. The comparison between models and observations show that chemical IC/BCs must be properly specified to achieve accurate model results.

  15. Observation of ocean current response to 1998 Hurricane Georges in the Gulf of Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The ocean current response to a hurricane on the shelf-break is examined. The study area is the DeSoto Canyon in the northeast Gulf of Mexico, and the event is the passage of 1998 Hurricane Georges with a maximum wind speed of 49 m/s. The data sets used for analysis consist of the mooring data taken by the Field Program of the DeSoto Canyon Eddy Intrusion Study, and simultaneous winds observed by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Moored Buoy 42040. Time-depth ocean current energy density images derived from the observed data show that the ocean currents respond almost immediately to the hurricane with important differences on and offthe shelf. On the shelf, in the shallow water of 100 m, the disturbance penetrates rapidly downward to the bottom and forms two energy peaks, the major peak is located in the mixed layer and the secondary one in the lower layer. The response dissipates quickly after external forcing disappears. Off the shelf, in the deep water, the major disturbance energy seems to be trapped in the mixed layer with a trailing oscillation; although the disturbance signals may still be observed at the depths of 500 and 1 290 m. Vertical dispersion analysis reveals that the near-initial wave packet generated off the shelf consists of two modes. One is a barotropic wave mode characterized by a fast decay rate of velocity amplitude of 0.020 s-1, and the other is baroclinic wave mode characterized by a slow decay rate of 0.006 9 s-1. The band-pass-filtering and empirical function techniques are employed to the frequency analysis. The results indicate that all frequencies shift above the local inertial frequency. On the shelf, the average frequency is 1.04fin the mixed layer, close to the diagnosed frequency of the first baroclinic mode, and the average frequency increases to 1.07fin the thermocline.Off the shelf, all frequencies are a little smaller than the diagnosed frequency of the first mode. The average frequency decreases from 1

  16. Euro-Argo: The European contribution to the global Argo ocean observations network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcuff, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The international Argo programme is a major element of the global in-situ ocean observing system. More than 3900 floats are now globally measuring temperature and salinity throughout the global oceans, down to 2,000 meters depth and delivering data both in real time for operational users and after careful scientific quality control for climate change research and monitoring. Argo is the single most important in-situ observing system for the Copernicus Marine Service. The Euro-Argo research infrastructure organizes and federates European contribution to Argo. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014; it allows European countries to consolidate and improve their contribution to Argo international. We will provide an overview of the development of Euro-Argo over the past years and present the now agreed Euro-Argo long term organization. The capability of the Euro-Argo infrastructure to organize Argo floats procurement, deployment and processing at European level and to conduct R&D driven by Copernicus needs will be highlighted. During the recent years, within the H2020 E-AIMS project, Euro-Argo carried R&D activities on new Argo floats, equipped with biogeochemical sensors or able to dive up to 4000m, from the floats design up to the analysis of their measurements. European Argo data centers were adapted so that they can handle the new data. Observing System Evaluations and Simulation Experiments were also conducted to provide robust recommendations for the next phase of Argo. One of the main challenges for Euro-Argo is now to implement the next phase of Argo with an extension towards biogeochemistry (e.g. oxygen, biology), the polar oceans, the marginal seas and the deep ocean. Meeting such challenges is essential for the long term sustainability and evolution of the Copernicus Marine Service. We will present Euro-Argo strategy and provide some highlights on the implementation-plan for the years to come and the Argo extensions for the

  17. Oceanic and coastal dissolved iron observations from 1978-01-01 to 2004-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0067344)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Keith Moore observational dissolved Iron database. Moore expanded the original iron database complied by Parekh et al. (2005. The complete dataset with references to...

  18. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid increase of renewable energy resources (RE) and demand response resources (DRR) in the distribution networks. This is challenging for the reliable and stable operation of the grid. So, to ensure secure, optimized and economical operation in such active distribution grids they need...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  19. Essential ocean variables for global sustained observations of biodiversity and ecosystem changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Bax, Nicholas J; Simmons, Samantha E; Klein, Eduardo; Appeltans, Ward; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Andersen Garcia, Melissa; Batten, Sonia D; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Checkley, David M; Chiba, Sanae; Duffy, J Emmett; Dunn, Daniel C; Fischer, Albert; Gunn, John; Kudela, Raphael; Marsac, Francis; Muller-Karger, Frank E; Obura, David; Shin, Yunne-Jai

    2018-04-05

    Sustained observations of marine biodiversity and ecosystems focused on specific conservation and management problems are needed around the world to effectively mitigate or manage changes resulting from anthropogenic pressures. These observations, while complex and expensive, are required by the international scientific, governance and policy communities to provide baselines against which the effects of human pressures and climate change may be measured and reported, and resources allocated to implement solutions. To identify biological and ecological essential ocean variables (EOVs) for implementation within a global ocean observing system that is relevant for science, informs society, and technologically feasible, we used a driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) model. We (1) examined relevant international agreements to identify societal drivers and pressures on marine resources and ecosystems, (2) evaluated the temporal and spatial scales of variables measured by 100+ observing programs, and (3) analysed the impact and scalability of these variables and how they contribute to address societal and scientific issues. EOVs were related to the status of ecosystem components (phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass and diversity, and abundance and distribution of fish, marine turtles, birds and mammals), and to the extent and health of ecosystems (cover and composition of hard coral, seagrass, mangrove and macroalgal canopy). Benthic invertebrate abundance and distribution and microbe diversity and biomass were identified as emerging EOVs to be developed based on emerging requirements and new technologies. The temporal scale at which any shifts in biological systems will be detected will vary across the EOVs, the properties being monitored and the length of the existing time-series. Global implementation to deliver useful products will require collaboration of the scientific and policy sectors and a significant commitment to improve human and infrastructure

  20. Does presence of a mid-ocean ridge enhance biomass and biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imants G Priede

    Full Text Available In contrast to generally sparse biological communities in open-ocean settings, seamounts and ridges are perceived as areas of elevated productivity and biodiversity capable of supporting commercial fisheries. We investigated the origin of this apparent biological enhancement over a segment of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR using sonar, corers, trawls, traps, and a remotely operated vehicle to survey habitat, biomass, and biodiversity. Satellite remote sensing provided information on flow patterns, thermal fronts, and primary production, while sediment traps measured export flux during 2007-2010. The MAR, 3,704,404 km(2 in area, accounts for 44.7% lower bathyal habitat (800-3500 m depth in the North Atlantic and is dominated by fine soft sediment substrate (95% of area on a series of flat terraces with intervening slopes either side of the ridge axis contributing to habitat heterogeneity. The MAR fauna comprises mainly species known from continental margins with no evidence of greater biodiversity. Primary production and export flux over the MAR were not enhanced compared with a nearby reference station over the Porcupine Abyssal Plain. Biomasses of benthic macrofauna and megafauna were similar to global averages at the same depths totalling an estimated 258.9 kt C over the entire lower bathyal north MAR. A hypothetical flat plain at 3500 m depth in place of the MAR would contain 85.6 kt C, implying an increase of 173.3 kt C attributable to the presence of the Ridge. This is approximately equal to 167 kt C of estimated pelagic biomass displaced by the volume of the MAR. There is no enhancement of biological productivity over the MAR; oceanic bathypelagic species are replaced by benthic fauna otherwise unable to survive in the mid ocean. We propose that globally sea floor elevation has no effect on deep sea biomass; pelagic plus benthic biomass is constant within a given surface productivity regime.

  1. B-DEOS: British Dynamics of Earth and Ocean systems- new approaches for a multidisciplinary ocean observing system in the Atlantic and S Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Lampitt, R. S.

    2001-12-01

    Advances in theoretical understanding of the natural systems in the sea and in the Earth below have been closely associated with new data sets made possible by technological advances. The plate tectonic revolution, the discovery of hydrothermal circulation, and many other examples can be attributed to the application of innovative new technology to the study of the sea. A consortium of research groups and institutions within the United Kingdom is planning a system of multidisciplinary ocean observatories to study the components of, and linkages between the physical, chemical and biological processes regulating the earth-ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system. An engineering feasibility design study has been completed which has resulted in a robust and flexible design for a telecommunications/power buoy system, and a UK NERC Thematic Programme is in the advanced planning stage. Representatives of the US, Japan, France, Portugal, Spain, Germany and other countries have been involved in consultations, and a coordinated international effort is expected to develop throughout the Atlantic and S Oceans, with collaborations extended to observatories operated by cooperating partners in other regions. The B-DEOS observatory system is designed to allow studies on scales of order cm to 1000 km, as well as to supplement on larger spatial scales the emerging global ocean and seafloor solid earth observatory network. The facility will make it possible to obtain requisite long-term synoptic baseline data, and to monitor natural and man-made changes to this system by: 1) Establishing a long-term, permanent and relocatable network of instrumented seafloor platforms, moorings and profiler vehicles, provided with power from the ocean surface and internal power supplies, and maintaining a real- or near-real time bidirectional Internet link to shore. 2) Examining the time varying properties of these different environments (solid earth, ocean, atmosphere, biosphere), exploring the links

  2. Quantum mechanical limit to plasmonic enhancement as observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenqi; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2014-10-14

    Plasmonic nanostructures enable light to be concentrated into nanoscale 'hotspots', wherein the intensity of light can be enhanced by orders of magnitude. This plasmonic enhancement significantly boosts the efficiency of nanoscale light-matter interactions, enabling unique linear and nonlinear optical applications. Large enhancements are often observed within narrow gaps or at sharp tips, as predicted by the classical electromagnetic theory. Only recently has it become appreciated that quantum mechanical effects could emerge as the feature size approaches atomic length-scale. Here we experimentally demonstrate, through observations of surface-enhanced Raman scattering, that the emergence of electron tunnelling at optical frequencies limits the maximum achievable plasmonic enhancement. Such quantum mechanical effects are revealed for metallic nanostructures with gap-widths in the single-digit angstrom range by correlating each structure with its optical properties. This work furthers our understanding of quantum mechanical effects in plasmonic systems and could enable future applications of quantum plasmonics.

  3. Enhanced Oceanic Operations Human-In-The-Loop In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Bussink, Frank J. L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Palmer, Michael T.; Palmer, Susan O.

    2008-01-01

    The Enhanced Oceanic Operations Human-In-The-Loop In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Validation Simulation Study investigated the viability of an ITP designed to enable oceanic flight level changes that would not otherwise be possible. Twelve commercial airline pilots with current oceanic experience flew a series of simulated scenarios involving either standard or ITP flight level change maneuvers and provided subjective workload ratings, assessments of ITP validity and acceptability, and objective performance measures associated with the appropriate selection, request, and execution of ITP flight level change maneuvers. In the majority of scenarios, subject pilots correctly assessed the traffic situation, selected an appropriate response (i.e., either a standard flight level change request, an ITP request, or no request), and executed their selected flight level change procedure, if any, without error. Workload ratings for ITP maneuvers were acceptable and not substantially higher than for standard flight level change maneuvers, and, for the majority of scenarios and subject pilots, subjective acceptability ratings and comments for ITP were generally high and positive. Qualitatively, the ITP was found to be valid and acceptable. However, the error rates for ITP maneuvers were higher than for standard flight level changes, and these errors may have design implications for both the ITP and the study's prototype traffic display. These errors and their implications are discussed.

  4. Upper-mantle water stratification inferred from observations of the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuti, Sagar; Barbot, Sylvain D; Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Feng, Lujia; Banerjee, Paramesh

    2016-10-20

    Water, the most abundant volatile in Earth's interior, preserves the young surface of our planet by catalysing mantle convection, lubricating plate tectonics and feeding arc volcanism. Since planetary accretion, water has been exchanged between the hydrosphere and the geosphere, but its depth distribution in the mantle remains elusive. Water drastically reduces the strength of olivine and this effect can be exploited to estimate the water content of olivine from the mechanical response of the asthenosphere to stress perturbations such as the ones following large earthquakes. Here, we exploit the sensitivity to water of the strength of olivine, the weakest and most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, and observations of the exceptionally large (moment magnitude 8.6) 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake to constrain the stratification of water content in the upper mantle. Taking into account a wide range of temperature conditions and the transient creep of olivine, we explain the transient deformation in the aftermath of the earthquake that was recorded by continuous geodetic stations along Sumatra as the result of water- and stress-activated creep of olivine. This implies a minimum water content of about 0.01 per cent by weight-or 1,600 H atoms per million Si atoms-in the asthenosphere (the part of the upper mantle below the lithosphere). The earthquake ruptured conjugate faults down to great depths, compatible with dry olivine in the oceanic lithosphere. We attribute the steep rheological contrast to dehydration across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, presumably by buoyant melt migration to form the oceanic crust.

  5. Ship Sensor Observations for Mountains in the Sea 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Atlantis during the "Mountains in the Sea 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  6. Ship Sensor Observations for Life on the Edge 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  7. Ship Sensor Observations for Life on the Edge 2004 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2004" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  8. Ship Sensor Observations for Bioluminescence 2009 - Office of Ocean Exploration and Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Bioluminescence 2009" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  9. Ship Sensor Observations for Operation Deep Scope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Operation Deep Scope 2007" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  10. International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) And NCEI Global Marine Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) consists of digital data set DSI-1173, archived at the National Center for Environmental Information...

  11. Oceanographic and marine meteorological observations in the Northwest Pacific ocean during 1998 (NODC Accession 0000070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, plankton, and nutrients data were collected using buoy and CTD casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 22 January 1998 to...

  12. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: A Decade of Data Aggregation and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Gayanilo, F.; Kobara, S.; Baum, S. K.; Currier, R. D.; Stoessel, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015. GCOOS-RA is one of 11 RAs organized under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office to aggregate regional data and make these data publicly-available in preferred forms and formats via standards-based web services. Initial development of GCOOS focused on building elements of the IOOS Data Management and Communications Plan which is a framework for end-to-end interoperability. These elements included: data discovery, catalog, metadata, online-browse, data access and transport. Initial data types aggregated included near real-time physical oceanographic, marine meteorological and satellite data. Our focus in the middle of the past decade was on the production of basic products such as maps of current oceanographic conditions and quasi-static datasets such as bathymetry and climatologies. In the latter part of the decade we incorporated historical physical oceanographic datasets and historical coastal and offshore water quality data into our holdings and added our first biological dataset. We also developed web environments and products to support Citizen Scientists and stakeholder groups such as recreational boaters. Current efforts are directed towards applying data quality assurance (testing and flagging) to non-federal data, data archiving at national repositories, serving and visualizing numerical model output, providing data services for glider operators, and supporting marine biodiversity observing networks. GCOOS Data Management works closely with the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative and various groups involved with Gulf Restoration. GCOOS-RA has influenced attitudes and behaviors associated with good data stewardship and data management practices across the Gulf and will to continue to do so into the next decade.

  13. Constraints on global oceanic emissions of N2O from observations and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Buitenhuis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the global ocean N2O flux to the atmosphere and its confidence interval using a statistical method based on model perturbation simulations and their fit to a database of ΔpN2O (n =  6136. We evaluate two submodels of N2O production. The first submodel splits N2O production into oxic and hypoxic pathways following previous publications. The second submodel explicitly represents the redox transformations of N that lead to N2O production (nitrification and hypoxic denitrification and N2O consumption (suboxic denitrification, and is presented here for the first time. We perturb both submodels by modifying the key parameters of the N2O cycling pathways (nitrification rates; NH4+ uptake; N2O yields under oxic, hypoxic and suboxic conditions and determine a set of optimal model parameters by minimisation of a cost function against four databases of N cycle observations. Our estimate of the global oceanic N2O flux resulting from this cost function minimisation derived from observed and model ΔpN2O concentrations is 2.4 ± 0.8 and 2.5 ± 0.8 Tg N yr−1 for the two N2O submodels. These estimates suggest that the currently available observational data of surface ΔpN2O constrain the global N2O flux to a narrower range relative to the large range of results presented in the latest IPCC report.

  14. Impact of Intrathermocline eddies on seamount and oceanic island off Central Chile: Observation and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormazabal, Samuel; Morales, Carmen; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Valencia, Luis; Auger, Pierre; Rodriguez, Angel; Correa, Marco; Anabalón, Valeria; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    In the Southeast Pacific, oceanographic processes that sustain the biological production necessary to maintain the ecosystems associated to seamounts and oceanic islands are still poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the interaction of mesoscale and submesoescale eddies with oceanic islands and seamounts could be playing an important role in the time-space variability of primary production. In this work, research cruises, satellite data and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) results have been used to describe the main characteristics of intrathermocline eddies (ITE) and their impact on the Juan Fernández archipelago (JFA), off central Chile. The JFA is located off the coast of central Chile (33°S), and is composed of three main islands: Robinson Crusoe (RC), Alejandro Selkirk (AS) and Santa Clara (SC). Between the RC and AS are located the westernmost seamounts (JF6 and JF5) of the Juan Fernández archipelago. Satellite altimetry data (sea surface height from AVISO) were used to detect and track mesoscale eddies through eddy-tracking algorithm. Physical, chemical and biological parameters as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence were measured in the water column at JF5 and JF6, and along the coast off central Chile (30-40°S). Results from the research cruise exhibit the interaction between an ITE and the seamount JF6. Eddy-tracking results showed that the ITE observed at the JF6 was formed at the coast off central-southern Chile, traveled ~900 km seaward and after ~9 months reached the JF5 and JF6 region. Observations along the Chilean coast confirmed that the coast corresponds to the formation area of the observed ITE. In this region, ITEs are represented by subsurface lenses (~100 km diameter; 400 m thickness) of homogeneous salinity, nutrient rich and oxygen-poor equatorial subsurface water mass (ESSW) which is transported poleward by the Peru-Chile undercurrent in the coastal band and seaward by ITEs. The effect of ITEs on the

  15. Autonomous Observations of the Upper Ocean Stratification and Velocity Field about the Seasonally-Retreating Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    wavelength shifted towards smaller scales as ice concentration changed from greater than 95% to 70-95%. This work was reported at the 2016 Ocean ...71 ITP- 78 ITP-79 ITP-SO c. 2 - 1 -2 Figure 3. Time series of the wind stress work ( blue and black) and the ocean stress work (red) on one of...From - To) 12/30/2016 final 01-Nov-2011 to 30-Sep-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Autonomous observations of the upper ocean

  16. Harmonising and semantically linking key variables from in-situ observing networks of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System, AtlantOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Louise; Buck, Justin

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements at regional, national and international scales. The EU Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project aims to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that strengthens the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and contributes to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation. One goal is to ensure that data from different and diverse in-situ observing networks are readily accessible and useable to a wider community, including the international ocean science community and other stakeholders in this field. To help achieve this goal, the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) produced a parameter matrix to harmonise data exchange, data flow and data integration for the key variables acquired by multiple in-situ AtlantOS observing networks such as ARGO, Seafloor Mapping and OceanSITES. Our solution used semantic linking of controlled vocabularies and metadata for parameters that were "mappable" to existing EU and international standard vocabularies. An AtlantOS Essential Variables list of terms (aggregated level) based on Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECV), GOOS Essential Ocean Variables (EOV) and other key network variables was defined and published on the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (version 2.0) as collection A05 (http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/A05/current/). This new vocabulary was semantically linked to standardised metadata for observed properties and units that had been validated by the AtlantOS community: SeaDataNet parameters (P01), Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names (P07) and SeaDataNet units (P06). Observed properties were mapped to biological entities from the internationally assured AphiaID from the WOrld Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), http

  17. Surface Ocean Dispersion Observations from the Ship-Tethered Aerostat Remote Sensing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier; Ozgokmen, Tamay; Novelli, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    Oil slicks and sheens reside at the air-sea interface, a region of the ocean that is notoriously difficult to measure and, therefore, little is known about the velocity field at the sea surface. The Ship-Tethered Aerostat Remote Sensing System (STARSS) was developed to measure Lagrangian velocities...... of experiments in the northern Gulf of Mexico in January- February 2016. STARSS was equipped with a GPS and inertial navigation system (INS) that was used to directly georectify the aerial images. A relative rectification technique was developed that translates and rotates the drift cards to minimize the total...... movement of all drift cards from one frame to the next. Rectified drift card positions were used to quantify scale-dependent dispersion by computing relative dispersion, relative diffusivity, and velocity structure functions. STARSS was part of a nested observational framework, which included deployments...

  18. How well will the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission observe global reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solander, Kurt C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate observations of global reservoir storage are critical to understand the availability of managed water resources. By enabling estimates of surface water area and height for reservoir sizes exceeding 250 m2 at a maximum repeat orbit of up to 21 days, the NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (anticipated launch date 2020) is expected to greatly improve upon existing reservoir monitoring capabilities. It is thus essential that spatial and temporal measurement uncertainty for water bodies is known a priori to maximize the utility of SWOT observations as the data are acquired. In this study, we evaluate SWOT reservoir observations using a three-pronged approach that assesses temporal aliasing, errors due to specific reservoir spatial properties, and SWOT performance over actual reservoirs using a combination of in situ and simulated reservoir observations from the SWOTsim instrument simulator. Results indicate temporal errors to be less than 5% for the smallest reservoir sizes (100 km2). Surface area and height errors were found to be minimal (area SWOT, this study will be have important implications for future applications of SWOT reservoir measurements in global monitoring systems and models.

  19. Using Deep-Sea Scientific Drilling to Enhance Ocean Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Michael; Cooper, Sharon; Kurtz, Nicole; Burgio, Marion; Cicconi, Alessia

    2017-04-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program continues to offer annual School of Rock professional development workshops to which educators can apply for participation. During these all-expense paid experiences, they learn about IODP science and develop new activities for their audiences. Cicconi and Passow will describe their experiences during some of these programs. European teachers have also participated in "teacher-at-sea" programs sponsored by ECORD aboard the JOIDES Resolution. Burgio participated in Expedition 360 from December 2015 to the end of January 2016 (http://joidesresolution.org/node/4253). This cruise focused on the global effort to drill to the Moho through the Southwest Indian Ridge. As they drilled down to the Moho, scientists obtained new discoveries about life in the crust, interactions between water and rocks, and magmatic processes that build the oceanic crust at very slow spreading ridges. The Education Officers team used a panel of strategies to communicate during the efforts during their two months onboard. She used social media and live-streaming to share the last discoveries about the oceanic crust with students all over the world. Additional materials have been created by teachers and other non-science participants from many countries across the globe. Educational outreach programs associated with scientific ocean drilling provide effective opportunities to enhance Ocean Science Literacy.

  20. Observational and numerical evidence for ocean frontogenesis inducing submesoscale processes and impacting biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, M.; Ruiz, S.; Pascual, A.; Olita, A.; Mahadevan, A.; Tovar, A.; Troupin, C.; Tintore, J.; Capet, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of ALBOREX, a multi-platform and multi-disciplinary experiment completed in May 2014 as a part of PERSEUS EU funded project. This unique process-oriented experiment in the eastern Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) examined mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics at an intense front. The field campaign, conducted during 8 days, included 25 drifters, 2 gliders, 3 Argo floats and one ship (66 CTDs and 500 biochemical samples). The drifters followed coherently an anticyclonic gyre. ADCP data showed consistent patterns with currents up to 1 m/s in the southern part of the domain and Rossby numbers up to 1.5 suggesting significant ageostrophic motion. We show observational evidence for mesoscale frontogenesis produced by the confluence of (fresh) Atlantic Water and the resident (more saline) Mediterranean Water. This confluence resulted in lateral density gradients of the order of 1 kg/m3 in 10 km and associated vertical velocities of about ±20 m/day, diagnosed using the QG Omega equation. However, the vertical velocity is likely underestimated due to unresolved submesoscale processes (<10 km), which are induced by intense mesoscale frontogenesis. In order to assess the role of these submesoscale processes in the frontal vertical transport, a high-resolution Process Ocean Model Study is initialized with hydrographic data (0.5-1 km resolution) from underwater gliders. Numerical results show that observed lateral buoyancy gradients are large enough to trigger submesoscale mixed layer instabilities. The coupling between mesoscale and submesoscale phenomena can explain remarkable subduction events of chlorophyll and oxygen captured by ocean gliders, as well as local increases of primary production.

  1. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Tyler D. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ennico, Kimberly [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Meadows, Victoria S.; Sparks, William; Schwieterman, Edward W. [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bussey, D. Ben J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 17-1, Moffett Field, CA 94089, USA Now the NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute. (United States); Breiner, Jonathan, E-mail: tyler.d.robinson@nasa.gov [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  2. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Ennico, Kimberly; Meadows, Victoria S.; Sparks, William; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  3. Development of compact long-term broadband ocean bottom seismometer for seafloor observation of slow earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Shiobara, H.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to understand coupling between plates in a subduction zone for studies of earthquake generation. Recently low frequency tremor and very low frequency earthquake (VLFE) were discovered in plate boundary near a trench. These events (slow earthquakes) in shallow plate boundary should be related to slow slip on a plate boundary. For observation of slow earthquakes, Broad Band Ocean Bottom Seismometer (BBOBS) is useful, however a number of BBOBSs are limited due to cost. On the other hand, a number of Long-term OBSs (LT-OBSs) with recording period of one year are available. However, the LT-OBS has seismometer with a natural period of 1 second. Therefore frequency band of observation is slightly narrow for slow earthquakes. Therefore we developed a compact long-term broad-band OBS by replacement of the seismic sensor of the LT-OBSs to broadband seismometer.We adopted seismic sensor with natural period of 20 seconds (Trillium Compact Broadband Seismometer, Nanometrics). Because tilt of OBS on seafloor can not be controlled due to free-fall, leveling system for seismic sensor is necessary. The broadband seismic senor has cylinder shape with diameter of 90 mm and height of 100 mm, and the developed levelling system can mount the seismic sensor with no modification of shape. The levelling system has diameter of 160 mm and height of 110 mm, which is the same size as existing levelling system of the LT-OBS. The levelling system has two horizontal axes and each axis is driven by motor. Leveling can be performed up to 20 degrees by using micro-processor (Arduino). Resolution of levelling is less than one degree. The system immediately starts leveling by the power-on of controller. After levelling, the the seismic senor is powered and the controller records angles of levelling to SD RAM. Then the controller is shut down to consume no power. Compact long-term broadband ocean bottom seismometer is useful for observation of slow earthquakes on seafloor. In addition

  4. Influence of ocean tides on the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation variations from VLBI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubanov, V. S.; Kurdubov, S. L.

    2015-05-01

    The International astrogeodetic standard IERS Conventions (2010) contains a model of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), the pole coordinates and the Universal Time, arising from lunisolar tides in the world ocean. This model was constructed in the mid-1990s through a global analysis of Topex/Poseidon altimetry. The goal of this study is to try to estimate the parameters of this model by processing all the available VLBI observations on a global network of stations over the last 35 years performed within the framework of IVS (International VLBI Service) geodetic programs. The complexity of the problemlies in the fact that the sought-for corrections to the parameters of this model lie within 1 mm and, thus, are at the limit of their detectability by all currently available methods of ground-based positional measurements. This requires applying universal software packages with a high accuracy of reduction calculations and a well-developed system of controlling the simultaneous adjustment of observational data to analyze long series of VLBI observations. This study has been performed with the QUASAR software package developed at the Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Although the results obtained, on the whole, confirm a high accuracy of the basic model in the IERS Conventions (2010), statistically significant corrections that allow this model to be refined have been detected for some harmonics of the ERP variations.

  5. Observations of an enhanced convection channel in the cusp ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnock, M.; Rodger, A.S.; Dudeney, J.R.; Baker, K.B.; Neweli, P.T.; Greenwald, R.A.; Greenspan, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Transient or patchy magnetic field line merging on the dayside magnetopause, giving rise to flux transfer events (FTEs), is thought to play a significant role in energizing high-latitude ionospheric convection during periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field. Several transient velocity patterns in the cusp ionosphere have been presented as candidate FTE signatures. Instrument limitations, combined with uncertainties about ionospheric signature of FTEs have yet to be presented. This paper describes combined observations by the PACE HF backscatter radar and the DMSP F9 polar-orbiting satellite of a transient velocity signature in the southern hemispheric cusp. The prevailing solar wind conditions suggest that it is the result of enhanced magnetic merging at the magnetopause. The satellite particle precipitation data associated with the transient are typically cusplike in nature. The presence of spatially discrete patches of accelerated ions at the equatorward edge of the cusp is consistent with the ion acceleration that could occur with merging. The combined radar line-of-sight velocity data and the satellite transverse plasma drift data are consistent with a channel of enhanced convection superposed on the ambient cusp plasma flow. This channel is at least 900 km in longitudinal extent but only 100 km wide. It is zonally aligned for most of its extent, except at the western limit where it rotates sharply poleward. Weak return flow is observed outside the channel. These observations are compared with and contrasted to similar events seen by the EISCAT radar and by optical instruments. 30 refs., 2 figs

  6. Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schillings

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of ion outflow from the polar ionosphere is known to vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the geomagnetic activity. However, the upper limit of the outflow rate during the largest geomagnetic storms is not well constrained due to poor spatial coverage during storm events. In this paper, we analyse six major geomagnetic storms between 2001 and 2004 using Cluster data. The six major storms fulfil the criteria of Dst  < −100 nT or Kp  > 7+. Since the shape of the magnetospheric regions (plasma mantle, lobe and inner magnetosphere are distorted during large magnetic storms, we use both plasma beta (β and ion characteristics to define a spatial box where the upward O+ flux scaled to an ionospheric reference altitude for the extreme event is observed. The relative enhancement of the scaled outflow in the spatial boxes as compared to the data from the full year when the storm occurred is estimated. Only O+ data were used because H+ may have a solar wind origin. The storm time data for most cases showed up as a clearly distinguishable separate peak in the distribution toward the largest fluxes observed. The relative enhancement in the outflow region during storm time is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to less disturbed time. The largest relative scaled outflow enhancement is 83 (7 November 2004 and the highest scaled O+ outflow observed is 2  ×  1014 m−2 s−1 (29 October 2003.

  7. Retrieval of Macro- and Micro-Physical Properties of Oceanic Hydrosols from Polarimetric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Amir; Gilerson, Alexander; Chowdhary, Jacek; Ahmed, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has mainly relied on measurements of scalar radiance and its spectral and angular features to retrieve micro- and macro-physical properties of aerosols/hydrosols. However, it is recognized that measurements that include the polarimetric characteristics of light provide more intrinsic information about particulate scattering. To take advantage of this, we used vector radiative transfer (VRT) simulations and developed an analytical relationship to retrieve the macro and micro-physical properties of the oceanic hydrosols. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between the observed degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and the ratio of attenuation-to- absorption coefficients (c/a) in water, from which the scattering coefficient can be readily computed (b equals c minus a), after retrieving a. This relationship was parameterized for various scattering geometries, including sensor zenith/azimuth angles relative to the Sun's principal plane, and for varying Sun zenith angles. An inversion method was also developed for the retrieval of the microphysical properties of hydrosols, such as the bulk refractive index and the particle size distribution. The DoLP vs c/a relationship was tested and validated against in-situ measurements of underwater light polarization obtained by a custom-built polarimeter and measurements of the coefficients a and c, obtained using an in-water WET (Western Environmental Technologies) Labs ac-s (attenuation coefficients In-Situ Spectrophotometer) instrument package. These measurements confirmed the validity of the approach, with retrievals of attenuation coefficients showing a high coefficient of determination depending on the wavelength. We also performed a sensitivity analysis of the DoLP at the Top of Atmosphere (TOA) over coastal waters showing the possibility of polarimetric remote sensing application for ocean color.

  8. An Improved Ocean Observing System for Coastal Louisiana: WAVCIS (WAVE-CURRENT-SURGE Information System )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Stone, G. W.; Gibson, W. J.; Braud, D.

    2005-05-01

    WAVCIS is a regional ocean observing and forecasting system. It was designed to measure, process, forecast, and distribute oceanographic and meteorological information. WAVCIS was developed and is maintained by the Coastal Studies Institute at Louisiana State University. The in-situ observing stations are distributed along the central Louisiana and Mississippi coast. The forecast region covers the entire Gulf of Mexico with emphasis on offshore Louisiana. By using state-of-the-art instrumentation, WAVCIS measures directional waves, currents, temperature, water level, conductivity, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, Meteorological parameters include wind speed and direction, air pressure and temperature visibility and humidity. Through satellite communication links, the measured data are transmitted to the WAVCIS laboratory. After processing, they are available to the public via the internet on a near real-time basis. WAVCIS also includes a forecasting capability. Waves, tides, currents, and winds are forecast daily for up to 80 hours in advance. There are a number of numerical wave and surge models that can be used for forecasts. WAM and SWAN are used for operational purposes to forecast sea state. Tides at each station are predicted based on the harmonic constants calculated from past in-situ observations at respective sites. Interpolated winds from the ETA model are used as input forcing for waves. Both in-situ and forecast information are available online to the users through WWW. Interactive GIS web mapping is implemented on the WAVCIS webpage to visualize the model output and in-situ observational data. WAVCIS data can be queried, retrieved, downloaded, and analyzed through the web page. Near real-time numerical model skill assessment can also be performed by using the data from in-situ observing stations.

  9. Ocean Bottom Deformation Due To Present-Day Mass Redistribution and Its Impact on Sea Level Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo E. M.; King, Matt A.

    2017-12-01

    Present-day mass redistribution increases the total ocean mass and, on average, causes the ocean bottom to subside elastically. Therefore, barystatic sea level rise is larger than the resulting global mean geocentric sea level rise, observed by satellite altimetry and GPS-corrected tide gauges. We use realistic estimates of mass redistribution from ice mass loss and land water storage to quantify the resulting ocean bottom deformation and its effect on global and regional ocean volume change estimates. Over 1993-2014, the resulting globally averaged geocentric sea level change is 8% smaller than the barystatic contribution. Over the altimetry domain, the difference is about 5%, and due to this effect, barystatic sea level rise will be underestimated by more than 0.1 mm/yr over 1993-2014. Regional differences are often larger: up to 1 mm/yr over the Arctic Ocean and 0.4 mm/yr in the South Pacific. Ocean bottom deformation should be considered when regional sea level changes are observed in a geocentric reference frame.

  10. Perspectives for Expanded Ocean Observing on the Southeast Florida Shelf and between Cuba and the Bahamas and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, A.; Dodge, R. E.; Proni, J.

    2012-12-01

    A long term ocean observing system was established on the Southeast Florida shelf near Ft. Lauderdale by the Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center (NSUOC) in late 1990s as a cooperative agreement between the NSU Oceanographic Center and USF College of Marine Science. The system has been supported and upgraded during a number of projects funded by the US federal government and private industries. Currently it consists of two ADCP moorings deployed at 240 m and 11 m isobath and coastal meteorological station and primarily serves to support the Office of Naval Research and other Federal agencies projects. During active observational phases, the area is monitored using the new generation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo SkyMed, ALOS PALSAR, RADARSAT 2). The NSUOC Ocean observing system is a component of SECOORA, which has been integrating coastal and ocean observing data in the Southeast United States as a part of IOOS. In this paper we overview the results obtained during more than a decade of observations and discuss perspectives for expanded ocean observing on the Southeast Florida Shelf and between Cuba, Bahamas and US. Increased ocean observations are needed of the major western boundary current, known as the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico and the Florida Current in the Straits Florida. This ocean current occurs to the west and north of Cuba and along the southeast US. Observations will provide better understanding of the processes that maintain, and account for, the current variability and will be useful in myriad practical applications. A major application is the need to monitor the occurrence of, and to forecast entrainment, trajectories, and detrainment of, potential oil spills that may propagate from Cuban drilling sites located along the north coast of Cuba as well as from proposed drilling in the Bahamas. Such ocean observation information can be used as input for operational response models and result in best

  11. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-06-29

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling.

  12. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ENHANCE in the Philippine Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project on 1965-11-01 (NODC Accession 6500176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ENHANCE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the in the Philippine...

  13. Shallow ocean response to tropical cyclones observed on the continental shelf of the northwestern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Hou, Yijun; Hu, Po; Liu, Ze; Liu, Yahao

    2015-05-01

    Based on observed temperature and velocity in 2005 in northwestern South China Sea, the shallow ocean responses to three tropical cyclones were examined. The oceanic response to Washi was similar to common observations with 2°C cooling of the ocean surface and slight warming of the thermocline resulted from vertical entrainment. Moreover, the wavefield was dominated by first mode near-inertial oscillations, which were red-shifted and trapped by negative background vorticity leading to an e-folding timescale of 12 days. The repeated reflections by the surface and bottom boundaries were thought to yield the successive emergence of higher modes. The oceanic responses to Vicente appeared to be insignificant with cooling of the ocean surface by only 0.5°C and near-inertial currents no larger than 0.10 m/s as a result of a deepened surface mixed layer. However, the oceanic responses to Typhoon Damrey were drastic with cooling of 4.5°C near the surface and successive barotropic-like near-inertial oscillations. During the forced stage, the upper ocean heat content decreased conspicuously by 11.65% and the stratification was thoroughly destroyed by vertical mixing. In the relaxation stage, the water particle had vertical displacement of 20-30 m generated by inertial pumping. The current response to Damrey was weaker than Washi due to the deepened mixed layer and the destroyed stratification. Our results suggested that the shallow water oceanic responses to tropical cyclones varied significantly with the intensity of tropical cyclones, and was affected by local stratification and background vorticity.

  14. Friend or Foe: Variability in How Sea Ice Can Both Hinder and Enhance Phytoplankton Blooms Across the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, T.

    2016-02-01

    Globally, a suite of physical and biogeochemical controls govern the structure, size, and timing of seasonal phytoplankton blooms. In the Southern Ocean, the introduction of seasonal sea ice provides an additional constraining factor. From a bottom-up perspective, a reduction in sea ice can both enhance bloom development by permitting greater levels of surface PAR uninhibited by ice and suppress a bloom when reduced fresh melt-water inputs and increased vulnerability to wind stress combine to create deeper mixed layers and decrease depth integrated light availability. Regions along the Western Antarctic Peninsula have already seen a contradictory response to reduced ice cover, with enhanced summertime chlorophyll concentrations in the South, and large declines to the North. This dichotomy is thought to arise from differences in the interannual mean sea ice state, with extensively ice covered regions benefiting from reduced coverage and more sparsely covered regions hindered by further reductions. The questions arises: 1) At what threshold does a reduction in sea ice transition from amplifying blooms to suppressing them? 2) How do additional environmental considerations such as nutrient availability and trophic interactions complicate this transition? Here, we combine remote sensing observations and in-situ data (from PAL LTER) with a hierarchy of 1-D water column and global general circulation (CESM) models to access the variability in how regional differences in mean ice state combine with other environmental forcings to dictate how interannual variability (or long term trends) in ice coverage will affect bloom structure, size and dynamics. In doing so we will gain a better understanding of how predicted changes in sea ice will effect Southern Ocean productivity, which of course will have important consequences in the global carbon cycle and sustainability of healthy marine ecosystems.

  15. Observations of interplanetary energetic ion enhancements near magnetic sector boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, P.R.; Armstrong, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    We have examined all energetic medium nuclei (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) flux increases observed all the satellites IMP 7 and IMP 8 at 1 AU during Bartels rotations 1906-1974. After removing flare-related increases, the remaining 14 ''events'' were compared to interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind parameters. We have discovered a class of flux enhancements in which the ion increases occur close to the onset of magnetic sector boundary crossings. We interpret this observation as a facilitated access to 1 AU of energetic ions from the corona or chromopshere via the magnetic sector structure. It appears that this access is more significant for medium than for lighter nuclei, ''suggesting a possible charge- or rigidity-dependent transport mechanism

  16. Enhancement of observability and protection of smart power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Abdul Hasib

    It is important for a modern power grid to be smarter in order to provide reliable and sustainable supply of electricity. Traditional way of receiving data from the wired system is a very old and outdated technology. For a quicker and better response from the electric system, it is important to look at wireless systems as a feasible option. In order to enhance the observability and protection it is important to integrate wireless technology with the modern power system. In this thesis, wireless network based architecture for wide area monitoring and an alternate method for performing current measurement for protection of generators and motors, has been adopted. There are basically two part of this project. First part deals with the wide area monitoring of the power system and the second part focuses more on application of wireless technology from the protection point of view. A number of wireless method have been adopted in both the part, these includes Zigbee, analog transmission (Both AM and FM) and digital transmission. The main aim of our project was to propose a cost effective wide area monitoring and protection method which will enhance the observability and stability of power grid. A new concept of wireless integration in the power protection system has been implemented in this thesis work.

  17. The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS): Developing A Coastal Observation System To Enable Both Science Based Decision Making And Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, E.; John, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) is a consortium that extends from Northern Baja CA in Mexico to Morro Bay at the southern edge of central California, and aims to streamline, coordinate, and further develop individual institutional efforts by creating an integrated, multidisciplinary coastal observatory in the Bight of Southern California for the benefit of society. By leveraging existing infrastructure, partnerships, and private, local, state, and federal resources, SCCOOS is developing a fully operational coastal observation system to address issues related to coastal water quality, marine life resources, and coastal hazards for end user communities spanning local, state, and federal interests. However, to establish a sensible observational approach to address these societal drivers, sound scientific approaches are required in both the system design and the transformation of data to useful products. Since IOOS and coastal components of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are not mutually exclusive within this framework, the SCCOOS consortium of observatory implementers have created an organizational structure that encourages dovetailing of OOI into the routine observations provided by the operational components of a regional IOOS. To begin the development, SCCOOS has grant funding from the California Coastal Conservancy as part of a $21M, statewide initiative to establish a Coastal Ocean Currents Monitoring Program, and funding from NOAA's Coastal Observing Technology System (COTS). In addition, SCCOOS is leveraging IT development that has been supported by the NSF Information Technology Research program Real-time observatories, Applications,and Data Manageemnt Network (ROADNET), and anticipates using developments which will result from the NSF Laboratory for Ocean Observatory Knowledge Integration Grid (LOOKING) program. The observational components now funded at SCCOOS include surface current mapping by HF radar; high

  18. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  19. Evaluation of the shortwave cloud radiative effect over the ocean by use of ship and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanschmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the shortwave cloud radiative effect (SWCRE over ocean calculated by the ECHAM 5 climate model is evaluated for the cloud property input derived from ship based measurements and satellite based estimates and compared to ship based radiation measurements. The ship observations yield cloud fraction, liquid water path from a microwave radiometer, cloud bottom height as well as temperature and humidity profiles from radiosonde ascents. Level-2 products of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM~SAF from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI have been used to characterize clouds. Within a closure study six different experiments have been defined to find the optimal set of measurements to calculate downward shortwave radiation (DSR and the SWCRE from the model, and their results have been evaluated under seven different synoptic situations. Four of these experiments are defined to investigate the advantage of including the satellite-based cloud droplet effective radius as additional cloud property. The modeled SWCRE based on satellite retrieved cloud properties has a comparable accuracy to the modeled SWCRE based on ship data. For several cases, an improvement through introducing the satellite-based estimate of effective radius as additional information to the ship based data was found. Due to their different measuring characteristics, however, each dataset shows best results for different atmospheric conditions.

  20. Citizen bio-optical observations from coast- and ocean and their compatibility with ocean colour satellite measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.A.; Bardaji, R.; Ceccaroni, L.; Friedrichs, A.; Piera, J.; Simon, C.; Thijsse, P.; Wernand, M.R.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Zielinski, O.

    2016-01-01

    Marine processes are observed with sensors from both the ground and space over large spatio-temporal scales. Citizen-based contributions can fill observational gaps and increase environmental stewardship amongst the public. For this purpose, tools and methods for citizen science need to (1)

  1. Citizen Bio-Optical Observations from Coast- and Ocean and Their Compatibility with Ocean Colour Satellite Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.A.; Bardaji, R.; Ceccaroni, L.; Friedrichs, A.; Piera, J.; Simon, C.; Thijssen, P.; Wernand, M.R.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Zielinski, O.

    2016-01-01

    Marine processes are observed with sensors from both the ground and space over large spatio-temporal scales. Citizen-based contributions can fill observational gaps and increase environmental stewardship amongst the public. For this purpose, tools and methods for citizen science need to (1)

  2. Bringing ocean observations to the classroom - integrating research infrastructure into education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Hoenner, X.; Mancini, S.; Tattersall, K.; Everett, J. D.; Suthers, I. M.; Steinberg, P.; Doblin, M.; Moltmann, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the past 4 years the Sydney Institute of Marine Science, a partnership of four Australian Universities (Macquarie University, the University of NSW, the University of Sydney and the University of Technology Sydney) has been running a Master's degree course called Topics in Australian Marine Science (TAMS). This course is unique in that the core of the course is built around research infrastructure - the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). IMOS, established in 2007, is collecting unprecedented volumes of multi-disciplinary oceanographic data in the ocean and on the continental shelf which is made freely available across the web; IMOS frequently runs `data user workshops' throughout Australia to introduce scientists and managers to the wealth of observations available at their fingertips. The Masters course gives students an understanding of how different measurement platforms work and they explore the data that these platforms collect. Students combine attending seminars and lectures with hands on practicals and personal assignments, all built around access to IMOS data and the many tools available to visualise and analyse. The course attracts a diverse class with many mature students (i.e. > 25 years old) from a range of backgrounds who find that the ease of discovering and accessing data, coupled with the available tools, enables them to easily study the marine environment without the need for high level computational skills. Since its inception the popularity of the course has increased with 38 students undertaking the subject in 2014. The consensus from students and lecturers is that integrating `real' observations into the classroom is beneficial to all, and IMOS is seeking to extend this approach to other university campuses. The talk will describe the experiences from the TAMS course and highlight the IMOS approach to data discovery, availability and access through course examples.

  3. Multi-spectral CCD camera system for ocean water color and seacoast observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Shiping; Wu, Yanlin; Huang, Qiaolin; Jin, Weiqi

    2001-10-01

    One of the earth observing instruments on HY-1 Satellite which will be launched in 2001, the multi-spectral CCD camera system, is developed by Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics & Electricity (BISME), Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). In 798 km orbit, the system can provide images with 250 m ground resolution and a swath of 500 km. It is mainly used for coast zone dynamic mapping and oceanic watercolor monitoring, which include the pollution of offshore and coast zone, plant cover, watercolor, ice, terrain underwater, suspended sediment, mudflat, soil and vapor gross. The multi- spectral camera system is composed of four monocolor CCD cameras, which are line array-based, 'push-broom' scanning cameras, and responding for four spectral bands. The camera system adapts view field registration; that is, each camera scans the same region at the same moment. Each of them contains optics, focal plane assembly, electrical circuit, installation structure, calibration system, thermal control and so on. The primary features on the camera system are: (1) Offset of the central wavelength is better than 5 nm; (2) Degree of polarization is less than 0.5%; (3) Signal-to-noise ratio is about 1000; (4) Dynamic range is better than 2000:1; (5) Registration precision is better than 0.3 pixel; (6) Quantization value is 12 bit.

  4. Typhoon Rammasun-Induced Near-Inertial Oscillations Observed in the Tropical Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind-induced near-inertial oscillations (NIOs have been known to propagate their energy downward and equatorward, yet few observations have confirmed this in tropical regions. Using measurements from a moored ADCP in the tropical northwestern Pacific, we report an energetic NIO event associated with Typhoon Rammasun in May 2008, when an anti-cyclonic warm eddy existed around the mooring site. Our analyses reveal that the anti-cyclonic eddy traps the NIO energy at two layers around 120 and 210 m where the buoyancy frequency show high values. The NIO energy continuously decays at layers below its maximum at 210 m, and disappears at depths below the thermocline. During their propagation from 137 to 649 stretched-meter depths (equivalent to 100 - 430 m, NIOs shift their frequencies from 0.92f to 1.05f probably due to the effective f, which changes its magnitude from smaller to larger than local inertial frequency f in the anti-cyclonic eddy. In addition, their vertical energy propagation becomes faster from 0.17 to 0.64 mm s-1. Decomposition of downward and upward NIO energy propagation shows that the typhoon-induced NIOs remain 29% of their energy in the upper layer, and transfer 71% to the subsurface layers. Our results suggest that typhoon-induced NIOs interacting with meso-scale eddies can play an important role in providing the energy source available for ocean mixing in the tropical regions.

  5. Developing a global ocean observing system that prioritises ecosystem variables from a political and societal point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, P.; Bax, N. J.; Simmons, S. E.; Appeltans, W.; Garcia, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Biology and Ecosystems Panel of GOOS aims to develop and coordinate efforts to implement a sustained and targeted global ocean observation system. This system will be driven by societal needs (including the Sustainable Development Goals), and identify Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) to inform priority scientific and societal questions that will facilitate critical policy development and management decision-making on ocean and coastal resource sustainability and health. Mature EOVs need to have global relevance and the capacity for global measurement. Our goal is to implement at least one (set of) mature EOVs by 2019, and identify a further three (sets of) pilot EOVs with a clear pathway to maturity. Our initial work includes (1) identifying drivers and pressures of societal and scientific needs, and (2) identifying internationally agreed goals that need sustained global observations of ocean biological & ecosystem variables for a healthy ocean. We reviewed 24 major conventions/international organizations (including the CBD and 16 UN related) to identify the societal needs these organizations address through their goals, and to produce a set of overlapping objectives. Main drivers identified in these conventions were: knowledge (science/data access), development (sustainable economic growth), conservation (biodiversity & ecosystems), sustainable use (biodiversity & resources), environmental quality (health), capacity building (technology transfer), food security, threat prevention and impact mitigation (to different pressures) and improved management (integrated ecosystem approach). The main pressures identified were climate change, ocean acidification, extreme weather events, overfishing/ overexploitation, pollution/ eutrophication, mining, solid wastes. Our next step will be to develop consensus with the observing community about the EOVs that will meet these needs and support the expansion of these identified EOVs into successful global observing systems.

  6. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerovecki, Ivana [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; McClean, Julie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Koracin, Darko [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States). Division of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-11-14

    The overall objective of this study was to improve the representation of regional ocean circulation in the North Pacific by using high resolution atmospheric forcing that accurately represents mesoscale processes in ocean-atmosphere regional (North Pacific) model configuration. The goal was to assess the importance of accurate representation of mesoscale processes in the atmosphere and the ocean on large scale circulation. This is an important question, as mesoscale processes in the atmosphere which are resolved by the high resolution mesoscale atmospheric models such as Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), are absent in commonly used atmospheric forcing such as CORE forcing, employed in e.g. the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  7. Model Data Interoperability for the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard P.

    2010-05-01

    Model data interoperability for the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) was initiated with a focused one year project. The problem was that there were many regional and national providers of oceanographic model data; each had unique file conventions, distribution techniques and analysis tools that made it difficult to compare model results and observational data. To solve this problem, a distributed system was built utilizing a customized middleware layer and a common data model. This allowed each model data provider to keep their existing model and data files unchanged, yet deliver model data via web services in a common form. With standards-based applications that used these web services, end users then had a common way to access data from any of the models. These applications included: (1) a 2D mapping and animation using a web browser application, (2) an advanced 3D visualization and animation using a desktop application, and (3) a toolkit for a common scientific analysis environment. Due to the flexibility and low impact of the approach on providers, rapid progress was made. The system was implemented in all eleven US IOOS regions and at the NOAA National Coastal Data Development Center, allowing common delivery of regional and national oceanographic model forecast and archived results that cover all US waters. The system, based heavily on software technology from the NSF-sponsored Unidata Program Center, is applicable to any structured gridded data, not just oceanographic model data. There is a clear pathway to expand the system to include unstructured grid (e.g. triangular grid) data.

  8. Enhanced ocean carbon storage from anaerobic alkalinity generation in coastal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Suykens, K.; Koné, Y.J.M.; Shadwick, E.H.; Prowe, A.E.F.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Borges, A.V.; Slomp, C.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal ocean is a crucial link between land, the open ocean and the atmosphere. The shallowness of the water column permits close interactions between the sedimentary, aquatic and atmospheric compartments, which otherwise are decoupled at long time scales (≅ 1000 yr) in the open oceans. Despite

  9. Iron fertilization enhanced net community production but not downward particle flux during the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, P.; Loeff, M.M.R. van der.; Cassar, N.; Vandromme, P.; d'Ovidio, F.; Stemmann, L.; Rengarajan, R.; Soares, M.A.; Gonzalez, H.E.; Ebersbach, F.; Lampitt, R.S.; Sanders, R.; Barnett, B.A.; Smetacek, V.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    A closed eddy core in the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean was fertilized twice with two tons of iron (as FeSO4), and the 300 km2 fertilized patch was studied for 39 days to test whether fertilization enhances downward particle flux...

  10. The impact of the ocean observing system on estimates of the California current circulation spanning three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew M.; Jacox, Michael G.; Crawford, William J.; Laughlin, Bruce; Edwards, Christopher A.; Fiechter, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Data assimilation is now used routinely in oceanography on both regional and global scales for computing ocean circulation estimates and for making ocean forecasts. Regional ocean observing systems are also expanding rapidly, and observations from a wide array of different platforms and sensor types are now available. Evaluation of the impact of the observing system on ocean circulation estimates (and forecasts) is therefore of considerable interest to the oceanographic community. In this paper, we quantify the impact of different observing platforms on estimates of the California Current System (CCS) spanning a three decade period (1980-2010). Specifically, we focus attention on several dynamically related aspects of the circulation (coastal upwelling, the transport of the California Current and the California Undercurrent, thermocline depth and eddy kinetic energy) which in many ways describe defining characteristics of the CCS. The circulation estimates were computed using a 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system, and our analyses also focus on the impact of the different elements of the control vector (i.e. the initial conditions, surface forcing, and open boundary conditions) on the circulation. While the influence of each component of the control vector varies between different metrics of the circulation, the impact of each observing system across metrics is very robust. In addition, the mean amplitude of the circulation increments (i.e. the difference between the analysis and background) remains relatively stable throughout the three decade period despite the addition of new observing platforms whose impact is redistributed according to the relative uncertainty of observations from each platform. We also consider the impact of each observing platform on CCS circulation variability associated with low-frequency climate variability. The low-frequency nature of the dominant climate modes in this region allows us to track through time the

  11. Phytoplankton phenology indices in coral reef ecosystems: Application to ocean-color observations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Racault, Marie-Fanny; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Berumen, Michael L.; Brewin, Robert J.W.; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Initiative project (OC-CCI) in the entire Red Sea basin. The OC-CCI product, comprising merged and bias-corrected observations from three independent ocean-color sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS), and processed using the POLYMER algorithm (MERIS period

  12. Separation of atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological polar motion excitation mechanisms based on a combination of geometric and gravimetric space observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttl, F.; Schmidt, M.; Seitz, F.; Bloßfeld, M.

    2015-04-01

    The goal of our study is to determine accurate time series of geophysical Earth rotation excitations to learn more about global dynamic processes in the Earth system. For this purpose, we developed an adjustment model which allows to combine precise observations from space geodetic observation systems, such as Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Doppler Orbit determination and Radiopositioning Integrated on Satellite, satellite altimetry and satellite gravimetry in order to separate geophysical excitation mechanisms of Earth rotation. Three polar motion time series are applied to derive the polar motion excitation functions (integral effect). Furthermore we use five time variable gravity field solutions from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment to determine not only the integral mass effect but also the oceanic and hydrological mass effects by applying suitable filter techniques and a land-ocean mask. For comparison the integral mass effect is also derived from degree 2 potential coefficients that are estimated from SLR observations. The oceanic mass effect is also determined from sea level anomalies observed by satellite altimetry by reducing the steric sea level anomalies derived from temperature and salinity fields of the oceans. Due to the combination of all geodetic estimated excitations the weaknesses of the individual processing strategies can be reduced and the technique-specific strengths can be accounted for. The formal errors of the adjusted geodetic solutions are smaller than the RMS differences of the geophysical model solutions. The improved excitation time series can be used to improve the geophysical modeling.

  13. Ship Sensor Observations for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploration of the Gulf of Mexico" expedition...

  14. Ship Sensor Observations for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Deep Reef Habitat - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Deep Reef Habitat" expedition sponsored by the...

  15. Ship Sensor Observations for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003" expedition sponsored by the National...

  16. Satellite Observations of Imprint of Oceanic Current on Wind Stress by Air-Sea Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; McWilliams, James C; Masson, Sebastien

    2017-12-18

    Mesoscale eddies are present everywhere in the ocean and partly determine the mean state of the circulation and ecosystem. The current feedback on the surface wind stress modulates the air-sea transfer of momentum by providing a sink of mesoscale eddy energy as an atmospheric source. Using nine years of satellite measurements of surface stress and geostrophic currents over the global ocean, we confirm that the current-induced surface stress curl is linearly related to the current vorticity. The resulting coupling coefficient between current and surface stress (s τ [N s m -3 ]) is heterogeneous and can be roughly expressed as a linear function of the mean surface wind. s τ expresses the sink of eddy energy induced by the current feedback. This has important implications for air-sea interaction and implies that oceanic mean and mesoscale circulations and their effects on surface-layer ventilation and carbon uptake are better represented in oceanic models that include this feedback.

  17. 76 FR 14375 - United States Integrated Ocean Observing System Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration United States Integrated... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Establishment of and Membership... support a variety of societal benefits. These benefits include supporting national defense; marine...

  18. Ship Sensor Observations for North Atlantic Stepping Stones 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "North Atlantic Stepping Stones 2005" expedition sponsored by the...

  19. Using Total Lightning Observations to Enhance Lightning Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning is often the underrated threat faced by the public when it comes to dangerous weather phenomena. Typically, larger scale events such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes receive the vast majority of attention by both the general population and the media. This comes from the fact that these phenomena are large, longer lasting, can impact a large swath of society at one time, and are dangerous events. The threat of lightning is far more isolated on a case by case basis, although millions of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes hit this United States each year. While attention is given to larger meteorological events, lightning is the second leading cause of weather related deaths in the United States. This information raises the question of what steps can be taken to improve lightning safety. Already, the meteorological community s understanding of lightning has increased over the last 20 years. Lightning safety is now better addressed with the National Weather Service s access to the National Lightning Detection Network data and enhanced wording in their severe weather warnings. Also, local groups and organizations are working to improve public awareness of lightning safety with easy phrases to remember, such as "When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors." The impacts can be seen in the greater array of contingency plans, from airports to sports stadiums, addressing the threat of lightning. Improvements can still be made and newer technologies may offer new tools as we look towards the future. One of these tools is a network of sensors called a lightning mapping array (LMA). Several of these networks exist across the United States. NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT), part of the Marshall Spaceflight Center, has access to three of these networks from Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, and Washington D.C. The SPoRT program s mission is to help transition unique products and observations into the operational forecast environment

  20. Sea level variability in the eastern tropical Pacific as observed by TOPEX and Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Benjamin S.; Carton, James A.; Holl, Lydia J.

    1994-01-01

    Sea surface height measurements from the TOPEX altimeter and dynamic height from Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TOGA TAO) moorings are used to explore sea level variability in the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Afetr the annual harmonic is removed, there are two distinct bands of variability: one band is centered at 5 deg N to 7 deg N and extends from 165 deg W to 110 deg W, and the other band is centered at 10 deg N to 12 deg N and extends from 120 deg W to the coast of Central America. The correspondence between the two independent observation data sets at 5 deg N is excellent with correlations of about 90%. The variability at 5 deg-7 deg N is identified as instability waves formed just south of the North Equatorial Countercurrent during the months of July and March. Wave amplitudes are largest in the range of longitudes 160 deg-140 deg W, where they can exceed 10 cm. The waves disappear when the equatorial current system weakens, during the months of March and May. The variability at 11 deg N in 1993 has the form of anticyclone eddies. These eddies propagate westward at a speed of about 17 cm/s, consistent with the dispersion characteristics of free Rossby waves. The eddies are shown to have their origin near the coast of central America during northern fall and winter. Their formation seems to result from intense wind bursts across the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo which generate strong anticyclonic ocean eddies. The disappearance of the eddies in the summer of 1993 coincidences with the seasonal intensification of equatorial currents. Thus the variability at 11 deg N has very little overlap in time with the variability at 5 deg N.

  1. The Wave Glider°: A New Autonomous Surface Vehicle to Augment MBARI's Growing Fleet of Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) evolving fleet of ocean observing systems has made it possible to collect information and data about a wide variety of ocean parameters, enabling researchers to better understand marine ecosystems. In collaboration with Liquid Robotics Inc, the designer of the Wave Glider autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), MBARI is adding a new capability to its suite of ocean observing tools. This new technology will augment MBARI research programs that use satellites, ships, moorings, drifters, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to improve data collection of temporally and spatially variable oceanographic features. The Wave Glider ASV derives its propulsion from wave energy, while sensors and communications are powered through the use of two solar panels and batteries, enabling it to remain at sea indefinitely. Wave Gliders are remotely controlled via real-time Iridium burst communications, which also permit real-time data telemetry. MBARI has developed Ocean Acidification (OA) moorings to continuously monitor the chemical and physical changes occurring in the ocean as a result of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The moorings are spatially restricted by being anchored to the seafloor, so during the summer of 2011 the ocean acidification sensor suite designed for moorings was integrated into a Wave Glider ASV to increase both temporal and spatial ocean observation capabilities. The OA sensor package enables the measurement of parameters essential to better understanding the changing acidity of the ocean, specifically pCO2, pH, oxygen, salinity and temperature. The Wave Glider will also be equipped with a meteorological sensor suite that will measure air temperature, air pressure, and wind speed and direction. The OA sensor integration into a Wave Glider was part of MBARI's 2011 summer internship program. This project involved designing a new layout for the OA sensors

  2. Digging Back In Time: Integrating Historical Data Into an Operational Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modern technologies allow reporting and display of data near real-time from in situ instrumentation live on the internet. This has given users fast access to critical information for scientific applications, marine safety, planning, and numerous other activities. Equally as valuable is having access to historical data sets. However, it is challenging to identify sources and access of historical data of interest as it exists in many different locations, depending on the funding source and provider. Also, time-varying formats can make it difficult to data-mine and display historical data. There is also the issue of data quality, and having a systematic means of assessing credibility of historical data sets. The Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) data management system demonstrates the successful ingestion of historical data, both old and new (as recent as yesterday) and has integrated numerous historical data streams into user friendly data portals, available for data upload and display on the AOOS Website. An example is the inclusion of non-real-time (e.g. day old) AIS (Automatic Identification System) ship tracking data, important for scientists working in marine mammal migration regions. Other examples include historical sea ice data, and various data streams from previous research projects (e.g. moored time series, HF Radar surface currents, weather, shipboard CTD). Most program or project websites only offer access to data specific to their agency or project alone, but do not have the capacity to provide access to the plethora of other data that might be available for the region and be useful for integration, comparison and synthesis. AOOS offers end users access to a one stop-shop for data in the area they want to research, helping them identify other sources of information and access. Demonstrations of data portals using historical data illustrate these benefits.

  3. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific Ocean by voluntary observing ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Mukai, H.; Machida, T.; Tohjima, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruising routes: from Japan to Oceania, from Japan to the United States, from Japan to Canada, and from Japan to Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv) and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards (CO balanced with purified air at ppmv levels) during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3-5 yr. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  4. Statistics of AUV's Missions for Operational Ocean Observation at the South Brazilian Bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, F. A.; São Tiago, P. M.; Oliveira, A. L. S. C.; Barmak, R. B.; Miranda, T. C.; Guerra, L. A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The high costs and logistics limitations of ship-based data collection represent an obstacle for a persistent in-situ data collection. Satellite-operated Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV's) or gliders (as these AUV's are generally known by the scientific community) are presented as an inexpensive and reliable alternative to perform long-term and real-time ocean monitoring of important parameters such as temperature, salinity, water-quality and acoustics. This work is focused on the performance statistics and the reliability for continuous operation of a fleet of seven gliders navigating in Santos Basin - Brazil, since March 2013. The gliders performance were evaluated by the number of standby days versus the number of operating days, the number of interrupted missions due to (1) equipment failure, (2) weather, (3) accident versus the number of successful missions and the amount and quality of data collected. From the start of the operations in March 2013 to the preparation of this work (July 2015), a total of 16 glider missions were accomplished, operating during 728 of the 729 days passed since then. From this total, 11 missions were successful, 3 missions were interrupted due to equipment failure and 2 gliders were lost. Most of the identified issues were observed in the communication with the glider (when recovery was necessary) or the optode sensors (when remote settings solved the problem). The average duration of a successful mission was 103 days while interrupted ones ended on average in 7 days. The longest mission lasted for 139 days, performing 859 continuous profiles and covering a distance of 2734 Km. The 2 projects performed together 6856 dives, providing an average of 9,5 profiles per day or one profile every 2,5 hours each day during 2 consecutive years.

  5. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Baeza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies” (CAROLS L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed on board a dedicated French ATR42 research aircraft, in conjunction with other airborne instruments (C-Band scatterometer—STORM, the GOLD-RTR GPS system, the infrared CIMEL radiometer and a visible wavelength camera. Following initial laboratory qualifications, three airborne campaigns involving 21 flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight horizontal flights, circular flights, wing and nose wags over the ocean. Analysis of the first two campaigns in 2007 and 2008 leads us to improve the CAROLS radiometer regarding isolation between channels and filter bandwidth. After implementation of these improvements, results show that the instrument is conforming to specification and is a useful tool for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS satellite validation as well as for specific studies on surface soil moisture or ocean salinity.

  6. NASA CYGNSS Ocean Wind Observations in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, C. S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mayers, D.; McKague, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The CYGNSS constellation of eight satellites was successfully launched on 15 December 2016 into a low inclination (tropical) Earth orbit to measure ocean surface wind speed in the inner core of tropical cyclones with better than 12 hour refresh rates. Each satellite carries a four-channel bi-static radar receiver that measures GPS signals scattered by the ocean, from which ocean surface roughness, near surface wind speed, and air-sea latent heat flux are estimated. The measurements are unique in several respects, most notably in their ability to penetrate through all levels of precipitation, made possible by the low frequency at which GPS operates, and in the frequent sampling of tropical cyclone intensification, made possible by the large number of satellites. Level 2 science data products have been developed for near surface (10 m referenced) ocean wind speed, ocean surface roughness (mean square slope) and latent heat flux. Level 3 gridded versions of the L2 products have also been developed. A set of Level 4 products have also been developed specifically for direct tropical cyclone overpasses. These include the storm intensity (peak sustained winds) and size (radius of maximum winds), its extent (34, 50 and 64 knot wind radii), and its integrated kinetic energy. Results of measurements made during the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, including frequent overpasses of Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria, will be presented.

  7. Mantle Serpentinization near the Central Mariana Trench Constrained by Ocean Bottom Surface Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, C.; Wiens, D. A.; Lizarralde, D.; Eimer, M. O.; Shen, W.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle seismic structure across the Mariana trench by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities from ambient noise and longer period phase velocities from Helmholtz tomography of teleseismic waveforms. We use data from a temporary deployment in 2012-2013, consisting of 7 island-based stations and 20 broadband ocean bottom seismographs, as well as data from the USGS Northern Mariana Islands Seismograph Network. To avoid any potential bias from the starting model, we use a Bayesian Monte-Carlo algorithm to invert for the azimuthally-averaged SV-wave velocity at each node. This method also allows us to apply prior constraints on crustal thickness and other parameters in a systematic way, and to derive formal estimates of velocity uncertainty. The results show the development of a low velocity zone within the incoming plate beginning about 80 km seaward of the trench axis, consistent with the onset of bending faults from bathymetry and earthquake locations. The maximum depth of the velocity anomaly increases towards the trench, and extends to about 30 km below the seafloor. The low velocities persist after the plate is subducted, as a 20-30 km thick low velocity layer with a somewhat smaller velocity reduction is imaged along the top of the slab beneath the forearc. An extremely low velocity zone is observed beneath the serpentine seamounts in the outer forearc, consistent with 40% serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge. Azimuthal anisotropy results show trench parallel fast axis within the incoming plate at uppermost mantle depth (2%-4% anisotropy). All these observations suggest the velocity reduction in the incoming plate prior to subduction results from both serpentinized normal faults and water-filled cracks. Water is expelled from the cracks early in subduction, causing a modest increase in the velocity of the subducting mantle, and moves upward and causes serpentinization of the outer forearc

  8. Observability-Enhanced PMU Placement Considering Conventional Measurements and Contingencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Esmaili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs are in growing attention in recent power systems because of their paramount abilities in state estimation. PMUs are placed in existing power systems where there are already installed conventional measurements, which can be helpful if they are considered in PMU optimal placement. In this paper, a method is proposed for optimal placement of PMUs incorporating conventional measurements of zero injection buses and branch flow measurements using a permutation matrix. Furthermore, the effect of single branch outage and single PMU failure is included in the proposed method. When a branch with a flow measurement goes out, the network loses one observability path (the branch and one conventional measurement (the flow measurement. The permutation matrix proposed here is able to model the outage of a branch equipped with a flow measurement or connected to a zero injection bus. Also, measurement redundancy, and consequently measurement reliability, is enhanced without increasing the number of PMUs this implies a more efficient usage of PMUs than previous methods. The PMU placement problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming that results in the global optimal solution. Results obtained from testing the proposed method on four well-known test systems in diverse situations confirm its efficiency.

  9. Use of satellite ocean color observations to refine understanding of global geochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Dieterle, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In October 1978, the first satellite-borne color sensor, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched aboard Nimbus-7 with four visible and two infrared bands, permitting a sensitivity about 60 times that of the Landsat-1 multispectral scanner. The CZCS radiance data can be utilized to estimate ocean chlorophyll concentrations by detecting shifts in sea color, particularly in oceanic waters. The obtained data can be used in studies regarding problems of overfishing, and, in addition, in investigations concerning the consequences of man's accelerated extraction of nitrogen from the atmosphere and addition of carbon to the atmosphere. The satellite data base is considered along with a simulation analysis, and ships providing ground-truth chlorophyll measurements in the ocean.

  10. Spatial sea-level reconstruction in the Baltic Sea and in the Pacific Ocean from tide gauges observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Olivieri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the Delaunay interpolation, we present a newly implemented 2-D sea-level reconstruction from coastal sea-level observations to open seas, with the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the rate of sea-level change. To test the strengths and weaknesses of this method and to determine its usefulness in sea-level interpolation, we consider the case studies of the Baltic Sea and of the Pacific Ocean. In the Baltic Sea, a small basin well sampled by tide gauges, our reconstructions are successfully compared with absolute sea-level observations from altimetry during 1993-2011. The regional variability of absolute sea level observed across the Pacific Ocean, however, cannot be reproduced. We interpret this result as the effect of the uneven and sparse tide gauge data set and of the composite vertical land movements in and around the region. Useful considerations arise that can serve as a basis for developing sophisticated approaches.

  11. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koracin, Darko; Cerovecki, Ivana; Vellore, Ramesh; Mejia, John; Hatchett, Benjamin; McCord, Travis; McLean, Julie; Dorman, Clive

    2013-04-11

    Executive summary The main objective of the study was to investigate atmospheric and ocean interaction processes in the western Pacific and, in particular, effects of significant ocean heat loss in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions on the lower and upper atmosphere. It is yet to be determined how significant are these processes are on climate scales. The understanding of these processes led us also to development of the methodology of coupling the Weather and Research Forecasting model with the Parallel Ocean Program model for western Pacific regional weather and climate simulations. We tested NCAR-developed research software Coupler 7 for coupling of the WRF and POP models and assessed its usability for regional-scale applications. We completed test simulations using the Coupler 7 framework, but implemented a standard WRF model code with options for both one- and two-way mode coupling. This type of coupling will allow us to seamlessly incorporate new WRF updates and versions in the future. We also performed a long-term WRF simulation (15 years) covering the entire North Pacific as well as high-resolution simulations of a case study which included extreme ocean heat losses in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions. Since the extreme ocean heat loss occurs during winter cold air outbreaks (CAO), we simulated and analyzed a case study of a severe CAO event in January 2000 in detail. We found that the ocean heat loss induced by CAOs is amplified by additional advection from mesocyclones forming on the southern part of the Japan Sea. Large scale synoptic patterns with anomalously strong anticyclone over Siberia and Mongolia, deep Aleutian Low, and the Pacific subtropical ridge are a crucial setup for the CAO. It was found that the onset of the CAO is related to the breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves and vertical transport of vorticity that facilitates meridional advection. The study also indicates that intrinsic parameterization of the surface fluxes

  12. Enhancing Earth Observation Capacity in the Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Earth observations bear special significance in the Himalayan Region owing to the fact that routine data collections are often hampered by highly inaccessible terrain and harsh climatic conditions. The ongoing rapid environmental changes have further emphasized its relevance and use for informed decision-making. The International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), with a regional mandate is promoting the use of earth observations in line with the GEOSS societal benefit areas. ICIMOD has a proven track record to utilize earth observations notably in the areas of understanding glaciers and snow dynamics, disaster risk preparedness and emergency response, carbon estimation for community forestry user groups, land cover change assessment, agriculture monitoring and food security analysis among others. This paper presents the challenges and lessons learned as a part of capacity building of ICIMOD to utilize earth observations with the primary objectives to empower its member countries and foster regional cooperation. As a part of capacity building, ICIMOD continues to make its efforts to augment as a regional resource center on earth observation and geospatial applications for sustainable mountain development. Capacity building possesses multitude of challenges in the region: the complex geo-political reality with differentiated capacities of member states, poorer institutional and technical infrastructure; addressing the needs for multiple user and target groups; integration with different thematic disciplines; and high resources intensity and sustainability. A capacity building framework was developed based on detailed needs assessment with a regional approach and strategy to enhance capability of ICIMOD and its network of national partners. A specialized one-week training course and curriculum have been designed for different thematic areas to impart knowledge and skills that include development practitioners, professionals, researchers and

  13. Biogeochemical-Argo: achievements, challenges for the future and potential synergies with other components of ocean observation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustre, Hervé; Johnson, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The recently launched Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) program aims at developing a global network of biogeochemical sensors on Argo profiling floats for acquiring long-term high-quality time-series of oceanic properties. BGC-Argo is in particular poised to address a number of challenges in ocean science (e.g. hypoxia, carbon uptake, ocean acidification, biological-carbon pump and phytoplankton communities), topics that are difficult, if not impossible, to address with our present observing assets. Presently six variables are considered as core BGC-Argo variables (O2, NO3, pH, Chla, suspended particles and downwelling irradiance). Historically, BGC-Argo has been initiated through small-scale "showcase" projects progressively scaling up into regional case studies essentially addressing key biological pump-related questions in specific regions (e.g. sub-tropical gyres, North Atlantic, Southern Ocean). Now BGC-Argo is transitioning towards a global and sustained observation system thanks to progressive international coordination of national contributions and to increasingly mature and efficient data management and distribution systems. In this presentation, we will highlight a variety of results derived from BGC-Argo observations and encompassing a wide range of topics related to ocean biogeochemistry. Challenges for the future and long-term sustainability of the system will be addressed in particular with respect to maintaining a high-quality and interoperable dataset over long-term. Part of this can be achieved through a tight interaction with programs (e.g. GOSHIP) and their historical databases, which should constitute a corner stone to assess data quality. Example on the interplay between BGC-Argo and GlodapV2 databases will be particularly exemplified in this context. Furthermore, we will illustrate the potential synergies between synoptically measured surface satellite-quantities and their vertically resolved (BGC-Argo) counterparts into the development of 3D

  14. Observations of Seven Blue/Gigantic Jets above One Storm over the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Spiva, N.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H.; Free, D. L.; Cummer, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Blue/gigantic jets are electrical discharges developing from thundercloud tops and propagating to the upper atmosphere [e.g., Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 973, 2003]. Not just producing an impressive display, gigantic jets establish a direct path of electrical contact between the upper troposphere and the lower ionosphere, capable of transferring a large amount of charge between them [Cummer et al., Nat. Geosci., 2, 617, 2009]. It has been suggested that they may play an important role in the earth's electrical environment [e. g., Pasko, Nature, 423, 927, 2003]. Upward discharges from thunderstorms like blue/gigantic jets are believed to originate from lightning leaders escaping from thunderclouds when the cloud's charges of different polarities are not balanced [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233, 2008; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010]. On the evening of August 2, 2013, 4 gigantic jets, 2 blue jets and 1 blue starter were recorded within 26 min above a storm over the Atlantic Ocean by a low light level camera from the campus of Florida Institute of Technology. The events were also captured by two all-sky cameras: one again from the Florida Tech campus and the other from a nearby location. According to the NLDN data, positive intra-cloud flashes preceded all events except one gigantic jet. The distance between the observation site to the locations of the NLDN lightning discharges varies from 77 to 82 km. Optical signatures of intra-cloud discharge activities accompanied the events are clearly visible in the videos. The duration of each jet varies from about 300 ms to 1.2 s, and the 1.2 s duration is probably the longest that has been reported to date for jets. Rebrightening of gigantic jet structures occurs for at least two of the events. The upper terminal altitude of the 4 gigantic jets is greater than 76-81 km, the 2 blue jets reach about 48 and 51 km altitude, respectively, and the blue starter reaches 24 km altitude

  15. Ocean tides modulation of flow at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, observed using GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Juan, Julia; Elosegui, P.; Nettles, M.

    -scales and beyond. We find that the flow velocity of Helheim Glacier is modulated by ocean tides in a region including both sides of the grounding line. An admittance analysis of the tidal signal shows an exponential decrease in amplitude with distance from the calving front, along with increasing time delays...

  16. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Parde, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline

    2011-01-01

    The "Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies" (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed ...

  17. 75 FR 63441 - Notice of Availability for Public Comment on the Interagency Ocean Observation; Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... will use the proposed process to develop certification standards for non-federal assets, including... access the Internet, printed copies can be requested by contacting the IOOC Support Office at the address... Consortium for Ocean Leadership, Attention: IOOC Support Office, 1201 New York Avenue, NW., 4th Floor...

  18. Spatio-temporal Variability in Surface Ocean pCO2 Inferred from Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The variability of surface ocean pCO2 is examined on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Temporal autocorrelation analysis is used to examine pCO2 variability over multiple years. Spatial autocorrelation analysis describes pCO2 variability over multiple spatial scales. Spatial autocorrelation lengths range between

  19. Autonomous observations of in vivo fluorescence and particle backscatteringin an oceanic oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, A L; Letelier, R M; Villagrán, V; Ulloa, O

    2009-11-23

    The eastern South Pacific (ESP) oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a permanent hydrographic feature located directly off the coasts of northern Chile and Peru. The ESP OMZ reaches from coastal waters out to thousands of kilometers offshore, and can extend from the near surface to depths greater than 700 m. Oxygen minimum zones support unique microbial assemblages and play an important role in marine elemental cycles. We present results from two autonomous profiling floats that provide nine months of time-series data on temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and particulate backscattering in the ESP OMZ. We observed consistently elevated backscattering signals within low-oxygen waters, which appear to be the result of enhanced microbial biomass in the OMZ intermediate waters. We also observed secondary chlorophyll a fluorescence maxima within low-oxygen waters when the upper limit of the OMZ penetrated the base of the photic zone. We suggest that autonomous profiling floats are useful tools for monitoring physical dynamics of OMZs and the microbial response to perturbations in these areas.

  20. Reconstructing Methane Emission Events in the Arctic Ocean: Observations from the Past to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panieri, G.; Mienert, J.; Fornari, D. J.; Torres, M. E.; Lepland, A.

    2015-12-01

    Methane hydrates are ice-like crystals that are present along continental margins, occurring in the pore space of deep sediments or as massive blocks near the seafloor. They form in high pressure and low temperature environments constrained by thermodynamic stability, and supply of methane. In the Arctic, gas hydrates are abundant, and the methane released by their destabilization can affect local to global carbon budgets and cycles, ocean acidification, and benthic community survival. With the aim to locate in space and time the periodicity of methane venting, CAGE is engaged in a vast research program in the Arctic, a component of which comprises the analyses of numerous sediment cores and correlative geophysical and geochemical data from different areas. Here we present results from combined analyses of biogenic carbonate archives along the western Svalbard Margin, which reveal past methane venting events in this region. The reconstruction of paleo-methane discharge is complicated by precipitation of secondary carbonate on foraminifera shells, driven by an increase in alkalinity during anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The biogeochemical processes involved in methane cycling and processes that drive methane migration affect the depth where AOM occurs, with relevance to secondary carbonate formation. Our results show the value and complexity of separating primary vs. secondary signals in bioarchives with relevance to understanding fluid-burial history in methane seep provinces. Results from our core analyses are integrated with observations made during the CAGE15-2 cruise in May 2015, when we deployed a towed vehicle equipped with camera, multicore and water sampling capabilities. The instrument design was based on the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) MISO TowCam sled equipped with a deep-sea digital camera and CTD real-time system. Sediment sampling was visually-guided using this system. In one of the pockmarks along the Vestnesa Ridge where high

  1. Integrated Observations From Fixed and AUV Platforms in the Littoral Zone at the SFOMC Coastal Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanak, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    A 12-hour survey of the coastal waters off the east coast of Florida at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Center (SFOMC) coastal ocean observatory, during summer 1999, is described to illustrate the observatory's capabilities for ocean observation. The facility is located close to the Gulf Stream, the continental shelf break being only 3 miles from shore and is therefore influenced by the Gulf Stream meanders and the instability of the horizontal shear layer at its edge. As a result, both cross-shelf and along-shelf components of currents in the littoral zone can undergo dramatic +/- 0.5 m/s oscillations. Observations of surface currents from an OSCR, and of subsurface structure from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) platform, a bottom-mounted ADCP and CT-chain arrays during the survey will be described and compared. The AUV on-board sensors included upward and downward looking 1200kHz ADCP, a CTD package and a small-scale turbulence package, consisting of two shear probes and a fast-response thermistor. Prevailing atmospheric conditions were recorded at an on-site buoy. The combined observations depict flows over a range of scales. Acknowledgements: The observations from the OSCR are due to Nick Shay and Tom Cook (University of Miami), and from the bottom-mounted ADCP, CT chain arrays and the surface buoy are due to Alex Soloviev (Nova Southeastern University) and Mark Luther and Bob Weisberg (University of South Florida).

  2. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0 upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km. In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1 observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2 also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also

  3. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  4. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Satellite observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raul A; Piola, Alberto R; Fenco, Harold; Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Chao, Yi; James, Corinne; Palma, Elbio D; Saraceno, Martin; Strub, P Ted

    2014-11-01

    Satellite-derived sea surface salinity (SSS) data from Aquarius and SMOS are used to study the shelf-open ocean exchanges in the western South Atlantic near 35°S. Away from the tropics, these exchanges cause the largest SSS variability throughout the South Atlantic. The data reveal a well-defined seasonal pattern of SSS during the analyzed period and of the location of the export of low-salinity shelf waters. In spring and summer, low-salinity waters over the shelf expand offshore and are transferred to the open ocean primarily southeast of the river mouth (from 36°S to 37°30'S). In contrast, in fall and winter, low-salinity waters extend along a coastal plume and the export path to the open ocean distributes along the offshore edge of the plume. The strong seasonal SSS pattern is modulated by the seasonality of the along-shelf component of the wind stress over the shelf. However, the combined analysis of SSS, satellite-derived sea surface elevation and surface velocity data suggest that the precise location of the export of shelf waters depends on offshore circulation patterns, such as the location of the Brazil Malvinas Confluence and mesoscale eddies and meanders of the Brazil Current. The satellite data indicate that in summer, mixtures of low-salinity shelf waters are swiftly driven toward the ocean interior along the axis of the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence. In winter, episodic wind reversals force the low-salinity coastal plume offshore where they mix with tropical waters within the Brazil Current and create a warmer variety of low-salinity waters in the open ocean. Satellite salinity sensors capture low-salinity detrainment events from shelves SW Atlantic low-salinity detrainments cause highest basin-scale variability In summer low-salinity detrainments cause extended low-salinity anomalies.

  5. Long-Term Observations of Atmospheric CO2, O3 and BrO over the Transitioning Arctic Ocean Pack-ice: The O-Buoy Chemical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrai, P.

    2016-02-01

    Autonomous, sea ice-tethered O-Buoys have been deployed (2009-2016) across the Arctic sea ice for long-term atmospheric measurements (http://www.o-buoy.org). O-Buoys (15) provide in-situ concentrations of three sentinel atmospheric chemicals, ozone, CO2 and BrO, as well as meteorological parameters and imagery, over the frozen ocean. O-Buoys were designed to transmit daily data over a period of 2 years while deployed in sea ice, as part of automated ice-drifting stations that include snow/ice measurement systems (e.g. Ice Mass Balance buoys) and oceanographic measurements (e.g. Ice Tethered Profilers). Seasonal changes in Arctic atmospheric chemistry are influenced by changes in the characteristics and presence of the sea ice vs. open water as well as air mass trajectories, especially during the winter-spring and summer-fall transitions when sea ice is melting and freezing, respectively. The O-Buoy Chemical Network provides the unique opportunity to observe these transition periods in real-time with high temporal resolution, and to compare them with those collected on land-based monitoring stations located. Due to the logistical challenges of measurements over the Arctic Ocean region, most long term, in-situ observations of atmospheric chemistry have been made at coastal or island sites around the periphery of the Arctic Ocean, leaving large spatial and temporal gaps that O-Buoys overcome. Advances in floatation, communications, power management, and sensor hardware have been made to overcome the challenges of diminished Arctic sea ice. O-Buoy data provide insights into enhanced seasonal, interannual and spatial variability in atmospheric composition, atmospheric boundary layer control on the amount of halogen activation, enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 signal over the more variable and porous pack ice, and to develop an integrated picture of the coupled ocean/ice/atmosphere system. As part of the Arctic Observing Network, we provide data to the community (www.aoncadis.org).

  6. A Study of Oceans and Atmospheric Interactions Associated with Tropical Cyclone Activity using Earth Observing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Warith; Reddy, Remata

    From October 22nd to 30th, 2012 Hurricane Sandy was a huge storm of many abnormalities causing an estimated 50 billion dollars in damage. Tropical storm development states systems’ energy as product of warm sea surface temperatures (SST’s) and tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP). Advances in Earth Observing (EO) technology, remote sensing and proxy remote sensing have allowed for accurate measurements of SST and TCHP information. In this study, we investigated rapid intensification of Sandy through EO applications for precipitable water vapor (PWAT), SST’s and TCHP during the period of October 27th. These data were obtained from NASA and NOAA satellites and NOAA National Buoy data center (NDBC). The Sensible Heat (Qs) fluxes were computed to determine available energy resulting from ocean-atmosphere interface. Buoy 41010, 120 NM east of Cape Canaveral at 0850 UTC measured 22.3 °C atmospheric temperatures and 27 °C SST, an interface of 4.7 °C. Sensible heat equation computed fluxes of 43.7 W/m2 at 982.0 mb central pressure. Sandy formed as late-season storm and near-surface air temperatures averaged > 21 °C according to NOAA/ESRL NCEP/NCAR reanalysis at 1000 mb and GOES 13 (EAST) geostationary water vapor imagery shows approaching cold front during October 27th. Sandy encountered massive dry air intrusion to S, SE and E quadrants of storm while travelling up U.S east coast but experienced no weakening. Cool, dry air intrusion was considered for PWAT investigation from closest sounding station during Oct. 27th 0900 - 2100 UTC at Charleston, SC station 72208. Measured PWAT totaled 42.97 mm, indicating large energy potential supply to the storm. The Gulf Stream was observed using NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) MODIS SST analysis. The results show 5 °C warmer above average than surrounding cooler water, with > 25 °C water extent approximately 400 NM east of Chesapeake Bay and eddies > 26 °C. Results from sensible heat

  7. Peer Observation of Teaching: Enhancing Academic Engagement for New Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Conor; O'Loughlin, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to uncover key motivations, barriers and outcomes associated with first-time users of peer observation of teaching within an Irish higher level academic context. Following preliminary research, a peer observation process was piloted on five self-selected peer observation faculty pairs involving peer observation training and…

  8. Global Trends in Chlorophyll Concentration Observed with the Satellite Ocean Colour Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, F.; Vantrepotte, V.; Chuprin, A.; Grant, M.; Jackson, T.; Sathyendranath, S.

    2016-08-01

    To detect climate change signals in the data records derived from remote sensing of ocean colour, combining data from multiple missions is required, which implies that the existence of inter-mission differences be adequately addressed prior to undertaking trend studies. Trend distributions associated with merged products are compared with those obtained from single-mission data sets in order to evaluate their suitability for climate studies. Merged products originally developed for operational applications such as near-real time distribution (GlobColour) do not appear to be proper climate data records, showing large parts of the ocean with trends significantly different from trends obtained with SeaWiFS, MODIS or MERIS. On the other hand, results obtained from the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) data are encouraging, showing a good consistency with single-mission products.

  9. Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES for 2004–2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv, but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100–110 ppbv flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA O3 mixing ratios were variable (45–65 ppbv and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95–105 ppbv flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50° N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15–0.20 mol mol−1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO

  10. Mooring Analysis of the Ocean Sentinel through Field Observation and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    or floating wind turbines . A summary of different mooring configurations and their characteristics is shown in Table 2. 10 Figure 10...DAS controls the Ocean Sentinel’s three power systems: a diesel generator, a wind turbine , and two solar panels. The DAS monitors sensors that detect...to thank my committee members, Dr. Solomon Yim, Dr. Dan Cox, and Dr. Kelly Benoit- Bird , for volunteering to be part of my graduate committee. I

  11. Selectivity of silica species in ocean observed from seasonal and local changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miho; Takahashi, Kazuya; Nemoto, Masao; Horimoto, Naho

    2013-03-01

    Silicic acids, derived from SiO2 (silica), have several chemical forms in solution. Silica is a nutrient for diatoms, which are phytoplankton in oceans. Silica species can be used as a tracer to examine the behavior of silica in nature. The speciation for silica by FAB-MS (fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry) has been carried out for seawater samples from Tokyo Bay and Sagami Bay to investigate the seasonal and locational changes of the depth profiles of silica species. The species, [Si(OH)2O2Na+]-, [Si2(OH)5O2]- ([dimer]-), [Si2(OH)4O3Na+]-, [Si(OH)7O5-] ([cyclic tetramer]-), [Si4(OH)6O6Na+]-, [Si(OH)9O]- ([linear tetramer]-) and [Si4(OH)8O5Na+]- were mainly identified by FAB-MS. The seasonal and locational changes and the reproducibility of depth profiles of silica species were determined from October 2001 to July 2002. The depth profile of the ratio of linear tetramer to cyclic tetramer reflects the activity of diatoms, implying that the linear tetramer is the preferred "food" for diatoms. In particular, the depth profile for the ratio of linear tetramer to cyclic tetramer exhibits a critical changes that depend on the season. Furthermore, the depth profiles for the samples from Sagami Bay (open ocean) indicate that seawater is easily exchanged by ocean currents (the Japan Current). Thus, silica speciation by FAB-MS can give us a new tracer indicating the characteristics of the seawater budget, which change with depth, season and ocean locality.

  12. Increase in observed net carbon dioxide uptake by land and oceans during the past 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A P; Alden, C B; Miller, J B; Tans, P P; White, J W C

    2012-08-02

    One of the greatest sources of uncertainty for future climate predictions is the response of the global carbon cycle to climate change. Although approximately one-half of total CO(2) emissions is at present taken up by combined land and ocean carbon reservoirs, models predict a decline in future carbon uptake by these reservoirs, resulting in a positive carbon-climate feedback. Several recent studies suggest that rates of carbon uptake by the land and ocean have remained constant or declined in recent decades. Other work, however, has called into question the reported decline. Here we use global-scale atmospheric CO(2) measurements, CO(2) emission inventories and their full range of uncertainties to calculate changes in global CO(2) sources and sinks during the past 50 years. Our mass balance analysis shows that net global carbon uptake has increased significantly by about 0.05 billion tonnes of carbon per year and that global carbon uptake doubled, from 2.4 ± 0.8 to 5.0 ± 0.9 billion tonnes per year, between 1960 and 2010. Therefore, it is very unlikely that both land and ocean carbon sinks have decreased on a global scale. Since 1959, approximately 350 billion tonnes of carbon have been emitted by humans to the atmosphere, of which about 55 per cent has moved into the land and oceans. Thus, identifying the mechanisms and locations responsible for increasing global carbon uptake remains a critical challenge in constraining the modern global carbon budget and predicting future carbon-climate interactions.

  13. Restricted regions of enhanced growth of Antarctic krill in the circumpolar Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eugene J; Thorpe, Sally E; Tarling, Geraint A; Watkins, Jonathan L; Fielding, Sophie; Underwood, Philip

    2017-07-31

    Food webs in high-latitude oceans are dominated by relatively few species. Future ocean and sea-ice changes affecting the distribution of such species will impact the structure and functioning of whole ecosystems. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in Southern Ocean food webs, but there is little understanding of the factors influencing its success throughout much of the ocean. The capacity of a habitat to maintain growth will be crucial and here we use an empirical relationship of growth rate to assess seasonal spatial variability. Over much of the ocean, potential for growth is limited, with three restricted oceanic regions where seasonal conditions permit high growth rates, and only a few areas around the Scotia Sea and Antarctic Peninsula suitable for growth of the largest krill (>60 mm). Our study demonstrates that projections of impacts of future change need to account for spatial and seasonal variability of key ecological processes within ocean ecosystems.

  14. Aerosol Optical Depths over Oceans: a View from MISR Retrievals and Collocated MAN and AERONET in Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Marcin L.; Garay, Michael J.; Diner, David J.; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In this study, aerosol optical depths over oceans are analyzed from satellite and surface perspectives. Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol retrievals are investigated and validated primarily against Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) observations. Furthermore, AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data from 19 island and coastal sites is incorporated in this study. The 270 MISRMAN comparison points scattered across all oceans were identified. MISR on average overestimates aerosol optical depths (AODs) by 0.04 as compared to MAN; the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error are 0.95 and 0.06, respectively. A new screening procedure based on retrieval region characterization is proposed, which is capable of substantially reducing MISR retrieval biases. Over 1000 additional MISRAERONET comparison points are added to the analysis to confirm the validity of the method. The bias reduction is effective within all AOD ranges. Setting a clear flag fraction threshold to 0.6 reduces the bias to below 0.02, which is close to a typical ground-based measurement uncertainty. Twelve years of MISR data are analyzed with the new screening procedure. The average over ocean AOD is reduced by 0.03, from 0.15 to 0.12. The largest AOD decrease is observed in high latitudes of both hemispheres, regions with climatologically high cloud cover. It is postulated that the screening procedure eliminates spurious retrieval errors associated with cloud contamination and cloud adjacency effects. The proposed filtering method can be used for validating aerosol and chemical transport models.

  15. Potential of Future Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Ocean Surface Wind Observations for Determining Tropical Storm Vortex Intensity and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; Ruf, Christopher; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative technology development, which offers the potential of new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation from either UAS or satellite platforms. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a proven aircraft remote sensing technique for observing tropical cyclone ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates, including those of major hurricane intensity. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer technology. This sensor will operate over 4-7 GHz (C-band frequencies) where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometers. HIRAD incorporates a unique, technologically advanced array antenna and several other technologies successfully demonstrated by the NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. A brassboard version of the instrument is complete and has been successfully tested in an anechoic chamber, and development of the aircraft instrument is well underway. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce wide-swath imagery of ocean vector winds and rain during hurricane conditions when existing microwave sensors (radiometers or scatterometers) are hindered. Preliminary studies show that HIRAD will have a significant positive impact on analyses as either a new aircraft or satellite sensor.

  16. Ocean tidal loading affecting precise geodetic observations on Greenland: Error account of surface deformations by tidal gravity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jentzsch, G.; Knudsen, Per; Ramatschi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Air-borne and satellite based altimetry are used to monitor the Greenland ice-cap. Since these measurements are related to fiducial sites at the coast, the robustness of the height differences depends on the stability of these reference points. To benefit from the accuracy of these methods...... on the centimeter level, station corrections regarding the Earth tides and the ocean tidal loading have to be applied. Models for global corrections esp. for the body tides are available and sufficient, but local corrections regarding the effect of the adjacent shelf area still have to be inferred from additional...... observations. Near the coast ocean tidal loading causes additional vertical deformations in the order of 1 to 10 cm Therefore, tidal gravity measurements were carried out at four fiducial sites around Greenland in order to provide corrections for the kinematic part of the coordinates of these sites. Starting...

  17. Design, Observing and Data Systems, and Final Installation of the NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Best, M. M.; Johnson, F. R.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.

    2009-05-01

    NEPTUNE Canada (NC; www.neptunecanada.ca) will complete most of the installation of the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory in late 2009 off Canada's west coast. It will comprise five main observatory nodes (100-2700m water depths) linked by an 800km backbone cable delivering 10kVDC power and 10Gbps communications bandwidth to hundreds of sensors, with a 25-year design life. Infrastructure (100M) and initial operational funding (20M) is secured. University of Victoria (UVic) leads a consortium of 12 Canadian universities, hosts the coastal VENUS cabled observatory, with Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) providing management oversight. Observatory architecture has a trunk and branch topology. Installed in late 2007, the backbone cable loops from/to UVic's Port Alberni shore station. The wet plant's design, manufacture and installation was contracted to Alcatel-Lucent. Each node provides six interface ports for connection of science instrument arrays or extensions. Each port provides dual optical Ethernet links and up to 9kW of electrical power at 400VDC. Junction boxes, designed and built by OceanWorks support up to 10 instruments each and can be daisy- chained. They accommodate both serial and 10/100 Ethernet instruments, and provide a variety of voltages (400V, 48V, 24V, 15V). Backbone equipment has all been qualified and installed; shore station re-equipping is complete; junction boxes are manufactured. A major marine program will deploy nodes and instruments in July-September 2009; instruments to one node will probably be deferred until 2010. Observatory instruments will be deployed in subsurface (boreholes), on seabed, and buoyed through the water column. Over 130 instruments (over 40 different types) will host several hundred sensors; mobile assets include a tethered crawler and a 400m vertical profiler. Experiments will address: earthquake dynamics and tsunami hazards; fluid fluxes in both ocean crust and sediments, including gas hydrates; ocean

  18. Climate and oceanic fisheries: recent observations and projections and future needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salinger, M.J.; Bell, Johan D.; Evans, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence show that climatic variation and global warming can have a major effect on fisheries production and replenishment. To prevent overfishing and rebuild overfished stocks under changing and uncertain environmental conditions, new research partnerships between fisheries scie...... scientists and climate change experts are required. The International Workshop on Climate and Oceanic Fisheries held in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, 3–5......Several lines of evidence show that climatic variation and global warming can have a major effect on fisheries production and replenishment. To prevent overfishing and rebuild overfished stocks under changing and uncertain environmental conditions, new research partnerships between fisheries...

  19. Assimilation of satellite color observations in a coupled ocean GCM-ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    1992-01-01

    Monthly average coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) estimates of chlorophyll concentration were assimilated into an ocean global circulation model(GCM) containing a simple model of the pelagic ecosystem. The assimilation was performed in the simplest possible manner, to allow the assessment of whether there were major problems with the ecosystem model or with the assimilation procedure. The current ecosystem model performed well in some regions, but failed in others to assimilate chlorophyll estimates without disrupting important ecosystem properties. This experiment gave insight into those properties of the ecosystem model that must be changed to allow data assimilation to be generally successful, while raising other important issues about the assimilation procedure.

  20. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS OBSERVER in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-09-23 to 1966-10-25 (NODC Accession 6600222)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS OBSERVER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  1. OBSERVATIONS OF ENHANCED RADIATIVE GRAIN ALIGNMENT NEAR HD 97300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B-G; Potter, S. B.

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained optical multi-band polarimetry toward sightlines through the Chamaeleon I cloud, particularly in the vicinity of the young B9/A0 star HD 97300. We show, in agreement with earlier studies, that the radiation field impinging on the cloud in the projected vicinity of the star is dominated by the flux from the star, as evidenced by a local enhancement in the grain heating. By comparing the differential grain heating with the differential change in the location of the peak of the polarization curve, we show that the grain alignment is enhanced by the increase in the radiation field. We also find a weak, but measurable, variation in the grain alignment with the relative angle between the radiation field anisotropy and the magnetic field direction. Such an anisotropy in the grain alignment is consistent with a unique prediction of modern radiative alignment torque theory and provides direct support for radiatively driven grain alignment.

  2. Suppression of enhanced physiological tremor via stochastic noise: initial observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Trenado

    Full Text Available Enhanced physiological tremor is a disabling condition that arises because of unstable interactions between central tremor generators and the biomechanics of the spinal stretch reflex. Previous work has shown that peripheral input may push the tremor-related spinal and cortical systems closer to anti-phase firing, potentially leading to a reduction in tremor through phase cancellation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether peripherally applied mechanical stochastic noise can attenuate enhanced physiological tremor and improve motor performance. Eight subjects with enhanced physiological tremor performed a visuomotor task requiring the right index finger to compensate a static force generated by a manipulandum to which Gaussian noise (3-35 Hz was applied. The finger position was displayed on-line on a monitor as a small white dot which the subjects had to maintain in the center of a larger green circle. Electromyogram (EMG from the active hand muscles and finger position were recorded. Performance was measured by the mean absolute deviation of the white dot from the zero position. Tremor was identified by the acceleration in the frequency range 7-12 Hz. Two different conditions were compared: with and without superimposed noise at optimal amplitude (determined at the beginning of the experiment. The application of optimum noise reduced tremor (accelerometric amplitude and EMG activity and improved the motor performance (reduced mean absolute deviation from zero. These data provide the first evidence of a significant reduction of enhanced physiological tremor in the human sensorimotor system due to application of external stochastic noise.

  3. Simulated 21st century's increase in oceanic suboxia by CO2-enhanced biotic carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschlies, Andreas; Schulz, Kai G.; Riebesell, Ulf; Schmittner, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The primary impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on marine biogeochemical cycles predicted so far include ocean acidification, global warming induced shifts in biogeographical provinces, and a possible negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 levels by CO2-fertilized biological production. Here we report a new potentially significant impact on the oxygen-minimum zones of the tropical oceans. Using a model of global climate, ocean circulation, and biogeochemical cycling, we extrapolate mesocosm-derived experimental findings of a pCO2-sensitive increase in biotic carbon-to-nitrogen drawdown to the global ocean. For a simulation run from the onset of the industrial revolution until A.D. 2100 under a "business-as-usual" scenario for anthropogenic CO2 emissions, our model predicts a negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 levels, which amounts to 34 Gt C by the end of this century. While this represents a small alteration of the anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle, the model results reveal a dramatic 50% increase in the suboxic water volume by the end of this century in response to the respiration of excess organic carbon formed at higher CO2 levels. This is a significant expansion of the marine "dead zones" with severe implications not only for all higher life forms but also for oxygen-sensitive nutrient recycling and, hence, for oceanic nutrient inventories.

  4. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  5. Small scale currents and ocean wave heights: from today's models to future satellite observations with CFOSAT and SKIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar; Rascle, Nicolas; Gula, Jonathan; Chapron, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    Tidal currents and large oceanic currents, such as the Agulhas, Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of ocean currents at scales of 10 km or less have revealed the ubiquitous presence of fronts and filaments. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations at 10 km. This current-induced variability creates gradients in wave heights that were previously overlooked and are relevant for extreme wave heights and remote sensing. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70⟨Hs ⟩2/(g2⟨Tm0,-1⟩2) times the current spectrum, where ⟨Hs ⟩ is the spatially-averaged significant wave height, ⟨Tm0,-1⟩ is the average energy period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This small scale variability is consistent with Jason-3 and SARAL along-track variability. We will discuss how future satellite mission with wave spectrometers can help observe these wave-current interactions. CFOSAT is due for launch in 2018, and SKIM is a proposal for ESA Earth Explorer 9.

  6. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wielgosz, R.; Bell, S. A.; Camões, M. F.; Cooper, J. R.; Dexter, P.; Dickson, A. G.; Fisicaro, P.; Harvey, A. H.; Heinonen, M.; Hellmuth, O.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; McDougall, T. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Ridout, P.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Stoica, D.; Wolf, H.

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest ‘greenhouse’ gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide. In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organizations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

  7. Buoy observations of the influence of swell on wind waves in the open ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violante-Carvalho, N.; Robinson, I.S. [University of Southampton (United Kingdom). Oceanography Centre; Ocampo-Torres, F.J. [CICESE, Ensenada (Mexico). Dpto. de Oceanografia Fisica

    2004-04-01

    The influence of longer (swell) on shorter, wind sea waves is examined using an extensive database of directional buoy measurements obtained from a heave-pitch-roll buoy moored in deep water in the South Atlantic. This data set is unique for such an investigation due to the ubiquitous presence of a young swell component propagating closely in direction and frequency with the wind sea, as well as a longer, opposing swell. Our results show, within the statistical limits of the regressions obtained from our analysis when compared to measurements in swell free environments, that there is no obvious influence of swell on wind sea growth. For operational purposes in ocean engineering this means that power-laws from fetch limited situations describing the wind sea growth can be applied in more realistic situations in the open sea when swell is present. (author)

  8. Ocean-bottom pressure changes above a fault area for tsunami excitation and propagation observed by a submarine dense network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, K.; Saito, T.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional tsunami excitation and propagation have been formulated by incompressible fluid with velocity components. This approach is valid in most cases because we usually analyze tunamis as "long gravity waves" excited by submarine earthquakes. Newly developed ocean-bottom tsunami networks such as S-net and DONET have dramatically changed the above situation for the following two reasons: (1) tsunami propagations are now directly observed in a 2-D array manner without being suffered by complex "site effects" of sea shore, and (2) initial tsunami features can be directly detected just above a fault area. Removing the incompressibility assumption of sea water, we have formulated a new representation of tsunami excitation based on not velocity but displacement components. As a result, not only dynamics but static term (i.e., the component of zero frequency) can be naturally introduced, which is important for the pressure observed on the ocean floor, which ocean-bottom tsunami stations are going to record. The acceleration on the ocean floor should be combined with the conventional tsunami height (that is, the deformation of the sea level above a given station) in the measurement of ocean-bottom pressure although the acceleration exists only during fault motions in time. The M7.2 Off Fukushima earthquake on 22 November 2016 was the first event that excited large tsunamis within the territory of S-net stations. The propagation of tsunamis is found to be highly non-uniform, because of the strong velocity (i.e., sea depth) gradient perpendicular to the axis of Japan Trench. The earthquake was located in a shallow sea close to the coast, so that all the tsunami energy is reflected by the trench region of high velocity. Tsunami records (pressure gauges) within its fault area recorded clear slow motions of tsunamis (i.e., sea level changes) but also large high-frequency signals, as predicted by our theoretical result. That is, it may be difficult to extract tsunami

  9. Atmospheric trace elements in aerosols observed over the Southern Ocean and coastal East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojie Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected over the Southern Ocean (SO and coastal East Antarctica (CEA during the austral summer of 2010/11. Samples were analysed for trace elements, including Na, Mg, K, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Se, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean atmospheric concentrations over the SO were 1100 ng m−3 for Na, 190 ng m−3 for Mg, 150 ng m−3 for Al, 14 ng m−3 for Fe, 0.46 ng m−3 for Mn and 0.25 ng m−3 for Se. Over CEA, the mean concentrations were 990 ng m−3 for Na, 180 ng m−3 for Mg, 190 ng m−3 for Al, 26 ng m−3 for Fe, 0.70 ng m−3 for Mn and 0.29 ng m−3 for Se. Particle size distributions, enrichment factors (EFs and correlation analysis indicate that Na, Mg and K mainly came from the marine source, while Al, Fe and Mn were mainly from the crustal source, which also contributed to Mg and K over CEA. High EFs were associated with Ni, Cd and Se, suggesting likely contributions from mixed sources from the Antarctic continent, long-range transport, marine biogenic emissions and anthropogenic emissions. Sea-salt elements (Na, Mg, K were mainly accumulated in the coarse mode, and crustal elements (Al, Fe, Mn presented a bimodal size distribution pattern. Bioactive elements (Fe, Ni, Cd were enriched in the fine mode, especially with samples collected over the SO, possibly affecting biogeochemical cycles in this oceanic region.

  10. Observations of volatile organic compounds over the North Atlantic Ocean: relationships to dominant cyanobacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, R.; Rossell, R.; Sive, B. C.; Zhou, Y.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.; Cox, D.

    2017-12-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are abundant primary producers that can have a major influence on the oceanic biogeochemical cycles. In particular, the prominent cyanobacterial genera Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and Trichodesmium can impact the air-sea flux of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including reactive compounds, such as isoprene, that control the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and climate-relevant compounds, such as dimethyl sulfide. These groups of cyanobacteria have been estimated to increase in abundance by up to 29% by the end of the century as a result of rising sea surface temperatures and dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations. Given their current and predicted future abundance, understanding the role of different cyanobacterial populations on VOC emissions from the ocean is critical in understanding the future oxidative capacity of the remote atmosphere and climate feedback cycles. During the May 2017 Phosphorus, Hydrocarbons, and Transcriptomics cruise aboard the R/V Neil Armstrong, 160 whole air canister samples were collected along a transect through the North Atlantic from Woods Hole, MA to Bermuda and back with 24-hour stops at nine stations encompassing different nutrient regimes and cyanobacterial populations. At each station, a diurnal time series of samples was collected and higher frequency sampling was conducted during transits of the north wall. Canister samples were analyzed on a five-detector gas chromatography system for over 80 individual VOCs including biogenics, aromatics, chlorinated and brominated compounds, and sulfur containing compounds. Trends in reactive and climate-relevant VOCs will be discussed as a function of the predominant cyanobacterial populations at each sample location. These data provide increased information on the spatial and diurnal variability of trace gases associated with these globally important photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

  11. Social interaction enhances motor resonance for observed human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2012-04-25

    Understanding the neural basis of social behavior has become an important goal for cognitive neuroscience and a key aim is to link neural processes observed in the laboratory to more naturalistic social behaviors in real-world contexts. Although it is accepted that mirror mechanisms contribute to the occurrence of motor resonance (MR) and are common to action execution, observation, and imitation, questions remain about mirror (and MR) involvement in real social behavior and in processing nonhuman actions. To determine whether social interaction primes the MR system, groups of participants engaged or did not engage in a social interaction before observing human or robotic actions. During observation, MR was assessed via motor-evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Compared with participants who did not engage in a prior social interaction, participants who engaged in the social interaction showed a significant increase in MR for human actions. In contrast, social interaction did not increase MR for robot actions. Thus, naturalistic social interaction and laboratory action observation tasks appear to involve common MR mechanisms, and recent experience tunes the system to particular agent types.

  12. Ocean tidal loading affecting precise geodetic observations on Greenland: Error account of surface deformations by tidal gravity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jentzsch, G.; Knudsen, Per; Ramatschi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Air-borne and satellite based altimetry are used to monitor the Greenland ice-cap. Since these measurements are related to fiducial sites at the coast, the robustness of the height differences depends on the stability of these reference points. To benefit from the accuracy of these methods...... observations. Near the coast ocean tidal loading causes additional vertical deformations in the order of 1 to 10 cm Therefore, tidal gravity measurements were carried out at four fiducial sites around Greenland in order to provide corrections for the kinematic part of the coordinates of these sites. Starting...

  13. Deep and surface circulation in the Northwest Indian Ocean from Argo, surface drifter, and in situ profiling current observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, S. A.; Dimarco, S. F.; Stoessel, M. M.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The northwest Indian Ocean is a region of complex circulation and atmospheric influence. The Persian (Arabian) Gulf and Red Sea contribute toward the complexity of the region. This study encompasses the surface and deep circulation in the region ranging from 0°N-35°N and 40°E-80°E from January 2002-December 2009. Emphasis is in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea (roughly from 21°N-26°N and 56°E-63°E) using a variety of in situ and observation data sets. While there is a lot known about the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, little is known about the Oman Sea. Circulation in the northwest Indian Ocean is largely influenced by seasonal monsoon winds. From the winter monsoon to the summer monsoon, current direction reverses. Marginal sea inflow and outflow are also seasonally variable, which greatly impacts the physical water mass properties in the region. In situ and observation data sets include data from Argo floats (US GODAE), surface drifters (AOML) and an observation system consisting of 4 independent moorings and a cabled ocean observatory in the Oman Sea. The observing system in the Oman Sea was installed by Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. beginning in 2005, and measures current, temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and turbidity, using the Aanderaa Recording Doppler Current Profiler (RDCP) 600 and the Aanderaa Recording Current Meter (RCM) 11. The cabled ocean observatory measures dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity between 65 m and 1000 m and reports in real-time. Argo floats in the region have a parking depth range from 500 m to 2000 m. At 1000 m depth, 98% of the velocity magnitudes range from less than 1 cm/s to 20 cm/s. The Somali Current and Northeast/Southwest Monsoon Currents are present, reversing from summer to winter. At 2000 m depth, the Somali and Monsoon Currents are still present but have smaller velocities with 98% ranging from less than 1 cm/s to 13 cm/s. At both 1000 m and 2000 m, larger velocities occur

  14. Enhanced Mean Dynamic Topography And Ocean Circulation Estimation Using Goce Preliminary Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Bingham, Rory; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2011-01-01

    have been combined with the recent DNSC08MSS mean sea surface model to construct a global GOCE satellite-only mean dynamic topography model. At a first glance, the GOCE MDT display the well known features related to the major ocean current systems. A closer look, however, reveals that the improved...

  15. Impulse Response of the Ocean Floor Nonlinear Techniques for Measurement Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Although there is current interest in detection of broadband energy in the ocean, most ASW systems are designed for discrete frequency emissions from...M«U2CDZ«’TZ — n HHO I-" (- UJ*UJ0 uj.»>- Z-- 3^ II I/IO U OZ CL*Q.HH LOS-^+CN

  16. Ocean Observing Public-Private Collaboration to Improve Tropical Storm and Hurricane Predictions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.; Leung, P.; McCall, W.; Martin, K. M.; Howden, S. D.; Vandermeulen, R. A.; Kim, H. S. S.; Kirkpatrick, B. A.; Watson, S.; Smith, W.

    2016-02-01

    In 2008, Shell partnered with NOAA to explore opportunities for improving storm predictions in the Gulf of Mexico. Since, the collaboration has grown to include partners from Shell, NOAA National Data Buoy Center and National Center for Environmental Information, National Center for Environmental Prediction, University of Southern Mississippi, and the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System. The partnership leverages complementary strengths of each collaborator to build a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring and data program to expand observing capacity and protect offshore assets and Gulf communities from storms and hurricanes. The program combines in situ and autonomous platforms with remote sensing and numerical modeling. Here we focus on profiling gliders and the benefits of a public-private partnership model for expanding regional ocean observing capacity. Shallow and deep gliders measure ocean temperature to derive ocean heat content (OHC), along with salinity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and CDOM, in the central and eastern Gulf shelf and offshore. Since 2012, gliders have collected 4500+ vertical profiles and surveyed 5000+ nautical miles. Adaptive sampling and mission coordination with NCEP modelers provides specific datasets to assimilate into EMC's coupled HYCOM-HWRF model and 'connect-the-dots' between well-established Eulerian metocean measurements by obtaining (and validating) data between fixed stations (e.g. platform and buoy ADCPs) . Adaptive sampling combined with remote sensing provides satellite-derived OHC validation and the ability to sample productive coastal waters advected offshore by the Loop Current. Tracking coastal waters with remote sensing provides another verification of estimate Loop Current and eddy boundaries, as well as quantifying productivity and analyzing water quality on the Gulf coast, shelf break and offshore. Incorporating gliders demonstrates their value as tools to better protect offshore oil and gas assets

  17. CDOM-DOC relationship in contrasted coastal waters: implication for DOC retrieval from ocean color remote sensing observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantrepotte, Vincent; Danhiez, François-Pierre; Loisel, Hubert; Ouillon, Sylvain; Mériaux, Xavier; Cauvin, Arnaud; Dessailly, David

    2015-01-12

    Increasing our knowledge on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spatio-temporal distribution in the coastal ocean represents a crucial challenge for better understanding the role of these ecosystems in the global oceanic carbon cycle. The assessment of DOC concentration from the absorption properties of the colored part of the dissolved organic matter (a(cdom)) was investigated from an extensive data set covering a variety of coastal environments. Our results confirmed that variation in the a(cdom)(412) to DOC ratio (a*(cdom)(412)) can be depicted from the CDOM spectral slope in the UV domain (S(275-295)). They also evidenced that regional first order variation in both a*(cdom)(412) and S(275-295) are highly correlated to variation in a(cdom)(412). From these observations, generalized relationships for estimating a*(cdom)(412) from S(275-295) or a(cdom)(412) were parameterized from our development sites (N = 158; English Channel, French Guiana, Hai Phong Bay) and tested against an independent data set covering others coastal regions (N = 223; French Polynesia, Rhone River estuary, Gulf of Maine, Chesapeake Bay, Southern Middle Atlantic Bight) demonstrating the possibility to derive DOC estimates from in situ CDOM optical properties with an average accuracy of ~16% over very contrasted coastal environments (with DOC ranging from 50 to 250 µmol.L(-1)). The applicability of these generalized approaches was evaluated in the context of ocean color remote sensing observation emphasizing the limits of S(275-295)-based formulations and the potential for a(cdom)-based approaches to represent a compelling alternative for assessing synoptic DOC distribution.

  18. Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over Ocean Using Bayesian Approach from Microwave Observations during the Typhoon Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chi Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian approach to retrieve oceanic rain rate from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI, with an emphasis on typhoon cases in the West Pacific. Retrieved rain rates are validated with measurements of rain gauges located on Japanese islands. To demonstrate improvement, retrievals are also compared with those from the TRMM/Precipitation Radar (PR, the Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF, and a multi-channel linear regression statistical method (MLRS. We have found that qualitatively, all methods retrieved similar horizontal distributions in terms of locations of eyes and rain bands of typhoons. Quantitatively, our new Bayesian retrievals have the best linearity and the smallest root mean square (RMS error against rain gauge data for 16 typhoon over passes in 2004. The correlation coefficient and RMS of our retrievals are 0.95 and ~2 mm hr-1, respectively. In particular, at heavy rain rates, our Bayesian retrievals out perform those retrieved from GPROF and MLRS. Over all, the new Bayesian approach accurately retrieves surface rain rate for typhoon cases. Ac cu rate rain rate estimates from this method can be assimilated in models to improve forecast and prevent potential damages in Taiwan during typhoon seasons.

  19. Development of An Autonomous Underwater Glider for Observing Physical Ocean Parameters in Indonesian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajie Linarka, Utoyo; Riyanto Trilaksono, Bambang; Sagala, M. Faisal; Hidayat, Egi; Sopaheluwakan, Ardhasena; Rizal, Jose; Heriyanto, Eko; Amsal Harapan, Ferdika; Eka Syahputra Makmur, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Conducting a sustained monitoring and surveying of physical ocean parameters for research or operational purposes using moorings and ships would require high cost. Development of an inexpensive instrument capable to perform such tasks not only could reduce cost and risks but also increase cruising range and depth. For that reason, a prototype of underwater glider was developed, named "GaneshBlue". GaneshBlue works based on gliding principles which utilizes pitch angle and buoyancy control for moving. For one gliding movement, GaneshBlue passed through 5 phases of surface, descent, transition, ascent and back to surface. The glider is equipped with basic navigation system and remote control, programmable survey planning, temperature and salinity sampling instruments, lithium batteries for power supply, and information processing software. A field test at the shallow water showed that GaneshBule has successfully demonstrated gliding and surfacing movements with surge motion speed reaching 20 cm s-1and 20 m in depths. During the field test the glider was also equipped with three instruments, i.e. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) to estimate glider's speed and orientation; MiniCT to acquire temperature and conductivity data; and Altisounder to determine its distance to sea surface and to seabed. In general, all the instruments performed well but filter algorithm needs to be implemented on data collection procedure to remove data outliers.

  20. Observing the seasonal cycle of the upper ocean in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, with autonomous profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The upper layers of the Southern Ocean where it meets the Antarctic ice sheet undergoes a large seasonal cycle controlled by surface radiation and by freshwater fluxes, both of which are strongly influenced by sea ice. In regions where seasonal sea ice and icebergs limit use of ice-tethered profilers and conventional moorings, autonomous profiling floats can sample the upper ocean. The deployment of seven Apex floats (by sea) and six ALAMO floats (by air) provides unique upper ocean hydrographic data in the Ross Sea close to the Ross Ice Shelf front. A novel choice of mission parameters - setting parking depth deeper than the seabed - limits their drift, allowing us to deploy the floats close to the ice shelf front, while sea ice avoidance algorithms allow the floats to to sample through winter under sea ice. Hydrographic profiles show the detailed development of the seasonal mixed layer close to the Ross front, and interannual variability of the seasonal mixed layer and deeper water masses on the central Ross Sea continental shelf. After the sea ice breakup in spring, a warm and fresh surface mixed layer develops, further warming and deepening throughout the summer. The mixed layer deepens, with maximum temperatures exceeding 0ºC in mid-February. By March, the surface energy budget becomes negative and sea ice begins to form, creating a cold, saline and dense surface layer. Once these processes overcome the stable summer stratification, convection erodes the surface mixed layer, mixing some heat downwards to deeper layers. There is considerable interannual variability in the evolution and strength of the surface mixed layer: summers with shorter ice-free periods result in a cooler and shallower surface mixed layer, which accumulates less heat than the summers with longer ice-free periods. Early ice breakup occurred in all floats in 2016/17 summer, enhancing the absorbed solar flux leading to a warmer surface mixed layer. Together, these unique measurements from

  1. Observation of enhanced nuclear stability near the 162 neutron shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lougheed, R.W.; Moody, K.J.; Wild, J.F.; Hulet, E.K.; McQuaid, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lazarev, Yu.A.; Lobanov, Yu.V.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Utyonkov, V.K.; Abdullin, F.Sh.; Buklanov, G.V.; Gikal, B.N.; Iliev, S.; Mezentsev, A.N.; Polyakov, A.N.; Sedykh, I.M.; Shirokovsky, I.V.; Subbotin, V.G.; Sukhov, A.M.; Tsyganov, Yu.S.; Zhuchko, V.E. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-09-22

    In bombardments of {sup 248}Cm with {sup 22}Ne the authors discovered two new isotopes, {sup 265}106 and {sup 266}106, by establishing genetic links between {alpha} decays of the 106 nuclides and SF or {alpha} decays of the daughter (grand-daughter) nuclides. For {sup 266}106 they measured E{sub {alpha}}=8.62{+-}0.06 MeV followed by the SF decay of {sup 262}104 for which they measured a half-life value of 1.2{sup +1.0}{sub {minus}0.5} s. For {sup 265}106 they measured E{sub {alpha}}=8.82{+-}0.06 MeV. They estimated {alpha} half-lives of 10-30 s for {sup 266}106 and 2-30 s for {sup 265}106 with SF branches of {approximately}50% or less. The decay properties of {sup 266}106 indicate a large enhancement in the SF stability of this N=160 nuclide and confirm the existence of the predicted neutron-deformed shell N=162.

  2. Observations of atmospheric lead-210 over the Atlantic Ocean and Antarctica during the FINNARP-1999/2999 Expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paatero, J.; Virkkula, A.; Hillamo, R.; Koponen, I.

    2002-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere were measured in November-December 1999 onboard the Russian research vessel Akademik Fedorov over the Atlantic Ocean between the English Channel and the coast of Antarctica. After the cruise the measurements were continued in January 2000 at the Finnish research station Aboa (73 deg. 03'S, 13 deg. 25'W, 470 m above sea level) in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The location of the station is about 170 km inland from the coast of Weddell Sea. The study is part of the Finnish Antarctic Research Programme (FINNARP) financed by the Academy of Finland. The observed 210 Pb activity concentrations in the air varied between 24 and 790 μBq/m 3 during the cruise between the English Channel and Cape town. The highest values were recorded close ( 210 Pb activity concentrations varied between 3 . At the research station Aboa the observed values varied between 3 . Between 6 and 11 January 2000 the air masses at Aboa originated from central regions of Antarctica according to the trajectory calculations made with the NORA Hysplit model. The concentrations were below detection limit between 11 and 14 January. These samples were connected to the air masses originating from the South Atlantic Ocean. Between 14 and 20 January air masses came to Aboa mainly from easterly direction from coastal and inland regions of the Antarctica. (LN)

  3. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993

  4. Enhancing Famine Early Warning Systems with Improved Forecasts, Satellite Observations and Hydrologic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J.; Thiaw, W. M.; Hoell, A.; Korecha, D.; McNally, A.; Shukla, S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Magadzire, T.; Novella, N.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Robjohn, M.; Pomposi, C.; Galu, G.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Landsfeld, M. F.; Harrison, L.; Davenport, F.; Husak, G. J.; Endalkachew, E.

    2017-12-01

    Drought early warning science, in support of famine prevention, is a rapidly advancing field that is helping to save lives and livelihoods. In 2015-2017, a series of extreme droughts afflicted Ethiopia, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa in OND and Eastern Africa in MAM, pushing more than 50 million people into severe food insecurity. Improved drought forecasts and monitoring tools, however, helped motivate and target large and effective humanitarian responses. Here we describe new science being developed by a long-established early warning system - the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). FEWS NET is a leading provider of early warning and analysis on food insecurity. FEWS NET research is advancing rapidly on several fronts, providing better climate forecasts and more effective drought monitoring tools that are being used to support enhanced famine early warning. We explore the philosophy and science underlying these successes, suggesting that a modal view of climate change can support enhanced seasonal prediction. Under this modal perspective, warming of the tropical oceans may interact with natural modes of variability, like the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, to enhance Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature gradients during both El Niño and La Niña-like climate states. Using empirical data and climate change simulations, we suggest that a sequence of droughts may commence in northern Ethiopia and Southern Africa with the advent of a moderate-to-strong El Niño, and then continue with La Niña/West Pacific related droughts in equatorial eastern East Africa. Scientifically, we show that a new hybrid statistical-dynamic precipitation forecast system, the FEWS NET Integrated Forecast System (FIFS), based on reformulations of the Global Ensemble Forecast System weather forecasts and National Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal climate predictions, can effectively anticipate recent East and Southern African drought events. Using cross-validation, we

  5. Ocean tides modulation of flow at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, observed using GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Juan, Julia; Elosegui, P.; Nettles, M.

    Observations at high spatial and temporal resolution could be key for improving our understanding of the physical processes that govern outlet-glacier flow variations. We collected simultaneous high-rate GPS observations at several locations distributed along and across Helheim Glacier, East...

  6. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  7. Net community production at Ocean Station Papa observed with nitrate and oxygen sensors on profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Joshua N.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Coletti, Luke J.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    Six profiling floats equipped with nitrate and oxygen sensors were deployed at Ocean Station P in the Gulf of Alaska. The resulting six calendar years and 10 float years of nitrate and oxygen data were used to determine an average annual cycle for net community production (NCP) in the top 35 m of the water column. NCP became positive in February as soon as the mixing activity in the surface layer began to weaken, but nearly 3 months before the traditionally defined mixed layer began to shoal from its winter time maximum. NCP displayed two maxima, one toward the end of May and another in August with a summertime minimum in June corresponding to the historical peak in mesozooplankton biomass. The average annual NCP was determined to be 1.5 ± 0.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 using nitrate and 1.5 ± 0.7 mol C m-2 yr-1 using oxygen. The results from oxygen data proved to be quite sensitive to the gas exchange model used as well as the accuracy of the oxygen measurement. Gas exchange models optimized for carbon dioxide flux generally ignore transport due to gas exchange through the injection of bubbles, and these models yield NCP values that are two to three time higher than the nitrate-based estimates. If nitrate and oxygen NCP rates are assumed to be related by the Redfield model, we show that the oxygen gas exchange model can be optimized by tuning the exchange terms to reproduce the nitrate NCP annual cycle.

  8. A real-time ocean reanalyses intercomparison project in the context of tropical pacific observing system and ENSO monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, C.; Kumar, A.; Balmaseda, M.; Fujii, Y.; Alves, O.; Martin, M.; Yang, X.; Vernieres, G.; Desportes, C.; Lee, T.; Ascione, I.; Gudgel, R.; Ishikawa, I.

    2017-12-01

    An ensemble of nine operational ocean reanalyses (ORAs) is now routinely collected, and is used to monitor the consistency across the tropical Pacific temperature analyses in real-time in support of ENSO monitoring, diagnostics, and prediction. The ensemble approach allows a more reliable estimate of the signal as well as an estimation of the noise among analyses. The real-time estimation of signal-to-noise ratio assists the prediction of ENSO. The ensemble approach also enables us to estimate the impact of the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) on the estimation of ENSO-related oceanic indicators. The ensemble mean is shown to have a better accuracy than individual ORAs, suggesting the ensemble approach is an effective tool to reduce uncertainties in temperature analysis for ENSO. The ensemble spread, as a measure of uncertainties in ORAs, is shown to be partially linked to the data counts of in situ observations. Despite the constraints by TPOS data, uncertainties in ORAs are still large in the northwestern tropical Pacific, in the SPCZ region, as well as in the central and northeastern tropical Pacific. The uncertainties in total temperature reduced significantly in 2015 due to the recovery of the TAO/TRITON array to approach the value before the TAO crisis in 2012. However, the uncertainties in anomalous temperature remained much higher than the pre-2012 value, probably due to uncertainties in the reference climatology. This highlights the importance of the long-term stability of the observing system for anomaly monitoring. The current data assimilation systems tend to constrain the solution very locally near the buoy sites, potentially damaging the larger-scale dynamical consistency. So there is an urgent need to improve data assimilation systems so that they can optimize the observation information from TPOS and contribute to improved ENSO prediction.

  9. Can trans-generational experiments be used to enhance species resilience to ocean warming and acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Leela J; Jarrold, Michael D; Gibbin, Emma M; Christen, Felix; Massamba-N'Siala, Gloria; Blier, Pierre U; Calosi, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Human-assisted, trans-generational exposure to ocean warming and acidification has been proposed as a conservation and/or restoration tool to produce resilient offspring. To improve our understanding of the need for and the efficacy of this approach, we characterized life-history and physiological responses in offspring of the marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica exposed to predicted ocean warming (OW: + 3°C), ocean acidification (OA: pH -0.5) and their combination (OWA: + 3°C, pH -0.5), following the exposure of their parents to either control conditions ( within-generational exposure ) or the same conditions ( trans-generational exposure ). Trans-generational exposure to OW fully alleviated the negative effects of within-generational exposure to OW on fecundity and egg volume and was accompanied by increased metabolic activity. While within-generational exposure to OA reduced juvenile growth rates and egg volume, trans-generational exposure alleviated the former but could not restore the latter. Surprisingly, exposure to OWA had no negative impacts within- or trans-generationally. Our results highlight the potential for trans-generational laboratory experiments in producing offspring that are resilient to OW and OA. However, trans-generational exposure does not always appear to improve traits and therefore may not be a universally useful tool for all species in the face of global change.

  10. Vic-Maui Race Observed Marine Debris Map Service, Pacific Ocean, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Location and descriptions of marine debris observed by the Sailing Vessel (S/V) Family Affair yacht during the Victoria, British Columbia to Maui, Hawaii Yacht Race...

  11. Mechanisms of upper-ocean thermal variability in a 1970-1988 simulation and observations

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Arthur J.; Cayan, Daniel R.; White, Warren B.

    1996-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Variations in temperature that occurred in the North Pacific thermocline (250 to 400 meters) during the 1970s and 1980s are described in both a numerical simulation and XBT observations.

  12. Some oceanographic observations in the polynya and along a section in the southwest Indian/ Antarctic Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    which reduces the surface salinity. A sub-surface oxygen maximum is observed in January associated with a maximum in primary production. Oxygen concentrations at all depths exhibit decreases from January to February in conjunction with increases...

  13. Mimicry Enhances Observational Learning in 16-Month-Old Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Somogyi

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of mimicry on how 16-month-old infants learn by observation a novel tool use action, which consisted of using a rake to retrieve a toy. Across four conditions, we manipulated whether during an initial play phase, an adult mimicked the infant's play or not (testing the effect of mimicry, the infant played with the adult or played alone (controlling the effect of interacting with a contingent partner and whether the infant saw a demonstration of the tool's use or not (evaluating baseline performance. We found that infants who had been mimicked learned best from a demonstration of the rake's use and performed better than infants who only played with the experimenter without mimicry or played by themselves before the demonstration. As expected, infants did not learn from a demonstration of the rake's use when they played by themselves and thus had no previous interaction with an experimenter. The mechanisms driving this powerful learning effect of mimicry are discussed.

  14. Current velocity and hydrographic observations in the Southwestern North Atlantic Ocean: Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies (STACS), 1989 (NODC Accession 9100033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objective of the STACS program are to increase our understanding of the dynamics of the North Atlantic circulation and the role of the ocean circulation...

  15. Suspended sediment concentration and optical property observations of mixed-turbidity, coastal waters through multispectral ocean color inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multispectral satellite ocean color data from high-turbidity areas of the coastal ocean contain information about the surface concentrations and optical properties of suspended sediments and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Empirical and semi-analytical inversion algorit...

  16. Design and Operation of Automated Ice-Tethered Profilers for Real-Time Seawater Observations in the Polar Oceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toole, J; Proshutinsky, A; Krishfield, R; Doherty, K; Frye, Daniel E; Hammar, T; Kemp, J; Peters, D; Heydt, K. von der

    2006-01-01

    An automated, easily-deployed Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP) has been developed for deployment on perennial sea ice in polar oceans to measure changes in upper ocean temperature and salinity in all seasons...

  17. Cloud structure evolution of heavy rain events from the East-West Pacific Ocean: a combined global observation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaranom, A. B.; Nurjani, E.; Pujiastuti, I.

    2018-04-01

    Heavy rain events are often associated with flood hazards as one of the most devastating events across the globe. It is therefore essential to identify the evolution of heavy rainfall cloud structures, primarily from global satellite observation, as a tool to provide better disaster early warning systems. To identify the mechanism of heavy rainfall systems and its relationship with cloud development, especially over The Pacific Ocean, we aim to study the westward evolution of the convective systems over this area. Several datasets from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), CloudSat GEOPROF product, and ECMWF-reanalysis (ERA) interim were utilized to characterize the evolution. Geolocation and orbital time-lag analysis of the three different datasets for more than 8 years (2006-2014) could provide information related to the evolution of cloud structures associated with heavy rain events. In the first step, a heavy rainfall database was generated from TRMM. The CloudSat coordinate and time position were then matched with TRMM coordinate and time position. All of the processes were programatically conducted in fortran programming language. The result shows a transition between East and West Pacific ocean for TMI data.

  18. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean, supplement to: Holding, Johnna; Duarte, Carlos M; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Mesa, E; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, Melissa; Hendriks, Iris; García-Corral, L S; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A; Delgado, A; Reigstad, M; Wassmann, P; Agustí, Susana (2015): Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean. Nature Climate Change, 5(12), 1079-1082

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145-2,099?µatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  19. Algal subsidies enhance invertebrate prey for threatened shorebirds: A novel conservation tool on ocean beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Hutton, Briony M.; Gilby, Ben L.; Porch, Nicholaus; Maguire, Grainne S.; Maslo, Brooke; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Weston, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Birds breeding on ocean beaches are threatened globally, often requiring significant investments in species conservation and habitat management. Conservation actions typically encompass spatial and temporal threat reductions and protection of eggs and broods. Still, populations decline or recover only slowly, calling for fresh approaches in beach-bird conservation. Because energetic demands are critically high during the nesting and chick rearing phases, and chick survival is particularly low, supplementing prey to breeding birds and their offspring is theoretically attractive as a means to complement more traditional conservation measures. Prey for plovers and similar species on ocean beaches consists of invertebrates (e.g. small crustaceans, insects) many of which feed on stranded masses of plant material (e.g. kelp and seagrass) and use this 'wrack' as habitat. We added wrack to the upper beach where plovers nest and their chicks forage to test whether algal subsidies promote the abundance and diversity of their invertebrate prey. Adding wrack to the upper beach significantly increased the abundance and diversity of invertebrate prey items. At wrack subsidies greater than 50% of surface cover invertebrate assemblages became highly distinct compared with those that received smaller additions of wrack. Substantial (2-4 fold) increases in the abundance amphipods and isopods that are principal prey items for plovers drove these shifts. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of food provisioning for birds on ocean shores. Whilst novel, it is practicable, inexpensive and does not introduce further restrictions or man-made structures. Thus, it can meaningfully add to the broader arsenal of conservation tools for threatened species that are wholly reliant on sandy beaches as breeding and foraging habitats.

  20. An optimal estimation algorithm to derive Ice and Ocean parameters from AMSR Microwave radiometer observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Tonboe, Rasmus T.; Høyer, Jacob

    channels as well as the combination of data from multiple sources such as microwave radiometry, scatterometry and numerical weather prediction. Optimal estimation is data assimilation without a numerical model for retrieving physical parameters from remote sensing using a multitude of available information......Global multispectral microwave radiometer measurements have been available for several decades. However, most current sea ice concentration algorithms still only takes advantage of a very limited subset of the available channels. Here we present a method that allows utilization of all available....... The methodology is observation driven and model innovation is limited to the translation between observation space and physical parameter space Over open water we use a semi-empirical radiative transfer model developed by Meissner & Wentz that estimates the multispectral AMSR brightness temperatures, i...

  1. Observations and Modeling of Upper Ocean Hydrography in the Western Arctic With Implications for Acoustic Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Poland 52 variability under the influence of sea-ice growth and melt, river run-off, solar and longwave radiation ( clouds ), and seasonally...Several global climate models were evaluated against historical and recent hydrographic observations and found to inadequately represent key upper...Canada Basin, climate system model 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 143 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY

  2. Observations of inertial oscillations affected by mesoscale activity in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-González, B.; Hormazábal, S.; Rodríguez-Santana, A.; Cisneros-Aguirre, J.; Martínez-Marrero, A.

    2012-04-01

    Observations of surface drifters launched over the continental slope of Portugal (Bay of Setúbal) are analyzed with the Rotary Wavelet Spectrum Method to study the contribution of mesoscale activity to near-inertial variability. Drifter data used here are part of the MREA04 (Maritime Rapid Environmental Assessment 2004) sea trial carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) off the west coast of Portugal. Altimetry data from AVISO on a 1/3° Mercator grid are used to compute vertical relative vorticity (ζ) maps and track near-inertial variability along the drifter records. Subsequently, the local Coriolis (f) and effective Coriolis (feff = f + 1/2ζ) frequencies are estimated for every drifter position. In this work we take a special interest in the area of Cape St. Vicent where a remarkable blue shift of near-inertial oscillations is observed in association with a cyclonic eddy migrating northward along the Portuguese coast. Results of the Rotary Wavelet Method highlight the consistency of near-inertial variability observed in the drifter records with the subinertial geostrophic activity computed with altimetry data.

  3. Overview of GNSS-R Research Program for Ocean Observations at Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kaoru; Ebinuma, Takuji; Akiyama, Hiroaki; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2015-04-01

    GNSS-R is a new remote-sensing method which uses reflected GNSS signals. Since no transmitters are required, it is suitable for small satellites. Constellations of GNSS-R small satellites have abilities on revolutionary progress on 'all-time observable' remote-sensing methods . We have started a research program for GNSS-R applications on oceanographic observations under a contract with MEXT (Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN) as a'Space science research base formation program'. The duration of research program is 3 years (2015-2017). The one of important focuses of this program is creation of a new community to merge space engineering and marine science through establishment on application plans of GNSS-R. Actual GNSS-R data acquisition experiments using multi-copters, ships, and/or towers are planned, together with in-situ sea truth data such as wave spectrum, wind speed profiles and sea surface height. These data are compared to determine the accuracy and resolution of the estimates based on GNSS-R observations. Meanwhile, preparation of a ground station for receiving GNSS-R satellite data will be also established. Whole those data obtained in this project will be distributed for public. This paper introduces the overview of research plan..

  4. A SAR Observation and Numerical Study on Ocean Surface Imprints of Atmospheric Vortex Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Pichel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea surface imprints of Atmospheric Vortex Street (AVS off Aleutian Volcanic Islands, Alaska were observed in two RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images separated by about 11 hours. In both images, three pairs of distinctive vortices shedding in the lee side of two volcanic mountains can be clearly seen. The length and width of the vortex street are about 60-70 km and 20 km, respectively. Although the AVS’s in the two SAR images have similar shapes, the structure of vortices within the AVS is highly asymmetrical. The sea surface wind speed is estimated from the SAR images with wind direction input from Navy NOGAPS model. In this paper we present a complete MM5 model simulation of the observed AVS. The surface wind simulated from the MM5 model is in good agreement with SAR-derived wind. The vortex shedding rate calculated from the model run is about 1 hour and 50 minutes. Other basic characteristics of the AVS including propagation speed of the vortex, Strouhal and Reynolds numbers favorable for AVS generation are also derived. The wind associated with AVS modifies the cloud structure in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. The AVS cloud pattern is also observed on a MODIS visible band image taken between the two RADARSAT SAR images. An ENVISAT advance SAR image taken 4 hours after the second RADARSAT SAR image shows that the AVS has almost vanished.

  5. How well will the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission observe global reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solander, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; David, C. H.; Reager, J. T., II

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface drainage is a very common practice in the agricultural U.S. Midwest. It is typically installed in poorly drained soils in order to enhance crop yields. The presence of tile drains creates a route for agrichemicals to travel and therefore negatively impacts stream water quality. This study estimated through end-member analyses the contributions of tile drainage, groundwater, and surface runoff to streamflow at the watershed scale based on continuously monitored data. Especial attention was devoted to quantifying tile drainage impact on watershed streamflow and nutrient export loads. Data analyzed includes streamflow, rainfall, soil moisture, shallow groundwater levels, in-stream nitrate+nitrite concentrations and specific conductance. Data were collected at a HUC12 watershed located in Northeast Iowa, USA. Approximately 60% of the total watershed area is devoted to agricultural activities and forest and grassland are the other two predominant land uses. Results show that approximately 20% of total annual streamflow comes from tile drainage and during rainfall events tile drainage contribution can go up to 30%. Furthermore, for most of the analyzed rainfall events groundwater responded faster and in a more dramatic fashion than tile drainage. The State of Iowa is currently carrying out a plan to reduce nutrients in Iowa waters and the Gulf of Mexico (Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy). The outcome of this investigation has the potential to assist in Best Management Practice (BMP) scenario selection and therefore help the state achieve water quality goals.

  6. How frequently will the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) observe floods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, R. P. M.; Schumann, G.

    2017-12-01

    The SWOT mission will measure river width and water surface elevations of rivers wider than 100 m. As the data gathered by this mission will be freely available, it can be of great use for flood modeling, especially in areas where streamgage networks are exceedingly sparse, or when data sharing barriers prevent the timely access to information. Despite having world-wide coverage, SWOT's temporal sampling is limited, with most locations being revisited once or twice every 21 days. Our objective is to evaluate which fraction of world-wide floods SWOT will observe and how many observations per event the satellite will likely obtain. We take advantage of the extensive database of floods constructed by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory, who, since 1985, searches through news sources and governmental agencies, and more recently remote sensing imagery for flood information, including flood duration, location and affected area. We cross-referenced the flood locations in the DFO archive with the SWOT prototype prior database of river centerlines and the anticipated satellite's orbit to identify how many of the SWOT swaths were located within 10 km, 20 km, and 50 km from a flood centroid. Subsequently, we estimated the probability that SWOT would have at least one observation of a flood event per distance bin by multiplying the number of swaths in the distance bin by the flood duration divided by the SWOT orbit repeat period. Our analysis contemplated 132 world-wide floods recorded between May 2016 and May 2017. From these, 29, 52, and 86 floods had at least a 50% probability of having one overpass within 10 km, 20 km, and 50 km respectively. Moreover, after excluding flood events with no river centerlines within 10 km of its centroid, the average number of swaths within 10 km of a flood centroid was 1.79, indicating that in the 37 flood events that were likely caused by river flooding, at least one measurement was guaranteed to happen during the event.

  7. Towards an integrated observing system for ocean carbon and biogeochemistry at a time of change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gruber, N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available . The longest time-series for inorganic carbon started in the early 1980s (Keeling, 1993, Gruber et al., 2001; Bates, 1997) near Bermuda and in 1988 was joined by a second time-series near Hawaii (Sabine et al., 1995; Dore et al., 2003; Keeling et al., 2004... century primarily as a result of the burning of fossil fuels (Sarmiento and Gruber, 2002). In response, atmospheric CO2 has GRUBER ET AL: AN INTEGRATED BIOGEOCHEMICAL OBSERVING SYSTEM 2 increased by more than 100 ppm (30%), with today’s concentration...

  8. Modulation of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Plume by the Indian Ocean Dipole and Eddies Inferred From Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Lee, T.; Gierach, M. M.; Chaitanya, A. V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay of Bengal receives large amounts of freshwater from the Ganga-Brahmaputra (GB) river during the summer monsoon. The resulting upper-ocean freshening influences seasonal rainfall, cyclones, and biological productivity. Sparse in situ observations and previous modeling studies suggest that the East India Coastal Current (EICC) transports these freshwaters southward after the monsoon as an approximately 200 km wide, 2,000 km long "river in the sea" along the East Indian coast. Sea surface salinity (SSS) from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite provides unprecedented views of this peculiar feature from intraseasonal to interannual timescales. SMAP SSS has a 0.83 correlation and 0.49 rms-difference to 0-5 m in situ measurements. SMAP and in stu data both indicate a SSS standard deviation of ˜0.7 to 1 away from the coast, that rises to 2 pss within 100 km of the coast, providing a very favorable signal-to-noise ratio in coastal areas. SMAP also captures the strong northern BoB, postmonsoon cross-shore SSS contrasts (˜10 pss) measured along ship transects. SMAP data are also consistent with previous modeling results that suggested a modulation of the EICC/GB plume southward extent by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Remote forcing associated with the negative Indian Ocean Dipole in the fall of 2016 indeed caused a stronger EICC and "river in the sea" that extended by approximately 800 km further south than that in 2015 (positive IOD year). The combination of SMAP and altimeter data shows eddies stirring the freshwater plume away from the coast.Plain Language SummaryThe Bay of Bengal receives large quantity of freshwater from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river during the monsoon. The resulting low-salinity sea surface has strong implications for the regional climate and living marine resources. In situ observations are too sparse to provide salinity maps in this basin, even every 3 months. In contrast, the SMAP satellite provides maps at 40 km resolution

  9. Increased Ocean Heat Convergence Into the High Latitudes With CO 2 Doubling Enhances Polar-Amplified Warming: OCEAN HEAT AND POLAR WARMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H. A. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, U.S. DOE Office of Science, Richland WA USA; Rasch, P. J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, U.S. DOE Office of Science, Richland WA USA; Rose, B. E. J. [Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Albany NY USA

    2017-10-18

    We isolate the role of the ocean in polar climate change by directly evaluating how changes in ocean dynamics with quasi-equilibrium CO2-doubling impact high-latitude climate. With CO2-doubling, the ocean heat flux convergence (OHFC) shifts poleward in winter in both hemispheres. Imposing this pattern of perturbed OHFC in a global climate model results in a poleward shift in ocean-to-atmosphere turbulent heat fluxes (both sensible and latent) and sea ice retreat; the high-latitudes warm while the midlatitudes cool, thereby amplifying polar warming. Furthermore, midlatitude cooling is propagated to the polar mid-troposphere on isentropic surfaces, augmenting the (positive) lapse rate feedback at high latitudes. These results highlight the key role played by the partitioning of meridional energy transport changes between the atmosphere and ocean in high-latitude climate change.

  10. Observations of atmospheric lead-210 over the Atlantic Ocean and Antarctica during the FINNARP-1999/2999 Expedition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J.; Virkkula, A.; Hillamo, R. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Koponen, I. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-04-01

    Physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere were measured in November-December 1999 onboard the Russian research vessel Akademik Fedorov over the Atlantic Ocean between the English Channel and the coast of Antarctica. After the cruise the measurements were continued in January 2000 at the Finnish research station Aboa (73 deg. 03'S, 13 deg. 25'W, 470 m above sea level) in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The location of the station is about 170 km inland from the coast of Weddell Sea. The study is part of the Finnish Antarctic Research Programme (FINNARP) financed by the Academy of Finland. The observed {sup 210}Pb activity concentrations in the air varied between 24 and 790 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3} during the cruise between the English Channel and Cape town. The highest values were recorded close (<300-400 km) to the West-African coast between Senegal and Liberia. This coincides with the observations of highest aerosol optical thickness and light scattering coefficients. The latter observation can be attributed to two factors, biomass burning in Western Africa or resuspension of soil in the Sahara desert. Because anthropogenic activities have a negligible effect to the amount of lead-210 in the air, the resuspension in the Sahara desert is a more plausible explanation. Between Cape Town and the coast of Antarctica the observed {sup 210}Pb activity concentrations varied between <10 and 51 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}. At the research station Aboa the observed values varied between <10 and 37 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}. Between 6 and 11 January 2000 the air masses at Aboa originated from central regions of Antarctica according to the trajectory calculations made with the NORA Hysplit model. The concentrations were below detection limit between 11 and 14 January. These samples were connected to the air masses originating from the South Atlantic Ocean. Between 14 and 20 January air masses came to Aboa mainly from easterly direction from coastal and inland regions of the Antarctica

  11. Preliminary observations on the benthic marine algae of the Gorringe seabank (northeast Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittley, Ian; da Silva Vaz Álvaro, Nuno Miguel; de Melo Azevedo Neto, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Examination of marine samples collected in 2006 from the Gettysburg and Ormonde seamounts on the Gorringe seabank southwest of Portugal has revealed 29 benthic Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta), and Rhodophyta that were identified provisionally to genus and to species. Combining lists for the present and a previous expedition brings the total of algae thus far recorded to 48. The brown alga Zonaria tournefourtii and the red alga Cryptopleura ramosa were the most abundant species in the present collections. The kelp Laminaria ochroleuca was present only in the Gettysburg samples while Saccorhiza polyschides was observed only on the Ormonde seamount. Comparisons with the benthic marine algae recorded on seamounts in the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago show features in common, notably kelp forests of L. ochroleuca at depths below 30 m and Z. tournefortii dominance in shallower waters.

  12. Effects of Long Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard S.; Chao, Ben F.; Desai, Shailen D.

    1996-01-01

    The spectra of polar motion excitation functions exhibit enhanced power in the fortnightly tidal band. This enhanced power is attributed to ocean tidal excitation. Ocean tide models predict polar motion excitation effects that differ with each other, and with observations, by factors as large as 2-3. There is a need for inproved models for the effect of long-period ocean tides on Earth's rotation.

  13. Gas-phase chemical characteristics of Asian emission plumes observed during ITCT 2K2 over the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Neuman, J. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Cooper, O. R.; Ryerson, T. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Flocke, F.; Roberts, J. M.; Atlas, E.; de Gouw, J. A.; Donnelly, S.; Dunlea, E.; Hübler, G.; Huey, L. G.; Schauffler, S.; Tanner, D. J.; Warneke, C.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2004-12-01

    The gas-phase chemical characteristics of emission plumes transported from Asia across the Pacific Ocean observed during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2) are described. Plumes measured in the troposphere from an aircraft were separated from the background air in data analysis using 1-s measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), and other gas-phase species along with back trajectory analysis. On the basis of these measurements, Asian transport plumes with CO mixing ratios greater than 150 ppbv were observed on seven flights. Correlations between 1-s observations of CO, ozone (O3), and NOy are used to characterize the plumes. The NOy/CO ratios were similar in each plume and significantly lower than those derived from estimated Asian emission ratios, indicating substantial removal of soluble NOy species during transport. Observations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid (HNO3), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), and alkyl nitrates are used with the NOy measurements to further distinguish the transport plumes by their NOy partitioning. NOy was primarily in the form of PAN in plumes that were transported in cold high-latitude and high-altitude regions, whereas in plumes transported in warmer, lower latitude and altitude regions, NOy was mainly HNO3. Additional gas-phase species enhanced in these plumes include sulfuric acid, methanol, acetone, propane, and ethane. The O3/CO ratio varied among the plumes and was affected by the mixing of anthropogenic and stratospheric influences. The complexity of this mixing prevents the determination of the relative contribution of anthropogenic and stratospheric influences to the observed O3 levels.

  14. Short-term impacts of enhanced Greenland freshwater fluxes in an eddy-permitting ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In a sensitivity experiment, an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model is forced with realistic freshwater fluxes from the Greenland Ice Sheet, averaged for the period 1991–2000. The fluxes are obtained with a mass balance model for the ice sheet, forced with the ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. The freshwater flux is distributed around Greenland as an additional term in prescribed runoff, representing seasonal melting of the ice sheet and a fixed year-round iceberg calving flux, for 8.5 model years. By adding Greenland freshwater fluxes with realistic geographical distribution and seasonality, the experiment is designed to investigate the oceanic response to a sudden and spatially/temporally uniform amplification of ice sheet melting and discharge, rather than localized or gradual changes in freshwater flux. The impacts on regional hydrography and circulation are investigated by comparing the sensitivity experiment to a control experiment, without additional fluxes. By the end of the sensitivity experiment, the majority of additional fresh water has accumulated in Baffin Bay, and only a small fraction has reached the interior of the Labrador Sea, where winter mixed layer depth is sensitive to small changes in salinity. As a consequence, the impact on large-scale circulation is very slight. An indirect impact of strong freshening off the west coast of Greenland is a small anti-cyclonic component to the circulation around Greenland, which opposes the wind-driven cyclonic circulation and reduces net southward flow through the Canadian Archipelago by ~10%. Implications for the post-2000 acceleration of Greenland mass loss are discussed.

  15. Conceptual studies of construction and safety enhancement of ocean SMART mounted on GBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Kang-Heon; Kim, Seong Gu; Woo, Il-Guk; Han, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Phill-Seung; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We suggested the concept of coupling the SMART to the GBS, and we made suggested improvements. • We describe the design concepts and GA of SMART ONPP. • We analyzed seismic feature of SMART ONPP preliminarily. • We suggested the concept of coupling the IPSS to the SMART ONPP, and we made suggested improvements. - Abstract: From the Fukushima accident, protection of NPPs from any imaginable natural disasters became very important. In this study, the authors suggest a new concept of ocean nuclear power plant (ONPP) by using SMART as a reference reactor, which is the most recent Small Modular Reactor (SMR) developed by Korea, to demonstrate that the proposed concept can improve the safety of NPP from earthquake and tsunami. The proposed concept utilizes Gravity Based Structure (GBS), which is a widely spread construction technique of offshore plants. Because, floating type or submerged type NPPs can be easily affected by severe ocean environments such as tsunamis and storms, additional safety features have to be added to the existing land based plant. In contrast, the newly proposed GBS-type ONPP does not require going through significant design modifications due to inherent characteristics of the construction method. The authors have demonstrated this concept can be applied to the large nuclear power plant in the previous work and will expand this concept for SMRs in this paper. The authors discuss the new concept by presenting design parameters, design requirements, and the new total general arrangement. Furthermore, due to the unique configuration of ONPP SMART, innovative passive safety features can be added to the existing SMART design. The performance of proposed concept to resist earthquake as well as newly added passive safety feature will be discussed by presenting simplified analysis results

  16. Conceptual studies of construction and safety enhancement of ocean SMART mounted on GBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gil, E-mail: gggggtt@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Heon, E-mail: welcome@kaist.ac.kr [Division of Ocean Systems Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Gu, E-mail: skim07@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Il-Guk, E-mail: igwoo@dsme.co.kr [Department of Energy System R and D (Plant R and D), Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., 221-17, Nonhyun-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-010 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: jhhan1@dsme.co.kr [Department of Energy System R and D (Plant R and D), Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., 221-17, Nonhyun-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-010 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Phill-Seung, E-mail: philseung@kaist.edu [Division of Ocean Systems Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We suggested the concept of coupling the SMART to the GBS, and we made suggested improvements. • We describe the design concepts and GA of SMART ONPP. • We analyzed seismic feature of SMART ONPP preliminarily. • We suggested the concept of coupling the IPSS to the SMART ONPP, and we made suggested improvements. - Abstract: From the Fukushima accident, protection of NPPs from any imaginable natural disasters became very important. In this study, the authors suggest a new concept of ocean nuclear power plant (ONPP) by using SMART as a reference reactor, which is the most recent Small Modular Reactor (SMR) developed by Korea, to demonstrate that the proposed concept can improve the safety of NPP from earthquake and tsunami. The proposed concept utilizes Gravity Based Structure (GBS), which is a widely spread construction technique of offshore plants. Because, floating type or submerged type NPPs can be easily affected by severe ocean environments such as tsunamis and storms, additional safety features have to be added to the existing land based plant. In contrast, the newly proposed GBS-type ONPP does not require going through significant design modifications due to inherent characteristics of the construction method. The authors have demonstrated this concept can be applied to the large nuclear power plant in the previous work and will expand this concept for SMRs in this paper. The authors discuss the new concept by presenting design parameters, design requirements, and the new total general arrangement. Furthermore, due to the unique configuration of ONPP SMART, innovative passive safety features can be added to the existing SMART design. The performance of proposed concept to resist earthquake as well as newly added passive safety feature will be discussed by presenting simplified analysis results.

  17. Species identification and other data collected from visual observation and other data from AIRCRAFT in the North Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound from 30 November 1977 to 04 October 1978 (NODC Accession 7800394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Species identification and other data were collected using visual observation and other instruments from AIRCRAFT in the Puget Sound and North Pacific Ocean. Data...

  18. Individual animals and other data collected using visual observations and other instruments from AIRCRAFT in the Arctic Ocean from 02 August 1979 to 18 October 1982 (NODC Accession 8400149)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Individual animals and other data were collected using visual observations and other instruments in the Arctic Ocean by AIRCRAFT. Data were collected from 02 August...

  19. Real-time current, wave, temperature, salinity, and meteorological data from Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) buoys, 11/30/2003 - 12/7/2003 (NODC Accession 0001259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) collected real-time data with buoy-mounted instruments (e.g., accelerometers and Acoustic Doppler Current...

  20. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS PLUCK in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project on 1966-02-12 (NODC Accession 6600559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS PLUCK in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the North Pacific Ocean...

  1. Physical and chemical data from bottle casts and visual observations in the North and South Atlantic Ocean as part of the Data Archaeology and Rescue project, from 1970-08-27 to 1976-11-19 (NODC Accession 9900036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts and visual observation from the ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT in the North and South Atlantic Ocean from August...

  2. Phytoplankton phenology indices in coral reef ecosystems: Application to ocean-color observations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Racault, Marie-Fanny

    2015-02-18

    Phytoplankton, at the base of the marine food web, represent a fundamental food source in coral reef ecosystems. The timing (phenology) and magnitude of the phytoplankton biomass are major determinants of trophic interactions. The Red Sea is one of the warmest and most saline basins in the world, characterized by an arid tropical climate regulated by the monsoon. These extreme conditions are particularly challenging for marine life. Phytoplankton phenological indices provide objective and quantitative metrics to characterize phytoplankton seasonality. The indices i.e. timings of initiation, peak, termination and duration are estimated here using 15 years (1997–2012) of remote sensing ocean-color data from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative project (OC-CCI) in the entire Red Sea basin. The OC-CCI product, comprising merged and bias-corrected observations from three independent ocean-color sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS), and processed using the POLYMER algorithm (MERIS period), shows a significant increase in chlorophyll data coverage, especially in the southern Red Sea during the months of summer NW monsoon. In open and reef-bound coastal waters, the performance of OC-CCI chlorophyll data is shown to be comparable with the performance of other standard chlorophyll products for the global oceans. These features have permitted us to investigate phytoplankton phenology in the entire Red Sea basin, and during both winter SE monsoon and summer NW monsoon periods. The phenological indices are estimated in the four open water provinces of the basin, and further examined at six coral reef complexes of particular socio-economic importance in the Red Sea, including Siyal Islands, Sharm El Sheikh, Al Wajh bank, Thuwal reefs, Al Lith reefs and Farasan Islands. Most of the open and deeper waters of the basin show an apparent higher chlorophyll concentration and longer duration of phytoplankton growth during the winter period (relative to the summer

  3. Ocean observing systems support operational forecasts for the timing of Maine's lobster fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K.; Hernandez, C.; Pershing, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    American lobster supports one of the most valuable fisheries in the United States, with a landed value in 2013 exceeding $460M. Although US lobstermen are free to fish throughout the year, the New England climate, lobster biology and fleet dynamics lead to a strong annual cycle with catch rates rising rapidly in early summer and landings peaking in late summer. When this annual cycle is disrupted, it can impact the supply and ultimately the price of lobsters. During the record warm conditions in 2012, the rise in catch rates occurred three weeks ahead of normal. Combined with higher than normal landings from the spring Canadian fishery, the early and high volume landings in 2012 led to a collapse in price that severely stressed the U. S. fishery, especially in Maine where over 85% of the landings occur. Based on this experience, we have been developing seasonal forecasts of the phenology of Maine lobster landings. Using temperatures at 50m from four NERACOOS buoys in the Gulf of Maine, we can reliably forecast the date when the Maine lobster fishery will `turn on' for the year, with prediction accuracy peaking in April. The high-landings period normally starts in July, and the 2-3 month lead-time provides some advance warning to dealers and processors of when their capacity needs to be ready and to fishermen of potential supply chain and market impacts such as we observed in 2012. We are currently working towards finer-scale regional forecasts along the Maine coast that may include other features that will provide information to help the lobster industry adapt to the rapid changes that are underway in the Gulf of Maine.

  4. A possible edge effect in enhanced network. [solar K-line observations by multichannel spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. P.; Brown, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    K-line observations of enhanced network taken with the NASA/SPO Multichannel Spectrometer on September 28, 1975, in support of OSO-8 are discussed. The data show a correlation between core brightness and asymmetry for spatial scans which cross enhanced network boundaries. The implications of this result concerning mass flow in and near supergranule boundaries are discussed.

  5. Evolution of ocean-induced ice melt beneath Zachariæ Isstrøm, Northeast Greenland combining observations and an ocean general circulation model from 1978 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, C.; Rignot, E. J.; Menemenlis, D.; Millan, R.; Bjørk, A. A.; Khan, S. A.; Charolais, A.

    2017-12-01

    Zachariæ Isstrøm, a major ice stream in northeast Greenland, lost a large fraction of its ice shelf during the last decade. We study the evolution of subaqueous melting of its floating section from 1978 to present. The ice shelf melt rate depends on thermal forcing from warm, salty, subsurface ocean waters of Atlantic origin (AW), the mixing of AW with fresh, buoyant subglacial discharge at the calving margin, and the shape of the sub-ice-shelf cavity. Subglacial discharge doubled as a result of enhanced ice sheet runoff caused by warmer air temperatures. Ocean thermal forcing has increased due to enhanced advection of AW. Using an Eulerian method, MEaSUREs ice velocity, Operation IceBridge (OIB) ice thickness, and RACMO2.3 surface balance data, we evaluate the ice shelf melt rate in 1978, 1999 and 2010. The melt rate doubled from 1999 to 2010. Using a Lagrangian method with World View imagery, we map the melt rate in detail from 2011 to 2016. We compare the results with 2D simulations from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), at a high spatial resolution (20-m horizontal and 40-m vertical grid spacing), using OIB ice thickness and sub-ice-shelf cavity for years 1978, 1996, 2010 and 2011, combined with in-situ ocean temperature/salinity data from Ocean Melting Greenland (OMG) 2017. We find that winter melt rates are 2 3 times smaller than summer rates and melt rates increase by one order magnitude during the transition from ice shelf termination to near-vertical calving wall termination. As the last remaining bits of floating ice shelf disappear, ice-ocean interaction will therefore play an increasing role in driving the glacier retreat into its marine-based basin. This work was performed under a contract with NASA Cryosphere Program at UC Irvine and Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  6. Instantaneous Linkages between Clouds and Large-Scale Meteorology over the Southern Ocean in Observations and a Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Casey J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Hartmann, Dennis L. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-12-01

    Instantaneous, coincident, footprint-level satellite observations of cloud properties and radiation taken during austral summer over the Southern Ocean are used to study relationships between clouds and large-scale meteorology. Cloud properties are very sensitive to the strength of vertical motion in the middle-troposphere, and low-cloud properties are sensitive to estimated inversion strength, low-level temperature advection, and sea surface temperature. These relationships are quantified. An index for the meteorological anomalies associated with midlatitude cyclones is presented, and it is used to reveal the sensitivity of clouds to the meteorology within the warm- and cold-sector of cyclones. The observed relationships between clouds and meteorology are compared to those in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) using satellite simulators. Low-clouds simulated by CAM5 are too few, too bright, and contain too much ice, and low-clouds located in the cold-sector of cyclones are too sensitive to variations in the meteorology. The latter two biases are dramatically reduced when CAM5 is coupled with an updated boundary layer parameterization know as Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB). More generally, this study demonstrates that examining the instantaneous timescale is a powerful approach to understanding the physical processes that control clouds and how they are represented in climate models. Such an evaluation goes beyond the cloud climatology and exposes model bias under various meteorological conditions.

  7. The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part II - An updated understanding of the observed and projected impacts of ocean warming and acidification on marine and coastal socioeconomic activities/sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherdon, Lauren; Sumaila, Rashid; Cheung, William W.L.; Rogers, Alex; Magnan, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Between 1971 and 2010, the oceans have absorbed approximately 93% of the excess heat caused by global warming, leading to several major changes such as the increase in stratification, limitation in the circulation of nutrients from deep waters to the surface, and sea level rise. In addition, the oceans absorbed 26% of anthropogenic CO 2 emitted since the start of the Industrial Revolution, which resulted in ocean acidification. Together, these processes strongly affect marine and coastal species' geographic distribution, abundance, migration patterns and phenology. As a consequence of these complex environmental changes, marine and coastal human sectors (i.e., fisheries, aquaculture, coastal tourism and health) are in turn at risk. This report provides an updated synthesis of what the science tells us about such a risk, based upon IPCC AR5 (2013- 2014) and published scientific articles and grey literature that have been published between July 2013 and April 2015. Although uncertainty remains strong, there is growing scientific evidence that ocean warming and acidification will affect key resources for societies through ecosystems services. For example, while AR5 indicated that coral reefs had little scope for adaptation, recent research has suggested that there may be some capacity for some coral species to recover from climatic hocks and bleaching events, and to acquire heat resistance through acclimatization. This will have huge implications on many coastal economies in the developing and developed countries. More generally, key sectors will be affected. For example, while the fish catch potential is expected to decrease at the global scale, it will show diversified trends at the regional scale as fish stocks have started shifting in latitudes or by depth. This will impact regional to local fisheries systems. Also, climate and acidification-related impacts to existing aquaculture are expected to be generally negative, with impacts varying by location

  8. Enhancing the Ranking of a Web Page in the Ocean of Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, web is considered as ocean of data and information (like text, videos, multimedia etc. consisting of millions and millions of web pages in which web pages are linked with each other like a tree. It is often argued that, especially considering the dynamic of the internet, too much time has passed since the scientific work on PageRank, as that it still could be the basis for the ranking methods of the Google search engine. There is no doubt that within the past years most likely many changes, adjustments and modifications regarding the ranking methods of Google have taken place, but PageRank was absolutely crucial for Google's success, so that at least the fundamental concept behind PageRank should still be constitutive. This paper describes the components which affects the ranking of the web pages and helps in increasing the popularity of web site. By adapting these factors website developers can increase their site's page rank and within the PageRank concept, considering the rank of a document is given by the rank of those documents which link to it. Their rank again is given by the rank of documents which link to them. The PageRank of a document is always determined recursively by the PageRank of other documents.

  9. Upgrade of a UV-VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer for the coastal ocean observation: concept, design, fabrication, and test of prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei

    2017-06-26

    A novel UV-VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer prototype has been presented for the remote sensing of the coastal ocean by air. The concept is proposed for the needs of the observation. An advanced design has been demonstrated based on the Dyson spectrometer in details. The analysis and tests present excellent optical performances in the spectral broadband, easy and low cost fabrication and alignment, low inherent stray light, and high signal to noise ratio. The research provides an easy method for the coastal ocean observation.

  10. Enhancing Graduate Education and Research in Ocean Sciences at the Universidad de Concepcion (UDEC) and in Chile: Cooperation Between UDEC and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, J.; Pantoja, S.

    2007-05-01

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA (WHOI) and the University of Concepcion, Chile (UDEC) entered into an MOU to enhance graduate education and research in ocean sciences in Chile and enhance research for understanding the Southeastern Pacific Ocean. The MOU was drafted and signed after exchange visits of faculty. The formulation of a five year program of activities included: exchange of faculty for purposes of enhancing research, teaching and advising; visits of Chilean graduate students to WHOI for several months of supplemental study and research in the area of their thesis research; participation of Chilean faculty and graduate students in WHOI faculty led cruises off Chile and Peru (with Peruvian colleagues); a postdoctoral fellowship program for Chilean ocean scientists at WHOI; and the establishment of an Austral Summer Institute of advanced undergraduate and graduate level intensive two to three week courses on diverse topics at the cutting edge of ocean science research co-sponsored by WHOI and UDEC for Chilean and South American students with faculty drawn from WHOI and other U.S. universities with ocean sciences graduate schools and departments, e.g. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Delaware. The program has been evaluated by external review and received excellent comments. The success of the program has been due mainly to: (1) the cooperative attitude and enthusiasm of the faculty colleagues of both Chilean Universities (especially UDEC) and WHOI, students and postdoctoral fellows, and (2) a generous grant from the Fundacion Andes- Chile enabling these activities.

  11. Ship Observations and Numerical Simulation of the Marine Atmosphericboundary Layer over the Spring Oceanic Front in the Northwestern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Shi, R.; Chen, J.; Guo, X.; Zeng, L.; Li, J.; Xie, Q.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The response of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) structure to an oceanic front is analyzed using Global Positioning System (GPS) sounding data obtained during a survey in the northwestern South China Sea (NSCS) over a period of about one week in April 2013. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to further examine the thermodynamical mechanisms of the MABL's response to the front. The WRF model successfully simulates the change in the MABL structure across the front, which agrees well with the observations. The spatially high-pass-filtered fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and 10-m neutral equivalent wind from the WRF model simulation show a tight, positive coupling between the SST and surface winds near the front. Meanwhile, the SST front works as a damping zone to reduce the enhancement of wind blowing from the warm to the cold side of the front in the lower boundary layer. Analysis of the momentum budget shows that the most active and significant term affecting horizontal momentum over the frontal zone is the adjustment of the pressure gradient. It is found that the front in the NSCS is wide enough for slowly moving air parcels to be affected by the change in underlying SST. The different thermal structure upwind and downwind of the front causes a baroclinic adjustment of the perturbation pressure from the surface to the mid-layer of the MABL, which dominates the change in the wind profile across the front.

  12. Invasive carnivores alter ecological function and enhance complementarity in scavenger assemblages on ocean beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marion B; Schlacher, Thomas A; Schoeman, David S; Weston, Michael A; Huijbers, Chantal M; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M

    2015-10-01

    Species composition is expected to alter ecological function in assemblages if species traits differ strongly. Such effects are often large and persistent for nonnative carnivores invading islands. Alternatively, high similarity in traits within assemblages creates a degree of functional redundancy in ecosystems. Here we tested whether species turnover results in functional ecological equivalence or complementarity, and whether invasive carnivores on islands significantly alter such ecological function. The model system consisted of vertebrate scavengers (dominated by raptors) foraging on animal carcasses on ocean beaches on two Australian islands, one with and one without invasive red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Partitioning of scavenging events among species, carcass removal rates, and detection speeds were quantified using camera traps baited with fish carcasses at the dune-beach interface. Complete segregation of temporal foraging niches between mammals (nocturnal) and birds (diurnal) reflects complementarity in carrion utilization. Conversely, functional redundancy exists within the bird guild where several species of raptors dominate carrion removal in a broadly similar way. As predicted, effects of red foxes were large. They substantially changed the nature and rate of the scavenging process in the system: (1) foxes consumed over half (55%) of all carrion available at night, compared with negligible mammalian foraging at night on the fox-free island, and (2) significant shifts in the composition of the scavenger assemblages consuming beach-cast carrion are the consequence of fox invasion at one island. Arguably, in the absence of other mammalian apex predators, the addition of red foxes creates a new dimension of functional complementarity in beach food webs. However, this functional complementarity added by foxes is neither benign nor neutral, as marine carrion subsidies to coastal red fox populations are likely to facilitate their persistence as exotic

  13. Biomass smoke from southern Africa can significantly enhance the brightness of stratocumulus over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhao, Chun; Meyer, Kerry; Rajapakshe, Chamara; Wu, Chenglai; Yang, Zhifeng; Penner, Joyce E.

    2018-03-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds cover nearly one-quarter of the ocean surface and thus play an extremely important role in determining the global radiative balance. The semipermanent marine stratocumulus deck over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean is of particular interest, because of its interactions with seasonal biomass burning aerosols that are emitted in southern Africa. Understanding the impacts of biomass burning aerosols on stratocumulus clouds and the implications for regional and global radiative balance is still very limited. Previous studies have focused on assessing the magnitude of the warming caused by solar scattering and absorption by biomass burning aerosols over stratocumulus (the direct radiative effect) or cloud adjustments to the direct radiative effect (the semidirect effect). Here, using a nested modeling approach in conjunction with observations from multiple satellites, we demonstrate that cloud condensation nuclei activated from biomass burning aerosols entrained into the stratocumulus (the microphysical effect) can play a dominant role in determining the total radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere, compared with their direct and semidirect radiative effects. Biomass burning aerosols over the region and period with heavy loadings can cause a substantial cooling (daily mean ‑8.05 W m‑2), primarily as a result of clouds brightening by reducing the cloud droplet size (the Twomey effect) and secondarily through modulating the diurnal cycle of cloud liquid water path and coverage (the cloud lifetime effect). Our results highlight the importance of realistically representing the interactions of stratocumulus with biomass burning aerosols in global climate models in this region.

  14. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  15. Observed Seasonal Variations of the Upper Ocean Structure and Air-Sea Interactions in the Andaman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanliang; Li, Kuiping; Ning, Chunlin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Haiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Skhokiattiwong, Somkiat; Yu, Weidong

    2018-02-01

    The Andaman Sea (AS) is a poorly observed basin, where even the fundamental physical characteristics have not been fully documented. Here the seasonal variations of the upper ocean structure and the air-sea interactions in the central AS were studied using a moored surface buoy. The seasonal double-peak pattern of the sea surface temperature (SST) was identified with the corresponding mixed layer variations. Compared with the buoys in the Bay of Bengal (BOB), the thermal stratification in the central AS was much stronger in the winter to spring, when a shallower isothermal layer and a thinner barrier layer were sustained. The temperature inversion was strongest from June to July because of substantial surface heat loss and subsurface prewarming. The heat budget analysis of the mixed layer showed that the net surface heat fluxes dominated the seasonal SST cycle. Vertical entrainment was significant from April to July. It had a strong cooling effect from April to May and a striking warming effect from June to July. A sensitivity experiment highlighted the importance of salinity. The AS warmer surface water in the winter was associated with weak heat loss caused by weaker longwave radiation and latent heat losses. However, the AS latent heat loss was larger than the BOB in summer due to its lower relative humidity.

  16. Improvement of observer performance during fluoroscopy by local adaptive contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, R.G.; Demas, B.E.; Maroney, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a video processor (FluoroVision FV-1), which performs two-dimensional locally adaptive contrast enhancement, to improve the detection of a low-contrast object was evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three independent observers viewed a videotape of 50 fluoroscopic images of a varied background, in which a test object was present in 25. Each observer viewed the tape under four conditions: (1) no processing, (2) temporal noise reduction (gaussian weighted time averaging, (3) contrast enhancement, and (4) both noise reduction and contrast enhancement. The results were that detection was significantly improved by the locally adaptive contrast enhancement. Noise reduction did not significantly improve performance, probably because washer detection was limited by background contrast variations as well as noise and because only a small amount of noise reduction was used. The authors conclude that the processing device is potentially valuable in improving the quality of clinical fluoroscopic images

  17. A Spatio-Temporal Enhanced Metadata Model for Interdisciplinary Instant Point Observations in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengcheng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the incomprehensive and inconsistent description of spatial and temporal information for city data observed by sensors in various fields, it is a great challenge to share the massive, multi-source and heterogeneous interdisciplinary instant point observation data resources. In this paper, a spatio-temporal enhanced metadata model for point observation data sharing was proposed. The proposed Data Meta-Model (DMM focused on the spatio-temporal characteristics and formulated a ten-tuple information description structure to provide a unified and spatio-temporal enhanced description of the point observation data. To verify the feasibility of the point observation data sharing based on DMM, a prototype system was established, and the performance improvement of Sensor Observation Service (SOS for the instant access and insertion of point observation data was realized through the proposed MongoSOS, which is a Not Only SQL (NoSQL SOS based on the MongoDB database and has the capability of distributed storage. For example, the response time of the access and insertion for navigation and positioning data can be realized at the millisecond level. Case studies were conducted, including the gas concentrations monitoring for the gas leak emergency response and the smart city public vehicle monitoring based on BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS used for recording the dynamic observation information. The results demonstrated the versatility and extensibility of the DMM, and the spatio-temporal enhanced sharing for interdisciplinary instant point observations in smart cities.

  18. Near-equatorial convective regimes over the Indian Ocean as revealed by synergistic analysis of satellite observations.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levy, G.; Geiss, A.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    We examine the organization and temporal evolution of deep convection in relation to the low level flow over the Indian Ocean by a synergistic analysis of several satellite datasets for wind, rainfall, Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and cloud...

  19. Ship Sensor Observations for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Pharmaceutical Discovery, Vision, and Bioluminescence - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Pharmaceutical Discovery, Vision, and...

  20. Deep Ocean Mineral Supplementation Enhances the Cerebral Hemodynamic Response during Exercise and Decreases Inflammation Postexercise in Men at Two Age Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yin Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have consistently shown that oral supplementation of deep ocean minerals (DOM improves vascular function in animals and enhances muscle power output in exercising humans.Purpose: To examine the effects of DOM supplementation on the cerebral hemodynamic response during physical exertion in young and middle-aged men.Design: Double-blind placebo-controlled crossover studies were conducted in young (N = 12, aged 21.2 ± 0.4 years and middle-aged men (N = 9, aged 46.8 ± 1.4 years. The counter-balanced trials of DOM and Placebo were separated by a 2-week washout period. DOM and Placebo were orally supplemented in drinks before, during, and after cycling exercise. DOM comprises desalinated minerals and trace elements from seawater collected ~618 m below the earth's surface.Methods: Cerebral hemodynamic response (tissue hemoglobin was measured during cycling at 75% VO2max using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS.Results: Cycling time to exhaustion at 75% VO2max and the associated plasma lactate response were similar between the Placebo and DOM trials for both age groups. In contrast, DOM significantly elevated cerebral hemoglobin levels in young men and, to a greater extent, in middle-aged men compared with Placebo. An increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR was observed in middle-aged men, 2 h after exhaustive cycling, but was attenuated by DOM.Conclusion: Our data suggest that minerals and trace elements from deep oceans possess great promise in developing supplements to increase the cerebral hemodynamic response against a physical challenge and during post-exercise recovery for middle-aged men.

  1. FY 1998 report on the results of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. Development of ocean-based artificial deep ocean water (DOW) upwelling devices and researches into enhancement of productivity of surface waters, CO2 fixation and biological effects of DOW; 1998 nendo yojo kaiyo shinsosui shusui system no kaihatsu to kaiyo hiyokuka, nisanka tanso kyushu oyobi seibutsu koka no kenkyu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project is implemented for design, fabrication and installation of ocean-based artificial deep ocean water (DOW) upwelling devices which can take DOW at low cost in an ocean; experiments for enhancing productivity of ocean by adding DOW using mesocosms; and studying the biological effects of DOW for keeping freshness of marine products. DOW is successfully taken by the upwelling system from a depth of 800 m in a sea area 2,000 m or more in depth. The system has worked to perform its functions even when attacked by typhoons, which caused wave height of 10 m or more. For enhancing productivity of ocean, the culture experiments are conducted in a small-size, on-shore tank, and the mesocosm experiments in a harbor. The results indicate that addition of DOW increases the phytoplankton phase and its quantity. It is also observed that addition of iron ion further accelerates the fertilizing effect. The results of the experiments conducted in a harbor also indicate that DOW has the fertilizing effect, even in a very small quantity, increasing quantity of small zooplankton. No definite effect of DOW, liquid or ice, is observed for keeping freshness of sliced raw sea bream and bonito. (NEDO)

  2. CDOM-DOC relationship in contrasted coastal waters : implication for DOC retrieval from ocean color remote sensing observation

    OpenAIRE

    Vantrepotte, V.; Danhiez, F. P.; Loisel, Hubert; Ouillon, Sylvain; Meriaux, X.; Cauvin, A.; Dessailly, D.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing our knowledge on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spatio-temporal distribution in the coastal ocean represents a crucial challenge for better understanding the role of these ecosystems in the global oceanic carbon cycle. The assessment of DOC concentration from the absorption properties of the colored part of the dissolved organic matter (a(cdom)) was investigated from an extensive data set covering a variety of coastal environments. Our results confirmed that variation in the acdom(...

  3. Auroral ion acoustic wave enhancement observed with a radar interferometer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Schlatter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of naturally enhanced ion acoustic line (NEIAL echoes obtained with a five-antenna interferometric imaging radar system are presented. The observations were conducted with the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT radar on Svalbard and the EISCAT Aperture Synthesis Imaging receivers (EASI installed at the radar site. Four baselines of the interferometer are used in the analysis. Based on the coherence estimates derived from the measurements, we show that the enhanced backscattering region is of limited extent in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Previously it has been argued that the enhanced backscatter region is limited in size; however, here the first unambiguous observations are presented. The size of the enhanced backscatter region is determined to be less than 900 × 500 m, and at times less than 160 m in the direction of the longest antenna separation, assuming the scattering region to have a Gaussian scattering cross section in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Using aperture synthesis imaging methods volumetric images of the NEIAL echo are obtained showing the enhanced backscattering region to be aligned with the geomagnetic field. Although optical auroral emissions are observed outside the radar look direction, our observations are consistent with the NEIAL echo occurring on field lines with particle precipitation.

  4. Experimental observation of percolation-enhanced nonlinear light scattering from semicontinuous metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, M.; Podolskiy, V. A.; Grésillon, S.; von Plessen, G.; Feldmann, J.; Rivoal, J. C.; Gadenne, P.; Sarychev, Andrey K.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.

    2001-09-01

    Strongly enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG), which is characterized by a nearly isotropic intensity distribution, is observed for gold-glass films near the percolation threshold. The diffuselike SHG scattering, which can be thought of as nonlinear critical opalescence, is in sharp contrast with highly collimated linear reflection and transmission from these nanostructured semicontinuous metal films. Our observations, which can be explained by giant fluctuations of local nonlinear sources for SHG due to plasmon localization, verify recent predictions of percolation-enhanced nonlinear scattering.

  5. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding oceanic island arcs: Insight from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern caribbean plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J.L.

    2009-01-01

    At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is

  6. How Often and Why MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals Fail for Liquid-Phase Clouds over Ocean? a Comprehensive Analysis Based on a-Train Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, H. M.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Lebsock, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The cloud optical thickness (τ) and droplet effective radius (re) are two key cloud parameters retrieved by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). These MODIS cloud products are widely used in a broad range of earth system science applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the failed cloud τ and/or re retrievals for liquid-phase clouds over ocean in the Collection 6 MODIS cloud product. The main findings from this study are summarized as follows: MODIS retrieval failure rates for marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds have a strong dependence on the spectral combination used for retrieval (e.g., 0.86 + 2.1 µm vs. 0.8 + 3.7 µm) and the cloud morphology (i.e., "good" pixels vs. partly cloudy (PCL) pixels). Combining all clear-sky-restoral (CSR) categories (CSR=0,1 and 3), the 0.86 + 2.1 µm and 0.86 + 3.7 µm spectral combinations have an overall failure rate of about 20% and 12%, respectively (See figure below). The PCL pixels (CSR=1 & 3) have significantly higher failure rates and contribute more to the total failure population than the "good" (CSR=0) pixels. The majority of the failed retrievals are caused by the re too large failure, which explains about 85% and 70% of the failed 0.86 + 2.1 µm and 0.86 + 3.7 µm retrievals, respectively. The remaining failures are either due to the re too small failure or τ retrieval failure. The geographical distribution of failure rates has a significant dependence on cloud regime, lower over the coastal stratocumulus cloud regime and higher over the broken trade-wind cumulus cloud regime over open oceans. Enhanced retrieval failure rates are found when MBL clouds have high sub-pixel inhomogeneity , or are located at special Sun-satellite viewing geometries, such as sunglint, large viewing or solar zenith angle, or cloudbow and glory angles, or subject to cloud masking, cloud overlapping and/or cloud phase retrieval issues. About 80% of the failure retrievals can be attributed to at

  7. Sedimentary evidence for enhanced hydrological cycling in response to rapid carbon release during the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kentaro; Kemp, David B.; Itamiya, Shoma; Inui, Mutsuko

    2018-01-01

    A pronounced excursion in the carbon-isotope composition of biospheric carbon and coeval seawater warming during the early Toarcian (∼183 Ma) has been linked to the large-scale transfer of 12C-enriched carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. A European bias in the distribution of available data means that the precise pattern, tempo and global expression of this carbon cycle perturbation, and the associated environmental responses, remain uncertain. Here, we present a new cm-scale terrestrial-dominated carbon-isotope record through an expanded lower Toarcian section from Japan that displays a negative excursion pattern similar to marine and terrestrial carbon-isotope records documented from Europe. These new data suggest that 12C-enriched carbon was added to the biosphere in at least one rapid, millennial-scale pulse. Sedimentological analysis indicates a close association between the carbon-isotope excursion and high-energy sediment transport and enhanced fluvial discharge. Together, these data support the hypothesis that a sudden strengthening of the global hydrological cycle occurred in direct and immediate response to rapid carbon release and atmospheric warming.

  8. Observer enhanced control for spin-stabilized tethered formation in earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Zhai; Yuyang, Li; Liang, Bin

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses the issues relevant to control of spin-stabilized tethered formation in circular orbit. Due to the dynamic complexities and nonlinear perturbations, it is challenging to promote the control precision for the formation deployment and maintenance. In this work, the formation dynamics are derived with considering the spinning rate of the central body, then major attention is dedicated to develop the nonlinear disturbance observer. To achieve better control performance, the observer-enhanced controller is designed by incorporating the disturbance observer into the control loop, benefits from the disturbance compensation are demonstrated, and also, the dependences of the disturbance observer performance on some important parameters are theoretically and numerically analyzed.

  9. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  10. Garnet Signatures in Geophysical and Geochemical Observations: Insights into the Thermo-Petrological Structure of Oceanic Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed new physically comprehensive thermal plate models of the oceanic lithosphere which incorporate temperature- and pressure-dependent heat transport properties and thermal expansivity, melting beneath ridges, hydrothermal circulation near ridge axes, and insulating oceanic crust. These models provide good fits to global databases of seafloor topography and heat flow, and seismic evidence of thermal structure near ridge axes. We couple these thermal plate models with thermodynamic models to predict the petrology of oceanic lithosphere. Geoid height predictions from our models suggest that there is a strong anomaly in geoid slope (over age) above ~25 Ma lithosphere due to the topography of garnet-field mantle. A similar anomaly is also present in geoid data over fracture zones. In addition, we show that a new assessment of a large database of ocean island basalt Sm/Yb systematics indicates that there is an unmistakable step-like increase in Sm/Yb values around 15-20 Ma, indicating the presence of garnet. To explain this feature, we have attempted to couple our thermo-petrological models of oceanic upper mantle with an open system, non-modal, dynamic melting model with diffusion kinetics to investigate trace element partitioning in an ascending mantle column.

  11. Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1992-01-01

    As people age, so do their photoreceptors; many photoreceptors in central vision stop functioning when a person reaches their late sixties or early seventies. Low vision observers with losses in central vision, those with age-related maculopathies, were studied. Low vision observers no longer see high spatial frequencies, being unable to resolve fine edge detail. We developed image enhancement filters to compensate for the low vision observer's losses in contrast sensitivity to intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The filters work by boosting the amplitude of the less visible intermediate spatial frequencies. The lower spatial frequencies. These image enhancement filters not only reduce the magnification needed for reading by up to 70 percent, but they also increase the observer's reading speed by 2-4 times. A summary of this research is presented.

  12. The CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation: Enhancing the Value of Space-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard; Zehner, Claus; Al-Saadi, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth. Participating agencies strive to enhance international coordination and data exchange and to optimize societal benefit. In recent years, CEOS has collaborated closely with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in implementing the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) space-based objectives. The goal of the CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) is to collect and deliver data to improve monitoring, assessment and predictive capabilities for changes in the ozone layer, air quality and climate forcing associated with changes in the environment through coordination of existing and future international space assets. A project to coordinate and enhance the science value of a future constellation of geostationary sensors measuring parameters relevant to air quality supports the forthcoming European Sentinel-4, Korean GEMS, and US TEMPO missions. Recommendations have been developed for harmonization to mutually improve data quality and facilitate widespread use of the data products.

  13. SuperDARN Hokkaido radar observation of westward flow enhancement in subauroral latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Westward flow enhancement in subauroral latitudes is investigated based on the first one and a half year observation of the SuperDARN Hokkaido radar. A total of 15 events are identified with the criteria of westward flow speed of >1.0 km/s in magnetic latitude from 45 to 65 deg during geomagnetically disturbed period of Kp>3+ at 20 magnetic local time. It is found that especially during the storm recovery phase, the flow enhancement occurs in broad range of Dst amplitude, and the occurrence latitude depends on the amplitude of Dst. It is also found that the disturbed Kp condition is not sufficient for the appearance of the subauroral flow enhancement as seen by Hokkaido radar while storm-like Dst condition is necessary, supporting the idea that ring current particles play an essential role to enhance the westward flow in subauroral latitudes via magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the field-aligned current.

  14. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle

  15. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle.

  16. Real-time observations of mechanical stimulus-induced enhancements of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xu; Liu Xiaoli; Sun Jialun; He Shuojie; Lee, Imshik; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Osteoblast, playing a key role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, is one of the mechanical stress sensitive cells. The effects of mechanical load-induced changes of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells were studied at real-time. Osteoblasts obtained from young Wister rats were exposed to mechanical loads in different frequencies and resting intervals generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tip and simultaneously measured the changes of the mechanical properties by AFM. The enhancement of the mechanical properties was observed and quantified by the increment of the apparent Young's modulus, E * . The observed mechanical property depended on the frequency of applied tapping loads. For the resting interval is 50 s, the mechanical load-induced enhancement of E * -values disappears. It seems that the enhanced mechanical property was recover able under no additional mechanical stimulus

  17. Observations of enhanced nonlinear instability in the surface reflection of internal tides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, X.; Shang, X.; van Haren, H.; Chen, G.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced vertically standing waves formed by the superposition of two upward and downward going near-diurnal (D1) waves are observed during one semidiurnal (D2) spring tide in an approximately 75day long velocity record from the northeastern South China Sea. Bicoherence estimates suggest that the

  18. Ichthyoplankton Time Series: A Potential Ocean Observing Network to Provide Indicators of Climate Impacts on Fish Communities along the West Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslow, J. A.; Brodeur, R.; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Perry, I.; jimenez Rosenberg, S.; Aceves, G.

    2016-02-01

    Ichthyoplankton time series available from the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and California Current (Oregon to Baja California) provide a potential ocean observing network to assess climate impacts on fish communities along the west coast of North America. Larval fish abundance reflects spawning stock biomass, so these data sets provide indicators of the status of a broad range of exploited and unexploited fish populations. Analyses to date have focused on individual time series, which generally exhibit significant change in relation to climate. Off California, a suite of 24 midwater fish taxa have declined > 60%, correlated with declining midwater oxygen concentrations, and overall larval fish abundance has declined 72% since 1969, a trend based on the decline of predominantly cool-water affinity taxa in response to warming ocean temperatures. Off Oregon, there were dramatic differences in community structure and abundance of larval fishes between warm and cool ocean conditions. Midwater deoxygenation and warming sea surface temperature trends are predicted to continue as a result of global climate change. US, Canadian, and Mexican fishery scientists are now collaborating in a virtual ocean observing network to synthesize available ichthyoplankton time series and compare patterns of change in relation to climate. This will provide regional indicators of populations and groups of taxa sensitive to warming, deoxygenation and potentially other stressors, establish the relevant scales of coherence among sub-regions and across Large Marine Ecosystems, and provide the basis for predicting future climate change impacts on these ecosystems.

  19. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1994-02-19 to 1994-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0144242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144242 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  20. Seismic observation of a sharp post-garnet phase transition within the Farallon crust: Evidence for oceanic plateau subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, R.; Ritsema, J.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of North America over the past 150 million years was heavily influenced by the complex subduction history of the Farallon plate. In particular, Laramide mountain building may have been triggered by the initiation of flat slab subduction in the late Cretaceous. While it has been proposed that the cause of slab flattening is related to the subduction of an oceanic plateau[1], direct geophysical evidence of a subducted oceanic plateau is lacking. Here, using P-to-S receiver functions, we detect a sharp seismic discontinuity at 720-km depth beneath the southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico. We interpret this discontinuity as a garnet-to-bridgmanite phase transition occurring within a thickened Farallon crust. Our results are consistent with a subducted oceanic plateau (likely the conjugate half of the Hess rise) which is foundering below the base of the mantle transition zone. Additionally, we find a strong 520-km discontinuity beneath the southeastern United States which may indicate a hydrous transition zone due to the release of H2O from the Farallon slab. These results provide insight into the dynamics of flat slab subduction as well as the tectonic history of North America. [1] Livaccari, R. F., Burke, K., & Şengör, A. M. C. (1981). Was the Laramide orogeny related to subduction of an oceanic plateau? Nature, v. 289, p. 276-278, doi: 10.1038/289276a0

  1. South African integrated carbon observation network (SA-ICON): CO2 measurements on land, atmosphere and ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Feig, Gregor T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become essential to accurately estimate the emission and uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(sub2)) around the globe. Atmospheric CO(sub2) plays a central role in the Earth’s atmospheric, ocean and terrestrial systems and it has been...

  2. Observations in equatorial anomaly region of total electron content enhancements and depletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A GSV 4004A GPS receiver has been operational near the crest of the equatorial anomaly at Udaipur, India for some time now. The receiver provides the line-of-sight total electron content (TEC, the phase and amplitude scintillation index, σφ and S4, respectively. This paper presents the first results on the nighttime TEC depletions associated with the equatorial spread F in the Indian zone. The TEC depletions are found to be very well correlated with the increased S4 index. A new feature of low-latitude TEC is also reported, concerning the observation of isolated and localized TEC enhancements in the nighttime low-latitude ionosphere. The TEC enhancements are not correlated with the S4 index. The TEC enhancements have also been observed along with the TEC depletions. The TEC enhancements have been interpreted as the manifestation of the plasma density enhancements reported by Le et al. (2003.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionospheric irregularities

  3. Mooring-based long-term observation of oceanographic condition in the Chukchi Ses and Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Itoh, Motoyo; Nishino, Shigeto; Watanabe, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    Changes of the Arctic Ocean environment are well known as one of the most remarkable evidences of global warming, attracting social and public attentions as well as scientists'. However, to illustrate on-going changes and predict future condition of the Arctic marine environment, we still do not have enough knowledge of Arctic sea ice and marine environment. In particular, lack of observation data in winter, e.g., under sea ice, still remains a key issue for precise understanding of seasonal cycle on oceanographic condition in the Arctic Ocean. Mooring-based observation is one of the most useful methods to collect year-long data in the Arctic Ocean. We have been conducting long-term monitoring using mooring system in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes through Barrow Canyon where is a major conduit of Pacific-origin water-masses into the Canada Basin have been observed since 2000. We show from an analysis of the mooring results that volume flux through Barrow Canyon was about 60 % of Bering Strait volume flux. Averaged heat flux ranges from 0.9 to 3.07 TW, which could melt 88,000 to 300,000 km2 of 1m thick ice in the Canada Basin, which likely contributed to sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. In winter, we found inter-annual variability in salinity related to coastal polynya activity in the Chukchi Sea. In collaboration with Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) project, which is one of the tasks of Sustaining Arctic Observing Network (SAON), we also initiated year-long mooring observation in the Hope Valley of the southern Chukchi Sea since 2012. Interestingly, winter oceanographic conditions in the Hope Valley are greatly different between in 2012-2013 and in 2013-2014. We speculate that differences of sea ice freeze-up and coastal polynya activity in the southern Chukchi Sea cause significant difference of winter oceanographic condition. It suggests that recent sea ice reduction in the Pacific

  4. EXCESS OPTICAL ENHANCEMENT OBSERVED WITH ARCONS FOR EARLY CRAB GIANT PULSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, M. J.; Mazin, B. A.; Spiro Jaeger, G. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Van Eyken, J. C.; Marsden, D.; Walter, A. B.; Ulbricht, G. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Johnson, M. D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); O' Brien, K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Stoughton, C. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bumble, B. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We observe an extraordinary link in the Crab pulsar between the enhancement of an optical pulse and the timing of the corresponding giant radio pulse. At optical through infrared wavelengths, our observations use the high time resolution of ARray Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry, a unique superconducting energy-resolving photon-counting array at the Palomar 200 inch telescope. At radio wavelengths, we observe with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument backend. We see an 11.3% ± 2.5% increase in peak optical flux for pulses that have an accompanying giant radio pulse arriving near the peak of the optical main pulse, in contrast to a 3.2% ± 0.5% increase when an accompanying giant radio pulse arrives soon after the optical peak. We also observe that the peak of the optical main pulse is 2.8% ± 0.8% enhanced when there is a giant radio pulse accompanying the optical interpulse. We observe no statistically significant spectral differences between optical pulses accompanied by and not accompanied by giant radio pulses. Our results extend previous observations of optical-radio correlation to the time and spectral domains. Our refined temporal correlation suggests that optical and radio emission are indeed causally linked, and the lack of spectral differences suggests that the same mechanism is responsible for all optical emission.

  5. EXCESS OPTICAL ENHANCEMENT OBSERVED WITH ARCONS FOR EARLY CRAB GIANT PULSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, M. J.; Mazin, B. A.; Spiro Jaeger, G. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Van Eyken, J. C.; Marsden, D.; Walter, A. B.; Ulbricht, G.; Johnson, M. D.; O'Brien, K.; Stoughton, C.; Bumble, B.

    2013-01-01

    We observe an extraordinary link in the Crab pulsar between the enhancement of an optical pulse and the timing of the corresponding giant radio pulse. At optical through infrared wavelengths, our observations use the high time resolution of ARray Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry, a unique superconducting energy-resolving photon-counting array at the Palomar 200 inch telescope. At radio wavelengths, we observe with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument backend. We see an 11.3% ± 2.5% increase in peak optical flux for pulses that have an accompanying giant radio pulse arriving near the peak of the optical main pulse, in contrast to a 3.2% ± 0.5% increase when an accompanying giant radio pulse arrives soon after the optical peak. We also observe that the peak of the optical main pulse is 2.8% ± 0.8% enhanced when there is a giant radio pulse accompanying the optical interpulse. We observe no statistically significant spectral differences between optical pulses accompanied by and not accompanied by giant radio pulses. Our results extend previous observations of optical-radio correlation to the time and spectral domains. Our refined temporal correlation suggests that optical and radio emission are indeed causally linked, and the lack of spectral differences suggests that the same mechanism is responsible for all optical emission

  6. Observations of CO{sub 2} clathrate hydrate formation and dissolution under deep-ocean disposal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Holder, G.D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Disposal of anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} may be required to mitigate rises in atmospheric levels of this greenhouse gas if other measures are ineffective and the worst global warming scenarios begin to occur. Long-term storage of large quantities of CO{sub 2} has been proposed, but the feasibility of large land and ocean disposal options remains to be established. Determining the fate of liquid CO{sub 2} injected into the ocean at depths greater than 500 m is complicated by uncertainties associated with the physical behavior of CO{sub 2} under these conditions, in particular the possible formation of the ice-like CO{sub 2} clathrate hydrate. Resolving this issue is key to establishing the technical feasibility of this option. Experimental and theoretical work in this area is reported.

  7. Massive production of heavy metals in the Ganga (Hooghly) River estuary, India: Global importance of solute-particle interaction and enhanced metal fluxes to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Saumik; Dalai, Tarun K.

    2018-05-01

    The Ganga River System is a major contributor to the global sediment and water discharge to the oceans. The estuary of Ganga (Hooghly) River in India is under increasing influence of anthropogenic contributions via discharge of the industrial and urban effluents. Here we document, based on the investigation of water and suspended sediment samples collected during six periods over two years, that there is extensive production of heavy metals (Co, Ni and Cu) in the estuary such that the annual dissolved fluxes of metals from the Hooghly River are enhanced by up to 230-1770%. Furthermore, the estuarine dissolved metal fluxes, when normalized with water fluxes, are the highest among estuaries of the major rivers in the world. Our simultaneous data on the dissolved, suspended particulate and exchangeable phases allow us to identify the ion-exchange process (coupled adsorption and desorption) as the dominant contributor to the generation of heavy metals in the middle and lower estuary where the estimated anthropogenic contribution is negligible. The estimated contributions from the groundwater are also insufficient to explain the measured metal concentrations in the estuary. A strong positive correlation that is observed between the dissolved heavy metal fluxes and the suspended particulate matter (SPM) fluxes, after normalizing them with the water fluxes, for estuaries of the major global rivers imply that the solute-particle interaction is a globally significant process in the estuarine production of metals. Based on this correlation that is observed for major estuaries around the world, we demonstrate that the South Asian Rivers which supply only ∼9% of the global river water discharge but carry elevated SPM load, contribute a far more significant proportion (∼40 ± 2% Ni and 15 ± 1% Cu) to the global supply of the dissolved metals from the rivers.

  8. The enhanced greenhouse signal versus natural variations in observed climate time series: a statistical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwiese, C D [J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics

    1996-12-31

    It is a well-known fact that human activities lead to an atmospheric concentration increase of some IR-active trace gases (greenhouse gases GHG) and that this influence enhances the `greenhouse effect`. However, there are major quantitative and regional uncertainties in the related climate model projections and the observational data reflect the whole complex of both anthropogenic and natural forcing of the climate system. This contribution aims at the separation of the anthropogenic enhanced greenhouse signal in observed global surface air temperature data versus other forcing using statistical methods such as multiple (multiforced) regressions and neural networks. The competitive natural forcing considered are volcanic and solar activity, in addition the ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation) mechanism. This analysis will be extended also to the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and anthropogenic sulfate formation in the troposphere

  9. The enhanced greenhouse signal versus natural variations in observed climate time series: a statistical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwiese, C.D. [J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    It is a well-known fact that human activities lead to an atmospheric concentration increase of some IR-active trace gases (greenhouse gases GHG) and that this influence enhances the `greenhouse effect`. However, there are major quantitative and regional uncertainties in the related climate model projections and the observational data reflect the whole complex of both anthropogenic and natural forcing of the climate system. This contribution aims at the separation of the anthropogenic enhanced greenhouse signal in observed global surface air temperature data versus other forcing using statistical methods such as multiple (multiforced) regressions and neural networks. The competitive natural forcing considered are volcanic and solar activity, in addition the ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation) mechanism. This analysis will be extended also to the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and anthropogenic sulfate formation in the troposphere

  10. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Villiger

    Full Text Available The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O, observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI, or imitate the action (O-IMIT. We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI enhances activation compared to observation-only (O in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  11. Local processing enhancements associated with superior observational drawing are due to enhanced perceptual functioning, not weak central coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Rebecca; McManus, I C; Riley, Howard; Rankin, Qona; Brunswick, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with drawing talent have previously been shown to exhibit enhanced local visual processing ability. The aim of the current study was to assess whether local processing biases associated with drawing ability result from a reduced ability to cohere local stimuli into global forms, or an increased ability to disregard global aspects of an image. Local and global visual processing ability was assessed in art students and controls using the Group Embedded Figures Task, Navon shape stimuli, the Block Design Task and the Autism Spectrum Quotient, whilst controlling for nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. Local processing biases associated with drawing appear to arise from an enhancement of local processing alongside successful filtering of global information, rather than a reduction in global processing. The relationship between local processing and drawing ability is independent of individual differences in nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. These findings have implications for bottom-up and attentional theories of observational drawing, as well as explanations of special skills in autism.

  12. Ship-based Observations of Atmospheric Black Carbon Particles over the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and North Western Pacific Ocean on 2016: Comparisons with Regional Chemical Transport Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, F.; Miyakawa, T.; Takigawa, M.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Takashima, H.; Mordovskoi, P.; Tohjima, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass, is a major component of light-absorbing particulate matter in the atmosphere, causing positive radiative forcing. Also, BC deposition on the surface reduces the Earth's albedo and accelerates snow/ice melting by absorbing the sunlight. Therefore, the impact of BC on the Arctic climate needs to be assessed; however, observational information has been still insufficient. Over the Arctic Ocean, we have been conducting ship-based BC observations using a single particle soot photometer (SP2) on R/V Mirai every summer since 2014. To estimate the transport pathways of BC, we have also conducted model simulations during the period of cruise using a regional transport model (WRF-Chem 3.8.1). Here we focus on observations conducted on-board the R/V Mirai from 22 August to 5 October 2016 in a round trip to the Arctic Ocean through the Bering Strait from a port of Hachinohe (40.52N, 141.51E), Japan. We captured relatively high BC mass concentration events in this observation. The observed average BC mass concentration during 2016 was 0.8 ± 1.4 ng/m3 in >70N, similar to the levels ( 1.0ng/m3) recorded during our previous observations in the Arctic during 2014 and 2015. The variations in the observed concentrations in 2016 were qualitatively well reproduced by the regional chemical transport model. Quantitatively, however, the model tended to overestimate the BC levels, suggesting the possibilities that the emission rates were overestimated and/or the removal rates were underestimated. We will present further analysis on the size distribution, coating, and possible sources.

  13. Aspects of marine geoscience: a review and thoughts on potential for observing active processes and progress through collaboration between the ocean sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Neil C

    2012-12-13

    Much progress has been made in the UK in characterizing the internal structures of major physiographic features in the oceans and in developing understanding of the geological processes that have created or shaped them. UK researchers have authored articles of high impact in all areas described here. In contrast to terrestrial geoscience, however, there have been few instrumented observations made of active processes by UK scientists. This is an area that could be developed over the next decades in the UK. Research on active processes has the potential ability to engage the wider public: Some active processes present significant geo-hazards to populations and offshore infrastructure that require monitoring and there could be commercial applications of technological developments needed for science. Some of the suggestions could involve studies in shallow coastal waters where ship costs are much reduced, addressing tighter funding constraints over the near term. The possibilities of measuring aspects of volcanic eruptions, flowing lava, turbidity currents and mass movements (landslides) are discussed. A further area of potential development is in greater collaboration between the ocean sciences. For example, it is well known in terrestrial geomorphology that biological agents are important in modulating erosion and the transport of sediments, ultimately affecting the shape of the Earth's surface in various ways. The analogous effect of biology on large-scale geomorphology in the oceans is also known but remains poorly quantified. Physical oceanographic models are becoming increasingly accurate and could be used to study further the patterns of erosion, particle transport and deposition in the oceans. Marine geological and geophysical data could in turn be useful for further verification of such models. Adapting them to conditions of past oceans could address the shorter-period movements, such as due to internal waves and tides, which have been barely addressed in

  14. Solutions Network Formulation Report: Improving NOAA's PORTS(R) Through Enhanced Data Inputs from NASA's Ocean Surface Topography Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, DeNeice

    2007-01-01

    The Nation uses water-level data for a variety of practical purposes, including nautical charting, maritime navigation, hydrography, coastal engineering, and tsunami and storm surge warnings. Long-term applications include marine boundary determinations, tidal predictions, sea-level trend monitoring, oceanographic research, and climate research. Accurate and timely information concerning sea-level height, tide, and ocean current is needed to understand their impact on coastal management, disaster management, and public health. Satellite altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and to improve scientists understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. The NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) National Ocean Service has been monitoring sea-level variations for many years. NOAA s PORTS (Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System) DST (decision support tool), managed by the Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, supports safe and cost-efficient navigation by providing ship masters and pilots with accurate real-time information required to avoid groundings and collisions. This report assesses the capacity of NASA s satellite altimeter data to meet societal decision support needs through incorporation into NOAA s PORTS. NASA has a long heritage of collecting data for ocean research, including its current Terra and Aqua missions. Numerous other missions provide additional important information for coastal management issues, and data collection will continue in the coming decade with such missions as the OSTM (Ocean Surface Topography Mission). OSTM will provide data on sea-surface heights for determining ocean circulation, climate change, and sea-level rise. We suggest that NASA incorporate OSTM altimeter data (C- and Ku-band) into NOAA s PORTS DST in support of NASA s Coastal Management National Application with secondary support to the

  15. Utilizing visual art to enhance the clinical observation skills of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasani, Sona K; Saks, Norma S

    2013-07-01

    Clinical observation is fundamental in practicing medicine, but these skills are rarely taught. Currently no evidence-based exercises/courses exist for medical student training in observation skills. The goal was to develop and teach a visual arts-based exercise for medical students, and to evaluate its usefulness in enhancing observation skills in clinical diagnosis. A pre- and posttest and evaluation survey were developed for a three-hour exercise presented to medical students just before starting clerkships. Students were provided with questions to guide discussion of both representational and non-representational works of art. Quantitative analysis revealed that the mean number of observations between pre- and posttests was not significantly different (n=70: 8.63 vs. 9.13, p=0.22). Qualitative analysis of written responses identified four themes: (1) use of subjective terminology, (2) scope of interpretations, (3) speculative thinking, and (4) use of visual analogies. Evaluative comments indicated that students felt the exercise enhanced both mindfulness and skills. Using visual art images with guided questions can train medical students in observation skills. This exercise can be replicated without specially trained personnel or art museum partnerships.

  16. Upper-level enhancement of microphysical processes in extratropical cyclones observed during OLYMPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, A.; McMurdie, L. A.; Houze, R.; Zagrodnik, J. P.; Schuldt, T.; Chaplin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Data collected during the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) of fall 2015-winter 2016 offer a unique opportunity to document enhancement of precipitation on the windward side of a mountain range as mid-latitude cyclones encountered the complex terrain of the Olympic Mountains. During the campaign, extensive instrumentation was deployed, including ground-based dual-polarization Doppler radars on the windward and leeward sides of the mountains and research aircraft providing in situ microphysical measurements and triple-frequency radar data over the ground-based sites and highest elevations. These datasets provide unprecedented detail on microphysical and dynamical processes associated with precipitation enhancement. Previous studies of precipitation enhancement over mountains have focused on surface rainfall amounts. However, the airflow over the terrain affects precipitation throughout the vertical columns of the atmosphere passing over the mountains. The OLYMPEX data were collected in a way that allows the mechanisms leading to enhancement to be examined at all levels. In particular, NASA's S-band and the NSF/CSWR DOW6 X-band dual-polarization radars provided high-resolution vertical cross sections in sectors upwind and over the mountains. The degree of upper-level enhancement seen in these radar data was most pronounced when the integrated vapor transport was strong, stability was moist neutral, and melting levels were relatively high. These conditions were often found within the warm sectors of the mid-latitude cyclones observed in OLYMPEX. Within widespread stratiform echo, radar data revealed layers of enhanced differential reflectivity aloft in addition to the enhanced reflectivity. In situ microphysical probe data from the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft were obtained in the context of these ground-based radar observations, which along with observations from the APR3 radar aboard the DC8 research aircraft, provide a unique dataset for

  17. Development of an observation robot `Flying Fish` for comprehensive measurements of ocean environment; Kaiyo kankyo sogo kansoku robot `flying fish` no kaihatsu kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koterayama, W.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nakamura, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Akamatsu, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    A high speed towed type physical and chemical observation marine robot named as `Flying Fish` has been developed since 1992, which can measure chemical substances in the sea as well as physical data, such as flow velocity of the ocean and water temperature. This paper describes its formation, designing, control system, and results of ocean tests. For the space continuous observation of physical, chemical, and biological quantities, it is essential to control the depth, pitch, and roll. The wing control method was employed for this robot. As a result of the ocean tests, the following conclusions were obtained. The accuracy under the steady state was {plus_minus}0.05 m in the depth, {plus_minus}1 degree in the pitch, and {plus_minus}0.5 degree in the roll. This was stable enough to operate chemical analysis, such as dissolved oxygen analysis. Even under the unsteady state during the change of depth, the pitch and roll were controlled in {plus_minus}3 degree and {plus_minus}0.5 degree, respectively. Results of the field tests and the numerical simulations for the performance of this robot were agreed well mutually in the practically sufficient accuracy. 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Distribution of Tritium and {sup 137}CS in South Indian Ocean Waters - Implications of Water Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, P. P.; Jeskovsky, M.; Sykora, I. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Gastaud, J.; Levy, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratories (Monaco); Hamajima, Y. [Kanazawa University, Low-Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Nomi (Japan); Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The World Ocean, and specifically the Indian Ocean, plays a significant role in the better understanding of the climate. The distribution of global fallout {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 129}I and {sup 137}Cs in the seawater of the Indian Ocean, after their main injection from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests during the 1960s, have been investigated. Results obtained in the framework of the SHOTS (Southern Hemisphere Ocean Tracer Studies) project are evaluated and compared with previously published data. The enhanced {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs levels observed in the south Indian ocean indicate transport of water masses labelled with these radionuclides from the central Pacific Ocean via the Indonesian Seas to the Indian Ocean. The observed surface gradients and presence of several water masses in the south Indian ocean makes this ocean one of the most dynamic parts of the World ocean. (author)

  19. Tsunami simulation method initiated from waveforms observed by ocean bottom pressure sensors for real-time tsunami forecast; Applied for 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2017-04-01

    After tsunami disaster due to the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake, improvement of the tsunami forecast has been an urgent issue in Japan. National Institute of Disaster Prevention is installing a cable network system of earthquake and tsunami observation (S-NET) at the ocean bottom along the Japan and Kurile trench. This cable system includes 125 pressure sensors (tsunami meters) which are separated by 30 km. Along the Nankai trough, JAMSTEC already installed and operated the cable network system of seismometers and pressure sensors (DONET and DONET2). Those systems are the most dense observation network systems on top of source areas of great underthrust earthquakes in the world. Real-time tsunami forecast has depended on estimation of earthquake parameters, such as epicenter, depth, and magnitude of earthquakes. Recently, tsunami forecast method has been developed using the estimation of tsunami source from tsunami waveforms observed at the ocean bottom pressure sensors. However, when we have many pressure sensors separated by 30km on top of the source area, we do not need to estimate the tsunami source or earthquake source to compute tsunami. Instead, we can initiate a tsunami simulation from those dense tsunami observed data. Observed tsunami height differences with a time interval at the ocean bottom pressure sensors separated by 30 km were used to estimate tsunami height distribution at a particular time. In our new method, tsunami numerical simulation was initiated from those estimated tsunami height distribution. In this paper, the above method is improved and applied for the tsunami generated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake. Tsunami source model of the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake estimated using observed tsunami waveforms, coseimic deformation observed by GPS and ocean bottom sensors by Gusman et al. (2012) is used in this study. The ocean surface deformation is computed from the source model and used as an initial condition of tsunami

  20. Cloud characteristics, thermodynamic controls and radiative impacts during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giangrande, Scott E.; Feng, Zhe; Jensen, Michael P.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Routine cloud, precipitation and thermodynamic observations collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Aerial Facility (AAF) during the 2-year US Department of Energy (DOE) ARM Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign are summarized. These observations quantify the diurnal to large-scale thermodynamic regime controls on the clouds and precipitation over the undersampled, climatically important Amazon basin region. The extended ground deployment of cloud-profiling instrumentation enabled a unique look at multiple cloud regimes at high temporal and vertical resolution. This longer-term ground deployment, coupled with two short-term aircraft intensive observing periods, allowed new opportunities to better characterize cloud and thermodynamic observational constraints as well as cloud radiative impacts for modeling efforts within typical Amazon wet and dry seasons.

  1. Enhancing the Value of Sensor-based Observations by Capturing the Knowledge of How An Observation Came to Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, J.; Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    As we move from keeping data on our disks to sharing it with the world, often in real-time, we are obligated to also tell an unknown user about how our observations were made. Data that are shared must not only have ownership metadata, unit descriptions and content formatting information. The provider must also share information that is needed to assess the data as it relates to potential re-use. A user must be able to assess the limitations and capabilities of the sensor, as it is configured, to understand its value. For example, when an instrument is configured, it typically affects the data accuracy and operational limits of the sensor. An operator may sacrifice data accuracy to achieve a broader operational range and visa versa. If you are looking at newly discovered data, it is important to be able to find all of the information that relates to assessing the data quality for your particular application. Traditionally, metadata are captured by data managers who usually do not know how the data are collected. By the time data are distributed, this knowledge is often gone, buried within notebooks or hidden in documents that are not machine-harvestable and often not human-readable. In a recently funded NSF EarthCube Integrative Activity called X-DOMES (Cross-Domain Observational Metadata in EnviroSensing), mechanisms are underway to enable the capture of sensor and deployment metadata by sensor manufacturers and field operators. The support has enabled the development of a community ontology repository (COR) within the Earth Science Information Partnership (ESIP) community, fostering easy creation of resolvable terms for the broader community. This tool enables non-experts to easily develop W3C standards-based content, promoting the implementation of Semantic Web technologies for enhanced discovery of content and interoperability in workflows. The X-DOMES project is also developing a SensorML Viewer/Editor to provide an easy interface for sensor manufacturers and

  2. Observations of rapid changes in N:P ratio associated with non-Redfield nutrient utilization in mesoscale eddies in the upper ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M.; Xu, Y.; Kao, S. J.; Huang, B.; Sun, J.; Sun, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The concept of Redfield Ratio,or the ocean's nutrient stoichiometry has been fundamental to understanding the ocean biogeochemistry, reflecting the balance of elements between the organisms and the chemical environment and thereby modulating to a large extent the metabolic status of an ecosystem as well as the ecosystem structure. Nutrient stoichiometry of the deep ocean as a consequence of the organic matter regeneration therein is very much homogeneous worldwide while at the upper ocean, changes in nutrient stoichiometryas being frequently observed are to be better understood in terms of their mechanism. Here we report direct observations of fast on a weekly time scale and large fluctuations of nitrate+nitrite (N+N) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) ratios in the ambient seawater in responding to development of meso-scale eddies in an oligotrophic sea, the South China Sea. At the spin up and/or matured stages of eddies, the N:P ratio fluctuated up to 44 in the upper 100 m water column. Along the decay of theeddy, N:P ratio declined back to 3- 20; similar to a "no eddy" condition of 4-22. Along with the fluctuations of N:P ratio was the diatom dominance with the eddy development, while the community structure of the region in typical or non-eddy conditions was predominated by the pico-/nano-plankton as revealed by both the taxa identification and biogenic silicate measurements. This fast growing diatom group apparently had lower nutrient utilization of nitrogenrelative to silicate and/or phosphorus, augmenting the ambient seawater N:P and N:Si. Such preferential P utilization therefore by the fast growing diatomsresulted in significant variations during the different stages of the eddy development.

  3. Using Long-Term Satellite Observations to Identify Sensitive Regimes and Active Regions of Aerosol Indirect Effects for Liquid Clouds Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuepeng; Liu, Yangang; Yu, Fangquan; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT). An aerosol optical thickness (AOT) range of 0.13 change of long-term averaged CDER appears only in limited oceanic regions. The signature of aerosol invigoration of water clouds as revealed by the increase of cloud cover fraction (CCF) and CTH with increasing AOT at the middle/high latitudes of both hemispheres is identified for a pristine atmosphere (AOT polluted marine atmosphere (AOT > 0.3) in the tropical convergence zones. The regions where the second AIE is likely to manifest in the CCF change are limited to several oceanic areas with high CCF of the warm water clouds near the western coasts of continents. The second AIE signature as represented by the reduction of the precipitation efficiency with increasing AOT is more likely to be observed in the AOT regime of 0.08 < AOT < 0.4. The corresponding AIE active regions manifested themselves as the decline of the precipitation efficiency are mainly limited to the oceanic areas downwind of continental aerosols. The sensitive regime of the conventional AIE identified in this observational study is likely associated with the transitional regime from the aerosol-limited regime to the updraft-limited regime identified for aerosol-cloud interaction in cloud model simulations.

  4. Shallow and Deep Latent Heating Modes Over Tropical Oceans Observed with TRMM PR Spectral Latent Heating Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Yukari N.; Shige, Shoichi; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Hirota, Nagio

    2010-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of its formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the Tropics. Associated with this rainfall is a vast amount of heat, which is known as latent heat. It arises mainly due to the phase change of water vapor condensing into liquid droplets; three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere comes from tropical rainfall. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. Three-dimensional distributions of latent heating estimated from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR)utilizing the Spectral Latent Heating (SLH) algorithm are analyzed. Mass-weighted and vertically integrated latent heating averaged over the tropical oceans is estimated as approx.72.6 J/s (approx.2.51 mm/day), and that over tropical land is approx.73.7 J/s (approx.2.55 mm/day), for 30degN-30degS. It is shown that non-drizzle precipitation over tropical and subtropical oceans consists of two dominant modes of rainfall systems, deep systems and congestus. A rough estimate of shallow mode contribution against the total heating is about 46.7 % for the average tropical oceans, which is substantially larger than 23.7 % over tropical land. While cumulus congestus heating linearly correlates with the SST, deep mode is dynamically bounded by large-scale subsidence. It is notable that substantial amount of rain, as large as 2.38 mm day-1 in average, is brought from congestus clouds under the large-scale subsiding circulation. It is also notable that even in the region with SST warmer than 28 oC, large-scale subsidence effectively suppresses the deep convection, remaining the heating by congestus clouds. Our results support that the entrainment of mid-to-lower-tropospheric dry air, which accompanies the large

  5. Enhancing our Understanding of Snowfall Modes with Ground-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, C.; Kulie, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Bliven, L. F.; Wood, N.

    2016-12-01

    Snowfall can be broadly categorized into deep and shallow events based on the vertical distribution of the precipitating ice. Remotely sensed data refine these precipitation categories and aid in discerning the underlying macro- and microphysical mechanisms. The unique patterns in the remotely sensed instruments observations can potentially connect distinct modes of snowfall to specific processes. Though satellites can observe and recognize these patterns in snowfall, these measurements are limited - particularly in cases of shallow and light precipitation, as the snow may be too close to the surface or below the detection limits of the instrumentation. By enhancing satellite measurements with ground-based instrumentation, whether with limited-term field campaigns or long-term strategic sites, we can further our understanding and assumptions about different snowfall modes and how they are measured from spaceborne instruments. Presented are three years of data from a ground-based instrument suite consisting of a MicroRain Radar (MRR; optimized for snow events) and a Precipitation Imaging Package (PIP). These instruments are located at the Marquette, Michigan National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office to: a) use coincident meteorological measurements and observations to enhance our understanding of the thermodynamic drivers and b) showcase these instruments in an operational setting to enhance forecasts of shallow snow events. Three winters of MRR and PIP measurements are partitioned, based on meteorological surface observations, into two-dimensional histograms of reflectivity and particle size distribution data. These statistics improve our interpretation of deep versus shallow precipitation. Additionally, these statistical techniques are applied to similar datasets from Global Precipitation Measurement field campaigns for further insight into cloud and precipitation macro- and microphysical processes.

  6. Observations of magnetospheric ionization enhancements using upper-hybrid resonance noise band data from the RAE-1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    Noise bands associated with the upper-hybrid resonance were used to provide direct evidence for the existence of regions of enhanced density in the equatorial magnetosphere near L = 2. Density enhancements ranging from several percent to as high as 45 percent are observed with radial dimensions of several hundred kilometers. The enhancement characteristics strongly suggest their identification as magnetospheric whistler ducts.

  7. Observation of vacuum-enhanced electron spin resonance of optically levitated nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Hoang, Thai; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining such NV spin systems with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for many novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centers in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this novel system, we also investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. Our results show that optical levitation of nanodiamonds in vacuum not only can improve the mechanical quality of its oscillation, but also enhance the ESR contrast, which pave the way towards a novel levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. The results also indicate potential applications of NV centers in gas sensing.

  8. Transport of soil particles to the ocean and their concentration in the marine atmosphere - A case study of marine aerosols collected during the cruises of the Antarctic observation ship Shirase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Okamori, Katsutaka; Hashimoto, Yoshikazu

    1991-01-01

    The marine aerosol samples over the West Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Antarctic Ocean, collected during the cruises of the Antarctic observation ship Shirase, were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence. As the results, the average concentration of soil derived elements were 11.9 ng/m 3 for Al, 50.6 ng/m 3 for Si, 12.5 ng/m 3 for Fe, over the West Pacific Ocean. These values were so low as 1/100 of their concentrations in the land. Furthermore, these concentrations over the Indian Ocean and the Antarctic Ocean were extremely low, 6.5 ng/m 3 for Al, 13.4 ng/m 3 for Si, 3.5 ng/m 3 for Fe with average. It is considered that these values are the background concentration of soil derived elements in the marine atmosphere

  9. Ocean EcoSystem Modelling Based on Observations from Satellite and In-Situ Data: First Results from the OSMOSIS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, M.-H.; Buongiorno-Nardelli, B.; Calmettes, B.; Conchon, A.; Droghei, R.; Guinehut, S.; Larnicol, G.; Lehodey, P.; Matthieu, P. P.; Mulet, S.; Santoleri, R.; Senina, I.; Stum, J.; Verbrugge, N.

    2015-12-01

    Micronekton organisms are both the prey of large ocean predators, and themselves also the predators of eggs and larvae of many species from which most fishes. The micronekton biomass concentration is therefore a key explanatory variable that is usually missing in fish population and ecosystem models to understand individual behaviour and population dynamics of large oceanic predators. In that context, the OSMOSIS (Ocean ecoSystem Modelling based on Observations from Satellite and In-Situ data) ESA project aims at demonstrating the feasibility and prototyping an integrated system going from the synergetic use of many different variables measured from space to the modelling of the distribution of micronektonic organisms. In this paper, we present how data from CRYOSAT, GOCE, SMOS, ENVISAT, together with other non-ESA satellites and in-situ data, can be merged to provide the required key variables needed as input of the micronekton model. Also, first results from the optimization of the micronekton model are presented and discussed.

  10. Knowledge base for growth and innovation in ocean economy: assembly and dissemination of marine data for seabed mapping - European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Manzella, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Physics preparatory action (MARE/2010/02 - Lot [SI2.579120]) had the overall objectives to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions as monitored by fixed stations and Ferrybox lines in all the European sea basins and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. The existing EMODnet-Physics portal, www.emodnet-physics.eu, includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets), viewing and downloading of the data from about 470 platforms across the European Sea basins. It makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs), and it brings together two marine, but different, communities : the "real time" ocean observing institutes and centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge for archived ocean data validation, quality check and continuous update of data archives for marine environmental monitoring. EMODnet Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data, it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unnecessary complexity, it provides data access to any relevant user, and is aimed at attracting new data holders and providing better and more data. With a long term-vision for a sustained pan European Ocean Observation System EMODnet Physics is supporting the coordination of the

  11. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-04 to 2011-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0143947)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143947 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-11-28 to 2013-01-04 (NCEI Accession 0143950)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143950 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1996-03-17 to 1996-05-20 (NODC Accession 0116640)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116640 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-03 (NODC Accession 0110379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110379 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-12-26 to 2009-01-30 (NODC Accession 0110254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110254 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-11-28 to 2011-02-05 (NODC Accession 0108155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108155 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  17. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-16 to 2008-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0143932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143932 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  18. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1993-02-06 to 1993-03-18 (NCEI Accession 0143944)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143944 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  19. Using Remote Sensing and Field Observations of Colored Dissolved Organic Material (CDOM) to Improve Understanding of Carbon Dynamics at the Land-Ocean Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, L.; Tzortziou, M.; Gilerson, A.; Foster, R.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) and its colored component, (CDOM) are sensitive indicators of environmental pollution, nutrient enrichment, water quality and plays a key role in a broad range of processes and climate-related biogeochemical cycles in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Because of its strong influence on how ocean color is viewed, CDOM can provide an invaluable optical tool for coastal zone environmental assessment and from space. There is a continuous cycle of sources and sinks of CDOM from terrestrial sources to the wetlands to the estuaries and to the ocean waters. Terrestrial inputs from natural processes, anthropogenic activities, exchanges with the atmosphere, rich biodiversity and high primary productivity, physical, photochemical and microbial processes affect not only the amount but also the quality and optical signature of CDOM in near-shore waters. In this study, new measurements are presented of the optical characteristics of CDOM collected from the Chesapeake Bay estuarine environment. Measured parameters include absorption spectra, estimated spectral slopes, slope ratios, DOC-specific CDOM absorption as well as 3D CDOM fluorescence emission-excitation matrices. Such results will provide insight of the measured CDOM in this complex environment and the complex process that affect CDOM quality and amount during transport to the estuary and coastal ocean. New field campaigns will be conducted in August and September in the Chesapeake Bay estuary and the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to collect more samples for analysis of CDOM dynamics and link field observations and measurements to satellite ocean color retrievals of estuarine biogeochemical processes. In addition, advanced satellite CDOM data distribution and usage is discussed as it has considerable operational value and practical application beyond the scientific community and research. Keywords: CDOM, carbon dynamics, estuaries, coastal ecosystems, optical properties, satellite applications

  20. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as part of the Ocean Prediction Through Observation Modeling and Analysis (OPTOMA) project, 1984-09-26 to 1985-07-16 (NODC Accession 9600075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from September 26, 1984 to July 16, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  1. Projected changes in tropical cyclone climatology and landfall in the Southwest Indian Ocean region under enhanced anthropogenic forcing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The conformal-cubic atmospheric model, a variable-resolution global model, is applied at high spatial resolution to perform simulations of present-day and future climate over southern Africa and over the Southwest Indian Ocean. The model is forced...

  2. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: a temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aken, HM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Deep-Sea Research Part 1: Oceanographic Research Papers February 2013/Vol. 72, pp 1-8 Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: A temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa? H.M. van Akena,*, J.R.E.... Lutjeharms b, M. Rouault b,c, C. Whittle d,b, W.P.M. de Ruijter e aNIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, PO Box 59, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands bDepartment of Oceanography, Mare Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South...

  3. Observation of Enhanced Hole Extraction in Br Concentration Gradient Perovskite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Son, Dae-Yong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-09-14

    Enhancing hole extraction inside the perovskite layer is the key factor for boosting photovoltaic performance. Realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials has been expected to exhibit rapid hole extraction due to the precise bandgap tuning. Moreover, a formation of Br-rich region on the tri-iodide perovskite layer is expected to enhance moisture stability without a loss of current density. However, conventional synthetic techniques of perovskite materials such as the solution process have not achieved the realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of Br concentration gradient mixed halide perovskite materials using a novel and facile halide conversion method based on vaporized hydrobromic acid. Accelerated hole extraction and enhanced lifetime due to Br gradient was verified by observing photoluminescence properties. Through the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the diffusion behavior of Br ions in perovskite materials was investigated. The Br-gradient was found to be eventually converted into a homogeneous mixed halide layer after undergoing an intermixing process. Br-substituted perovskite solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 18.94% due to an increase in open circuit voltage from 1.08 to 1.11 V and an advance in fill-factor from 0.71 to 0.74. Long-term stability was also dramatically enhanced after the conversion process, i.e., the power conversion efficiency of the post-treated device has remained over 97% of the initial value under high humid conditions (40-90%) without any encapsulation for 4 weeks.

  4. Sporadic and Thermospheric Enhanced Sodium Layers Observed by a Lidar Chain over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X.

    2013-12-01

    We report the statistical features of sporadic sodium layers (SSLs) and the thermospheric enhanced sodium layers (TeSLs) observed by a lidar chain located at Beijing (40.2N,116.2E), Hefei (31.8N, 117.3E), Wuhan (30.5N, 114.4E), and Haikou (19.5N, 109.1E). The average SSL occurrence rate was approximately 46.0, 12.3, 13.8, and 15.0 hr per SSL at Beijing, Hefei, Wuhan, and Haikou, respectively. However, the TeSLs occurred relatively infrequently and were more likely to appear at low and high latitudinal sites. Both the SSLs and TeSLs at four lidar sites showed evident summer enhancements and correlated well with Es (foEs>4MHz). The co-observations of SSLs at three lidar site pairs, i.e., Hefei -- Beijing, Hefei -- Wuhan and Hefei -- Beijing, indicated that a large-scale SSL extended horizontally for at least a few hundred kilometers and exhibited a tidal-induced modulation. Moreover, the SSLs were better correlated for the Hefei -- Wuhan and Hefei -- Haikou pairs than the Hefei -- Beijing pair, which suggested a difference in the dynamical/chemical process in mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) between the Beijing site and the other sites.

  5. Enhancement of photovoltaic effects and photoconductivity observed in Co-doped amorphous carbon/silicon heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y. C.; Gao, J., E-mail: jugao@hku.hk [Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-08-22

    Co-doped amorphous carbon (Co-C)/silicon heterostructures were fabricated by growing Co-C films on n-type Si substrates using pulsed laser deposition. A photovoltaic effect (PVE) has been observed at room temperature. Open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 320 mV and short-circuit current density J{sub sc }= 5.62 mA/cm{sup 2} were measured under illumination of 532-nm light with the power of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. In contrast, undoped amorphous carbon/Si heterostructures revealed no significant PVE. Based on the PVE and photoconductivity (PC) investigated at different temperatures, it was found that the energy conversion efficiency increased with increasing the temperature and reached the maximum at room temperature, while the photoconductivity showed a reverse temperature dependence. The observed competition between PVE and PC was correlated with the way to distribute absorbed photons. The possible mechanism, explaining the enhanced PVE and PC in the Co-C/Si heterostructures, might be attributed to light absorption enhanced by localized surface plasmons in Co nanoparticles embedded in the carbon matrix.

  6. Establishing a ultraviolet radiation observational network and enhancing the study on ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Wang, Gengchen

    2003-09-01

    On the basis of analyzing observational data on solar radiation, meteorological parameters, and total ozone amount for the period of January 1990 to December 1991 in the Beijing area, an empirical calculation method for ultraviolet radiation (UV) in clear sky is obtained. The results show that the calculated values agree well with the observed, with maximum relative bias of 6.2% and mean relative bias for 24 months of 1.9%. Good results are also obtained when this method is applied in Guangzhou and Mohe districts. The long-term variation of UV radiation in clear sky over the Beijing area from 1979 to 1998 is calculated, and the UV variation trends and causes are discussed: direct and indirect UV energy absorption by increasing pollutants in the troposphere may have caused the UV decrease in clear sky in the last 20 years. With the enhancement of people’s quality of life and awareness of health, it will be valuable and practical to provid UV forecasts for typical cities and rural areas. So, we should develop and enhance UV study in systematic monitoring, forecasting, and developing a good and feasible method for UV radiation reporting in China, especially for big cities.

  7. From geospatial observations of ocean currents to causal predictors of spatio-economic activity using computer vision and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin; Ayache, Stephane; Escalera, Sergio; Baró Solé, Xavier; Capponi, Cecile; Panciatici, Patrick; Guyon, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    The big data transformation currently revolutionizing science and industry forges novel possibilities in multi-modal analysis scarcely imaginable only a decade ago. One of the important economic and industrial problems that stand to benefit from the recent expansion of data availability and computational prowess is the prediction of electricity demand and renewable energy generation. Both are correlates of human activity: spatiotemporal energy consumption patterns in society are a factor of both demand (weather dependent) and supply, which determine cost - a relation expected to strengthen along with increasing renewable energy dependence. One of the main drivers of European weather patterns is the activity of the Atlantic Ocean and in particular its dominant Northern Hemisphere current: the Gulf Stream. We choose this particular current as a test case in part due to larger amount of relevant data and scientific literature available for refinement of analysis techniques. This data richness is due not only to its economic importance but also to its size being clearly visible in radar and infrared satellite imagery, which makes it easier to detect using Computer Vision (CV). The power of CV techniques makes basic analysis thus developed scalable to other smaller and less known, but still influential, currents, which are not just curves on a map, but complex, evolving, moving branching trees in 3D projected onto a 2D image. We investigate means of extracting, from several image modalities (including recently available Copernicus radar and earlier Infrared satellites), a parameterized representation of the state of the Gulf Stream and its environment that is useful as feature space representation in a machine learning context, in this case with the EC's H2020-sponsored 'See.4C' project, in the context of which data scientists may find novel predictors of spatiotemporal energy flow. Although automated extractors of Gulf Stream position exist, they differ in methodology

  8. Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies: Potential synergies with ocean color remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claustre, H.; Bishop, J.; Boss, E.; Bernard, S.; Berthon, J.-F.; Coatanoan, C.; Johnson, K.; Lotiker, A.; Ulloa, O.; Perry, M.J.; D' Ortenzio, F.; D' andon, O.H.F.; Uitz, J.

    2009-10-01

    Profiling floats now represent a mature technology. In parallel with their emergence, the field of miniature, low power bio-optical and biogeochemical sensors is rapidly evolving. Over recent years, the bio-geochemical and bio-optical community has begun to benefit from the increase in observational capacities by developing profiling floats that allow the measurement of key biooptical variables and subsequent products of biogeochemical and ecosystem relevance like Chlorophyll a (Chla), optical backscattering or attenuation coefficients which are proxies of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC), Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM). Thanks to recent algorithmic improvements, new bio-optical variables such as backscattering coefficient or absorption by CDOM, at present can also be extracted from space observations of ocean color. In the future, an intensification of in situ measurements by bio-optical profiling floats would permit the elaboration of unique 3D/4D bio-optical climatologies, linking surface (remotely detected) properties to their vertical distribution (measured by autonomous platforms), with which key questions in the role of the ocean in climate could be addressed. In this context, the objective of the IOCCG (International Ocean Color Coordinating Group) BIO-Argo working group is to elaborate recommendations in view of a future use of bio-optical profiling floats as part of a network that would include a global array that could be 'Argo-relevant', and specific arrays that would have more focused objectives or regional targets. The overall network, realizing true multi-scale sustained observations of global marine biogeochemistry and biooptics, should satisfy the requirements for validation of ocean color remote sensing as well as the needs of a wider community investigating the impact of global change on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems. Regarding the global profiling float array, the recommendation is that Chla as well as POC should be the

  9. Inter-annual variability of aerosol optical depth over the tropical Atlantic Ocean based on MODIS-Aqua observations over the period 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    The tropical Atlantic Ocean is affected by dust and biomass burning aerosol loads transported from the western parts of the Saharan desert and the sub-Sahel regions, respectively. The spatial and temporal patterns of this transport are determined by the aerosol emission rates, their deposition (wet and dry), by the latitudinal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the prevailing wind fields. More specifically, in summer, Saharan dust aerosols are transported towards the Atlantic Ocean, even reaching the Gulf of Mexico, while in winter the Atlantic Ocean transport takes place in more southern latitudes, near the equator, sometimes reaching the northern parts of South America. In the later case, dust is mixed with biomass burning aerosols originating from agricultural activities in the sub-Sahel, associated with prevailing north-easterly airflow (Harmattan winds). Satellite observations are the appropriate tool for describing this African aerosol export, which is important to atmospheric, oceanic and climate processes, offering the advantage of complete spatial coverage. In the present study, we use satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth at 550nm (AOD550nm), on a daily and monthly basis, derived from MODIS-Aqua platform, at 1ox1o spatial resolution (Level 3), for the period 2002-2012. The primary objective is to determine the pixel-level and regional mean anomalies of AOD550nm over the entire study period. The regime of the anomalies of African export is interpreted in relation to the aerosol source areas, precipitation, wind patterns and temporal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI). In order to ensure availability of AOD over the Sahara desert, MODIS-Aqua Deep Blue products are also used. As for precipitation, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data at 2.5ox2.5o are used. The wind fields are taken from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Apart from the regime of African aerosol export

  10. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS DIRECT in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1969-11-07 to 1969-11-25 (NODC Accession 6901053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS DIRECT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  11. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ENGAGE in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-10-24 to 1966-12-12 (NODC Accession 6600267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ENGAGE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  12. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1962-01-02 to 1962-02-09 (NODC Accession 6200043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  13. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1969-06-18 to 1969-06-23 (NODC Accession 6900720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  14. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1970-01-19 to 1970-02-11 (NODC Accession 7000415)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  15. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-03-04 to 1966-04-01 (NODC Accession 6600774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  16. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1964-05-30 to 1964-06-19 (NODC Accession 6400458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  17. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-07-23 to 1966-08-02 (NODC Accession 6600087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the North Pacific...

  18. Species identification and other data collected from visual observation and other data from the COMMONWEALTH and other platforms in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1950 to 01 August 1963 (NODC Accession 7200709)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Species identification and other data were collected using visual observation, net, and photograph from the COMMONWEALTH and other platforms in the North Pacific...

  19. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-07-19 to 1966-07-21 (NODC Accession 6600106)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  20. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS SKILL in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1967-07-08 to 1967-07-19 (NODC Accession 6700389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS SKILL in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  1. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ACME in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1968-04-05 to 1968-04-25 (NODC Accession 6800642)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ACME in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  2. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LEADER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1968-08-25 to 1968-10-01 (NODC Accession 6900682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LEADER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  3. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LEADER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1963-04-05 to 1963-05-01 (NODC Accession 6300422)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LEADER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  4. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LEADER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1961-05-04 to 1961-05-24 (NODC Accession 6100034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LEADER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  5. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LEADER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1961-11-05 to 1961-11-10 (NODC Accession 6100262)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LEADER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  6. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONSTANT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1969-04-28 to 1969-05-09 (NODC Accession 6900939)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONSTANT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  7. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ENGAGE in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1964-05-08 to 1964-05-18 (NODC Accession 6400425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ENGAGE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  8. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-08-31 to 1966-09-04 (NODC Accession 6600182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  9. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1963-09-19 to 1963-09-20 (NODC Accession 6300789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  10. Enhanced tropospheric BrO over Antarctic sea ice in mid winter observed by MAX-DOAS on board the research vessel Polarstern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. Outside the first year sea ice belt, typically low BrO concentrations were found. Based on back trajectory calculations we find a positive correlation between the observed BrO differential slant column densities (ΔSCDs and the duration for which the air masses had been in contact with the sea ice surface prior to the measurement. While we can not completely rule out that in several cases the highest BrO concentrations might be located close to the ground, our observations indicate that the maximum BrO concentrations might typically exist in a (possibly extended layer around the upper edge of the boundary layer. Besides the effect of a decreasing pH of sea salt aerosol with altitude and therefore an increase of BrO with height, this finding might be also related to vertical mixing of air from the free troposphere with the boundary layer, probably caused by convection over the warm ocean surface at polynyas and cracks in the ice. Strong vertical gradients of BrO and O3 could also explain why we found enhanced BrO levels almost continuously for the observations within the sea ice. Based on our estimated BrO profiles we derive BrO mixing ratios of several ten ppt, which is slightly higher than many existing observations. Our observations indicate that enhanced BrO concentrations around Antarctica exist about one month earlier than observed by satellite instruments. From detailed radiative transfer simulations we find that MAX-DOAS observations are up to about one order of

  11. Glider and remote sensing observations of the upper ocean response to an extended shallow coastal diversion of wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Seegers, Bridget N.; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Caron, David A.; Jones, Burton

    2016-01-01

    The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) diverted wastewater discharge (5.3 × 108 l d−1) from its primary deep (56 m) outfall 8 km offshore, to a secondary shallower (16 m) outfall 1.6 km offshore for a period of three weeks. It was anticipated that the low salinity and density of the effluent would cause it to rise to the surface with limited dilution, elevating nutrient concentrations in near-surface waters and stimulating phytoplankton blooms in the region. Three Teledyne Webb Slocum gliders and a Liquid Robotics surface wave glider were deployed on transects near the outfalls to acquire high spatial and temporal coverage of physical and chemical parameters before, during, and after the wastewater diversion. Combined autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean color data indicated that phytoplankton biomass increased in the upper water column in response to the diversion, but that the magnitude of the response was spatially patchy and significantly less than expected. Little evidence of the plume or its effects was detectable 72 h following the diversion. The effluent plume exhibited high rates of dilution and mixed throughout the upper 20 m and occasionally throughout the upper 40 m during the diversion. Rapid plume advection and dilution appeared to contribute to the muted impact of the nutrient-rich effluent on the phytoplankton community in this coastal ecosystem.

  12. Glider and remote sensing observations of the upper ocean response to an extended shallow coastal diversion of wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Seegers, Bridget N.

    2016-06-21

    The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) diverted wastewater discharge (5.3 × 108 l d−1) from its primary deep (56 m) outfall 8 km offshore, to a secondary shallower (16 m) outfall 1.6 km offshore for a period of three weeks. It was anticipated that the low salinity and density of the effluent would cause it to rise to the surface with limited dilution, elevating nutrient concentrations in near-surface waters and stimulating phytoplankton blooms in the region. Three Teledyne Webb Slocum gliders and a Liquid Robotics surface wave glider were deployed on transects near the outfalls to acquire high spatial and temporal coverage of physical and chemical parameters before, during, and after the wastewater diversion. Combined autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean color data indicated that phytoplankton biomass increased in the upper water column in response to the diversion, but that the magnitude of the response was spatially patchy and significantly less than expected. Little evidence of the plume or its effects was detectable 72 h following the diversion. The effluent plume exhibited high rates of dilution and mixed throughout the upper 20 m and occasionally throughout the upper 40 m during the diversion. Rapid plume advection and dilution appeared to contribute to the muted impact of the nutrient-rich effluent on the phytoplankton community in this coastal ecosystem.

  13. Glider and remote sensing observations of the upper ocean response to an extended shallow coastal diversion of wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Bridget N.; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Caron, David A.; Jones, Burton H.

    2017-02-01

    The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) diverted wastewater discharge (5.3 × 108 l d-1) from its primary deep (56 m) outfall 8 km offshore, to a secondary shallower (16 m) outfall 1.6 km offshore for a period of three weeks. It was anticipated that the low salinity and density of the effluent would cause it to rise to the surface with limited dilution, elevating nutrient concentrations in near-surface waters and stimulating phytoplankton blooms in the region. Three Teledyne Webb Slocum gliders and a Liquid Robotics surface wave glider were deployed on transects near the outfalls to acquire high spatial and temporal coverage of physical and chemical parameters before, during, and after the wastewater diversion. Combined autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean color data indicated that phytoplankton biomass increased in the upper water column in response to the diversion, but that the magnitude of the response was spatially patchy and significantly less than expected. Little evidence of the plume or its effects was detectable 72 h following the diversion. The effluent plume exhibited high rates of dilution and mixed throughout the upper 20 m and occasionally throughout the upper 40 m during the diversion. Rapid plume advection and dilution appeared to contribute to the muted impact of the nutrient-rich effluent on the phytoplankton community in this coastal ecosystem.

  14. Global Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telszewski, Maciej; Tanhua, Toste; Palacz, Artur

    2016-04-01

    multidisciplinary global ocean observing system. Over the past 4-5 years IOCCP's long standing experience in coordinating biogeochemical observations and data flows globally, resulted in assuming a leadership role during the design and implementation of the biogeochemistry portion of the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO, 2012). To optimize and enhance the global ocean observing system IOCCP started to implement major elements of the system's approach outlined in the FOO. Starting by setting of ocean observing requirements representing the needs of societal and scientific stakeholders, followed by development of a set of essential ocean variables (EOVs) with spatial and temporal resolution specifications to best meet current demands for data and information services given current and potential national capabilities. The IOCCP works directly with projects and programs programmatically connected to GOOS as well as the WMO-IOC JCOMM to integrate ocean carbon and biogeochemistry observation information into the plans of the Global Climate Observing System in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the Group on Earth Observations, and other international and intergovernmental strategies. We would like to update our partners across disciplines and domains on our short- and long-term strategies as well as learn from their combined experience and knowledge so that our individual activities align more with those undertaken by our counterparts in biological and physical oceanography as well as in terrestrial and atmospheric domains.

  15. S-to-P Conversions from Mid-mantle Slow Scatterers in Slab Regions: Observations of Deep/Stagnated Oceanic Crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Zheng, Yixian

    2018-02-01

    The fate of a subducted slab is a key ingredient in the context of plate tectonics, yet it remains enigmatic especially in terms of its crustal component. In this study, our efforts are devoted to resolve slab-related structures in the mid-mantle below eastern Indonesia, the Izu-Bonin region, and the Peru area by employing seismic array analysing techniques on high-frequency waveform data from F-net in Japan and the Alaska regional network and the USArray in North America. A pronounced arrival after the direct P wave is observed in the recordings of four deep earthquakes (depths greater than 400 km) from three subduction systems including the Philippines, the Izu-Bonin, and the Peru. This later arrival displays a slightly lower slowness compared to the direct P wave and its back-azimuth deviates somewhat from the great-circle direction. We explain it as an S-to-P conversion at a deep scatterer below the sources in the source region. In total, five scatterers are seen at depths ranging from 930 to 1500 km. Those scatterers appear to be characterised by an 7 km-thick low-velocity layer compared to the ambient mantle. Combined evidence from published mineral physical analysis suggests that past subducted oceanic crust, possibly fragmented, is most likely responsible for these thin-layer compositional heterogeneities trapped in the mid-mantle beneath the study regions. Our observations give a clue to the potential fate of subducted oceanic crust.

  16. Impact of East Asian Winter and Australian Summer Monsoons on the Enhanced Surface Westerlies over the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean Preceding the El Niño Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Zhang, R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Composite analysis from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis datasets over the period 1948-2007 indicates that stronger East Asian winter monsoons (EAWM) and stronger Australian summer monsoons (ASM) generally co-exist in boreal winters preceding the onset of El Niño, although the EAWM tend to be weak after 1990, probably because of the decadal shift of EAWM and the change in El Niño events from cold-tongue type to warm-pool type. The anomalous EAWM and ASM enhance surface westerlies over the western tropical Pacific Ocean (WTP). It is proposed that the enhanced surface westerlies over the WTP prior to El Niño onset are generally associated with the concurrent anomalous EAWM and ASM. A simple analytical atmospheric model is constructed to test the hypothesis that the emergence of enhanced surface westerlies over the WTP can be linked to concurrent EAWM and ASM anomalies. Model results indicate that when anomalous northerlies from the EAWM converge with anomalous southerlies from the ASM, westerly anomalies over the WTP are enhanced. This result provides a possible explanation of the co-impact of the EAWM and the ASM on the onset of El Niño through enhancing the surface westerly over the WTP.

  17. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  18. An assessment of oceanic seabird abundance and distribution off the southern Brazilian coast using observations obtained during deep-water fishing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, J O; Fracasso, H A A; Pérez, J A A; Rodrigues-Filho, J L

    2014-08-01

    The use of discarded fish over baited hooks used in longline fishery, and fish caught in gillnets, as a food source for gulls, albatrosses and petrels has been intensively studied in northern and southern oceans. This study describes the occurrence and abundance of seabirds observed from 20 foreign vessels which operated during the period between July 2001 and May 2005, off the southeastern and southern Brazilian coast. A total of 353,557 seabirds were observed; comprising eight families and 28 species. The most abundant species was Procellaria conspicillata followed by Daption capense, Puffinus gravis, Thalassarche melanophrys and Oceanites oceanicus. Ten species of seabirds (392 individual birds) were incidentally captured in gillnets; and 122 birds (9 species) by longline hooks, with P. gravis, D. capense and Procellaria aequinoctialis having the largest capture rates.

  19. Connecting qualitative observation and quantitative measurement for enhancing quantitative literacy in plant anatomy course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraeni, E.; Rahmat, A.

    2018-05-01

    Forming of cognitive schemes of plant anatomy concepts is performed by processing of qualitative and quantitative data obtained from microscopic observations. To enhancing student’s quantitative literacy, strategy of plant anatomy course was modified by adding the task to analyze quantitative data produced by quantitative measurement of plant anatomy guided by material course. Participant in this study was 24 biology students and 35 biology education students. Quantitative Literacy test, complex thinking in plant anatomy test and questioner used to evaluate the course. Quantitative literacy capability data was collected by quantitative literacy test with the rubric from the Association of American Colleges and Universities, Complex thinking in plant anatomy by test according to Marzano and questioner. Quantitative literacy data are categorized according to modified Rhodes and Finley categories. The results showed that quantitative literacy of biology education students is better than biology students.

  20. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Observations of Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate During NASA's GRIP and HS3 Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; Biswas, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, C.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain spatial resolution of approximately 2 km, out to roughly 30 km each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. The physical retrieval technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  1. Positive matrix factorization and trajectory modelling for source identification: A new look at Indian Ocean Experiment ship observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprasad, S. G.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Bhushan, Mani

    The sources of aerosols on a regional scale over India have only recently received attention in studies using back trajectory analysis and chemical transport modelling. Receptor modelling approaches such as positive matrix factorization (PMF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) are effective tools in source identification of urban and regional-scale pollution. In this work, PMF and PSCF analysis is applied to identify categories and locations of sources that influenced surface concentrations of aerosols in the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) domain measured on-board the research vessel Ron Brown [Quinn, P.K., Coffman, D.J., Bates, T.S., Miller, T.L., Johnson, J.E., Welton, E.J., et al., 2002. Aerosol optical properties during INDOEX 1999: means, variability, and controlling factors. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 8020, doi:10.1029/2000JD000037]. Emissions inventory information is used to identify sources co-located with probable source regions from PSCF. PMF analysis identified six factors influencing PM concentrations during the INDOEX cruise of the Ron Brown including a biomass combustion factor (35-40%), three industrial emissions factors (35-40%), primarily secondary sulphate-nitrate, balance trace elements and Zn, and two dust factors (20-30%) of Si- and Ca-dust. The identified factors effectively predict the measured submicron PM concentrations (slope of regression line=0.90±0.20; R2=0.76). Probable source regions shifted based on changes in surface and elevated flows during different times in the ship cruise. They were in India in the early part of the cruise, but in west Asia, south-east Asia and Africa, during later parts of the cruise. Co-located sources include coal-fired electric utilities, cement, metals and petroleum production in India and west Asia, biofuel combustion for energy and crop residue burning in India, woodland/forest burning in north sub-Saharan Africa and forest burning in south-east Asia. Significant findings

  2. Ship Sensor Observations for Estuary to the Abyss 2004: Exploring Along the Latitude 31-30 Transect - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Estuary to the Abyss 2004" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  3. Oceanographic field observations off North Carolina, summer survey: ocean outfall waste water disposal feasibility and planning study from 22 May 1976 to 23 May 1978 (NODC Accession 8000016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients, temperature profile, waste disposal, and ocean circulation data were collected using CTD from the JOHN DEWOLF in the coastal waters of North Carolina from...

  4. Ice-Tethered Profiler observations: Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, oxygen, and ocean velocity from an Ice-Tethered Profiler buoy system

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains repeated vertical profiles of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, as well as oxygen and velocity for some instruments. Data were...

  5. Partnering and teamwork to create content for spherical display systems to enhance public literacy in earth system and ocean sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.; Spargo, A.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.

    2013-12-01

    Spherical display systems, also known as digital globes, are technologies that, in person or online, can be used to help visualize global datasets and earth system processes. Using the InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields and imagery from deep-sea vehicles, we are creating content for spherical display systems to educate and excite the public about dynamic geophysical and biological processes and exploration in the deep ocean. The 'Global Viewport for Virtual Exploration of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents' is a collaboration between the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Ocean Explorium at New Bedford Seaport, hosting a Magic Planet and Science On a Sphere (SOS), respectively. The main activities in the first year of our project were geared towards team building and content development. Here we will highlight the partnering and teamwork involved in creating and testing the effectiveness of our new content. Our core team is composed of a lead scientist, educators at both institutions, graphic artists, and a professional evaluator. The new content addresses key principles of Earth Science Literacy and Ocean Literacy. We will share the collaborative, iterative process by which we developed two educational pieces, 'Life without sunlight' and 'Smoke and fire underwater' - each focusing on a different set of 3 literacy principles. We will share how we conducted our front-end and formative evaluations and how we focused on 2 NSF Informal Education Impact Categories for our evaluation questionnaire for the public. Each educational piece is being produced as a stand-alone movie and as an interactive, docent-led presentation integrating a number of other datasets available from NOAA's SOS Users Network. The proximity of our two institutions enables a unique evaluation of the learning attained with a stand-alone spherical display vs. live presentations with an SOS.

  6. Interactions of the tropical oceans. Rev.ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Barnett, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions of the tropical oceans on interannual time scales by conducting a series of uncoupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation experiments and hybrid coupled model simulations. Our results illustrate the key role of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon in generating interannual variability in all three tropical ocean basins. Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific force via a changed atmospheric circulation SST anomalies of the same sign in the Indian Ocean and SST anomalies of the opposite sign in the Atlantic. However, although air-sea interactions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans are much weaker than those in the Pacific, they contribute significantly to the variability in these two regions. The role of these air-sea interactions is mainly that of an amplifyer by which the ENSO induced signals are enhanced in ocean and atmosphere. This process is particularly important in the tropical Atlantic region. We investigated also whether ENSO is part of a zonally propagating ''wave'' which travels around the globe with a time scale of several years. Consistent with observations, the upper ocean heat content in the various numerical simulations seems to propagate slowly around the globe. SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean introduce a global atmospheric response which in turn forces variations in the other tropical oceans. Since the different oceans exhibit different response characteristics to low-frequency wind changes, the individual tropical ocean responses can add up coincidentally to look like a global wave, and that appears to be the situation. In particular, no evidence is found that the Indian Ocean can significantly affect the ENSO cycle in the Pacific. Finally, the potential for climate forecasts in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans appears to be enhanced if one includes, in a coupled way, remote influences from the Pacific. (orig.)

  7. Observational Evidence for Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Reinforcing Wintertime Arctic Amplification and Sea Ice Melting Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y.; Liang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Despite an apparent hiatus in global warming, the Arctic climate continues to experience unprecedented changes. Summer sea ice is retreating at an accelerated rate, and surface temperatures in this region are rising at a rate double that of the global average, a phenomenon known as Arctic amplification. Although a lot of efforts have been made, the causes this unprecedented phenomenon remain unclear and are subjects of considerable debate. In this study, we report strong observational evidence, for the first time from long-term (1984-2014) spatially complete satellite records, that increased cloudiness and atmospheric water vapor in winter and spring have caused an extraordinary downward longwave radiative flux to the ice surface, which may then amplify the Arctic wintertime ice-surface warming. In addition, we also provide observed evidence that it is quite likely the enhancement of the wintertime greenhouse effect caused by water vapor and cloudiness has advanced the time of onset of ice melting in mid-May through inhibiting sea-ice refreezing in the winter and accelerating the pre-melting process in the spring, and in turn triggered the positive sea-ice albedo feedback process and accelerated the sea ice melting in the summer.

  8. Intergranular attack observed in radiation-enhanced corrosion of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, R.J.; Kelly, J.L.; Harna, S.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of AISI 1018 mild steel in deaerated brine solutions of various sodium, magnesium, and chloride ion concentrations. Immersed metal specimens were irradiated at an exposure rate of 3 x 10/sup 5/ R/h (0.3 MR/h) for up to 1250 h at a temperature of --25 C. The corrosion rates of the irradiated specimens were found to be roughly a factor of 10 greater than the rates for the non-irradiated specimens. The radiation-enhanced corrosion rate was also found to have increased with the chloride concentration. Electron micrographs revealed that the surface morphology of the specimens exposed to irradiated brines differed greatly from the non-irradiated specimens. The non-irradiated specimens had undergone uniform corrosion, while the irradiated specimens exhibited intergranular corrosion (IGC), a phenomenon not yet observed in mild steel. An explanation for this observation is offered in terms of the relative rates of formation and recombination of radiolytic species

  9. Ocean Sense: Student-Led, Real-Time Research at the Bottom of the Ocean - Without Leaving the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; McLean, M. A.; Riddell, D. J.; Ewing, N.; Brown, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation outlines the authentic research experiences created by Ocean Networks Canada's Ocean Sense program, a transformative education program that connects students and teachers with place-based, real-time data via the Internet. This program, developed in collaboration with community educators, features student-centric activities, clearly outlined learning outcomes, assessment tools and curriculum aligned content. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. Technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories have been adapted for small coastal installations called "community observatories," which enable community members to directly monitor conditions in the local ocean environment. Data from these observatories are fundamental to lessons and activities in the Ocean Sense program. Marketed as Ocean Sense: Local observations, global connections, the program introduces middle and high school students to research methods in biology, oceanography and ocean engineering. It includes a variety of resources and opportunities to excite students and spark curiosity about the ocean environment. The program encourages students to connect their local observations to global ocean processes and the observations of students in other geographic regions. Connection to place and local relevance of the program is enhanced through an emphasis on Indigenous and place-based knowledge. The program promotes of cross-cultural learning with the inclusion of Indigenous knowledge of the ocean. Ocean Sense provides students with an authentic research experience by connecting them to real-time data, often within their own communities. Using the freely accessible data portal, students can curate the data they need from a range of instruments and time periods. Further, students are not restricted to their local community; if their question requires a greater range of

  10. Connecting Coastal Communities with Ocean Science: A Look at Ocean Sense and the Inclusion of Place-based Indigenous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, M. A.; Brown, J.; Hoeberechts, M.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. Technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories have been adapted for small coastal installations called "community observatories," which enable community members to directly monitor conditions in the local ocean environment. In 2014, ONC pioneered an innovative educational program, Ocean Sense: Local observations, global connections, which introduces students and teachers to the technologies installed on community observatories. The program introduces middle and high school students to research methods in biology, oceanography and ocean engineering through hands-on activities. Ocean Sense includes a variety of resources and opportunities to excite students and spark curiosity about the ocean environment. The program encourages students to connect their local observations to global ocean processes and the observations of students in other geographic regions. The connection to place and local relevance of the program is further enhanced through an emphasis on Indigenous and place-based knowledge. ONC is working with coastal Indigenous communities in a collaborative process to include local knowledge, culture, and language in Ocean Sense materials. For this process to meaningful and culturally appropriate, ONC is relying on the guidance and oversight of Indigenous community educators and knowledge holders. Ocean Sense also includes opportunities for Indigenous youth and teachers in remote communities to connect in person, including an annual Ocean Science Symposium and professional development events for teachers. Building a program which embraces multiple perspectives is effective both in making ocean science more relevant to Indigenous students and in linking Indigenous knowledge and place-based knowledge to ocean science.

  11. Aircraft observations of enhancement and depletion of black carbon mass in the springtime Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Spackman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes controlling black carbon (BC in the Arctic is crucial for evaluating the impact of anthropogenic and natural sources of BC on Arctic climate. Vertical profiles of BC mass loadings were observed from the surface to near 7-km altitude in April 2008 using a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2 during flights on the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft from Fairbanks, Alaska. These measurements were conducted during the NOAA-sponsored Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC project. In the free troposphere, the Arctic air mass was influenced by long-range transport from biomass-burning and anthropogenic source regions at lower latitudes especially during the latter part of the campaign. Average BC mass mixing ratios peaked at about 150 ng BC (kg dry air −1 near 5.5 km altitude in the aged Arctic air mass and 250 ng kg−1 at 4.5 km in biomass-burning influenced air. BC mass loadings were enhanced by up to a factor of 5 in biomass-burning influenced air compared to the aged Arctic air mass. At the bottom of some of the profiles, positive vertical gradients in BC were observed over the sea-ice. The vertical profiles generally occurred in the vicinity of open leads in the sea-ice. In the aged Arctic air mass, BC mass loadings more than doubled with increasing altitude within the ABL and across the boundary layer transition while carbon monoxide (CO remained constant. This is evidence for depletion of BC mass in the ABL. BC mass loadings were positively correlated with O3 in ozone depletion events (ODEs for all the observations in the ABL. Since bromine catalytically destroys ozone in the ABL after being released as molecular bromine in regions of new sea-ice formation at the surface, the BC–O3 correlation suggests that BC particles were removed by a surface process such as dry deposition. We develop a box model to estimate the dry deposition flux of BC

  12. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2015-12-17 to 2016-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0157011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1992-11-01 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0115024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115024 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-11-24 to 2003-01-23 (NODC Accession 0108068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108068 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-15 to 2008-02-23 (NODC Accession 0109903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109903 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-02-19 to 2011-04-23 (NODC Accession 0109933)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109933 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1983-10-07 to 1984-02-19 (NODC Accession 0117503)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117503 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0112347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112347 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0113547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113547 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  20. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxhammer, Tim; Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T; Achterberg, Eric P; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Bellworthy, Jessica; Czerny, Jan; Esposito, Mario; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Ludwig, Andrea; Yong, Jaw C; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Anderson, Leif G

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences